Sample records for yeast mating-type switching

  1. Thermodynamic model of yeast mating type switch Baris Avsaroglu*,, Gabriel Bronk*, Jungoh Ham**, Susannah Gordon-Messer**,

    E-print Network

    Fraden, Seth

    Thermodynamic model of yeast mating type switch Baris Avsaroglu*,, Gabriel Bronk*, Jungoh Ham In budding yeast, mating type can be switched by repairing a DNA double strand break (DSB) created at the MAT this model of donor preference we use a polymer model of yeast chromosome III to compute the distribution

  2. Genes required for initiation and resolution steps of mating-type switching in fission yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Egel, R; Beach, D H; Klar, A J

    1984-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe switches mating type by transposition of a copy of DNA derived from either of the two storage cassettes, mat2 -P and mat3 -M, into the expression locus, mat1 . The recombinational event of switching is initiated by a double-stranded DNA break present in approximately 20% of the molecules at mat1 . Fifty-three mutants defective in switching of mating type have been isolated previously, and each has been assigned to 1 of 10 linkage groups. One group consists of cis-acting mutations at mat1 , which reduce the amount of the DNA double-strand cut. The remaining nine groups are mutations in genes that are unlinked to the mating-type locus and are studied here. Three ( swi1 , -3, -7) are required for formation of the double-strand cut, whereas the others are not. Mutants of three genes ( swi4 , -8, -9) undergo high-frequency rearrangement of the mating-type locus indicative of errors of resolution of recombinational intermediates. The remaining three ( swi2 , -5, -6) have normal levels of cut, do not make errors of resolution, and possibly are required either for efficient utilization of the cut or determining the directionality of switching. The data suggest that the switching process can be dissected into genetically distinguishable steps. Images PMID:6587363

  3. Evolutionary erosion of yeast sex chromosomes by mating-type switching accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Jonathan L.; Armisén, David; Proux-Wéra, Estelle; ÓhÉigeartaigh, Seán S.; Byrne, Kevin P.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate yeast sex chromosome evolution by comparing genome sequences from 16 species in the family Saccharomycetaceae, including data from genera Tetrapisispora, Kazachstania, Naumovozyma, and Torulaspora. We show that although most yeast species contain a mating-type (MAT) locus and silent HML and HMR loci structurally analogous to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, their detailed organization is highly variable and indicates that the MAT locus is a deletion hotspot. Over evolutionary time, chromosomal genes located immediately beside MAT have continually been deleted, truncated, or transposed to other places in the genome in a process that is gradually shortening the distance between MAT and HML. Each time a gene beside MAT is removed by deletion or transposition, the next gene on the chromosome is brought into proximity with MAT and is in turn put at risk for removal. This process has also continually replaced the triplicated sequence regions, called Z and X, that allow HML and HMR to be used as templates for DNA repair at MAT during mating-type switching. We propose that the deletion and transposition events are caused by evolutionary accidents during mating-type switching, combined with natural selection to keep MAT and HML on the same chromosome. The rate of deletion accelerated greatly after whole-genome duplication, probably because genes were redundant and could be deleted without requiring transposition. We suggest that, despite its mutational cost, switching confers an evolutionary benefit by providing a way for an isolated germinating spore to reform spores if the environment is too poor. PMID:22123960

  4. Mating-Type Genes and MAT Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Haber, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MAT?. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MAT?1, and MAT?2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific homologous recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite MAT allele. This replacement process involves the participation of two intact but unexpressed copies of mating-type information at the heterochromatic loci, HML? and HMRa, which are located at opposite ends of the same chromosome-encoding MAT. The study of MAT switching has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, the formation of heterochromatin, and the regulation of accessibility of the donor sequences. Real-time analysis of MAT switching has provided the most detailed description of the molecular events that occur during the homologous recombinational repair of a programmed double-strand chromosome break. PMID:22555442

  5. Mating-type Gene Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Sheng; Haber, James E

    2015-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two alternative mating types designated MATa and MAT?. These are distinguished by about 700 bp of unique sequences, Ya or Y?, including divergent promoter sequences and part of the open reading frames of genes that regulate mating phenotype. Homothallic budding yeast, carrying an active HO endonuclease gene, HO, can switch mating type through a recombination process known as gene conversion, in which a site-specific double-strand break (DSB) created immediately adjacent to the Y region results in replacement of the Y sequences with a copy of the opposite mating type information, which is harbored in one of two heterochromatic donor loci, HML? or HMRa. HO gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that only half of the cells in a lineage switch to the opposite MAT allele, thus promoting conjugation and diploid formation. Study of the silencing of these loci has provided a great deal of information about the role of the Sir2 histone deacetylase and its associated Sir3 and Sir4 proteins in creating heterochromatic regions. MAT switching has been examined in great detail to learn about the steps in homologous recombination. MAT switching is remarkably directional, with MATa recombining preferentially with HML? and MAT? using HMRa. Donor preference is controlled by a cis-acting recombination enhancer located near HML. RE is turned off in MAT? cells but in MATa binds multiple copies of the Fkh1 transcription factor whose forkhead-associated phosphothreonine binding domain localizes at the DSB, bringing HML into conjunction with MATa. PMID:26104712

  6. Rearrangements of the transposable mating-type cassettes of fission yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Beach, D H; Klar, A J

    1984-01-01

    The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, switches mating type every few cell divisions. Switching is controlled by the genes of the mating-type locus, which consists of three components, mat1, mat2-P and mat3-M, each separated by approximately 15 kb. Copy transposition of P (Plus) or M (Minus) information from mat2-P or mat3-M into the expression locus mat1 mediates cell type switching. The mating-type locus undergoes events at high frequency (10(-2)-10(-6)) which stabilize one or other mating type. These events are shown to be rearrangements which result in either deletion or insertion of DNA between cassettes. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6325178

  7. Identification of a protein that binds to the Ho endonuclease recognition sequence at the yeast mating type locus.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, R; Jin, Y; Norris, D

    1997-01-01

    Mating type switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae initiates when Ho endonuclease makes a site-specific double-stranded break at MAT, the yeast mating type locus. To identify other proteins involved in this process, we examined whether extracts prepared from ho- mutants contain additional factors that bind near the recognition sequence for Ho. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we isolated a chromatographic fraction that contains an activity, named YZbp, which binds to two sequences flanking the recognition sequence at MATalpha and to one sequence overlapping it at MATa. MAT plasmids carrying mutations in the YZbp recognition sequence are cleaved by purified Ho at wild-type efficiencies in an in vitro assay. These same plasmids, however, are not cleaved by Ho inside cells, demonstrating that YZbp acts as a positive activator of in vivo cleavage. YZbp is present in all cell types, even those not undergoing mating type switching, suggesting that it has additional cellular functions. PMID:9001231

  8. Mapping the double-strand breaks at the mating-type locus in fission yeast by genomic sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, O; Egel, R

    1989-01-01

    In fission yeast mating-type switching is initiated by the formation of a double-strand DNA break at the mating-type locus. A prerequisite for generation of the break is some 'imprinting' of the DNA in the previous cell cycle. We have used the technique of genomic sequencing to map the position of the break directly on chromosomal DNA cleaved in vivo. On one strand the break is situated very close to the right-hand border of the expressed mat1 cassette. Cells of opposite mating type, P and M, have their breaks at slightly different positions on this strand. On the other DNA strand of both alleles the ends are probably masked by tightly bound proteins and therefore the precise nature of the break could not be determined. Since the break is stable throughout the cell cycle, these proteins may function in vivo to confer structural stability on the chromosomes having the break. The implications of these findings for models of mating-type switching are discussed. Images PMID:2714252

  9. Interconversion of Yeast Mating Types II. Restoration of Mating Ability to Sterile Mutants in Homothallic and Heterothallic Strains

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, James B.; Herskowitz, Ira

    1977-01-01

    The two mating types of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be interconverted in both homothallic and heterothallic strains. Previous work indicates that all yeast cells contain the information to be both a and ? and that the HO gene (in homothallic strains) promotes a change in mating type by causing a change at the mating type locus itself. In both heterothallic and homothallic strains, a defective ? mating type locus can be converted to a functional a locus and subsequently to a functional ? locus. In contrast, action of the HO gene does not restore mating ability to a strain defective in another gene for mating which is not at the mating type locus. These observations indicate that a yeast cell contains an additional copy (or copies) of ? information, and lead to the "cassette" model for mating type interconversion. In this model, HMa and hm? loci are blocs of unexpressed ? regulatory information, and HM? and hma loci are blocs of unexpressed a regulatory information. These blocs are silent because they lack an essential site for expression, and become active upon insertion of this information (or a copy of the information) into the mating type locus by action of the HO gene. PMID:17248735

  10. Homothallic mating type switching generates lethal chromosome breaks in rad52 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Weiffenbach, B; Haber, J E

    1981-01-01

    In homothallic cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a or alpha mating type information at the mating type locus (MAT) is replaced by the transposition of the opposite mating type allele from HML alpha or HMRa. The rad52-1 mutation, which reduces mitotic and abolishes meiotic recombination, also affects homothallic switching (Malone and Esposito, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:503-507, 1980). We have found that both HO rad52 MATa and HO rad52 MAT alpha cells die. This lethality is suppressed by mutations that substantially reduce but do not eliminate homothallic conversions. These mutations map at or near the MAT locus (MAT alpha inc, MATa-inc, MATa stk1) or are unlinked to MAT (HO-1 and swi1). These results suggest that the switching event itself is involved in the lethality. With the exception of swi1, HO rad52 strains carrying one of the above mutations cannot convert mating type at all. MAT alpha rad52 HO swi1 strains apparently can switch MAT alpha to MATa. However, when we analyzed these a maters, we found that few, if any, of them were bona fide MATa cells. These a-like cells were instead either deleted for part of chromosome III distal to and including MAT or had lost the entire third chromosome. Approximately 30% of the time, an a-like cell could be repaired to a normal MATa genotype if the cell was mated to a RAD52 MAT alpha-inc strain. The effects of rad52 were also studied in mata/MAT alpha-inc rad52/rad52 ho/HO diploids. When this diploid attempted to switch mata to MATa, an unstable broken chromosome was generated in nearly every cell. These studies suggest that homothallic switching involves the formation of a double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid break or a structure which is labile in rad52 cells and results in a broken chromosome. We propose that the production of a double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid break is the lethal event in rad52 HO cells. PMID:6765605

  11. Expression-state boundaries in the mating-type region of fission yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Thon, Geneviève; Bjerling, Pernilla; Bünner, Camilla Marie; Verhein-Hansen, Janne

    2002-01-01

    A transcriptionally silent chromosomal domain is found in the mating-type region of fission yeast. Here we show that this domain is delimited by 2-kb inverted repeats, IR-L and IR-R. IR-L and IR-R prevent the expansion of transcription-permissive chromatin into the silenced region and that of silenced chromatin into the expressed region. Their insulator activity is partially orientation dependent. The silencing defects that follow deletion or inversion of IR-R are suppressed by high dosage of the chromodomain protein Swi6. Combining chromosomal deletions and Swi6 overexpression shows that IR-L and IR-R provide firm borders in a region where competition between silencing and transcriptional competence occurs. IR-R possesses autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) activity, leading to a model where replication factors, or replication itself, participate in boundary formation. PMID:12072458

  12. Orientation of "plus" genes at the mating-typing locus in homothallic fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Egal, R

    1978-05-31

    Results of four crosses are presented which indicate that, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe the plus segment of the mating-typing locus is regulated from a central position, in between of the plus and the minus segment. This conclusion is based on the mapping of a plus-restraining entity r, which is revealed by recombination in certain crosses, or by mutation to unstabe negative strains. To this end, a meiosis-defective mating-type mutation was used as a marker for the plus segment, by taking advantage of its suppressibility by a nonsense suppressor. This suppressibility was substanitated by an additional cross. PMID:672899

  13. Characterization of two genes required for the position-effect control of yeast mating-type genes.

    PubMed Central

    Shore, D; Squire, M; Nasmyth, K A

    1984-01-01

    The mating type of haploid yeast (a or alpha) is determined by information present at the MAT locus. Identical copies of a and alpha information are present at distal loci (HMR and HML), but transcription of these copies is repressed by the action, in trans, of four unlinked genes called SIR (silent information regulator). Repression by SIR also requires, in cis, DNA sequences called E which are found to the left of HML and HMR (but not MAT) and are greater than 1 kb from the mating-type gene promoters. SIR control can act on other promoters when they are brought near the E sequence, and thus the SIR gene products act in some general manner to repress transcription. We have determined the DNA sequence of two fragments which complement mutations in the SIR2 and SIR3 genes and show that these contain the structural genes by mapping the cloned sequences onto the yeast chromosome. The SIR2 and SIR3 coding sequences were identified by constructing gene disruptions and using these mutations to replace the normal chromosomal copies. Such null mutants of both SIR2 and SIR3 are defective in the position-effect control of the silent loci but have no other detectable phenotype. We have mapped the 5' and 3' ends of the SIR2 and SIR3 mRNAs and show that their level is unaffected by mutations in any of the four known SIR complementation groups. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6098447

  14. Mating types in yeast, vomeronasal organ in rodents, homosexuality in humans: Does a guiding thread exist?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Oliva

    Pheromones and their receptors are the molecules used by very different organ- isms in order to join two haploid cells. It happens evidently in yeast, since the two blending haploid cells are also the two mating organisms, whereas in rodents phero- mone receptors are the triggers of the vomeronasal system which, supervising sexual behaviors, is responsible for copulation and therefore

  15. Healing of mat mutations and control of mating type interconversion by the mating type locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Strathern, Jeffrey N.; Blair, Lindley C.; Herskowitz, Ira

    1979-01-01

    Homothallic yeasts switch cell types (mating types a and ?) at high frequency by changing the alleles of the mating type locus, MATa and MAT?. We have proposed in the cassette model that yeast cells contain silent MATa and MAT? blocs (“cassettes”), copies of which can be substituted at the mating type locus for the resident information. The existence of silent cassettes was originally proposed to explain efficient switching of a defective MAT? locus (mat?) to a functional MAT? locus. We report here that this “healing” of mat mutations is a general property of the mating type interconversion system and is not specific to the class of mat? mutations studied earlier: a defective MATa (mata1) switches readily to MATa and various mat? loci switch readily to MAT?. These observations satisfy the prediction of the cassette model that all mutations within MATa and MAT? be healed. These studies also identify MAT functions that control the switching process: the same functions known to promote sporulation and prevent mating in a/? cells also inhibit the switching system in a/? cells. Finally, we present additional characterization of a natural variant of MAT?, MAT?-inc [Takano, I., Kusumi, T. & Oshima, Y. (1973) Mol. Gen. Genet. 126, 19-28] that is insensitive to switching. Our observation that MAT?-inc acts in cis suggests that it may be altered in a site concerned with excision of MAT?-inc or its replacement by another cassette. PMID:16592681

  16. The dynamics of homologous pairing during mating type interconversion in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Houston, Peter L; Broach, James R

    2006-06-01

    Cells repair most double-strand breaks (DSBs) that arise during replication or by environmental insults through homologous recombination, a high-fidelity process critical for maintenance of genomic integrity. However, neither the detailed mechanism of homologous recombination nor the specific roles of critical components of the recombination machinery-such as Bloom and Werner syndrome proteins-have been resolved. We have taken a novel approach to examining the mechanism of homologous recombination by tracking both a DSB and the template from which it is repaired during the repair process in individual yeast cells. The two loci were labeled with arrays of DNA binding sites and visualized in live cells expressing green fluorescent protein-DNA binding protein chimeras. Following induction of an endonuclease that introduces a DSB next to one of the marked loci, live cells were imaged repeatedly to determine the relative positions of the DSB and the template locus. We found a significant increase in persistent associations between donor and recipient loci following formation of the DSB, demonstrating DSB-induced pairing between donor and template. However, such associations were transient and occurred repeatedly in every cell, a result not predicted from previous studies on populations of cells. Moreover, these associations were absent in sgs1 or srs2 mutants, yeast homologs of the Bloom and Werner syndrome genes, but were enhanced in a rad54 mutant, whose protein product promotes efficient strand exchange in vitro. Our results indicate that a DSB makes multiple and reversible contacts with a template during the repair process, suggesting that repair could involve interactions with multiple templates, potentially creating novel combinations of sequences at the repair site. Our results further suggest that both Sgs1 and Srs2 are required for efficient completion of recombination and that Rad54 may serve to dissociate such interactions. Finally, these results demonstrate that mechanistic insights into recombination not accessible from studies of populations of cells emerge from observations of individual cells. PMID:16789829

  17. Mating-Type Structure, Evolution, and Function in Euascomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Debuchy; B. G. Turgeon

    The past several years have seen a rapid rise in the number of cloned and characterized mating-type loci from an ever-expanding\\u000a group of filamentous Ascomycetes. However, the available mating-type gene database still lacks some representatives of functionally\\u000a or taxonomically important groups. No complete mating-type sequences are available for the Euascomycetes that undergo mating-type\\u000a switching, or for lichen-forming fungi. The analysis

  18. The yeast ARD1 gene product is required for repression of cryptic mating-type information at the HML locus.

    PubMed Central

    Whiteway, M; Freedman, R; Van Arsdell, S; Szostak, J W; Thorner, J

    1987-01-01

    Mutations in the ARD1 gene prevent yeast cells from displaying G1-specific growth arrest in response to nitrogen deprivation and cause MATa haploids (but not MAT alpha haploids) to be mating defective. Analysis of cell type-specific gene expression by examination of RNA transcripts and measurement of beta-galactosidase activity from yeast gene-lacZ fusions demonstrated that the mating defect of MATa ard1 mutants was due to an inability to express genes required by MATa cells for the mating process. The lack of mating-specific gene expression in MATa cells was found to be due solely to derepression of the normally silent alpha information at the HML locus. The cryptic a information at the HMR locus was only very slightly derepressed in ard1 mutants, to a level insufficient to affect the mating efficiency of MAT alpha cells. The preferential elevation of expression from HML over HMR was also observed in ard1 mutants which contained the alternate arrangement of a information at HML and alpha information at HMR. Hence, the effect of the ard1 mutation was position specific (rather than information specific). Although the phenotype of ard1 mutants resembled that of cells with mutations in the SIR1 gene, both genetic and biochemical findings indicated that ARD1 control of HML expression was independent of the regulation imposed by SIR1 and the other SIR genes. These results suggest that the ARD1 gene encodes a protein product that acts, directly or indirectly, at the HML locus to repress its expression and, by analogy, may control expression of other genes involved in monitoring nutritional conditions. Images PMID:3316986

  19. Diversity of Mating-Type Chromosome Structures in the Yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii Caused by Ectopic Exchanges between MAT-Like Loci

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Jun; Uehara, Kenji; Mogi, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated sex chromosome diversity in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (Z. rouxii). In the current study, we show that the organization of the mating-type (MAT) locus is highly variable in the Z. rouxii population, indicating the MAT, HML, and HMR loci are translocation hotspots. Although NBRC1130 and CBS732 were originally two stocks of the type strain of the species, only NBRC1130 retains the original karyotype. A reciprocal translocation between the MAT and HMR loci appears to have occurred during the early passage culture of CBS732, which was used for genome sequencing. In NBRC1733, NBRC0686, NBRC0740 and NBRC1053, the terminal region of the chromosome containing the HMR locus was replaced with the chromosomal region to the left of the MAT or HML loci. The translocation events found in NBRC1733, NBRC0686, NBRC0740, and NBRC1053 were reconstructed under our experimental conditions using the DA2 background, and the reconstruction suggests that the frequency of this type of translocation is approximately 10?7. These results suggest that the MAT and MAT-like loci were the susceptible regions in the genome, and the diversity of mating-type chromosome structures in Z. rouxii was caused by ectopic exchanges between MAT-like loci. PMID:23614024

  20. Corepressor-Directed Preacetylation of Histone H3 in Promoter Chromatin Primes Rapid Transcriptional Switching of Cell-Type-Specific Genes in Yeast ?

    PubMed Central

    DeSimone, Alec M.; Laney, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Switching between alternate states of gene transcription is fundamental to a multitude of cellular regulatory pathways, including those that govern differentiation. In spite of the progress in our understanding of such transitions in gene activity, a major unanswered question is how cells regulate the timing of these switches. Here, we have examined the kinetics of a transcriptional switch that accompanies the differentiation of yeast cells of one mating type into a distinct new cell type. We found that cell-type-specific genes silenced by the ?2 repressor in the starting state are derepressed to establish the new mating-type-specific gene expression program coincident with the loss of ?2 from promoters. This rapid derepression does not require the preloading of RNA polymerase II or a preinitiation complex but instead depends upon the Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase. Surprisingly, Gcn5-dependent acetylation of nucleosomes in the promoters of mating-type-specific genes requires the corepressor Ssn6-Tup1 even in the repressed state. Gcn5 partially acetylates the amino-terminal tails of histone H3 in repressed promoters, thereby priming them for rapid derepression upon loss of ?2. Thus, Ssn6-Tup1 not only efficiently represses these target promoters but also functions to initiate derepression by creating a chromatin state poised for rapid activation. PMID:20439496

  1. Selective Gene Expression in Multigene Families from Yeast to Mammals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jacob Z. Dalgaard (Marie Curie Research Institute; REV)

    2004-10-26

    Cell identity is the direct consequence of the genes expressed. This STKE Review highlights the diverse mechanisms that cells use to achieve exclusive gene expression. The details of the molecular mechanism underlying yeast mating-type switching are compared and contrasted with the mechanisms involved in immunoglobulin gene expression and odorant receptor gene expression in mammals.

  2. Mother Cell–Specific HO Expression in Budding Yeast Depends on the Unconventional Myosin Myo4p and Other Cytoplasmic Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf-Peter Jansen; Celia Dowzer; Christine Michaelis; Marta Galova; Kim Nasmyth

    1996-01-01

    Certain cell types give rise to progeny that adopt different patterns of gene expression in the absence of any differences in their environment. Cells of budding yeast give birth to mother and daughter cells that differ in that only mother cells express the HO endonuclease gene and thereby switch mating types. We describe the identification of five genes, called SHE1–SHE5,

  3. Spatial organization and dynamics of interphase yeast chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avsaroglu, Baris; Gordon-Messer, Susannah; Fritsche, Miriam; Ham, Jungoh; Heermann, Dieter W.; Haber, James E.; Kondev, Jane

    2012-02-01

    Understanding how the genome is spatially organized is an important problem in cell biology, due to its key roles in gene expression and DNA recombination. Here we report on a combined experimental and theoretical study of the organization and dynamics of yeast chromosome III which has a functional role in the yeast life cycle, in particular, it is responsible for mating type switching. By imaging two fluorescent markers, one at the spindle pole body (SPB) and the other proximal to the HML locus that is involved in DNA recombination during mating type switching, we measured the cell to cell distribution of distances and the mean square displacement between the markers as a function of time. We compared our experimental results with a random-walk polymer model that takes into account tethering and confinement of chromosomes in the nucleus, and found that the model recapitulates the observed spatial and temporal organization of chromosome III in yeast in quantitative detail. The polymer model makes specific predictions for mating-type switching in yeast, and suggests new experiments to test them.

  4. 12 Evolution of Mating-Type Loci and Mating-Type Chromosomes in Model Species of Filamentous Ascomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carrie A. Whittle; Hanna Johannesson

    \\u000a Sexual reproduction in fungi is regulated by relatively small genomic regions containing the mating-type loci. In this chapter\\u000a we describe the genomic traits and evolutionary features of the mating-type loci and the mating-type chromosomes in model\\u000a systems of filamentous ascomycetes. The main focus of the chapter lies in the recent scientific advances from studies in Neurospora, particularly N. tetrasperma. The

  5. Genome-wide identification of target genes of a mating-type ?-domain transcription factor reveals functions beyond sexual development.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kordula; Beer, Christina; Freitag, Michael; Kück, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is the main industrial producer of the ?-lactam antibiotic penicillin, the most commonly used drug in the treatment of bacterial infections. Recently, a functional MAT1-1 locus encoding the ?-box transcription factor MAT1-1-1 was discovered to control sexual development in P.?chrysogenum. As only little was known from any organism about the regulatory functions mediated by MAT1-1-1, we applied chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to gain new insights into the factors that influence MAT1-1-1 functions on a molecular level and its role in genome-wide transcriptional regulatory networks. Most importantly, our data provide evidence for mating-type transcription factor functions that reach far beyond their previously understood role in sexual development. These new roles include regulation of hyphal morphology, asexual development, as well as amino acid, iron, and secondary metabolism. Furthermore, in vitro?DNA-protein binding studies and downstream analysis in yeast and P.?chrysogenum enabled the identification of a MAT1-1-1 DNA-binding motif, which is highly conserved among euascomycetes. Our studies pave the way to a more general understanding of these master switches for development and metabolism in all fungi, and open up new options for optimization of fungal high production strains. PMID:25728030

  6. Identification and structure of the mating-type locus and development of PCR-based markers for mating type in powdery mildew fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fungi, mating compatibility is regulated by mating-type loci. The objectives of this study were to identify and sequence mating-type genes at the MAT1 locus in the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, to develop a PCR-based marker for determining mating type in E. necator, and to devel...

  7. Domesticated transposase Kat1 and its fossil imprints induce sexual differentiation in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Naghmeh; Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Lin, Feng; Åström, Stefan U.

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) have had a major influence on shaping both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, largely through stochastic events following random or near-random insertions. In the mammalian immune system, the recombination activation genes1/2 (Rag1/2) recombinase has evolved from a transposase gene, demonstrating that TEs can be domesticated by the host. In this study, we uncovered a domesticated transposase, Kluyveromyces lactis hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposase 1 (Kat1), operating at the fossil imprints of an ancient transposon, that catalyzes the differentiation of cell type. Kat1 induces mating-type switching from mating type a (MATa) to MAT? in the yeast K. lactis. Kat1 activates switching by introducing two hairpin-capped DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the MATa1–MATa2 intergenic region, as we demonstrate both in vivo and in vitro. The DSBs stimulate homologous recombination with the cryptic hidden MAT left alpha (HML?) locus resulting in a switch of the cell type. The sites where Kat1 acts in the MATa locus most likely are ancient remnants of terminal inverted repeats from a long-lost TE. The KAT1 gene is annotated as a pseudogene because it contains two overlapping ORFs. We demonstrate that translation of full-length Kat1 requires a programmed ?1 frameshift. The frameshift limited Kat1 activity, because restoring the zero frame causes switching to the MAT? genotype. Kat1 also was transcriptionally activated by nutrient limitation via the transcription factor mating type switch 1 (Mts1). A phylogenetic analysis indicated that KAT1 was domesticated specifically in the Kluyveromyces clade of the budding yeasts. We conclude that Kat1 is a highly regulated transposase-derived endonuclease vital for sexual differentiation. PMID:25313032

  8. Mating Type in Chlamydomonas Is Specified by Mid, the minus-Dominance Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, P. J.; Goodenough, U. W.

    1997-01-01

    Diploid cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that are heterozygous at the mating-type locus (mt(+)/mt(-)) differentiate as minus gametes, a phenomenon known as minus dominance. We report the cloning and characterization of a gene that is necessary and sufficient to exert this minus dominance over the plus differentiation program. The gene, called mid, is located in the rearranged (R) domain of the mt(-) locus, and has duplicated and transposed to an autosome in a laboratory strain. The imp11 mt(-) mutant, which differentiates as a fusion-incompetent plus gamete, carries a point mutation in mid. Like the fus1 gene in the mt(+) locus, mid displays low codon bias compared with other nuclear genes. The mid sequence carries a putative leucine zipper motif, suggesting that it functions as a transcription factor to switch on the minus program and switch off the plus program of gametic differentiation. This is the first sex-determination gene to be characterized in a green organism. PMID:9215892

  9. Synteny in Toxigenic Fusarium Species: The Fumonisin Gene Cluster and the Mating Type Region as Examples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cees Waalwijk; Theo van der Lee; Ineke de Vries; Thamara Hesselink; Joop Arts; Gert H. J. Kema

    2004-01-01

    A comparative genomic approach was used to study the mating type locus and the gene cluster involved in toxin production (fumonisin) in Fusarium proliferatum, a pathogen with a wide host range and a complex toxin profile. A BAC library, generated from F. proliferatum isolate ITEM 2287, was used to identify chromosomal regions flanking the mating type locus and the gene

  10. Genetic Mapping and Non-Mendelian Segregation of Mating Type Loci in the Oomycete, Phytophthora Infestans

    PubMed Central

    Judelson, H. S.; Spielman, L. J.; Shattock, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    DNA markers linked to the determinants of mating type in the oomycete, Phytophthora infestans, were identified and used to address the genetic basis of heterothallism in this normally diploid fungus. Thirteen loci linked to the A1 and A2 mating types were initially identified by bulked segregant analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs) and subsequently scored in three crosses as RAPD markers, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), single-strand conformational polymorphisms (SSCP), cleaved amplified polymorphisms (CAPS), or allele-specific polymerase chain reaction markers (AS-PCR). All DNA markers mapped to a single region, consistent with a single locus determining both mating types. Long-range restriction mapping also demonstrated the linkage of the markers to one region and delimited the mating type locus to a 100-kb region. The interval containing the mating type locus displayed non-Mendelian segregation as only two of the four expected genotypes were detected in progeny. This is consistent with a system of balanced lethal loci near the mating type locus. A model for mating type determination is presented in which the balanced lethals exclude from progeny those with potentially conflicting combinations of mating type alleles, such as those simultaneously expressing A1 and A2 functions. PMID:8647388

  11. Development of SCAR markers to determine the mating types of Lepista nuda protoplast monokaryons.

    PubMed

    Li, Dengjin; Liu, Yu; Wang, Peng; Ma, Yuanwei; Wang, Shouxian; Zhao, Shuang; Xu, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Lepista nuda (Bull. ex Fr.) Cooke belongs to Tricholomataceae and is an edible fungus with both economic and medical value. Mycelia were isolated from the fruiting bodies of L. nuda and were used to prepare the protoplast monokaryons. One hundred and fifteen monokaryons were obtained and their mating types were determined using somatic incompatibility tests. Protoplast monokaryons segregated into either the A1B1 or the A2B2 mating types. Inter-simple sequence repeats and sequence-related amplified polymorphism fingerprinting were used to analyse the mating types of these protoplast monokaryons and 16 sequence-characterised amplified region primers were developed to efficiently differentiate between the monokaryon mating types. Multiplex PCR analyses were also established. The data presented here outline a method for the precise and rapid identification of protoplast monokaryon mating types, which has the promise to shorten the period required for conventional crossbreeding. PMID:24352297

  12. High Frequency of Sex and Equal Frequencies of Mating Types in Natural Populations of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Paul Doerder; Michael A. Gates; Frank P. Eberhardt; Muhittin Arslanyolu

    1995-01-01

    In ciliate protists, sex involves the temporary joining of two cells of compatible mating type, followed by meiosis and exchange of gametic nuclei between conjugants. Reproduction is by asexual binary fission following conjugation. For the many ciliates with fixed multiple mating types, frequency-dependent sex-ratio theory predicts equal frequencies of mating types, if sex is common in nature. Here, we report

  13. Mating-Type Locus of Cryptococcus neoformans: a Step in the Evolution of Sex Chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus B. Lengeler; Deborah S. Fox; James A. Fraser; Andria Allen; Keri Forrester; Fred S. Dietrich; Joseph Heitman

    2002-01-01

    The sexual development and virulence of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is controlled by a bipolar mating system determined by a single locus that exists in two alleles, and a. The and a mating-type alleles from two divergent varieties were cloned and sequenced. The C. neoformans mating-type locus is unique, spans >100 kb, and contains more than 20 genes. MAT-encoded

  14. Arthroderma benhamiae (The Teleomorph of Trichophyton mentagrophytes ) Mating Type-Specific Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Kano; Tsuyoshi Yamada; Koichi Makimura; Masako Kawasaki; Takashi Mochizuki; Hiroshi Kamata; Atsuhiko Hasegawa

    2011-01-01

    This study first report to identify the mating type (?)-specific gene of alpha-box and the mating type (+)-specific gene of\\u000a the high-mobility-group (HMG) DNA-binding domain in zoophilic dermatophytes of Arthroderma benhamiae in an effort to understand the epidemiological characteristics of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The sequence of the alpha-box gene (1,387 bp) was found to contain two exons, from 184 to 475 bp and

  15. Roles for Receptors, Pheromones, G Proteins, and Mating Type Genes During Sexual Reproduction in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyojeong; Wright, Sara J.; Park, Gyungsoon; Ouyang, Shouqiang; Krystofova, Svetlana; Borkovich, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Here we characterize the relationship between the PRE-2 pheromone receptor and its ligand, CCG-4, and the general requirements for receptors, pheromones, G proteins, and mating type genes during fusion of opposite mating-type cells and sexual sporulation in the multicellular fungus Neurospora crassa. PRE-2 is highly expressed in mat a cells and is localized in male and female reproductive structures. ?pre-2 mat a females do not respond chemotropically to mat A males (conidia) or form mature fruiting bodies (perithecia) or meiotic progeny (ascospores). Strains with swapped identity due to heterologous expression of pre-2 or ccg-4 behave normally in crosses with opposite mating-type strains. Coexpression of pre-2 and ccg-4 in the mat A background leads to self-attraction and development of barren perithecia without ascospores. Further perithecial development is achieved by inactivation of Sad-1, a gene required for meiotic gene silencing. Findings from studies involving forced heterokaryons of opposite mating-type strains show that presence of one receptor and its compatible pheromone is necessary and sufficient for perithecial development and ascospore production. Taken together, the results demonstrate that although receptors and pheromones control sexual identity, the mating-type genes (mat A and mat a) must be in two different nuclei to allow meiosis and sexual sporulation to occur. PMID:22298702

  16. The genetic structure of the A mating-type locus of Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Au, Chun Hang; Wong, Man Chun; Bao, Dapeng; Zhang, Meiyan; Song, Chunyan; Song, Wenhua; Law, Patrick Tik Wan; Kües, Ursula; Kwan, Hoi Shan

    2014-02-10

    The Shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler is a tetrapolar basidiomycete with two unlinked mating-type loci, commonly called the A and B loci. Identifying the mating-types in shiitake is important for enhancing the breeding and cultivation of this economically-important edible mushroom. Here, we identified the A mating-type locus from the first draft genome sequence of L. edodes and characterized multiple alleles from different monokaryotic strains. Two intron-length polymorphism markers were developed to facilitate rapid molecular determination of A mating-type. L. edodes sequences were compared with those of known tetrapolar and bipolar basidiomycete species. The A mating-type genes are conserved at the homeodomain region across the order Agaricales. However, we observed unique genomic organization of the locus in L. edodes which exhibits atypical gene order and multiple repetitive elements around its A locus. To our knowledge, this is the first known exception among Homobasidiomycetes, in which the mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (mip) gene is not closely linked to A locus. PMID:24295887

  17. Evolution of sexes from an ancestral mating-type specification pathway.

    PubMed

    Geng, Sa; De Hoff, Peter; Umen, James G

    2014-07-01

    Male and female sexes have evolved repeatedly in eukaryotes but the origins of dimorphic sexes and their relationship to mating types in unicellular species are not understood. Volvocine algae include isogamous species such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, with two equal-sized mating types, and oogamous multicellular species such as Volvox carteri with sperm-producing males and egg-producing females. Theoretical work predicts genetic linkage of a gamete cell-size regulatory gene(s) to an ancestral mating-type locus as a possible step in the evolution of dimorphic gametes, but this idea has not been tested. Here we show that, contrary to predictions, a single conserved mating locus (MT) gene in volvocine algae-MID, which encodes a RWP-RK domain transcription factor-evolved from its ancestral role in C. reinhardtii as a mating-type specifier, to become a determinant of sperm and egg development in V. carteri. Transgenic female V. carteri expressing male MID produced functional sperm packets during sexual development. Transgenic male V. carteri with RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdowns of VcMID produced functional eggs, or self-fertile hermaphrodites. Post-transcriptional controls were found to regulate cell-type-limited expression and nuclear localization of VcMid protein that restricted its activity to nuclei of developing male germ cells and sperm. Crosses with sex-reversed strains uncoupled sex determination from sex chromosome identity and revealed gender-specific roles for male and female mating locus genes in sexual development, gamete fitness and reproductive success. Our data show genetic continuity between the mating-type specification and sex determination pathways of volvocine algae, and reveal evidence for gender-specific adaptations in the male and female mating locus haplotypes of Volvox. These findings will enable a deeper understanding of how a master regulator of mating-type determination in an ancestral unicellular species was reprogrammed to control sexually dimorphic gamete development in a multicellular descendant. PMID:25003332

  18. Identification of the Mating-Type (MAT) Locus That Controls Sexual Reproduction of Blastomyces dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Walton, Eric; Averette, Anna Floyd; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Cuomo, Christina A.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2013-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungal pathogen that primarily causes blastomycosis in the midwestern and northern United States and Canada. While the genes controlling sexual development have been known for a long time, the genes controlling sexual reproduction of B. dermatitidis (teleomorph, Ajellomyces dermatitidis) are unknown. We identified the mating-type (MAT) locus in the B. dermatitidis genome by comparative genomic approaches. The B. dermatitidis MAT locus resembles those of other dimorphic fungi, containing either an alpha-box (MAT1-1) or an HMG domain (MAT1-2) gene linked to the APN2, SLA2, and COX13 genes. However, in some strains of B. dermatitidis, the MAT locus harbors transposable elements (TEs) that make it unusually large compared to the MAT locus of other dimorphic fungi. Based on the MAT locus sequences of B. dermatitidis, we designed specific primers for PCR determination of the mating type. Two B. dermatitidis isolates of opposite mating types were cocultured on mating medium. Immature sexual structures were observed starting at 3 weeks of coculture, with coiled-hyphae-containing cleistothecia developing over the next 3 to 6 weeks. Genetic recombination was detected in potential progeny by mating-type determination, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses, suggesting that a meiotic sexual cycle might have been completed. The F1 progeny were sexually fertile when tested with strains of the opposite mating type. Our studies provide a model for the evolution of the MAT locus in the dimorphic and closely related fungi and open the door to classic genetic analysis and studies on the possible roles of mating and mating type in infection and virulence. PMID:23143684

  19. Cell-cell signalling in sexual chemotaxis: a basis for gametic differentiation, mating types and sexes.

    PubMed

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    While sex requires two parents, there is no obvious need for them to be differentiated into distinct mating types or sexes. Yet this is the predominate state of nature. Here, we argue that mating types could play a decisive role because they prevent the apparent inevitability of self-stimulation during sexual signalling. We rigorously assess this hypothesis by developing a model for signaller-detector dynamics based on chemical diffusion, chemotaxis and cell movement. Our model examines the conditions under which chemotaxis improves partner finding. Varying parameter values within ranges typical of protists and their environments, we show that simultaneous secretion and detection of a single chemoattractant can cause a multifold movement impediment and severely hinder mate finding. Mutually exclusive roles result in faster pair formation, even when cells conferring the same roles cannot pair up. This arrangement also allows the separate mating types to optimize their signalling or detecting roles, which is effectively impossible for cells that are both secretors and detectors. Our findings suggest that asymmetric roles in sexual chemotaxis (and possibly other forms of sexual signalling) are crucial, even without morphological differences, and may underlie the evolution of gametic differentiation among both mating types and sexes. PMID:26156301

  20. Mating type-dependent partner sensing as mediated by VEL1 in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Bazafkan, Hoda; Dattenböck, Christoph; Böhmdorfer, Stefan; Tisch, Doris; Stappler, Eva; Schmoll, Monika

    2015-06-01

    Sexual development in the filamentous model ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina) was described only a few years ago. In this study, we show a novel role for VELVET in fungi, which links light response, development and secondary metabolism. Vel1 is required for mating in darkness, normal growth and conidiation. In light, vel1 was dispensable for male fertility but essential for female fertility in both mating types. VEL1 impacted regulation of the pheromone system (hpr1, hpr2, hpp1, ppg1) in a mating type-dependent manner and depending on the mating partner of a given strain. These partner effects only occurred for hpp1 and hpr2, the pheromone precursor and receptor genes associated with the MAT1-2 mating type and for the mating type gene mat1-2-1. Analysis of secondary metabolite patterns secreted by wild type and mutants under asexual and sexual conditions revealed that even in the wild type, the patterns change upon encounter of a mating partner, with again distinct differences for wild type and vel1 mutants. Hence, T.?reesei applies a language of pheromones and secondary metabolites to communicate with mating partners and that this communication is at least in part mediated by VEL1. PMID:25757597

  1. Extensive divergence between mating-type chromosomes of the anther-smut fungus.

    PubMed

    Hood, Michael E; Petit, Elsa; Giraud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Genomic regions that determine mating compatibility are subject to distinct evolutionary forces that can lead to a cessation of meiotic recombination and the accumulation of structural changes between members of the homologous chromosome pair. The relatively recent discovery of dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in fungi can aid the understanding of sex chromosome evolution that is common to dioecious plants and animals. For the anther-smut fungus, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (= M. violaceum isolated from Silene latifolia), the extent of recombination cessation on the dimorphic mating-type chromosomes has been conflictingly reported. Comparison of restriction digest optical maps for the two mating-type chromosomes shows that divergence extends over 90% of the chromosome lengths, flanked at either end by two pseudoautosomal regions. Evidence to support the expansion of recombination cessation in stages from the mating-type locus toward the pseudoautosomal regions was not found, but evidence of such expansion could be obscured by ongoing processes that affect genome structure. This study encourages the comparison of forces that may drive large-scale recombination suppression in fungi and other eukaryotes characterized by dimorphic chromosome pairs associated with sexual life cycles. PMID:23150606

  2. Characterization of the mating-type genes in Leptographium procerum and Leptographium profanum

    E-print Network

    in ascomycetes is governed by the mat- ing type (MAT) genes residing at the mating type locus (MAT-1) (Yoder et al. 1986; Turgeon & Yoder 2000). Although they occupy the same position in the genome, different to as idi- omorphs named MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 (Metzenberg & Glass 1990; Turgeon & Yoder 2000). In heterothallic

  3. Asexual Cephalosporin C Producer Acremonium chrysogenum Carries a Functional Mating Type Locus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Poggeler; Birgit Hoff; Ulrich Kuck

    2008-01-01

    Acremonium chrysogenum, the fungal producer of the pharmaceutically relevant -lactam antibiotic cepha- losporin C, is classified as asexual because no direct observation of mating or meiosis has yet been reported. To assess the potential of A. chrysogenum for sexual reproduction, we screened an expressed sequence tag library from A. chrysogenum for the expression of mating type (MAT) genes, which are

  4. Evidence for Interaction of Schizophyllum commune Y Mating-Type Proteins in Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ian Robertson; Alexander McMahon Kende; Kurt Toenjes; Charles P. Novotny; Robert C. Ullrich

    The A mating-type locus of Schizophyllum commune regulates sexual development and contains the code for two proteins, Y and Z, which are thought to form a complex and function as a transcription factor. Import of these proteins into the nucleus may be an essential step in A-regulated sexual development. The Y proteins contain a bipartite basic sequence, which is an

  5. Population structure and mating type distribution of the chickpea blight pathogen Ascochyta rabiei from Pakistan and United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascochyta blight caused by the fungus Ascochyta rabiei (AR) depresses chickpea production in Pakistan and worldwide. Thirty two AR isolates representing six geographical regions of Pakistan was compared with a US AR population for frequency of mating types and genetic variation. Mating type results ...

  6. Degeneration of the Nonrecombining Regions in the Mating-Type Chromosomes of the Anther-Smut Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Fontanillas, Eric; Hood, Michael E.; Badouin, Hélène; Petit, Elsa; Barbe, Valérie; Gouzy, Jérôme; de Vienne, Damien M.; Aguileta, Gabriela; Poulain, Julie; Wincker, Patrick; Chen, Zehua; Toh, Su San; Cuomo, Christina A.; Perlin, Michael H.; Gladieux, Pierre; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in fungi are excellent models for understanding the genomic consequences of recombination suppression. Their suppressed recombination and reduced effective population size are expected to limit the efficacy of natural selection, leading to genomic degeneration. Our aim was to identify the sequences of the mating-type chromosomes (a1 and a2) of the anther-smut fungi and to investigate degeneration in their nonrecombining regions. We used the haploid a1 Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae reference genome sequence. The a1 and a2 mating-type chromosomes were both isolated electrophoretically and sequenced. Integration with restriction-digest optical maps identified regions of recombination and nonrecombination in the mating-type chromosomes. Genome sequence data were also obtained for 12 other Microbotryum species. We found strong evidence of degeneration across the genus in the nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes, with significantly higher rates of nonsynonymous substitution (dN/dS) than in nonmating-type chromosomes or in recombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes. The nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes also showed high transposable element content, weak gene expression, and gene losses. The levels of degeneration did not differ between the a1 and a2 mating-type chromosomes, consistent with the lack of homogametic/heterogametic asymmetry between them, and contrasting with X/Y or Z/W sex chromosomes. PMID:25534033

  7. Degeneration of the nonrecombining regions in the mating-type chromosomes of the anther-smut fungi.

    PubMed

    Fontanillas, Eric; Hood, Michael E; Badouin, Hélène; Petit, Elsa; Barbe, Valérie; Gouzy, Jérôme; de Vienne, Damien M; Aguileta, Gabriela; Poulain, Julie; Wincker, Patrick; Chen, Zehua; Toh, Su San; Cuomo, Christina A; Perlin, Michael H; Gladieux, Pierre; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    Dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in fungi are excellent models for understanding the genomic consequences of recombination suppression. Their suppressed recombination and reduced effective population size are expected to limit the efficacy of natural selection, leading to genomic degeneration. Our aim was to identify the sequences of the mating-type chromosomes (a1 and a2) of the anther-smut fungi and to investigate degeneration in their nonrecombining regions. We used the haploid a1 Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae reference genome sequence. The a1 and a2 mating-type chromosomes were both isolated electrophoretically and sequenced. Integration with restriction-digest optical maps identified regions of recombination and nonrecombination in the mating-type chromosomes. Genome sequence data were also obtained for 12 other Microbotryum species. We found strong evidence of degeneration across the genus in the nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes, with significantly higher rates of nonsynonymous substitution (dN/dS) than in nonmating-type chromosomes or in recombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes. The nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes also showed high transposable element content, weak gene expression, and gene losses. The levels of degeneration did not differ between the a1 and a2 mating-type chromosomes, consistent with the lack of homogametic/heterogametic asymmetry between them, and contrasting with X/Y or Z/W sex chromosomes. PMID:25534033

  8. Characterisation of the mating-type locus in the genus Xanthoria (lichen-forming ascomycetes, Lecanoromycetes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Scherrer; Undine Zippler; Rosmarie Honegger

    2005-01-01

    Conserved regions of mating-type genes were amplified in four representatives of the genus Xanthoria (X. parietina, X. polycarpa, X. flammea, and X. elegans) using PCR-based methods. The complete MAT locus, containing one ORF (MAT1-2-1) coding for a truncated HMG-box protein, and two partial flanking genes, were cloned by screening a genomic lambda phage library of the homothallic X. parietina. The

  9. Mating-type genes for basidiomycete strain improvement in mushroom farming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kothe

    2001-01-01

    Mushroom production is dependent on the quality of the spawn used to inoculate the cultures. In order to produce high-quality spawn, breeding programs for strains resistant to certain diseases and able to form high-quality fruit bodies under standard growth conditions are necessary. The investigation of the molecular basis for mating provides access to the use of mating-type genes in order

  10. Efficient Cloning of Ascomycete Mating Type Genes by PCR Amplification of the Conserved MATHMG Box

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Arie; S. K. Christiansen; O. C. Yoder; B. G. Turgeon

    1997-01-01

    Cloning of mating type (MAT) genes from ascomycetes has been hampered by low conservation among them. One of the pair ofMATgenes, represented byMAT-2ofCochliobolus heterostrophus(a loculoascomycete) andmt aofNeurospora crassa(a pyrenomycete), encodes a protein with a conserved DNA binding motif called the high mobility group (HMG) box. PCR with primer pairs corresponding to the borders of theC. heterostrophusand theN. crassaHMG boxes generated

  11. Cloning and analysis of the mating type genes from Cochliobolus heterostrophus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Gillian Turgeon; Holger Bohlmann; Lynda M. Ciuffetti; Solveig K. Christiansen; Ge Yang; Willi Schfifer; O. C. Yoder

    1993-01-01

    Cochliobolus heterostrophus, a heterothallic Ascomycete, has a single mating type locus with two alternate forms called MAT-1 and MAT-2. MAT-1 was cloned by complementing a MAT-2 strain using a cosmid library from a MAT-1 strain and screening for a homothallic transformant. The cosmid recovered from this transformant was able to re-transform a MAT-2 strain to homothallism and MAT identity was

  12. Molecular Organization of Mating Type Loci in Heterothallic, Homothallic, and Asexual Gibberella\\/ Fusarium Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Hwan Yun; Tsutomu Arie; Isao Kaneko; O. C. Yoder; B. Gillian Turgeon

    2000-01-01

    Mating type (MAT) genes were cloned from three members of the Gibberella\\/Fusarium complex that differ in reproductive mode: heterothallic G. fujikuroi, homothallic G. zeae, and asexual F. oxysporum. The G. fujikuroi MAT locus organization is typical of other heterothallic pyrenomycetes characterized to date; i.e., there are three genes at MAT1-1 and one at MAT1-2. G. zeae has homologues of all

  13. Characterization and population analysis of the mating-type genes in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge H. Ramirez-Prado; Geromy G. Moore; Bruce W. Horn; Ignazio Carbone

    2008-01-01

    We characterize the mating-type genes in Aspergillus flavus,Aspergillus parasiticus and Petromyces alliaceus. A single MAT1-1 or MAT1-2 gene was detected in the genomes of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which is consistent with a potential heterothallic organization of MAT genes in these species. In contrast, the only known, functionally homothallic species in Aspergillus section Flavi, P. alliaceus, has tightly linked

  14. Female fertility and mating type distribution in a Philippine population of Fusarium verticillioides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Joseph R. Cumagun; R. Cumagun

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is a common causal agent of maize ear rot in the Philippines. Eighty isolates were collected from healthy and infected maize\\u000a cobs from Laguna province. Fifty isolates crossed with one of the mating type A testers. The ratio of MATA-1:MATA-2 is 27 : 23, which follows a Mendelian ratio of 1 : 1. The effective population number,N\\u000a e,

  15. Transcription Factor UAF, Expansion and Contraction of Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) Repeats, and RNA Polymerase Switch in Transcription of Yeast rDNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MELANIE OAKES; IMRAN SIDDIQI; LOAN VU; JOHN ARIS; MASAYASU NOMURA

    1999-01-01

    Strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae defective in transcription factor UAF give rise to variants able to grow by transcribing endogenous ribosomal DNA (rDNA) by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). We have demon- strated that the switch to growth using the Pol II system consists of two steps: a mutational alteration in UAF and an expansion of chromosomal rDNA repeats.

  16. The occurrence of the A2 mating type of Phytophthora infestans in the Netherlands; significance and consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Drenth; L. J. Turkensteen; F. Govers

    1993-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, was first discovered in Europe in 1845. Until 1980, only A1 mating\\u000a type isolates were known to occur in Europe. The absence of A2 mating type isolates restrained the fungus from sexual reproduction.\\u000a In the early 1980s, A2 mating type isolates were discovered in Europe. Presumably, a new

  17. Asexual Cephalosporin C Producer Acremonium chrysogenum Carries a Functional Mating Type Locus?

    PubMed Central

    Pöggeler, Stefanie; Hoff, Birgit; Kück, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Acremonium chrysogenum, the fungal producer of the pharmaceutically relevant ?-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C, is classified as asexual because no direct observation of mating or meiosis has yet been reported. To assess the potential of A. chrysogenum for sexual reproduction, we screened an expressed sequence tag library from A. chrysogenum for the expression of mating type (MAT) genes, which are the key regulators of sexual reproduction. We identified two putative mating type genes that are homologues of the ?-box domain gene, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2, encoding an HPG domain protein defined by the presence of the three invariant amino acids histidine, proline, and glycine. In addition, cDNAs encoding a putative pheromone receptor and pheromone-processing enzymes, as well as components of a pheromone response pathway, were found. Moreover, the entire A. chrysogenum MAT1-1 (AcMAT1-1) gene and regions flanking the MAT region were obtained from a genomic cosmid library, and sequence analysis revealed that in addition to AcMAT1-1-1 and AcMAT1-1-2, the AcMAT1-1 locus comprises a third mating type gene, AcMAT1-1-3, encoding a high-mobility-group domain protein. The ?-box domain sequence of AcMAT1-1-1 was used to determine the phylogenetic relationships of A. chrysogenum to other ascomycetes. To determine the functionality of the AcMAT1-1 locus, the entire MAT locus was transferred into a MAT deletion strain of the heterothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina (the Pa?MAT strain). After fertilization with a P. anserina MAT1-2 (MAT+) strain, the corresponding transformants developed fruiting bodies with mature ascospores. Thus, the results of our functional analysis of the AcMAT1-1 locus provide strong evidence to hypothesize a sexual cycle in A. chrysogenum. PMID:18689517

  18. Characterisation of the mating-type locus in the genus Xanthoria (lichen-forming ascomycetes, Lecanoromycetes).

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Sandra; Zippler, Undine; Honegger, Rosmarie

    2005-12-01

    Conserved regions of mating-type genes were amplified in four representatives of the genus Xanthoria (X. parietina, X. polycarpa, X. flammea, and X. elegans) using PCR-based methods. The complete MAT locus, containing one ORF (MAT1-2-1) coding for a truncated HMG-box protein, and two partial flanking genes, were cloned by screening a genomic lambda phage library of the homothallic X. parietina. The flanking genes, a homologue of SLA2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a DNA lyase gene, served to amplify the two idiomorphs of the X. polycarpa MAT locus. Each idiomorph contains a single gene: MAT1-2-1 codes for a HMG-box protein, MAT1-1-1 encodes an alpha domain protein. The occurrence of mating-type genes in eight single spore isolates derived from one ascus was studied with a PCR assay. In the homothallic X. parietina a HMG fragment, but no alpha box fragment was found in all isolates, whereas in X. elegans, another homothallic species, all tested isolates contained a fragment of both idiomorphs. Conversely, isolates of the heterothallic X. polycarpa contained either a HMG or an alpha box fragment, but never both. PMID:16266815

  19. Organization and Evolutionary Trajectory of the Mating Type (MAT) Locus in Dermatophyte and Dimorphic Fungal Pathogens? †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Metin, Banu; White, Theodore C.; Heitman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in fungi is governed by a specialized genomic region, the mating type (MAT) locus, whose gene identity, organization, and complexity are diverse. We identified the MAT locus of five dermatophyte fungal pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton equinum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans) and a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and performed phylogenetic analyses. The identified MAT locus idiomorphs of M. gypseum control cell type identity in mating assays, and recombinant progeny were produced. Virulence tests in Galleria mellonella larvae suggest the two mating types of M. gypseum may have equivalent virulence. Synteny analysis revealed common features of the MAT locus shared among these five dermatophytes: namely, a small size (?3 kb) and a novel gene arrangement. The SLA2, COX13, and APN2 genes, which flank the MAT locus in other Ascomycota are instead linked on one side of the dermatophyte MAT locus. In addition, the transcriptional orientations of the APN2 and COX13 genes are reversed compared to the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Coccidioides posadasii. A putative transposable element, pogo, was found to have inserted in the MAT1-2 idiomorph of one P. brasiliensis strain but not others. In conclusion, the evolution of the MAT locus of the dermatophytes and dimorphic fungi from the last common ancestor has been punctuated by both gene acquisition and expansion, and asymmetric gene loss. These studies further support a foundation to develop molecular and genetic tools for dermatophyte and dimorphic human fungal pathogens. PMID:19880755

  20. Characterization of MATE-Type Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH78578

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Wakano; Minato, Yusuke; Dodan, Hayata; Onishi, Motoyasu; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Kuroda, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    We previously described the cloning of genes related to drug resistance from Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH78578. Of these, we identified a putative gene encoding a MATE-type multidrug efflux pump, and named it ketM. Escherichia coli KAM32 possessing ketM on a plasmid showed increased minimum inhibitory concentrations for norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, acriflavine, Hoechst 33342, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenyl indole (DAPI). The active efflux of DAPI was observed in E. coli KAM32 possessing ketM on a plasmid. The expression of mRNA for ketM was observed in K. pneumoniae cells, and we subsequently disrupted ketM in K. pneumoniae ATCC10031. However, no significant changes were observed in drug resistance levels between the parental strain ATCC10031 and ketM disruptant, SKYM. Therefore, we concluded that KetM was a multidrug efflux pump, that did not significantly contribute to intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial chemicals in K. pneumoniae. MATE-type transporters are considered to be secondary transporters; therefore, we investigated the coupling cations of KetM. DAPI efflux by KetM was observed when lactate was added to produce a proton motive force, indicating that KetM effluxed substrates using a proton motive force. However, the weak efflux of DAPI by KetM was also noted when NaCl was added to the assay mixture without lactate. This result suggests that KetM may utilize proton and sodium motive forces. PMID:25807080

  1. Centrosomal MPF triggers the mitotic and morphogenetic switches of fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Grallert, Agnes; Patel, Avinash; Tallada, Victor A.; Chan, Kuan Yoow; Bagley, Steven; Krapp, Andrea; Simanis, Viesturs; Hagan, Iain M

    2012-01-01

    Activation of mitosis promoting factor (MPF) drives mitotic commitment1. In human cells active MPF appears first on centrosomes2. We show that local activation of MPF on the equivalent organelle of fission yeast, the spindle pole body (SPB), promotes Polo kinase activity at the SPBs long before global MPF activation drives mitotic commitment. Artificially promoting MPF or Polo activity at various locations revealed that this local control of Plo1 activity on G2 phase SPBs dictates the timing of mitotic commitment. Cytokinesis of the rod shaped fission yeast cell generates a naïve “new” cell end. Growth is restricted to the experienced old end until a point in G2 phase called “New End Take Off” (NETO) when bipolar growth is triggered3. NETO coincided with MPF activation of Plo1 on G2 phase SPBs4. Both MPF and Polo activities were required for NETO and both induced NETO when ectopically activated at interphase SPBs. NETO promotion by MPF required polo. Thus, local MPF activation on G2 SPBs directs polo kinase to control at least two distinct and temporally separated, cell cycle transitions at remote locations. PMID:23222840

  2. Genetically Engineered Transvestites Reveal Novel Mating Genes in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Huberman, Lori B.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Haploid budding yeast has two mating types, defined by the alleles of the MAT locus, MATa and MAT?. Two haploid cells of opposite mating types mate by signaling to each other using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, polarizing and growing toward each other, and eventually fusing to form a single diploid cell. The pheromones and receptors are necessary and sufficient to define a mating type, but other mating-type-specific proteins make mating more efficient. We examined the role of these proteins by genetically engineering “transvestite” cells that swap the pheromone, pheromone receptor, and pheromone processing factors of one mating type for another. These cells mate with each other, but their mating is inefficient. By characterizing their mating defects and examining their transcriptomes, we found Afb1 (a-factor barrier), a novel MAT?-specific protein that interferes with a-factor, the pheromone secreted by MATa cells. Strong pheromone secretion is essential for efficient mating, and the weak mating of transvestites can be improved by boosting their pheromone production. Synthetic biology can characterize the factors that control efficiency in biological processes. In yeast, selection for increased mating efficiency is likely to have continually boosted pheromone levels and the ability to discriminate between partners who make more and less pheromone. This discrimination comes at a cost: weak mating in situations where all potential partners make less pheromone. PMID:24121774

  3. Global changes in gene expression associated with phenotypic switching of wild yeast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from natural settings form structured biofilm colonies that are equipped with intricate protective mechanisms. These wild strains are able to reprogram themselves with a certain frequency during cultivation in plentiful laboratory conditions. The resulting domesticated strains switch off certain protective mechanisms and form smooth colonies that resemble those of common laboratory strains. Results Here, we show that domestication can be reversed when a domesticated strain is challenged by various adverse conditions; the resulting feral strain restores its ability to form structured biofilm colonies. Phenotypic, microscopic and transcriptomic analyses show that phenotypic transition is a complex process that affects various aspects of feral strain physiology; it leads to a phenotype that resembles the original wild strain in some aspects and the domesticated derivative in others. We specify the genetic determinants that are likely involved in the formation of a structured biofilm colonies. In addition to FLO11, these determinants include genes that affect the cell wall and membrane composition. We also identify changes occurring during phenotypic transitions that affect other properties of phenotypic strain-variants, such as resistance to the impact of environmental stress. Here we document the regulatory role of the histone deacetylase Hda1p in developing such a resistance. Conclusions We provide detailed analysis of transcriptomic and phenotypic modulations of three related S. cerevisiae strains that arose by phenotypic switching under diverse environmental conditions. We identify changes specifically related to a strain’s ability to create complex structured colonies; we also show that other changes, such as genome rearrangement(s), are unrelated to this ability. Finally, we identify the importance of histone deacetylase Hda1p in strain resistance to stresses. PMID:24533484

  4. Analysis of Mycosphaerella Graminicola from California, Indiana, Kansas and North Dakota with Mating Type and SSR Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Septoria tritici blotch, caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola, is one of the most important foliar diseases of wheat. Genetic diversity of 333 isolates of M. graminicola collected from spring (California, North Dakota) and winter wheat (Indiana, Kansas) was analyzed for mating type and 17 SSR marker...

  5. Microsatellite and mating type markers reveal unexpected patterns of genetic diversity in the pine root-infecting fungus

    E-print Network

    Microsatellite and mating type markers reveal unexpected patterns of genetic diversity in the pine and Spain and importantly, has been associated with pine root diseases in South Africa and the USA. Nothing. Keywords: Grosmannia alacris, pine pathogen, population genetics, SSR markers Introduction Grosmannia

  6. Mating-type distribution and genetic diversity of Cercospora sojina populations on soybean from Arkansas: evidence for potential sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun; Newell, Annakay D; Cota-Sieckmeyer, Robyn G; Rupe, John C; Fakhoury, Ahmad M; Bluhm, Burton H

    2013-10-01

    Cercospora sojina causes frogeye leaf spot of soybean, which can cause serious economic losses in the United States. In this study, 132 C. sojina isolates were collected from six fields (from two counties, Cross and Crawford) in Arkansas. To determine mating type, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with primers specific for C. sojina. Of the 132 isolates, 68 isolates had the MAT1-1-1 idiomorph and 64 isolates had the MAT1-2 idiomorph; no isolates possessed both idiomorphs. Both mating types were present in a variety of spatial scales, including separate lesions on individual leaves. Clone-corrected data from eight microsatellites indicated that mating-type loci were present in approximately equal proportions in all populations analyzed, which suggests that Arkansas populations of C. sojina are undergoing cryptic sexual reproduction. All six populations evaluated had high genotypic diversity of 26 to 79%. In addition, among strains isolated from a single leaf, multiple and distinct haplotypes were associated with both mating types, supporting the hypothesis that sexual reproduction occurs within the populations. Most populations showed significant gametic disequilibrium but levels of disequilibrium were relatively low, particularly in populations from Crawford County. A low differentiation index (GST) was observed for all simple-sequence repeat markers across all populations. Furthermore, the value of G statistics between populations suggests that significant genetic exchange exists among the populations. Taken together, these results demonstrate that C. sojina populations from Arkansas are genetically diverse and most likely undergoing sexual reproduction. PMID:23721180

  7. Cloning of the Lentinula edodes B mating-type locus and identification of the genetic structure controlling B mating.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; van Peer, Arend; Song, Wenhua; Wang, Hong; Chen, Mingjie; Tan, Qi; Song, Chunyan; Zhang, Meiyan; Bao, Dapeng

    2013-12-01

    During the life cycle of heterothallic tetrapolar Agaricomycetes such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, the mating type system, composed of unlinked A and B loci, plays a vital role in controlling sexual development and resulting formation of the fruit body. L. edodes is produced worldwide for consumption and medicinal purposes, and understanding its sexual development is therefore of great importance. A considerable amount of mating type factors has been indicated over the past decades but few genes have actually been identified, and no complete genetic structures of L. edodes B mating-type loci are available. In this study, we cloned the matB regions from two mating compatible L. edodes strains, 939P26 and 939P42. Four pheromone receptors were identified on each new matB region, together with three and four pheromone precursor genes in the respective strains. Gene polymorphism, phylogenetic analysis and distribution of pheromone receptors and pheromone precursors clearly indicate a bipartite matB locus, each sublocus containing a pheromone receptor and one or two pheromone precursors. Detailed sequence comparisons of genetic structures between the matB regions of strains 939P42, 939P26 and a previously reported strain SUP2 further supported this model and allowed identification of the B mating type subloci borders. Mating studies confirmed the control of B mating by the identified pheromone receptors and pheromones in L. edodes. PMID:24029079

  8. DNA polymorphism in recombining and non-recombining mating-type-specific loci of the smut fungus Microbotryum.

    PubMed

    Votintseva, A A; Filatov, D A

    2011-06-01

    The population-genetic processes leading to the genetic degeneration of non-recombining regions have mainly been studied in animal and plant sex chromosomes. Here, we report population genetic analysis of the processes in the non-recombining mating-type-specific regions of the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum. M. violaceum has A1 and A2 mating types, determined by mating-type-specific 'sex chromosomes' that contain 1-2?Mb long non-recombining regions. If genetic degeneration were occurring, then one would expect reduced DNA polymorphism in the non-recombining regions of this fungus. The analysis of DNA diversity among 19 M. violaceum strains, collected across Europe from Silene latifolia flowers, revealed that (i) DNA polymorphism is relatively low in all 20 studied loci (??0.15%), (ii) it is not significantly different between the two mating-type-specific chromosomes nor between the non-recombining and recombining regions, (iii) there is substantial population structure in M. violaceum populations, which resembles that of its host species, S. latifolia, and (iv) there is significant linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that widespread selfing in this species results in a reduction of the effective recombination rate across the genome. We hypothesise that selfing-related reduction of recombination across the M. violaceum genome negates the difference in the level of DNA polymorphism between the recombining and non-recombining regions, and may possibly lead to similar levels of genetic degeneration in the mating-type-specific regions of the non-recombining 'sex chromosomes' and elsewhere in the genome. PMID:21081967

  9. The genetic structure and diversity of the A and B mating-type genes from the tropical oyster mushroom, Pleurotus djamor

    E-print Network

    James, Timothy

    ). In this study we investigated the genetic structure of the mating-type loci in the tropical oyster mushroomThe genetic structure and diversity of the A and B mating-type genes from the tropical oyster). In the present study, we use DNA sequence and genomic information from these model organisms as a roadmap

  10. Evidence for interaction of Schizophyllum commune Y mating-type proteins in vivo.

    PubMed

    Robertson, C Ian; McMahon Kende, Alexander; Toenjes, Kurt; Novotny, Charles P; Ullrich, Robert C

    2002-04-01

    The Aalpha mating-type locus of Schizophyllum commune regulates sexual development and contains the code for two proteins, Y and Z, which are thought to form a complex and function as a transcription factor. Import of these proteins into the nucleus may be an essential step in Aalpha-regulated sexual development. The Y proteins contain a bipartite basic sequence, which is an excellent candidate for a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), while Z proteins contain no such sequence. Here we describe experiments in which deletions were made in the putative NLS sequence of Y4. We show that this putative NLS is essential to the function of the Y protein and capable of mislocalizing green fluorescent protein (GFP) to the nucleus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further, we describe genetic experiments that demonstrate the first Y-Y protein interactions in vivo. These results are consistent with our previously postulated hypothesis that the Y-Z complex is likely to be of a higher order than dimer. PMID:11973301

  11. Evidence for interaction of Schizophyllum commune Y mating-type proteins in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, C Ian; McMahon Kende, Alexander; Toenjes, Kurt; Novotny, Charles P; Ullrich, Robert C

    2002-01-01

    The Aalpha mating-type locus of Schizophyllum commune regulates sexual development and contains the code for two proteins, Y and Z, which are thought to form a complex and function as a transcription factor. Import of these proteins into the nucleus may be an essential step in Aalpha-regulated sexual development. The Y proteins contain a bipartite basic sequence, which is an excellent candidate for a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), while Z proteins contain no such sequence. Here we describe experiments in which deletions were made in the putative NLS sequence of Y4. We show that this putative NLS is essential to the function of the Y protein and capable of mislocalizing green fluorescent protein (GFP) to the nucleus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further, we describe genetic experiments that demonstrate the first Y-Y protein interactions in vivo. These results are consistent with our previously postulated hypothesis that the Y-Z complex is likely to be of a higher order than dimer. PMID:11973301

  12. Identification of mating type loci and development of SCAR marker genetically linked to the B3 locus in Pleurotus eryngii.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae-San; Kim, Min Keun; Ro, Hyeon-Su; Kang, Young Min; Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk; Kong, Won-Sik; Lee, Hyun-Sook

    2012-09-01

    In order to estimate how diverse the mating types in Pleurotus eryngii from different regions are, pairings between monokaryons derived from inter- and intragroups were done. Sixteen and 15 alleles were identified at loci A and B from the 12 strains. In the P. eryngii KNR2312, widely used for commercial production, four mating loci, A3, A4, B3, and B4, were determined. Those loci, except A3, were found in 4 strains out of 12 strains. To improve breeding efficiency, especially in mating type determination, RAPD and BSA were performed to screen for a mating type specific marker. The SCAR marker 13- 2(2100) was developed based on the RAPD-derived sequence typing B3 locus. The sequence analysis of 13-2(2100) revealed that it contained a conserved domain, the STE3 superfamily, and consensus sequences like the TATA box and GC box. It seems likely that the SCAR marker region is a part of the pheromone receptor gene. PMID:22814489

  13. ADP-ribosylation factor arf6p may function as a molecular switch of new end take off in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Atsushi [Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566 (Japan)], E-mail: a-fujita@aist.go.jp

    2008-02-01

    Small GTPases act as molecular switches in a wide variety of cellular processes. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the directions of cell growth change from a monopolar manner to a bipolar manner, which is known as 'New End Take Off' (NETO). Here I report the identification of a gene, arf6{sup +}, encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor small GTPase, that may be essential for NETO. arf6{delta} cells completely fail to undergo NETO. arf6p localizes at both cell ends and presumptive septa in a cell-cycle dependent manner. And its polarized localization is not dependent on microtubules, actin cytoskeletons and some NETO factors (bud6p, for3p, tea1p, tea3p, and tea4p). Notably, overexpression of a fast GDP/GTP-cycling mutant of arf6p can advance the timing of NETO. These findings suggest that arf6p functions as a molecular switch for the activation of NETO in fission yeast.

  14. Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from Infected Animals Reveal Genetic Exchange in Unisexual,   Mating Type Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tien Bui; Xiaorong Lin; Richard Malik; Joseph Heitman; Dee Carter

    2008-01-01

    Sexual reproduction and genetic exchange are important for the evolution of fungal pathogens and for producing potentially infective spores. Studies to determine whether sex occurs in the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii have produced enigmatic results, however: basidiospores are the most likely infective propagules, and clinical isolates are fertile and genetically diverse, consistent with a sexual species, but almost

  15. Genetic Basis of Self-Incompatibility in the Lichen-Forming Fungus Lobaria pulmonaria and Skewed Frequency Distribution of Mating-Type Idiomorphs: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Cornejo, Carolina; Schmitt, Imke; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Fungal populations that reproduce sexually are likely to be genetically more diverse and have a higher adaptive potential than asexually reproducing populations. Mating systems of fungal species can be self-incompatible, requiring the presence of isolates of different mating-type genes for sexual reproduction to occur, or self-compatible, requiring only one. Understanding the distribution of mating-type genes in populations can help to assess the potential of self-incompatible species to reproduce sexually. In the locally threatened epiphytic lichen-forming fungus Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., low frequency of sexual reproduction is likely to limit the potential of populations to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Our study provides direct evidence of self-incompatibility (heterothallism) in L. pulmonaria. It can thus be hypothesized that sexual reproduction in small populations might be limited by an unbalanced distribution of mating-type genes. We therefore assessed neutral genetic diversity (using microsatellites) and mating-type ratio in 27 lichen populations (933 individuals). We found significant differences in the frequency of the two mating types in 13 populations, indicating a lower likelihood of sexual reproduction in these populations. This suggests that conservation translocation activities aiming at maximizing genetic heterogeneity in threatened and declining populations should take into account not only presence of fruiting bodies in transplanted individuals, but also the identity and balanced representation of mating-type genes. PMID:23236495

  16. Genetic basis of self-incompatibility in the lichen-forming fungus Lobaria pulmonaria and skewed frequency distribution of mating-type idiomorphs: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Cornejo, Carolina; Schmitt, Imke; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Fungal populations that reproduce sexually are likely to be genetically more diverse and have a higher adaptive potential than asexually reproducing populations. Mating systems of fungal species can be self-incompatible, requiring the presence of isolates of different mating-type genes for sexual reproduction to occur, or self-compatible, requiring only one. Understanding the distribution of mating-type genes in populations can help to assess the potential of self-incompatible species to reproduce sexually. In the locally threatened epiphytic lichen-forming fungus Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., low frequency of sexual reproduction is likely to limit the potential of populations to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Our study provides direct evidence of self-incompatibility (heterothallism) in L. pulmonaria. It can thus be hypothesized that sexual reproduction in small populations might be limited by an unbalanced distribution of mating-type genes. We therefore assessed neutral genetic diversity (using microsatellites) and mating-type ratio in 27 lichen populations (933 individuals). We found significant differences in the frequency of the two mating types in 13 populations, indicating a lower likelihood of sexual reproduction in these populations. This suggests that conservation translocation activities aiming at maximizing genetic heterogeneity in threatened and declining populations should take into account not only presence of fruiting bodies in transplanted individuals, but also the identity and balanced representation of mating-type genes. PMID:23236495

  17. Mating Type Locus of Chinese Black Truffles Reveals Heterothallism and the Presence of Cryptic Species within the T. indicum Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Tuber spp. are filamentous ascomycetes which establish symbiosis with the roots of trees and shrub species. By virtue of this symbiosis they produce hypogeous ascocarps, known as truffles. Filamentous ascomycetes can reproduce by homothallism or heterothallism depending on the structure and organization of their mating type locus. The first mating type locus in a truffle species has been recently characterized in Tuber melanosporum and it has been shown that this fungus, endemic in Europe, is heterothallic. The availability of sequence information for T. melanosporum mating type genes is seminal to cloning their orthologs from other Tuber species and assessing their reproductive mode. Here we report on the organization of the mating type region in T. indicum, the black truffle species present in Asia, which is the closest relative to T. melanosporum and is characterized by an high level of morphological and genetic variability. The present study shows that T. indicum is also heterothallic. Examination of Asiatic black truffles belonging to different genetic classes, sorted according to the sequence polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region, has revealed sequence variations and rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions of the mating type locus, to suggest the existence of cryptic species within the T. indicum complex. The presence of transposable elements within or linked to the mating type region suggests a role of these elements in generating the genotypic diversity present among T. indicum strains. Overall, comparative analyses of the mating type locus have thus allowed us to tackle taxonomical and phylogenetic issues within black truffles and make inferences about the evolution of T. melanosporum-T. indicum lineage. Our results are not only of fundamental but also of applied relevance as T. indicum produces edible fruit bodies that are imported also into Europe and thus may represent a biological threat for T. melanosporum. PMID:24358175

  18. The zinc-finger transcription factor, Ofi1, regulates white-opaque switching and filamentation in the yeast Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Du, Han; Li, Xiaoling; Huang, Guanghua; Kang, Yingqian; Zhu, Liquan

    2015-05-01

    Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans. The most striking biological feature of C. albicans is its phenotypic plasticity, allowing it to undergo morphological transitions in response to various environmental cues. Transcription factors play critical roles in the regulation of morphological transitions. Here, we report the role of opaque and filamentation inducer 1 (Ofi1), a previously uncharacterized zinc-finger-containing protein encoded by the gene orf19.4972, in the regulation of white-opaque switching and filamentous growth. Over-expression of OFI1 not only induced white-to-opaque switching but also promoted filamentation and invasive growth in C. albicans. Deletion of OFI1 had no obvious effect on filamentation under the culture conditions tested, while deletion of OFI1 reduced the frequency of white-to-opaque switching. We propose that Ofi1 functions downstream of Wor1, the master regulator of white-opaque switching. However, over-expression of OFI1 in the wor1/wor1 mutant could not induce the opaque phenotype, suggesting that Ofi1 does not work alone and other transcription factors downstream of Wor1 are also involved in this regulation. Given the importance of Ofi1 in the regulation of white-opaque switching and filamentation, the present study establishes a new link between these two processes. PMID:25757952

  19. Transcriptional control of the sporulation-specific glucoamylase gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, I; Fukui, S

    1985-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucoamylase activity appears specifically in sporulating cells heterozygous for the mating-type locus (MAT). We identified a sporulation-specific glucoamylase gene (SGA) and show that expression of SGA is positively regulated by the mating-type genes, both MATa1 and MAT alpha 2. Northern blot analysis revealed that control of SGA is exerted at the level of RNA production. Expression of SGA or the consequent degradation of glycogen to glucose in cells is not required for meiosis or sporulation, since MATa/MAT alpha diploid cells homozygous for an insertion mutation at SGA still formed four viable ascospores. Images PMID:3939312

  20. Cloning of mating-type gene MAT1-1 from the caterpillar medicinal mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) using TAIL-PCR technology.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei-Ran; Gong, Zhen-Hua; Shi, Dan-Dan; Guo, Hui; Zhou, Xuanwei

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), 2 well-known traditional Chinese medicines, contain the same bioactive components and share a similar developmental process. In this study, one C. militaris strain preserved in our laboratory was proven to be a MAT1 mating-type strain using a polymerase chain reaction-based mating-type assay. A 5000-bp nucleotide sequence of the mating-type MAT1-1 from C. militaris was amplified by thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction, but genes within the mating-type MAT1-2 remain undetectable. Sequence analysis shows that the mating-type gene MAT1-1 idiomorph contains 2 genes, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2. The MAT1-1-1 gene consists of 1480-bp nucleotides that encode 456 amino acids and contain the conserved a-box domain interrupted by 2 introns; the MAT1-1-2 gene consists of 1066 nucleotides that encode 377 amino acids interrupted by one intron. The intervening distance between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2 is 778 bp. The C. militaris MAT1-1 idiomorph organization is the same as that of Cordyceps takaomontana. The MAT1-1 mating-type idiomorph of both Cordyceps species lacks the MAT1-1-3 gene, which is typically present in Pyrenomycetes. These studies provide some insights for further study of the morphological development of C. militaris and will eventually benefit the domestication of O. sinensis. PMID:25271980

  1. Structure of the SAD mutation and the location of control sites at silent mating type genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, J; Strathern, J; Klar, A; Ismail, S; Broach, J

    1984-01-01

    The SAD mutation, an extra mating type cassette, has been shown to arise from an unequal mitotic crossover between the MAT and HMR loci, resulting in the formation of a hybrid cassette and a duplication of the MAT-HMR interval. The SAD cassette contains the "a" information and left-hand flanking regions from the parental HMRa cassette and the right-hand flanking sequences of the parental MAT cassette. This arrangement of flanking sequences causes a leaky but reproducible mating phenotype correlated with a low-level expression of the cassette as measured by RNA blotting. This weak expression is attributed to the loss of one flanking control site normally present at the silent HM storage loci. Images PMID:6095058

  2. Maintenance of Sex-Related Genes and the Co-Occurrence of Both Mating Types in Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoping; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Subbarao, Krishna V.

    2014-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a cosmopolitan, soilborne fungus that causes a significant wilt disease on a wide variety of plant hosts including economically important crops, ornamentals, and timber species. Clonal expansion through asexual reproduction plays a vital role in recurring plant epidemics caused by this pathogen. The recent discovery of recombination between clonal lineages and preliminary investigations of the meiotic gene inventory of V. dahliae suggest that cryptic sex appears to be rare in this species. Here we expanded on previous findings on the sexual nature of V. dahliae. Only 1% of isolates in a global collection of 1120 phytopathogenic V. dahliae isolates contained the MAT1-1 idiomorph, whereas 99% contained MAT1-2. Nine unique multilocus microsatellite types comprised isolates of both mating types, eight of which were collected from the same substrate at the same time. Orthologs of 88 previously characterized sex-related genes from fungal model systems in the Ascoymycota were identified in the genome of V. dahliae, out of 93 genes investigated. Results of RT-PCR experiments using both mating types revealed that 10 arbitrarily chosen sex-related genes, including MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1, were constitutively expressed in V. dahliae cultures grown under laboratory conditions. Ratios of non-synonymous (amino-acid altering) to synonymous (silent) substitutions in V. dahliae MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 sequences were indistinguishable from the ratios observed in the MAT genes of sexual fungi in the Pezizomycotina. Patterns consistent with strong purifying selection were also observed in 18 other arbitrarily chosen V. dahliae sex-related genes, relative to the patterns in orthologs from fungi with known sexual stages. This study builds upon recent findings from other laboratories and mounts further evidence for an ancestral or cryptic sexual stage in V. dahliae. PMID:25383550

  3. Genomic and population analyses of the mating type loci in Coccidioides species reveal evidence for sexual reproduction and gene acquisition.

    PubMed

    Mandel, M Alejandra; Barker, Bridget M; Kroken, Scott; Rounsley, Steven D; Orbach, Marc J

    2007-07-01

    Coccidioides species, the fungi responsible for the valley fever disease, are known to reproduce asexually through the production of arthroconidia that are the infectious propagules. The possible role of sexual reproduction in the survival and dispersal of these pathogens is unexplored. To determine the potential for mating of Coccidioides, we analyzed genome sequences and identified mating type loci characteristic of heterothallic ascomycetes. Coccidioides strains contain either a MAT1-1 or a MAT1-2 idiomorph, which is 8.1 or 9 kb in length, respectively, the longest reported for any ascomycete species. These idiomorphs contain four or five genes, respectively, more than are present in the MAT loci of most ascomycetes. Along with their cDNA structures, we determined that all genes in the MAT loci are transcribed. Two genes frequently found in common sequences flanking MAT idiomorphs, APN2 and COX13, are within the MAT loci in Coccidioides, but the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 copies have diverged dramatically from each other. Data indicate that the acquisition of these genes in the MAT loci occurred prior to the separation of Coccidioides from Uncinocarpus reesii. An analysis of 436 Coccidioides isolates from patients and the environment indicates that in both Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, there is a 1:1 distribution of MAT loci, as would be expected for sexually reproducing species. In addition, an analysis of isolates obtained from 11 soil samples demonstrated that at three sampling sites, strains of both mating types were present, indicating that compatible strains were in close proximity in the environment. PMID:17513566

  4. Genetic variability of the postharvest pathogen Gilbertella persicaria: identification of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers correlating with (+) and (-) mating types.

    PubMed

    Papp, T; Vastag, M; Michailides, T J; Ferenczy, L; Vágvölgyi, C

    2001-12-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and isoenzyme polymorphisms among 16 isolates of the postharvest pathogen Gilbertella persicaria were examined. Six different 10-bp primers were used to determine the extent of intraspecific genetic variability. Nine composite amplification types were identified. RAPD markers were obtained which correlated with the mating types of the G. persicaria isolates. The variability of the isoenzyme patterns was very low and no correlation was found between the isoenzyme markers and the mating abilities. When 80 single carbon substrates were tested in utilization assays, most of them were utilized uniformly by the 16 G. persicaria strains. However, some compounds elicited differences between the isolates representing the two mating types. Beta-alanine (0.2%) has little effect on the germination of the sporangiospores of the (+) isolates, but inhibited the germination of (-) sporangiospores. Glycerol-1-monoacetate supported the growth of both mating types, but at concentrations higher than 4% this was accompanied with a compact (colonial) growth for plus mating type isolates only. PMID:11827216

  5. Mating Type (MAT) Locus -Specific PCR Markers for Differentiation of Pyrenophora teres f. teres and P. teres f. maculata, the Causal Agents of Barley Net Blotch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at the mating-type (MAT) loci of Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt), which causes net form (NF) net blotch, and P. teres f. maculata (Ptm), which causes spot form (SF) net blotch of barley. MAT-specific SNP primers were developed for poly...

  6. Diversity of the lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiota in the switch from firm- to liquid-sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Lattanzi, Anna; Valerio, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Calasso, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Four traditional type I sourdoughs were comparatively propagated (28 days) under firm (dough yield, 160) and liquid (dough yield, 280) conditions to mimic the alternative technology options frequently used for making baked goods. After 28 days of propagation, liquid sourdoughs had the lowest pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), the lowest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids and free amino acids, and the most stable density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria. The cell density of yeasts was the highest in liquid sourdoughs. Liquid sourdoughs showed simplified microbial diversity and harbored a low number of strains, which were persistent. Lactobacillus plantarum dominated firm sourdoughs over time. Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus brevis dominated only some firm sourdoughs, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis persisted for some time only in some firm sourdoughs. Leuconostoc citreum persisted in all firm and liquid sourdoughs, and it was the only species detected in liquid sourdoughs at all times; it was flanked by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in some sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida humilis, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces bayanus-Kazachstania sp., and Torulaspora delbrueckii were variously identified in firm and liquid sourdoughs. A total of 197 volatile components were identified through purge and trap-/solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-/SPME-GC-MS). Aldehydes, several alcohols, and some esters were at the highest levels in liquid sourdoughs. Firm sourdoughs mainly contained ethyl acetate, acetic acid, some sulfur compounds, and terpenes. The use of liquid fermentation would change the main microbial and biochemical features of traditional baked goods, which have been manufactured under firm conditions for a long time. PMID:24632249

  7. Diversity of the Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiota in the Switch from Firm- to Liquid-Sourdough Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Lattanzi, Anna; Valerio, Francesca; Calasso, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Four traditional type I sourdoughs were comparatively propagated (28 days) under firm (dough yield, 160) and liquid (dough yield, 280) conditions to mimic the alternative technology options frequently used for making baked goods. After 28 days of propagation, liquid sourdoughs had the lowest pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), the lowest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids and free amino acids, and the most stable density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria. The cell density of yeasts was the highest in liquid sourdoughs. Liquid sourdoughs showed simplified microbial diversity and harbored a low number of strains, which were persistent. Lactobacillus plantarum dominated firm sourdoughs over time. Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus brevis dominated only some firm sourdoughs, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis persisted for some time only in some firm sourdoughs. Leuconostoc citreum persisted in all firm and liquid sourdoughs, and it was the only species detected in liquid sourdoughs at all times; it was flanked by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in some sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida humilis, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces bayanus-Kazachstania sp., and Torulaspora delbrueckii were variously identified in firm and liquid sourdoughs. A total of 197 volatile components were identified through purge and trap–/solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT–/SPME–GC-MS). Aldehydes, several alcohols, and some esters were at the highest levels in liquid sourdoughs. Firm sourdoughs mainly contained ethyl acetate, acetic acid, some sulfur compounds, and terpenes. The use of liquid fermentation would change the main microbial and biochemical features of traditional baked goods, which have been manufactured under firm conditions for a long time. PMID:24632249

  8. Evolution of the mating type locus: insights gained from the dimorphic primary fungal pathogens Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Coccidioides posadasii.

    PubMed

    Fraser, James A; Stajich, Jason E; Tarcha, Eric J; Cole, Garry T; Inglis, Diane O; Sil, Anita; Heitman, Joseph

    2007-04-01

    Sexual reproduction of fungi is governed by the mating type (MAT) locus, a specialized region of the genome encoding key transcriptional regulators that direct regulatory networks to specify cell identity and fate. Knowledge of MAT locus structure and evolution has been considerably advanced in recent years as a result of genomic analyses that enable the definition of MAT locus sequences in many species as well as provide an understanding of the evolutionary plasticity of this unique region of the genome. Here, we extend this analysis to define the mating type locus of three dimorphic primary human fungal pathogens, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Coccidioides posadasii, using genomic analysis, direct sequencing, and bioinformatics. These studies provide evidence that all three species possess heterothallic bipolar mating type systems, with isolates encoding either a high-mobility-group (HMG) domain or an alpha-box transcriptional regulator. These genes are intact in all loci examined and have not been subject to loss or decay, providing evidence that the loss of fertility upon passage in H. capsulatum is not attributable to mutations at the MAT locus. These findings also suggest that an extant sexual cycle remains to be defined in both Coccidioides species, in accord with population genetic evidence. Based on these MAT sequences, a facile PCR test was developed that allows the mating type to be rapidly ascertained. Finally, these studies highlight the evolutionary forces shaping the MAT locus, revealing examples in which flanking genes have been inverted or subsumed and incorporated into an expanding MAT locus, allowing us to propose an expanded model for the evolution of the MAT locus in the phylum Ascomycota. PMID:17337636

  9. Pleiotropic mutations at the TUP1 locus that affect the expression of mating-type-dependent functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Lemontt, J.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Fugit, D.R.; MacKay, V.L.

    1980-04-01

    The umr7-1 mutation, previously identified in a set of mutants that had been selected for defective uv-induced mutagenesis at CAN1, affects other cellular functions, including many of those regulated by the mating-type locus (MAT) in heterothallic Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recessive umr7-1 allele, mapping approximately 20 cM distal to thr4 on chromosome III, causes clumpy growth in both a and ..cap alpha.. cells and has no apparent effect on a mating functions. The most striking property of a umr7 strains is their altered morphology, in which mitotic cells develop an asymmetric pear shape, like that of normal a cells induced to form shmoos by interaction with a-factor. Some a/..cap alpha..-specific diploid functions are also affected by umr7; instead of polar budding patterns, a/..cap alpha.. umr7/umr7 diploids have medial budding like a/a, ..cap alpha../..cap alpha.. and haploid strains. Moreover, a/..cap alpha.. umr7/umr7 diploids have lost the ability to sporulate and are Bar+ like a or a/a strains. Revertant studies indicate that umr7-1 is a single point mutation. The umr7 mutant fails to complement mutants of both tup1 and cyc9 and all three isolates have similar genetic and phenotypic properties. It is suggested that the product of this gene plays some common central role in the complex regulation of the expression of both MAT-dependent and MAT-independent functions.

  10. Haploinsufficiency and the sex chromosomes from yeasts to humans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Haploinsufficient (HI) genes are those for which a reduction in copy number in a diploid from two to one results in significantly reduced fitness. Haploinsufficiency is increasingly implicated in human disease, and so predicting this phenotype could provide insights into the genetic mechanisms behind many human diseases, including some cancers. Results In the present work we show that orthologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae HI genes are preferentially retained across the kingdom Fungi, and that the HI genes of S. cerevisiae can be used to predict haploinsufficiency in humans. Our HI gene predictions confirm known associations between haploinsufficiency and genetic disease, and predict several further disorders in which the phenotype may be relevant. Haploinsufficiency is also clearly relevant to the gene-dosage imbalances inherent in eukaryotic sex-determination systems. In S. cerevisiae, HI genes are over-represented on chromosome III, the chromosome that determines yeast's mating type. This may be a device to select against the loss of one copy of chromosome III from a diploid. We found that orthologues of S. cerevisiae HI genes are also over-represented on the mating-type chromosomes of other yeasts and filamentous fungi. In animals with heterogametic sex determination, accumulation of HI genes on the sex chromosomes would compromise fitness in both sexes, given X chromosome inactivation in females. We found that orthologues of S. cerevisiae HI genes are significantly under-represented on the X chromosomes of mammals and of Caenorhabditis elegans. There is no X inactivation in Drosophila melanogaster (increased expression of X in the male is used instead) and, in this species, we found no depletion of orthologues to yeast HI genes on the sex chromosomes. Conclusion A special relationship between HI genes and the sex/mating-type chromosome extends from S. cerevisiae to Homo sapiens, with the microbe being a useful model for species throughout the evolutionary range. Furthermore, haploinsufficiency in yeast can predict the phenotype in higher organisms. PMID:21356089

  11. Fission Yeast Pxd1 Promotes Proper DNA Repair by Activating Rad16XPF and Inhibiting Dna2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia-Min; Liu, Xiao-Man; Ding, Yue-He; Xiong, Liang-Yao; Ren, Jing-Yi; Zhou, Zhi-Xiong; Wang, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Mei-Jun; Yu, Yang; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Du, Li-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Structure-specific nucleases play crucial roles in many DNA repair pathways. They must be precisely controlled to ensure optimal repair outcomes; however, mechanisms of their regulation are not fully understood. Here, we report a fission yeast protein, Pxd1, that binds to and regulates two structure-specific nucleases: Rad16XPF-Swi10ERCC1 and Dna2-Cdc24. Strikingly, Pxd1 influences the activities of these two nucleases in opposite ways: It activates the 3? endonuclease activity of Rad16-Swi10 but inhibits the RPA-mediated activation of the 5? endonuclease activity of Dna2. Pxd1 is required for Rad16-Swi10 to function in single-strand annealing, mating-type switching, and the removal of Top1-DNA adducts. Meanwhile, Pxd1 attenuates DNA end resection mediated by the Rqh1-Dna2 pathway. Disabling the Dna2-inhibitory activity of Pxd1 results in enhanced use of a break-distal repeat sequence in single-strand annealing and a greater loss of genetic information. We propose that Pxd1 promotes proper DNA repair by differentially regulating two structure-specific nucleases. PMID:25203555

  12. RNA Polymerase Switch in Transcription of Yeast rDNA: Role of Transcription Factor UAF (Upstream Activation Factor) in Silencing rDNA Transcription by RNA Polymerase II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loan Vu; Imran Siddiqi; Bum-Soo Lee; Cathleen A. Josaitis; Masayasu Nomura

    1999-01-01

    Transcription factor UAF (upstream activation factor) is required for a high level of transcription, but not for basal transcription, of rDNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RRN9 encodes one of the UAF subunits. We have found that rrn9 deletion mutants grow extremely slowly but give rise to faster growing variants that can grow without

  13. The Nuclease Activity of Mre11 Is Required for Meiosis but Not for Mating Type Switching, End Joining, or Telomere Maintenance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SYLVIE MOREAU; JOHN R. FERGUSON; LORRAINE S. SYMINGTON

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MRE11 gene is required for the repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage and for the initiation of meiotic recombination. Sequence analysis has revealed homology between Mre11 and SbcD, the catalytic subunit of an Escherichia coli enzyme with endo- and exonuclease activity, SbcCD. In this study, the purified Mre11 protein was found to have single-stranded endonuclease activity. This

  14. The yeast deletion collection: a decade of functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2014-06-01

    The yeast deletion collections comprise >21,000 mutant strains that carry precise start-to-stop deletions of ?6000 open reading frames. This collection includes heterozygous and homozygous diploids, and haploids of both MAT A: and MAT? mating types. The yeast deletion collection, or yeast knockout (YKO) set, represents the first and only complete, systematically constructed deletion collection available for any organism. Conceived during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequencing project, work on the project began in 1998 and was completed in 2002. The YKO strains have been used in numerous laboratories in >1000 genome-wide screens. This landmark genome project has inspired development of numerous genome-wide technologies in organisms from yeast to man. Notable spinoff technologies include synthetic genetic array and HIPHOP chemogenomics. In this retrospective, we briefly describe the yeast deletion project and some of its most noteworthy biological contributions and the impact that these collections have had on the yeast research community and on genomics in general. PMID:24939991

  15. Imitation Switch Complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Mellor

    The imitation switch (ISWI) family of chromatin remodelling ATPases is found in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. ISWI ATPases assemble chromatin and slide and space nucleosomes, making the chromatin template fluid and allowing appropriate regulation of events such as transcription, DNA replication, recombination and repair. The site of action of the ATPases is determined, in part by the tissue

  16. RNA Methylation by the MIS Complex Regulates a Cell Fate Decision in Yeast

    E-print Network

    Agarwala, Sundeep

    For the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient limitation is a key developmental signal causing diploid cells to switch from yeast-form budding to either foraging pseudohyphal (PH) growth or meiosis and sporulation. ...

  17. Dry yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ranveig Thattai (None; )

    2005-09-27

    Yeast is a type of eukaryotic organism that can live in a dormant state. It can be activated from its dormant state by water and sugar. The yeast uses the sugar to grow and produces carbon dioxide gas as a byproduct.

  18. Yeast virology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    REED B. WICKNER

    The three families of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses and two families of retroviruses (retrotranspo- sons) of the yeast Sacc\\/zaromyces cerevisiaeare all trans- mitted between cells only by cell fusion, probably re- flecting the high frequency of mating of yeast cells in nature. One dsRNA virus and two retroviruses appar- ently use ribosomal \\

  19. Mating Type Gene Homologues and Putative Sex Pheromone-Sensing Pathway in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, a Presumably Asexual Plant Root Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Halary, Sébastien; Daubois, Laurence; Terrat, Yves; Ellenberger, Sabrina; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Hijri, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The fungal kingdom displays a fascinating diversity of sex-determination systems. Recent advances in genomics provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of sex, mating type determination, and evolution of sexual reproduction in many fungal species in both ancient and modern phylogenetic lineages. All major fungal groups have evolved sexual differentiation and recombination pathways. However, sexuality is unknown in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of the phylum Glomeromycota, an ecologically vital group of obligate plant root symbionts. AMF are commonly considered an ancient asexual lineage dating back to the Ordovician, approximately 460 M years ago. In this study, we used genomic and transcriptomic surveys of several AMF species to demonstrate the presence of conserved putative sex pheromone-sensing mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, comparable to those described in Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. We also find genes for high mobility group (HMG) transcription factors, homologous to SexM and SexP genes in the Mucorales. The SexM genes show a remarkable sequence diversity among multiple copies in the genome, while only a single SexP sequence was detected in some isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis. In the Mucorales and Microsporidia, the sexM gene is flanked by genes for a triosephosphate transporter (TPT) and a RNA helicase, but we find no evidence for synteny in the vicinity of the Sex locus in AMF. Nonetheless, our results, together with previous observations on meiotic machinery, suggest that AMF could undergo a complete sexual reproduction cycle. PMID:24260466

  20. Counting Yeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bealer, Jonathan; Welton, Briana

    1998-01-01

    Describes changes to a traditional study of population in yeast colonies. Changes to the procedures include: (1) only one culture per student team; (2) cultures are inoculated only once; and (3) the same tube is sampled daily. (DDR)

  1. Yeast Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

  2. Genomes of Ashbya Fungi Isolated from Insects Reveal Four Mating-Type Loci, Numerous Translocations, Lack of Transposons, and Distinct Gene Duplications

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Fred S.; Voegeli, Sylvia; Kuo, Sidney; Philippsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii is a cotton pathogen transmitted by insects. It is readily grown and manipulated in the laboratory and is commercially exploited as a natural overproducer of vitamin B2. Our previous genome analysis of A. gossypii isolate ATCC10895, collected in Trinidad nearly 100 years ago, revealed extensive synteny with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, leading us to use it as a model organism to understand the evolution of filamentous growth. To further develop Ashbya as a model system, we have investigated the ecological niche of A. gossypii and isolated additional strains and a sibling species, both useful in comparative analysis. We isolated fungi morphologically similar to A. gossypii from different plant-feeding insects of the suborder Heteroptera, generated a phylogenetic tree based on rDNA-ITS sequences, and performed high coverage short read sequencing with one A. gossypii isolate from Florida, a new species, Ashbya aceri, isolated in North Carolina, and a genetically marked derivative of ATCC10895 intensively used for functional studies. In contrast to S. cerevisiae, all strains carry four not three mating type loci, adding a new puzzle in the evolution of Ashbya species. Another surprise was the genome identity of 99.9% between the Florida strain and ATCC10895, isolated in Trinidad. The A. aceri and A. gossypii genomes show conserved gene orders rearranged by eight translocations, 90% overall sequence identity, and fewer tandem duplications in the A. aceri genome. Both species lack transposable elements. Finally, our work identifies plant-feeding insects of the suborder Heteroptera as the most likely natural reservoir of Ashbya, and that infection of cotton and other plants may be incidental to the growth of the fungus in its insect host. PMID:23749448

  3. Effect of fungicides on epiphytic yeasts associated with strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Debode, Jane; Van Hemelrijck, Wendy; Creemers, Piet; Maes, Martine

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of two commonly used fungicides on the epiphytic yeast community of strawberry. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted applying Switch (cyprodinil plus fludioxonil) or Signum (boscalid plus pyraclostrobin) to strawberry plants. Yeasts on leaves and fruits were assessed on treated and untreated plants at several time points via plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The yeast counts on plates of the treated plants were similar to the control plants. Unripe fruits had 10 times larger yeast concentrations than ripe fruits or leaves. Some dominant yeast types were isolated and in vitro tests showed that they were at least 10 times less sensitive to Switch and Signum as compared with two important fungal strawberry pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum acutatum, which are the targets for the fungicide control. DGGE analysis showed that the applied fungicides had no effect on the composition of the yeast communities, while the growing system, strawberry tissue, and sampling time did affect the yeast communities. The yeast species most commonly identified were Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, and Sporobolomyces. These results point toward the potential applicability of natural occurring yeast antagonists into an integrated disease control strategy for strawberry diseases.

  4. A MAT1–2 wild-type strain from Penicillium chrysogenum: functional mating-type locus characterization, genome sequencing and mating with an industrial penicillin-producing strain

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Julia; Dahlmann, Tim A; Gümü?er, Hendrik; Kück, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In heterothallic ascomycetes, mating is controlled by two nonallelic idiomorphs that determine the ‘sex’ of the corresponding strains. We recently discovered mating-type loci and a sexual life cycle in the penicillin-producing fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum. All industrial penicillin production strains worldwide are derived from a MAT1-1 isolate. No MAT1-2 strain has been investigated in detail until now. Here, we provide the first functional analysis of a MAT1-2 locus from a wild-type strain. Similar to MAT1-1, the MAT1-2 locus has functions beyond sexual development. Unlike MAT1-1, the MAT1-2 locus affects germination and surface properties of conidiospores and controls light-dependent asexual sporulation. Mating of the MAT1-2 wild type with a MAT1-1 high penicillin producer generated sexual spores. We determined the genomic sequences of parental and progeny strains using next-generation sequencing and found evidence for genome-wide recombination. SNP calling showed that derived industrial strains had an uneven distribution of point mutations compared with the wild type. We found evidence for meiotic recombination in all chromosomes. Our results point to a strategy combining the use of mating-type genes, genetics, and next-generation sequencing to optimize conventional strain improvement methods. PMID:25521009

  5. Imitation switch complexes.

    PubMed

    Mellor, J

    2006-01-01

    The imitation switch (ISWI) family of chromatin remodelling ATPases is found in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. ISWI ATPases assemble chromatin and slide and space nucleosomes, making the chromatin template fluid and allowing appropriate regulation of events such as transcription, DNA replication, recombination and repair. The site of action of the ATPases is determined, in part by the tissue type in which the enzyme is expressed and in part by the nature of the proteins associated with the enzyme. The ISWI complexes are generally conserved in composition and function across species. Roles in gene expression and DNA replication in heterochromatin, gene activation and repression in euchromatin, and functions related to maintaining chromosome architecture are associated with different complexes. Defects in ISWI-associated proteins may be associated with neurodegenerative disease, anencephaly, William's syndrome and melanotic tumours. Finally, the mechanism by which yeast Isw Ib influences gene transcription is discussed. PMID:16568949

  6. YEAST GENETICS Fred Winston

    E-print Network

    Winston, Fred

    YEAST GENETICS Fred Winston 7.1 Introduction Key Concepts · Genetic studies of the yeast. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ideal experimental organism. It is a microorganism that has a fast biology. Yeast has been the focus of extensive studies in many aspects of molecular biology. These areas

  7. Genital Yeast Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Oriel; Betty M. Partridge; Maire J. Denny; J. C. Coleman

    1972-01-01

    Genital yeast infection was studied in 533 women seen in a department of venereology. Yeasts were recovered in culture from 138 patients (26% of the total). Candida albicans accounted for 112 (81%) of the isolates and Torulopsis glabrata for 22 (16%); other yeasts were uncommon. There was no evidence that the presence of yeasts was related to age. 32% of

  8. IP SwitchingIP Switching and Label Switchingand Label Switching

    E-print Network

    Jain, Raj

    Raj Jain 1 IP SwitchingIP Switching and Label Switchingand Label Switching Raj Jain Professor Switching vs routing q IP Switching (Ipsilon) q Tag Switching (CISCO) q Multi-protocol label switching (Cont)Routing vs Switching (Cont) On ATM networks: q IP routers use IP addresses Reassemble IP

  9. Electric Switches

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-05-22

    In this activity, learners incorporate a simple switch into a battery/bulb circuit. Learners will use their knowledge of circuits to design and make their own switches using common materials. Learners will also identify switches found in common appliances.
    Note: This activity is designed to be done under the supervision of an educator familiar with electrical and electronic concepts.

  10. Optical Networks Circuit switched, Burst switched,

    E-print Network

    Shihada, Basem

    /control ·optical 3R (Reliability, Robustness, and Resiliency) performance monitoring are hard Optical CircuitOptical Networks Circuit switched, Burst switched, Packet switched Electronic vs. Optical, and then from Electronic to Optical for transmission. · Optical (photonic) switching: uses optical switching

  11. Isolation of selected chromatin fragments from yeast by site-specific recombination in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ansari, A; Cheng, T H; Gartenberg, M R

    1999-02-01

    A burgeoning interest in the role of chromatin structure in a wide variety of chromosome functions has established a need for methods to obtain chromatin in its native form. Here we describe a simple and efficient method for biochemical isolation of selected chromatin fragments from yeast chromosomes. The approach involves three steps. First, site-specific recombination in vivo is used to excise a chromosomal domain of interest in the form of a small extrachromosomal ring. Second, whole cell lysate is prepared from cultures in which recombination has been induced. Third, differential centrifugation is used to separate excised chromatin rings from chromosomes and other cellular debris. Using this methodology, we show that rings containing the transcriptionally repressed HMR mating-type locus can be formed and isolated in high yield. Furthermore, we show that the isolation procedure results in significant enrichment of recombinant rings. Finally, we show that the nucleosomal organization of the recombined material is not altered during isolation. PMID:10075889

  12. Yeast Education Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Yeast Education Network provides a variety of resources to facilitate use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in undergraduate science curricula. Laboratory, classroom, and computer-based activities can be used with college and advanced high school students.

  13. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infection from your sexual partner. Condoms and dental dams may help prevent getting or passing yeast infections ... infection from your sexual partner. Condoms and dental dams may help prevent getting or passing yeast infections ...

  14. Vaginal Yeast Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Vaginal Yeast Infection Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Vaginal yeast infection, or vulvovaginal candidiasis, is a common cause ...

  15. CLONTECHInnovative Yeast Protocols Handbook

    E-print Network

    Erickson, F. Les

    CLONTECHInnovative Tools to Accelerate Discovery Yeast Protocols Handbook PT3024-1 (PR13103 FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY #12;Yeast Protocols Handbook CLONTECH Laboratories, Inc. www.clontech.com Protocol # PT3024-1 2 Version # PR13103 I. Introduction 4 II. Introduction to Yeast Promoters 5 III. Culturing

  16. Optical switches and switching methods

    DOEpatents

    Doty, Michael

    2008-03-04

    A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.

  17. Ethernet Switching

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Castro, Tony

    Created by Tony Castro of the Information and Communications Technologies Center (ICT), this simulation demonstrates ethernet switching. The animation depicts three separate local area networks connecting to an ethernet hub. The animation also includes descriptive text. This resource would be a helpful addition to any course on information and communications technologies as it allows students to see exactly how ethernet switching works.

  18. Gene Switches

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-30

    In this activity, learners explore how genetic switches function and the role of genetic switches in the process of evolution. To make these concepts less abstract and more understandable, learners first view a series of video clips and animations from the HHMI DVD (or online) "Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads." Then, learners construct a model of a gene switch using craft materials or FridgiGears (magnetic gears). This activity can be done as a demonstration, a student inquiry activity, or a combination of the two.

  19. Transformation of Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Hinnen; James B. Hicks; Gerald R. Fink

    1978-01-01

    A stable leu2- yeast strain has been transformed to LEU2+ by using a chimeric ColE1 plasmid carrying the yeast leu2 gene. We have used recently developed hybridization and restriction endonuclease mapping techniques to demonstrate directly the presence of the transforming DNA in the yeast genome and also to determine the arrangement of the sequences that were introduced. These studies show

  20. Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment is simple and painless. What Is a Yeast Infection? A yeast infection, also known as candidiasis ( ... you can be treated appropriately. Do Guys Get Yeast Infections? Guys can get an infection of the ...

  1. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction On this page: Key ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Red Yeast Rice Red yeast rice is made by ...

  2. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Devaney, Howard F. (Cedar Crest, NM); Hake, Lewis W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  3. Mitochondrial assembly in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Les A Grivell; Marta Artal-Sanz; Gertjan Hakkaart; Liesbeth de Jong; Leo G. J Nijtmans; Katinka van Oosterum; Michel Siep; Hans van der Spek

    1999-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is likely to be the first organism for which a complete inventory of mitochondrial proteins and their functions can be drawn up. A survey of the 340 or so proteins currently known to be localised in yeast mitochondria reveals the considerable investment required to maintain the organelle’s own genetic system, which itself contributes seven key components

  4. Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

  5. Yeasts: Neglected Pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Poulain; Boualem Sendid; Annie Standaert-Vitse; Chantal Fradin; Thierry Jouault; Samir Jawhara; Jean-Frederic Colombel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Current research on Crohn’s disease (CD) concerns molecular events related to loss of tolerance to microbes that could trigger or maintain inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. CD is also associated with antimicrobial antibodies, including the antibodies we described against yeast oligomannosides (ASCA). This prompted us to investigate a role for another yeast, Candida albicans, a very common commensal of

  6. Population genetics of the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Louise J; Koufopanou, Vassiliki; Goddard, Matthew R; Hetherington, Richard; Schäfer, Stefanie M; Burt, Austin

    2004-01-01

    Saccharomyces paradoxus is the closest known relative of the well-known S. cerevisiae and an attractive model organism for population genetic and genomic studies. Here we characterize a set of 28 wild isolates from a 10-km(2) sampling area in southern England. All 28 isolates are homothallic (capable of mating-type switching) and wild type with respect to nutrient requirements. Nine wild isolates and two lab strains of S. paradoxus were surveyed for sequence variation at six loci totaling 7 kb, and all 28 wild isolates were then genotyped at seven polymorphic loci. These data were used to calculate nucleotide diversity and number of segregating sites in S. paradoxus and to investigate geographic differentiation, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium. Synonymous site diversity is approximately 0.3%. Extensive incompatibilities between gene genealogies indicate frequent recombination between unlinked loci, but there is no evidence of recombination within genes. Some localized clonal growth is apparent. The frequency of outcrossing relative to inbreeding is estimated at 1.1% on the basis of heterozygosity. Thus, all three modes of reproduction known in the lab (clonal replication, inbreeding, and outcrossing) have been important in molding genetic variation in this species. PMID:15020405

  7. Yeast transcription factors Kevin Struhl

    E-print Network

    Yeast transcription factors Kevin Struhl Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA Studies of yeast Transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are fundamentally similar in eukaryotic organisms from yeasts to humans (for reviews of yeast transcription, see [1,2]). Compo- nents of the chromatin template and the basic RNA

  8. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ai Leng Teoh; Gillian Heard; Julian Cox

    2004-01-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and

  9. Switching Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

  10. Yeast expression platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Böer; Gerhard Steinborn; Gotthard Kunze; Gerd Gellissen

    2007-01-01

    Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms. They combine ease of genetic manipulations and the option for a simple fermentation\\u000a design of a microbial organism with the capabilities of an eukaryotic organism to secrete and to modify a protein according\\u000a to a general eukaryotic scheme. For platform applications, a range of yeast species has been developed during the last decades.\\u000a We present

  11. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

  12. Forces in yeast flocculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  13. A microfluidic synchronizer for fission yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Luo, Chunxiong; Ouyang, Qi

    2013-10-21

    Among all the cell cycle synchronization technologies, the baby machine may be considered as the most artifact-free method. A baby machine incubates "mother cells" under normal conditions and collects their "babies", producing cell cultures that are similar not only in cell cycle phase but also in age. Unlike many other synchronization methods, no cell-cycle-blocking agent or metabolic stress is introduced in this method. Several macroscale and microfluidic baby machines have been developed for producing synchronized cell colonies. However, for rod-shaped cells like fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), it is still a challenge to immobilize only the mother cells in a microfluidic device. Here we presented a new baby machine suitable for fission yeast. The device is fixed one end of the cell and releases the free-end daughter cell every time the cell finishes cytokinesis. A variety of structures for cell immobilization were attempted to find the optimal design. For the convenience of collection and further assay, we integrated into our baby machine chip a cell screener, which exploited the deformation of polymer material to switch between opening and closing states. Synchronous populations of fission yeast cells were produced with this device, its working detail was analyzed and performance was evaluated. The device provides a new on-chip tool for cell biology studies. PMID:23966136

  14. Prion Switching in Response to Environmental Jens Tyedmers1[

    E-print Network

    Lindquist, Susan

    Prion Switching in Response to Environmental Stress Jens Tyedmers1[ , Maria Lucia Madariaga1, might provide such a mechanism. In yeast, the prion [PSIþ ] exposes a large array of previously hidden genes were particularly prominent. Furthermore, prion induction increased by as much as 60-fold when

  15. Evolutionary history of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 20 ascomyceteous yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comp...

  16. Virtual Yeast Cell

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

  17. Yeast killer systems.

    PubMed Central

    Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

    1997-01-01

    The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

  18. Yeast Metabolism Lab Mrs. Zimmerman

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Yeast Metabolism Lab Mrs. Zimmerman 10/22/10 #12;Photosynthesis 6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Oxygen Glucose Carbon Dioxide Water Energy #12;Yeast · Unicellular · Eukaryotic (like us) · Kingdom Fungi" Saccharomyces cerevisiae #12;Alcoholic Fermentation · Some organisms, including yeast, can create energy without

  19. Genetics of Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

    The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

  20. Genome evolution in yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Dujon; David Sherman; Gilles Fischer; Pascal Durrens; Serge Casaregola; Ingrid Lafontaine; Jacky de Montigny; Christian Marck; Cécile Neuvéglise; Emmanuel Talla; Nicolas Goffard; Lionel Frangeul; Michel Aigle; Véronique Anthouard; Anna Babour; Valérie Barbe; Stéphanie Barnay; Sylvie Blanchin; Jean-Marie Beckerich; Emmanuelle Beyne; Claudine Bleykasten; Anita Boisramé; Jeanne Boyer; Laurence Cattolico; Fabrice Confanioleri; Antoine de Daruvar; Laurence Despons; Emmanuelle Fabre; Cécile Fairhead; Hélène Ferry-Dumazet; Alexis Groppi; Florence Hantraye; Christophe Hennequin; Nicolas Jauniaux; Philippe Joyet; Rym Kachouri; Alix Kerrest; Romain Koszul; Marc Lemaire; Isabelle Lesur; Laurence Ma; Héloïse Muller; Jean-Marc Nicaud; Macha Nikolski; Sophie Oztas; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Stefan Pellenz; Serge Potier; Guy-Franck Richard; Marie-Laure Straub; Audrey Suleau; Dominique Swennen; Fredj Tekaia; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Eric Westhof; Bénédicte Wirth; Maria Zeniou-Meyer; Ivan Zivanovic; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Agnès Thierry; Christiane Bouchier; Bernard Caudron; Claude Scarpelli; Claude Gaillardin; Jean Weissenbach; Patrick Wincker; Jean-Luc Souciet

    2004-01-01

    Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity

  1. METHODS TO IDENTIFY YEAST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are commonly identified from either phenotype or, more recently, from diagnostic gene sequences. Methods based on phenotype include fermentation reactions on a select set of sugars and growth responses on various carbon and nitrogen sources or on other diagnostic compounds. Isolates are fur...

  2. Opportunistic Pathogenic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Uma

    Advances in medical research, made during the last few decades, have improved the prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for variety of infections/diseases. However, many of the prophylactic and therapeutic procedures have been seen in many instances to exact a price of host-vulnerability to an expanding group of opportunistic pathogens and yeasts are one of the important members in it. Fortunately amongst the vast majority of yeasts present in nature only few are considered to have the capability to cause infections when certain opportunities predisposes and these are termed as ‘opportunistic pathogenic yeasts.’ However, the term ‘pathogenic’ is quite tricky, as it depends of various factors of the host, the ‘bug’ and the environment to manifest the clinical infection. The borderline is expanding. In the present century with unprecedented increase in number of immune-compromised host in various disciplines of health care settings, where any yeast, which has the capability to grow at 37 ° C (normal body temperature of human), can be pathogenic and cause infection in particular situation

  3. Flavour-active wine yeasts.

    PubMed

    Cordente, Antonio G; Curtin, Christopher D; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S

    2012-11-01

    The flavour of fermented beverages such as beer, cider, saké and wine owe much to the primary fermentation yeast used in their production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Where once the role of yeast in fermented beverage flavour was thought to be limited to a small number of volatile esters and higher alcohols, the discovery that wine yeast release highly potent sulfur compounds from non-volatile precursors found in grapes has driven researchers to look more closely at how choice of yeast can influence wine style. This review explores recent progress towards understanding the range of 'flavour phenotypes' that wine yeast exhibit, and how this knowledge has been used to develop novel flavour-active yeasts. In addition, emerging opportunities to augment these phenotypes by engineering yeast to produce so-called grape varietal compounds, such as monoterpenoids, will be discussed. PMID:22940803

  4. Yeasts associated with Manteca.

    PubMed

    Suzzi, Giovanna; Schirone, Maria; Martuscelli, Maria; Gatti, Monica; Fornasari, Maria Emanuela; Neviani, Erasmo

    2003-04-01

    Manteca is a traditional milk product of southern Italy produced from whey deriving from Caciocavallo Podolico cheese-making. This study was undertaken to obtain more information about the microbiological properties of this product and particularly about the presence, metabolic activities, and technological significance of the different yeast species naturally occurring in Manteca. High numbers of yeasts were counted after 7 days ripening (10(4)-10(5) cfu g(-1)) and then decreased to 10(2) at the end. A total of 179 isolates were identified and studied for their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The most frequently encountered species were Trichosporon asahii (45), Candida parapsilosis (33), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (32), Candida inconspicua (29). Some of these yeasts showed lipolytic activity (32 strains) and proteolytic activity (29 strains), NaCl resistance up to 10% and growth up to 45 degrees C (42 strains). Biogenic amines were formed by proteolytic strains, in particular phenylethylamine, putrescine and spermidine. Spermidine was produced by all the yeasts tested in this work, but only Trichosporon produced a great quantity of this compound. Histamine was not detectable. Caseinolytic activity was common to almost all strains, corresponding to the ability to efficiently split off amino-terminal amino acids. The highest and most constant activity expressed by all species was X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase. The findings suggest that the presence of yeasts may play a significant role in justifying interactions with lactic acid bacteria, and consequently with their metabolic activity in the definition of the peculiar characteristics of Manteca cheese. PMID:12702448

  5. Switch Transcripts in Immunoglobulin Class Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Matthias; Jung, Steffen; Radbruch, Andreas

    1995-03-01

    B cells can exchange gene segments for the constant region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain, altering the class and effector function of the antibodies that they produce. Class switching is directed to distinct classes by cytokines, which induce transcription of the targeted DNA sequences. These transcripts are processed, resulting in spliced "switch" transcripts. Switch recombination can be directed to immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) by the heterologous human metallothionein II_A promoter in mutant mice. Induction of the structurally conserved, spliced switch transcripts is sufficient to target switch recombination to IgG1, whereas transcription alone is not.

  6. Latching relay switch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Duimstra, Frederick A. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

  7. CURRENT-SWITCHING CIRCUITRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Salvador; D. O. Pederson

    1961-01-01

    A group of high-speed switching circuits that use the basic current-; switching mode of operation are discussed. A dynamic analysis of the basic ; current-switching mode is presented in which it is shown that this mode is really ; an overdriven amplifier in a common-emitter configuration. Therefore the ; dominant nntural frequency, which determines the switching time, is actually f\\/;

  8. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

  9. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  10. ''Is Yeast Alive?''

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Katrenia Hosea-Flanigan (Frank Cody High School)

    2006-04-01

    In this inquiry activity students explore the characteristics of living organisms to determine whether yeast meets the criteria of a living thing. This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2006 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  11. Emerging opportunistic yeast infections.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Marisa H; Díaz, José A; Lee, Samuel A

    2011-02-01

    A growing population of immunosuppressed patients has resulted in increasingly frequent diagnoses of invasive fungal infections, including those caused by unusual yeasts. The incidence of non-albicans species of Candida is increasing compared with that of Candida albicans, and several species, such as Candida glabrata and Candida krusei, may be resistant to azole antifungal therapy. Trichosporon species are the second most common cause of fungaemia in patients with haematological malignant disease and are characterised by resistance to amphotericin and echinocandins and poor prognosis. Rhodotorula species belong to the family Cryptococcaceae, and are a cause of catheter-related fungaemia, sepsis, and invasive disease in severely immunosuppressed patients. An increasing number of sporadic cases of invasive fungal infections by non-neoformans cryptococci have been reported in immunocompromised hosts, especially for patients with advanced HIV infection or cancer who are undergoing transplant. Other uncommon yeasts that can cause invasive disease in severely immunosuppressed patients include Geotrichum, Hansenula, Malassezia, and Saccharomyces. Host immune status is a crucial determinant of the type of invasive fungal infection a patient is at risk for. Diagnosis can be challenging and relies heavily on traditional cultures of blood and other sterile sites, although serum (1,3)-?-D-glucan testing might have an adjunctive role. Although rare yeasts are emerging as opportunistic human pathogens, diagnosis remains challenging and treatment suboptimal. PMID:21272794

  12. Yeast interactions and wine flavour.

    PubMed

    Fleet, Graham H

    2003-09-01

    Wine is the product of complex interactions between fungi, yeasts and bacteria that commence in the vineyard and continue throughout the fermentation process until packaging. Although grape cultivar and cultivation provide the foundations of wine flavour, microorganisms, especially yeasts, impact on the subtlety and individuality of the flavour response. Consequently, it is important to identify and understand the ecological interactions that occur between the different microbial groups, species and strains. These interactions encompass yeast-yeast, yeast-filamentous fungi and yeast-bacteria responses. The surface of healthy grapes has a predominance of Aureobasidium pullulans, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora (Kloeckera), Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula species depending on stage of maturity. This microflora moderates the growth of spoilage and mycotoxigenic fungi on grapes, the species and strains of yeasts that contribute to alcoholic fermentation, and the bacteria that contribute to malolactic fermentation. Damaged grapes have increased populations of lactic and acetic acid bacteria that impact on yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation is characterised by the successional growth of various yeast species and strains, where yeast-yeast interactions determine the ecology. Through yeast-bacterial interactions, this ecology can determine progression of the malolactic fermentation, and potential growth of spoilage bacteria in the final product. The mechanisms by which one species/strain impacts on another in grape-wine ecosystems include: production of lytic enzymes, ethanol, sulphur dioxide and killer toxin/bacteriocin like peptides; nutrient depletion including removal of oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide; and release of cell autolytic components. Cell-cell communication through quorum sensing molecules needs investigation. PMID:12892919

  13. Conservation of yeasts by dehydration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Beker; Alexander Rapoport

    The presented material concerns the theoretical basis for obtaining high-quality active dry biopreparations. It deals with the present understanding of anabiosis, contains data on yeast resistance against dehydration and the limits for preserving the viability of microorganisms in anabiosis. The process of water transport in yeast biomass during dehydration is discussed.\\u000a The changes and transformations in yeast cells occuring after

  14. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

  15. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

  16. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

  17. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

  18. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

  19. Asymmetric Stochastic Switching Driven by Intrinsic Molecular Noise

    PubMed Central

    Frigola, David; Casanellas, Laura; Sancho, José M.; Ibañes, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Low-copy-number molecules are involved in many functions in cells. The intrinsic fluctuations of these numbers can enable stochastic switching between multiple steady states, inducing phenotypic variability. Herein we present a theoretical and computational study based on Master Equations and Fokker-Planck and Langevin descriptions of stochastic switching for a genetic circuit of autoactivation. We show that in this circuit the intrinsic fluctuations arising from low-copy numbers, which are inherently state-dependent, drive asymmetric switching. These theoretical results are consistent with experimental data that have been reported for the bistable system of the gallactose signaling network in yeast. Our study unravels that intrinsic fluctuations, while not required to describe bistability, are fundamental to understand stochastic switching and the dynamical relative stability of multiple states. PMID:22363638

  20. RF MEMS switches and switch circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Rebeiz; J. B. Muldavin

    2001-01-01

    MEMS switches are devices that use mechanical movement to achieve a short circuit or an open circuit in the RF transmission line. RF MEMS switches are the specific micromechanical switches that are designed to operate at RF-to-millimeter-wave frequencies (0.1 to 100 GHz). The forces required for the mechanical movement can be obtained using electrostatic, magnetostatic, piezoelectric, or thermal designs. To

  1. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Athanasios A. Koutinas

    2006-01-01

    Summary Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the

  2. Yeast Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Rollides; Thomas J. Walsh

    A number of yeast fungi are pathogenic, but the two genera that contain the most important animal and human pathogens are\\u000a Candida and Cryptococcus. In addition, there are a number of other yeasts that have been, more rarely, implicated in disease.

  3. Yeast interactions and wine flavour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham H. Fleet

    2003-01-01

    Wine is the product of complex interactions between fungi, yeasts and bacteria that commence in the vineyard and continue throughout the fermentation process until packaging. Although grape cultivar and cultivation provide the foundations of wine flavour, microorganisms, especially yeasts, impact on the subtlety and individuality of the flavour response. Consequently, it is important to identify and understand the ecological interactions

  4. Preservation of manipulated yeast diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joong Kyun Kim; Hae-Yoon Chung

    2002-01-01

    Manipulated yeast diet can be usedfor seed production of aquacultural organisms.Various methods for preserving the yeast dietduring the periods of circulation in marketwere tested, and the preservation of the yeastdiet by freeze-drying was the best. With thispreservation method, the manipulated yeastswere maintained fairly well (up to 71%) whenstored for three weeks under refrigeratedcondition (4 °C), while more than 80% ofthe

  5. Remote switch actuator

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

    2013-01-29

    The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

  6. Heat Switches for ADRs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.

  7. Optical packet switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eyal Shekel; Shlomo Ruschin; Daniel Majer; Jeff Levy; Guy Matmon; Lisa Koenigsberg; Jacob Vecht; Amir Geron; Rotem Harlavan; Harel Shfaram; Arnon Arbel; Tom McDermott; Tony Brewer

    2005-01-01

    We report here a scalable, multichassis, 6.3 terabit core router, which utilizes our proprietary optical switch. The router is commercially available and deployed in several customer sites. Our solution combines optical switching with electronic routing. An internal optical packet switching network interconnects the router\\

  8. Apollo Ring Optical Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Maestas, J.H.

    1987-03-01

    An optical switch was designed, built, and installed at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to facilitate the integration of two Apollo computer networks into a single network. This report presents an overview of the optical switch as well as its layout, switch testing procedure and test data, and installation.

  9. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  10. Scalable electronic packet switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio M. Chiussi; Andrea Francini

    2003-01-01

    Due to the changed economic environment, the rush to implementing packet switches with switching capacities above 1 Tb\\/s, which had proceeded at a frantic pace for some years, has slowed down considerably. Most service providers do not foresee the deployment of switches and routers with gigantic capacities in the near future. The immediate interest does now rarely go beyond the

  11. Agriculturally important yeasts: Biological control of field and postharvest diseases using yeast antagonists, and yeasts as pathogens of plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two important agricultural aspects of yeasts, control of plant diseases through application of yeasts as the control agent, and yeasts that are plant pathogens are reviewed. Yeasts as biocontrol organisms are presented first, followed by a discussion of some of the more common plant pathogenic yeas...

  12. Photoconductive power switches

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W.C.; Hammond, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper outlines the advantages and the potential of photoconductive switches applied to high-power systems. The photoconductive effect can be used to switch large amounts of energy by changing the conductivity of a solid-state circuit element many orders of magnitude with a high-power laser. The simplicity of these devices offers many advantages in high-power applications when combined with high-power pulsed lasers. The surge capability, the switched energy gain, and the maximum average power for photoconductive power switches are discussed. In addition, the results of a 100-kV, 100-MW photoconductive switch experiment transferring 20 J in 200 ns are presented.

  13. Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    1995-12-31

    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species. PMID:15282124

  15. Yeast Breads: Made at Home. 

    E-print Network

    Cox, Maeona; Harris, Jimmie Nell; Reasonover, Frances; Mason, Lousie

    1957-01-01

    tablespoons sugar ll/z teaspoons salt cup shortening 1/4 CUP lukewarm water 2 packages yeast or 2 yeast cakes 39'4 CUPS flour Apple Coffee Cake. Scald milk and stir in sugar, salt and shorten~r , Cool to lukewarm. Sprinkle or crumble yeast tnto nit1.... Honey twist. Streusel coffee cake. Butterscotch pecan rolls. STREUSEL COFFEE CAKE 2 tablespoons butter or margarine 2 tablespoons sugar cup flour CUP fine bread crumbs 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon Cream fat and sugar. Add flour, bread crumbs...

  16. Polyglutamine misfolding in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Protein misfolding is associated with many human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and Huntington disease. Protein misfolding often results in the formation of intracellular or extracellular inclusions or aggregates. Even though deciphering the role of these aggregates has been the object of intense research activity, their role in protein misfolding diseases is unclear. Here, I discuss the implications of studies on polyglutamine aggregation and toxicity in yeast and other model organisms. These studies provide an excellent experimental and conceptual paradigm that contributes to understanding the differences between toxic and protective trajectories of protein misfolding. Future studies like the ones discussed here have the potential to transform basic concepts of protein misfolding in human diseases and may thus help to identify new therapeutic strategies for their treatment. PMID:22052348

  17. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia (Oak Ridge, TN); Peng, Fang Z. (Okemos, MI)

    2007-08-07

    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  18. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drugs, and some may contain a potentially harmful contaminant. This fact sheet provides basic information about red ... supplements. Some red yeast rice products contain a contaminant called citrinin, which can cause kidney failure. Tell ...

  19. Multiple genes coding for precursors of rhodotorucine A, a farnesyl peptide mating pheromone of the basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides.

    PubMed Central

    Akada, R; Minomi, K; Kai, J; Yamashita, I; Miyakawa, T; Fukui, S

    1989-01-01

    Haploid cells of mating type A of the basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides secrete a mating pheromone, rhodotorucine A, which is an undecapeptide containing S-farnesyl cysteine at its carboxy terminus. To analyze the processing and secretion pathway of rhodotorucine A, we isolated both genomic and complementary DNAs encoding the peptide moiety. We identified three distinct genes, RHA1, RHA2, and RHA3, encoding four, five, and three copies of the pheromone peptide, respectively. Complementary DNA clones were classified into two types. One type was homologous to RHA1, and the other type was homologous to RHA2. Transcription start sites were identified by primer extension and S1 nuclease protection, from which the site of the initiator methionine was verified. A primary precursor of rhodotorucine A was detected as a 7-kilodalton protein by immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products. On the basis of these results, we propose similar three-precursor structures of rhodotorucine A, each containing the amino-terminal peptide sequence Met-Val-Ala. The precursors contain three, four, or five tandem repeats of the pheromone peptide, each separated by a spacer peptide, Thr-Val-Ser(Ala)-Lys, and each precursor has the carboxy-terminal sequence Thr-Val-Ala. This structure suggests that primary precursors of rhodotorucine A do not contain canonical signal sequences. Images PMID:2571924

  20. Suppressors of Defective Silencing in Yeast: Effects on Transcriptional Repression at the Hmr Locus, Cell Growth and Telomere Structure

    PubMed Central

    Sussel, L.; Vannier, D.; Shore, D.

    1995-01-01

    To identify factors that affect transcriptional silencing at the HMR mating-type locus in yeast, we characterized a set of extragenic suppressor mutations that restore metastable repression in cells containing both a mutant silencer-binding protein (rap1(s)) and a mutated silencer element (hmr?A). A total of 57 suppressors comprising 21 different complementation groups was identified. This report describes a detailed genetic analysis of these suppressors of defective silencing (sds) mutants. The sds mutants fall into several distinct categories based on secondary phenotypes, such as their ability to suppress the rap1(s) telomere lengthening phenotype, general effects on telomere length, temperature-dependent growth defects, and the ability to bypass the requirement for cis regulatory elements at the HMR-E silencer. One particular mutant, sds4-1, strongly suppresses the rap1(s) silencing defect, restores telomeres to nearly wild-type length, and displays a severe growth defect at all temperatures. SDS4 mutations also suppress the silencing defect caused by mutations in the RAP1-interacting factor RIF1. We cloned the SDS4 gene and show that it is identical to GAL11(SPT13), which encodes a component of a protein complex that mediates transcriptional activation. Possible mechanism(s) of suppression by sds4 and the other sds mutations is discussed. PMID:8582633

  1. Mössbauer studies on yeast metallothionein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X.-Q. Ding; E. Bill; A. X. Trautwein; H. J. Hartmann; U. Weser

    1994-01-01

    Iron-substituted yeast metallothionein, Fe(II)-yeast-MT, has been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The iron in the protein is in the high-spin ferrous state. As maximum metal content, 4 Fe(II)\\/molecule has been determined, with the 4 metal ions forming a diamagnetic cluster due to the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between the Fe(II) ions via bridging thiolates. In case the iron titration is less than

  2. Sociobiology of the budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wloch-Salamon, Dominika M

    2014-04-01

    Social theory has provided a useful framework for research with microorganisms. Here I describe the advantages and possible risks of using a well-known model organism, the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for sociobiological research. I discuss the problems connected with clear classification of yeast behaviour based on the fitnessbased Hamilton paradigm. Relevant traits include different types of communities, production of flocculins, invertase and toxins, and the presence of apoptosis. PMID:24736156

  3. A simple soft-switched switched-reluctance motor drive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Murai; Ji Cheng

    1998-01-01

    A simple soft-switched switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive circuit was proposed, involving only three transistors. The circuit aims to drive the SRM with low EMI and with higher efficiency. The circuit performs soft switching by a simple switching method just like the usual hard switching drives. The current cut-off action of the motor windings can be done in a resonant

  4. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  5. Study of amyloids using yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Shewmaker, Frank; McGlinchey, Ryan; Edskes, Herman K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism in such fields as the cell cycle, regulation of transcription, protein trafficking and cell biology, primarily because of its ease of genetic manipulation. This is no less so in the area of amyloid studies. The endogenous yeast amyloids described to date include prions, infectious proteins (Table 1), and some cell wall proteins (1). and amyloids of humans and a fungal prion have also been studied using the yeast system. Accordingly, the emphasis of this chapter will be on genetic, biochemical, cell biological and physical methods particularly useful in the study of yeast prions and other amyloids studied in yeast. We limit our description of these methods to those aspects which have been most useful in studying yeast prions, citing more detailed expositions in the literature. Volumes on yeast genetics methods (2–4), and on amyloids and prions (5, 6) are useful, and Masison has edited a volume of Methods on “Identification, analysis and characterization of fungal prions” which covers some of this territory (7). We also outline some useful physical methods, pointing the reader to more extensive and authoratative descriptions. PMID:22528100

  6. Forward-Reverse Switch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fresno Community Science Workshop

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, learners build a switch to turn electrical circuits on and off. Learners can connect their switches to other projects they want to power and swing the popsicle stick around to control the direction of movement of the connected devices. Use this activity to introduce learners to concepts related to electrical circuits, switches, and polarity. Note: this activity requires the use of a drill, which is not included in the cost of materials.

  7. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOEpatents

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  8. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  9. Transcription mediated insulation and interference direct gene cluster expression switches

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tania; Brown, David; Murray, Struan C; Haenni, Simon; Halstead, James M; O'Connor, Leigh; Shipkovenska, Gergana; Steinmetz, Lars M; Mellor, Jane

    2014-01-01

    In yeast, many tandemly arranged genes show peak expression in different phases of the metabolic cycle (YMC) or in different carbon sources, indicative of regulation by a bi-modal switch, but it is not clear how these switches are controlled. Using native elongating transcript analysis (NET-seq), we show that transcription itself is a component of bi-modal switches, facilitating reciprocal expression in gene clusters. HMS2, encoding a growth-regulated transcription factor, switches between sense- or antisense-dominant states that also coordinate up- and down-regulation of transcription at neighbouring genes. Engineering HMS2 reveals alternative mono-, di- or tri-cistronic and antisense transcription units (TUs), using different promoter and terminator combinations, that underlie state-switching. Promoters or terminators are excluded from functional TUs by read-through transcriptional interference, while antisense TUs insulate downstream genes from interference. We propose that the balance of transcriptional insulation and interference at gene clusters facilitates gene expression switches during intracellular and extracellular environmental change. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03635.001 PMID:25407679

  10. Transcriptional Regulation in Yeast during Diauxic Shift and Stationary Phase

    PubMed Central

    Galdieri, Luciano; Mehrotra, Swati; Yu, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The preferred source of carbon and energy for yeast cells is glucose. When yeast cells are grown in liquid cultures, they metabolize glucose predominantly by glycolysis, releasing ethanol in the medium. When glucose becomes limiting, the cells enter diauxic shift characterized by decreased growth rate and by switching metabolism from glycolysis to aerobic utilization of ethanol. When ethanol is depleted from the medium, cells enter quiescent or stationary phase G0. Cells in diauxic shift and stationary phase are stressed by the lack of nutrients and by accumulation of toxic metabolites, primarily from the oxidative metabolism, and are differentiated in ways that allow them to maintain viability for extended periods of time. The transition of yeast cells from exponential phase to quiescence is regulated by protein kinase A, TOR, Snf1p, and Rim15p pathways that signal changes in availability of nutrients, converge on transcriptional factors Msn2p, Msn4p, and Gis1p, and elicit extensive reprogramming of the transcription machinery. However, the events in transcriptional regulation during diauxic shift and quiescence are incompletely understood. Because cells from multicellular eukaryotic organisms spend most of their life in G0 phase, understanding transcriptional regulation in quiescence will inform other fields, such as cancer, development, and aging. PMID:20863251

  11. 30 GHz tuned MEMS switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy B. Muldavin; Gabriel M. Rebeiz

    1999-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of resonant tuning in high-isolation reflective MEMS electrostatic switches. Tuned switches can achieve higher isolation and a lower pulldown voltage than a comparable single element switch. An equivalent circuit model was developed for individual shunt capacitive membrane switches and then implemented in tuned circuits. The novel cross switch was developed on a high resistivity silicon.

  12. Latent homology and convergent regulatory evolution underlies the repeated emergence of yeasts.

    PubMed

    Nagy, László G; Ohm, Robin A; Kovács, Gábor M; Floudas, Dimitrios; Riley, Robert; Gácser, Attila; Sipiczki, Mátyás; Davis, John M; Doty, Sharon L; de Hoog, G Sybren; Lang, B Franz; Spatafora, Joseph W; Martin, Francis M; Grigoriev, Igor V; Hibbett, David S

    2014-01-01

    Convergent evolution is common throughout the tree of life, but the molecular mechanisms causing similar phenotypes to appear repeatedly are obscure. Yeasts have arisen in multiple fungal clades, but the genetic causes and consequences of their evolutionary origins are unknown. Here we show that the potential to develop yeast forms arose early in fungal evolution and became dominant independently in multiple clades, most likely via parallel diversification of Zn-cluster transcription factors, a fungal-specific family involved in regulating yeast-filamentous switches. Our results imply that convergent evolution can happen by the repeated deployment of a conserved genetic toolkit for the same function in distinct clades via regulatory evolution. We suggest that this mechanism might be a common source of evolutionary convergence even at large time scales. PMID:25034666

  13. Roles of two DNA-binding factors in replication, segregation and transcriptional repression mediated by a yeast silencer.

    PubMed Central

    Kimmerly, W; Buchman, A; Kornberg, R; Rine, J

    1988-01-01

    The HMR E silencer is required for SIR-dependent transcriptional repression of the silent mating-type locus, HMR. The silencer also behaves as an origin of replication (ARS element) and allows plasmids to replicate autonomously in yeast. The replication and segregation properties of these plasmids are also dependent on the four SIR genes. We have previously characterized two DNA-binding factors in yeast extracts that recognize specific sequences at the HMR E silencer. These proteins, called ABFI (ARS-Binding Factor) and GRFI (General Regulatory Factor), are not encoded by any of the SIR genes. To investigate the biological roles of these factors, single-base-pair mutations were constructed in both binding sites at the HMR E silencer that were no longer recognized by the corresponding proteins in vitro. Our results indicate that the GRFI-binding site is required for the efficient segregation of plasmids replicated by the HMR E silencer. SIR-dependent transcriptional repression requires either an intact ABFI-binding site or GRFI-binding site, although the GRFI-binding site appears to be more important. A double-mutant silencer that binds neither ABFI nor GRFI does not mediate transcriptional repression of HMR. The replacement of HMR E with a chromosomal origin of replication (ARS1) allows partial SIR-dependent transcriptional repression of HMR, indicating a role for replication in silencer function. Together, these results suggest that the SIR proteins influence the properties of the HMR E silencer through interactions with other DNA-binding proteins. Images PMID:3046937

  14. Coherent regulation in yeast’s cell-cycle network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aral, Ne?e; Kabakç?o?lu, Alkan

    2015-05-01

    We define a measure of coherent activity for gene regulatory networks, a property that reflects the unity of purpose between the regulatory agents with a common target. We propose that such harmonious regulatory action is desirable under a demand for energy efficiency and may be selected for under evolutionary pressures. We consider two recent models of the cell-cycle regulatory network of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a case study and calculate their degree of coherence. A comparison with random networks of similar size and composition reveals that the yeast’s cell-cycle regulation is wired to yield an exceptionally high level of coherent regulatory activity. We also investigate the mean degree of coherence as a function of the network size, connectivity and the fraction of repressory/activatory interactions.

  15. Genetic Control of the Cell Division Cycle in Yeast: V. Genetic Analysis of cdc Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Hartwell, Leland H.; Mortimer, Robert K.; Culotti, Joseph; Culotti, Marilyn

    1973-01-01

    One hundred and forty-eight temperature-sensitive cell division cycle (cdc) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been isolated and characterized. Complementation studies ordered these recessive mutations into 32 groups and tetrad analysis revealed that each of these groups defines a single nuclear gene. Fourteen of these genes have been located on the yeast genetic map. Functionally related cistrons are not tightly clustered.Mutations in different cistrons frequently produce different cellular and nuclear morphologies in the mutant cells following incubation at the restrictive temperature, but all the mutations in the same cistron produce essentially the same morphology. The products of these genes appear, therefore, each to function individually in a discrete step of the cell cycle and they define collectively a large number of different steps.The mutants were examined by time-lapse photomicroscopy to determine the number of cell cycles completed at the restrictive temperature before arrest. For most mutants, cells early in the cell cycle at the time of the temperature shift (before the execution point) arrest in the first cell cycle while those later in the cycle (after the execution point) arrest in the second cell cycle. Execution points for allelic mutations that exhibit first or second cycle arrest are rather similar and appear to be cistron-specific. Other mutants traverse several cycles before arrest, and its suggested that the latter type of response may reveal gene products that are temperature-sensitive for synthesis, whereas the former may be temperature-sensitive for function.The gene products that are defined by the cdc cistrons are essential for the completion of the cell cycle in haploids of a and ? mating type and in a/? diploid cells. The same genes, therefore, control the cell cycle in each of these stages of the life cycle. PMID:17248617

  16. The Electrical Switch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Horton

    2009-05-30

    This activity is inquiry-based in that students will perform the activity before they formally learn about how a switch works. They will use a multimeter to discover the different settings on a triple-throw switch. The teacher should show the students how

  17. Nuclear Transport of Yeast Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Enenkel, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    Proteasomes are conserved protease complexes enriched in the nuclei of dividing yeast cells, a major site for protein degradation. If yeast cells do not proliferate and transit to quiescence, metabolic changes result in the dissociation of proteasomes into proteolytic core and regulatory complexes and their sequestration into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli. These granuli rapidly clear with the resumption of growth, releasing the stored proteasomes, which relocalize back to the nucleus to promote cell cycle progression. Here, I report on three models of how proteasomes are transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus of yeast cells. The first model applies for dividing yeast and is based on the canonical pathway using classical nuclear localization sequences of proteasomal subcomplexes and the classical import receptor importin/karyopherin ??. The second model applies for quiescent yeast cells, which resume growth and use Blm10, a HEAT-like repeat protein structurally related to karyopherin ?, for nuclear import of proteasome core particles. In the third model, the fully-assembled proteasome is imported into the nucleus. Our still marginal knowledge about proteasome dynamics will inspire the discussion on how protein degradation by proteasomes may be regulated in different cellular compartments of dividing and quiescent eukaryotic cells. PMID:25333764

  18. Nanoscale memristive radiofrequency switches.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuang; Ghadiri-Sadrabadi, Mohammad; Bardin, Joseph C; Xia, Qiangfei

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency switches are critical components in wireless communication systems and consumer electronics. Emerging devices include switches based on microelectromechanical systems and phase-change materials. However, these devices suffer from disadvantages such as large physical dimensions and high actuation voltages. Here we propose and demonstrate a nanoscale radiofrequency switch based on a memristive device. The device can be programmed with a voltage as low as 0.4?V and has an ON/OFF conductance ratio up to 10(12) with long state retention. We measure the radiofrequency performance of the switch up to 110?GHz and demonstrate low insertion loss (0.3?dB at 40?GHz), high isolation (30?dB at 40?GHz), an average cutoff frequency of 35?THz and competitive linearity and power-handling capability. Our results suggest that, in addition to their application in memory and computing, memristive devices are also a leading contender for radiofrequency switch applications. PMID:26108890

  19. Erected mirror optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Allen, James J.

    2005-06-07

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

  20. 280 EXPRESSION IN YEAST [23] [23] Manipulating Yeast Genome Using Plasmid Vectors

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    280 EXPRESSION IN YEAST [23] [23] Manipulating Yeast Genome Using Plasmid Vectors By TIM STEARNS, HONG MA, and DAVID BOTSTEIN The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proved to be a popular high status of yeast as an experimental system is in large part due to the work of the many geneticists

  1. Pre-Absorbing Antibody with Yeast Cells Preparation of Fixed Yeast

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    106 Pre-Absorbing Antibody with Yeast Cells Preparation of Fixed Yeast 1. Plan to do steps 1-10 in the yeast immunofluorescence method. But, start with 100 mls of cells at OD600=0.2. Then, do all steps in quadruplicate. Do pretreatment, and digest cells for 10 minutes. 2. Pool all yeast in SPC + Pics in one

  2. Yeast through the ages: A statistical analysis of genetic changes in aging yeast

    E-print Network

    Hardin, Jo

    Yeast through the ages: A statistical analysis of genetic changes in aging yeast A. Wise J. Hardin focuses on the analysis of data from a yeast DNA microarray experiment. The biological question that motivates our research is "What genetic changes in yeast happen over time?" In order to explore the research

  3. APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA

    E-print Network

    Winston, Fred

    containers in which 2.5 kg of dextrose is packaged. Throughout this chapter, YNB -AA/AS refers to yeastAPPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA Like Escherichia coli, yeast can be grown in either liquid media or on the surface of (or embedded in) solid agar plates

  4. Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Microbes_040115-1.html Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin HealthDay News ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin For closed ...

  5. Yeast Can Affect Behavior and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, William G.

    1984-01-01

    A pediatrician recounts his experiences in diagnosing and treating allergies to common yeast germs that may result in behavior and learning problems. He lists characteristics that may predispose children to yeast-connected health problems. (CL)

  6. Cdc42 Oscillations in Yeasts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Felipe O. Bendezu (Switzerland; University of Lausanne REV)

    2012-12-04

    A fundamental problem in cell biology is how cells define one or several discrete sites of polarity. Through mechanisms involving positive and negative feedback, the small Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase Cdc42 breaks symmetry in round budding yeast cells to define a single site of polarized cell growth. However, it is not clear how cells can define multiple sites of polarization concurrently. We discuss a study in which rod-shaped fission yeast cells, which naturally polarize growth at their two cell ends, exhibited oscillations of Cdc42 activity between these sites. We compare these findings with similar oscillatory behavior of Cdc42 detected in budding yeast cells and discuss the possible mechanism and functional outputs of these oscillations.

  7. Yeast proteome map (update 2006).

    PubMed

    Perrot, Michel; Guieysse-Peugeot, Anne-Laure; Massoni, Aurélie; Espagne, Christelle; Claverol, Stéphane; Silva, Raquel Monteiro; Jenö, Paul; Santos, Manuel; Bonneu, Marc; Boucherie, Hélian

    2007-04-01

    To improve the potential of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for proteomic investigations in yeast we have undertaken the systematic identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins separated on 2-D gels. We report here the identification of 187 novel protein spots. They were identified by two methods, mass spectrometry and gene inactivation. These identifications extend the number of protein spots identified on our yeast 2-D proteome map to 602, i.e. nearly half the detectable spots of the proteome map. These spots correspond to 417 different proteins. The reference map and the list of identified proteins can be accessed on the Yeast Protein Map server (www.ibgc.u-bordeaux2.fr/YPM). PMID:17351888

  8. Source reactance lossless switch (SRLS) for soft-switching converters with constant switching frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-F. Liu; P. C. Sen

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism of zero current switching and zero voltage switching is analyzed. The concept of a source reactance lossless switch (SRLS) is proposed. The switch can be implemented in an SRLS voltage rectifier and an SRLS current rectifier. Using the SRLS technique, several DC-to-DC resonant converters with constant switching frequency control are proposed, in which zero current switching and\\/or zero

  9. Source reactance lossless switch (SRLS) for soft-switching converters with constant switching frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Fei Liu; Paresh C. Sen

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of zero current switching and zero voltage switching is analyzed. The concept of a Source Reactance Lossless Switch (SRLS) is proposed. The switch can be implemented in a SRLS voltage rectifier and a SRLS current rectifier. Using the SRLS technique, several dc-to-dc resonant converters with constant switching frequency control are proposed, in which zero current switching and\\/or zero

  10. Posttranscriptional Regulation of HO Expression by the Mkt1Pbp1 Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomofumi Tadauchi; Toshifumi Inada; Kunihiro Matsumoto; Kenji Irie

    2004-01-01

    Cells of budding yeast give rise to mother and daughter cells, which differ in that only mother cells express the HO endonuclease gene and are thereby able to switch mating types. In this study, we identified the MKT1 gene as a positive regulator of HO expression. The MKT1 gene encodes a protein with two domains, XPG-N and XPG-I, which are

  11. Red yeast rice: a new hypolipidemic drug

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mélanie Journoud; Peter J. H Jones

    2004-01-01

    Red yeast rice is a source of fermented pigment with possible bioactive effect. Evidence shows that fermented red yeast rice lowers cholesterol levels moderately compared to other statin drugs, but with the added advantage of causing less adverse effects. A review of the body of evidence surrounding the properties of red yeast rice underscores its potential as a new alternative

  12. Enological functions of parietal yeast mannoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Caridi

    2006-01-01

    Parietal yeast mannoproteins play a very important role in the overall vinification process. Their production and release, both during winemaking and aging on lees, depends on the specific yeast strain and the nutritional conditions. The following enological functions of parietal yeast mannoproteins have been described: (a) adsorption of ochratoxin A; (b) combination with phenolic compounds; (c) increased growth of malolactic

  13. YEASTBOOK PERSPECTIVES Yeast: An Experimental Organism

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    YEASTBOOK PERSPECTIVES Yeast: An Experimental Organism for 21st Century Biology David Botstein*,1, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ABSTRACT In this essay, we revisit the status of yeast as a model system for biology. We first summarize important contributions of yeast to eukaryotic biology that we anticipated

  14. Yeast: A Research Organism for Teaching Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manney, Thomas R.; Manney, Monta L.

    1992-01-01

    Explains why laboratory strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are particularly suited for classroom science activities. Describes the sexual life cycle of yeast and the genetic system with visible mutations. Presents an overview of activities that can be done with yeast and gives a source for teachers to obtain more information. (PR)

  15. Mössbauer studies on yeast metallothionein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, X.-Q.; Bill, E.; Trautwein, A. X.; Hartmann, H. J.; Weser, U.

    1994-12-01

    Iron-substituted yeast metallothionein, Fe(II)-yeast-MT, has been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The iron in the protein is in the high-spin ferrous state. As maximum metal content, 4 Fe(II)/molecule has been determined, with the 4 metal ions forming a diamagnetic cluster due to the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between the Fe(II) ions via bridging thiolates. In case the iron titration is less than 4 Fe(II)/apoprotein, the ions are magnetically noninteracting, with each individual Fe(II) behaving similar to Fe(II) in reduced rubredoxin.

  16. Combined nuclear measurements of yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, N. S.; Al-Saleh, K. A.; Arafah, D.-E.; Halim, N. A.

    1987-05-01

    Combined Rutherford backscattering (RBS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) techniques were used to determine the elemental composition of yeast. Results reveal no toxic elements (e.g. Ag, Pb, etc) in yeast. Yet results display some similarities in concentrations of some elements (e.g. Ti, Mn, Ni, Cu and Sr), large differences are observed for others (e.g. S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Zn). Variations are accounted due to different growing media or contamination during processing.

  17. Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast and a brewer's yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuhiko Mukai; Chiharu Nishimori; Ikuko Wilson Fujishige; Akihiro Mizuno; Toshiro Takahashi; Kazuo Sato

    2001-01-01

    Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast (a lysine auxotrophic mutant of sake yeast K-14) and a brewer's yeast (a respiratory-deficient mutant of the top fermentation yeast NCYC1333) was performed to take advantage of the beneficial characteristics of sake yeasts, i.e., the high productivity of esters, high tolerance to ethanol, and high osmotolerance. The fusant (F-32) obtained was

  18. Optical Circuit Switched Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

  19. Design of Wavelength Converting Switches for Optical Burst Switching

    E-print Network

    nonblocking switch. I. INTRODUCTION THE transmission capacity of optical fibers has been increasing the electronic line cards needed to terminate the channels from just a sin- gle fiber. Optical burst switchingDesign of Wavelength Converting Switches for Optical Burst Switching Jeyashankher Ramamirtham

  20. Design of Wavelength Converting Switches for Optical Burst Switching

    E-print Network

    results. We study the performance of optical burst switches using wavelength converting switches based Switches, Wavelength Routers I. INTRODUCTION The transmission capacity of optical fibers has been increas the electronic line cards needed to terminate the channels from just a single fiber. Optical burst switching

  1. Resistive switching Resistive Switching in Nanogap Systems on

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Lin

    Resistive switching Resistive Switching in Nanogap Systems on SiO2 Substrates Jun Yao, Lin Zhong-controlled resistive switching in various gap systems on SiO2 substrates is reported. The nanoscale-sized gaps are made when studying resistive switching in nanosystems on oxide substrates, since oxide breakdown extrinsic

  2. Photoconductive switch package

    DOEpatents

    Ca[rasp, George J

    2013-10-22

    A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

  3. Telecommunications: Switches and Hubs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bartelt, Terry L. M.

    We all know how important computers are in our every day communication, but do you know how the computer in your office transfers information between the others? This online slideshow provided by Wisc-Online and the National Science Foundation explains the difference between a switch and a hub and the reasons to use them. For example, with helpful animations and a personalized speed, one can learn that hubs often cause broadcast collisions and are less efficient than switches when trying to send information quickly among networked computers. This is great for students and teachers introducing switches and hubs to their telecommunications repertoire.

  4. Sleep State Switching

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Lu, Jun; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    We take for granted the ability to fall asleep or to snap out of sleep into wakefulness, but these changes in behavioral state require specific switching mechanisms in the brain that allow well-defined state transitions. In this review, we examine the basic circuitry underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, and discuss a theoretical framework wherein the interactions between reciprocal neuronal circuits enable relatively rapid and complete state transitions. We also review how homeostatic, circadian, and allostatic drives help regulate sleep state switching, and discuss how breakdown of the switching mechanism may contribute to sleep disorders such as narcolepsy. PMID:21172606

  5. Modeling of rf MEMS switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Robertson; Fat D. Ho; Tracy D. Hudson

    2001-01-01

    The microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switch offers many benefits in radio frequency (RF) applications. These benefits include low insertion loss, high quality factor (Q), low power, RF isolation, and low cost. The ability to manufacture mechanical switches on a chip with electronics can lead to higher functionality, such as single-chip arrays, and smart switches. The MEMS switch is also used as

  6. Yeast Cultures in Ruminant Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. DENEV; Tz. PEEVA; P. RADULOVA; N. STANCHEVA; G. STAYKOVA; G. BEEV; P. TODOROVA; S. TCHOBANOVA

    2007-01-01

    Abstract DENEV,, S. A., Tz. PEEVA, P. RADULOVA, P. STANCHEVA, G. STAYKOVA, G. BEEV, P. TODOROVA and S. TCHOBANOVA, 2007. Yeast cultures in ruminant nutrition. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci.13: 357-374 Interest in the use of fungal direct-fed microbials in ruminant nutrition is considerable.The

  7. Malassezia Baillon, emerging clinical yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roma Batra; Teun Boekhout; Eveline Guého; F. Javier Cabañes; Thomas L. Dawson; Aditya K. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    The human and animal pathogenic yeast genus Malassezia has received considerable attention in recent years from dermatologists, other clinicians, veterinarians and mycologists. Some points highlighted in this review include recent advances in the technological developments related to detection, identification, and classification of Malassezia species. The clinical association of Malassezia species with a number of mammalian dermatological diseases including dandruff, seborrhoeic

  8. Optical switching: Excitonic interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Stojanovic, V.; Baldo, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Interconnects and switches relying on excitons — quasiparticles consisting of bound electron–hole pairs — may offer a promising energy-efficient alternative to electrons in wires for future electronic circuitry.

  9. An optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-04-30

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch having an electron attaching gas wherein electron attachment is brought about by indirect excitation of molecules to long live states by exposure to laser light. 3 figs.

  10. Basics of Safety Switches

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This course is one of the quickStep series offered by Siemens in Safety Switches. These are FREE on-line industrial knowledge building tutorials. quickSTEPs are a great start for industry novices moving into technical jobs or staff in operational support rolls. They can also be very effectively used as out of class assignments for review or to build fundamental skills. Each course includes: an online tutorial organized as a number of units, lessons with self check quiz questions, a glossary of terms, a self-check final exam with scoring, an extensive downloadable PDF study guide. This course offers: current protection, fuses, enclosures, switch design, switch terminology, safety switches, a final exam, a glossary and a 72 page study guide.

  11. Switch Attention to Listen

    PubMed Central

    Dhamani, Imran; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon; Sharma, Mridula

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the ability to switch attention and selectively attend to relevant information in children (10–15 years) with persistent listening difficulties in noisy environments. A wide battery of clinical tests indicated that children with complaints of listening difficulties had otherwise normal hearing sensitivity and auditory processing skills. Here we show that these children are markedly slower to switch their attention compared to their age-matched peers. The results suggest poor attention switching, lack of response inhibition and/or poor listening effort consistent with a predominantly top-down (central) information processing deficit. A deficit in the ability to switch attention across talkers would provide the basis for this otherwise hidden listening disability, especially in noisy environments involving multiple talkers such as classrooms. PMID:23416613

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum involvement in yeast cell death

    PubMed Central

    Austriaco, O. P., Nicanor

    2012-01-01

    Yeast cells undergo programed cell death (PCD) with characteristic markers associated with apoptosis in mammalian cells including chromatin breakage, nuclear fragmentation, reactive oxygen species generation, and metacaspase activation. Though significant research has focused on mitochondrial involvement in this phenomenon, more recent work with both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe has also implicated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in yeast PCD. This minireview provides an overview of ER stress-associated cell death (ER-SAD) in yeast. It begins with a description of ER structure and function in yeast before moving to a discussion of ER-SAD in both mammalian and yeast cells. Three examples of yeast cell death associated with the ER will be highlighted here including inositol starvation, lipid toxicity, and the inhibition of N-glycosylation. It closes by suggesting ways to further examine the involvement of the ER in yeast cell death. PMID:22876361

  13. Occurrence and Growth of Yeasts in Yogurts

    PubMed Central

    Suriyarachchi, V. R.; Fleet, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    Yogurts purchased from retail outlets were examined for the presence of yeasts by being plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar. Of the 128 samples examined, 45% exhibited yeast counts above 103 cells per g. A total of 73 yeast strains were isolated and identified as belonging to the genera Torulopsis, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Candida, Rhodotorula, Pichia, Debaryomyces, and Sporobolomyces. Torulopsis candida and Kluyveromyces fragilis were the most frequently isolated species, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula rubra, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Torulopsis versatilis. The growth of yeasts in yogurts was related to the ability of the yeasts to grow at refrigeration temperatures, to ferment lactose and sucrose, and to hydrolyze milk casein. Most yeast isolates grew in the presence of 100 ?g of sorbate and benzoate preservatives per ml. Higher yeast counts from yogurts were obtained when the yogurts were plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar than when they were plated onto acidified malt extract agar. PMID:16345853

  14. Optical shutter switching matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    The interface switching systems are discussed which are related to those used in the Space Shuttle ground control system, transmission systems, communications systems, and airborne radar electronic countermeasure systems. The main goal is to identify a need that exists throughout the comprehensive information processing and communications disciplines supporting the Space Shuttle and Space Station programs, and introduce one viable approach to satisfy that need. The proposed device, described in NASA patent entitled 'Optical Shutter Switch Matrix', is discussed.

  15. Cygnus PFL Switch Jitter

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mitton, G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, et al.

    2007-07-21

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following X-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rads at 1 m, 50-ns full-widthhalf-maximum. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are Marx generator, water-filled pulse forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, threecell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance may be jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the source X-ray spectrum and dose. Therefore, PFL switch jitter may contribute to shot-to-shot variation in these parameters, which are crucial to radiographic quality. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and present the correlation with dose. For this analysis, the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting, which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition the PFL switch performance for one larger switch gap setting will be examined.

  16. Optical Packet Switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George N. Rouskas; Lisong Xu

    \\u000a The concept of optical packet switching (OPS) is emerging as an alternative to coarser-grained switching in the optical domain.\\u000a Despite the significant technological challenges it faces, OPS holds the promise of a highly reconfigurable, bandwidth-efficient,\\u000a and flexible optical layer. In this chapter we study some of the architectural and design issues for OPS networks, we examine\\u000a a number of enabling

  17. Photoconductive semiconductor switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo M. Loubriel; Fred J. Zutavern; Albert G. Baca; H. P. Hjalmarson; Tom A. Plut; Wesley D. Helgeson; M. H. Ruebush; D. J. Brown

    1997-01-01

    Optically activated GaAs switches operated in their high-gain mode are being used or tested for pulsed power applications as diverse as low-impedance, high-current firing sets in munitions; high impedance, low-current Pockels cell or Q-switch drivers for lasers; high-voltage drivers for laser diode arrays; high-voltage, high-current, compact accelerators; and pulsers for ground penetrating radar. This paper will describe the properties of

  18. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  19. Mating-type heterokaryosis in Aspergillus flavus in North Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins (AFs), which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Recently, heterokaryosis and the presence of cryptic alleles were shown to ex...

  20. Innovative switching technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, A.; Stabile, P. J.; Gombar, A. M.; Janton, W. M.; Gilbert, D. B.; Herczfeld, P. R.; Bahasadri, A.

    1991-03-01

    We have developed an all-semiconductor high-power optical switch. Potential uses include both military applications, such as ultra-wide-band impulse radar and high-frequency antenna couplers, and commercial use, such as high-power switching for utility companies. Under this three-year program, we have demonstrated various switching applications from dc to GHz frequencies. The generic switches comprise a 2-D semiconductor laser diode array and Si or GaAs devices. In the Si area (linear switches - no gain) and dc-biased network, a single two-sided PIN device, activated by two 1 kW laser arrays, has yielded a holding voltage of 1.3 kV and conducted 192 A. Similar devices have later yielded a holding voltage of 3.3 kV, demonstrating the capability of switching more than 500 kW with a single two-sided PIN device. The same generic technology was also demonstrated in high-power high-frequency antenna coupler applications as well as in mm-wave (60 GHz) attenuators and phase shifters. PIN devices tested in a RF circuit between 2-30 MHz yielded an isolation value of between 28 and 49 dB in the off-state, and insertion losses as low as 0.1 dB when illuminated with 280 W (peak) optical power at 808 nm. In the area of GaAs, PIN, and bulk devices under this project, we were able to deliver devices for experiments in both opening and closing switches. We have demonstrated a compact, all-semiconductor switch system that has switched up to 8.5 MW into a 38 (omega) load. The system uses a 2-D laser diode array with a peak power of 850 W to rigger a 1.5 cm long GaAs photoconductor into a high-gain combination mode known as 'lock on'. The highest power switch was pulse-charged to 55 kV and delivered 470 A to a 38 (omega) load in 160 ns long pulse. In the area of 2-D laser arrays, a peak power density of 7 kW/cm(exp 2) was achieved.

  1. Low inductance gas switching.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.

    2007-10-01

    The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and electrode diameter were conducted.

  2. Mycotoxins - prevention and decontamination by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Pfliegler, Walter P; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Pócsi, István

    2015-07-01

    The application of yeasts has great potential in reducing the economic damage caused by toxigenic fungi in the agriculture. Some yeasts may act as biocontrol agents inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi. These species may also gain importance in the preservation of agricultural products and in the reduction of their mycotoxin contamination, yet the extent of mycotoxin production in the presence of biocontrol agents is relatively less understood. The application of yeasts in various technological processes may have a direct inhibitory effect on the toxin production of certain molds, which is independent of their growth suppressing effect. Furthermore, several yeast species are capable of accumulating mycotoxins from agricultural products, thereby effectively decontaminating them. Probiotic yeasts or products containing yeast cell wall are also applied to counteract mycotoxicosis in livestock. Several yeast strains are also able to degrade toxins to less-toxic or even non-toxic substances. This intensively researched field would greatly benefit from a deeper knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of toxin degradation. Moreover, yeasts and their biotechnologically important enzymes may exhibit sensitivity to certain mycotoxins, thereby mounting a considerable problem for the biotechnological industry. It is noted that yeasts are generally regarded as safe; however, there are reports of toxin degrading species that may cause human fungal infections. The aspects of yeast-mycotoxin relations with a brief consideration of strain improvement strategies and genetic modification for improved detoxifying properties and/or mycotoxin resistance are reviewed here. PMID:25682759

  3. Genetic characterization and construction of an auxotrophic strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae JP1, a Brazilian industrial yeast strain for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Reis, Viviane Castelo Branco; Nicola, André Moraes; de Souza Oliveira Neto, Osmar; Batista, Vinícius Daniel Ferreira; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

    2012-11-01

    Used for millennia to produce beverages and food, Saccharomyces cerevisiae also became a workhorse in the production of biofuels, most notably bioethanol. Yeast strains have acquired distinct characteristics that are the result of evolutionary adaptation to the stresses of industrial ethanol production. JP1 is a dominant industrial S. cerevisiae strain isolated from a sugarcane mill and is becoming increasingly popular for bioethanol production in Brazil. In this work, we carried out the genetic characterization of this strain and developed a set of tools to permit its genetic manipulation. Using flow cytometry, mating type, and sporulation analysis, we verified that JP1 is diploid and homothallic. Vectors with dominant selective markers for G418, hygromycin B, zeocin, and ?-fluoro-DL-phenylalanine were used to successfully transform JP1 cells. Also, an auxotrophic ura3 mutant strain of JP1 was created by gene disruption using integration cassettes with dominant markers flanked by loxP sites. Marker excision was accomplished by the Cre/loxP system. The resulting auxotrophic strain was successfully transformed with an episomal vector that allowed green fluorescent protein expression. PMID:22892884

  4. Yeast Metabolism Lab Purpose: To determine the effects of different

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    1 Yeast Metabolism Lab Purpose: To determine the effects of different carbohydrates on the metabolism of live yeast. Background: Some organisms are capable of photosynthesis- using energy captured treatment (yeast+water, yeast+glucose, or yeast+sweetener) will produce the most carbon dioxide (CO2) from

  5. Morphology of a human-derived YAC in yeast meiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Loidl; Harry Scherthan; Johan T. Den Dunnen; Franz Klein

    1995-01-01

    In meiosis of human males DNA is packaged along pachytene chromosomes about 20 time more compactly than in meiosis of yeast. Nevertheless, a human-derived yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) shows the same degree of compaction of DNA as endogenous chromosomes in meiotic prophase nuclei of yeast. This suggests that in yeast meiosis, human and yeast DNA adopt a similar organization of

  6. Morphology of a human-derived YAC in yeast meiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Loidl; Harry Scherthan; Johan T. Den Dunnen; Franz Klein

    1995-01-01

    In meiosis of human males DNA is packaged along pachytene chromosomes about 20 times more compactly than in meiosis of yeast. Nevertheless, a human-derived yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) shows the same degree of compaction of DNA as endogenous chromosomes in meiotic prophase nuclei of yeast. This suggests that in yeast meiosis, human and yeast DNA adopt a similar organization of

  7. Discovery of a “White-Gray-Opaque” Tristable Phenotypic Switching System in Candida albicans: Roles of Non-genetic Diversity in Host Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Guobo; Dai, Yu; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Liang, Weihong; Cao, Chengjun; Zhang, Qiuyu; Zhong, Jin; Huang, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Non-genetic phenotypic variations play a critical role in the adaption to environmental changes in microbial organisms. Candida albicans, a major human fungal pathogen, can switch between several morphological phenotypes. This ability is critical for its commensal lifestyle and for its ability to cause infections. Here, we report the discovery of a novel morphological form in C. albicans, referred to as the “gray” phenotype, which forms a tristable phenotypic switching system with the previously reported white and opaque phenotypes. White, gray, and opaque cell types differ in a number of aspects including cellular and colony appearances, mating competency, secreted aspartyl proteinase (Sap) activities, and virulence. Of the three cell types, gray cells exhibit the highest Sap activity and the highest ability to cause cutaneous infections. The three phenotypes form a tristable phenotypic switching system, which is independent of the regulation of the mating type locus (MTL). Gray cells mate over 1,000 times more efficiently than do white cells, but less efficiently than do opaque cells. We further demonstrate that the master regulator of white-opaque switching, Wor1, is essential for opaque cell formation, but is not required for white-gray transitions. The Efg1 regulator is required for maintenance of the white phenotype, but is not required for gray-opaque transitions. Interestingly, the wor1/wor1 efg1/efg1 double mutant is locked in the gray phenotype, suggesting that Wor1 and Efg1 could function coordinately and play a central role in the regulation of gray cell formation. Global transcriptional analysis indicates that white, gray, and opaque cells exhibit distinct gene expression profiles, which partly explain their differences in causing infections, adaptation ability to diverse host niches, metabolic profiles, and stress responses. Therefore, the white-gray-opaque tristable phenotypic switching system in C. albicans may play a significant role in a wide range of biological aspects in this common commensal and pathogenic fungus. PMID:24691005

  8. Formation of Complex and Unstable Chromosomal Translocations in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Kristina H.; Viebranz, Emilie; Doerfler, Lillian; Lester, Christina; Rubenstein, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Genome instability, associated with chromosome breakage syndromes and most human cancers, is still poorly understood. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, numerous genes with roles in the preservation of genome integrity have been identified. DNA-damage-checkpoint-deficient yeast cells that lack Sgs1, a RecQ-like DNA helicase related to the human Bloom's-syndrome-associated helicase BLM, show an increased rate of genome instability, and we have previously shown that they accumulate recurring chromosomal translocations between three similar genes, CAN1, LYP1 and ALP1. Here, the chromosomal location, copy number and sequence similarity of the translocation targets ALP1 and LYP1 were altered to gain insight into the formation of complex translocations. Among 844 clones with chromosomal rearrangements, 93 with various types of simple and complex translocations involving CAN1, LYP1 and ALP1 were identified. Breakpoint sequencing and mapping showed that the formation of complex translocation types is strictly dependent on the location of the initiating DNA break and revealed that complex translocations arise via a combination of interchromosomal translocation and template-switching, as well as from unstable dicentric intermediates. Template-switching occurred between sequences on the same chromosome, but was inhibited if the genes were transferred to different chromosomes. Unstable dicentric translocations continuously gave rise to clones with multiple translocations in various combinations, reminiscent of intratumor heterogeneity in human cancers. Base substitutions and evidence of DNA slippage near rearrangement breakpoints revealed that translocation formation can be accompanied by point mutations, and their presence in different translocation types within the same clone provides evidence that some of the different translocation types are derived from each other rather than being formed de novo. These findings provide insight into eukaryotic genome instability, especially the formation of translocations and the sources of intraclonal heterogeneity, both of which are often associated with human cancers. PMID:20711256

  9. Switching power pulse system

    DOEpatents

    Aaland, K.

    1983-08-09

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source to a load using a storage capacitor charged through a rectifier, and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch and voltage comparator. A thyristor is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor and fractional turn saturable transformer having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n = n[sup 2]. The saturable reactor functions as a soaker'' while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor into the load through the coupling capacitor. The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core having two secondary windings tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network. To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core is provided around the resistive beampipe to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance until it is fully charged. 5 figs.

  10. Thermionic gas switch

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, G.L.; Brummond, W.A.; Barrus, D.M.

    1984-04-05

    The present invention is directed to an improved temperature responsive thermionic gas switch utilizing a hollow cathode and a folded emitter surface area. The folded emitter surface area of the thermionic switch substantially increases the on/off ratio by changing the conduction surface area involved in the two modes thereof. The improved switch of this invention provides an on/off ratio of 450:1 compared to the 10:1 ratio of the prior known thermionic switch, while providing for adjusting the on current. In the improved switch of this invention the conduction area is made small in the off mode, while in the on mode the conduction area is made large. This is achieved by utilizing a folded hollow cathode configuration and utilizing a folded emitter surface area, and by making the dimensions of the folds small enough so that a space charge will develop in the convolutions of the folds and suppress unignited current, thus limiting the current carrying surface in the off mode.

  11. Characterization of the Yeast Transcriptome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor E. Velculescu; Lin Zhang; Wei Zhou; Jacob Vogelstein; Munira A. Basrai; Douglas E Bassett; Phil Hieter; Bert Vogelstein; Kenneth W. Kinzler

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed the set of genes expressed from the yeast genome, herein called the transcriptome, using serial analysis of gene expression. Analysis of 60,633 transcripts revealed 4,665 genes, with expression levels ranging from 0.3 to over 200 transcripts per cell. Of these genes, 1981 had known functions, while 2684 were previously uncharacterized. The integration of positional information with gene

  12. Malassezia Baillon, emerging clinical yeasts.

    PubMed

    Batra, Roma; Boekhout, Teun; Guého, Eveline; Cabañes, F Javier; Dawson, Thomas L; Gupta, Aditya K

    2005-12-01

    The human and animal pathogenic yeast genus Malassezia has received considerable attention in recent years from dermatologists, other clinicians, veterinarians and mycologists. Some points highlighted in this review include recent advances in the technological developments related to detection, identification, and classification of Malassezia species. The clinical association of Malassezia species with a number of mammalian dermatological diseases including dandruff, seborrhoeic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, psoriasis, folliculitis and otitis is also discussed. PMID:16084129

  13. Yeast diversity in hypersaline habitats.

    PubMed

    Butinar, L; Santos, S; Spencer-Martins, I; Oren, A; Gunde-Cimerman, N

    2005-03-15

    Thus far it has been considered that hypersaline natural brines which are subjected to extreme solar heating, do not contain non-melanized yeast populations. Nevertheless we have isolated yeasts in eight different salterns worldwide, as well as from the Dead Sea, Enriquillo Lake (Dominican Republic) and the Great Salt Lake (Utah). Among the isolates obtained from hypersaline waters, Pichia guilliermondii, Debaryomyces hansenii, Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida parapsilosis are known contaminants of low water activity food, whereas Rhodosporidium sphaerocarpum, R. babjevae, Rhodotorula laryngis, Trichosporon mucoides, and a new species resembling C. glabrata were not known for their halotolerance and were identified for the first time in hypersaline habitats. Moreover, the ascomycetous yeast Metschnikowia bicuspidata, known to be a parasite of the brine shrimp, was isolated as a free-living form from the Great Salt Lake brine. In water rich in magnesium chloride (bitterns) from the La Trinitat salterns (Spain), two new species provisionally named C. atmosphaerica - like and P. philogaea - like were discovered. PMID:15766773

  14. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  15. Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the North - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  16. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  17. 36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  18. 43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  19. 35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  20. Calibrating pressure switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, N. J. (inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A pressure switch assembly comprising a body portion and a switch mechanism having a contact element operable between opposite limit positions is described. A diaphragm chamber is provided in the body portion which mounts therein a system diaphragm and a calibration diaphragm which are of generally the same configuration and having outer faces conforming to the inner and outer walls of the diaphragm chamber. The space between the inner faces of the diaphragms defines a first chamber section and the space between the outer face of one of the diaphragms and the outer wall of the diaphragm chamber defines a second chamber section. The body portion includes a system pressure port communicating with one of the chamber sections and a calibration pressure port communicating with the other chamber section. An actuator connected to one of the diaphragms and the contact element of the switch operates upon pressure change in the diaphragm sections to move said contact element between limit positions.

  1. SWITCH user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The planning program, SWITCH, and its surrounding changed-goal-replanning program, Runaround, are described. The evolution of SWITCH and Runaround from an earlier planner, DEVISER, is recounted. SWITCH's plan representation, and its process of building a plan by backward chaining with strict chronological backtracking, are described. A guide for writing knowledge base files is provided, as are narrative guides for installing the program, running it, and interacting with it while it is running. Some utility functions are documented. For the sake of completeness, a narrative guide to the experimental discrepancy-replanning feature is provided. Appendices contain knowledge base files for a blocksworld domain, and a DRIBBLE file illustrating the output from, and user interaction with, the program in that domain.

  2. Assembly of eukaryotic algal chromosomes in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Synthetic genomic approaches offer unique opportunities to use powerful yeast and Escherichia coli genetic systems to assemble and modify chromosome-sized molecules before returning the modified DNA to the target host. For example, the entire 1 Mb Mycoplasma mycoides chromosome can be stably maintained and manipulated in yeast before being transplanted back into recipient cells. We have previously demonstrated that cloning in yeast of large (>?~?150 kb), high G?+?C (55%) prokaryotic DNA fragments was improved by addition of yeast replication origins every ~100 kb. Conversely, low G?+?C DNA is stable (up to at least 1.8 Mb) without adding supplemental yeast origins. It has not been previously tested whether addition of yeast replication origins similarly improves the yeast-based cloning of large (>150 kb) eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content. The model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has an average G?+?C content of 48% and a 27.4 Mb genome sequence that has been assembled into chromosome-sized scaffolds making it an ideal test case for assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic chromosomes in yeast. Results We present a modified chromosome assembly technique in which eukaryotic chromosomes as large as ~500 kb can be assembled from cloned ~100 kb fragments. We used this technique to clone fragments spanning P. tricornutum chromosomes 25 and 26 and to assemble these fragments into single, chromosome-sized molecules. We found that addition of yeast replication origins improved the cloning, assembly, and maintenance of the large chromosomes in yeast. Furthermore, purification of the fragments to be assembled by electroelution greatly increased assembly efficiency. Conclusions Entire eukaryotic chromosomes can be successfully cloned, maintained, and manipulated in yeast. These results highlight the improvement in assembly and maintenance afforded by including yeast replication origins in eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content (48%). They also highlight the increased efficiency of assembly that can be achieved by purifying fragments before assembly. PMID:24325901

  3. Yeasts in floral nectar: a quantitative survey

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Carlos M.; de Vega, Clara; Canto, Azucena; Pozo, María I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims One peculiarity of floral nectar that remains relatively unexplored from an ecological perspective is its role as a natural habitat for micro-organisms. This study assesses the frequency of occurrence and abundance of yeast cells in floral nectar of insect-pollinated plants from three contrasting plant communities on two continents. Possible correlations between interspecific differences in yeast incidence and pollinator composition are also explored. Methods The study was conducted at three widely separated areas, two in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and one in the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico). Floral nectar samples from 130 species (37–63 species per region) in 44 families were examined microscopically for the presence of yeast cells. For one of the Spanish sites, the relationship across species between incidence of yeasts in nectar and the proportion of flowers visited by each of five major pollinator categories was also investigated. Key Results Yeasts occurred regularly in the floral nectar of many species, where they sometimes reached extraordinary densities (up to 4 × 105 cells mm?3). Depending on the region, between 32 and 44 % of all nectar samples contained yeasts. Yeast cell densities in the order of 104 cells mm?3 were commonplace, and densities >105 cells mm?3 were not rare. About one-fifth of species at each site had mean yeast cell densities >104 cells mm?3. Across species, yeast frequency and abundance were directly correlated with the proportion of floral visits by bumble-bees, and inversely with the proportion of visits by solitary bees. Conclusions Incorporating nectar yeasts into the scenario of plant–pollinator interactions opens up a number of intriguing avenues for research. In addition, with yeasts being as ubiquitous and abundant in floral nectars as revealed by this study, and given their astounding metabolic versatility, studies focusing on nectar chemical features should carefully control for the presence of yeasts in nectar samples. PMID:19208669

  4. Bearingless switched reluctance motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.

  5. Magnetic switches and circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W.C.

    1982-05-01

    This report outlines the use of saturable inductors as switches in lumped-element, magnetic-pulse compression circuits is discussed and the characteristic use of each is defined. In addition, the geometric constraints and magnetic pulse compression circuits used in short-pulse, low-inductance systems are considered. The scaling of presaturation leakage currents, magnetic energy losses, and switching times with geometrical and material parameters are developed to aid in evaluating magnetic pulse compression systems in a particular application. Finally, a scheme for increasing the couping coefficient in saturable stripline transformers is proposed to enable their use in the short-pulse, high-voltage regime.

  6. How Switches Increase Speed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bartelt, Terry L. M.

    This brief interactive activity, by the Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty, explains clearly the reasons to use switches in place of hubs when using an LAN. The animations and corresponding explanations are helpful as the user clicks through each slide at his or her own pace. Animations can be viewed again and navigation is simple. At the end, review questions test the userâ??s knowledge. This is a good resource for students and teachers alike to familiarize themselves with switches in this fast-paced technological world.

  7. Efficacy of marine yeasts and baker's yeast as immunostimulants in Fenneropenaeus indicus: A comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Sarlin; Rosamma Philip

    2011-01-01

    Efficacy of marine yeasts Debaryomyces hansenii (S8) and Candida tropicalis (S186) as immunostimulants to Indian white prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus was estimated in comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae S36. Biomass of yeast strains was prepared using Malt Extract Agar and incorporated into a standard diet to prepare yeast diets of varying concentrations. F. indicus were fed these diets for a period of

  8. Bistable Switching Node for Optical Packet Switched Networks

    E-print Network

    Bergman, Keren

    network data throughput by reducing the guard times within the packet structure. The switching timeBistable Switching Node for Optical Packet Switched Networks Odile Liboiron-Ladouceur, Student is achieved using Schmitt trigger comparators in the routing decision logic. I. INTRODUCTION Optical packet

  9. Role of glucose signaling in yeast metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, K. van [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). E.C. Slater Inst.

    1996-10-05

    The conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast was the first biochemical pathway to be studied in detail. The initial observation that this process is catalyzed by an extract of yeast led to the discovery of enzymes and coenzymes and laid the foundation for modern biochemistry. In this article, knowledge concerning the relation between uptake of and signaling by glucose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed and compared to the analogous process in prokaryotes. It is concluded that (much) more fundamental knowledge concerning these processes is required before rational redesign of metabolic fluxes from glucose in yeast can be achieved.

  10. Evaluation of Automated Yeast Identification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and nine teleomorphic and anamorphic yeast isolates representing approximately 30 taxa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the Biolog yeast identification system. Isolates derived from nomenclatural types, environmental, and clinica isolates of known identity were tested in the Biolog system. Of the isolates tested, 81 were in the Biolog database. The system correctly identified 40, incorrectly identified 29, and was unable to identify 12. Of the 28 isolates not in the database, 18 were given names, whereas 10 were not. The Biolog yeast identification system is inadequate for the identification of yeasts originating from the environment during space program activities.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  15. Automatic thermal switch. [spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, J. W.; Wing, L. D. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes two thermally conductive plates and a thermally conductive switch saddle pivotally mounted to the first plate. A flexible heat carrier is connected between the switch saddle and the second plate. A phase-change power unit, including a piston coupled to the switch saddle, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element biases the switch saddle in a predetermined position with respect to the first plate. When the phase-change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first place, the piston extends and causes the switch saddle to pivot, thereby varying the thermal conduction between the two plates through the switch saddle and flexible heat carrier. The biasing element, switch saddle, and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally opened thermally conductive path between the two plates.

  16. Heat-transfer thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V.; Anderson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal switch maintains temperature of planetary lander, within definite range, by transferring heat. Switch produces relatively large stroke and force, uses minimum electrical power, is lightweight, is vapor pressure actuated, and withstands sterilization temperatures without damage.

  17. Drosophila Regulate Yeast Density and Increase Yeast Community Similarity in a Natural Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Judy A.; Yang, Louie H.; Morales, Vanessa M.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster adults and larvae, but especially larvae, had profound effects on the densities and community structure of yeasts that developed in banana fruits. Pieces of fruit exposed to adult female flies previously fed fly-conditioned bananas developed higher yeast densities than pieces of the same fruits that were not exposed to flies, supporting previous suggestions that adult Drosophila vector yeasts to new substrates. However, larvae alone had dramatic effects on yeast density and species composition. When yeast densities were compared in pieces of the same fruits assigned to different treatments, fruits that developed low yeast densities in the absence of flies developed significantly higher yeast densities when exposed to larvae. Across all of the fruits, larvae regulated yeast densities within narrow limits, as compared to a much wider range of yeast densities that developed in pieces of the same fruits not exposed to flies. Larvae also affected yeast species composition, dramatically reducing species diversity across fruits, reducing variation in yeast communities from one fruit to the next (beta diversity), and encouraging the consistent development of a yeast community composed of three species of yeast (Candida californica, C. zemplinina, and Pichia kluvyeri), all of which were palatable to larvae. Larvae excreted viable cells of these three yeast species in their fecal pools, and discouraged the growth of filamentous fungi, processes which may have contributed to their effects on the yeast communities in banana fruits. These and other findings suggest that D. melanogaster adults and their larval offspring together engage in ‘niche construction’, facilitating a predictable microbial environment in the fruit substrates in which the larvae live and develop. PMID:22860093

  18. Effect of Potassium Ions on Protoplast Generation during Yeast Induction from Mucor circinelloides Tieghem

    PubMed Central

    Omoifo, C. O.

    2013-01-01

    Mucor circinelloides aerobically exhibits coenocytic thallic growth habit with straight and circinate sporangiophores which culminate in globose or pyriform columellae enclosed within sporangial walls. It undergoes dimorphic switch with its conversion to multipolar budding yeast-like cells or thallic conidia. This paper confirms the induction of plurality of reproductive structures of the pleomorphic microorganism in minimal medium. Furthermore, construction of pH differentials at inflection points in the biphasic profiles during sporangiospore-yeast transformation indicated the intensity of H+ release from intracellular medium of the growing microorganism in a study conducted with K+ levels (0.0, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.0,1.10?g/L)-mediated broths. Optimum proton release was at 0.00 and 1.0?g/L?K+-supplemented broths, but specific growth rate was least in the latter. It also coincided with a preponderance of neoplastic units, protoplasts, and terminal budding yeast cells. On either side of this K+ level, variation in morphologies, including neoplasts, protoplasts, septate hyphae, thallic, holothallic, and holoblastic conidia, was greater, although olive-green septate hyphae with vesicular conidiogenous apparatus occurred at all K+ levels tested. This study suggested that following the establishment of transmembrane pH gradient across protoplast membrane, operation of Mitchellian proton pump was further promoted, thus leading to active transport mechanism, a prelude to yeast morphology induction. PMID:25969779

  19. Formins determine the functional properties of actin filaments in yeast.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew; East, Daniel A; Mulvihill, Daniel P

    2014-07-01

    The actin cytoskeleton executes a broad range of essential functions within a living cell. The dynamic nature of the actin polymer is modulated to facilitate specific cellular processes at discrete locations by actin-binding proteins (ABPs), including the formins and tropomyosins (Tms). Formins nucleate actin polymers, while Tms are conserved dimeric proteins that form polymers along the length of actin filaments. Cells possess different Tm isoforms, each capable of differentially regulating the dynamic and functional properties of the actin polymer. However, the mechanism by which a particular Tm localizes to a specific actin polymer is unknown. Here we show that specific formin family members dictate which Tm isoform will associate with a particular actin filament to modulate its dynamic and functional properties at specific cellular locations. Exchanging the localization of the fission yeast formins For3 and Cdc12 results in an exchange in localizations of Tm forms on actin polymers. This nucleator-driven switch in filament composition is reflected in a switch in actin dynamics, together with a corresponding change in the filament's ability to regulate ABPs and myosin motor activity. These data establish a role for formins in dictating which specific Tm variant will associate with a growing actin filament and therefore specify the functional capacity of the actin filaments that they create. PMID:24954052

  20. Illuminated push-button switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwagiri, T.

    1983-01-01

    An illuminated push-button switch is described. It is characterized by the fact that is consists of a switch group, an operator button opening and closing the switch group, and a light-emitting element which illuminates the face of the operator button.

  1. Optical flow switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent W. S. Chan; Claude E. Shannon; J. Jacobs; I. Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    We will explore a new network transport ”optical flow switching-OFS”, that will enable significant data rate growth and cost-effective scalability of next-generation networks. The talk will concentrate on the tough network management\\/control issues of OFS.

  2. Optical flow switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent W. S. Chan; Irwin Jacobs; Claude E. Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Present-day networks are being challenged by dramatic increases in bandwidth demand of emerging applications. We will explore a new transport, ¿optical flow switching¿, that will enable significant growth, power-efficiency and cost-effective scalability of next-generation networks.

  3. Vacuum arcs and switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Farrall

    1973-01-01

    This paper is a review of vacuum-arc phenomena which are related to switching devices. Despite the device overtones, the approach adopted for this paper is fundamental. Topics discussed include the drawn arc, the triggered arc, the power input to the cathode spot, cathode-spot division, arc stability, substructure of the cathode spot, dielectric recovery processes, and breakdown between electrodes subjected to

  4. Molecular Rotors as Switches

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Mei; Wang, Kang L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene) monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V) revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR) associated with the device. The analysis of the device I–V characteristics suggests the source of the observed switching effects to be the result of the redox-induced ligand rotation around the copper metal center and this attribution of switching is consistent with the observed temperature dependence of the switching behavior as well as the proposed energy diagram of the device. The observed resistance switching shows the potential for future non-volatile memories and logic devices applications. This review will discuss the progress and provide a perspective of molecular motion for nanoelectronics and other applications.

  5. Switching power pulse system

    DOEpatents

    Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source (10) to a load (20) using a storage capacitor (C3) charged through a rectifier (D1, D2), and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch (Q1) and voltage comparator (12). A thyristor (22) is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor (18) and fractional turn saturable transformer (16) having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n=n.sup.2. The saturable reactor (18) functions as a "soaker" while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor (C4) charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor (C3) into the load through the coupling capacitor (C4). The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core (26) having two secondary windings (28, 30) tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes (32, 34) for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe (40) for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network (42). To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core (44) is provided around the resistive beampipe (40) to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance (42) until it is fully charged.

  6. Breaking an Epigenetic Chromatin Switch: Curious Features of Hysteresis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Telomeric Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Vijayalakshmi H.; Mukhopadhyay, Swagatam; Dayarian, Adel; Sengupta, Anirvan M.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to gene network switches, local epigenetic modifications to DNA and histones play an important role in all-or-none cellular decision-making. Here, we study the dynamical design of a well-characterized epigenetic chromatin switch: the yeast SIR system, in order to understand the origin of the stability of epigenetic states. We study hysteresis in this system by perturbing it with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. We find that SIR silencing has many characteristics of a non-linear bistable system, as observed in conventional genetic switches, which are based on activities of a few promoters affecting each other through the abundance of their gene products. Quite remarkably, our experiments in yeast telomeric silencing show a very distinctive pattern when it comes to the transition from bistability to monostability. In particular, the loss of the stable silenced state, upon increasing the inhibitor concentration, does not seem to show the expected saddle node behavior, instead looking like a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. In other words, the ‘off’ state merges with the ‘on’ state at a threshold concentration leading to a single state, as opposed to the two states remaining distinct up to the threshold and exhibiting a discontinuous jump from the ‘off’ to the ‘on’ state. We argue that this is an inevitable consequence of silenced and active regions coexisting with dynamic domain boundaries. The experimental observations in our study therefore have broad implications for the understanding of chromatin silencing in yeast and beyond. PMID:25536038

  7. High gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches: Switch longevity

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Mar, A. [and others

    1998-07-01

    Optically activated, high gain GaAs switches are being tested for many different pulsed power applications that require long lifetime (longevity). The switches have p and n contact metallization (with intentional or unintentional dopants) configured in such a way as to produce p-i-n or n-i-n switches. The longevity of the switches is determined by circuit parameters and by the ability of the contacts to resist erosion. This paper will describe how the switches performed in test-beds designed to measure switch longevity. The best longevity was achieved with switches made with diffused contacts, achieving over 50 million pulses at 10 A and over 2 million pulses at 80 A.

  8. TOPO3? Influences Antigenic Variation by Monitoring Expression-Site-Associated VSG Switching in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Sook; Cross, George A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) mediates one of the major mechanisms of trypanosome antigenic variation by placing a different variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene under the control of the active expression site (ES). It is believed that the majority of VSG switching events occur by duplicative gene conversion, but only a few DNA repair genes that are central to HR have been assigned a role in this process. Gene conversion events that are associated with crossover are rarely seen in VSG switching, similar to mitotic HR. In other organisms, TOPO3? (Top3 in yeasts), a type IA topoisomerase, is part of a complex that is involved in the suppression of crossovers. We therefore asked whether a related mechanism might suppress VSG recombination. Using a set of reliable recombination and switching assays that could score individual switching mechanisms, we discovered that TOPO3? function is conserved in Trypanosoma brucei and that TOPO3? plays a critical role in antigenic switching. Switching frequency increased 10–40-fold in the absence of TOPO3? and this hyper-switching phenotype required RAD51. Moreover, the preference of 70-bp repeats for VSG recombination was mitigated, while homology regions elsewhere in ES were highly favored, in the absence of TOPO3?. Our data suggest that TOPO3? may remove undesirable recombination intermediates constantly arising between active and silent ESs, thereby balancing ES integrity against VSG recombination. PMID:20628569

  9. Prevention of Yeast Spoilage in Feed and Food by the Yeast Mycocin HMK

    PubMed Central

    Lowes, K. F.; Shearman, C. A.; Payne, J.; MacKenzie, D.; Archer, D. B.; Merry, R. J.; Gasson, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe construction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier, which resulted in secretion of biologically active mycocin into the culture media. A partial purification protocol was developed, and a comparison with native W. mrakii mycocin showed that the heterologously expressed mycocin had similar physiological properties and an almost identical spectrum of biological activity against a number of yeasts isolated from silage and yoghurt. Two food and feed production systems prone to yeast spoilage were used as models to assess the ability of mycocin HMK to act as a biocontrol agent. The onset of aerobic spoilage in mature maize silage was delayed by application of A. niger mycocin HMK on opening because the toxin inhibited growth of the indigenous spoilage yeasts. This helped maintain both higher lactic acid levels and a lower pH. In yoghurt spiked with dairy spoilage yeasts, A. niger mycocin HMK was active at all of the storage temperatures tested at which yeast growth occurred, and there was no resurgence of resistant yeasts. The higher the yeast growth rate, the more effective the killing action of the mycocin. Thus, mycocin HMK has potential applications in controlling both silage spoilage and yoghurt spoilage caused by yeasts. PMID:10698773

  10. Structural basis of high-fidelity DNA synthesis by yeast DNA polymerase [delta

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, Michael K.; Johnson, Robert E.; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya; Aggarwal, Aneel K.; (Sinai); (Texas)

    2009-09-25

    DNA polymerase {delta} (Pol {delta}) is a high-fidelity polymerase that has a central role in replication from yeast to humans. We present the crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of yeast Pol {delta} in ternary complex with a template primer and an incoming nucleotide. The structure, determined at 2.0-{angstrom} resolution, catches the enzyme in the act of replication, revealing how the polymerase and exonuclease domains are juxtaposed relative to each other and how a correct nucleotide is selected and incorporated. The structure also reveals the 'sensing' interactions near the primer terminus, which signal a switch from the polymerizing to the editing mode. Taken together, the structure provides a chemical basis for the bulk of DNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells and a framework for understanding the effects of cancer-causing mutations in Pol {delta}.

  11. Anhydrobiosis in yeast: influence of calcium and magnesium ions on yeast resistance to dehydration-rehydration.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Yuliya; Walker, Graeme; Rapoport, Alexander

    2010-07-01

    The influence of calcium and magnesium ions on resistance to dehydration in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was investigated. Magnesium ion availability directly influenced yeast cells' resistance to dehydration and, when additionally supplemented with calcium ions, this provided further significant increase of yeast resistance to dehydration. Gradual rehydration of dry yeast cells in water vapour indicated that both magnesium and calcium may be important for the stabilization of yeast cell membranes. In particular, calcium ions were shown for the first time to increase the resistance of yeast cells to dehydration in stress-sensitive cultures from exponential growth phases. It is concluded that magnesium and calcium ion supplementations in nutrient media may increase the dehydration stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae cells significantly, and this finding is important for the production of active dry yeast preparations for food and fermentation industries. PMID:20487021

  12. Yeast Breads: Made at Home. 

    E-print Network

    Reasonover, Frances

    1971-01-01

    and salt. Cool to lukewarm. Add softened yeast. Blend well. Gradually add flour to form a soft dough. Cover. Let rise in warm place until light and doubled in bulk from 1% to 2 hours. Roll out dough on well-floured surface or pastry cloth to a 15... Turn dough onto surface well dusted with . Knead until smooth, about 20 times. :sired, into crescents, rolls, etc. Place on jed baking sheet. Cover with damp cloth. warm place, free from draft, about 1 hour. F. 10 to 15 minutes, depending on size...

  13. YEAST MEIOSIS Sister kinetochores are mechanically

    E-print Network

    Asbury, Chip

    YEAST MEIOSIS Sister kinetochores are mechanically fused during meiosis I in yeast Krishna K Production of healthy gametes requires a reductional meiosis I division in which replicated sister chromatids comigrate, rather than separate as in mitosis or meiosis II. Fusion of sister kinetochores during meiosis I

  14. Chronological aging leads to apoptosis in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Herker; Helmut Jungwirth; Katharina A. Lehmann; Corinna Maldener; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich; Silke Wissing; Sabrina Büttner; Markus Fehr; Stephan Sigrist; Frank Madeo

    2004-01-01

    uring the past years, yeast has been successfully established as a model to study mechanisms of apoptotic regulation. However, the beneficial effects of such a cell suicide program for a unicellular organism remained obscure. Here, we demonstrate that chronologi- cally aged yeast cultures die exhibiting typical markers of apoptosis, accumulate oxygen radicals, and show caspase activation. Age-induced cell death is

  15. Yeast flora of grape berries during ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianfranco Rosini; Federico Federici; Alessandro Martini

    1982-01-01

    The yeast flora associated with the surface of grapes during ripening was studied with regard to different sectors of the grape skin and the position in the bunch by means of traditional as well as more vigorous preisolation and precounting treatments. The yeast number per square centimeter of skin increases with ripening and is highest in the area immediately surrounding

  16. Yeast: An Experimental Organism for Modern Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botstein, David; Fink, Gerald R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the applicability and advantages of using yeasts as popular and ideal model systems for studying and understanding eukaryotic biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Cites experimental tractability and the cooperative tradition of the research community of yeast biologists as reasons for this success. (RT)

  17. Phosphoinositides in yeast: genetically tractable signalling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefaan Wera; Jan C. T. Bergsma; Johan M. Thevelein

    2001-01-01

    Research on signalling through phosphoinositides has made tremendous advances over the last few years. Studies with budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) combine the advantage of a eukaryotic system with those of a rapidly growing, genetically modifiable and tractable organism of which the genome is fully sequenced. Hence, despite some differences in phosphoinositide signalling between mammals and yeast (e.g. the absence of

  18. The oenological characteristics of commercial dry yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Comi; Isabella Croattini; Marilena Marino; Michela Maifreni; Roberto Zironi

    1997-01-01

    Twenty preparations of dry active yeast (18 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and two Saccharomyces bayanus) available in Italy were tested in white and red musts (Moscato, Albana and Sangiovese) to study their oenological characteristics (i.e. fermentation rate, total alcohol and acetic acid production). After the application of chemiometric techniques for descriptive analyses to the results of the oenological assessment, the yeasts were

  19. PERSPECTIVES Chromatin Conformation of Yeast Centromeres

    E-print Network

    PERSPECTIVES Chromatin Conformation of Yeast Centromeres KERRY S. BLOOM, ENRIQUE AMAYA, JOHN CARBON The centromere region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III has been replaced by various DNA fragments from the centromere regions of yeast chromosomes III and Xl. A 289-base pair centromere (CEN3) sequence can stabilize

  20. Definition, classification and nomenclature of the yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This submission includes sections for the Preface, Use of this Book, Table of Contents and a chapter entitled Definition, classification and nomenclature of the yeasts, which are to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. This book has been prepared by a team of international ex...

  1. Topical Therapy for Mucosal Yeast Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Summers

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal yeast infection is best understood as a consequence of compromised mucosal cell-mediated and innate immunity. Defense against oral candidiasis is dominantly cell mediated. The innate immune system may play the main role in regulating vulvovaginal yeast infection. Conditions that compromise cell-mediated immunity such as leukemia, severe illness and HIV infection must be considered as predisposing factors for recurrent oral

  2. Life Stress and Chronic Yeast Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy A. Williams; Jerry L. Deffenbacher

    1983-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of positive and negative life change to yeast infections in women having a gynecological examination at a university health center. Subjects completed the Life Experiences Survey and a questionnaire about experiences with yeast infections and received, as a routine part of their visitation of the gynecology service, a standard gynecological examination, including a laboratory test

  3. Can yeast transcriptomics help improve wine fermentation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Varela; J. Cárdenas; E. Agosin

    Wine fermentation is a dynamic and complex process in which the yeast cell is subjected to multiple stress conditions. A successful adaptation involves changes in gene expression profiles where a large number of genes are up- or down-regulated. Functional genomic approaches are com- monly used to obtain global gene expression profiles, providing a comprehensive view of yeast physiology. We used

  4. Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains

    SciTech Connect

    Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

  5. Anaerobic digestion of food waste using yeast.

    PubMed

    Suwannarat, Jutarat; Ritchie, Raymond J

    2015-08-01

    Fermentative breakdown of food waste seems a plausible alternative to feeding food waste to pigs, incineration or garbage disposal in tourist areas. We determined the optimal conditions for the fermentative breakdown of food waste using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in incubations up to 30days. Yeast efficiently broke down food waste with food waste loadings as high as 700g FW/l. The optimum inoculation was ?46×10(6)cells/l of culture with a 40°C optimum (25-40°C). COD and BOD were reduced by ?30-50%. Yeast used practically all the available sugars and reduced proteins and lipids by ?50%. Yeast was able to metabolize lipids much better than expected. Starch was mobilized after very long term incubations (>20days). Yeast was effective in breaking down the organic components of food waste but CO2 gas and ethanol production (?1.5%) were only significant during the first 7days of incubations. PMID:25987287

  6. Encapsulation of yeast cells in colloidosomes.

    PubMed

    Keen, Polly H R; Slater, Nigel K H; Routh, Alexander F

    2012-01-17

    Polymeric colloidosomes encapsulating viable Baker's yeast cells were prepared. To make the capsules, an aqueous suspension of 153 nm poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) latex particles plus yeast cells is emulsified in a continuous phase of sunflower oil. By adding a small amount of ethanol to the oil phase, the latex particles at the surface of the emulsion droplets aggregate, forming the colloidosome shells. The microcapsules have been examined using optical, confocal, and scanning electron microscopies. The viability of the yeast cells was tested using fluorescent molecular probes. The encapsulated Baker's yeast cells were able to metabolize glucose from solution, although at a slower rate compared to nonencapsulated yeast. This demonstrates diffusion limitation through the colloidosome shell. The diffusive resistance could be increased by manufacturing colloidosomes with a double latex shell. PMID:22149136

  7. Transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling mechanisms at PHO5 

    E-print Network

    Carvin, Christopher Dumas

    2005-08-29

    in nucleosome remodeling. The most widely studied complex is the Swi-Snf complex in yeast, named for its role in mating- type switching as well as sucrose fermentation (reviewed in Martens and Winston, 2003). Defects in the human Swi-Snf complex are linked... with permission from Archana Dhasarathy. 12 An earlier study showed that yeast genes could be classified into three distinct classes based on their requirement for the chromatin remodelers Swi- Snf and SAGA: 1) those genes which require both Swi-Snf...

  8. Transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling mechanisms at PHO5

    E-print Network

    Carvin, Christopher Dumas

    2005-08-29

    in nucleosome remodeling. The most widely studied complex is the Swi-Snf complex in yeast, named for its role in mating- type switching as well as sucrose fermentation (reviewed in Martens and Winston, 2003). Defects in the human Swi-Snf complex are linked... with permission from Archana Dhasarathy. 12 An earlier study showed that yeast genes could be classified into three distinct classes based on their requirement for the chromatin remodelers Swi- Snf and SAGA: 1) those genes which require both Swi-Snf...

  9. Ultrastructural organization of yeast chromatin

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The ultrastructural organization of yeast chromatin was examined in Miller spread preparations of samples prepared from spheroplasts or isolated nuclei of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Micrographs from preparations dispersed in 1 mM Tris (pH 7.2) illustrate that the basic chromatin fiber in yeast exists in two ultrastructurally distinct conformations. The majority (up to 95%) of the chromatin displays a beaded nucleosomal organization, although adjacent nucleosomes are separated by internucleosomal linkers of variable lengths. Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) fibrils are only occasionally associated with chromatin displaying the conformation. The remaining 5-10% of the chromatin appears to be devoid of discrete nucleosomes and has a smooth contour with a fiber diameter of 30-40 A. Transcriptional units, including putative ribosomal precursor RNA genes, defined by the presence of nascent RNP fibrils are restricted to chromatin displaying this smooth morphology. Chromatin released from nuclei in the presence of 5 mM Mg++ displays higher-order chromatin fibers, 200-300 A in diameter, these fibers appear to be arranged in a manner than reflects the two forms of the basic chromatin fiber. PMID:7040415

  10. New search for pectolytic yeasts.

    PubMed

    Biely, P; Sláviková, E

    1994-01-01

    A new screening method for pectin-depolymerizing microorganisms is described. The method is based on precipitation of non-hydrolyzed citrus pectin with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide in a medium solidified with a bacterial gelling gum. A substrate depolymerized by the secreted enzymes does not precipitate, and the positive strains thus show transparent areas around the colonies. The method was used to screen 300 yeast and yeast-like microorganisms belonging to 52 different genera. The secretion of pectin-depolymerizing enzymes occurred with different frequencies in 13 genera (69 positive strains of 207 tested), the lowest frequency being found in the genus Candida (13 positive out of 125 strains tested) and the highest frequency in the genera Aureobasidium (4 of 6) Cryptococcus (29 of 38), Geotrichum (4 of 9), Kluyveromyces (5 of 5), Rhodosporidium (2 of 2), Leucosporidium (2 of 2), Trichosporon (3 of 6) and Ustilago (2 of 2). Strains giving the highest number of harvested cells after growth on pectin in a liquid medium have been identified. PMID:8549997

  11. Plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Savage, Mark E. (Albuquerque, NM); Mendel, Jr., Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.

  12. Switched matrix accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, David H.; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new concept for a microwave circuit functioning as a charged-particle accelerator at mm wavelengths, permitting an accelerating gradient higher than conventional passive circuits can withstand consistent with cyclic fatigue. The device provides acceleration for multiple bunches in parallel channels, and permits a short exposure time for the conducting surface of the accelerating cavities. Our analysis includes scalings based on a smooth transmission line model and a complementary treatment with a coupled-cavity simulation. We also provide an electromagnetic design for the accelerating structure, arriving at rough dimensions for a seven-cell accelerator matched to standard waveguide and suitable for bench tests at low power in air at 91.392 GHz. A critical element in the concept is a fast mm-wave switch suitable for operation at high power, and we present the considerations for implementation in an H-plane tee. We discuss the use of diamond as the photoconductor switch medium.

  13. CREE: Making the Switch

    ScienceCinema

    Grider, David; Palmer, John

    2014-04-09

    CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

  14. MCT/MOSFET Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1990-01-01

    Metal-oxide/semiconductor-controlled thyristor (MCT) and metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) connected in switching circuit to obtain better performance. Offers high utilization of silicon, low forward voltage drop during "on" period of operating cycle, fast turnon and turnoff, and large turnoff safe operating area. Includes ability to operate at high temperatures, high static blocking voltage, and ease of drive.

  15. Composite Material Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  16. CREE: Making the Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Grider, David; Palmer, John

    2014-03-06

    CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

  17. "Platform switching": serendipity.

    PubMed

    Kalavathy, N; Sridevi, J; Gehlot, Roshni; Kumar, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    Implant dentistry is the latest developing field in terms of clinical techniques, research, material science and oral rehabilitation. Extensive work is being done to improve the designing of implants in order to achieve better esthetics and function. The main drawback with respect to implant restoration is achieving good osseointegration along with satisfactory stress distribution, which in turn will improve the prognosis of implant prosthesis by reducing the crestal bone loss. Many concepts have been developed with reference to surface coating of implants, surgical techniques for implant placement, immediate and delayed loading, platform switching concept, etc. This article has made an attempt to review the concept of platform switching was in fact revealed accidentally due to the nonavailability of the abutment appropriate to the size of the implant placed. A few aspect of platform switching, an upcoming idea to reduce crestal bone loss have been covered. The various methods used for locating and preparing the data were done through textbooks, Google search and related articles. PMID:24992863

  18. Ferroelectric switching of elastin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 ?C/cm2, whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890

  19. Ferroelectric switching of elastin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-07-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 ?C/cm(2), whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890

  20. Photoconductive semiconductor switches: Laser Q-switch trigger and switch-trigger laser integration

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; Hamil, R.A.; Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report provides a summary of the Pulser In a Chip 9000-Discretionary LDRD. The program began in January of 1997 and concluded in September of 1997. The over-arching goal of this LDRD is to study whether laser diode triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) can be used to activate electro-optic devices such as Q-switches and Pockels cells and to study possible laser diode/switch integration. The PCSS switches we used were high gain GaAs switches because they can be triggered with small amounts of laser light. The specific goals of the LDRD were to demonstrate: (1) that small laser diode arrays that are potential candidates for laser-switch integration will indeed trigger the PCSS switch, and (2) that high gain GaAs switches can be used to trigger optical Q-switches in lasers such as the lasers to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and the laser used for direct optical initiation (DOI) of explosives. The technology developed with this LDRD is now the prime candidate for triggering the Q switch in the multiple lasers in the laser trigger system of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and may be utilized in other accelerators. As part of the LDRD we developed a commercial supplier. To study laser/switch integration we tested triggering the high gain GaAs switches with: edge emitting laser diodes, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and transverse junction stripe (TJS) lasers. The first two types of lasers (edge emitting and VCSELs) did activate the PCSS but are harder to integrate with the PCSS for a compact package. The US lasers, while easier to integrate with the switch, did not trigger the PCSS at the US laser power levels we used. The PCSS was used to activate the Q-switch of the compact laser to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source.

  1. Molecular Switch Based on a Biologically Important Redox Reaction Ping Yan, Michael W. Holman, Paul Robustelli, Arindam Chowdhury, Fady I. Ishak, and

    E-print Network

    Chowdhury, Arindam

    demonstrated by coupling the switch to the catalytic pathway of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, a common NADH-occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the receptor subunit (here the free amine) is higher in energy than the HOMO of the fluorophore subunit, so photoexcitation of the fluorophore leads to rapid PET from the amine

  2. A Caspase-Related Protease Regulates Apoptosis in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Madeo; Eva Herker; Corinna Maldener; Silke Wissing; Stephan Lächelt; Mark Herlan; Markus Fehr; Kirsten Lauber; Stephan J Sigrist; Sebastian Wesselborg; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich

    2002-01-01

    Yeast can undergo cell death accompanied by cellular markers of apoptosis. However, orthologs of classical mammalian apoptosis regulators appeared to be missing from the yeast genome, challenging a common mechanism of yeast and mammalian apoptosis. Here we investigate Yor197w, a yeast protein with structural homology to mammalian caspases, and demonstrate caspase-like processing of the protein. Hydrogen peroxide treatment induces apoptosis

  3. Original article Screening for the potential probiotic yeast strains

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Screening for the potential probiotic yeast strains from raw milk to assimilate yeast strains, isolated from raw milk, were tested to obtain potential probiotic yeasts for assimilating cholesterol. During in vitro tests, 17 yeast strains were capable of growth in bile salt solutions, and most

  4. Genome Analysis The pattern and evolution of yeast promoter

    E-print Network

    Barkai, Naama

    Genome Analysis The pattern and evolution of yeast promoter bendability Itay Tirosh1 , Judith-less promoters from 11 yeast species, whereas the position of the rigid DNA varies substantially among species. cerevisiae promoters We examined the bendability pattern of yeast promoters. The promoters of many yeast

  5. Computational Predictions of Structures of Multichromosomes of Budding Yeast

    E-print Network

    Liang, Jie

    Computational Predictions of Structures of Multichromosomes of Budding Yeast (Accepted, Conf Proc of budding yeast nucleus. We successfully generated a large number of model genomes of yeast with appropriate yeast genome realistically. The model developed here provides a general computational framework

  6. Yeast (in press) Published online in Wiley InterScience

    E-print Network

    Lycan, Deborah E.

    Yeast Yeast (in press) Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/yea.1502 Yeast Functional Analysis Report A suite of Gateway cloning vectors for high of overexpression plasmids containing the entire complement of yeast open reading frames (ORFs) have recently been

  7. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. PMID:24932634

  8. Compartmentalization of a bistable switch enables memory to cross a feedback-driven transition.

    PubMed

    Doncic, Andreas; Atay, Oguzhan; Valk, Ervin; Grande, Alicia; Bush, Alan; Vasen, Gustavo; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro; Loog, Mart; Skotheim, Jan M

    2015-03-12

    Cells make accurate decisions in the face of molecular noise and environmental fluctuations by relying not only on present pathway activity, but also on their memory of past signaling dynamics. Once a decision is made, cellular transitions are often rapid and switch-like due to positive feedback loops in the regulatory network. While positive feedback loops are good at promoting switch-like transitions, they are not expected to retain information to inform subsequent decisions. However, this expectation is based on our current understanding of network motifs that accounts for temporal, but not spatial, dynamics. Here, we show how spatial organization of the feedback-driven yeast G1/S switch enables the transmission of memory of past pheromone exposure across this transition. We expect this to be one of many examples where the exquisite spatial organization of the eukaryotic cell enables previously well-characterized network motifs to perform new and unexpected signal processing functions. PMID:25768911

  9. Quality assessment of lager brewery yeast samples and strains using barley malt extracts with anti-yeast activity.

    PubMed

    van Nierop, Sandra N E; Axcell, Barry C; Cantrell, Ian C; Rautenbach, Marina

    2009-04-01

    Membrane active anti-yeast compounds, such as antimicrobial peptides and proteins, cause yeast membrane damage which is likely to affect yeast vitality and fermentation performance, parameters which are notoriously difficult to analyse. In this work the sensitivity of lager brewery yeast strains towards barley malt extracts with anti-yeast activity was assessed with an optimised assay. It was found that yeast, obtained directly from a brewery, was much more sensitive towards the malt extracts than the same yeast strain propagated in the laboratory. Sensitivity to the malt extracts increased during the course of a laboratory scale fermentation when inoculated with brewery yeast. As the assay was able to differentiate yeast samples with different histories, it shows promise as a yeast quality assay measuring the yeast's ability to withstand stress which can be equated to vitality. The assay was also able to differentiate between different lager yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae propagated in the laboratory when challenged with a number of malt extracts of varying anti-yeast activity. The assessment of yeast strains in the presence of malt extracts will lead to the identification of yeast strains with improved quality/vitality that can withstand malt-associated anti-yeast activity during brewery fermentations. PMID:19171262

  10. Yeast is one of the most common causes of vaginal infections. Yeast infections occur when a fungus called

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Yeast is one of the most common causes of vaginal infections. Yeast infections occur when a fungus bacteria in the vagina, which creates an imbalance and promotes yeast proliferation. Excessive fatigue, stress, or illness may lower the body's ability to control excessive yeast growth. Tight clothing

  11. Yeast Transformation (introducing plasmid vector into a yeast strain): This protocol is a modification (shortened version) of "The BEST

    E-print Network

    Yeast Transformation (introducing plasmid vector into a yeast strain): This protocol://www.umanitoba.ca/medicine/biochem/gietz/Trafo.html) 1. Inoculate 5 ml of YPD with a yeast colony from plate. 2. Grow culture overnight at 300 C. 3 and centrifuging at 1750xg (high speed in clinical centrifuge) for 2 minutes. 6. Carefully pour media off of yeast

  12. MAP kinase dynamics in yeast.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, F; Peter, M

    2001-09-01

    MAP kinase pathways play key roles in cellular responses towards extracellular signals. In several cases, the three core kinases interact with a scaffold molecule, but the function of these scaffolds is poorly understood. They have been proposed to contribute to signal specificity, signal amplification, or subcellular localization of MAP kinases. Several MAP kinases translocate to the nucleus in response to their activation, suggesting that nuclear transport may provide a regulatory mechanism. Here we describe new applications for Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Loss In Photobleaching (FLIP), to study dynamic translocations of MAPKs between different subcellular compartments. We have used these methods to measure the nuclear/cytoplasmic dynamics of several yeast MAP kinases, and in particular to address the role of scaffold proteins for MAP-kinase signaling. PMID:11730324

  13. Pityrosporum yeasts--what's new?

    PubMed

    Faergemann, J

    1997-01-01

    The lipophilic yeast Pityrosporum ovale is a member of the normal human cutaneous flora in adults but also associated with several skin diseases. In pityriasis versicolor, under the influence of predisposing factors, P. ovale changes from the round blastospore form to the mycelial form. A great problem in pityriasis versicolor is the high rate of recurrence and to avoid this a prophylactic treatment is mandatory. Pityrosporum folliculitis is a chronic disease characterized by pruritic follicular papules and pustules located primarily on the upper trunk, neck and upper arms. In direct microscopy clusters of round budding yeast cells are found. The disease responds rapidly to antimycotic therapy. There are now many studies indicating that P. ovale plays an important role in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Many of these are treatment studies showing a good effect of antimycotics paralleled by a reduction in number of organisms. Severe seborrhoeic dermatitis often difficult to treat is associated with AIDS. In peripheral blood from a high number of patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis we found an increase in number of natural killer T-cells and decreased PHA and Con-A stimulation. Secondary we found low serum IgG antibody titres in patients compared to controls. Other studies have found a reduced lymphocyte stimulation reaction when lymphocytes from patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis were stimulated with a P. ovale extract. Additionally, IL-2 and IFN gamma production by lymphocytes from patients was markedly depressed and IL-10 synthesis were increased after stimulation with P. ovale extract. The majority of adult patients with atopic dermatitis localized to the head, neck and scalp are prick-test positive to a protein P. ovale extract. One study showed that p. ovale extracts increased IL-4, IL-10 and IgE synthesis in patients with atopic dermatitis. There are also treatment studies indicating that antifungal treatment may be beneficial in these patients. PMID:9370147

  14. Assimilation spectrum of the yeast Candida utilis 49 used for producing fodder yeast from synthetic ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Šestáková

    1976-01-01

    Oxidizing and assimilating ability of the yeastCandida utilis 49 was tested with 21 different low-boiling organic compounds which come as components of raw synthetic ethanol. The highest\\u000a yields of yeast dry weight were obtained with ethanol (72.0%), propanol (48.2%), ethyl acetate (43.4%) and acetic acid (34.2%).\\u000a To a minor extent, the yeast was capable of utilizing also 2-propanol, butanol and

  15. CURRENT-SWITCHING CIRCUITRY (thesis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1960-01-01

    High-speed switching circutits using the basic currentswitching mode of ; operation are discussed. A dynamic analysis of the basic current-switching mode ; is presented and it is shown that this mode is an overdriven amplifier in a ; common-emitter confi;uration. Therefore the dominant natural frequency, which ; determines the switching time, is f beta , the short-circuit cutoff frequency in

  16. An Optical Switch Architecture for Manhattan Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imrich Chlamtac; Andrea Fumagalli

    1993-01-01

    An electronically controlled optical packet deflection switch that is based on space and time switching at intermediate nodes is described. The switch uses optical delay lines to store and switch packets in the optical domain so that optical bandwidth can be achieved across the network. The optical switch is controlled by an associated electronic mechanism that provides the necessary versatility

  17. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  18. Optical switch based on thermocapillarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Tomomi; Makihara, Mitsuhiro; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Shimokawa, Fusao; Kaneko, Kazumasa

    2001-11-01

    Space-division optical switches are essential for the protection, optical cross-connects (OXCs), and optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs) needed in future fiber-optic communication networks. For applications in these areas, we proposed a thermocapillarity switch called oil-latching interfacial-tension variation effect (OLIVE) switch. An OLIVE switch is a micro-mechanical optical switch fabricated on planar lightwave circuits (PLC) using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It consists of a crossing waveguide that has a groove at each crossing point and a pair of microheaters. The groove is partially filled with the refractive-index-matching liquid, and optical signals are switched according to the liquid's position in the groove, i.e., whether it is passing straight through the groove or reflecting at the sidewall of the groove. The liquid is driven by thermocapillarity and latched by capillarity. Using the total internal reflection to switch the optical path, the OLIVE switch exhibits excellent optical characteristics, such as high transparency (insertion loss: < 2 dB), high extinction ratio (> 50 dB), and low crosstalk (< -50 dB). Moreover, since this switch has a simple structure and bi-stability, it has wide variety of applications in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks.

  19. An H-soft-switched cell for single-switch nonisolated DC-to-DC converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Ming Chang; Jia-You Lee; Wen-Inne Tsai; York-Yih Sun

    1993-01-01

    An H-soft-switched cell is proposed in this paper for obtaining soft switching in single-switch nonisolated DC-to-DC power converters. The proposed H-soft-switched cell provides constant-frequency lossless switching. The H-soft-switching cell may be regarded as a switch whose control circuit is the same as the ones used in conventional PWM power converters. The voltage stresses of the switching elements are the same

  20. A terahertz molecular switch.

    PubMed

    Orellana, P; Claro, F

    2003-05-01

    We present time-dependent results describing the current through a molecular device, modeled as a complex with two active centers connected to leads under bias. We show that, at a properly adjusted external voltage, a passing terahertz electromagnetic pulse may cause a transition between states of finite and negligible current, suggesting that the system might be useful as a nanoscopic switch in the terahertz range. A phase diagram defining the bias region in which the transition takes place within a short time is given. As described, the physical processes involved are of an entirely different nature than those in ordinary photodetectors. PMID:12786110

  1. Railway switch transport model.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Martin; Prosen, Tomaž; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio

    2012-11-01

    We propose a simple model of coupled heat and particle transport based on zero-dimensional classical deterministic dynamics, which is reminiscent of a railway switch whose action is a function only of the particle's energy. It is shown that already in the minimal three-terminal model, where the second terminal is considered as a probe with zero net particle and heat currents, one can find extremely asymmetric Onsager matrices as a consequence of time-reversal symmetry breaking of the model. This minimalistic transport model provides a better understanding of thermoelectric heat engines in the presence of time-reversal symmetry breaking. PMID:23214829

  2. Power transistor switching characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The switching properties of power transistors are investigated. The devices studied were housed in IO-3 cases and were of an n(+)-p-n(-)-n(+) vertical dopant structure. The effects of the magnitude of the reverse-base current and temperature on the reverse-bias second breakdown characteristics are discussed. Brief discussions of device degradation due to second breakdown and of a constant voltage turn-off circuit are included. A description of a vacuum tube voltage clamp circuit which reduces clamped collector voltage overshoot is given.

  3. Composite Thermal Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert; Brawn, Shelly; Harrison, Katherine; O'Toole, Shannon; Moeller, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Lithium primary and lithium ion secondary batteries provide high specific energy and energy density. The use of these batteries also helps to reduce launch weight. Both primary and secondary cells can be packaged as high-rate cells, which can present a threat to crew and equipment in the event of external or internal short circuits. Overheating of the cell interior from high current flows induced by short circuits can result in exothermic reactions in lithium primary cells and fully charged lithium ion secondary cells. Venting of the cell case, ejection of cell components, and fire have been reported in both types of cells, resulting from abuse, cell imperfections, or faulty electronic control design. A switch has been developed that consists of a thin layer of composite material made from nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon that conducts electrons at room temperature and switches to an insulator at an elevated temperature, thus interrupting current flow to prevent thermal runaway caused by internal short circuits. The material is placed within the cell, as a thin layer incorporated within the anode and/or the cathode, to control excess currents from metal-to-metal or metal-to-carbon shorts that might result from cell crush or a manufacturing defect. The safety of high-rate cells is thus improved, preventing serious injury to personnel and sensitive equipment located near the battery. The use of recently available nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon permits an improved, homogeneous material with the potential to be fine-tuned to a unique switch temperature, sufficiently below the onset of a catastrophic chemical reaction. The smaller particles also permit the formation of a thinner control film layer (<50 m), which can be incorporated into commercial high-rate lithium primary and secondary cells. The innovation permits incorporation in current lithium and lithium-ion cell designs with a minimal impact on cell weight and volume. The composite thermal switch (CTS(TradeMark)) coating can be incorporated in either the anode or cathode or both. The coating can be applied in a variety of different processes that permits incorporation in the cell and electrode manufacturing processes. The CTS responds quickly and halts current flow in the hottest parts of the cell first. The coating can be applied to metal foil and supplied as a cell component onto which the active electrode materials are coated.

  4. Kinetochore Structure: Pulling Answers from Yeast

    E-print Network

    Cheeseman, Iain M.

    Despite the identification of multiple kinetochore proteins, their structure and organization has remained unclear. New work uses electron microscopy to visualize isolated budding yeast kinetochore particles and reveal the ...

  5. [Malassezia yeasts and their significance in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Hort, W; Nilles, M; Mayser, P

    2006-07-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia belong to the normal microflora of the human skin. In addition they are known to cause a variety of skin diseases; the most frequent of which is pityriasis versicolor. Malassezia yeasts are also thought to be associated with seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff and Malassezia folliculitis. Recently the significance of Malassezia yeasts as a trigger factor for atopic dermatitis of the head and neck region has been pointed out. The role of the Malassezia yeasts in these different diseases has been controversial in the past and remains an issue because of difficulties in isolation, culture and differentiation of the organism. Thanks to molecular techniques, 10 species can actually be differentiated. The article presents the different Malassezia-associated diseases, their clinical picture, diagnosis and appropriate therapy. In addition the speciation of Malassezia is reviewed. PMID:16758222

  6. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  7. Proposal of scattering matrix for TIR switch and Spanke switch fabric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rangaswany Nakkeeran; D. Thiyagaraja Guptha; Thirthar G. Palanivelu

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the scattering matrix for Total Internal Reflection (TIR) electro-optic switch and Spanke switch fabric. The transfer functions of the switch and switch fabric are derived through Mason's gain formula. The scattering matrix of the switch fabric is formed using star product of switch element's scattering matrices. These transfer functions can be made to analyze the responses of

  8. A Novel Soft-Switching Converter for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KUEI-HSIANG CHAO

    A high efficiency converter for switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive is developed in this paper. In the proposed converter, the power semiconductor device with shorter switching time is employed to implement its high-speed PWM switches. And the soft-switching control is employed for further reducing their switching losses. To achieve this, an auxiliary resonant circuit is added to the PWM switch,

  9. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped...or control circuits will be opened or shunted or both, and if...switch cannot be locked. On such hand-operated switch, switch...

  10. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped...or control circuits will be opened or shunted or both, and if...switch cannot be locked. On such hand-operated switch, switch...

  11. Fast Switched Backplane for a Gigabit Switched Router

    E-print Network

    Ratnasamy, Sylvia

    1 Fast Switched Backplane for a Gigabit Switched Router Nick McKeown Department of Electrical....................................................................................................................2 3 The Architecture of Internet Routers..............................................................................................................29 #12;2 2 Abstract There is a new trend in the architecture of high performance Internet routers

  12. Helical switch: A multipath ATM switch which preserves cell sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Indra; Leon-Garcia, Alberto

    1994-08-01

    This new paper presents a new cell switching architecture for ATM-based networks. The proposed helical switch is a multistage interconnection network which implements the self-routing technique with efficient buffer sharing. Although the switch may route cells along multiple paths, the connection-oriented mode required by the ATM-based network is supported. Cell sequence integrity is guaranteed by introducing a virtual helix which forces cells routed along different paths to proceed in order and fill the internal buffers uniformly. The performance of the helical switch is investigated under uniform and nonuniform traffic patterns. Unlike single-path multistage networks such as buffered banyan networks which can degrade significantly under nonuniform traffic, the helical switch is shown to be quite robust with respect to nonuniform traffic conditions.

  13. The growth of solar radiated yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, T.

    1995-09-01

    This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland; and (2) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The procedure used was based on the fact that yeast is most often used in consumable baked goods. Therefore, the yeast was incorporated into a basic Betty Crocker bread recipe. Data was collected by placing measured amounts of dough into sample containers with fifteen minute growth in height measurements collected and recorded. This researcher assumed the viability of yeast to be relative to its ability to produce carbon dioxide gas and cause the dough to rise. As all ingredients and surroundings were equal, this researcher assumed the yeast will produce the only significant difference in data collected. This researcher noted the approximate use date on all sample packages to be prior to arrival and experiment date. All dates equal, it was then assumed each would act in a similar manner of response. This assumption will allow for equally correct data collection.

  14. The growth of solar radiated yeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Tyrone

    1995-01-01

    This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland; and (2) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The procedure used was based on the fact that yeast is most often used in consumable baked goods. Therefore, the yeast was incorporated into a basic Betty Crocker bread recipe. Data was collected by placing measured amounts of dough into sample containers with fifteen minute growth in height measurements collected and recorded. This researcher assumed the viability of yeast to be relative to its ability to produce carbon dioxide gas and cause the dough to rise. As all ingredients and surroundings were equal, this researcher assumed the yeast will produce the only significant difference in data collected. This researcher noted the approximate use date on all sample packages to be prior to arrival and experiment date. All dates equal, it was then assumed each would act in a similar manner of response. This assumption will allow for equally correct data collection.

  15. Physiological and environmental control of yeast prions

    PubMed Central

    Chernova, Tatiana A.; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2014-01-01

    Prions are self-perpetuating protein isoforms that cause fatal and incurable neurodegenerative disease in mammals. Recent evidence indicates that a majority of human proteins involved in amyloid and neural inclusion disorders possess at least some prion properties. In lower eukaryotes, such as yeast, prions act as epigenetic elements, which increase phenotypic diversity by altering a range of cellular processes. While some yeast prions are clearly pathogenic, it is also postulated that prion formation could be beneficial in variable environmental conditions. Yeast and mammalian prions have similar molecular properties. Crucial cellular factors and conditions influencing prion formation and propagation were uncovered in the yeast models. Stress-related chaperones, protein quality control deposits, degradation pathways and cytoskeletal networks control prion formation and propagation in yeast. Environmental stresses trigger prion formation and loss, supposedly acting via influencing intracellular concentrations of the prion-inducing proteins, and/or by localizing prionogenic proteins to the prion induction sites via heterologous ancillary helpers. Physiological and environmental modulation of yeast prions points to new opportunities for pharmacological intervention and/or prophylactic measures targeting general cellular systems rather than the properties of individual amyloids and prions. PMID:24236638

  16. Heat pipe thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, D. A. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A thermal switch for controlling the dissipation of heat between a body is described. The thermal switch is comprised of a flexible bellows defining an expansible vapor chamber for a working fluid located between an evaporation and condensation chamber. Inside the bellows is located a coiled retaining spring and four axial metal mesh wicks, two of which have their central portions located inside of the spring while the other two have their central portions located between the spring and the side wall of the bellows. The wicks are terminated and are attached to the inner surfaces of the outer end walls of evaporation and condensation chambers respectively located adjacent to the heat source and heat sink. The inner surfaces of the end walls furthermore include grooves to provide flow channels of the working fluid to and from the wick ends. The evaporation and condensation chambers are connected by turnbuckles and tension springs to provide a set point adjustment for setting the gap between an interface plate on the condensation chamber and the heat sink.

  17. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.822 Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their...

  18. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.822 Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their...

  19. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.822 Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their...

  20. IP switching and gigabit routers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Newman; G. Minshall; T. Lyon; L. Huston

    1997-01-01

    To cope with the growth in the Internet and corporate IP networks, we require IP routers capable of much higher performance than is possible with existing architectures. This article examines two approaches to the design of a high-performance router, the gigabit router and the IP switch, and then provides some detail on the implementation of an IP switch and the

  1. Multiposition optical-fibre switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Tomlinson; R. E. Wagner; A. R. Strnad; F. A. Dunn

    1979-01-01

    A compact simple multiposition switch for multimode optical fibers is described. The switch uses a single graded-refractive-index (g.r.i.n.-rod) lens and a rotating reflector to scan an image of the input fiber over a circular array of output fibers.

  2. Performance evaluation of transoceanic switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Du Yingzi; Hao Weimin

    1998-01-01

    The method of synchronous digital hierarchy self-healing ring (SDH SHR) in submarine operation is being developed to improve the reliability of international submarine optical communications. Transoceanic switching is applied in SDH SHR because of the unique features of an international optical submarine cable network: longer distance, submarine environment and fewer terminal stations. We study the system performance of transoceanic switching.

  3. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOEpatents

    Boling, Brian E. (Sugar Land, TX)

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  4. Channelized coplanar waveguide pin-diode switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Simons, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    Three different types of p-i-n diode, reflective CPW switches are presented. The first two switches are the series and the shunt mounted diode switches. Each has achieved greater than 15 dB of isolation over a broad bandwidth. The third switch is a narrow band, high isolation switched filter which has achieved 19 dB of isolation. Equivalent circuits and measured performance for each switch is presented.

  5. Functional adaptation between yeast actin and its cognate myosin motors.

    PubMed

    Stark, Benjamin C; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; Allingham, John S; Rubenstein, Peter A; Lord, Matthew

    2011-09-01

    We employed budding yeast and skeletal muscle actin to examine the contribution of the actin isoform to myosin motor function. While yeast and muscle actin are highly homologous, they exhibit different charge density at their N termini (a proposed myosin-binding interface). Muscle myosin-II actin-activated ATPase activity is significantly higher with muscle versus yeast actin. Whether this reflects inefficiency in the ability of yeast actin to activate myosin is not known. Here we optimized the isolation of two yeast myosins to assess actin function in a homogenous system. Yeast myosin-II (Myo1p) and myosin-V (Myo2p) accommodate the reduced N-terminal charge density of yeast actin, showing greater activity with yeast over muscle actin. Increasing the number of negative charges at the N terminus of yeast actin from two to four (as in muscle) had little effect on yeast myosin activity, while other substitutions of charged residues at the myosin interface of yeast actin reduced activity. Thus, yeast actin functions most effectively with its native myosins, which in part relies on associations mediated by its outer domain. Compared with yeast myosin-II and myosin-V, muscle myosin-II activity was very sensitive to salt. Collectively, our findings suggest differing degrees of reliance on electrostatic interactions during weak actomyosin binding in yeast versus muscle. Our study also highlights the importance of native actin isoforms when considering the function of myosins. PMID:21757693

  6. In Vivo Yeast Cell Morphogenesis Is Regulated by a p21-Activated Kinase in the Human Pathogen Penicillium marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Kylie J.; Schreider, Lena; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Pathogens have developed diverse strategies to infect their hosts and evade the host defense systems. Many pathogens reside within host phagocytic cells, thus evading much of the host immune system. For dimorphic fungal pathogens which grow in a multicellular hyphal form, a central attribute which facilitates growth inside host cells without rapid killing is the capacity to switch from the hyphal growth form to a unicellular yeast form. Blocking this transition abolishes or severely reduces pathogenicity. Host body temperature (37°C) is the most common inducer of the hyphal to yeast transition in vitro for many dimorphic fungi, and it is often assumed that this is the inducer in vivo. This work describes the identification and analysis of a new pathway involved in sensing the environment inside a host cell by a dimorphic fungal pathogen, Penicillium marneffei. The pakB gene, encoding a p21-activated kinase, defines this pathway and operates independently of known effectors in P. marneffei. Expression of pakB is upregulated in P. marneffei yeast cells isolated from macrophages but absent from in vitro cultured yeast cells produced at 37°C. Deletion of pakB leads to a failure to produce yeast cells inside macrophages but no effect in vitro at 37°C. Loss of pakB also leads to the inappropriate production of yeast cells at 25°C in vitro, and the mechanism underlying this requires the activity of the central regulator of asexual development. The data shows that this new pathway is central to eliciting the appropriate morphogenetic response by the pathogen to the host environment independently of the common temperature signal, thus clearly separating the temperature- and intracellular-dependent signaling systems. PMID:19956672

  7. Yeast and human mitochondrial helicases.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Roman J; Wojcik, Magdalena A; Borowski, Lukasz S; Szewczyk, Maciej J; Skrok, Magda M; Golik, Pawel; Stepien, Piotr P

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondria are semiautonomous organelles which contain their own genome. Both maintenance and expression of mitochondrial DNA require activity of RNA and DNA helicases. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the nuclear genome encodes four DExH/D superfamily members (MSS116, SUV3, MRH4, IRC3) that act as helicases and/or RNA chaperones. Their activity is necessary for mitochondrial RNA splicing, degradation, translation and genome maintenance. In humans the ortholog of SUV3 (hSUV3, SUPV3L1) so far is the best described mitochondrial RNA helicase. The enzyme, together with the matrix-localized pool of PNPase (PNPT1), forms an RNA-degrading complex called the mitochondrial degradosome, which localizes to distinct structures (D-foci). Global regulation of mitochondrially encoded genes can be achieved by changing mitochondrial DNA copy number. This way the proteins involved in its replication, like the Twinkle helicase (c10orf2), can indirectly regulate gene expression. Here, we describe yeast and human mitochondrial helicases that are directly involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism, and present other helicases that participate in mitochondrial DNA replication and maintenance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Biology of RNA helicases - Modulation for life. PMID:23454114

  8. Yeast prions assembly and propagation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Yeast prions are self-perpetuating protein aggregates that are at the origin of heritable and transmissible non-Mendelian phenotypic traits. Among these, [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] are the most well documented prions and arise from the assembly of Sup35p, Ure2p and Rnq1p, respectively, into insoluble fibrillar assemblies. Fibril assembly depends on the presence of N- or C-terminal prion domains (PrDs) which are not homologous in sequence but share unusual amino-acid compositions, such as enrichment in polar residues (glutamines and asparagines) or the presence of oligopeptide repeats. Purified PrDs form amyloid fibrils that can convert prion-free cells to the prion state upon transformation. Nonetheless, isolated PrDs and full-length prion proteins have different aggregation, structural and infectious properties. In addition, mutations in the “non-prion” domains (non-PrDs) of Sup35p, Ure2p and Rnq1p were shown to affect their prion properties in vitro and in vivo. Despite these evidences, the implication of the functional non-PrDs in fibril assembly and prion propagation has been mostly overlooked. In this review, we discuss the contribution of non-PrDs to prion assemblies, and the structure-function relationship in prion infectivity in the light of recent findings on Sup35p and Ure2p assembly into infectious fibrils from our laboratory and others. PMID:22052349

  9. ''Smart'' watchdog safety switch

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-10-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring a process having a periodic output so that the process equipment is not damaged in the event of a controller failure, comprising a low-pass and peak clipping filter, an event detector that generates an event pulse for each valid change in magnitude of the filtered periodic output, a timing pulse generator, a counter that increments upon receipt of any timing pulse and resets to zero on receipt of any event pulse, an alarm that alerts when the count reaches some preselected total count, and a set of relays that opens to stop power to process equipment. An interface module can be added to allow the switch to accept a variety of periodic output signals. 21 figures.

  10. Optimized scalable network switch

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2007-12-04

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  11. Optimized scalable network switch

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2010-02-23

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  12. MIRO Calibration Switch Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchman, Jason; Salinas, Yuki; Kubo, Holly

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed, analyzed, built, and tested a calibration switch mechanism for the MIRO instrument on the ROSETTA spacecraft. MIRO is the Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter; this instrument hopes to investigate the origin of the solar system by studying the origin of comets. Specifically, the instrument will be the first to use submillimeter and millimeter wave heterodyne receivers to remotely examine the P-54 Wirtanen comet. In order to calibrate the instrument, it needs to view a hot and cold target. The purpose of the mechanism is to divert the instrument's field of view from the hot target, to the cold target, and then back into space. This cycle is to be repeated every 30 minutes for the duration of the 1.5 year mission. The paper describes the development of the mechanism, as well as analysis and testing techniques.

  13. A new soft-switched resonant buck-type rectifier with constant switching frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jagjitpati Shukla; B. G. Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    A new three-phase soft-switched AC-to-DC buck converter operating at constant switching frequency and drawing current at unity power-factor from the source is proposed. Unlike other three-phase resonant switch buck-type rectifiers reported in the literature, the switching frequency of this converter is held constant. The proposed converter uses two switches, which are soft-switched. This results in reduced switching losses and electromagnetic

  14. Aggregated platelets enhance adherence of Candida yeasts to endothelium.

    PubMed

    Klotz, S A; Harrison, J L; Misra, R P

    1989-10-01

    The adherence of Candida albicans yeasts to human umbilical vein endothelium to subendothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) was investigated. Yeasts added to confluent endothelium in citrated platelet-poor plasma adhered on the average of 1 colony forming unit (cfu) per culture well. When platelets were added as platelet-rich plasma, a significant increase of yeast adherence was not seen. However, when endothelium was contracted by treatment with 2 mM EDTA, resulting in exposure of ECM, yeast adherence was increased to 10 cfu/well. When platelets were added with these yeasts, the number of adhering yeasts was further increased to 23 cfu/well (P less than .01). This represented an increase in adherence of yeasts of 230%. When the endothelial cells were completely removed and ECM exposed, platelets were found to likewise augment yeast adherence. Platelets, when added to the ECM, formed aggregates to which the yeasts firmly adhered. Likewise, when platelets were aggregated by adenosine diphosphate and mixed with yeasts, yeasts were shown to bind avidly to aggregated platelets, whereas yeasts did not adhere to unactivated, discoid platelets. Thus, exposed subendothelial ECM induces the aggregation of platelets and yeasts bind avidly to these platelet aggregates. PMID:2677163

  15. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  16. The ribosome-associated complex antagonizes prion formation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Amor, Alvaro J; Castanzo, Dominic T; Delany, Sean P; Selechnik, Daniel M; van Ooy, Alex; Cameron, Dale M

    2015-01-01

    The number of known fungal proteins capable of switching between alternative stable conformations is steadily increasing, suggesting that a prion-like mechanism may be broadly utilized as a means to propagate altered cellular states. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which cells regulate prion formation and toxicity we examined the role of the yeast ribosome-associated complex (RAC) in modulating both the formation of the [PSI(+)] prion - an alternative conformer of Sup35 protein - and the toxicity of aggregation-prone polypeptides. The Hsp40 RAC chaperone Zuo1 anchors the RAC to ribosomes and stimulates the ATPase activity of the Hsp70 chaperone Ssb. We found that cells lacking Zuo1 are sensitive to over-expression of some aggregation-prone proteins, including the Sup35 prion domain, suggesting that co-translational protein misfolding increases in ?zuo1 strains. Consistent with this finding, ?zuo1 cells exhibit higher frequencies of spontaneous and induced prion formation. Cells expressing mutant forms of Zuo1 lacking either a C-terminal charged region required for ribosome association, or the J-domain responsible for Ssb ATPase stimulation, exhibit similarly high frequencies of prion formation. Our findings are consistent with a role for the RAC in chaperoning nascent Sup35 to regulate folding of the N-terminal prion domain as it emerges from the ribosome. PMID:25739058

  17. Fission yeast RNA triphosphatase reads an Spt5 CTD code.

    PubMed

    Doamekpor, Selom K; Schwer, Beate; Sanchez, Ana M; Shuman, Stewart; Lima, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    mRNA capping enzymes are directed to nascent RNA polymerase II (Pol2) transcripts via interactions with the carboxy-terminal domains (CTDs) of Pol2 and transcription elongation factor Spt5. Fission yeast RNA triphosphatase binds to the Spt5 CTD, comprising a tandem repeat of nonapeptide motif TPAWNSGSK. Here we report the crystal structure of a Pct1·Spt5-CTD complex, which revealed two CTD docking sites on the Pct1 homodimer that engage TPAWN segments of the motif. Each Spt5 CTD interface, composed of elements from both subunits of the homodimer, is dominated by van der Waals contacts from Pct1 to the tryptophan of the CTD. The bound CTD adopts a distinctive conformation in which the peptide backbone makes a tight U-turn so that the proline stacks over the tryptophan. We show that Pct1 binding to Spt5 CTD is antagonized by threonine phosphorylation. Our results fortify an emerging concept of an "Spt5 CTD code" in which (i) the Spt5 CTD is structurally plastic and can adopt different conformations that are templated by particular cellular Spt5 CTD receptor proteins; and (ii) threonine phosphorylation of the Spt5 CTD repeat inscribes a binary on-off switch that is read by diverse CTD receptors, each in its own distinctive manner. PMID:25414009

  18. Oxygen Response of the Wine Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 Grown under Carbon-Sufficient, Nitrogen-Limited Enological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aceituno, Felipe F.; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastián; Slater, Alex W.; Melo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological conditions. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-limited continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 ?M, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen conditions, suggesting that the limitation of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:23001663

  19. Production of alpha-amylase by yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Thomse, K.K.

    1987-01-01

    The enzyme alpha-amylase confers to an organism the enzymatic activity for the degradation of polyglucosides with alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds such as starch and glycogen which are among the major storage compounds in plants and animals. Most alpha-amylases are single polypeptides of molecular weights around 50,000 dalton. They are generally found in the digestive tract of animals and in germinating seeds. Among the products released upon enzymatic degradation of polyglucosides maltose, a sugar that can be utilized as carbon source by yeast, is a major constituent. A cDNA segment complementary to mouse salivary amylase messenger RNA has been inserted into the yeast expression vector pMA56 behind the promoter of the gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase I of yeast. Yeast transformants harboring plasmids with the normal orientation of the promoter and the mouse amylase cDNA gene produce amylase and release the enzyme in free form into the culture medium. Approximately 90% of the amylase activity is found in the medium. Yeast strains carrying MAL allele and transformed with a plasmid which directed the synthesis of mouse alpha-amylase were tested on plates containing starch and in batch fermentations using different high molecular weight sugars and oligosaccharides as carbon source. The results of these experiments will be discussed. (Refs. 21).

  20. Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

  1. Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer Switch with a Symmetrical Switching Window

    E-print Network

    Haddadi, Hamed

    asymmetrical demultiplexer (TOAD) switch. This is achieved by saturating the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), located within the TOAD loop, from both directions. So that, both clockwise (CW) and counter], terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) [2], ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (UNI) [3

  2. A simple inductive contactless switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dover, R. B.; Jin, S.

    1985-04-01

    When a small coil wound around a fine core of low coercivity square-loop Fe-6 wt pct Ni alloy wire is excited with a 100-kHz ac current it develops a peak voltage much greater than that obtained from a coreless coil. This effect can be used to sense motion of the core in and out of the coil or alternatively to sense motion of an external biasing magnet. Either way one has a position sensor which is extremely simple and which could be useful in a variety of applications, such as high-reliability keypad switches, proximity switches, and switches for use in hazardous or corrosive atmospheres.

  3. Ypt1 and TRAPP interactions: optimization of multicolor bimolecular fluorescence complementation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, Zhanna; Kim, Jane J; Segev, Nava

    2015-01-01

    Ypt/Rab GTPases are conserved molecular switches that regulate the multiple vesicular transport steps of all intracellular trafficking pathways. They are stimulated by guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). In yeast, Ypt1 regulates transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to two alternative pathways: secretion and autophagy. Ypt1 is activated by TRAPP, a modular multi-subunit GEF. Whereas TRAPP I activates Ypt1 to mediate transport through the Golgi, TRAPP III, which contains all the subunits of TRAPP I plus Trs85, activates Ypt1-mediated transport to autophagosomes. The functional pair Ypt31/32 regulates traffic in and out of the trans-Golgi and is activated by TRAPP II, which consists of TRAPP I plus two specific subunits, Trs120 and Trs130. To study the interaction of Ypts with specific TRAPP subunits and interactions between the different subunits of TRAPP, including the cellular sites of these interactions, we have employed a number of approaches. One approach that we have recently optimized for the use in yeast is multicolor bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). BiFC, which employs split fluorescent tags, has emerged as a powerful approach for determining protein interaction in vivo. Because proteins work in complexes, the ability to determine more than one interaction at a time using multicolor BiFC is even more powerful. Defining the sites of protein interaction is possible by co-localization of the BiFC puncta with compartmental markers. Here, we describe a set of plasmids for multicolor BiFC optimized for use in yeast. We combined their use with a set of available yeast strains that express red fluorescence compartmental markers. We have recently used these constructs to determine Ypt1 and TRAPP interactions in two different processes: intracellular trafficking and autophagy. PMID:25800836

  4. Switching performance of a cryogenic silicon photoconductive power switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Petr; W. C. Nunnally; C. V. Smith

    1988-01-01

    The silicon photoconductive power switch has the potential to replace gaseous discharge switches like thyratrons, krytrons, ignitrons, and spark gaps, that are commonly found in high-voltage and high-current pulse circuits. This offers the possibility of developing advanced laser and radar drive circuits that are all-solid state, and which enjoy the advantages of improved efficiency, compactness, and life expectancy. Silicon operating

  5. Abundant ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA by yeast replicative polymerases

    E-print Network

    Burgers, Peter M.

    Abundant ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA by yeast replicative polymerases Stephanie A. Nick Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), Umeå University, SE-901 87, Umeå, Sweden Edited in vitro using the physiological nucleoside triphosphate concentra- tions, yeast DNA polymerase , which

  6. Bridges, Switches, Routers 1.1 Introduction

    E-print Network

    Varaiya, Pravin

    Chapter 1 Bridges, Switches, Routers 1.1 Introduction ¯ Packet vs circuit (and virtual circuit ¯ Packet processors--Bridges, Routers, ATM switches 1 #12;2 CHAPTER 1. BRIDGES, SWITCHES, ROUTERS Routing in an extended LAN. See Problem 2. #12;4 CHAPTER 1. BRIDGES, SWITCHES, ROUTERS Figure 1.3: LAN vs VLAN topology

  7. WDM burst switching for petabit capacity routers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuhua Chen; Jonathan S. Turner

    1999-01-01

    WDM burst switching is an approach to building very high capacity routing switches based on optical data paths and electronic control. Burst switches assign user data bursts to channels in WDM links on-the-fly in order to provide efficient statistical multiplexing of high rate data channels. The overall system architecture is designed to facilitate the introduction of optical switching components as

  8. A Comparison of High-Voltage Switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Chu; G. L. Scott

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes our work on high-voltage switches during the past few years. With joint funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DOD), we tested a wide variety of switches to a common standard. This approach permitted meaningful comparisons between disparate switches. Most switches were purchased from commercial sources, though some were experimental devices. For

  9. Low voltage high isolation MEMS switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Blondy; D. Cros; P. Guillon; P. Rey; P. Charvet; B. Diem; C. Zanchi; J. B. Quoirin

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes MEMS thermally actuated RF switches. The switches are constructed using a stress controlled dielectric membrane, with patterned metallic contacts. The structure allows one to build resistive switches at RF frequencies. The process is CMOS compatible and the resulting switches can be easily operated below 5 V. A wafer scale packaging technique has been developed to protect the

  10. An auxiliary resonant soft switching matrix converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Bland; J. C. Clare; P. W. Wheeler; L. Empringham; M. Apap

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design, construction and testing of a 3-phase to 3-phase soft switching matrix converter. Two auxiliary soft switching circuits are added to each output phase in order to achieve soft switching without significantly increasing the conduction losses. The converter operation is discussed with reference to theoretical waveforms. The distribution of the switching losses with respect

  11. Design methodologies for soft switched inverters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Divan; G. Venkataramanan; R. W. De Doncker

    1988-01-01

    A detailed design methodology is presented for soft switched inverters. The actively clamped resonant DC link inverter and the resonant pole inverter are taken as illustrative design examples with a detailed enumeration of component design rules, switching loss calculations, and system optimization. The soft-switched circuits are then compared with the conventional hard-switched voltage-sourced inverter under identical load conditions

  12. Design methodologies for soft switched inverters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepakaraj M. Divan; Giri Venkataramanan; Rik W. A. A. DeDoncker

    1993-01-01

    A detailed design methodology for soft-switched inverters is presented. The actively clamped resonant DC link and the resonant pole inverters are taken as illustrative design examples with detailed enumeration of component design rules, switching loss calculations, and system optimization. The soft-switched circuits are then compared with a conventional hard-switched voltage source inverter under identical operating conditions

  13. Cytotoxic Mechanism of Selenomethionine in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Toshihiko; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Chiba, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    Although selenium is an essential element, its excessive uptake is detrimental to living organisms. The significance of selenium for living organisms has been exploited for various purposes. However, the molecular basis of selenium toxicity is not completely understood. Here, we applied a capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach to analysis of yeast cells treated with selenomethionine. The data indicated that intracellular thiol compounds are significantly decreased, and diselenide and selenosulfide compounds are increased in selenomethionine-treated cells. The growth defect induced by selenomethionine was recovered by extracellular addition of cysteine and by genetic modification of yeast cells that have an additional de novo synthetic pathway for cysteine. Because cysteine is an intermediate of thiol compounds, these results suggested that the loss of a reduced form of thiol compounds due to selenomethionine causes a growth defect of yeast cells. PMID:22311978

  14. New yeast recombineering tools for bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Robert M Q; Kadouri, Daniel E; MacEachran, Daniel P; O'Toole, George A

    2009-09-01

    Recombineering with Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful methodology that can be used to clone multiple unmarked pieces of DNA to generate complex constructs with high efficiency. Here, we introduce two new tools that utilize the native recombination enzymes of S. cerevisiae to facilitate the manipulation of DNA. First, yeast recombineering was used to make directed nested deletions in a bacteria-yeast shuttle plasmid using only one or two single stranded oligomers, thus obviating the need for a PCR step. Second, we have generated several new shuttle vectors for yeast recombineering capable of replication in a wide variety of bacterial genera. As a demonstration of utility, some of the approaches and vectors generated in this study were used to make a pigP deletion mutation in the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens. PMID:19477196

  15. The organization of oligonucleosomes in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Szent-Gyorgyi, C; Isenberg, I

    1983-01-01

    We have developed a method of preparing yeast chromatin that facilitates the analysis of nucleoprotein organization. Yeast chromatin, isolated as an insoluble complex, is digested with micrococcal nuclease and fractionated into major insoluble and soluble fractions. No nucleosomal repeat is seen early in digestion for the insoluble fraction. Nucleosomal complexes of the soluble fraction are excised by nuclease in a distinctive non-random pattern; they are markedly depleted in mononucleosomes. When we analyze the soluble material by high resolution native electrophoresis, we find that the nucleoproteins resolve into two bands for each DNA multimer of the nucleosomal repeat. Our results suggest that there are structural similarities between bulk yeast chromatin and chromatin configurations found in transcribing genes of complex eukaryotes. Images PMID:6344013

  16. Yeast Oligo-mediated Genome Engineering (YOGE)

    PubMed Central

    DiCarlo, JE; Conley, AJ; Penttilä, M; Jäntti, J; Wang, HH; Church, GM

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency oligonucleotide-directed recombination engineering (recombineering) has enabled rapid modification of several prokaryotic genomes to date. Here, we present a method for oligonucleotide-mediated recombineering in the model eukaryote and industrial production host S. cerevisiae, which we call Yeast Oligo-mediated Genome Engineering (YOGE). Through a combination of overexpression and knockouts of relevant genes and optimization of transformation and oligonucleotide designs, we achieve high gene modification frequencies at levels that only require screening of dozens of cells. We demonstrate the robustness of our approach in three divergent yeast strains, including those involved in industrial production of bio-based chemicals. Furthermore, YOGE can be iteratively executed via cycling to generate genomic libraries up to 105 individuals at each round for diversity generation. YOGE cycling alone, or in combination with phenotypic selections or endonuclease-based negative genotypic selections, can be used to easily generate modified alleles in yeast populations with high frequencies. PMID:24160921

  17. RNA degradation in yeast and human mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Roman J; Borowski, Lukasz S; Malecki, Michal; Wojcik, Magdalena A; Stepien, Piotr P; Golik, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Expression of mitochondrially encoded genes must be finely tuned according to the cell's requirements. Since yeast and human mitochondria have limited possibilities to regulate gene expression by altering the transcription initiation rate, posttranscriptional processes, including RNA degradation, are of great importance. In both organisms mitochondrial RNA degradation seems to be mostly depending on the RNA helicase Suv3. Yeast Suv3 functions in cooperation with Dss1 ribonuclease by forming a two-subunit complex called the mitochondrial degradosome. The human ortholog of Suv3 (hSuv3, hSuv3p, SUPV3L1) is also indispensable for mitochondrial RNA decay but its ribonucleolytic partner has so far escaped identification. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about RNA degradation in human and yeast mitochondria. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Gene Expression. PMID:22178375

  18. The long physiological reach of the yeast vacuolar H + ATPase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia M. Kane

    2007-01-01

    V-ATPases are structurally conserved and functionally versatile proton pumps found in all eukaryotes. The yeast V-ATPase has\\u000a emerged as a major model system, in part because yeast mutants lacking V-ATPase subunits (vma mutants) are viable and exhibit a distinctive Vma- phenotype. Yeast vma mutants are present in ordered collections of all non-essential yeast deletion mutants, and a number of additional

  19. Fermentation of maltotriose by brewer's and baker's yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Londesborough

    2001-01-01

    Two brewer's yeasts and one baker's yeast grew with =95% (w\\/w) pure maltotriose as carbon source in the presence of antimycin A to block respiration. Biomass yields (0.15 and 0.24 g dry yeast g-1 sugar, respectively, with and without antimycin A) were similar for growth on maltose and maltotriose, and yields of ethanol were 80% of stoichiometric. Yeasts harvested during

  20. Switch element reliability required to maintain large-scale photonic cross-connect switch reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Noguchi; M. Koga

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses how switch element reliability affects the reliability of large-scale switches. We evaluated the relation between switch element FIT and large-scale OXC reliability. In so doing, we found that the DC-SW is the most reliable type of optical switch because it can be composed of fewer switch elements.

  1. Electron collisions in gas switches

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    Many technologies rely on the conduction/insulation properties of gaseous matter for their successful operation. Many others (e.g., pulsed power technologies) rely on the rapid change (switching or modulation) of the properties of gaseous matter from an insulator to a conductor and vice versa. Studies of electron collision processes in gases aided the development of pulsed power gas switches, and in this paper we shall briefly illustrate the kind of knowledge on electron collision processes which is needed to optimize the performance of such switching devices. To this end, we shall refer to three types of gas switches: spark gap closing, self-sustained diffuse discharge closing, and externally-sustained diffuse discharge opening. 24 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Research Article Inhibition Versus Switching

    E-print Network

    Banich, Marie T.

    in executive function. These deficits manifest themselves pri- marily as perseverative behavior and thinking whether such perseverative tendencies are asso- ciated with an inability to switch attention away from old

  3. Vanadium Dioxide Phase Change Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Mark; Hillman, Christopher; Stupar, Philip; Hacker, Jonathan; Griffith, Zachary; Lee, Kang-Jin

    2015-03-01

    We have built RF switches using vanadium dioxide thin films fabricated within a section of inverted transmission line with integrated on chip heaters to provide local thermal control. On heating the films above the metal insulator transition we obtain record low switch insertion loss of -0.13 dB at 50 GHz and -0.5 dB at 110 GHz. We investigate the device physics of these switches including the effect of a deposited insulator on the VO2 switching characteristics, the self-latching of the devices under high RF powers and the effect of resistance change with temperature on the device linearity. Finally we show how these devices can be integrated with silicon germanium RF circuits to produce a field programmable device where the RF signal routing can be selected under external control. Supported under the DARPA RF-FPGA Program, Contract HR0011-12-C-0092.

  4. Biochemical Comparison of Commercial Selenium Yeast Preparations.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Sheena; Owens, Rebecca; Ward, Patrick; Connolly, Cathal; Doyle, Sean; Murphy, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The trace mineral selenium (Se) is an essential element for human and animal nutrition. The addition of Se to the diet through dietary supplements or fortified food/feed is increasingly common owing to the often sub-optimal content of standard diets of many countries. Se supplements commercially available include the inorganic mineral salts such as sodium selenite or selenate, and organic forms such as Se-enriched yeast. Today, Se yeast is produced by several manufacturers and has become the most widely used source of Se for human supplementation and is also widely employed in animal nutrition where approval in all species has been granted by regulatory bodies such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Characterisation and comparison of Se-enriched yeast products has traditionally been made by quantifying total selenomethionine (SeMet) content. A disadvantage of this approach, however, is that it does not consider the effects of Se deposition on subsequent digestive availability. In this study, an assessment was made of the water-soluble extracts of commercially available Se-enriched yeast samples for free, peptide-bound and total water-soluble SeMet. Using LC-MS/MS, a total of 62 Se-containing proteins were identified across four Se yeast products, displaying quantitative/qualitative changes in abundance relative to the certified reference material, SELM-1 (P value <0.05; fold change ?2). Overall, the study indicates that significant differences exist between Se yeast products in terms of SeMet content, Se-containing protein abundance and associated metabolic pathways. PMID:25855372

  5. [The yeast biofilm in human medicine].

    PubMed

    R?zicka, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, the role of Candida yeasts as causative agents of nosocomial infections has increased. One of the important virulence factors contributing to the development of such infections is biofilm production. This virulence factor enables yeast to colonize both native surfaces and artificial implants. The most common sources of infection are patients themselves, in particular the gastrointestinal tract and skin. The vectors of exogenous yeast infections are predominantly the hands of the health personnel and contaminated medical instruments. The adhesion of yeasts to the implant surfaces is determined both by implant surface and yeast characteristics. This is followed by proliferation and production of microcolonies and extracellular matrix. The final biofilm structure is also influenced by the production of hyphae and pseudohyphae. The entire process of biofilm production is controlled by numerous regulatory systems, with the key role being played by the quorum sensing system. Like the adhered bacterial cultures, candidas growing in the form of a biofilm are highly resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Resistance of yeast biofilms to antifungals is a complex process with multiple contributing factors. These are especially increased gene expression (e.g. genes encoding the so called multidrug efflux pumps), limited penetration of substances through the extracellular matrix, inhibited cell growth and altered microenvironment in deeper biofilm layers. The concentrations of antifungals able to effectively affect the biofilm cells exceed, by several orders of magnitude, the values of conventionally determined MICs. High biofilm resistance results in ineffective antifungal therapy of biofilm infections. Therefore, if possible, the colonized implant should be removed. Conservative therapy should involve antifungals with a proven effect on the biofilm (e.g. caspofungin). The most effective measure in fighting biofilm infections is prevention, especially adhering to aseptic techniques when manipulating with implants and their correct maintenance. PMID:17929219

  6. Electronic logic for enhanced switch reliability

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-20

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and fail-safe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  7. Terabit switching and routing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, Aleksandra

    2005-02-01

    The Internet is growing, and terabit routers are needed. We will discuss two scalable architectures, and their performances: the packet switch with input buffers based on a cross-bar fabric, and the packet switch based on a Clos fabric and load balancing. Both architectures provide non-blocking, and, therefore agile admission control for unicast and multicast traffic. They will be also shown to provide rate and delay guarantees to the sensitive applications.

  8. The interleaved matching switch architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Lin; Isaac Keslassy

    2009-01-01

    Operators need routers to provide service guaran- tees such as guaranteed flow rates and fairness among flows, so as to support traffic engineering and real-time traffic. However, current centralized input-queued router architectures cannot scale to fast line rates while providing these service guarantees. On the other hand, while load-balanced switch architectures that rely on two identical stages of fixed-configuration switches

  9. Research Articles Yeast Ancestral Genome Reconstructions: The Possibilities

    E-print Network

    Chauve, Cedric

    Research Articles Yeast Ancestral Genome Reconstructions: The Possibilities of Computational the availability of assembled eukaryotic genomes, the first one being a budding yeast, many computational methods them to infer and analyse the architectures of two ancestral yeast genomes, based on the sequence

  10. Growth and survival of a probiotic yeast in dairy products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Lourens-Hattingh; B. C Viljoen

    2001-01-01

    Poor survival of probiotic bacteria in yogurt has been recorded. Growth of a probiotic yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, in association with the bio-yogurt microflora, by incorporating the yeast into commercial bio-yogurt, has been suggested to stimulate the growth of the probiotic organisms and to assure their survival during shelflife. Therefore, the ability of growth and survival of the probiotic yeast itself

  11. The humanization of N-glycosylation pathways in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Wildt; Tilllman U. Gerngross

    2005-01-01

    Yeast and other fungal protein-expression hosts have been extensively used to produce industrial enzymes, and are often the expression system of choice when manufacturing costs are of primary concern. However, for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins intended for use in humans, yeast have been less useful owing to their inability to modify proteins with human glycosylation structures. Yeast N-glycosylation is

  12. Cycloheximide resistance as marker for monitoring yeasts in wine fermentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Pérez; J. A Regodón; M. E Valdés; C De Miguel; M Ram??rez

    2000-01-01

    When selected yeast strains are used in wine-making, it is necessary to ensure that the fermentation process is really conducted by the inoculated yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae spontaneous mutants resistant to cycloheximide (cyhr) were isolated from industrial strains. The mutations did not affect the fermentation kinetics, the quality of the wines, or the viability of active dry yeast made with the

  13. Tripartite organization of centromeric chromatin in budding yeast

    E-print Network

    Henikoff, Steven

    Tripartite organization of centromeric chromatin in budding yeast Kristina Krassovskya,b , Jorja G by nucleosomes containing the CenH3 histone variant, whereas in budding yeast, a 120-bp centromere DNA element this is the case in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where each of the 16 centromeres consists of a 120

  14. Lovastatin Content of Commercially Available Red Yeast Rice Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Gregory; Rebecca Pettit; Zara Risoldi Cochrane; Amy F. Wilson; Andrew M. Abe

    2012-01-01

    Red yeast rice is a commonly used supplement in North America, primarily promoted for lowering cholesterol. The fermentation process for producing red yeast rice naturally produces a small concentration of lovastatin and related compounds. The authors evaluated label information and contacted manufacturers to inquire about lovastatin content in 117 commercially available red yeast rice supplement products. Only 14% of the

  15. 21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Pichia pastoris dried yeast. 573.750 Section 573.750 Food...Listing § 573.750 Pichia pastoris dried yeast. (a) Identity. The food additive Pichia pastoris dried yeast may be used in feed formulations...

  16. 21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Pichia pastoris dried yeast. 573.750 Section 573.750 Food...Listing § 573.750 Pichia pastoris dried yeast. (a) Identity . The food additive Pichia pastoris dried yeast may be used in feed formulations...

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Candida gelsemii sp. nov., a yeast

    E-print Network

    Thomson, James D.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Candida gelsemii sp. nov., a yeast of the Metschnikowiaceae clade isolated from+Business Media B.V. 2006 Abstract A new yeast species, Candida gelsemii, is described to accommodate three Metschnikowiaceae Á Gelsemium sempervirens Á Nectar alkaloids Á Gelsemine Á New yeast species Introduction Floral

  18. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

  19. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

  20. Yeast Genes That Enhance the Toxicity of a Mutant Huntingtin

    E-print Network

    Lindquist, Susan

    Yeast Genes That Enhance the Toxicity of a Mutant Huntingtin Fragment or -Synuclein Stephen-wide screens were performed in yeast to identify genes that enhance the toxicity of a mutant huntingtin's yeast Sac- charomyces cerevisiae as a model eukaryotic organism to test the hypothesis that the down

  1. Glucose and sucrose: hazardous fast-food for industrial yeast?

    E-print Network

    Glucose and sucrose: hazardous fast-food for industrial yeast? Kevin J. Verstrepen1,2 , Dirk 197, Glen Osmond, Adelaide SA-5064, Australia Yeast cells often encounter a mixture of different resist- ance. In an industrial context, these effects lead to several yeast-related problems

  2. Clustering, Communication and Environmental Oscillations in Populations of Budding Yeast

    E-print Network

    Young, Todd

    Clustering, Communication and Environmental Oscillations in Populations of Budding Yeast Chris describe how simple models of communication, consistent with known yeast phys- iological mechanisms relevant variables during yeast growth and division have been reported and studied for over 40 years [8, 12

  3. 21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Pichia pastoris dried yeast. 573.750 Section 573.750 Food...Listing § 573.750 Pichia pastoris dried yeast. (a) Identity . The food additive Pichia pastoris dried yeast may be used in feed formulations...

  4. GENE ENGINEERING OF YEASTS FOR THE DEGRADATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research examined the structure and function of cytochrome P-450 genes in yeast as a model for gene engineering such as eukaryotic P-450 enzymes for biodegradation of hazardous waste by yeasts. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis are two yeasts known to produce ma...

  5. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

  6. Boolean Network Model Predicts Cell Cycle Sequence of Fission Yeast

    E-print Network

    Bornholdt, Stefan

    Boolean Network Model Predicts Cell Cycle Sequence of Fission Yeast Maria I. Davidich, Stefan network model of the cell-cycle regulatory network of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces Pombe sequence being a strongly attractive trajectory. Comparing the fission yeast cell-cycle model to a similar

  7. Robust Spatial Sensing of Mating Pheromone Gradients by Yeast Cells

    E-print Network

    Nie, Qing

    Robust Spatial Sensing of Mating Pheromone Gradients by Yeast Cells Travis I. Moore1,2 , Ching not degrade the pheromone input. The yeast cells exhibited good accuracy with the mating projection typically caused defects in both sensing and response. Interestingly, yeast cells employed adaptive mechanisms

  8. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

  9. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

  10. 21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Pichia pastoris dried yeast. 573.750 Section 573.750 Food...Listing § 573.750 Pichia pastoris dried yeast. (a) Identity . The food additive Pichia pastoris dried yeast may be used in feed formulations...

  11. Research Focus A short history of recombination in yeast

    E-print Network

    Otto, Sarah

    Research Focus A short history of recombination in yeast Clifford W. Zeyl1* and Sarah P. Otto2* 1 of fungal genomics, we know little about either the ecology or reproductive biology of the budding yeast of a studyofhistoricalpoutcrossingeventsand inferthe genomic positions of previous recombination events in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  12. Exploring the Yeast Genome with Generalized Singular Value

    E-print Network

    Fonseca, Rodrigo

    Exploring the Yeast Genome with Generalized Singular Value Decomposition Andrew Ferguson Advisor courses of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under two different experimental con- ditions. In the first analysis, a comparison is performed between the yeast stress response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2

  13. 21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Pichia pastoris dried yeast. 573.750 Section 573.750 Food...Listing § 573.750 Pichia pastoris dried yeast. (a) Identity . The food additive Pichia pastoris dried yeast may be used in feed formulations...

  14. Invited Review Functional expression of heterologous proteins in yeast: insights

    E-print Network

    Rao, Rajini

    Invited Review Functional expression of heterologous proteins in yeast: insights into Ca2 signaling of heterologous proteins in yeast: insights into Ca2 signaling and Ca2 -transporting ATPases. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 287: C580­C589, 2004; 10.1152/ajpcell.00135.2004.-- The baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  15. Population genomic analysis of outcrossing and recombination in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas M Ruderfer; Stephen C Pratt; Hannah S Seidel; Leonid Kruglyak

    2006-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used by humans for millennia to make wine, beer and bread. More recently, it became a key model organism for studies of eukaryotic biology and for genomic analysis. However, relatively little is known about the natural lifestyle and population genetics of yeast. One major question is whether genetically diverse yeast strains mate and

  16. Triacetic acid lactone production in industrial Saccharomyces yeast strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical that can be produced in yeast. To evaluate the potential for industrial yeast strains to produce TAL, the g2ps1 gene encoding 2-pyrone synthase was transformed into thirteen industrial yeast strains of varied genetic background. TAL produ...

  17. Principles of chromosomal organization: lessons from yeast

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The spatial organization of genes and chromosomes plays an important role in the regulation of several DNA processes. However, the principles and forces underlying this nonrandom organization are mostly unknown. Despite its small dimension, and thanks to new imaging and biochemical techniques, studies of the budding yeast nucleus have led to significant insights into chromosome arrangement and dynamics. The dynamic organization of the yeast genome during interphase argues for both the physical properties of the chromatin fiber and specific molecular interactions as drivers of nuclear order. PMID:21383075

  18. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, James D. (10328 Pinehurst Ave., Omaha, NE 68124)

    1998-01-01

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a seriesed combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided.

  19. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, J.D.

    1998-06-02

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a series combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electrically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided. 14 figs.

  20. Electrically switched ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  1. The magnetoelectrochemical switch.

    PubMed

    Popa, Petru Lunca; Kemp, Neil T; Majjad, Hicham; Dalmas, Guillaume; Faramarzi, Vina; Andreas, Christian; Hertel, Riccardo; Doudin, Bernard

    2014-07-22

    In the field of spintronics, the archetype solid-state two-terminal device is the spin valve, where the resistance is controlled by the magnetization configuration. We show here how this concept of spin-dependent switch can be extended to magnetic electrodes in solution, by magnetic control of their chemical environment. Appropriate nanoscale design allows a huge enhancement of the magnetic force field experienced by paramagnetic molecular species in solutions, which changes between repulsive and attractive on changing the electrodes' magnetic orientations. Specifically, the field gradient force created within a sub-100-nm-sized nanogap separating two magnetic electrodes can be reversed by changing the orientation of the electrodes' magnetization relative to the current flowing between the electrodes. This can result in a breaking or making of an electric nanocontact, with a change of resistance by a factor of up to 10(3). The results reveal how an external field can impact chemical equilibrium in the vicinity of nanoscale magnetic circuits. PMID:25009179

  2. Testing results for the HCT-1400 switch

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeberling, R.F.; Wheeler, R.B.

    1996-07-01

    The High Current Thyristor (HCT)-1400 was characterized for switching performance. This is a Soviet switching device that has recently become available to the U.S. community. Substantial claims have been made regarding the performance of this switch. In particular, the switch was claimed to be able to switch high currents, with very short risetime without any significant jitter. This is an independent evaluation of the high current thyristor.

  3. Non-latching relay switch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Duimstra, Frederick A. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A non-latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes a permanent magnet and an electromagnet. The respective sections are arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch has a "normal" position and is selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly. The switch returns to the "normal" position when the overriding electromagnetic assembly is inactive.

  4. Inverting ZCS Switched-Capacitor Bidirectional Converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaung-Shung Lee; Yin-Yuan Chiu; Ming-Wang Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The proposed inverting type zero-current switching switched-capacitor (ZCS SC) DC\\/DC converters are a new type of bi-directional power flow control conversion schemes. They possess high efficiency, low EMI emission and current stress features for the proposed quasi-resonant switched-capacitor inverting converters. A family of inverting type zero-current switching switched-capacitor bi-directional converters is presented, which can improve the current stress problem during

  5. Soft Switching Circuit for Interleaved Boost Converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Yao; Alian Chen; Xiangning He

    2007-01-01

    A zero-voltage switching-zero-current switching interleaved boost converter is proposed in this paper. An active circuit branch in parallel with the main switches is added and it is composed of an auxiliary switch and a snubber capacitor. By using this interleaved converter topology, zero current turn-on and zero voltage turn-off of the main switches can be achieved and the reverse-recovery loss

  6. Origin of immunoglobulin isotype switching

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Catherine; Lee, Victor; Finn, Alyssa; Senger, Kate; Zarrin, Ali A.; Pasquier, Louis Du; Hsu, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background From humans to frogs, immunoglobulin class switching introduces different effector functions to antibodies through an intrachromsomal DNA recombination process at the heavy chain locus. Although there are two conventional antibody classes (IgM, IgW) in sharks, their heavy chains are encoded by 20 to >100 miniloci. These representatives of the earliest jawed vertebrates possess a primordial immunoglobulin gene organization where each gene cluster is autonomous and contains a few rearranging gene segments (VH-D1-D2-JH) with one constant region, ? or ?. Results V(D)J rearrangement always takes place within the ? cluster, but here we show that the VDJ can be expressed with constant regions from different clusters, although IgH genes are spatially distant, at >120 kb. Moreover, reciprocal exchanges take place between Ig? and Ig? genes. Switching is augmented with deliberate immunization and is concomitant with somatic hypermutation activity. Since switching occurs independently of the partners’ linkage position, some events involve transchromosomal recombination. The switch sites consist of direct joins between two genes in the 3? intron flanking JH. Conclusions Our data are consistent with a mechanism of cutting/joining of distal DNA lesions initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), in the absence of mammalian-type switch regions. We suggest that, in shark, with its many autonomous IgH targeted by programmed DNA breakage, factors predisposing broken DNA ends to translocate configured the earliest version of class switch recombination. PMID:22542103

  7. K-Band Latching Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piotrowski, W. S.; Raue, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Design, development, and tests are described for two single-pole-double-throw latching waveguide ferrite switches: a K-band switch in WR-42 waveguide and a Ka-band switch in WR-28 waveguide. Both switches have structurally simple junctions, mechanically interlocked without the use of bonding materials; they are impervious to the effects of thermal, shock, and vibration stresses. Ferrite material for the Ka-band switch with a proper combination of magnetic and dielectric properties was available and resulted in excellent low loss, wideband performance. The high power handling requirement of the K-band switch limited the choice of ferrite to nickel-zinc compositions with adequate magnetic properties, but with too low relative dielectric constant. The relative dielectric constant determines the junction dimensions for given frequency responses. In this case the too low value unavoidably leads to a larger than optimum junction volume, increasing the insertion loss and restricting the operating bandwidth. Efforts to overcome the materials-related difficulties through the design of a composite junction with increased effective dielectric properties efforts to modify the relative dielectric constant of nickel-zinc ferrite are examined.

  8. Hajjoul/Mathon et al. Chromatin dynamics in living yeasts High throughput chromatin motion tracking in living yeast reveals the

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Hajjoul/Mathon et al. Chromatin dynamics in living yeasts - 1 - High throughput chromatin motion tracking in living yeast reveals the flexibility of the fiber throughout the genome Houssam Hajjoul1.1101/gr.157008.113 #12;Hajjoul/Mathon et al. Chromatin dynamics in living yeasts - 2 - ABSTRACT (211 words

  9. Biodiversity of Saccharomyces yeast strains from grape berries of wine-producing areas using starter commercial yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Valero; Brigitte Cambon; Dorit Schuller; Margarida Casal; Sylvie Dequin

    2007-01-01

    The use of commercial wine yeast strains as starters has grown extensively over the past two decades. In this study, a large-scale sampling plan was devised over a period of 3 years in three different vineyards in the south of France, to evaluate autochthonous wine yeast biodiversity in vineyards around wineries where active dry yeasts have been used as fermentation

  10. Signal Transduction by MAP Kinases: Regulation by Phosphorylation-Dependent Switches

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alan J. Whitmarsh (University of Massachusetts Medical School; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Program in Molecular Medicine; REV)

    1999-09-28

    The kinases of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades transmit signals through sequential phosphorylation and activation of the enzymes. However, recent evidence indicates that protein-protein interactions between the kinases themselves or with substrates or other components are also a critical means of regulation. Whitmarsh and Davis summarize these findings with emphasis on new evidence from yeast that, when phosphorylated, a MAP kinase kinase actually switches from a negative regulator that binds to and inhibits its target MAP kinase to a positive regulator of that same enzyme.

  11. Accuracy of the switching pressure of fluidic amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hanafusa; K. Miyata

    1975-01-01

    Statistical properties of the switching process of wall-attachment amplifiers are studied to clarify the accuracy of the switching pressure. The switching process is classified into two modes: initial switching and random switching. The probability distribution functions of the switching delay are determined for both switching processes by considering the average deflection and random fluctuation of the attached jet. A mathematical

  12. Fluctuation-induced switching and the switching path distribution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykman, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Fluctuation-induced switching is at the root of diverse phenomena currently studied in Josephson junctions, nano-mechanical systems, nano-magnets, and optically trapped atoms. In a fluctuation leading to switching the system must overcome an effective barrier, making switching events rare, for low fluctuation intensity. We will provide an overview of the methods of finding the switching barrier for systems away from thermal equilibrium. Generic features of the barrier, such as scaling with the system parameters, will be discussed. We will also discuss the motion of the system in switching and the ways of controlling it. Two major classes of systems will be considered: dynamical systems, where fluctuations are induced by noise, and birth-death systems. Even though the motion during switching is random, the paths followed in switching form a narrow tube in phase space of the system centered at the most probable path. The paths distribution is generally Gaussian and has specific features, which have been seen in the experiment [1]. Finding the most probable path itself can be reduced to solving a problem of Hamiltonian dynamics of an auxiliary noise-free system. The solution also gives the switching barrier. The barrier can be found explicitly close to parameter values where the number of stable states of the system changes and the dynamics is controlled by a slow variable. The scaling of the barrier height depends on the type of the corresponding bifurcation. We show that, both for birth-death and for Gaussian noise driven systems, the presence of even weak non-Gaussian noise can strongly modify the switching rate. The effect is described in a simple explicit form [2,3]. Weak deviations of the noise statistics from Gaussian can be sensitively detected using balanced dynamical bridge, where this deviation makes the populations of coexisting stable states different from each other; a realization of such a bridge will be discussed. We will also discuss the sharp anisotropy of fluctuations induced by Poisson noise in overdamped systems and how it is changed with decreasing damping. [4pt] [1] H. B. Chan, M. I. Dykman, and C. Stambaugh , Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 130602 (2008). [0pt] [2] M. I. Dykman, I. B. Schwartz, A. S. Landsman, Phys. Rev. Letts. 101, 078101 (2008). [0pt] [3] L. Billings, M. I. Dykman, and I. B. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. E 78 (2008).

  13. Switching the Clientele

    PubMed Central

    Sucic, Sonja; Koban, Florian; El-Kasaby, Ali; Kudlacek, Oliver; Stockner, Thomas; Sitte, Harald H.; Freissmuth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) maintains serotonergic neurotransmission via rapid reuptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft. SERT relies exclusively on the coat protein complex II component SEC24C for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export. The closely related transporters for noradrenaline and dopamine depend on SEC24D. Here, we show that discrimination between SEC24C and SEC24D is specified by the residue at position +2 downstream from the ER export motif (607RI608 in SERT). Substituting Lys610 with tyrosine, the corresponding residue found in the noradrenaline and dopamine transporters, switched the SEC24 isoform preference: SERT-K610Y relied solely on SEC24D to reach the cell surface. This analysis was extended to other SLC6 (solute carrier 6) transporter family members: siRNA-dependent depletion of SEC24C, but not of SEC24D, reduced surface levels of the glycine transporter-1a, the betaine/GABA transporter and the GABA transporter-4. Experiments with dominant negative versions of SEC24C and SEC24D recapitulated these findings. We also verified that the presence of two ER export motifs (in concatemers of SERT and GABA transporter-1) supported recruitment of both SEC24C and SEC24D. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to document a change in SEC24 specificity by mutation of a single residue in the client protein. Our observations allowed for deducing a rule for SLC6 family members: a hydrophobic residue (Tyr or Val) in the +2 position specifies interaction with SEC24D, and a hydrophilic residue (Lys, Asn, or Gln) recruits SEC24C. Variations in SEC24C are linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. The present findings provide a mechanistic explanation. Variations in SEC24C may translate into distinct surface levels of neurotransmitter transporters. PMID:23288844

  14. A high performance ZVT-PWM boost rectifier with soft switched auxiliary switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoon-Ho Kim; Yun-Bok Kim; Yong-Hyun Cho

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a soft-switching average current control PWM high power factor boost converter. Conventional boost ZVT-PWM converter has a disadvantage of hard-switching for auxiliary switch at turn-off. A soft switched auxiliary switch is proposed to achieve a high performance ZVT-PWM boost rectifier. The simulation and experimental results show that soft switching operation can be maintained for wide line and

  15. The spindle pole body of yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Snyder

    1994-01-01

    Microtubule organizing centers play an essential cellular role in nucleating microtubule assembly and establishing the microtubule array. The microtubule organizing center of yeast, the spindle pole body (SPB), shares many functions and properties with those other organisms. In recent years considerable new information has been generated concerning components associated with the SPB, and the mechanism by which it duplicates. This

  16. Turning yeast sequence into protein function

    SciTech Connect

    Heijne, G. von

    1996-04-01

    The complete genome sequencing of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae leads us into a new era of potential use for such data base information. Protein engineering studies suggest that genetic selection of overproducing strains may aid the assignment of protein function. Data base management and sequencing software have been developed to scan entire genomes.

  17. Number of Cytoplasmic Factors in Yeast Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Sugimura; Kazuko Okabe; Akira Imamura

    1966-01-01

    IT is well known that the self-reproducing genetic factors (rho), required for the development of mitochondria, are present in the cytoplasm of yeast cell. When the cells are allowed to grow in a medium containing acriflavine or related dyes, large numbers of mutant cells with deficient respiration are produced, which tend to dominate the entire cell population after several generations1.

  18. Actin and Endocytosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Bruce L.; Eskin, Julian A.; Wendland, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis, the process whereby the plasma membrane invaginates to form vesicles, is essential for bringing many substances into the cell and for membrane turnover. The mechanism driving clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves > 50 different protein components assembling at a single location on the plasma membrane in a temporally ordered and hierarchal pathway. These proteins perform precisely choreographed steps that promote receptor recognition and clustering, membrane remodeling, and force-generating actin-filament assembly and turnover to drive membrane invagination and vesicle scission. Many critical aspects of the CME mechanism are conserved from yeast to mammals and were first elucidated in yeast, demonstrating that it is a powerful system for studying endocytosis. In this review, we describe our current mechanistic understanding of each step in the process of yeast CME, and the essential roles played by actin polymerization at these sites, while providing a historical perspective of how the landscape has changed since the preceding version of the YeastBook was published 17 years ago (1997). Finally, we discuss the key unresolved issues and where future studies might be headed. PMID:25657349

  19. Resurrecting ancestral alcohol dehydrogenases from yeast

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, J Michael; Gaucher, Eric A; Burgan, Michelle F; De Kee, Danny W; Li, Tang; Aris, John P; Benner, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Modern yeast living in fleshy fruits rapidly convert sugars into bulk ethanol through pyruvate. Pyruvate loses carbon dioxide to produce acetaldehyde, which is reduced by alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) to ethanol, which accumulates. Yeast later consumes the accumulated ethanol, exploiting Adh2, an Adh1 homolog differing by 24 (of 348) amino acids. As many microorganisms cannot grow in ethanol, accumulated ethanol may help yeast defend resources in the fruit1. We report here the resurrection of the last common ancestor2 of Adh1 and Adh2, called AdhA. The kinetic behavior of AdhA suggests that the ancestor was optimized to make (not consume) ethanol. This is consistent with the hypothesis that before the Adh1-Adh2 duplication, yeast did not accumulate ethanol for later consumption but rather used AdhA to recycle NADH generated in the glycolytic pathway. Silent nucleotide dating suggests that the Adh1-Adh2 duplication occurred near the time of duplication of several other proteins involved in the accumulation of ethanol, possibly in the Cretaceous age when fleshy fruits arose. These results help to connect the chemical behavior of these enzymes through systems analysis to a time of global ecosystem change, a small but useful step towards a planetary systems biology. PMID:15864308

  20. Resurrecting ancestral alcohol dehydrogenases from yeast.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J Michael; Gaucher, Eric A; Burgan, Michelle F; De Kee, Danny W; Li, Tang; Aris, John P; Benner, Steven A

    2005-06-01

    Modern yeast living in fleshy fruits rapidly convert sugars into bulk ethanol through pyruvate. Pyruvate loses carbon dioxide to produce acetaldehyde, which is reduced by alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) to ethanol, which accumulates. Yeast later consumes the accumulated ethanol, exploiting Adh2, an Adh1 homolog differing by 24 (of 348) amino acids. As many microorganisms cannot grow in ethanol, accumulated ethanol may help yeast defend resources in the fruit. We report here the resurrection of the last common ancestor of Adh1 and Adh2, called Adh(A). The kinetic behavior of Adh(A) suggests that the ancestor was optimized to make (not consume) ethanol. This is consistent with the hypothesis that before the Adh1-Adh2 duplication, yeast did not accumulate ethanol for later consumption but rather used Adh(A) to recycle NADH generated in the glycolytic pathway. Silent nucleotide dating suggests that the Adh1-Adh2 duplication occurred near the time of duplication of several other proteins involved in the accumulation of ethanol, possibly in the Cretaceous age when fleshy fruits arose. These results help to connect the chemical behavior of these enzymes through systems analysis to a time of global ecosystem change, a small but useful step towards a planetary systems biology. PMID:15864308

  1. Cell Biology of Homologous Recombination in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is an important pathway for error-free repair of DNA lesions, such as single-and double-strand breaks, and for rescue of collapsed replication forks. Here, we describe protocols for live cell imaging of single-lesion recombination events in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:21660714

  2. Yeast and Egg Contamination of Shell Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry and eggs are often contaminated with microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds. Bacteria such as Salmonella cause illness in human who eat eggs contaminated with them, particularly if the eggs are pooled, improperly refrigerated, and eaten raw or undercooked. Other bacteria such a...

  3. yApoptosis: yeast apoptosis database

    PubMed Central

    Wanichthanarak, Kwanjeera; Cvijovic, Marija; Molt, Andrea; Petranovic, Dina

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years, programmed cell death (PCD) has become a popular research area due to its fundamental aspects and its links to human diseases. Yeast has been used as a model for studying PCD, since the discovery of morphological markers of apoptotic cell death in yeast in 1997. Increasing knowledge in identification of components and molecular pathways created a need for organization of information. To meet the demands from the research community, we have developed a curated yeast apoptosis database, yApoptosis. The database structurally collects an extensively curated set of apoptosis, PCD and related genes, their genomic information, supporting literature and relevant external links. A web interface including necessary functions is provided to access and download the data. In addition, we included several networks where the apoptosis genes or proteins are involved, and present them graphically and interactively to facilitate rapid visualization. We also promote continuous inputs and curation by experts. yApoptosis is a highly specific resource for sharing information online, which supports researches and studies in the field of yeast apoptosis and cell death. Database URL: http://www.ycelldeath.com/yapoptosis/ PMID:24082050

  4. yApoptosis: yeast apoptosis database.

    PubMed

    Wanichthanarak, Kwanjeera; Cvijovic, Marija; Molt, Andrea; Petranovic, Dina

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years, programmed cell death (PCD) has become a popular research area due to its fundamental aspects and its links to human diseases. Yeast has been used as a model for studying PCD, since the discovery of morphological markers of apoptotic cell death in yeast in 1997. Increasing knowledge in identification of components and molecular pathways created a need for organization of information. To meet the demands from the research community, we have developed a curated yeast apoptosis database, yApoptosis. The database structurally collects an extensively curated set of apoptosis, PCD and related genes, their genomic information, supporting literature and relevant external links. A web interface including necessary functions is provided to access and download the data. In addition, we included several networks where the apoptosis genes or proteins are involved, and present them graphically and interactively to facilitate rapid visualization. We also promote continuous inputs and curation by experts. yApoptosis is a highly specific resource for sharing information online, which supports researches and studies in the field of yeast apoptosis and cell death. DATABASE URL: http://www.ycelldeath.com/yapoptosis/. PMID:24082050

  5. Conflict between Noise and Plasticity in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Lehner

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression responds to changes in conditions but also stochastically among individuals. In budding yeast, both expression responsiveness across conditions (“plasticity”) and cell-to-cell variation (“noise”) have been quantified for thousands of genes and found to correlate across genes. It has been argued therefore that noise and plasticity may be strongly coupled and mechanistically linked. This is consistent with some theoretical

  6. The economics of ribosome biosynthesis in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan R Warner

    1999-01-01

    In a rapidly growing yeast cell, 60% of total transcription is devoted to ribosomal RNA, and 50% of RNA polymerase II transcription and 90% of mRNA splicing are devoted to ribosomal proteins (RPs). Coordinate regulation of the ?150 rRNA genes and 137 RP genes that make such prodigious use of resources is essential for the economy of the cell. This

  7. Glucose-Induced Acidification in Yeast Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Alan; Bourn, Julia; Pool, Brynne

    2005-01-01

    We present an investigation (for A-level biology students and equivalent) into the mechanism of glucose-induced extracellular acidification in unbuffered yeast suspensions. The investigation is designed to enhance understanding of aspects of the A-level curriculum that relate to the phenomenon (notably glucose catabolism) and to develop key skills…

  8. Microfermentation Test For Identification Of Yeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Molina, Thomas C.

    1995-01-01

    Microfermentation test developed as supplementary method for use in identifying yeasts, especially in clinical and environmental studies. In comparison with traditional fermentation tests, simpler and easier, and requiries less equipment, material, and laboratory space. Results obtained in days instead of weeks.

  9. Antarctic Yeasts: Biodiversity and Potential Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaji, S.; Prasad, G. S.

    This review is an attempt in cataloguing the diversity of yeasts in Antarctica, highlight their biotechnological potential and understand the basis of adaptation to low temperature. As of now several psychrophilic and psychrotolerant yeasts from Antarctic soils and marine waters have been characterized with respect to their growth characteristics, ecological distribution and taxonomic significance. Interestingly most of these species belonged to basidiomycetous yeasts which as a group are known for their ability to circumvent and survive under stress conditions. Simultaneously their possible role as work horses in the biotechnological industry was recognized due to their ability to produce novel enzymes and biomolecules such as agents for the breakdown of xenobiotics, and novel pharmaceutical chemi cals. The high activity of psychrophilic enzymes at low and moderate temperatures offers potential economic benefits. As of now lipases from Pseudozyma antarctica have been extensively studied to understand their unique thermal stability at 90°C and also because of its use in the pharmaceutical, agriculture, food, cosmetics and chemical industry. A few of the other enzymes which have been studied include extracellular alpha-amylase and glucoamylase from the yeast Pseudozyma antarctica (Candida antarctica), an extra-cellular protease from Cryptococcus humicola, an aspartyl proteinase from Cryptococcus humicola, a novel extracellular subtilase from Leucosporidium antarcticum, and a xylanase from Cryptococcus adeliensis

  10. Metal cation uptake by yeast: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Blackwell; I. Singleton; J. M. Tobin

    1995-01-01

    This review addresses metal uptake specifically by yeast. Metal uptake may be passive, active or both, depending on the viability of the biomass, and is influenced by a number of environmental and experimental factors. Uptake is typically accompanied by a degree of ion exchange and, under certain conditions, may be enhanced by the addition of an energy source, Intracellularly accumulated

  11. Quinone reductase acts as a redox switch of the 20S yeast proteasome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonja Sollner; Markus Schober; Andrea Wagner; Anna Prem; Lucie Lorkova; Bruce A Palfey; Michael Groll; Peter Macheroux

    2008-01-01

    The proteasome has an essential function in the intracellular degradation of protein in eukaryotic cells. We found that the dimeric quinone reductase Lot6 uses the flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-binding site to bind to the 20S proteasome with a 1:2 stoichiometry—that is, one 20S proteasome molecule can associate with two quinone reductases. Furthermore, reduction of the FMN cofactor by either NADH or

  12. A heritable switch in carbon source utilization driven by an unusual yeast prion

    E-print Network

    Lindquist, Susan

    Several well-characterized fungal proteins act as prions, proteins capable of multiple conformations, each with different activities, at least one of which is self-propagating. Through such self-propagating changes in ...

  13. Inventions on baker's yeast strains and specialty ingredients.

    PubMed

    Gélinas, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Baker's yeast is one of the oldest food microbial starters. Between 1927 and 2008, 165 inventions on more than 337 baker's yeast strains were patented. The first generation of patented yeast strains claimed improved biomass yield at the yeast plant, higher gassing power in dough or better survival to drying to prepare active dry baker's yeast. Especially between 1980 and 1995, a major interest was given to strains for multiple bakery applications such as dough with variable sugar content and stored at refrigeration (cold) or freezing temperatures. During the same period, genetically engineered yeast strains became very popular but did not find applications in the baking industry. Since year 2000, patented baker's yeast strains claimed aroma, anti-moulding or nutritive properties to better meet the needs of the baking industry. In addition to patents on yeast strains, 47 patents were issued on baker's yeast specialty ingredients for niche markets. This review shows that patents on baker's yeast with improved characteristics such as aromatic or nutritive properties have regularly been issued since the 1920's. Overall, it also confirms recent interest for a very wide range of tailored-made yeast-based ingredients for bakery applications. PMID:20653532

  14. Molecular identification of yeasts associated with traditional Egyptian dairy products.

    PubMed

    El-Sharoud, W M; Belloch, C; Peris, D; Querol, A

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the diversity and ecology of yeasts associated with traditional Egyptian dairy products employing molecular techniques in yeast identification. A total of 120 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese, kariesh cheese, and "Matared" cream were collected from local markets and examined. Forty yeast isolates were cultured from these samples and identified using the restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs) of 5.8S-ITS rDNA region and sequencing of the domains D1 and D2 of the 26S rRNA gene. Yeasts were identified as Issatchenkia orientalis (13 isolates), Candida albicans (4 isolates), Clavispora lusitaniae (Candida lusitaniae) (9 isolates), Kodamaea ohmeri (Pichia ohmeri) (1 isolate), Kluyveromyces marxianus (6 isolates), and Candida catenulata (7 isolates). With the exception of C. lusitaniae, the D1/D2 26S rRNA gene sequences were 100% identical for the yeast isolates within the same species. Phylogenetic reconstruction of C. lusitaniae isolates grouped them into 3 distinguished clusters. Kariesh cheese was found to be the most diverse in its yeast floras and contained the highest total yeast count compared with other examined dairy products. This was linked to the acidic pH and lower salt content of this cheese, which favor the growth and survival of yeasts in foodstuffs. Stored Domiati cheese also contained diverse yeast species involving isolates of the pathogenic yeast C. albicans. This raises the possibility of dairy products being vehicles of transmission of pathogenic yeasts. PMID:19895478

  15. Binary switching in a ‘symmetric' potential landscape

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Kuntal; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2013-01-01

    A binary switch is the basic building block for information processing. The potential energy profile of a bistable binary switch is a ‘symmetric' double well. The traditional method of switching it from one state (one well) to the other is to tilt the profile towards the desired state. Here, we present a case, where no such tilting is necessary to switch successfully, even in the presence of thermal noise. This happens because of the built-in dynamics inside the switch itself. It differs from the general perception on binary switching that in a ‘symmetric' potential landscape, the switching probability is 50% in the presence of thermal noise. Our results, considering the complete three-dimensional potential landscape, demonstrate intriguing phenomena on binary switching mechanism. With experimentally feasible parameters, we theoretically demonstrate such intriguing possibility in electric field induced magnetization switching of a shape-anisotropic single-domain magnetostrictive nanomagnet with two stable states at room-temperature. PMID:24154561

  16. HOLLOTRON switch for megawatt lightweight space inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Goebel, D. M.; Schumacher, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of satisfying the switching requirements for a megawatt ultralight inverter system using HOLLOTRON switch technology was determined. The existing experimental switch hardware was modified to investigate a coaxial HOLLOTRON switch configuration and the results were compared with those obtained for a modified linear HOLLOTRON configuration. It was concluded that scaling the HOLLOTRON switch to the current and voltage specifications required for a megawatt converter system is indeed feasible using a modified linear configuration. The experimental HOLLOTRON switch operated at parameters comparable to the scaled coaxial HOLLOTRON. However, the linear HOLLOTRON data verified the capability for meeting all the design objectives simultaneously including current density (greater than 2 A/sq cm), voltage (5 kV), switching frequency (20 kHz), switching time (300 ns), and forward voltage drop (less than or equal to 20 V). Scaling relations were determined and a preliminary design was completed for an engineering model linear HOLLOTRON switch to meet the megawatt converter system specifications.

  17. Immunosuppressive drug rapamycin restores sporulation competence in industrial yeasts.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Nobushige; Niijima, Seiko; Tanaka, Yukari; Ito, Toshihiko

    2012-04-01

    Industrial yeasts, including a sake yeast strain Kyokai no. 7 (K7), are generally unable to sporulate. Previously, we have reported that in K7 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, deletion of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3, a key activator of the cell cycle, allows the cells to induce IME1 transcription and sporulate under sporulation conditions. Here we show that treatment with the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin also restores sporulation competence in K7 cells. Moreover, sporulation was observed after rapamycin treatment in other industrial yeasts, namely bottom fermenting yeast strains and a wine yeast strain, which are not able to sporulate under normal sporulation conditions. These findings suggest that activation of TORC1 under sporulation conditions leads to sporulation incompetence in these yeasts. Thus, rapamycin treatment will be useful to restore sporulation competence in industrial yeasts. PMID:22197499

  18. Fractal analysis of yeast cell optical speckle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamholz, A.; Schneider, P. S.; Subramaniam, R.; Wong, P. K.; Lieberman, D. H.; Cheung, T. D.; Burgos, J.; Leon, K.; Romero, J.

    2006-02-01

    Steady state laser light propagation in diffuse media such as biological cells generally provide bulk parameter information, such as the mean free path and absorption, via the transmission profile. The accompanying optical speckle can be analyzed as a random spatial data series and its fractal dimension can be used to further classify biological media that show similar mean free path and absorption properties, such as those obtained from a single population. A population of yeast cells can be separated into different portions by centrifuge, and microscope analysis can be used to provide the population statistics. Fractal analysis of the speckle suggests that lower fractal dimension is associated with higher cell packing density. The spatial intensity correlation revealed that the higher cell packing gives rise to higher refractive index. A calibration sample system that behaves similar as the yeast samples in fractal dimension, spatial intensity correlation and diffusion was selected. Porous silicate slabs with different refractive index values controlled by water content were used for system calibration. The porous glass as well as the yeast random spatial data series fractal dimension was found to depend on the imaging resolution. The fractal method was also applied to fission yeast single cell fluorescent data as well as aging yeast optical data; and consistency was demonstrated. It is concluded that fractal analysis can be a high sensitivity tool for relative comparison of cell structure but that additional diffusion measurements are necessary for determining the optimal image resolution. Practical application to dental plaque bio-film and cam-pill endoscope images was also demonstrated.

  19. Photoresistance switching of plasmonic nanopores.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Nicoli, Francesca; Chen, Chang; Lagae, Liesbet; Groeseneken, Guido; Stakenborg, Tim; Zandbergen, Henny W; Dekker, Cees; Van Dorpe, Pol; Jonsson, Magnus P

    2015-01-14

    Fast and reversible modulation of ion flow through nanosized apertures is important for many nanofluidic applications, including sensing and separation systems. Here, we present the first demonstration of a reversible plasmon-controlled nanofluidic valve. We show that plasmonic nanopores (solid-state nanopores integrated with metal nanocavities) can be used as a fluidic switch upon optical excitation. We systematically investigate the effects of laser illumination of single plasmonic nanopores and experimentally demonstrate photoresistance switching where fluidic transport and ion flow are switched on or off. This is manifested as a large (? 1-2 orders of magnitude) increase in the ionic nanopore resistance and an accompanying current rectification upon illumination at high laser powers (tens of milliwatts). At lower laser powers, the resistance decreases monotonically with increasing power, followed by an abrupt transition to high resistances at a certain threshold power. A similar rapid transition, although at a lower threshold power, is observed when the power is instead swept from high to low power. This hysteretic behavior is found to be dependent on the rate of the power sweep. The photoresistance switching effect is attributed to plasmon-induced formation and growth of nanobubbles that reversibly block the ionic current through the nanopore from one side of the membrane. This explanation is corroborated by finite-element simulations of a nanobubble in the nanopore that show the switching and the rectification. PMID:25514824

  20. Explosive opening switch work at Westinghouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aivaliotis, E.; Peterhans, M.

    1989-01-01

    An explosive switch that commutated 315 kA into a resistor and a second version designed to switch up to 1 MA into an HPG (homopolar generator)-driven railgun system are presented. These switches are located very near the load and consist of a set of main busbars in a low-inductance configuration shorted by a thinner switch busbar. Linear-shaped charges are used to sever this switch busbar at several locations when a preselected current level is attained, commutating the current into the load. The feasibility of multishot explosive switches for electromagnetic-launch systems is also considered.

  1. Method and apparatus for multiplexing switch signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannaford, Blake (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus for multiplexing switch state signals comprises a plurality of switches and parallel weighted resistors connected in series between circuit ground and a node at a utilization device. The resistors are weighted as a function of a power of the same base, such as the power of the base 2, for coding the multiplexed switch state signals. A constant current source connected between the node and circuit ground drives current over a single cable conductor through the resistor. Each switch may be independently closed to change the switch state voltage signals multiplexed to the node. An analog-to-digital converter connected between the node and circuit ground demultiplexes the switch state signals received at the node and provides a switch state signal at each analog-to-digital output corresponding to the state of the switches at the moment. A potentiometer may replace a resistor and bypass switch combination in a position where the potentiometer has a maximum value of the lowest power of the base in order to multiplex a true analog voltage signal while switch state signals are unambiguously coded and multiplexed. The potentiometer in the least significant position permits the analog value to be in the range from 0 to a maximum corresponding to the least significant position of the switch state encoding. The invention may be used in redundancy systems by duplicating the invention with corresponding switches in each duplication ganged to open and close simultaneously upon operation of a pushbutton switch.

  2. A piezoelectric cryogenic heat switch.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Amir E; Sullivan, Dan F

    2014-06-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios of about 100-200 at lowest and highest measures temperature were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N, respectively. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an ideal PZHS. PMID:24985863

  3. Optical Switch Using Risley Prisms

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-22

    An optical switch using Risley prisms and rotary microactuators to independently rotate the wedge prisms of each Risley prism pair is disclosed. The optical switch comprises an array of input Risley prism pairs that selectively redirect light beams from a plurality of input ports to an array of output Risley prism pairs that similarly direct the light beams to a plurality of output ports. Each wedge prism of each Risley prism pair can be independently rotated by a variable-reluctance stepping rotary microactuator that is fabricated by a multi-layer LIGA process. Each wedge prism can be formed integral to the annular rotor of the rotary microactuator by a DXRL process.

  4. Optical switch using Risley prisms

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-15

    An optical switch using Risley prisms and rotary microactuators to independently rotate the wedge prisms of each Risley prism pair is disclosed. The optical switch comprises an array of input Risley prism pairs that selectively redirect light beams from a plurality of input ports to an array of output Risley prism pairs that similarly direct the light beams to a plurality of output ports. Each wedge prism of each Risley prism pair can be independently rotated by a variable-reluctance stepping rotary microactuator that is fabricated by a multi-layer LIGA process. Each wedge prism can be formed integral to the annular rotor of the rotary microactuator by a DXRL process.

  5. Auxiliary power supply switching set

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.R.

    1984-05-01

    A control circuit and auxiliary power supply and a switching means for connecting the load selectively to the auxiliary power supply and the main power supply. The main power supply may be a public utility power line, and the auxiliary power supply is a windmill, a motor and generator all connected together on a common shaft. A control means senses the output voltage of the generator or output frequency and controls the switch to eithe connect the load to the power line or the auxiliary power supply. A battery is supplied for storing excess windmill power and for driving the motor and generator during periods of low wind.

  6. A human homologue of yeast anti-silencing factor has histone chaperone activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsubasa Munakata; Nobuaki Adachi; Natsuko Yokoyama; Takashi Kuzuhara; Masami Horikoshi

    2000-01-01

    Background: Structural changes in chromatin play essential roles in regulating eukaryotic gene expres- sion. Silencing, potent repression of transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, occurs near telomeres and at the silent mating-type loci, as well as at rDNA loci. This type of repression relates to the condensation of chromatin that occurs in the heterochromatin of multicellular organisms. Anti-silencing is a reaction by

  7. State Switching Digital Control Technique for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Lukic; A. Emadi

    2007-01-01

    It has been anticipated that switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives will become the future drives of choice due to the simplicity of the motor construction, high speed capability, and relatively high power density. The motor has windings on the stator and a passive rotor made of ferromagnetic material such as iron. However, the control of the motor is quite complex

  8. Plasmid vectors capable of transferring large DNA fragments to yeast.

    PubMed

    Morris, D W; Noti, J D; Osborne, F A; Szalay, A A

    1981-01-01

    We have constructed several cloning vectors which can be used in vitro packaging and yeast transformation. These plasmids have been designed for the convenient cloning of large segments of DNA and their transfer to yeast. They contain bacterial plasmid DNA sequences for replication and selection in Escherichia coli, yeast 2-microns plasmid DNA sequences or chromosomal replicators and yeast markers necessary for replication and selection in yeast, and the cohesive ends of bacteriophage lambda which allow packaging of recombinant molecules into lambda phage heads. Large fragments (22-38 kb) of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Zea mays DNA were ligated into plasmid vector pBTI-1 to make complete genome libraries. One clone from the K. pneumoniae library was amplified in E. coli and the purified DNA used to transform yeast cells. Transformation of yeast by large DNA fragments occurred at high frequencies. The recombinant plasmid was stably maintained in yeast, provided selective pressure for Leu+ transformants was maintained. The structurally complete recombinant plasmid can be recovered from yeast by transforming E. coli to ampicillin resistance. Fewer than 5% of the recovered plasmids had undergone recombination with endogenous yeast 2-microns plasmid. PMID:6299664

  9. The yeast ubiquitin ligase SCFMet30: connecting environmental and intracellular conditions to cell division

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Peter; Su, Ning-Yuan; Yen, James L; Ouni, Ikram; Flick, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Ubiquitination regulates a host of cellular processes and is well known for its role in progression through the cell division cycle. In budding yeast, cadmium and arsenic stress, the availability of sulfur containing amino acids, and the intracellular concentration of S-adenosylmethionine are linked to cell cycle regulation through the ubiquitin ligase SCFMet30. Regulation is achieved by ubiquitination of the transcription factor Met4. Met4 activity is controlled by a regulatory K48-linked ubiquitin chain that is synthesized by Cdc34/SCFMet30. A ubiquitin-interacting-motif (UIM) present in Met4 prevents degradation of ubiquitinated Met4 allowing the ubiquitin chain to function as a reversible switch of Met4 activity. Here we discuss mechanisms of Met4 and SCFMet30 regulation in response to intracellular and environmental conditions, and describe the integration of these signals with cell cycle control. PMID:16895602

  10. Ring closure activates yeast ?TuRC for species-specific microtubule nucleation.

    PubMed

    Kollman, Justin M; Greenberg, Charles H; Li, Sam; Moritz, Michelle; Zelter, Alex; Fong, Kimberly K; Fernandez, Jose-Jesus; Sali, Andrej; Kilmartin, John; Davis, Trisha N; Agard, David A

    2015-02-01

    The ?-tubulin ring complex (?TuRC) is the primary microtubule nucleator in cells. ?TuRC is assembled from repeating ?-tubulin small complex (?TuSC) subunits and is thought to function as a template by presenting a ?-tubulin ring that mimics microtubule geometry. However, a previous yeast ?TuRC structure showed ?TuSC in an open conformation that prevents matching to microtubule symmetry. By contrast, we show here that ?-tubulin complexes are in a closed conformation when attached to microtubules. To confirm the functional importance of the closed ?TuSC ring, we trapped the closed state and determined its structure, showing that the ?-tubulin ring precisely matches microtubule symmetry and providing detailed insight into ?TuRC architecture. Importantly, the closed state is a stronger nucleator, thus suggesting that this conformational switch may allosterically control ?TuRC activity. Finally, we demonstrate that ?TuRCs have a strong preference for tubulin from the same species. PMID:25599398

  11. Design procedure for switched-reluctance motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Krishnan; R. Arumugan; J. F. Lindsay

    1988-01-01

    Some of the design aspects of the switched-reluctance motor for nonservo applications are considered. Towards this objective, a step-by-step procedure is developed for the design of switched-reluctance motors

  12. Rugged switch responds to minute pressure differentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, L. C.; Shaub, K. D.

    1967-01-01

    Pressure responsive switching device exhibits high sensitivity but is extremely rugged and resistant to large amplitude shock and velocity loading. This snap-action, single pole-double throw switch operates over a wide temperature range.

  13. 49 CFR 236.821 - Switch, sectionalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.821 Switch, sectionalizing. A switch for disconnecting a section of a power line from the source of...

  14. Design concept for pressure switch calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slingerland, M. G.

    1966-01-01

    Calibrator and switch design enables pressure switches to operate under 150 g shock loads. The design employs a saturated liquid-to-vapor phase transition at constant pressure to produce a known force independent of displacement over a usable range.

  15. 30 CFR 77.1800 - Cutout switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1800 Cutout switches. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be provided with cutout switches at...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1800 - Cutout switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1800 Cutout switches. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be provided with cutout switches at...

  17. Micromachined 1x2 Optical Fiber Switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie A. Field; Diane L. Burriesci; Peter R. Robrish; Richard C. Ruby

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a 1x2 thermally actuated optical fiber switch. The switch includes a thick electroplated nickel actuator to move a single-mode optical fiber, and a trench anisotropically etched in silicon for alignment of \\

  18. Collaborative study on yeast activity, gas production (AACC Method 89-01)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Gélinas

    1997-01-01

    A method of the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) for determining yeast activity (gas production) was tested in a collaborative study involving five laboratories. Samples of three different manufacturers for each of three yeast types (three active dry yeasts, three compressed yeasts, and three instant active dry yeasts) were duplicated and tested in three dough formulations mainly characterized by

  19. Hybrid yeast strains capable of raising an extraordinarily broad range of dough types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kowalski; I. Zander; S. Windisch

    1981-01-01

    Over 200 hybrid yeast strains were screened and 11 of these found to have versatile fermentation characteristics. This paper reports the results obtained with these 11 strains compared with a commercially available strain of baker's yeast used for bread making and marketed as “instant active dry yeast”. In contrast to bakers yeast, the hybrid strains fermented very well in yeast,

  20. A comparison of switching energy of resonant and nonresonant electro-optic switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Fatemeh; Kirk, Andrew G.

    2012-10-01

    Optical space switching is an important functionality in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical communication systems, particularly within reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers (ROADMs) [1]. Current commercially available ROADMs are based on micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) or liquid crystal switches but these do not have sufficient switching speed for future network requirements. Power consumption (i.e. energy per switching operation multiplied by switching rate) is a very important parameter in the selection of a switching technology. Space switches based on current injection in silicon have been reported with nanosecond switching speeds and average power consumption on the order of mW [2], which becomes significant if many switches are required in a fabric. Electro-optic (EO) switches, which utilize the Pockels effect in which the refractive index changes when an external voltage is applied [3], only dissipate power when the switch state is changed. Electro-optic switches can be implemented either as non-resonant designs (for example the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI)) or as resonant designs (for example the Fabry Perot interferometer (FPI)). In this study we compare the switching energies of electro optic MZI and FPI switches by considering the capacitance of the switch, which is determined by the length of the active region of the switch. We show that for a non-resonant switch, switching energy increases linearly with device length, regardless of applied voltage, and so is simply determined by the strength of the electro-optic coefficient. We assume that the resonant switch is implemented as a switchable comb filter [4], with a free-spectral range equal to twice the wavelength spacing. This then fixes the interferometer length. As a result the resonant switch has requires significantly less switching energy for the same material parameters and is thus of interest for future ROADM implementations.