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Sample records for yeast mating-type switching

  1. Inversion of the Chromosomal Region between Two Mating Type Loci Switches the Mating Type in Hansenula polymorpha

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Hiromi; Kaneko, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Yeast mating type is determined by the genotype at the mating type locus (MAT). In homothallic (self-fertile) Saccharomycotina such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluveromyces lactis, high-efficiency switching between a and ? mating types enables mating. Two silent mating type cassettes, in addition to an active MAT locus, are essential components of the mating type switching mechanism. In this study, we investigated the structure and functions of mating type genes in H. polymorpha (also designated as Ogataea polymorpha). The H. polymorpha genome was found to harbor two MAT loci, MAT1 and MAT2, that are ?18 kb apart on the same chromosome. MAT1-encoded ?1 specifies ? cell identity, whereas none of the mating type genes were required for a identity and mating. MAT1-encoded ?2 and MAT2-encoded a1 were, however, essential for meiosis. When present in the location next to SLA2 and SUI1 genes, MAT1 or MAT2 was transcriptionally active, while the other was repressed. An inversion of the MAT intervening region was induced by nutrient limitation, resulting in the swapping of the chromosomal locations of two MAT loci, and hence switching of mating type identity. Inversion-deficient mutants exhibited severe defects only in mating with each other, suggesting that this inversion is the mechanism of mating type switching and homothallism. This chromosomal inversion-based mechanism represents a novel form of mating type switching that requires only two MAT loci. PMID:25412462

  2. Mating-type switching by chromosomal inversion in methylotrophic yeasts suggests an origin for the three-locus Saccharomyces cerevisiae system

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Sara J.; Byrne, Kevin P.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a complex system for switching the mating type of haploid cells, requiring the genome to have three mating-type (MAT)like loci and a mechanism for silencing two of them. How this system originated is unknown, because the three-locus system is present throughout the family Saccharomycetaceae, whereas species in the sister Candida clade have only one locus and do not switch. Here we show that yeasts in a third clade, the methylotrophs, have a simpler two-locus switching system based on reversible inversion of a section of chromosome with MATa genes at one end and MATalpha genes at the other end. In Hansenula polymorpha the 19-kb invertible region lies beside a centromere so that, depending on the orientation, either MATa or MATalpha is silenced by centromeric chromatin. In Pichia pastoris, the orientation of a 138-kb invertible region puts either MATa or MATalpha beside a telomere and represses transcription of MATa2 or MATalpha2. Both species are homothallic, and inversion of their MAT regions can be induced by crossing two strains of the same mating type. The three-locus system of S. cerevisiae, which uses a nonconservative mechanism to replace DNA at MAT, likely evolved from a conservative two-locus system that swapped genes between expression and nonexpression sites by inversion. The increasing complexity of the switching apparatus, with three loci, donor bias, and cell lineage tracking, can be explained by continuous selection to increase sporulation ability in young colonies. Our results provide an evolutionary context for the diversity of switching and silencing mechanisms. PMID:25349420

  3. Mating-type Gene Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Sheng; Haber, James E

    2015-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two alternative mating types designated MATa and MATα. These are distinguished by about 700 bp of unique sequences, Ya or Yα, including divergent promoter sequences and part of the open reading frames of genes that regulate mating phenotype. Homothallic budding yeast, carrying an active HO endonuclease gene, HO, can switch mating type through a recombination process known as gene conversion, in which a site-specific double-strand break (DSB) created immediately adjacent to the Y region results in replacement of the Y sequences with a copy of the opposite mating type information, which is harbored in one of two heterochromatic donor loci, HMLα or HMRa. HO gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that only half of the cells in a lineage switch to the opposite MAT allele, thus promoting conjugation and diploid formation. Study of the silencing of these loci has provided a great deal of information about the role of the Sir2 histone deacetylase and its associated Sir3 and Sir4 proteins in creating heterochromatic regions. MAT switching has been examined in great detail to learn about the steps in homologous recombination. MAT switching is remarkably directional, with MATa recombining preferentially with HMLα and MATα using HMRa. Donor preference is controlled by a cis-acting recombination enhancer located near HML. RE is turned off in MATα cells but in MATa binds multiple copies of the Fkh1 transcription factor whose forkhead-associated phosphothreonine binding domain localizes at the DSB, bringing HML into conjunction with MATa. PMID:26104712

  4. The conformation of yeast chromosome III is mating type-dependent and controlled by the recombination enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Belton, Jon-Matthew; Lajoie, Bryan R.; Audibert, Sylvain; Cantaloube, Sylvain; Lassadi, Imen; Goiffon, Isabelle; Baù, Davide; Marti-Renom, Marc A.; Bystricky, Kerstin; Dekker, Job

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mating type switching in yeast occurs through gene conversion between the MAT locus and one of two silent loci (HML or HMR) on opposite ends of the chromosome. MATa cells choose HML as template, while MATα cells use HMR. The Recombination Enhancer (RE), located on the left arm regulates this process. One long-standing hypothesis is that switching is guided by mating type-specific, and possibly RE-dependent chromosome folding. Here we use Hi-C, 5C, and live cell imaging to characterize the conformation of chromosome III in both mating types. We discovered a mating type-specific conformational difference in the left arm. Deletion of a 1 kb subregion within the RE, which is not necessary during switching, abolished mating type-dependent chromosome folding. The RE is therefore a composite element with one subregion essential for donor selection during switching, and a separate region involved in modulating chromosome conformation. PMID:26655901

  5. Molecular and cellular dissection of mating-type switching steps in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Allyson M; Kaykov, Atanas; Arcangioli, Benoit

    2005-01-01

    A strand-specific imprint (break) controls mating-type switching in fission yeast. By introducing a thiamine repressible promoter upstream of the mat1 locus, we can force transcription through the imprinted region, erasing the imprint and inhibiting further mating-type switching, in a reversible manner. Starting from a synchronized, virgin M-cell population, we show that the site- and strand-specific break is formed when DNA replication intermediates appear at mat1 during the first S phase. The formation of the break is concomitant with a replication fork pause and binding of the Swi1 protein at mat1 until early G(2) and then rapidly disappears. Upon its formation, the break remains stable throughout the cell cycle and triggers mating-type switching during the second S phase. Finally, we have recreated the mating-type switching pedigree at the molecular and single-cell levels, allowing for the first time separation between the establishment of imprinting and its developmental fate. PMID:15601851

  6. Efficient Mating-Type Switching in Candida glabrata Induces Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Boisnard, Stphanie; Zhou Li, Youfang; Arnaise, Sylvie; Sequeira, Gregory; Raffoux, Xavier; Enache-Angoulvant, Adela; Bolotin-Fukuhara, Monique; Fairhead, Ccile

    2015-01-01

    Candida glabrata is an apparently asexual haploid yeast that is phylogenetically closer to Saccharomyces cerevisiae than to Candida albicans. Its genome contains three MAT-like cassettes, MAT, which encodes either MATa or MATalpha information in different strains, and the additional loci, HML and HMR. The genome also contains an HO gene homolog, but this yeast has never been shown to switch mating-types spontaneously, as S. cerevisiae does. We have recently sequenced the genomes of the five species that, together with C. glabrata, make up the Nakaseomyces clade. All contain MAT-like cassettes and an HO gene homolog. In this work, we express the HO gene of all Nakaseomyces and of S. cerevisiae in C. glabrata. All can induce mating-type switching, but, despite the larger phylogenetic distance, the most efficient endonuclease is the one from S. cerevisiae. Efficient mating-type switching in C. glabrata is accompanied by a high cell mortality, and sometimes results in conversion of the additional cassette HML. Mortality probably results from the cutting of the HO recognition sites that are present, in HML and possibly HMR, contrary to what happens naturally in S. cerevisiae. This has implications in the life-cycle of C. glabrata, as we show that efficient MAT switching is lethal for most cells, induces chromosomal rearrangements in survivors, and that the endogenous HO is probably rarely active indeed. PMID:26491872

  7. Mating in the heterothallic haploid yeast Clavispora opuntiae, with special reference to mating type imbalances in local populations.

    PubMed

    Lachance, M A; Nair, P; Lo, P

    1994-07-01

    Mating was studied in the haploid, heterothallic yeast Clavispora opuntiae to assess the importance of nutritional, genetic, and other factors that may favour mating and recombination. Local populations of this yeast generally exhibit dramatic inequalities in mating type distributions, suggesting that mating is rare in nature even though most isolates mate freely in the laboratory. The absence of assimilable nitrogen is prerequisite to mating competence, presumably by causing G1 arrest. Maximum mating competence is found in cells entering stationary phase in nitrogen-limited media. Unlike the vast majority of mating yeasts, C. opuntiae does not appear to produce diffusible mating factors (sex pheromones), and mating-competent cells do not undergo sexual agglutination. Pairwise cell contact appears to be the only signal that triggers the sexual process in this case. In order to determine if mating type imbalances in nature are caused by reduced fertility of 'consanguine' crosses, meiotic recombination was measured in pairs of strains that varied in their genetic distances as indicated by restriction mapping. That hypothesis was rejected, as recombination efficiency decreased with increasing genetic distance. We conclude that the rarity of mating in local populations is exacerbated by the stringent physical (pairwise cell contact) and nutritional (nitrogen depletion) conditions that will allow mating to proceed. Parallels are drawn with mating patterns observed in Clavispora lusitaniae. PMID:7985417

  8. Characterization of two genes required for the position-effect control of yeast mating-type genes.

    PubMed Central

    Shore, D; Squire, M; Nasmyth, K A

    1984-01-01

    The mating type of haploid yeast (a or alpha) is determined by information present at the MAT locus. Identical copies of a and alpha information are present at distal loci (HMR and HML), but transcription of these copies is repressed by the action, in trans, of four unlinked genes called SIR (silent information regulator). Repression by SIR also requires, in cis, DNA sequences called E which are found to the left of HML and HMR (but not MAT) and are greater than 1 kb from the mating-type gene promoters. SIR control can act on other promoters when they are brought near the E sequence, and thus the SIR gene products act in some general manner to repress transcription. We have determined the DNA sequence of two fragments which complement mutations in the SIR2 and SIR3 genes and show that these contain the structural genes by mapping the cloned sequences onto the yeast chromosome. The SIR2 and SIR3 coding sequences were identified by constructing gene disruptions and using these mutations to replace the normal chromosomal copies. Such null mutants of both SIR2 and SIR3 are defective in the position-effect control of the silent loci but have no other detectable phenotype. We have mapped the 5' and 3' ends of the SIR2 and SIR3 mRNAs and show that their level is unaffected by mutations in any of the four known SIR complementation groups. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6098447

  9. Both activation and repression of a-mating-type-specific genes in yeast require transcription factor Mcm1.

    PubMed Central

    Elble, R; Tye, B K

    1991-01-01

    Mcm1 is a yeast transcription factor with homologs throughout the metazoa. MCM1 was first identified as a gene involved in maintenance of artificial minichromosomes in yeast. More recently Mcm1 has been shown to serve as a transcriptional regulator of mating-type-specific genes. Biochemical data suggest that Mcm1 coactivates alpha-specific genes and corepresses a-specific genes by binding to a 10-base-pair dyad symmetry element in their upstream regions. We reported previously that an mcm1 point mutation reduced activation of alpha-specific genes but had little effect on the expression of a-specific genes. We now show that another mcm1 allele, which depletes the Mcm1 protein, affects both activation and repression of a-specific genes. The mutant strain remains capable of high levels of pheromone induction of a-specific genes, although with retarded kinetics. Mcm1 joins an increasing number of transcription factors involved in both positive and negative regulation of gene expression. Images PMID:1961765

  10. Rules of Donor Preference in Saccharomyces Mating-Type Gene Switching Revealed by a Competition Assay Involving Two Types of Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Wu, X.; Wu, C.; Haber, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Mating type (MAT) switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is initiated by a double-strand break (DSB) created at MAT by HO endonuclease. MATa cells activate the entire left arm of chromosome III; thus MATa preferentially recombines with the silent donor HML. In contrast, MATα cells inactivate the left arm, including HML, and thus preferentially recombine with HMR, 100 kb to the right of MAT. We present a novel competition assay, in which the DSB at MAT can be repaired either by MAT switching or by single-strand annealing (SSA) between two URA3 genes flanking MAT. With preferred donors, MATa or MATα switching occurs 65-70% of the time in competition with SSA. When HML is deleted, 40% of MATa cells recombine with the ``wrong'' donor HMR; however, when HMR is deleted, only 18% of MATα cells recombine with HML. In interchromosomal switching, with donors on chromosome III and MAT on chromosome V, MATa retains its strong preference for HML and switching is efficient, when the chromosome III recombination enhancer is present. However, MATα donor preference is lost and interchromosomal switching is very inefficient. These experiments demonstrate the utility of using competition between two outcomes to measure the relative efficiency of recombination. PMID:9335581

  11. The yeast ARD1 gene product is required for repression of cryptic mating-type information at the HML locus.

    PubMed Central

    Whiteway, M; Freedman, R; Van Arsdell, S; Szostak, J W; Thorner, J

    1987-01-01

    Mutations in the ARD1 gene prevent yeast cells from displaying G1-specific growth arrest in response to nitrogen deprivation and cause MATa haploids (but not MAT alpha haploids) to be mating defective. Analysis of cell type-specific gene expression by examination of RNA transcripts and measurement of beta-galactosidase activity from yeast gene-lacZ fusions demonstrated that the mating defect of MATa ard1 mutants was due to an inability to express genes required by MATa cells for the mating process. The lack of mating-specific gene expression in MATa cells was found to be due solely to derepression of the normally silent alpha information at the HML locus. The cryptic a information at the HMR locus was only very slightly derepressed in ard1 mutants, to a level insufficient to affect the mating efficiency of MAT alpha cells. The preferential elevation of expression from HML over HMR was also observed in ard1 mutants which contained the alternate arrangement of a information at HML and alpha information at HMR. Hence, the effect of the ard1 mutation was position specific (rather than information specific). Although the phenotype of ard1 mutants resembled that of cells with mutations in the SIR1 gene, both genetic and biochemical findings indicated that ARD1 control of HML expression was independent of the regulation imposed by SIR1 and the other SIR genes. These results suggest that the ARD1 gene encodes a protein product that acts, directly or indirectly, at the HML locus to repress its expression and, by analogy, may control expression of other genes involved in monitoring nutritional conditions. Images PMID:3316986

  12. Position effect variegation at the mating-type locus of fission yeast: a cis-acting element inhibits covariegated expression of genes in the silent and expressed domains.

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, N; Goldshmidt, I; Cohen, A

    1999-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe switches its mating type by transposing a copy of unexpressed genes from the respective mat2 or mat3 cassettes to mat1. The donor cassettes are located in a silent domain that is separated from the expressed mat1 cassette by the L region. We monitored the expression of ade6 from sites in the L region and examined the relationship between the expression state at these sites and at sites within the silent domain. Results indicate that: (1) the silent domain extends into the L region, but repression is gradually alleviated with increasing distance from mat2, and overexpression of swi6 enhances PEV in the L region; (2) a transcriptionally active chromatin state, associated with reporter gene expression in the L region, spreads toward the silent domain; (3) a cis-acting element, located at the junction between the L region and mat2-P, ensures repression in the silent domain, regardless of the expression state in the L region; and (4) repression in mat1-P cells is less stringently controlled than in mat1-M cells. We discuss the functional organization of the mat region and genetic elements that ensure separation between repressed and derepressed domains. PMID:10353894

  13. α2p controls donor preference during mating type interconversion in yeast by inactivating a recombinational enhancer of chromosome III

    PubMed Central

    Szeto, Lisa; Fafalios, Maria K.; Zhong, Hualin; Vershon, Andrew K.; Broach, James R.

    1997-01-01

    Homothallic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can change mating type as often as every generation by replacing the allele at the MAT locus with a copy of mating type information present at one of two storage loci, HML and HMR, located on either end of chromosome III. Selection of the appropriate donor locus is dictated by a mating type-specific repressor protein, α2p: Cells containing α2p select HMR, whereas those lacking α2p select HML. As a repressor protein, α2p binds to DNA cooperatively with the transcriptional activator Mcm1p. Here we show that two α2p/Mcm1p-binding sites, DPS1 and DPS2, control donor selection. DPS1 and DPS2 are located ∼30 kb from the left arm of chromosome III, well removed from HML, HMR, and MAT. Precise deletion of only DPS1 and DPS2 results in random selection of donor loci and in a cells without affecting selection in α cells. Reciprocally, deletion of only the α2p binding segments in each of these two sites results in selection of the wrong donor loci in α cells without affecting preference in a cells. These results suggest that Mcm1p, bound to these two sites in the absence of α2p, activates HML as donor. Binding of α2p blocks the ability of Mcm1p bound to DPS1 and DPS2 to activate HML, resulting in default selection of HMR as donor. DPS1 and DPS2 also regulate expression of several noncoding RNAs, although deletion of at least one of these RNA loci does not affect donor preference. This suggests that transcriptional activation, rather than transcription of a specific product, is the initiating event in activating the left arm of chromosome III for donor selection. PMID:9271114

  14. Basidiomycete mating type genes and pheromone signaling.

    PubMed

    Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Kothe, Erika

    2010-06-01

    The genome sequences of the basidiomycete Agaricomycetes species Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Schizophyllum commune, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Postia placenta, as well as of Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis, are now publicly available. Out of these fungi, C. cinerea, S. commune, and U. maydis, together with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been investigated for years genetically and molecularly for signaling in sexual reproduction. The comparison of the structure and organization of mating type genes in fungal genomes reveals an amazing conservation of genes regulating the sexual reproduction throughout the fungal kingdom. In agaricomycetes, two mating type loci, A, coding for homeodomain type transcription factors, and B, encoding a pheromone/receptor system, regulate the four typical mating interactions of tetrapolar species. Evidence for both A and B mating type genes can also be identified in basidiomycetes with bipolar systems, where only two mating interactions are seen. In some of these fungi, the B locus has lost its self/nonself discrimination ability and thus its specificity while retaining the other regulatory functions in development. In silico analyses now also permit the identification of putative components of the pheromone-dependent signaling pathways. Induction of these signaling cascades leads to development of dikaryotic mycelia, fruiting body formation, and meiotic spore production. In pheromone-dependent signaling, the role of heterotrimeric G proteins, components of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways can now be defined. Additionally, the pheromone-dependent signaling through monomeric, small GTPases potentially involved in creating the polarized cytoskeleton for reciprocal nuclear exchange and migration during mating is predicted. PMID:20190072

  15. Mating types and macrocyst formation in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, M T; Raper, K B

    1981-01-01

    Macrocysts have been found among strains of Dictyostelium rosarium Raper and Cavender (K. B. Raper and J. C. Cavender, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 84:31-47, 1968). Strains that exhibit mating capabilities could be classified into one of three mating types: A1, A2, or A3. Each mating type was self-incompatible but cross-compatible with the other two types in most cases. No self-fertile strain was observed. Wet conditions, darkness, and moderate nutrient particularly favored macrocyst production; opposite conditions generally favored asexual sorocarp formation. Macrocyst development followed the same morphogenetic pattern reported previously for other species of Dictyostelium. Cultures exposed to light in stages prior to precyst appearance could be switched from macrocyst to sorocarp development. In contrast, precysts always developed into macrocysts despite the presence of light. There appeared to be an "all-or-none" phenomenon in macrocyst production, suggesting that transformation to macrocysts occurred once certain light-sensitive critical factors had reached a threshold level. Intimate association of cells of mating pairs appeared to be essential for macrocyst formation, and no mating hormones were detected. Images PMID:7275930

  16. Genome-Wide Gene Expression Profiling of Fertilization Competent Mycelium in Opposite Mating Types in the Heterothallic Fungus Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, Evelyne; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Grognet, Pierre; Delacroix, Herv; Debuchy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background Mating-type loci in yeasts and ascomycotan filamentous fungi (Pezizomycotina) encode master transcriptional factors that play a critical role in sexual development. Genome-wide analyses of mating-type-specification circuits and mating-type target genes are available in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe; however, no such analyses have been performed in heterothallic (self-incompatible) Pezizomycotina. The heterothallic fungus Podospora anserina serves as a model for understanding the basic features of mating-type control. Its mat+ and mat? mating types are determined by dissimilar allelic sequences. The mat? sequence contains three genes, designated FMR1, SMR1 and SMR2, while the mat+ sequence contains one gene, FPR1. FMR1 and FPR1 are the major regulators of fertilization, and this study presents a genome-wide view of their target genes and analyzes their target gene regulation. Methodology/Principal Findings The transcriptomic profiles of the mat+ and mat? strains revealed 157 differentially transcribed genes, and transcriptomic analysis of fmr1? and fpr1? mutant strains was used to determine the regulatory actions exerted by FMR1 and FPR1 on these differentially transcribed genes. All possible combinations of transcription repression and/or activation by FMR1 and/or FPR1 were observed. Furthermore, 10 additional mating-type target genes were identified that were up- or down-regulated to the same level in mat+ and mat? strains. Of the 167 genes identified, 32 genes were selected for deletion, which resulted in the identification of two genes essential for the sexual cycle. Interspecies comparisons of mating-type target genes revealed significant numbers of orthologous pairs, although transcriptional profiles were not conserved between species. Conclusions/Significance This study represents the first comprehensive genome-wide analysis of mating-type direct and indirect target genes in a heterothallic filamentous fungus. Mating-type transcription factors have many more target genes than are found in yeasts and exert a much greater diversity of regulatory actions on target genes, most of which are not directly related to mating. PMID:21738678

  17. Spatial organization and dynamics of interphase yeast chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avsaroglu, Baris; Gordon-Messer, Susannah; Fritsche, Miriam; Ham, Jungoh; Heermann, Dieter W.; Haber, James E.; Kondev, Jane

    2012-02-01

    Understanding how the genome is spatially organized is an important problem in cell biology, due to its key roles in gene expression and DNA recombination. Here we report on a combined experimental and theoretical study of the organization and dynamics of yeast chromosome III which has a functional role in the yeast life cycle, in particular, it is responsible for mating type switching. By imaging two fluorescent markers, one at the spindle pole body (SPB) and the other proximal to the HML locus that is involved in DNA recombination during mating type switching, we measured the cell to cell distribution of distances and the mean square displacement between the markers as a function of time. We compared our experimental results with a random-walk polymer model that takes into account tethering and confinement of chromosomes in the nucleus, and found that the model recapitulates the observed spatial and temporal organization of chromosome III in yeast in quantitative detail. The polymer model makes specific predictions for mating-type switching in yeast, and suggests new experiments to test them.

  18. Genome-wide identification of target genes of a mating-type ?-domain transcription factor reveals functions beyond sexual development.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kordula; Beer, Christina; Freitag, Michael; Kck, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is the main industrial producer of the ?-lactam antibiotic penicillin, the most commonly used drug in the treatment of bacterial infections. Recently, a functional MAT1-1 locus encoding the ?-box transcription factor MAT1-1-1 was discovered to control sexual development in P. chrysogenum. As only little was known from any organism about the regulatory functions mediated by MAT1-1-1, we applied chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to gain new insights into the factors that influence MAT1-1-1 functions on a molecular level and its role in genome-wide transcriptional regulatory networks. Most importantly, our data provide evidence for mating-type transcription factor functions that reach far beyond their previously understood role in sexual development. These new roles include regulation of hyphal morphology, asexual development, as well as amino acid, iron, and secondary metabolism. Furthermore, in vitro DNA-protein binding studies and downstream analysis in yeast and P. chrysogenum enabled the identification of a MAT1-1-1 DNA-binding motif, which is highly conserved among euascomycetes. Our studies pave the way to a more general understanding of these master switches for development and metabolism in all fungi, and open up new options for optimization of fungal high production strains. PMID:25728030

  19. Mating Types and Macrocyst Formation in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Erdos, Gregory W.; Raper, Kenneth B.; Vogen, Linda K.

    1973-01-01

    Strains of Dictyostelium discoideum were paired in various combinations. Certain pairings resulted in the production of macrocysts, which are thought to be the sexual stage in the cellular slime molds. One selfcompatible strain was found. Other strains produced macrocysts only when paired with an alternate mating type. Two strains were found to form macrycysts when paired with either mating type but not alone or with each other. Several strains did not form macrocysts under any circumstances. Strains were graded according to their mating competency based on the number of macrocysts produced relative to the aggregated myxamoebae observed in the pairings. PMID:16592095

  20. Identification and structure of the mating-type locus and development of PCR-based markers for mating type in powdery mildew fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fungi, mating compatibility is regulated by mating-type loci. The objectives of this study were to identify and sequence mating-type genes at the MAT1 locus in the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, to develop a PCR-based marker for determining mating type in E. necator, and to devel...

  1. Species-Specific and Mating Type-Specific DNA Regions Adjacent to Mating Type Idiomorphs in the Genus Neurospora

    PubMed Central

    Randall, T. A.; Metzenberg, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    Mating type idiomorphs control mating and subsequent sexual development in Neurospora crassa and were previously shown to be well conserved in other Neurospora species. The centromere-proximal flanks of the A and a idiomorphs, but not the distal flanks from representative heterothallic, pseudohomothallic, and homothallic Neurospora species contain apparent species-specific and/or mating type-specific sequences adjacent to the well-conserved idiomorphs. The variable flank is bordered by regions that are highly homologous in all species. The sequence of ~1 kb immediately flanking the conserved idiomorphs of each species was determined. Sequence identity between species ranged from 20% (essentially unrelated) to >90%. By contrast, the mt-A1 gene shows 88-98% identity. Sequence and hybridization data also show that the centromere-proximal flanks are very different between the two mating types for N. intermedia, N. discreta, and N. tetrasperma, but not for N. sitophila and N. crassa. The data suggest a close evolutionary relationship between several of the species; this is supported by phylogenetic analysis of their respective mt-A1 genes. The origin of the variable regions adjacent to the evolutionarily conserved mating type idiomorphs is unknown. PMID:8536961

  2. The Hos2 Histone Deacetylase Controls Ustilago maydis Virulence through Direct Regulation of Mating-Type Genes

    PubMed Central

    Elas-Villalobos, Alberto; Fernndez-lvarez, Alfonso; Moreno-Snchez, Ismael; Helmlinger, Dominique; Ibeas, Jos I.

    2015-01-01

    Morphological changes are critical for host colonisation in plant pathogenic fungi. These changes occur at specific stages of their pathogenic cycle in response to environmental signals and are mediated by transcription factors, which act as master regulators. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play crucial roles in regulating gene expression, for example by locally modulating the accessibility of chromatin to transcriptional regulators. It has been reported that HDACs play important roles in the virulence of plant fungi. However, the specific environment-sensing pathways that control fungal virulence via HDACs remain poorly characterised. Here we address this question using the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. We find that the HDAC Hos2 is required for the dimorphic switch and pathogenic development in U. maydis. The deletion of hos2 abolishes the cAMP-dependent expression of mating type genes. Moreover, ChIP experiments detect Hos2 binding to the gene bodies of mating-type genes, which increases in proportion to their expression level following cAMP addition. These observations suggest that Hos2 acts as a downstream component of the cAMP-PKA pathway to control the expression of mating-type genes. Interestingly, we found that Clr3, another HDAC present in U. maydis, also contributes to the cAMP-dependent regulation of mating-type gene expression, demonstrating that Hos2 is not the only HDAC involved in this control system. Overall, our results provide new insights into the role of HDACs in fungal phytopathogenesis. PMID:26317403

  3. Genetic and environmental factors affecting mating type frequency in natural isolates of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Arslanyolu, M; Doerder, F P

    2000-01-01

    In Tetrahymena thermophila mating type alleles specify temperature sensitive frequency distributions of multiple mating types. A-like alleles specify mating types I, II, III, V and VI, whereas B-like alleles specify mating types II through VII. We have characterized the mating type distributions specified by several A- and B-like genotypes segregated by genomic exclusion from cells isolated from a pond in northwestern Pennsylvania. The B-like genotypes are alike in specifying very low frequencies of mating type III, but differ with respect to the frequencies of other mating types, particularly II and VII. An A-like genotype specifies a high frequency of mating type III and is unstable in successive generations for the expression of mating type II, suggesting a possible modifier. Inter se crosses performed at 18 degrees C, 28 degrees C and 34 degrees C showed that each genotype specifies a frequency distribution that is uniquely affected by temperature. No mating type was affected the same way by temperature in all genotypes. In A/B heterozygotes, the B-like genotype exhibited partial dominance. The genotypes described here differ significantly from previously described genotypes from the same pond, indicating that there are numerous mating type alleles. For frequency-dependent selection to equalize mating type frequencies, it must act not only on complex multiple alleles but also on the response of mating type alleles to temperature. PMID:11140456

  4. Two classes of homeodomain proteins specify the multiple a mating types of the mushroom Coprinus cinereus.

    PubMed Central

    Kes, U; Asante-Owusu, R N; Mutasa, E S; Tymon, A M; Pardo, E H; O'Shea, S F; Gttgens, B; Casselton, L A

    1994-01-01

    The A mating type locus of the mushroom Coprinus cinereus regulates essential steps in sexual development. The locus is complex and contains several functionally redundant, multiallelic genes that encode putative transcription factors. Here, we compare four genes from an A locus designated A42. Overall, the DNA sequences are very different (approximately 50% homology), but two classes of genes can be distinguished on the basis of a conserved homeodomain motif in their predicted proteins (HD1 and HD2). Development is postulated to be triggered by an HD1 and an HD2 gene from different A loci. Thus, proteins encoded by genes of the same locus must be distinguished from those encoded by another locus. Individual proteins of both classes recognize each other using the region N-terminal to the homeodomain. These N-terminal specificity regions (COP1 and COP2) are predicted to be helical and are potential dimerization interfaces. The amino acid composition of the C-terminal regions of HD1 proteins suggests a role in activation, and gene truncations indicate that this region is essential for function in vivo. A corresponding C-terminal region in HD2 proteins can be dispensed with in vivo. We will discuss these predicted structural features of the C. cinereus A proteins, their proposed interactions following a compatible cell fusion, and their similarities to the a1 and alpha 2 mating type proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:7994179

  5. Maintaining Two Mating Types: Structure of the Mating Type Locus and Its Role in Heterokaryosis in Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Grognet, Pierre; Bidard, Frdrique; Kuchly, Claire; Tong, Laetitia Chan Ho; Coppin, Evelyne; Benkhali, Jinane Ait; Couloux, Arnaud; Wincker, Patrick; Debuchy, Robert; Silar, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Pseudo-homothallism is a reproductive strategy elected by some fungi producing heterokaryotic sexual spores containing genetically different but sexually compatible nuclei. This lifestyle appears as a compromise between true homothallism (self-fertility with predominant inbreeding) and complete heterothallism (with exclusive outcrossing). However, pseudohomothallic species face the problem of maintaining heterokaryotic mycelia to fully benefit from this lifestyle, as homokaryons are self-sterile. Here, we report on the structure of chromosome 1 in mat+ and mat? isolates of strain S of the pseudohomothallic fungus Podospora anserina. Chromosome 1 contains either one of the mat+ and mat? mating types of P. anserina, which is mostly found in nature as a mat+/mat? heterokaryotic mycelium harboring sexually compatible nuclei. We identified a mat region ?0.8 Mb long, devoid of meiotic recombination and containing the mating-type idiomorphs, which is a candidate to be involved in the maintenance of the heterokaryotic state, since the S mat+ and S mat? strains have different physiology that may enable hybrid-vigor-like phenomena in the heterokaryons. The mat region contains 229 coding sequences. A total of 687 polymorphisms were detected between the S mat+ and S mat? chromosomes. Importantly, the mat region is colinear between both chromosomes, which calls for an original mechanism of recombination inhibition. Microarray analyses revealed that 10% of the P. anserina genes have different transcriptional profiles in S mat+ and S mat?, in line with their different phenotypes. Finally, we show that the heterokaryotic state is faithfully maintained during mycelium growth of P. anserina, yet mat+/mat+ and mat?/mat? heterokaryons are as stable as mat+/mat? ones, evidencing a maintenance of heterokaryosis that does not rely on fitness-enhancing complementation between the S mat+ and S mat? strains. PMID:24558260

  6. Genetic Mapping and Non-Mendelian Segregation of Mating Type Loci in the Oomycete, Phytophthora Infestans

    PubMed Central

    Judelson, H. S.; Spielman, L. J.; Shattock, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    DNA markers linked to the determinants of mating type in the oomycete, Phytophthora infestans, were identified and used to address the genetic basis of heterothallism in this normally diploid fungus. Thirteen loci linked to the A1 and A2 mating types were initially identified by bulked segregant analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs) and subsequently scored in three crosses as RAPD markers, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), single-strand conformational polymorphisms (SSCP), cleaved amplified polymorphisms (CAPS), or allele-specific polymerase chain reaction markers (AS-PCR). All DNA markers mapped to a single region, consistent with a single locus determining both mating types. Long-range restriction mapping also demonstrated the linkage of the markers to one region and delimited the mating type locus to a 100-kb region. The interval containing the mating type locus displayed non-Mendelian segregation as only two of the four expected genotypes were detected in progeny. This is consistent with a system of balanced lethal loci near the mating type locus. A model for mating type determination is presented in which the balanced lethals exclude from progeny those with potentially conflicting combinations of mating type alleles, such as those simultaneously expressing A1 and A2 functions. PMID:8647388

  7. Genetic and Physical Variability at the Mating Type Locus of the Oomycete, Phytophthora Infestans

    PubMed Central

    Judelson, H. S.

    1996-01-01

    Mating type in the oomyceteous fungus, Phytophthora infestans, is determined by a single locus. In a previous study of a few isolates, the locus segregated in a manner genetically consistent with its linkage to a system of balanced lethal loci. To determine the prevalence of this phenomenon within P. infestans, genetic analyses were performed using isolates representative of the diversity within the species that had been selected by DNA fingerprinting using probes linked to mating type. Non-Mendelian segregation of the mating type locus was observed in crosses performed with each isolate. An unusual group of isolates was identified in which the mating type determinants had been rearranged within the genome; these strains also produced an aberrantly large number of self-fertile progeny. Curiously, in all isolates, markers linked to the mating type locus appeared prone to duplication, transposition, deletion, or other rearrangement. This was not observed for loci unlinked to mating type. Data from the crosses and analyses of marker variation were used to erect models to explain the bases of mating type determination and of the unusual segregation of the chromosomal region containing the mating type locus. PMID:8913745

  8. The scaffold protein Ste5 directly controls a switch-like mating decision in yeast.

    PubMed

    Malleshaiah, Mohan K; Shahrezaei, Vahid; Swain, Peter S; Michnick, Stephen W

    2010-05-01

    Evolution has resulted in numerous innovations that allow organisms to increase their fitness by choosing particular mating partners, including secondary sexual characteristics, behavioural patterns, chemical attractants and corresponding sensory mechanisms. The haploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae selects mating partners by interpreting the concentration gradient of pheromone secreted by potential mates through a network of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling proteins. The mating decision in yeast is an all-or-none, or switch-like, response that allows cells to filter weak pheromone signals, thus avoiding inappropriate commitment to mating by responding only at or above critical concentrations when a mate is sufficiently close. The molecular mechanisms that govern the switch-like mating decision are poorly understood. Here we show that the switching mechanism arises from competition between the MAPK Fus3 and a phosphatase Ptc1 for control of the phosphorylation state of four sites on the scaffold protein Ste5. This competition results in a switch-like dissociation of Fus3 from Ste5 that is necessary to generate the switch-like mating response. Thus, the decision to mate is made at an early stage in the pheromone pathway and occurs rapidly, perhaps to prevent the loss of the potential mate to competitors. We argue that the architecture of the Fus3-Ste5-Ptc1 circuit generates a novel ultrasensitivity mechanism, which is robust to variations in the concentrations of these proteins. This robustness helps assure that mating can occur despite stochastic or genetic variation between individuals. The role of Ste5 as a direct modulator of a cell-fate decision expands the functional repertoire of scaffold proteins beyond providing specificity and efficiency of information processing. Similar mechanisms may govern cellular decisions in higher organisms and be disrupted in cancer. PMID:20400943

  9. Tuber melanosporum: mating type distribution in a natural plantation and dynamics of strains of different mating types on the roots of nursery-inoculated host plants.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Andrea; Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Arcioni, Sergio; Martin, Francis; Paolocci, Francesco

    2011-02-01

    In light of the recent finding that Tuber melanosporum, the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete that produces the most highly prized black truffles, is a heterothallic species, we monitored the spatial distribution of strains with opposite mating types (MAT) in a natural truffle ground and followed strain dynamics in artificially inoculated host plants grown under controlled conditions. In a natural truffle ground, ectomycorrhizas (ECMs), soil samples and fruit bodies were sampled and genotyped to determine mating types. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were also used to fingerprint ECMs and fruit bodies. The ECMs from nursery-inoculated host plants were analysed for mating type at 6 months and 19 months post-inoculation. In open-field conditions, all ECMs from the same sampling site showed an identical mating type and an identical haploid genotype, based on SSR analysis. Interestingly, the gleba of fruit bodies always demonstrated the same genotype as the surrounding ECMs. Although root tips from nursery-grown plants initially developed ECMs of both mating types, a dominance of ECMs of the same MAT were found after several months. The present study deepens our understanding of the vegetative and sexual propagation modes of T. melanosporum. These results are highly relevant for truffle cultivation. PMID:20964691

  10. The meiotic-mitotic initiation switch in budding yeast maintains its function robustly against sensitive parameter perturbations.

    PubMed

    Wannige, C T; Kulasiri, D; Samarasinghe, S

    2014-10-01

    Experiments show that the meiotic-mitotic initiation switch in budding yeast functions robustly during the early hours of meiosis initiation. In this study, we explain these experimental observations first by understanding how this switching occurs during the early hours of meiosis by studying the temporal variation of this switch at the gene expression level. Then, we investigate the effects on this meiotic-mitotic switching from the perturbations of the most sensitive parameters in budding yeast meiosis initiation network. We use a mathematical model of meiosis initiation in budding yeast for this task and find the most sensitive group of parameters that influence the expressions of meiosis and mitosis initiators at all stages of the meiotic-mitotic switch. The results indicate that the transition region of the switch, where a double negative feedback loop between meiosis (Ime2) and mitosis (Cdk1/Cln3) initiators plays a major role, shows lower robustness. Feedback loops are frequently observed serving as a major robust adaption mechanism in many biological networks. Consequences of this less robust region appear in the transition region of the resulting switches. Most importantly, despite the differences observed in the transition region, we find that the meiotic-mitotic switch robustly maintains its main function of transition from meiosis to mitosis when the nutrients are re-supplied, against the perturbations in the sensitive parameters. PMID:25195149

  11. Biological characteristics and mating type distribution of Phytophthora capsici from China.

    PubMed

    Du, Y; Gong, Z-H; Liu, G-Z; Chai, G-X; Li, C

    2014-01-01

    Phytophthora capsici from seven provinces of China were investigated for their mating type, hyphal growth, zoospore production, and virulence. All of the morphological characteristics and the results of polymerase chain reaction confirmed that these isolates were indeed Phytophthora capsici. The test of mating type showed that the mating types of 19 representative isolates from China varied. The hyphal growth and the amount of zoospores produced from these isolates differed and there was no evident relationship between them, which indicated the existence of genetic diversity among the isolates in China. Also, the isolates that were more virulent on the pepper cultivars that we checked produced more zoospores than other isolates. PMID:24535866

  12. Identification and structure of the mating-type locus and development of PCR-based markers for mating type in powdery mildew fungi.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Marin Talbot; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Cortesi, Paolo; Spanu, Pietro D; Milgroom, Michael G

    2011-07-01

    In ascomycetes, mating compatibility is regulated by the mating-type locus, MAT1. The objectives of this study were to identify and sequence genes at the MAT1 locus in the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, to develop a PCR-based marker for determining mating type in E. necator, and to develop degenerate primers for amplification by PCR of conserved regions of mating-type idiomorphs in other powdery mildew fungi. We identified MAT1-2-1 of the MAT1-2 idiomorph in E. necator based on the homologous sequence in the genome of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei and we found MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-3 of the MAT1-1 idiomorph from transcriptome sequences of E. necator. We developed and applied a reliable PCR-based multiplex marker to confirm that genotype correlated with mating phenotype, which was determined by pairing with mating-type tester isolates. Additionally, we used the marker to genotype populations of E. necator from different Vitis spp. from throughout the USA. We found both mating types were present in all populations and mating-type ratios did not deviate from 1:1. The mating-type genes in E. necator are similar to those of other Leotiomycetes; however, the structure of the MAT1 locus in E. necator, like the MAT1-2 idiomorph of B. graminis, is markedly different from other ascomycetes in that it is greatly expanded and may contain a large amount of repetitive DNA. As a result, we were unable to amplify and sequence either idiomorph in its entirety. We designed degenerate primers that amplify conserved regions of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 in E. necator, Podosphaera xanthii, Microsphaera syringae, and B. graminis, representing the major clades of the Erysiphales. These degenerate primers or sequences obtained in this study from these species can be used to identify and sequence MAT1 genes or design mating-type markers in other powdery mildew fungi as well. PMID:21515399

  13. Pseudohomothallism and evolution of the mating-type chromosome in Neurospora tetrasperma

    SciTech Connect

    Merino, S.T.; Nelson, M.A.; Natvig, D.O.

    1996-06-01

    Ascospores of Neurospora tetrasperma normally contain nuclei of both mating-type idiomorphs (a and A), resulting in self-fertile heterokaryons (a type of sexual reproduction termed pseudohomothallism). Occasional homokaryotic self-sterile strains (either a or A) behave as heterothallics and, in principal, provide N. tetrasperma to assess levels of intrastrain heterokaryosis (heterozygosity). The unexpected result was the mating-type chromosome and autosomes exhibited very different patterns of evolution, apparently because of suppressed recombination between mating-type chromosomes. Analysis of sequences on the mating-type chromosomes of wild-collected self-fertile strains revealed high levels of genetic variability between sibling A and a nuclei. In contrast, sequences on autosomes of sibling A and a nuclei exhibited nearly complete homogeneity. Conservation of distinct haplotype combinations on A and a mating-type chromosomes in strains from diverse locations further suggested an absence of recombination over substantial periods of evolutionary time. The suppression of recombination of the N. tetrasperma mating-type chromosome, expected to ensure a high frequency of self fertility, presents an interesting parallel with, and possible model for studying aspects of, the evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Domesticated transposase Kat1 and its fossil imprints induce sexual differentiation in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Naghmeh; Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Lin, Feng; strm, Stefan U.

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) have had a major influence on shaping both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, largely through stochastic events following random or near-random insertions. In the mammalian immune system, the recombination activation genes1/2 (Rag1/2) recombinase has evolved from a transposase gene, demonstrating that TEs can be domesticated by the host. In this study, we uncovered a domesticated transposase, Kluyveromyces lactis hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposase 1 (Kat1), operating at the fossil imprints of an ancient transposon, that catalyzes the differentiation of cell type. Kat1 induces mating-type switching from mating type a (MATa) to MAT? in the yeast K. lactis. Kat1 activates switching by introducing two hairpin-capped DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the MATa1MATa2 intergenic region, as we demonstrate both in vivo and in vitro. The DSBs stimulate homologous recombination with the cryptic hidden MAT left alpha (HML?) locus resulting in a switch of the cell type. The sites where Kat1 acts in the MATa locus most likely are ancient remnants of terminal inverted repeats from a long-lost TE. The KAT1 gene is annotated as a pseudogene because it contains two overlapping ORFs. We demonstrate that translation of full-length Kat1 requires a programmed ?1 frameshift. The frameshift limited Kat1 activity, because restoring the zero frame causes switching to the MAT? genotype. Kat1 also was transcriptionally activated by nutrient limitation via the transcription factor mating type switch 1 (Mts1). A phylogenetic analysis indicated that KAT1 was domesticated specifically in the Kluyveromyces clade of the budding yeasts. We conclude that Kat1 is a highly regulated transposase-derived endonuclease vital for sexual differentiation. PMID:25313032

  15. Domesticated transposase Kat1 and its fossil imprints induce sexual differentiation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Naghmeh; Chiruvella, Kishore K; Lin, Feng; Aström, Stefan U

    2014-10-28

    Transposable elements (TEs) have had a major influence on shaping both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, largely through stochastic events following random or near-random insertions. In the mammalian immune system, the recombination activation genes1/2 (Rag1/2) recombinase has evolved from a transposase gene, demonstrating that TEs can be domesticated by the host. In this study, we uncovered a domesticated transposase, Kluyveromyces lactis hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposase 1 (Kat1), operating at the fossil imprints of an ancient transposon, that catalyzes the differentiation of cell type. Kat1 induces mating-type switching from mating type a (MATa) to MATα in the yeast K. lactis. Kat1 activates switching by introducing two hairpin-capped DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the MATa1-MATa2 intergenic region, as we demonstrate both in vivo and in vitro. The DSBs stimulate homologous recombination with the cryptic hidden MAT left alpha (HMLα) locus resulting in a switch of the cell type. The sites where Kat1 acts in the MATa locus most likely are ancient remnants of terminal inverted repeats from a long-lost TE. The KAT1 gene is annotated as a pseudogene because it contains two overlapping ORFs. We demonstrate that translation of full-length Kat1 requires a programmed -1 frameshift. The frameshift limited Kat1 activity, because restoring the zero frame causes switching to the MATα genotype. Kat1 also was transcriptionally activated by nutrient limitation via the transcription factor mating type switch 1 (Mts1). A phylogenetic analysis indicated that KAT1 was domesticated specifically in the Kluyveromyces clade of the budding yeasts. We conclude that Kat1 is a highly regulated transposase-derived endonuclease vital for sexual differentiation. PMID:25313032

  16. The genetic structure of the A mating-type locus of Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Au, Chun Hang; Wong, Man Chun; Bao, Dapeng; Zhang, Meiyan; Song, Chunyan; Song, Wenhua; Law, Patrick Tik Wan; Kes, Ursula; Kwan, Hoi Shan

    2014-02-10

    The Shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler is a tetrapolar basidiomycete with two unlinked mating-type loci, commonly called the A and B loci. Identifying the mating-types in shiitake is important for enhancing the breeding and cultivation of this economically-important edible mushroom. Here, we identified the A mating-type locus from the first draft genome sequence of L. edodes and characterized multiple alleles from different monokaryotic strains. Two intron-length polymorphism markers were developed to facilitate rapid molecular determination of A mating-type. L. edodes sequences were compared with those of known tetrapolar and bipolar basidiomycete species. The A mating-type genes are conserved at the homeodomain region across the order Agaricales. However, we observed unique genomic organization of the locus in L. edodes which exhibits atypical gene order and multiple repetitive elements around its A locus. To our knowledge, this is the first known exception among Homobasidiomycetes, in which the mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (mip) gene is not closely linked to A locus. PMID:24295887

  17. Recent and Massive Expansion of the Mating-Type-Specific Region in the Smut Fungus Microbotryum

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Carrie A.; Votintseva, Antonina; Ridout, Kate; Filatov, Dmitry A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of large genomic regions with suppressed recombination (SR) is a key shared property of some sex- and mating-type determining (mat) chromosomes identified to date in animals, plants, and fungi. Why such regions form and how they evolve remain central questions in evolutionary genetics. The smut fungus Microbotryum lychnis-dioicae is a basidiomycete fungus in which dimorphic mat chromosomes have been reported, but the size, age, and evolutionary dynamics of the SR region remains unresolved. To identify the SR region in M. lychnis-dioicae and to study its evolution, we sequenced 12 genomes (6 per mating type) of this species and identified the genomic contigs that show fixed sequence differences between the mating types. We report that the SR region spans more than half of the mat chromosome (>2.3 Mbp) and that it is of very recent origin (∼2 × 106 years) as the average sequence divergence between mating types was only 2% in the SR region. This contrasts with a much higher divergence in and around the mating-type determining pheromone receptor locus in the SR, suggesting a recent and massive expansion of the SR region. Our results comprise the first reported case of recent massive SR expansion documented in a basidiomycete fungus. PMID:25567990

  18. Roles for Receptors, Pheromones, G Proteins, and Mating Type Genes During Sexual Reproduction in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyojeong; Wright, Sara J.; Park, Gyungsoon; Ouyang, Shouqiang; Krystofova, Svetlana; Borkovich, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Here we characterize the relationship between the PRE-2 pheromone receptor and its ligand, CCG-4, and the general requirements for receptors, pheromones, G proteins, and mating type genes during fusion of opposite mating-type cells and sexual sporulation in the multicellular fungus Neurospora crassa. PRE-2 is highly expressed in mat a cells and is localized in male and female reproductive structures. ?pre-2 mat a females do not respond chemotropically to mat A males (conidia) or form mature fruiting bodies (perithecia) or meiotic progeny (ascospores). Strains with swapped identity due to heterologous expression of pre-2 or ccg-4 behave normally in crosses with opposite mating-type strains. Coexpression of pre-2 and ccg-4 in the mat A background leads to self-attraction and development of barren perithecia without ascospores. Further perithecial development is achieved by inactivation of Sad-1, a gene required for meiotic gene silencing. Findings from studies involving forced heterokaryons of opposite mating-type strains show that presence of one receptor and its compatible pheromone is necessary and sufficient for perithecial development and ascospore production. Taken together, the results demonstrate that although receptors and pheromones control sexual identity, the mating-type genes (mat A and mat a) must be in two different nuclei to allow meiosis and sexual sporulation to occur. PMID:22298702

  19. Microbiological characteristics of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans in Taiwan: serotypes, mating types, molecular types, virulence factors, and antifungal susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Liaw, S-J; Wu, H-C; Hsueh, P-R

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the microbiological characteristics of 100 clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans species complex, including serotypes, mating types, molecular types, antifungal susceptibility and virulence. The isolates were collected at National Taiwan University Hospital from 1999 to 2004. Eight isolates of C. neoformans from pigeon droppings were also evaluated. Among these isolates, 99 were C. neoformans var. grubii serotype A and one was C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B. All of these isolates were alpha mating types. PCR fingerprinting, generated by primers M13 and (GACA)(4), and URA5 gene restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that C. neoformans var. grubii isolates belonged to the VNI (98 isolates) and the VNII (one isolate) types, and the single C. neoformans var. gattii was VGI type. The similar profiles of clinical and environmental isolates suggest that patients might acquire these yeasts from the environment. The MIC(90) for fluconazole, itraconazole, 5-flucytosine, voriconazole and amphotericin B against all C. neoformans isolates were 8, 0.5, 4, 0.125 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. All clinical isolates produced urease, phospholipase, capsule and melanin, but these activities varied with individual isolates. Analysis of six clinical and two environmental isolates with various levels of phospholipase activity indicated a correlation between phospholipase activity and the ability to adhere to the lung epithelial cell line, A549. The extent of cell damage, as indicated by lactate dehydrogenase release, also paralleled the phospholipase activity of these isolates. In addition, production of melanin contributed significant protection against amphotericin B killing of the isolates tested. PMID:19694765

  20. Mating type gene (MAT1-1) in Japanese isolates of Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Isizuka, Maiko; Hiruma, Masataro; Mochizuki, Takashi; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2013-02-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is an anthropophilic species that is the most frequent etiologic agent of human dermatophytosis throughout the world. No teleomorph has been identified for T. rubrum strains. This study used PCR analysis to confirm the presence of a mating type locus in the genome of Japanese isolates of T. rubrum. To clarify the epidemiological and ecological characteristics of this fungus, mating type sequences were tested for correlation of MAT genotype to mating type. This study examined clinical isolates of T. rubrum that had been obtained from 206 human cases of tinea pedis and tinea unguium in Japan, including those from Fukuoka (29 strains), Gifu (23 strains), Kanazawa (63 strains), and Tokyo (91 strains), along with 10 isolates derived from 10 cases of canine dermatophytosis. PCR detected the presence of MAT1-1 in all of the human and animal isolates. Therefore, all isolates examined were expected to react as (-) type on the mating test and not as (+) type. PMID:23212652

  1. Vegetative Incompatibility and the Mating-Type Locus in the Cellular Slime Mold DICTYOSTELIUM DISCOIDEUM

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Gillian E.; Williams, Keith L.

    1979-01-01

    The genetic basis of vegetative incompatibility in the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum, is elucidated. Vegetatively compatible haploid strains from parasexual diploids at a frequency of between 10-6 and 10-5, whereas "escaped" diploids are formed between vegetatively incompatible strains at a frequency of ∼10-8. There is probably only a single vegetative incompatibility site, which appears to be located at, or closely linked to, the mating-type locus. The nature of the vegetative incompatibility is deduced from parasexual diploid formation between wild isolates and tester strains of each mating type, examination of the frequency of formation of "escaped" diploids formed between vegetatively incompatible strains, and examination of the mating type and vegetative incompatibility of haploid segregants obtained from "escaped" diploids. PMID:17248984

  2. Evolution of sexes from an ancestral mating-type specification pathway.

    PubMed

    Geng, Sa; De Hoff, Peter; Umen, James G

    2014-07-01

    Male and female sexes have evolved repeatedly in eukaryotes but the origins of dimorphic sexes and their relationship to mating types in unicellular species are not understood. Volvocine algae include isogamous species such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, with two equal-sized mating types, and oogamous multicellular species such as Volvox carteri with sperm-producing males and egg-producing females. Theoretical work predicts genetic linkage of a gamete cell-size regulatory gene(s) to an ancestral mating-type locus as a possible step in the evolution of dimorphic gametes, but this idea has not been tested. Here we show that, contrary to predictions, a single conserved mating locus (MT) gene in volvocine algae-MID, which encodes a RWP-RK domain transcription factor-evolved from its ancestral role in C. reinhardtii as a mating-type specifier, to become a determinant of sperm and egg development in V. carteri. Transgenic female V. carteri expressing male MID produced functional sperm packets during sexual development. Transgenic male V. carteri with RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdowns of VcMID produced functional eggs, or self-fertile hermaphrodites. Post-transcriptional controls were found to regulate cell-type-limited expression and nuclear localization of VcMid protein that restricted its activity to nuclei of developing male germ cells and sperm. Crosses with sex-reversed strains uncoupled sex determination from sex chromosome identity and revealed gender-specific roles for male and female mating locus genes in sexual development, gamete fitness and reproductive success. Our data show genetic continuity between the mating-type specification and sex determination pathways of volvocine algae, and reveal evidence for gender-specific adaptations in the male and female mating locus haplotypes of Volvox. These findings will enable a deeper understanding of how a master regulator of mating-type determination in an ancestral unicellular species was reprogrammed to control sexually dimorphic gamete development in a multicellular descendant. PMID:25003332

  3. Evolution of Sexes from an Ancestral Mating-Type Specification Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Sa; De Hoff, Peter; Umen, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Male and female sexes have evolved repeatedly in eukaryotes but the origins of dimorphic sexes and their relationship to mating types in unicellular species are not understood. Volvocine algae include isogamous species such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, with two equal-sized mating types, and oogamous multicellular species such as Volvox carteri with sperm-producing males and egg-producing females. Theoretical work predicts genetic linkage of a gamete cell-size regulatory gene(s) to an ancestral mating-type locus as a possible step in the evolution of dimorphic gametes, but this idea has not been tested. Here we show that, contrary to predictions, a single conserved mating locus (MT) gene in volvocine algae—MID, which encodes a RWP-RK domain transcription factor—evolved from its ancestral role in C. reinhardtii as a mating-type specifier, to become a determinant of sperm and egg development in V. carteri. Transgenic female V. carteri expressing male MID produced functional sperm packets during sexual development. Transgenic male V. carteri with RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdowns of VcMID produced functional eggs, or self-fertile hermaphrodites. Post-transcriptional controls were found to regulate cell-type–limited expression and nuclear localization of VcMid protein that restricted its activity to nuclei of developing male germ cells and sperm. Crosses with sex-reversed strains uncoupled sex determination from sex chromosome identity and revealed gender-specific roles for male and female mating locus genes in sexual development, gamete fitness and reproductive success. Our data show genetic continuity between the mating-type specification and sex determination pathways of volvocine algae, and reveal evidence for gender-specific adaptations in the male and female mating locus haplotypes of Volvox. These findings will enable a deeper understanding of how a master regulator of mating-type determination in an ancestral unicellular species was reprogrammed to control sexually dimorphic gamete development in a multicellular descendant. PMID:25003332

  4. Cell-cell signalling in sexual chemotaxis: a basis for gametic differentiation, mating types and sexes.

    PubMed

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    While sex requires two parents, there is no obvious need for them to be differentiated into distinct mating types or sexes. Yet this is the predominate state of nature. Here, we argue that mating types could play a decisive role because they prevent the apparent inevitability of self-stimulation during sexual signalling. We rigorously assess this hypothesis by developing a model for signaller-detector dynamics based on chemical diffusion, chemotaxis and cell movement. Our model examines the conditions under which chemotaxis improves partner finding. Varying parameter values within ranges typical of protists and their environments, we show that simultaneous secretion and detection of a single chemoattractant can cause a multifold movement impediment and severely hinder mate finding. Mutually exclusive roles result in faster pair formation, even when cells conferring the same roles cannot pair up. This arrangement also allows the separate mating types to optimize their signalling or detecting roles, which is effectively impossible for cells that are both secretors and detectors. Our findings suggest that asymmetric roles in sexual chemotaxis (and possibly other forms of sexual signalling) are crucial, even without morphological differences, and may underlie the evolution of gametic differentiation among both mating types and sexes. PMID:26156301

  5. Ascospore dimorphism-associated mating types of Sclerotinia trifoliorum equally capable of infecting chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia trifoliorum causes stem and crown rot of chickpea and other forage and grain legumes, and is one of the three important species of the genus Sclerotinia. S. trifoliorum is unique from the other two species in that it is heterothallic and has two opposite mating types required for comple...

  6. Mating type-dependent partner sensing as mediated by VEL1 in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Bazafkan, Hoda; Dattenbck, Christoph; Bhmdorfer, Stefan; Tisch, Doris; Stappler, Eva; Schmoll, Monika

    2015-06-01

    Sexual development in the filamentous model ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina) was described only a few years ago. In this study, we show a novel role for VELVET in fungi, which links light response, development and secondary metabolism. Vel1 is required for mating in darkness, normal growth and conidiation. In light, vel1 was dispensable for male fertility but essential for female fertility in both mating types. VEL1 impacted regulation of the pheromone system (hpr1, hpr2, hpp1, ppg1) in a mating type-dependent manner and depending on the mating partner of a given strain. These partner effects only occurred for hpp1 and hpr2, the pheromone precursor and receptor genes associated with the MAT1-2 mating type and for the mating type gene mat1-2-1. Analysis of secondary metabolite patterns secreted by wild type and mutants under asexual and sexual conditions revealed that even in the wild type, the patterns change upon encounter of a mating partner, with again distinct differences for wild type and vel1 mutants. Hence, T.?reesei applies a language of pheromones and secondary metabolites to communicate with mating partners and that this communication is at least in part mediated by VEL1. PMID:25757597

  7. Cell–cell signalling in sexual chemotaxis: a basis for gametic differentiation, mating types and sexes

    PubMed Central

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While sex requires two parents, there is no obvious need for them to be differentiated into distinct mating types or sexes. Yet this is the predominate state of nature. Here, we argue that mating types could play a decisive role because they prevent the apparent inevitability of self-stimulation during sexual signalling. We rigorously assess this hypothesis by developing a model for signaller–detector dynamics based on chemical diffusion, chemotaxis and cell movement. Our model examines the conditions under which chemotaxis improves partner finding. Varying parameter values within ranges typical of protists and their environments, we show that simultaneous secretion and detection of a single chemoattractant can cause a multifold movement impediment and severely hinder mate finding. Mutually exclusive roles result in faster pair formation, even when cells conferring the same roles cannot pair up. This arrangement also allows the separate mating types to optimize their signalling or detecting roles, which is effectively impossible for cells that are both secretors and detectors. Our findings suggest that asymmetric roles in sexual chemotaxis (and possibly other forms of sexual signalling) are crucial, even without morphological differences, and may underlie the evolution of gametic differentiation among both mating types and sexes. PMID:26156301

  8. Cloning and analysis of the mating-type idiomorphs from the barley pathogen Septoria passerinii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hypothesis to explain the lack of a known sexual stage (teleomorph) for species of the fungal genus Septoria could be that many of them are recent, asexual derivatives of sexual species that have lost the ability to mate. To test this hypothesis, the mating-type region of S. passerinii, a specie...

  9. Mating type markers reveal high levels of heterothallism in Leptographium sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Duong, Tuan A; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Species of Leptographium sensu lato are sap-stain fungi vectored by bark beetles and some species cause or are associated with tree diseases. Sexual states have been reported for more than 30 species in this group and these have been treated in the sexual genus Grosmannia. No sexual state is known for at least 59 additional species and these reside in the genus Leptographium. The discovery of sexual states for species of Leptographium relies mainly on the presence of fruiting bodies on host tissue at the time of isolation and/or intensive laboratory mating studies, which commonly have low levels of success. We developed mating-type markers to study sexual compatibility of species in Leptographium sensu lato. Using these markers, it was possible to identify mating types for 42 species and to determine thallism in many species for the first time. Surprisingly, the results showed that heterothallic and putatively heterothallic species are abundant (39 out of 42 species) in Leptographium sensu lato, and only three species were confirmed to be homothallic. The mating type markers developed in this study will be useful for future studies concerning mating type and sexual compatibility of species in this genus. PMID:27020155

  10. Extensive Divergence Between Mating-Type Chromosomes of the Anther-Smut Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Michael E.; Petit, Elsa; Giraud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Genomic regions that determine mating compatibility are subject to distinct evolutionary forces that can lead to a cessation of meiotic recombination and the accumulation of structural changes between members of the homologous chromosome pair. The relatively recent discovery of dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in fungi can aid the understanding of sex chromosome evolution that is common to dioecious plants and animals. For the anther-smut fungus, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (= M. violaceum isolated from Silene latifolia), the extent of recombination cessation on the dimorphic mating-type chromosomes has been conflictingly reported. Comparison of restriction digest optical maps for the two mating-type chromosomes shows that divergence extends over 90% of the chromosome lengths, flanked at either end by two pseudoautosomal regions. Evidence to support the expansion of recombination cessation in stages from the mating-type locus toward the pseudoautosomal regions was not found, but evidence of such expansion could be obscured by ongoing processes that affect genome structure. This study encourages the comparison of forces that may drive large-scale recombination suppression in fungi and other eukaryotes characterized by dimorphic chromosome pairs associated with sexual life cycles. PMID:23150606

  11. Degeneration of the nonrecombining regions in the mating-type chromosomes of the anther-smut fungi.

    PubMed

    Fontanillas, Eric; Hood, Michael E; Badouin, Hlne; Petit, Elsa; Barbe, Valrie; Gouzy, Jrme; de Vienne, Damien M; Aguileta, Gabriela; Poulain, Julie; Wincker, Patrick; Chen, Zehua; Toh, Su San; Cuomo, Christina A; Perlin, Michael H; Gladieux, Pierre; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    Dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in fungi are excellent models for understanding the genomic consequences of recombination suppression. Their suppressed recombination and reduced effective population size are expected to limit the efficacy of natural selection, leading to genomic degeneration. Our aim was to identify the sequences of the mating-type chromosomes (a1 and a2) of the anther-smut fungi and to investigate degeneration in their nonrecombining regions. We used the haploid a1 Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae reference genome sequence. The a1 and a2 mating-type chromosomes were both isolated electrophoretically and sequenced. Integration with restriction-digest optical maps identified regions of recombination and nonrecombination in the mating-type chromosomes. Genome sequence data were also obtained for 12 other Microbotryum species. We found strong evidence of degeneration across the genus in the nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes, with significantly higher rates of nonsynonymous substitution (dN/dS) than in nonmating-type chromosomes or in recombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes. The nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes also showed high transposable element content, weak gene expression, and gene losses. The levels of degeneration did not differ between the a1 and a2 mating-type chromosomes, consistent with the lack of homogametic/heterogametic asymmetry between them, and contrasting with X/Y or Z/W sex chromosomes. PMID:25534033

  12. Degeneration of the Nonrecombining Regions in the Mating-Type Chromosomes of the Anther-Smut Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Fontanillas, Eric; Hood, Michael E.; Badouin, Hélène; Petit, Elsa; Barbe, Valérie; Gouzy, Jérôme; de Vienne, Damien M.; Aguileta, Gabriela; Poulain, Julie; Wincker, Patrick; Chen, Zehua; Toh, Su San; Cuomo, Christina A.; Perlin, Michael H.; Gladieux, Pierre; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in fungi are excellent models for understanding the genomic consequences of recombination suppression. Their suppressed recombination and reduced effective population size are expected to limit the efficacy of natural selection, leading to genomic degeneration. Our aim was to identify the sequences of the mating-type chromosomes (a1 and a2) of the anther-smut fungi and to investigate degeneration in their nonrecombining regions. We used the haploid a1 Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae reference genome sequence. The a1 and a2 mating-type chromosomes were both isolated electrophoretically and sequenced. Integration with restriction-digest optical maps identified regions of recombination and nonrecombination in the mating-type chromosomes. Genome sequence data were also obtained for 12 other Microbotryum species. We found strong evidence of degeneration across the genus in the nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes, with significantly higher rates of nonsynonymous substitution (dN/dS) than in nonmating-type chromosomes or in recombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes. The nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes also showed high transposable element content, weak gene expression, and gene losses. The levels of degeneration did not differ between the a1 and a2 mating-type chromosomes, consistent with the lack of homogametic/heterogametic asymmetry between them, and contrasting with X/Y or Z/W sex chromosomes. PMID:25534033

  13. Population structure and mating type distribution of the chickpea blight pathogen Ascochyta rabiei from Pakistan and United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascochyta blight caused by the fungus Ascochyta rabiei (AR) depresses chickpea production in Pakistan and worldwide. Thirty two AR isolates representing six geographical regions of Pakistan was compared with a US AR population for frequency of mating types and genetic variation. Mating type results ...

  14. Genotyping, serotyping and determination of mating-type of Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates from So Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Marcelo Teruyuki; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Melhem, Mrcia de Souza Carvalho; Medes-Giannini, Maria Jos Soares

    2007-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is an important fungal pathogen mainly in immunocompromised patients. In this study, 47 clinical isolates of C. neoformans from regions of So Paulo State were studied serologically by using the Crypto Check Iatron RM 304-K kit, their genetic diversity was estimated by PCR-fingerprinting with a microsatellite-specific sequence (GACA)(4), RAPD with primer 6 (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the phospholipase B gene (PLB1) digested with AvaI and mating type analysis by PCR. All 47 strains isolated from HIV positive patients included in this study were serotype A and MATalpha. The majority of the isolates (45/47) were VNI and only two were VNII by PCR-fingerprinting and PCR-RFLP analysis. High degree of homogeneity was observed when (GACA)(4) was used, being highly correlated (> 0.9). In contrast, the RAPD analysis was more heterogeneous with higher number of molecular profiles. By PCR-RFLP, no new molecular type was found, enhancing the suggestion that the differences based on conserved gene as PLB1, can be resultant of ongoing divergent evolution within the C. neoformans complex, into the current eight subtypes. Our results furnish new information on the molecular epidemiology of C. neoformans in the southeast region of Brazil. PMID:17384819

  15. Defining the Epigenetic Mechanism of Asymmetric Cell Division of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chuanhe; Bonaduce, Michael J.; Klar, Amar J. S.

    2013-01-01

    A key question in developmental biology addresses the mechanism of asymmetric cell division. Asymmetry is crucial for generating cellular diversity required for development in multicellular organisms. As one of the potential mechanisms, chromosomally borne epigenetic difference between sister cells that changes mating/cell type has been demonstrated only in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fission yeast. For technical reasons, it is nearly impossible to determine the existence of such a mechanism operating during embryonic development of multicellular organisms. Our work addresses whether such an epigenetic mechanism causes asymmetric cell division in the recently sequenced fission yeast, S. japonicus (with 36% GC content), which is highly diverged from the well-studied S. pombe species (with 44% GC content). We find that the genomic location and DNA sequences of the mating-type loci of S. japonicus differ vastly from those of the S. pombe species. Remarkably however, similar to S. pombe, the S. japonicus cells switch cell/mating type after undergoing two consecutive cycles of asymmetric cell divisions: only one among four “granddaughter” cells switches. The DNA-strand–specific epigenetic imprint at the mating-type locus1 initiates the recombination event, which is required for cellular differentiation. Therefore the S. pombe and S. japonicus mating systems provide the first two examples in which the intrinsic chirality of double helical structure of DNA forms the primary determinant of asymmetric cell division. Our results show that this unique strand-specific imprinting/segregation epigenetic mechanism for asymmetric cell division is evolutionary conserved. Motivated by these findings, we speculate that DNA-strand–specific epigenetic mechanisms might have evolved to dictate asymmetric cell division in diploid, higher eukaryotes as well. PMID:23150598

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Rhodosporidium toruloides Strains ATCC 10788 and ATCC 10657 with Compatible Mating Types

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Rhodosporidium toruloides ATCC 10788 (haploid, A1 mating type) and ATCC 10657 (haploid, A2 mating type) were derived from the same diploid parent strain Rhodotorula glutinis ATCC 90781 and are important strains for metabolic engineering. Draft genome sequences of both strains are reported here. The current assembly of strain ATCC 10788 comprises 61 scaffolds with a total size of 20.75 Mbp and a GC content of 62.01%, while that of strain ATCC 10657 comprises 137 scaffolds with a total size of 21.49 Mbp and a GC content of 61.81%. Genome annotation predicts 7,730 and 7,800 protein encoding genes for strain ATCC 10788 and strain ATCC 10657, respectively. PMID:26966203

  17. Mating type genes and genetic markers to decipher intraspecific variability among Fusarium udum isolates from pigeonpea.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Shalini; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Anandaraj, M; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2015-07-01

    To ascertain the variability in Fusarium udum (Fu) isolates associated with pigeonpea wilt is a difficult task, if based solely on morphological and cultural characters. In this respect, the robustness of five different genetic marker viz., random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC), BOX elements, mating type locus, and microsatellite markers were employed to decipher intra-specific variability in Fu isolates. All techniques yielded intra-specific polymorphism, but different levels of discrimination were obtained. RAPD-PCR was more discriminatory, enabling the detection of thirteen variants among twenty Fu isolates. By microsatellite, ERIC- and BOX-PCR fingerprinting, the isolates were categorized in seven, five, and two clusters, respectively. Cluster analysis of the combined data also showed that the Fu isolates were grouped into ten clusters, sharing 50-100% similarity. The occurrence of both mating types in Fu isolates is reported for the first time in this study. All examined isolates harbored one of the two mating-type idiomorphs, but never both, which suggests a heterothallic mating system of sexual reproduction among them. Information obtained from comparing results of different molecular marker systems should be useful to organize the genetic variability and ideally, will improve disease management practices by identifying sources of inoculum and isolate characteristics. PMID:25639472

  18. Mating type genes and cryptic sexuality as tools for genetically manipulating industrial molds.

    PubMed

    Kck, Ulrich; Bhm, Julia

    2013-11-01

    A large number of molds serve as producer strains for the industrial production of pharmaceuticals, foods, or organic chemicals. To optimize strains for production processes, conventional strain development programs use random mutagenesis and, more recently, recombinant technologies to generate microbial strains with novel and advantageous properties. The recent detection of mating type genes in fungal production strains and the discovery of cryptic sexuality in presumably asexual fungi open up novel strategies for generating progeny with new, as yet unobserved properties. Mating type genes, which can be considered as "sex genes," not only direct sexual development but also regulate a broad range of fungal secondary metabolites. In addition, they control hyphal morphology, which has a direct impact on production processes that are often conducted in huge fermenter tanks. Here, we survey the occurrence and function of mating type genes that have been discovered in a wide range of industrial fungal producer strains. The possibility to obtain progeny from industrial producers by sexual mating provides an exciting alternative to conventional strain improvement programs aiming to generate optimized recombinant production strains. PMID:24085397

  19. Genome-defence small RNAs exapted for epigenetic mating-type inheritance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepankar Pratap; Saudemont, Baptiste; Guglielmi, Grard; Arnaiz, Olivier; Got, Jean-Franois; Prajer, Malgorzata; Potekhin, Alexey; Przybs, Ewa; Aubusson-Fleury, Anne; Bhullar, Simran; Bouhouche, Khaled; Lhuillier-Akakpo, Maoussi; Tanty, Vronique; Blugeon, Corinne; Alberti, Adriana; Labadie, Karine; Aury, Jean-Marc; Sperling, Linda; Duharcourt, Sandra; Meyer, Eric

    2014-05-22

    In the ciliate Paramecium, transposable elements and their single-copy remnants are deleted during the development of somatic macronuclei from germline micronuclei, at each sexual generation. Deletions are targeted by scnRNAs, small RNAs produced from the germ line during meiosis that first scan the maternal macronuclear genome to identify missing sequences, and then allow the zygotic macronucleus to reproduce the same deletions. Here we show that this process accounts for the maternal inheritance of mating types in Paramecium tetraurelia, a long-standing problem in epigenetics. Mating type E depends on expression of the transmembrane protein mtA, and the default type O is determined during development by scnRNA-dependent excision of the mtA promoter. In the sibling species Paramecium septaurelia, mating type O is determined by coding-sequence deletions in a different gene, mtB, which is specifically required for mtA expression. These independently evolved mechanisms suggest frequent exaptation of the scnRNA pathway to regulate cellular genes and mediate transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of essential phenotypic polymorphisms. PMID:24805235

  20. A MADS Box Protein Interacts with a Mating-Type Protein and Is Required for Fruiting Body Development in the Homothallic Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Nolting, Nicole; Pggeler, Stefanie

    2006-01-01

    MADS box transcription factors control diverse developmental processes in plants, metazoans, and fungi. To analyze the involvement of MADS box proteins in fruiting body development of filamentous ascomycetes, we isolated the mcm1 gene from the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora, which encodes a putative homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MADS box protein Mcm1p. Deletion of the S. macrospora mcm1 gene resulted in reduced biomass, increased hyphal branching, and reduced hyphal compartment length during vegetative growth. Furthermore, the S. macrospora ?mcm1 strain was unable to produce fruiting bodies or ascospores during sexual development. A yeast two-hybrid analysis in conjugation with in vitro analyses demonstrated that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein can interact with the putative transcription factor SMTA-1, encoded by the S. macrospora mating-type locus. These results suggest that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein is involved in the transcriptional regulation of mating-type-specific genes as well as in fruiting body development. PMID:16835449

  1. Molecular Polymorphism in the MTA and MTB Mating Type Genes of Tetrahymena thermophila and Related Asexual Species.

    PubMed

    Booth, Laurie; Wolfe, Benjamin; Doerder, F Paul

    2015-01-01

    Each of the seven mating types of Tetrahymena thermophila is determined by a pair of large genes, MTA and MTB, whose expression peaks at early conjugation. Each protein consists of a mating-type specific domain and a common transmembrane domain. To assess variation in natural populations, regions of both domains from wild isolates expressing mating types V and VII were analyzed. Corresponding regions of amicronucleates incapable of mating also were examined. MTA and MTB showed high haplotype diversity, with greater sequence variation in MTB. Mating type VII was less variable than mating type V, suggesting more recent origin. No polymorphism distinguished between mat1- and mat2-like alleles encoding different arrays of mating types, nor did polymorphisms give evidence of population structure. MTA and MTB variants have different phylogenies, suggesting independent rather than concerted evolution, and are under weak purifying selection. Codon usage is less biased than for housekeeping genes, and reassigned glutamine encoding stop codons are preferentially used. Amicronucleate T. thermophila and closely related nsp15 and nsp25 have higher levels of nucleotide and amino acid substitution, consistent with cox1 distances. The results suggest that complete sequencing of mating type genes of wild isolates coupled with functional analysis will be informative. PMID:25973525

  2. A large pheromone and receptor gene complex determines multiple B mating type specificities in Coprinus cinereus.

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, S F; Chaure, P T; Halsall, J R; Olesnicky, N S; Leibbrandt, A; Connerton, I F; Casselton, L A

    1998-01-01

    Pheromone signaling plays an essential role in the mating and sexual development of mushroom fungi. Multiallelic genes encoding the peptide pheromones and their cognate 7-transmembrane helix (7-TM) receptors are sequestered in the B mating type locus. Here we describe the isolation of the B6 mating type locus of Coprinus cinereus. DNA sequencing and transformation analysis identified nine genes encoding three 7-TM receptors and six peptide pheromone precursors embedded within 17 kb of mating type-specific sequence. The arrangement of the nine genes suggests that there may be three functionally independent subfamilies of genes each comprising two pheromone genes and one receptor gene. None of the nine B6 genes showed detectable homology to corresponding B gene sequences in the genomic DNA from a B3 strain, and each of the B6 genes independently alter B mating specificity when introduced into a B3 host strain. However, only genes in two of the B6 groups were able to activate B-regulated development in a B42 host. Southern blot analysis showed that these genes failed to cross-hybridize to corresponding genes in the B42 host, whereas the three genes of the third subfamily, which could not activate development in the B42 host, did cross-hybridize. We conclude that cross-hybridization identifies the same alleles of a particular subfamily of genes in different B loci and that B6 and B42 share alleles of one subfamily. There are an estimated 79 B mating specificities: we suggest that it is the different allele combinations of gene subfamilies that generate these large numbers. PMID:9539426

  3. Asexual Cephalosporin C Producer Acremonium chrysogenum Carries a Functional Mating Type Locus▿

    PubMed Central

    Pöggeler, Stefanie; Hoff, Birgit; Kück, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Acremonium chrysogenum, the fungal producer of the pharmaceutically relevant β-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C, is classified as asexual because no direct observation of mating or meiosis has yet been reported. To assess the potential of A. chrysogenum for sexual reproduction, we screened an expressed sequence tag library from A. chrysogenum for the expression of mating type (MAT) genes, which are the key regulators of sexual reproduction. We identified two putative mating type genes that are homologues of the α-box domain gene, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2, encoding an HPG domain protein defined by the presence of the three invariant amino acids histidine, proline, and glycine. In addition, cDNAs encoding a putative pheromone receptor and pheromone-processing enzymes, as well as components of a pheromone response pathway, were found. Moreover, the entire A. chrysogenum MAT1-1 (AcMAT1-1) gene and regions flanking the MAT region were obtained from a genomic cosmid library, and sequence analysis revealed that in addition to AcMAT1-1-1 and AcMAT1-1-2, the AcMAT1-1 locus comprises a third mating type gene, AcMAT1-1-3, encoding a high-mobility-group domain protein. The α-box domain sequence of AcMAT1-1-1 was used to determine the phylogenetic relationships of A. chrysogenum to other ascomycetes. To determine the functionality of the AcMAT1-1 locus, the entire MAT locus was transferred into a MAT deletion strain of the heterothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina (the PaΔMAT strain). After fertilization with a P. anserina MAT1-2 (MAT+) strain, the corresponding transformants developed fruiting bodies with mature ascospores. Thus, the results of our functional analysis of the AcMAT1-1 locus provide strong evidence to hypothesize a sexual cycle in A. chrysogenum. PMID:18689517

  4. Scanning electron microscopy as a tool for the analysis of colony architecture produced by phenotypic switching of a human pathogenic yeast Candida tropicalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlaneto, M. C.; Andrade, C. G. T. J.; Arago, P. H. A.; Frana, E. J. G.; Moralez, A. T. P.; Ferreira, L. C. S.

    2012-07-01

    Candida tropicalis has been identified as one of the most prevalent pathogenic yeast species of the Candida-non-albicans group. Phenotypic switching is a biological phenomenon related to the occurrence of spontaneous emergence of colonies with different morphologies that provides variability within colonizing populations in order to adapt to different environments. Currently, studies of the microstructure of switching variant colonies are not subject of extensive research. SEM analysis was used to verify the architecture of whole Candida colonies. The strain 49/07 exhibited a hemispherical shape character, while the strain 335/07 showed a volcano shape with mycelated-edge colony. The ring switch variant is characterized by a highly wrinkled centre and an irregular periphery. The rough phenotype exhibited a three-dimensional architecture and was characterized by the presence of deep central and peripheral depressions areas. The ultrastructural analysis also allowed the observation of the arrangement of individual cells within the colonies. The whole smooth colony consisted entirely of yeast cells. Differently, aerial filaments were found all around the colony periphery of the volcano shape colony. For this colony type the mycelated-edge consisted mainly of hyphae, although yeast cells are also seen. The ring and rough colonies phenotypes comprised mainly yeast cells with the presence of extracellular material connecting neighbouring cells. This study has shown that SEM can be used effectively to examine the microarchitecture of colonies morphotypes of the yeast C. tropicalis and further our understanding of switching event in this pathogen.

  5. Maximum-likelihood estimation of rates of recombination within mating-type regions.

    PubMed Central

    Takebayashi, Naoki; Newbigin, Ed; Uyenoyama, Marcy K

    2004-01-01

    Features common to many mating-type regions include recombination suppression over large genomic tracts and cosegregation of genes of various functions, not necessarily related to reproduction. Model systems for homomorphic self-incompatibility (SI) in flowering plants share these characteristics. We introduce a method for the exact computation of the joint probability of numbers of neutral mutations segregating at the determinant of mating type and at a linked marker locus. The underlying Markov model incorporates strong balancing selection into a two-locus coalescent. We apply the method to obtain a maximum-likelihood estimate of the rate of recombination between a marker locus, 48A, and S-RNase, the determinant of SI specificity in pistils of Nicotiana alata. Even though the sampled haplotypes show complete allelic linkage disequilibrium and recombinants have never been detected, a highly significant deficiency of synonymous substitutions at 48A compared to S-RNase suggests a history of recombination. Our maximum-likelihood estimate indicates a rate of recombination of perhaps 3 orders of magnitude greater than the rate of synonymous mutation. This approach may facilitate the construction of genetic maps of regions tightly linked to targets of strong balancing selection. PMID:15342543

  6. Genetic Variability and Distribution of Mating Type Alleles in Field Populations of Leptosphaeria maculans from France

    PubMed Central

    Gout, Lilian; Eckert, Maria; Rouxel, Thierry; Balesdent, Marie-Hlne

    2006-01-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans is the most ubiquitous fungal pathogen of Brassica crops and causes the devastating stem canker disease of oilseed rape worldwide. We used minisatellite markers to determine the genetic structure of L. maculans in four field populations from France. Isolates were collected at three different spatial scales (leaf, 2-m2 field plot, and field) enabling the evaluation of spatial distribution of the mating type alleles and of genetic variability within and among field populations. Within each field population, no gametic disequilibrium between the minisatellite loci was detected and the mating type alleles were present at equal frequencies. Both sexual and asexual reproduction occur in the field, but the genetic structure of these populations is consistent with annual cycles of randomly mating sexual reproduction. All L. maculans field populations had a high level of gene diversity (H = 0.68 to 0.75) and genotypic diversity. Within each field population, the number of genotypes often was very close to the number of isolates. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that >99.5% of the total genetic variability was distributed at a small spatial scale, i.e., within 2-m2 field plots. Population differentiation among the four field populations was low (GST < 0.02), suggesting a high degree of gene exchange between these populations. The high gene flow evidenced here in French populations of L. maculans suggests a rapid countrywide diffusion of novel virulence alleles whenever novel resistance sources are used. PMID:16391041

  7. Characterization of MATE-type multidrug efflux pumps from Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH78578.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Wakano; Minato, Yusuke; Dodan, Hayata; Onishi, Motoyasu; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Kuroda, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    We previously described the cloning of genes related to drug resistance from Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH78578. Of these, we identified a putative gene encoding a MATE-type multidrug efflux pump, and named it ketM. Escherichia coli KAM32 possessing ketM on a plasmid showed increased minimum inhibitory concentrations for norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, acriflavine, Hoechst 33342, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenyl indole (DAPI). The active efflux of DAPI was observed in E. coli KAM32 possessing ketM on a plasmid. The expression of mRNA for ketM was observed in K. pneumoniae cells, and we subsequently disrupted ketM in K. pneumoniae ATCC10031. However, no significant changes were observed in drug resistance levels between the parental strain ATCC10031 and ketM disruptant, SKYM. Therefore, we concluded that KetM was a multidrug efflux pump, that did not significantly contribute to intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial chemicals in K. pneumoniae. MATE-type transporters are considered to be secondary transporters; therefore, we investigated the coupling cations of KetM. DAPI efflux by KetM was observed when lactate was added to produce a proton motive force, indicating that KetM effluxed substrates using a proton motive force. However, the weak efflux of DAPI by KetM was also noted when NaCl was added to the assay mixture without lactate. This result suggests that KetM may utilize proton and sodium motive forces. PMID:25807080

  8. Fifty years of research on serotypes and mating types in Dileptus anser: A review.

    PubMed

    Uspenskaya, Zoya I; Yudin, Alexander L

    2016-04-01

    The ciliate Dileptus anser is increasingly used as a laboratory model not only in protozoological research sensu stricto, but also in general biology. However, genetic studies of this ciliate have never been carried out, and this species is new to the comparative genetics of ciliates. This review describes the genetic experiments conducted at the Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences for the last 50 years. Two characters that are classical for the genetics of ciliates, serotypes and mating types were selected for analysis. The results presented do not fit into conventional genetic schemes and may have epigenetic nature. Features of this model that were revealed earlier (the simplest possible system of multiple mating types, full serial dominance of the alleles in the mat locus, the excretion of pheromones, etc.) are promising with regard to interesting comparisons of breeding systems in ciliates. The results obtained in studies of mating pheromones in D. anser have demonstrated that this model is a perspective one for further exploration of intercellular recognition in lower eukaryotes and of other related issues. PMID:26809152

  9. Characterization of MATE-Type Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH78578

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Wakano; Minato, Yusuke; Dodan, Hayata; Onishi, Motoyasu; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Kuroda, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    We previously described the cloning of genes related to drug resistance from Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH78578. Of these, we identified a putative gene encoding a MATE-type multidrug efflux pump, and named it ketM. Escherichia coli KAM32 possessing ketM on a plasmid showed increased minimum inhibitory concentrations for norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, acriflavine, Hoechst 33342, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenyl indole (DAPI). The active efflux of DAPI was observed in E. coli KAM32 possessing ketM on a plasmid. The expression of mRNA for ketM was observed in K. pneumoniae cells, and we subsequently disrupted ketM in K. pneumoniae ATCC10031. However, no significant changes were observed in drug resistance levels between the parental strain ATCC10031 and ketM disruptant, SKYM. Therefore, we concluded that KetM was a multidrug efflux pump, that did not significantly contribute to intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial chemicals in K. pneumoniae. MATE-type transporters are considered to be secondary transporters; therefore, we investigated the coupling cations of KetM. DAPI efflux by KetM was observed when lactate was added to produce a proton motive force, indicating that KetM effluxed substrates using a proton motive force. However, the weak efflux of DAPI by KetM was also noted when NaCl was added to the assay mixture without lactate. This result suggests that KetM may utilize proton and sodium motive forces. PMID:25807080

  10. The mating-type chromosome in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma represents a model for early evolution of sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Jacobson, David J; Gustafsson, Tim; Johannesson, Hanna

    2008-03-01

    We combined gene divergence data, classical genetics, and phylogenetics to study the evolution of the mating-type chromosome in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma. In this species, a large non-recombining region of the mating-type chromosome is associated with a unique fungal life cycle where self-fertility is enforced by maintenance of a constant state of heterokaryosis. Sequence divergence between alleles of 35 genes from the two single mating-type component strains (i.e. the homokaryotic mat A or mat a-strains), derived from one N. tetrasperma heterokaryon (mat A+mat a), was analyzed. By this approach we were able to identify the boundaries and size of the non-recombining region, and reveal insight into the history of recombination cessation. The non-recombining region covers almost 7 Mbp, over 75% of the chromosome, and we hypothesize that the evolution of the mating-type chromosome in this lineage involved two successive events. The first event was contemporaneous with the split of N. tetrasperma from a common ancestor with its outcrossing relative N. crassa and suppressed recombination over at least 6.6 Mbp, and the second was confined to a smaller region in which recombination ceased more recently. In spite of the early origin of the first "evolutionary stratum", genealogies of five genes from strains belonging to an additional N. tetrasperma lineage indicate independent initiations of suppressed recombination in different phylogenetic lineages. This study highlights the shared features between the sex chromosomes found in the animal and plant kingdoms and the fungal mating-type chromosome, despite fungi having no separate sexes. As is often found in sex chromosomes of plants and animals, recombination suppression of the mating-type chromosome of N. tetrasperma involved more than one evolutionary event, covers the majority of the mating-type chromosome and is flanked by distal regions with obligate crossovers. PMID:18369449

  11. MAPK feedback encodes a switch and timer for tunable stress adaptation in yeast

    PubMed Central

    English, Justin G.; Shellhammer, James P.; Malahe, Michael; McCarter, Patrick C.; Elston, Timothy C.; Dohlman, Henrik G.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling pathways can behave as switches or rheostats, generating binary or graded responses to a given cell stimulus. We evaluated whether a single signaling pathway can simultaneously encode a switch and a rheostat. We found that the kinase Hog1 mediated a bifurcated cellular response: Activation and commitment to adaptation to osmotic stress are switch-like, whereas protein induction and the resolution of this commitment are graded. Through experimentation, bioinformatics analysis, and computational modeling, we determined that graded recovery is encoded through feedback phosphorylation and a gene induction program that is both temporally staggered and variable across the population. This switch-to-rheostat signaling mechanism represents a versatile stress adaptation system, wherein a broad range of inputs generate an “all-in” response that is later tuned to allow graded recovery of individual cells over time. PMID:25587192

  12. Altered Mating-Type Identity in the Fungus Podospora Anserina Leads to Selfish Nuclei, Uniparental Progeny, and Haploid Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Zickler, D.; Arnaise, S.; Coppin, E.; Debuchy, R.; Picard, M.

    1995-01-01

    In wild-type crosses of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina, after fertilization, only nuclei of opposite mating type can form dikaryons that undergo karyogamy and meiosis, producing biparental progeny. To determine the role played by the mating type in these steps, the four mat genes were mutagenized in vitro and introduced into a strain deleted for its mat locus. Genetic and cytological analyses of these mutant strains, crossed to each other and to wild type, showed that mating-type information is required for recognition of nuclear identity during the early steps of sexual reproduction. In crosses with strains carrying a mating-type mutation, two unusual developmental patterns were observed: monokaryotic cells, resulting in haploid meiosis, and uniparental dikaryotic cells providing, after karyogamy and meiosis, a uniparental progeny. Altered mating-type identity leads to selfish behavior of the mutant nucleus: it migrates alone or paired, ignoring its wild-type partner in all mutant X wild-type crosses. This behavior is nucleus-autonomous because, in the same cytoplasm, the wild-type nuclei form only biparental dikaryons. In P. anserina, mat genes are thus required to ensure a biparental dikaryotic state but appear dispensable for later stages, such as meiosis and sporulation. PMID:7498731

  13. MAPK feedback encodes a switch and timer for tunable stress adaptation in yeast.

    PubMed

    English, Justin G; Shellhammer, James P; Malahe, Michael; McCarter, Patrick C; Elston, Timothy C; Dohlman, Henrik G

    2015-01-13

    Signaling pathways can behave as switches or rheostats, generating binary or graded responses to a given cell stimulus. We evaluated whether a single signaling pathway can simultaneously encode a switch and a rheostat. We found that the kinase Hog1 mediated a bifurcated cellular response: Activation and commitment to adaptation to osmotic stress are switchlike, whereas protein induction and the resolution of this commitment are graded. Through experimentation, bioinformatics analysis, and computational modeling, we determined that graded recovery is encoded through feedback phosphorylation and a gene induction program that is both temporally staggered and variable across the population. This switch-to-rheostat signaling mechanism represents a versatile stress adaptation system, wherein a broad range of inputs generate an "all-in" response that is later tuned to allow graded recovery of individual cells over time. PMID:25587192

  14. Identification and In Situ Distribution of a Fungal Gene Marker: The Mating Type Genes of the Black Truffle.

    PubMed

    De la Varga, Herminia; Murat, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Truffles are ectomycorrhizal fungi harvested mainly in human managed agroforestry ecosystems. Truffle production in truffle orchards faces two important bottlenecks or challenges: the initiation of the sexual reproduction and the growth of the ascocarps during several months. The black Prigord truffle, Tuber melanosporum, is a heterothallic species and the mating type genes (MAT1-1 and M1T1-2) have been characterized. In this context, the unraveling of the T. melanosporum mating type strains distribution in truffle orchards is a critical starting point to provide new insights into its sexual reproduction. The aim of this chapter is to present the protocol used to characterize the T. melanosporum mating type present in a truffle orchard from ascocarps, hazel mycorrhizal root tips, and/or soil samples, by polymerase chain reactions using specific primers for those genes, but it can be adapted for other fungal species. PMID:26791501

  15. Molecular organization of the mating-type loci in the homothallic Ascomycete Eupenicillium crustaceum.

    PubMed

    Pggeler, Stefanie; O'Gorman, Cline M; Hoff, Birgit; Kck, Ulrich

    2011-07-01

    Eupenicillium species are the teleomorphic (sexual) forms of anamorphic (asexual) members of the genus Penicillium, which contains many species of industrial importance. Here we describe the first molecular analysis of the mating-type (MAT) locus from a homothallic (self-fertile) Eupenicillium species, E. crustaceum. This ascomycete is a sexual relative of the penicillin producer Penicillium chrysogenum, which while long considered asexual, was recently shown to possess the required genetic machinery for heterothallic breeding. The E. crustaceum genome contains two MAT loci, MAT1-1 and MAT1-2, in an arrangement characteristic of other known homothallic euascomycetes, such as Neosartorya fischeri. MAT1-1 is flanked by conserved APN2 (DNA lyase) and SLA2 (cytoskeleton assembly control) genes and encodes a homologue of the ?-box domain protein MAT1-1-1. Conversely, MAT1-2 carries a HMG-domain gene MAT1-2-1, and is flanked by a degenerate SLA2 gene and an intact homologue of the P. chrysogenum ORF Pc20g08960. Here we demonstrate the transcriptional expression of both mating-type genes during vegetative development. Furthermore, the MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 sequences were used to resolve the phylogenetic relationship of E. crustaceum with other ascomycetes. Phylogenetic trees confirmed a very close relationship between the homothallic E. crustaceum and the supposedly heterothallic P. chrysogenum. This close taxonomic association makes E. crustaceum an ideal candidate for future expression and evolutionary studies of sexual reproduction, with the ultimate aim of inducing sex in P. chrysogenum. PMID:21724167

  16. Functional convergence and divergence of mating-type genes fulfilling in Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuzhen; Xia, Yongliang; Luo, Feifei; Dong, Caihong; Wang, Chengshu

    2016-03-01

    Fungal sexual lives are considerably diversified in terms of the types of mating systems and mating-control gene functions. Sexual fruiting bodies of the ascomycete fungus Cordyceps militaris have been widely consumed as edible and medicinal mushrooms, whereas the regulation of fruiting-body development and sex in this fungus remain elusive. Herein, we performed the comprehensive functional analyses of mating-type (MAT) genes in C. militaris. Interspecies functional convergence was evident that MAT1-1 and MAT1-2-1 null mutants were sterile and lost the ability to produce stromata in outcrosses with the opposite mating-type partner. In contrast to other fungal species, functional divergence of MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2 was also observed that ΔMAT1-1-1 produced barren stromata in outcrosses, whereas ΔMAT1-1-2 generated fruiting bodies morphologically similar to that of the parental strain but with sterile perithecia. The homothallic-like transformants MAT1-2::MAT1-1-1 (haploidic MAT1-2 isolate transformed with the MAT1-1-1 gene) produced sterile stromata, whereas the MAT1-1::MAT1-2-1 (haploidic MAT1-1 isolate transformed with the MAT1-2-1 gene) mutant was determined to be completely fruitless. The findings relating to the fully fertile gene-complementation mutants suggest that the genomic location is not essential for the MAT genes to fulfill their functions in C. militaris. Comparison of the production of bioactive constituents cordycepin and adenosine provides experimental support that the fungal sexual cycle is an energy consuming process. The results of the present study enrich our knowledge of both convergent and divergent controls of fungal sex. PMID:26812121

  17. Chaos of Rearrangements in the Mating-Type Chromosomes of the Anther-Smut Fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae.

    PubMed

    Badouin, Hélène; Hood, Michael E; Gouzy, Jérôme; Aguileta, Gabriela; Siguenza, Sophie; Perlin, Michael H; Cuomo, Christina A; Fairhead, Cécile; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes in plants and animals and fungal mating-type chromosomes often show exceptional genome features, with extensive suppression of homologous recombination and cytological differentiation between members of the diploid chromosome pair. Despite strong interest in the genetics of these chromosomes, their large regions of suppressed recombination often are enriched in transposable elements and therefore can be challenging to assemble. Here we show that the latest improvements of the PacBio sequencing yield assembly of the whole genome of the anther-smut fungus, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (the pathogenic fungus causing anther-smut disease of Silene latifolia), into finished chromosomes or chromosome arms, even for the repeat-rich mating-type chromosomes and centromeres. Suppressed recombination of the mating-type chromosomes is revealed to span nearly 90% of their lengths, with extreme levels of rearrangements, transposable element accumulation, and differentiation between the two mating types. We observed no correlation between allelic divergence and physical position in the nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes. This may result from gene conversion or from rearrangements of ancient evolutionary strata, i.e., successive steps of suppressed recombination. Centromeres were found to be composed mainly of copia-like transposable elements and to possess specific minisatellite repeats identical between the different chromosomes. We also identified subtelomeric motifs. In addition, extensive signs of degeneration were detected in the nonrecombining regions in the form of transposable element accumulation and of hundreds of gene losses on each mating-type chromosome. Furthermore, our study highlights the potential of the latest breakthrough PacBio chemistry to resolve complex genome architectures. PMID:26044594

  18. Centrosomal MPF triggers the mitotic and morphogenetic switches of fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Grallert, Agnes; Patel, Avinash; Tallada, Victor A; Chan, Kuan Yoow; Bagley, Steven; Krapp, Andrea; Simanis, Viesturs; Hagan, Iain M

    2013-01-01

    Activation of mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) drives mitotic commitment. In human cells active MPF appears first on centrosomes. We show that local activation of MPF on the equivalent organelle of fission yeast, the spindle pole body (SPB), promotes Polo kinase activity at the SPBs long before global MPF activation drives mitotic commitment. Artificially promoting MPF or Polo activity at various locations revealed that this local control of Plo1 activity on G2 phase SPBs dictates the timing of mitotic commitment. Cytokinesis of the rod-shaped fission yeast cell generates a naive, new, cell end. Growth is restricted to the experienced old end until a point in G2 phase called new end take off (NETO) when bipolar growth is triggered. NETO coincided with MPF activation of Plo1 on G2 phase SPBs (ref. 4). Both MPF and Polo activities were required for NETO and both induced NETO when ectopically activated at interphase SPBs. NETO promotion by MPF required polo. Thus, local MPF activation on G2 SPBs directs polo kinase to control at least two distinct and temporally separated, cell-cycle transitions at remote locations. PMID:23222840

  19. Analysis of Mycosphaerella Graminicola from California, Indiana, Kansas and North Dakota with Mating Type and SSR Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Septoria tritici blotch, caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola, is one of the most important foliar diseases of wheat. Genetic diversity of 333 isolates of M. graminicola collected from spring (California, North Dakota) and winter wheat (Indiana, Kansas) was analyzed for mating type and 17 SSR marker...

  20. A multiplex PCR assay for determination of mating type in isolates of the honey bee fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we developed a multiplex PCR for identification of mating type idiomorphs in the filamentous fungus, Ascosphaera apis, the causative agent of chalkbrood disease in the honey bee (Apis melliffera). A combination of gene-specific primers was designed to amplify Mat1-1 and Mat1-2 gene fra...

  1. Cloning of the Lentinula edodes B mating-type locus and identification of the genetic structure controlling B mating.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; van Peer, Arend; Song, Wenhua; Wang, Hong; Chen, Mingjie; Tan, Qi; Song, Chunyan; Zhang, Meiyan; Bao, Dapeng

    2013-12-01

    During the life cycle of heterothallic tetrapolar Agaricomycetes such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, the mating type system, composed of unlinked A and B loci, plays a vital role in controlling sexual development and resulting formation of the fruit body. L. edodes is produced worldwide for consumption and medicinal purposes, and understanding its sexual development is therefore of great importance. A considerable amount of mating type factors has been indicated over the past decades but few genes have actually been identified, and no complete genetic structures of L. edodes B mating-type loci are available. In this study, we cloned the matB regions from two mating compatible L. edodes strains, 939P26 and 939P42. Four pheromone receptors were identified on each new matB region, together with three and four pheromone precursor genes in the respective strains. Gene polymorphism, phylogenetic analysis and distribution of pheromone receptors and pheromone precursors clearly indicate a bipartite matB locus, each sublocus containing a pheromone receptor and one or two pheromone precursors. Detailed sequence comparisons of genetic structures between the matB regions of strains 939P42, 939P26 and a previously reported strain SUP2 further supported this model and allowed identification of the B mating type subloci borders. Mating studies confirmed the control of B mating by the identified pheromone receptors and pheromones in L. edodes. PMID:24029079

  2. Characterization of Ascochyta rabiei for population structure, mating type and pathogenic variability from Pakistan and United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpea production is greatly hampered by blight causing fungal pathogen Ascochyta rabiei (AR) in chickpea growing regions of the world. Genetic variability and mating type frequency of thirty-two AR isolates from six geographical regions of Pakistan were compared with a US-AR population. Pakistani...

  3. Population Structure, Pathogenicity, and Mating Type Distribution of Magnaporthe oryzae Isolates from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Onaga, Geoffrey; Wydra, Kerstin; Koopmann, Birger; Séré, Yakouba; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the emergent threats to rice production in East Africa (EA), where little is known about the population genetics and pathogenicity of this pathogen. We investigated the genetic diversity and mating type (MAT) distribution of 88 isolates of M. oryzae from EA and representative isolates from West Africa (WA) and the Philippines (Asia) using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and mating-type-specific primer sets. In addition, the aggressiveness of each isolate was evaluated by inoculating on the susceptible Oryza sativa indica 'Co39', scoring the disease severity and calculating the disease progress. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance revealed a low level of genetic differentiation at two levels (FST 0.12 and FCT 0.11). No evidence of population structure was found among the 65 isolates from EA, and gene flow among EA populations was high. Moreover, pairwise population differentiation (GST) in EA populations ranged from 0.03 to 0.04, suggesting that >96% of genetic variation is derived from within populations. However, the populations from Asia and WA were moderately differentiated from EA ones. The spatial analysis of principal coordinates and STRUCTURE revealed overlapping between individual M. oryzae isolates from EA, with limited distinctness according to the geographic origin. All the populations were clonal, given the positive and significant index of association (IA) and standardized index of association (rd), which indicates a significant (P<0.001) departure from panmixia (IA and rd=0). Both MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 were detected. However, MAT1-1 was more prevalent than MAT1-2. Pathogenicity analysis revealed variability in aggressiveness, suggesting a potential existence of different races. Our data suggest that either M. oryzae populations from EA could be distributed as a single genetic population or gene flow is exerting a significant influence, effectively swamping the action of selection. This is the first study of genetic differentiation of rice-infecting M. oryzae strains from EA, and may guide further studies on the pathogen as well as resistance breeding efforts. PMID:25822189

  4. Shared ITS DNA substitutions in isolates of opposite mating type reveal a recombining history for three presumed asexual species in the filamentous ascomycete genus Alternaria.

    PubMed

    Berbee, Mary L; Payne, Brendan P; Zhang, Guojuan; Roberts, Rodney G; Turgeon, B Gillian

    2003-02-01

    About 15,000 species of ascomycete fungi lack a known sexual state. For fungi with asexual states in the anamorph genera Embellisia, Ulocladium, and Alternaria, six species have known sexual states but more than 50 species do not. In sexual filamentous ascomycetes, opposite mating type information at the MAT1 locus regulates mating and the opposite mating type genes each have a clonal, non-recombining phylogenetic history. We used PCR to amplify and sequence fragments of the opposite mating type genes from three supposedly asexual species, A. brassicae, A. brassicicola and A. tenuissima. Each haploid fungal isolate had just one mating type, but both mating types were present in all the three species. We sequenced the ribosomal ITS regions for isolates of opposite mating type, for the three asexual species and four known related sexual species. In a phylogenetic analysis including other ITS sequences from GenBank, the three asexual species were not closely related to any of the known sexual species. Isolates of opposite mating type but the same species had identical ITS sequences. During any period of asexual evolutionary history, lineages of each mating type would have had a separate evolutionary history and any ITS substitutions shared between isolates of opposite mating type would have had to accumulate by convergence. Allowing for varying substitution rates and assuming a Poisson distribution of substitutions, the probability that isolates of opposite mating type shared an ITS substitution through convergence was low. This suggests that isolates of opposite mating type of A. brassicae, A. brassicicola and A. tenuissima were exchanging substitutions through sexual or parasexual reproduction while the ITS was evolving. If sexuality was lost, it was lost after the period of evolutionary history represented by the shared substitutions. PMID:12747328

  5. Global changes in gene expression associated with phenotypic switching of wild yeast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from natural settings form structured biofilm colonies that are equipped with intricate protective mechanisms. These wild strains are able to reprogram themselves with a certain frequency during cultivation in plentiful laboratory conditions. The resulting domesticated strains switch off certain protective mechanisms and form smooth colonies that resemble those of common laboratory strains. Results Here, we show that domestication can be reversed when a domesticated strain is challenged by various adverse conditions; the resulting feral strain restores its ability to form structured biofilm colonies. Phenotypic, microscopic and transcriptomic analyses show that phenotypic transition is a complex process that affects various aspects of feral strain physiology; it leads to a phenotype that resembles the original wild strain in some aspects and the domesticated derivative in others. We specify the genetic determinants that are likely involved in the formation of a structured biofilm colonies. In addition to FLO11, these determinants include genes that affect the cell wall and membrane composition. We also identify changes occurring during phenotypic transitions that affect other properties of phenotypic strain-variants, such as resistance to the impact of environmental stress. Here we document the regulatory role of the histone deacetylase Hda1p in developing such a resistance. Conclusions We provide detailed analysis of transcriptomic and phenotypic modulations of three related S. cerevisiae strains that arose by phenotypic switching under diverse environmental conditions. We identify changes specifically related to a strains ability to create complex structured colonies; we also show that other changes, such as genome rearrangement(s), are unrelated to this ability. Finally, we identify the importance of histone deacetylase Hda1p in strain resistance to stresses. PMID:24533484

  6. A generic approach to engineer antibody pH-switches using combinatorial histidine scanning libraries and yeast display

    PubMed Central

    Schrter, Christian; Gnther, Ralf; Rhiel, Laura; Becker, Stefan; Toleikis, Lars; Doerner, Achim; Becker, Janine; Schnemann, Andreas; Nasu, Daichi; Neuteboom, Berend; Kolmar, Harald; Hock, Bjrn

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the fast and robust engineering of protein pH-sensitivity that aims to reduce binding at acidic pH, compared to neutral pH. Here, we describe a novel strategy for the incorporation of pH-sensitive antigen binding functions into antibody variable domains using combinatorial histidine scanning libraries and yeast surface display. The strategy allows simultaneous screening for both, high affinity binding at pH 7.4 and pH-sensitivity, and excludes conventional negative selection steps. As proof of concept, we applied this strategy to incorporate pH-dependent antigen binding into the complementary-determining regions of adalimumab. After 3 consecutive rounds of separate heavy and light chain library screening, pH-sensitive variants could be isolated. Heavy and light chain mutations were combined, resulting in 3 full-length antibody variants that revealed sharp, reversible pH-dependent binding profiles. Dissociation rate constants at pH 6.0 increased 230- to 780-fold, while high affinity binding at pH 7.4 in the sub-nanomolar range was retained. Furthermore, binding to huFcRn and thermal stability were not affected by histidine substitutions. Overall, this study emphasizes a generalizable strategy for engineering pH-switch functions potentially applicable to a variety of antibodies and further proteins-based therapeutics. PMID:25523975

  7. A generic approach to engineer antibody pH-switches using combinatorial histidine scanning libraries and yeast display.

    PubMed

    Schrter, Christian; Gnther, Ralf; Rhiel, Laura; Becker, Stefan; Toleikis, Lars; Doerner, Achim; Becker, Janine; Schnemann, Andreas; Nasu, Daichi; Neuteboom, Berend; Kolmar, Harald; Hock, Bjrn

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the fast and robust engineering of protein pH-sensitivity that aims to reduce binding at acidic pH, compared to neutral pH. Here, we describe a novel strategy for the incorporation of pH-sensitive antigen binding functions into antibody variable domains using combinatorial histidine scanning libraries and yeast surface display. The strategy allows simultaneous screening for both, high affinity binding at pH 7.4 and pH-sensitivity, and excludes conventional negative selection steps. As proof of concept, we applied this strategy to incorporate pH-dependent antigen binding into the complementary-determining regions of adalimumab. After 3 consecutive rounds of separate heavy and light chain library screening, pH-sensitive variants could be isolated. Heavy and light chain mutations were combined, resulting in 3 full-length antibody variants that revealed sharp, reversible pH-dependent binding profiles. Dissociation rate constants at pH 6.0 increased 230- to 780-fold, while high affinity binding at pH 7.4 in the sub-nanomolar range was retained. Furthermore, binding to huFcRn and thermal stability were not affected by histidine substitutions. Overall, this study emphasizes a generalizable strategy for engineering pH-switch functions potentially applicable to a variety of antibodies and further proteins-based therapeutics. PMID:25523975

  8. Deciphering evolutionary strata on plant sex chromosomes and fungal mating-type chromosomes through compositional segmentation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ravi S; Azad, Rajeev K

    2016-03-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved from a pair of homologous autosomes which differentiated into sex determination systems, such as XY or ZW system, as a consequence of successive recombination suppression between the gametologous chromosomes. Identifying the regions of recombination suppression, namely, the "evolutionary strata", is central to understanding the history and dynamics of sex chromosome evolution. Evolution of sex chromosomes as a consequence of serial recombination suppressions is well-studied for mammals and birds, but not for plants, although 48 dioecious plants have already been reported. Only two plants Silene latifolia and papaya have been studied until now for the presence of evolutionary strata on their X chromosomes, made possible by the sequencing of sex-linked genes on both the X and Y chromosomes, which is a requirement of all current methods that determine stratum structure based on the comparison of gametologous sex chromosomes. To circumvent this limitation and detect strata even if only the sequence of sex chromosome in the homogametic sex (i.e. X or Z chromosome) is available, we have developed an integrated segmentation and clustering method. In application to gene sequences on the papaya X chromosome and protein-coding sequences on the S. latifolia X chromosome, our method could decipher all known evolutionary strata, as reported by previous studies. Our method, after validating on known strata on the papaya and S. latifolia X chromosome, was applied to the chromosome 19 of Populus trichocarpa, an incipient sex chromosome, deciphering two, yet unknown, evolutionary strata. In addition, we applied this approach to the recently sequenced sex chromosome V of the brown alga Ectocarpus sp. that has a haploid sex determination system (UV system) recovering the sex determining and pseudoautosomal regions, and then to the mating-type chromosomes of an anther-smut fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae predicting five strata in the non-recombining region of both the chromosomes. PMID:26694866

  9. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the mating-type loci in the asexual ascomycete genus Ulocladium.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yun; Li, Zhuang; Xia, Li-Yun; Wang, Qun; Hu, Xian-Mei; Zhang, Xiu-Guo

    2014-01-01

    The genus Ulocladium is thought to be strictly asexual. Mating-type (MAT) loci regulate sexual reproduction in fungi and their study may help to explain the apparent lack of sexual reproduction in Ulocladium. We sequenced the full length of two MAT genes in 26 Ulocladium species and characterized the entire MAT idiomorphs plus flanking regions of Ulocladium botrytis. The MAT1-1 ORF encodes a protein with an alpha-box motif by the MAT1-1-1 gene and the MAT1-2 ORF encodes a protein with an HMG box motif by the MAT1-2-1 gene. Both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes were detected in a single strain of every species. Moreover, the results of RT-PCR revealed that both MAT genes are expressed in all 26 Ulocladium species. This demonstrates that MAT genes of Ulocladium species might be functional and that they have the potential for sexual reproduction. Phylogenies based on MAT genes were compared with GAPDH and Alt a 1 phylograms in Ulocladium using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian analysis. The MAT genealogies and the non-MAT trees displayed different topologies, indicating that MAT genes are unsuitable phylogenetic markers at the species level in Ulocladium. Furthermore, the conflicting topologies between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 phylogeny indicate separate evolutionary events for the two MAT genes. However, the intergeneric phylogeny of four closely allied genera (Ulocladium, Alternaria, Cochliobolus, Stemphylium) based on MAT alignments demonstrated that MAT genes are suitable for phylogenetic analysis among allied genera. PMID:24891417

  10. Simultaneous identification of molecular and mating types within the Cryptococcus species complex by PCR-RFLP analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaobo; Yao, Zhirong; Ren, Daming; Liao, Wanqing

    2008-12-01

    The Cryptococcus species complex consists of two species, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, which cause systemic infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Both species have a bipolar mating system, with mating type (MAT) alpha being predominant in clinical and environmental isolates. The strains of the Cryptococcus species complex have been divided into eight major molecular types, which show differences in epidemiology, biology and pathogenicity. In this study, two PCR-RFLP analyses, based on the CAP1 and GEF1 genes, which are both located at the MAT locus, were developed for simultaneous identification of the molecular and mating types of isolates of the Cryptococcus species complex. The molecular and mating types of all 144 cryptococcal isolates, including rare subtypes, were successfully determined by both PCR-RFLP approaches. Pattern analysis of the AD hybrids revealed that the serotype A MATa allele in strains of AaDalpha derived from genotype VNB, whereas the serotype A MATalpha allele among strains of AalphaDa and AalphaDalpha derived from molecular type VNI. PMID:19018017

  11. Cloning of the A Mating-Type Locus from Lepista nuda and Characterization of Its Genetic Structure.

    PubMed

    Rong, Chengbo; Zhao, Shuang; Li, Dengjin; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Shouxian; Ma, Kang; Xu, Feng; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Lepista nuda (Bull. ex Fr.) Cooke (Tricholomataceae) is an edible fungus with both economic and medical value. Identification of its mating-type loci is important for promoting breeding programs in L. nuda. The A mating-type locus of L. nuda and its flanking region were cloned and characterized in the present study. It contained two homeodomain transcription factor genes (called lna1 and lna2). Lna1 and Lna2 protein harbored conserved motif of homeodomain transcription factor protein. The novel finding of this study was that the gene order around the A locus was mip, lna2, lna1, and ?-fg in L. nuda, which was differed from other edible fungi. In addition, lna1 and lna2 showed divergent, inward transcriptional direction. The phylogenetic tree of HD proteins showed that L. nuda Lna1 and Lna2 were phylogenetically related with Laccaria bicolor. Our results revealed that the A mating-type locus had been subjected to gene rearrangements relative to all other basidiomycetes. PMID:26330378

  12. Genetic Basis of Self-Incompatibility in the Lichen-Forming Fungus Lobaria pulmonaria and Skewed Frequency Distribution of Mating-Type Idiomorphs: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Cornejo, Carolina; Schmitt, Imke; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Fungal populations that reproduce sexually are likely to be genetically more diverse and have a higher adaptive potential than asexually reproducing populations. Mating systems of fungal species can be self-incompatible, requiring the presence of isolates of different mating-type genes for sexual reproduction to occur, or self-compatible, requiring only one. Understanding the distribution of mating-type genes in populations can help to assess the potential of self-incompatible species to reproduce sexually. In the locally threatened epiphytic lichen-forming fungus Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., low frequency of sexual reproduction is likely to limit the potential of populations to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Our study provides direct evidence of self-incompatibility (heterothallism) in L. pulmonaria. It can thus be hypothesized that sexual reproduction in small populations might be limited by an unbalanced distribution of mating-type genes. We therefore assessed neutral genetic diversity (using microsatellites) and mating-type ratio in 27 lichen populations (933 individuals). We found significant differences in the frequency of the two mating types in 13 populations, indicating a lower likelihood of sexual reproduction in these populations. This suggests that conservation translocation activities aiming at maximizing genetic heterogeneity in threatened and declining populations should take into account not only presence of fruiting bodies in transplanted individuals, but also the identity and balanced representation of mating-type genes. PMID:23236495

  13. Complex Mechanisms Regulate Developmental Expression of the matA (HMG) Mating Type Gene in Homothallic Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Wioletta; Miller, Karen Y.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is a fundamental developmental process that allows for genetic diversity through the control of zygote formation, recombination, and gametogenesis. The correct regulation of these events is paramount. Sexual reproduction in filamentous fungi, including mating strategy (self-fertilization/homothallism or outcrossing/heterothallism), is determined by the expression of mating type genes at mat loci. Aspergillus nidulans matA encodes a critical regulator that is a fungal ortholog of the hSRY/SOX9 HMG box proteins. In contrast to well-studied outcrossing systems, the molecular basis of homothallism and role of mating type genes during a self-fertile sexual cycle remain largely unknown. In this study the genetic model organism, A. nidulans, has been used to investigate the regulation and molecular functions of the matA mating type gene in a homothallic system. Our data demonstrate that complex regulatory mechanisms underlie functional matA expression during self-fertilization and sexual reproduction in A. nidulans. matA expression is suppressed in vegetative hyphae and is progressively derepressed during the sexual cycle. Elevated levels of matA transcript are required for differentiation of fruiting bodies, karyogamy, meiosis, and efficient formation of meiotic progeny. matA expression is driven from both initiator (Inr) and novel promoter elements that are tightly developmentally regulated by position-dependent and position-independent mechanisms. Deletion of an upstream silencing element, matA SE, results in derepressed expression from wild-type (wt) promoter elements and activation of an additional promoter. These studies provide novel insights into the molecular basis of homothallism in fungi and genetic regulation of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. PMID:21868608

  14. Characterization and distribution of mating-type genes of the turfgrass pathogen Sclerotinia homoeocarpa on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Putman, Alexander I; Tredway, Lane P; Carbone, Ignazio

    2015-08-01

    Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F.T. Bennett is a filamentous member of Ascomycota that causes dollar spot, the most economically important disease of turfgrass worldwide. We sequenced and characterized the mating-type (MAT) locus of four recently-collected contemporary strains causing dollar spot, four historical type strains used to describe the fungus, and three species of Rutstroemiaceae. Moreover, we developed a multiplex PCR assay to screen 1019 contemporary isolates for mating-type. The organization of the MAT loci of all strains examined could be classified into one of four categories: (1) putatively heterothallic, as exemplified by all contemporary strains and three of four historical type strains; (2) putatively heterothallic with a deleted putative gene in the MAT1-2 idiomorph, as detected in strains from two recently-collected populations in the United Kingdom that show more similarity to historical strains; (3) putatively homothallic with close physical linkage between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1, as found in one historical type strain of S. homoeocarpa and two strains of Rutstroemia cuniculi; and (4) an unresolved but apparently homothallic organization in which strains contained both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 but linkage between these genes and between the two flanking genes could not be confirmed, as identified in R. paludosa and Poculum henningsianum. In contemporary S. homoeocarpa populations there was no significant difference in the frequency of the two mating types in clone-corrected samples when analyzed on regional and local scales, suggesting sex may be possible in this pathogen. However, two isolates from Italy and twenty from California were heterokaryotic for both complete heterothallic MAT idiomorphs. Results from this study contribute to knowledge about mating systems in filamentous fungi and enhance our understanding of the evolution and biology of an important plant pathogen. PMID:26049125

  15. ADP-ribosylation factor arf6p may function as a molecular switch of new end take off in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    Small GTPases act as molecular switches in a wide variety of cellular processes. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the directions of cell growth change from a monopolar manner to a bipolar manner, which is known as 'New End Take Off' (NETO). Here I report the identification of a gene, arf6{sup +}, encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor small GTPase, that may be essential for NETO. arf6{delta} cells completely fail to undergo NETO. arf6p localizes at both cell ends and presumptive septa in a cell-cycle dependent manner. And its polarized localization is not dependent on microtubules, actin cytoskeletons and some NETO factors (bud6p, for3p, tea1p, tea3p, and tea4p). Notably, overexpression of a fast GDP/GTP-cycling mutant of arf6p can advance the timing of NETO. These findings suggest that arf6p functions as a molecular switch for the activation of NETO in fission yeast.

  16. Sexual reproduction and mating-type-mediated strain development in the penicillin-producing fungus Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Bhm, Julia; Hoff, Birgit; O'Gorman, Cline M; Wolfers, Simon; Klix, Volker; Binger, Danielle; Zadra, Ivo; Krnsteiner, Hubert; Pggeler, Stefanie; Dyer, Paul S; Kck, Ulrich

    2013-01-22

    Penicillium chrysogenum is a filamentous fungus of major medical and historical importance, being the original and present-day industrial source of the antibiotic penicillin. The species has been considered asexual for more than 100 y, and despite concerted efforts, it has not been possible to induce sexual reproduction, which has prevented sexual crosses being used for strain improvement. However, using knowledge of mating-type (MAT) gene organization, we now describe conditions under which a sexual cycle can be induced leading to production of meiotic ascospores. Evidence of recombination was obtained using both molecular and phenotypic markers. The identified heterothallic sexual cycle was used for strain development purposes, generating offspring with novel combinations of traits relevant to penicillin production. Furthermore, the MAT1-1-1 mating-type gene, known primarily for a role in governing sexual identity, was also found to control transcription of a wide range of genes with biotechnological relevance including those regulating penicillin production, hyphal morphology, and conidial formation. These discoveries of a sexual cycle and MAT gene function are likely to be of broad relevance for manipulation of other asexual fungi of economic importance. PMID:23307807

  17. The MAT1-2-1 mating-type gene upregulates photo-inducible carotenoid biosynthesis in Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Adm, Attila L; Garca-Martnez, Jorge; Szucs, Endre P; Avalos, Javier; Hornok, Lszl

    2011-05-01

    Filamentous ascomycetes, including mitotic holomorphs, have constitutively transcribed MAT (mating type) genes. These genes encode transcription factors considered to be the major regulators of sexual communication. The proven targets of the MAT transcription factors are pheromone precursor and pheromone receptor genes. However, recent studies demonstrated that MAT proteins may also affect other genes not involved directly in the mating process. When grown in the light, Fusarium verticillioides produces the acidic xanthophyll neurosporoxanthin and lower amounts of nonpolar precursor carotenes, such as phytoene, torulene, ?-carotene, and ?-carotene. Depending on the illumination conditions, a drastic decrease or the absence of light-inducible carotenoid accumulation was detected in three independent ?FvMAT1-2-1 knockout mutants of F. verticillioides as compared with the parental wild-type strain. Transcript levels of the carB, carRA, and carT genes, encoding key enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, were also significantly reduced in the mutants. The downregulation of these genes in the ?FvMAT1-2-1 mutant indicates that MAT genes play a role in the control of carotenogenesis in Fusarium. The finding that mating-type genes regulate important processes unrelated to sex helps to understand the presence of functional MAT genes in asexually reproducing fungus populations. PMID:21314709

  18. Mating Type Locus of Chinese Black Truffles Reveals Heterothallism and the Presence of Cryptic Species within the T. indicum Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Tuber spp. are filamentous ascomycetes which establish symbiosis with the roots of trees and shrub species. By virtue of this symbiosis they produce hypogeous ascocarps, known as truffles. Filamentous ascomycetes can reproduce by homothallism or heterothallism depending on the structure and organization of their mating type locus. The first mating type locus in a truffle species has been recently characterized in Tuber melanosporum and it has been shown that this fungus, endemic in Europe, is heterothallic. The availability of sequence information for T. melanosporum mating type genes is seminal to cloning their orthologs from other Tuber species and assessing their reproductive mode. Here we report on the organization of the mating type region in T. indicum, the black truffle species present in Asia, which is the closest relative to T. melanosporum and is characterized by an high level of morphological and genetic variability. The present study shows that T. indicum is also heterothallic. Examination of Asiatic black truffles belonging to different genetic classes, sorted according to the sequence polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region, has revealed sequence variations and rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions of the mating type locus, to suggest the existence of cryptic species within the T. indicum complex. The presence of transposable elements within or linked to the mating type region suggests a role of these elements in generating the genotypic diversity present among T. indicum strains. Overall, comparative analyses of the mating type locus have thus allowed us to tackle taxonomical and phylogenetic issues within black truffles and make inferences about the evolution of T. melanosporum-T. indicum lineage. Our results are not only of fundamental but also of applied relevance as T. indicum produces edible fruit bodies that are imported also into Europe and thus may represent a biological threat for T. melanosporum. PMID:24358175

  19. Mating type locus of Chinese black truffles reveals heterothallism and the presence of cryptic species within the T. indicum species complex.

    PubMed

    Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Tuber spp. are filamentous ascomycetes which establish symbiosis with the roots of trees and shrub species. By virtue of this symbiosis they produce hypogeous ascocarps, known as truffles. Filamentous ascomycetes can reproduce by homothallism or heterothallism depending on the structure and organization of their mating type locus. The first mating type locus in a truffle species has been recently characterized in Tuber melanosporum and it has been shown that this fungus, endemic in Europe, is heterothallic. The availability of sequence information for T. melanosporum mating type genes is seminal to cloning their orthologs from other Tuber species and assessing their reproductive mode. Here we report on the organization of the mating type region in T. indicum, the black truffle species present in Asia, which is the closest relative to T. melanosporum and is characterized by an high level of morphological and genetic variability. The present study shows that T. indicum is also heterothallic. Examination of Asiatic black truffles belonging to different genetic classes, sorted according to the sequence polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region, has revealed sequence variations and rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions of the mating type locus, to suggest the existence of cryptic species within the T. indicum complex. The presence of transposable elements within or linked to the mating type region suggests a role of these elements in generating the genotypic diversity present among T. indicum strains. Overall, comparative analyses of the mating type locus have thus allowed us to tackle taxonomical and phylogenetic issues within black truffles and make inferences about the evolution of T. melanosporum-T. indicum lineage. Our results are not only of fundamental but also of applied relevance as T. indicum produces edible fruit bodies that are imported also into Europe and thus may represent a biological threat for T. melanosporum. PMID:24358175

  20. Ty1 sequence with enhancer and mating-type-dependent regulatory activities.

    PubMed Central

    Errede, B; Company, M; Hutchison, C A

    1987-01-01

    Some insertion mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae activate the expression of adjacent structural genes. The CYC7-H2 mutation is a Ty1 insertion 5' to the iso-2-cytochrome c coding region of CYC7. The Ty1 insertion causes a 20-fold increase in CYC7 expression in a and alpha haploid cell types of S. cerevisiae. This activation is repressed in the a/alpha diploid cell type. Previous computer analysis of the CYC7-H2 Ty1 activator region identified two related sequences with homology both to mammalian enhancers and to a yeast a/alpha control site. A 112-base-pair (bp) DNA fragment encompassing one of these blocks of homology functioned as one component of the Ty1 activator. A 28-bp synthetic oligonucleotide with the wild-type homology block sequence was also functional. A single base pair mutation within the enhancer core of the synthetic 28-bp regulatory element reduced its activation ability to near background amounts. In addition, the 112-bp Ty1 fragment by itself functioned as a target for repression of adjacent gene expression in a/alpha diploid cells. Images PMID:3031464

  1. Maintenance of Sex-Related Genes and the Co-Occurrence of Both Mating Types in Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoping; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Subbarao, Krishna V.

    2014-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a cosmopolitan, soilborne fungus that causes a significant wilt disease on a wide variety of plant hosts including economically important crops, ornamentals, and timber species. Clonal expansion through asexual reproduction plays a vital role in recurring plant epidemics caused by this pathogen. The recent discovery of recombination between clonal lineages and preliminary investigations of the meiotic gene inventory of V. dahliae suggest that cryptic sex appears to be rare in this species. Here we expanded on previous findings on the sexual nature of V. dahliae. Only 1% of isolates in a global collection of 1120 phytopathogenic V. dahliae isolates contained the MAT1-1 idiomorph, whereas 99% contained MAT1-2. Nine unique multilocus microsatellite types comprised isolates of both mating types, eight of which were collected from the same substrate at the same time. Orthologs of 88 previously characterized sex-related genes from fungal model systems in the Ascoymycota were identified in the genome of V. dahliae, out of 93 genes investigated. Results of RT-PCR experiments using both mating types revealed that 10 arbitrarily chosen sex-related genes, including MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1, were constitutively expressed in V. dahliae cultures grown under laboratory conditions. Ratios of non-synonymous (amino-acid altering) to synonymous (silent) substitutions in V. dahliae MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 sequences were indistinguishable from the ratios observed in the MAT genes of sexual fungi in the Pezizomycotina. Patterns consistent with strong purifying selection were also observed in 18 other arbitrarily chosen V. dahliae sex-related genes, relative to the patterns in orthologs from fungi with known sexual stages. This study builds upon recent findings from other laboratories and mounts further evidence for an ancestral or cryptic sexual stage in V. dahliae. PMID:25383550

  2. Maintenance of sex-related genes and the co-occurrence of both mating types in Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Short, Dylan P G; Gurung, Suraj; Hu, Xiaoping; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2014-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a cosmopolitan, soilborne fungus that causes a significant wilt disease on a wide variety of plant hosts including economically important crops, ornamentals, and timber species. Clonal expansion through asexual reproduction plays a vital role in recurring plant epidemics caused by this pathogen. The recent discovery of recombination between clonal lineages and preliminary investigations of the meiotic gene inventory of V. dahliae suggest that cryptic sex appears to be rare in this species. Here we expanded on previous findings on the sexual nature of V. dahliae. Only 1% of isolates in a global collection of 1120 phytopathogenic V. dahliae isolates contained the MAT1-1 idiomorph, whereas 99% contained MAT1-2. Nine unique multilocus microsatellite types comprised isolates of both mating types, eight of which were collected from the same substrate at the same time. Orthologs of 88 previously characterized sex-related genes from fungal model systems in the Ascoymycota were identified in the genome of V. dahliae, out of 93 genes investigated. Results of RT-PCR experiments using both mating types revealed that 10 arbitrarily chosen sex-related genes, including MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1, were constitutively expressed in V. dahliae cultures grown under laboratory conditions. Ratios of non-synonymous (amino-acid altering) to synonymous (silent) substitutions in V. dahliae MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 sequences were indistinguishable from the ratios observed in the MAT genes of sexual fungi in the Pezizomycotina. Patterns consistent with strong purifying selection were also observed in 18 other arbitrarily chosen V. dahliae sex-related genes, relative to the patterns in orthologs from fungi with known sexual stages. This study builds upon recent findings from other laboratories and mounts further evidence for an ancestral or cryptic sexual stage in V. dahliae. PMID:25383550

  3. BOTH MAT1-1 AND MAT1-2 MATING TYPES OF MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA OCCUR AT EQUAL FREQUENCIES IN ALGERIA.

    PubMed

    Allioui, N; Siah, A; Brinis, L; Reignault, Ph; Halama, P

    2014-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola is currently the most devastating disease on wheat crops worldwide. Mycosphaerella graminicola sexual reproduction involves two mating type idiomorphs that were previously studied in several areas around the world, but not in Algeria so far. The objective of this study was thus to determine the frequencies and distribution of M. graminicola mating types in this country. One hundred and twenty monoconidial isolates of this fungus (60 from bread wheat and 60 from durum wheat) were collected during the 2012 growing season from five distinct geographical locations in Algeria. The mating type of each isolate was identified using a multiplex PCR that amplifies either MAT1-1 or MAT1-2 fragment from mating type loci. Both idiomorphs were found at equal frequencies according to the chi-square test at the whole country level (46% MAT1-1 and 54% MAT1-2) and in each of the sampled locations. The two mating types were also detected at equal frequencies on both host species (47% MAT1-1 vs 53% MAT1-2 on bread wheat and 45% MAT1-1 vs 55% MAT1-2 on durum wheat). Our study showed that the two mating types of M. graminicola occur at equal proportions in Algeria and suggests a strong potential for sexual reproduction of the pathogen in this country that may eventually lead to either adaptation to local conditions, plant resistance overcoming or the emergence of resistance to fungicides. PMID:26080482

  4. The zinc-finger transcription factor, Ofi1, regulates white-opaque switching and filamentation in the yeast Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Du, Han; Li, Xiaoling; Huang, Guanghua; Kang, Yingqian; Zhu, Liquan

    2015-05-01

    Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans. The most striking biological feature of C. albicans is its phenotypic plasticity, allowing it to undergo morphological transitions in response to various environmental cues. Transcription factors play critical roles in the regulation of morphological transitions. Here, we report the role of opaque and filamentation inducer 1 (Ofi1), a previously uncharacterized zinc-finger-containing protein encoded by the gene orf19.4972, in the regulation of white-opaque switching and filamentous growth. Over-expression of OFI1 not only induced white-to-opaque switching but also promoted filamentation and invasive growth in C. albicans. Deletion of OFI1 had no obvious effect on filamentation under the culture conditions tested, while deletion of OFI1 reduced the frequency of white-to-opaque switching. We propose that Ofi1 functions downstream of Wor1, the master regulator of white-opaque switching. However, over-expression of OFI1 in the wor1/wor1 mutant could not induce the opaque phenotype, suggesting that Ofi1 does not work alone and other transcription factors downstream of Wor1 are also involved in this regulation. Given the importance of Ofi1 in the regulation of white-opaque switching and filamentation, the present study establishes a new link between these two processes. PMID:25757952

  5. A Switch from a Gradient to a Threshold Mode in the Regulation of a Transcriptional Cascade Promotes Robust Execution of Meiosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Gurevich, Vyacheslav; Kassir, Yona

    2010-01-01

    Tight regulation of developmental pathways is of critical importance to all organisms, and is achieved by a transcriptional cascade ensuring the coordinated expression of sets of genes. We aimed to explore whether a strong signal is required to enter and complete a developmental pathway, by using meiosis in budding yeast as a model. We demonstrate that meiosis in budding yeast is insensitive to drastic changes in the levels of its consecutive positive regulators (Ime1, Ime2, and Ndt80). Entry into DNA replication is not correlated with the time of transcription of the early genes that regulate this event. Entry into nuclear division is directly regulated by the time of transcription of the middle genes, as premature transcription of their activator NDT80, leads to a premature entry into the first meiotic division, and loss of coordination between DNA replication and nuclear division. We demonstrate that Cdk1/Cln3 functions as a negative regulator of Ime2, and that ectopic expression of Cln3 delays entry into nuclear division as well as NDT80 transcription. Because Ime2 functions as a positive regulator for premeiotic DNA replication and NDT80 transcription, as well as a negative regulator of Cdk/Cln, we suggest that a double negative feedback loop between Ime2 and Cdk1/Cln3 promotes a bistable switch from the cell cycle to meiosis. Moreover, our results suggest a regulatory mode switch that ensures robust meiosis as the transcription of the early meiosis-specific genes responds in a graded mode to Ime1 levels, whereas that of the middle and late genes as well as initiation of DNA replication, are regulated in a threshold mode. PMID:20543984

  6. SHARED ITS DNA SUBSTITUTIONS IN ISOLATES OF OPPOSITE MATING TYPE REVEAL A RECOMBIING HISTORY FOR THREE PRESUMED ASEXUAL SPECIES IN THE FILAMENTOUS ASCOMYCETE GENUS ALTERNARIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 15,000 species of ascomycete fungi lack a known sexual state. For fungi with asexual states in the form genera Embellisia, Ulocladium and Alternaria, six species have known sexual states but more than 50 species do not. In sexual filamentous ascomycetes, opposite mating type information at t...

  7. Genotype and mating type analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates from China that mainly originated from non-HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaobo; Yao, Zhirong; Ren, Daming; Liao, Wanqing; Wu, Jingsong

    2008-09-01

    Cryptococcosis has been reported to be mostly associated with non-HIV-related patients in China. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of clinical isolates from the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex in this country. In this study, 115 clinical isolates were included. Molecular type VNI was the most representative (n=103), followed by VGI (n=8), VNIII (n=2), VNIV (n=1), and VGII (n=1). With the exception of a serotype D mating type a isolate, all possessed the MATalpha locus. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that most Cryptococcus gattii isolates from China shared identical MLST profiles with the most common MLST genotype reported in the VGI group, and the only one VGII isolate resembled the Vancouver Island outbreak minor genotype. The C. gattii strains involved in this study were successfully grouped according to their molecular type and mating types by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the GEF1 gene. Our results suggest that (1) in China, cryptococcosis is mostly caused by C. neoformans var. grubii (molecular type VNI), and mating type alpha; (2) The most common causative agents of C. gattii infection in China are closely related to a widely distributed MLST genotype; and (3) The PCR-RFLP analysis of the GEF1 gene has the potential to identify the molecular and mating types of C. gattii simultaneously. PMID:18671745

  8. Genetic variation of single nucleotide polymorphisms identified at the mating type locus correlates with form-specific disease phenotype in the barley net blotch fungus Pyrenophora teres

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating-type (MAT) locus-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to be sufficient for conventional PCR-based differentiation of Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt) and P. teres f. maculata (Ptm), the cause of the net and spot form, respectively, of barley net blotch (Lu et al. 20...

  9. Mating Type (MAT) Locus -Specific PCR Markers for Differentiation of Pyrenophora teres f. teres and P. teres f. maculata, the Causal Agents of Barley Net Blotch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at the mating-type (MAT) loci of Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt), which causes net form (NF) net blotch, and P. teres f. maculata (Ptm), which causes spot form (SF) net blotch of barley. MAT-specific SNP primers were developed for poly...

  10. Unequal Recombination and Evolution of the Mating-Type (MAT) Loci in the Pathogenic Fungus Grosmannia clavigera and Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Clement K.-M.; DiGuistini, Scott; Wang, Ye; Feau, Nicolas; Dhillon, Braham; Bohlmann, Jrg; Hamelin, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in fungi is regulated by the mating-type (MAT) locus where recombination is suppressed. We investigated the evolution of MAT loci in eight fungal species belonging to Grosmannia and Ophiostoma (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) that include conifer pathogens and beetle symbionts. The MAT1-2 idiomorph/allele was identified from the assembled and annotated Grosmannia clavigera genome, and the MAT locus is flanked by genes coding for cytoskeleton protein (SLA) and DNA lyase. The synteny of these genes is conserved and consistent with other members in Ascomycota. Using sequences from SLA and flanking regions, we characterized the MAT1-1 idiomorph from other isolates of G. clavigera and performed dotplot analysis between the two idiomorphs. Unexpectedly, the MAT1-2 idiomorph contains a truncated MAT1-1-1 gene upstream of the MAT1-2-1 gene that bears the high-mobility-group domain. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is similar to its homologous copy in the MAT1-1 idiomorph in the opposite mating-type isolate, except that positive selection is acting on the truncated gene and the alpha(?)-box that encodes the transcription factor has been deleted. The MAT idiomorphs sharing identical gene organization were present in seven additional species in the Ophiostomatales, suggesting that the presence of truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is a general pattern in this order. We propose that an ancient unequal recombination event resulted in the ancestral MAT1-1-1 gene integrated into the MAT1-2 idiomorph and surviving as the truncated MAT1-1-1 genes. The ?-box domain of MAT1-1-1 gene, located at the same MAT locus adjacent to the MAT1-2-1 gene, could have been removed by deletion after recombination due to mating signal interference. Our data confirmed a 1:1 MAT/sex ratio in two pathogen populations, and showed that all members of the Ophiostomatales studied here including those that were previously deemed asexual have the potential to reproduce sexually. This ability can potentially increase genetic variability and can enhance fitness in new, ecological niches. PMID:23450093

  11. Multiple Genes Encoding Pheromones and a Pheromone Receptor Define the B?1 Mating-Type Specificity in Schizophyllum Commune

    PubMed Central

    Vaillancourt, L. J.; Raudaskoski, M.; Specht, C. A.; Raper, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The genes defining multiple B mating types in the wood-rotting mushroom Schizophyllum commune are predicted to encode multiple pheromones and pheromone receptors. These genes are clustered in each of two recombinable and independently functioning loci, B? and B?. A difference in specificity at either locus between a mated pair of individuals initiates an identical series of events in sexual morphogenesis. The B?1 locus was recently found to contain genes predicted to encode three lipopeptide pheromones and a pheromone receptor with a seven-transmembrane domain. These gene products interact in hetero-specific pairs, the pheromone of one B? specificity with the receptor of any one of the other eight B? specificities, and are likely to activate a signaling cascade similar to that known for mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report here that the B?1 locus also contains at least three pheromone genes and one pheromone receptor gene, which function similarly to the genes in the B?1 locus, but only within the series of B? specificities. A comparison of the DNA sequences of the B?1 and B?1 loci suggest that each arose from a common ancestral sequence, allowing us to speculate about the evolution of this unique series of regulatory genes. PMID:9178005

  12. Co-expression of the mating-type genes involved in internuclear recognition is lethal in Podospora anserina.

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, E; Debuchy, R

    2000-01-01

    In the heterothallic filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, four mating-type genes encoding transcriptional factors have been characterized: FPR1 in the mat+ sequence and FMR1, SMR1, and SMR2 in the alternative mat- sequence. Fertilization is controlled by FPR1 and FMR1. After fertilization, male and female nuclei, which have divided in the same cell, form mat+/mat- pairs during migration into the ascogenous hyphae. Previous data indicate that the formation of mat+/mat- pairs is controlled by FPR1, FMR1, and SMR2. SMR1 was postulated to be necessary for initial development of ascogenous hyphae. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional control of the mat genes by seeking mat transcripts during the vegetative and sexual phase and fusing their promoter to a reporter gene. The data indicate that FMR1 and FPR1 are expressed in both mycelia and perithecia, whereas SMR1 and SMR2 are transcribed in perithecia. Increased or induced vegetative expression of the four mat genes has no effect when the recombined gene is solely in the wild-type strain. However, the combination of resident FPR1 with deregulated SMR2 and overexpressed FMR1 in the same nucleus is lethal. This lethality is suppressed by the expression of SMR1, confirming that SMR1 operates downstream of the other mat genes. PMID:10835389

  13. Transcriptional control of the sporulation-specific glucoamylase gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, I; Fukui, S

    1985-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucoamylase activity appears specifically in sporulating cells heterozygous for the mating-type locus (MAT). We identified a sporulation-specific glucoamylase gene (SGA) and show that expression of SGA is positively regulated by the mating-type genes, both MATa1 and MAT alpha 2. Northern blot analysis revealed that control of SGA is exerted at the level of RNA production. Expression of SGA or the consequent degradation of glycogen to glucose in cells is not required for meiosis or sporulation, since MATa/MAT alpha diploid cells homozygous for an insertion mutation at SGA still formed four viable ascospores. Images PMID:3939312

  14. Pleiotropic mutations at the TUP1 locus that affect the expression of mating-type-dependent functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Lemontt, J.F.; Fugit, D.R.; MacKay, V.L.

    1980-04-01

    The umr7-1 mutation, previously identified in a set of mutants that had been selected for defective uv-induced mutagenesis at CAN1, affects other cellular functions, including many of those regulated by the mating-type locus (MAT) in heterothallic Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recessive umr7-1 allele, mapping approximately 20 cM distal to thr4 on chromosome III, causes clumpy growth in both a and ..cap alpha.. cells and has no apparent effect on a mating functions. The most striking property of a umr7 strains is their altered morphology, in which mitotic cells develop an asymmetric pear shape, like that of normal a cells induced to form shmoos by interaction with a-factor. Some a/..cap alpha..-specific diploid functions are also affected by umr7; instead of polar budding patterns, a/..cap alpha.. umr7/umr7 diploids have medial budding like a/a, ..cap alpha../..cap alpha.. and haploid strains. Moreover, a/..cap alpha.. umr7/umr7 diploids have lost the ability to sporulate and are Bar+ like a or a/a strains. Revertant studies indicate that umr7-1 is a single point mutation. The umr7 mutant fails to complement mutants of both tup1 and cyc9 and all three isolates have similar genetic and phenotypic properties. It is suggested that the product of this gene plays some common central role in the complex regulation of the expression of both MAT-dependent and MAT-independent functions.

  15. Diploids in the Cryptococcus neoformans Serotype A Population Homozygous for the α Mating Type Originate via Unisexual Mating

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaorong; Patel, Sweta; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Floyd, Anna; Mitchell, Thomas G.; Heitman, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The ubiquitous environmental human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is traditionally considered a haploid fungus with a bipolar mating system. In nature, the α mating type is overwhelmingly predominant over a. How genetic diversity is generated and maintained by this heterothallic fungus in a largely unisexual α population is unclear. Recently it was discovered that C. neoformans can undergo same-sex mating under laboratory conditions generating both diploid intermediates and haploid recombinant progeny. Same-sex mating (α-α) also occurs in nature as evidenced by the existence of natural diploid αADα hybrids that arose by fusion between two α cells of different serotypes (A and D). How significantly this novel sexual style contributes to genetic diversity of the Cryptococcus population was unknown. In this study, ∼500 natural C. neoformans isolates were tested for ploidy and close to 8% were found to be diploid by fluorescence flow cytometry analysis. The majority of these diploids were serotype A isolates with two copies of the α MAT locus allele. Among those, several are intra-varietal allodiploid hybrids produced by fusion of two genetically distinct α cells through same-sex mating. The majority, however, are autodiploids that harbor two seemingly identical copies of the genome and arose via either endoreplication or clonal mating. The diploids identified were isolated from different geographic locations and varied genotypically and phenotypically, indicating independent non-clonal origins. The present study demonstrates that unisexual mating produces diploid isolates of C. neoformans in nature, giving rise to populations of hybrids and mixed ploidy. Our findings underscore the importance of same-sex mating in shaping the current population structure of this important human pathogenic fungus, with implications for mechanisms of selfing and inbreeding in other microbial pathogens. PMID:19180236

  16. Diversity of the lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiota in the switch from firm- to liquid-sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Lattanzi, Anna; Valerio, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Calasso, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Four traditional type I sourdoughs were comparatively propagated (28 days) under firm (dough yield, 160) and liquid (dough yield, 280) conditions to mimic the alternative technology options frequently used for making baked goods. After 28 days of propagation, liquid sourdoughs had the lowest pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), the lowest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids and free amino acids, and the most stable density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria. The cell density of yeasts was the highest in liquid sourdoughs. Liquid sourdoughs showed simplified microbial diversity and harbored a low number of strains, which were persistent. Lactobacillus plantarum dominated firm sourdoughs over time. Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus brevis dominated only some firm sourdoughs, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis persisted for some time only in some firm sourdoughs. Leuconostoc citreum persisted in all firm and liquid sourdoughs, and it was the only species detected in liquid sourdoughs at all times; it was flanked by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in some sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida humilis, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces bayanus-Kazachstania sp., and Torulaspora delbrueckii were variously identified in firm and liquid sourdoughs. A total of 197 volatile components were identified through purge and trap-/solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-/SPME-GC-MS). Aldehydes, several alcohols, and some esters were at the highest levels in liquid sourdoughs. Firm sourdoughs mainly contained ethyl acetate, acetic acid, some sulfur compounds, and terpenes. The use of liquid fermentation would change the main microbial and biochemical features of traditional baked goods, which have been manufactured under firm conditions for a long time. PMID:24632249

  17. Diversity of the Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiota in the Switch from Firm- to Liquid-Sourdough Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Lattanzi, Anna; Valerio, Francesca; Calasso, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Four traditional type I sourdoughs were comparatively propagated (28 days) under firm (dough yield, 160) and liquid (dough yield, 280) conditions to mimic the alternative technology options frequently used for making baked goods. After 28 days of propagation, liquid sourdoughs had the lowest pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), the lowest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids and free amino acids, and the most stable density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria. The cell density of yeasts was the highest in liquid sourdoughs. Liquid sourdoughs showed simplified microbial diversity and harbored a low number of strains, which were persistent. Lactobacillus plantarum dominated firm sourdoughs over time. Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus brevis dominated only some firm sourdoughs, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis persisted for some time only in some firm sourdoughs. Leuconostoc citreum persisted in all firm and liquid sourdoughs, and it was the only species detected in liquid sourdoughs at all times; it was flanked by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in some sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida humilis, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces bayanus-Kazachstania sp., and Torulaspora delbrueckii were variously identified in firm and liquid sourdoughs. A total of 197 volatile components were identified through purge and trap–/solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT–/SPME–GC-MS). Aldehydes, several alcohols, and some esters were at the highest levels in liquid sourdoughs. Firm sourdoughs mainly contained ethyl acetate, acetic acid, some sulfur compounds, and terpenes. The use of liquid fermentation would change the main microbial and biochemical features of traditional baked goods, which have been manufactured under firm conditions for a long time. PMID:24632249

  18. The RAD7 and RAD16 genes, which are essential for pyrimidine dimer removal from the silent mating type loci, are also required for repair of the nontranscribed strand of an active gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Verhage, R; Zeeman, A M; de Groot, N; Gleig, F; Bang, D D; van de Putte, P; Brouwer, J

    1994-09-01

    The rad16 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was previously shown to be impaired in removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the silent mating-type loci (D. D. Bang, R. A. Verhage, N. Goosen, J. Brouwer, and P. van de Putte, Nucleic Acids Res. 20:3925-3931, 1992). Here we show that rad7 as well as rad7 rad16 double mutants have the same repair phenotype, indicating that the RAD7 and RAD16 gene products might operate in the same nucleotide excision repair subpathway. Dimer removal from the genome overall is essentially incomplete in these mutants, leaving about 20 to 30% of the DNA unrepaired. Repair analysis of the transcribed RPB2 gene shows that the nontranscribed strand is not repaired at all in rad7 and rad16 mutants, whereas the transcribed strand is repaired in these mutants at a fast rate similar to that in RAD+ cells. When the results obtained with the RPB2 gene can be generalized, the RAD7 and RAD16 proteins not only are essential for repair of silenced regions but also function in repair of nontranscribed strands of active genes in S. cerevisiae. The phenotype of rad7 and rad16 mutants closely resembles that of human xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XP-C) cells, suggesting that RAD7 and RAD16 in S. cerevisiae function in the same pathway as the XPC gene in human cells. RAD4, which on the basis of sequence homology has been proposed to be the yeast XPC counterpart, seems to be involved in repair of both inactive and active yeast DNA, challenging the hypothesis that RAD4 and XPC are functional homologs. PMID:8065346

  19. The Specificity Determinant of the Y Mating-Type Proteins of Schizophyllum Commune Is Also Essential for Y-Z Protein Binding

    PubMed Central

    Yue, C.; Osier, M.; Novotny, C. P.; Ullrich, R. C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper concerns the manner in which combinatorial mating proteins of the fungus, Schizophyllum commune, recognize one another to form complexes that regulate target gene expression. In Schizophyllum, tightly linked Y and Z mating-type genes do not promote development in the combinations present in haploid strains (i.e., self combinations). When the Y and Z genes from two different mating types are brought together by the fusion of two haploid cells, the Y and Z proteins from different mating types recognize one another as nonself, form a complex and activate development. Several Y and Z alleles are present in the population and all nonself combinations of Y and Z alleles are equally functional. We have made chimeric genes among Y1, Y3, Y4 and Y5 and examined their mating-type specificities by transformation and mating tests. These studies show that the specificity of Y protein recognized by Z protein is encoded within a short region of N-terminal amino acids. The critical region is not precisely the same in each Y protein and in each Y-Z protein interaction. For Y3 protein compared with Y4 protein, the critical residues are in an N-terminal region of 56 amino acids (residues 17-72), with 40% identity and 65% similarity. Two-hybrid studies show that: the first 144 amino acids of Y4 protein are sufficient to bind Z3 and Z5 proteins, but not Z4 protein, and proteins deleted of the Y4 specificity region do not bind Z3, Z4 or Z5 protein. Thus the specificity determinant of the Y protein is essential for protein-protein recognition, Y-Z protein binding and mating activity. PMID:9071581

  20. Evidence for gene duplication and allelic codominance (not hierarchical dominance) at the mating-type locus of the ciliate, Euplotes crassus.

    PubMed

    Vallesi, Adriana; Alimenti, Claudio; Federici, Sergio; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando; Guella, Graziano; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2014-01-01

    The high-multiple mating system of Euplotes crassus is known to be controlled by multiple alleles segregating at a single locus and manifesting relationships of hierarchical dominance, so that heterozygous cells would produce a single mating-type substance (pheromone). In strain L-2D, now known to be homozygous at the mating-type locus, we previously identified two pheromones (Ec-? and Ec-1) characterized by significant variations in their amino acid sequences and structure of their macronuclear coding genes. In this study, pheromones and macronuclear coding genes have been analyzed in strain POR-73 characterized by a heterozygous genotype and strong mating compatibility with L-2D strain. It was found that POR-73 cells contain three distinct pheromone coding genes and, accordingly, secrete three distinct pheromones. One pheromone revealed structural identity in amino acid sequence and macronuclear coding gene to the Ec-? pheromone of L-2D cells. The other two pheromones were shown to be new and were designated Ec-2 and Ec-3 to denote their structural homology with the Ec-1 pheromone of L-2D cells. We interpreted these results as evidence of a phenomenon of gene duplication at the E. crassus mating-type locus, and lack of hierarchical dominance in the expression of the macronuclear pheromone genes in cells with heterozygous genotypes. PMID:25040318

  1. Impact of the competition between mating types on the cultivation of Tuber melanosporum: Romeo and Juliet and the matter of space and time.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Andrea; Riccioni, Claudia; Belfiori, Beatrice; Paolocci, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Major breakthroughs in our understanding of the life cycles of the symbiotic ascomycetes belonging to the genus Tuber have occurred over the last several years. A number of Tuber species produce edible fruiting bodies, known as truffles, that are marketed worldwide. A better understanding of the basic biological characteristics of Tuber spp. is likely to have tremendous practical relevance for their cultivation. Tuber melanosporum produces the most valuable black truffles and its genome has been recently sequenced. This species is now serving as a model for studying the biology of truffles. Here, we review recent progress in the understanding of sexual reproduction modalities in T. melanosporum. The practical relevance of these findings is outlined. In particular, the discoveries that T. melanosporum is heterothallic and that strains of different mating types compete to persist on the roots of host plants suggest that the spatial and temporal distributional patterns of strains of different mating types are key determinants of truffle fructification. The spatial segregation of the two mating types in areas where T. melanosporum occurs likely limits truffle production. Thus, host plant inoculation techniques and agronomic practices that might be pursued to manage T. melanosporum orchards with a balanced presence of the two mating partners are described. PMID:24384788

  2. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) investigated with neutral microsatellites and functional mating type genes.

    PubMed

    Murat, Claude; Rubini, Andrea; Riccioni, Claudia; De la Varga, Herminia; Akroume, Emila; Belfiori, Beatrice; Guaragno, Marco; Le Tacon, Franois; Robin, Christophe; Halkett, Fabien; Martin, Francis; Paolocci, Francesco

    2013-07-01

    The genetic structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal populations results from both vegetative and sexual propagation. In this study, we have analysed the spatial genetic structure of Tuber melanosporum populations, a heterothallic ascomycete that produces edible fruit bodies. Ectomycorrhizas from oaks and hazels from two orchards were mapped and genotyped using simple sequence repeat markers and the mating type locus. The distribution of the two T. melanosporum mating types was also monitored in the soil. In one orchard, the genetic profiles of the ascocarps were compared with those of the underlying mycorrhizas. A pronounced spatial genetic structure was found. The maximum genet sizes were 2.35 and 4.70 m in the two orchards, with most manifesting a size < 1 m. Few genets persisted throughout two seasons. A nonrandom distribution pattern of the T. melanosporum was observed, resulting in field patches colonized by genets that shared the same mating types. Our findings suggest that competition occurs between genets and provide basic information on T. melanosporum propagation patterns that are relevant for the management of productive truffle orchards. PMID:23574460

  3. Model of Exploratory Search for Mating Partners by Fission Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Daniel; Bendezu, Felipe; Martin, Sophie; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2014-03-01

    During conditions of nitrogen starvation, the model eukaryote S. pombe (fission yeast) undergoes sexual sporulation. Because fission yeast are non-motile, contact between opposite mating types during spore formation is accomplished by polarizing growth, via the Rho GTP-ase Cdc42, in each mating type towards the selected mate, a process known as shmooing. Recent findings showed that cells pick one of their neighboring compatible mates by randomizing the position of the Cdc42 complex about the cell membrane, such that the complex is stabilized near areas of high concentration of the opposite mating type pheromone. We developed Monte Carlo simulations to model partner finding in populations of mating cells and in small cell clusters. We assume that pheromones are secreted at the site of Cdc42 accumulation and that the Cdc42 dwell time increases in response to increasing pheromone concentration. We measured the number of cells that succeed in successful reciprocal pairing, the number of cells that were unable to find a partner, and the number of cells that picked a partner already engaged with another cell. For optimal cell pairing, we find the pheromone concentration decay length is around 1 micron, of order the cell size. We show that non-linear response of Cdc42 dwell time to pheromone concentration improves the number of successful pairs for a given spatial cell distribution. We discuss how these results compare to non-exploratory pairing mechanisms.

  4. Genetic analysis of yeast RPA1 reveals its multiple functions in DNA metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Umezu, K; Sugawara, N; Chen, C; Haber, J E; Kolodner, R D

    1998-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein identified as an essential factor for SV40 DNA replication in vitro. To understand the in vivo functions of RPA, we mutagenized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RFA1 gene and identified 19 ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation- and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS)-sensitive mutants and 5 temperature-sensitive mutants. The UV- and MMS-sensitive mutants showed up to 10(4) to 10(5) times increased sensitivity to these agents. Some of the UV- and MMS-sensitive mutants were killed by an HO-induced double-strand break at MAT. Physical analysis of recombination in one UV- and MMS-sensitive rfa1 mutant demonstrated that it was defective for mating type switching and single-strand annealing recombination. Two temperature-sensitive mutants were characterized in detail, and at the restrictive temperature were found to have an arrest phenotype and DNA content indicative of incomplete DNA replication. DNA sequence analysis indicated that most of the mutations altered amino acids that were conserved between yeast, human, and Xenopus RPA1. Taken together, we conclude that RPA1 has multiple roles in vivo and functions in DNA replication, repair, and recombination, like the single-stranded DNA-binding proteins of bacteria and phages. PMID:9539419

  5. Genetic diversity and mating type distribution of Tuber melanosporum and their significance to truffle cultivation in artificially planted truffieres in Australia.

    PubMed

    Linde, C C; Selmes, H

    2012-09-01

    Tuber melanosporum is a truffle native to Europe and is cultivated in countries such as Australia for the gastronomic market, where production yields are often lower than expected. We assessed the genetic diversity of T. melanosporum with six microsatellite loci to assess the effect of genetic drift on truffle yield in Australia. Genetic diversity as assessed on 210 ascocarps revealed a higher allelic diversity compared to previous studies from Europe, suggesting a possible genetic expansion and/or multiple and diverse source populations for inoculum. The results also suggest that the single sequence repeat diversity of locus ME2 is adaptive and that, for example, the probability of replication errors is increased for this locus. Loss of genetic diversity in Australian populations is therefore not a likely factor in limiting ascocarp production. A survey of nursery seedlings and trees inoculated with T. melanosporum revealed that <70% of seedlings and host trees were colonized with T. melanosporum and that some trees had been contaminated by Tuber brumale, presumably during the inoculation process. Mating type (MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1) analyses on seedling and four- to ten-year-old host trees found that 100% of seedlings but only approximately half of host trees had both mating types present. Furthermore, MAT1-1-1 was detected significantly more commonly than MAT1-2-1 in established trees, suggesting a competitive advantage for MAT1-1-1 strains. This study clearly shows that there are more factors involved in ascocarp production than just the presence of both mating types on host trees. PMID:22773652

  6. Integrative transformation of the ascomycete Podospora anserina: identification of the mating-type locus on chromosome VII of electrophoretically separated chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Osiewacz, H D; Skaletz, A; Esser, K

    1991-04-01

    Protoplasts of wild-type strain s and a long-lived extrachromosomal mutant (AL2) of the ascomycete Podospora anserina were transformed using a plasmid (pAN7-1) which contains the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hph) of Escherichia coli under the control of Aspergillus nidulans regulatory sequences. After optimizing the transformation procedure, transformation efficiencies of 15-21 transformants/micrograms plasmid DNA were obtained. Using a second selectable vector (pBT3), which contains the beta-tubuline gene of a benomyl-resistant Neurospora crassa mutant, the co-transformation rate was determined. Southern blot hybridization experiments revealed that the transforming plasmid became integrated into the genome of the recipient either as a single copy or as multiple copies. In addition, the data from molecular as well as from classical genetic analyses indicated that in independent transformants vector integration occurred at different positions. The mitotic and meiotic stability of transformants proved to be dependent on the number of integrated plasmid copies. Genetic analyses revealed a transformant in which the integrated vector is closely linked to the mating-type locus. Fractionation of whole chromosomes by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and subsequent hybridization of the immobilized DNAs against radiolabelled vector sequences indicated the largest of seven chromosomes as the chromosome containing the integrated vector and thus the mating-type locus. PMID:1367277

  7. A single mating-type locus composed of homeodomain genes promotes nuclear migration and heterokaryosis in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    James, Timothy Y; Lee, Maria; van Diepen, Linda T A

    2011-02-01

    The white-rot basidiomycete fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Agaricomycetes) is a model species that produces potent wood-degrading enzymes. The mating system of the species has been difficult to characterize due to its cryptic fruiting habit and lack of clamp connections in the heterokaryotic phase. By exploiting the draft genome sequence, we reevaluated the mating system of P. chrysosporium by studying the inheritance and segregation of putative mating-type gene homologues, the homeodomain transcription factor genes (MAT-A) and the pheromone receptors (MAT-B). A pattern of mating incompatibility and fructification consistent with a bipolar system with a single MAT locus was observed, but the rejection response was much weaker than that seen in other agaricomycete species, leading to stable heterokaryons with identical MAT alleles. The homeodomain genes appear to comprise the single MAT locus because they are heterozygous in wild strains and hyperpolymorphic at the DNA sequence level and promote aspects of sexual reproduction, such as nuclear migration, heterokaryon stability, and basidiospore formation. The pheromone receptor loci that might constitute a MAT-B locus, as in many other Agaricomycetes, are not linked to the MAT-A locus and display low levels of polymorphism. This observation is inconsistent with a bipolar mating system that includes pheromones and pheromone receptors as mating-type determinants. The partial uncoupling of nuclear migration and mating incompatibility in this species may be predicted to lead to parasexual recombination and may have contributed to the homothallic behavior observed in previous studies. PMID:21131435

  8. Distribution of mating-type alleles and M13 PCR markers in the black leaf spot fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis of bananas in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, C B; Miranda, E C; Hanada, R E; Sousa, N R; Gasparotto, L; Soares, M A; Silva, G F

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causative agent of black sigatoka, which is one of the most destructive diseases of banana plants. Infection with this pathogen results in underdeveloped fruit, with no commercial value. We analyzed the distribution of the M. fijiensis mating-type system and its genetic variability using M13 phage DNA markers. We found a 1:1 distribution of mating-type alleles, indicating MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs. A polymorphism analysis using three different primers for M13 markers showed that only the M13 minisatellite primers generated polymorphic products. We then utilized this polymorphism to characterize 40 isolates from various Brazilian states. The largest genetic distances were found between isolates from the same location and between isolates from different parts of the country. Therefore, there was no correlation between the genetic similarity and the geographic origin of the isolates. The M13 marker was used to generate genetic fingerprints for five isolates; these fingerprints were compared with the band profiles obtained from inter-simple sequence repeat (UBC861) and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism analyses. We found that the M13 marker was more effective than the other two markers for differentiating these isolates. PMID:23420369

  9. Signal Transduction: Turning a Switch into a Rheostat

    PubMed Central

    Bardwell, Lee

    2010-01-01

    MAP kinase cascades are inherently switch-like, but, during yeast mating, MAPK signaling is graded. A new study suggests that the Ste5 scaffold protein is responsible for making this switch less switch-like. PMID:18957235

  10. Recurrent polymorphic mating type variation in Madagascan Bulbophyllum species (Orchidaceae) exemplifies a high incidence of auto-pollination in tropical orchids

    PubMed Central

    Gamisch, Alexander; Fischer, Gunter A; Comes, Hans Peter

    2014-01-01

    The transition from outcrossing to self-fertilization is one of the most common evolutionary changes in angiosperms. The orchid family exemplifies this evolutionary trend but, because of a general lack of large-scale surveys on auto-pollination in orchid taxa, the incidence and modes of auto-pollination among (sub)tropical orchids remain poorly known. In the present study, we assessed the frequency and mode of auto-pollination within and among species of a largely monophyletic group of Madagascan Bulbophyllum. The capacity for autonomous fruit set was investigated by bagging experiments in the greenhouse and the field, complemented with detailed floral micromorphological studies of the gynostemium. Our survey comprises 393 accessions, representing at least 78 species, and thus approximately 37% of the species diversity of the genus in the Madagascan region. Our studies revealed that mating type is directly related to gynostemium structure, most often involving the presence or absence of a physical barrier termed ‘rostellum’. As a novel and unexpected finding, we identified eight species of a single lineage of Madagascan Bulbophyllum (termed ‘clade C’), in which auto-pollinating morphs (selfers), either lacking a rostellum or (rarely) possessing a stigmatic rostellum, co-exist with their pollinator-dependent conspecifics (outcrossers). We hypothesize that auto-pollination via rostellum abortion has a simple genetic basis, and probably evolved rapidly and recurrently by subtle changes in the timing of rostellum development (heterochrony). Thus, species of clade C may have an intrinsic genetic and developmental lability toward auto-pollination, allowing rapid evolutionary response under environmental, perhaps human-disturbed conditions favouring reproductive assurance. Overall, these findings should stimulate further research on the incidence, evolution, and maintenance of mating type variation in tropical orchids, as well as how they adapt(ed) to changing environmental conditions. PMID:25821245

  11. A homologue of the yeast SHE4 gene is essential for the transition between the syncytial and cellular stages during sexual reproduction of the fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed Central

    Berteaux-Lecellier, V; Zickler, D; Debuchy, R; Panvier-Adoutte, A; Thompson-Coffe, C; Picard, M

    1998-01-01

    The Podospora anserina cro1 gene was identified as a gene required for sexual sporulation. Crosses homozygous for the cro1-1 mutation yield fruiting bodies which produce few asci due to the formation of giant plurinucleate cells instead of dikaryotic cells after fertilization. This defect does not impair karyogamy, but meioses of the resultant polyploid nuclei are most often abortive. Cytological studies suggest that the primary defect of the mutant is its inability to form septa between the daughter nuclei after each mitosis, a step specific for normal dikaryotic cell divisions. The cro1-1 mutant would thus be unable to leave the syncytial vegetative state while abiding by the meiotic programme. cro1-1 also shows defects in ascospore germination and growth rate. GFP-tagging of the CRO1 protein reveals that it is a cytosolic protein mainly expressed at the beginning of the dikaryotic stage and at the time of ascospore maturation. The CRO1 protein exhibits significant similarity to the SHE4 protein, which is required for asymmetric mating-type switching in budding yeast cells. Thus, a gene involved in asymmetric cell divisions in a unicellular organism plays a key role at the transition between the syncytial (vegetative) state and the cellular (sexual) state in a filamentous fungus. PMID:9482722

  12. An Exclusively Nuclear RNA-Binding Protein Affects Asymmetric Localization of ASH1 mRNA and Ash1p in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Long, Roy M.; Gu, Wei; Meng, Xiuhua; Gonsalvez, Graydon; Singer, Robert H.; Chartrand, Pascal

    2001-01-01

    The localization of ASH1 mRNA to the distal tip of budding yeast cells is essential for the proper regulation of mating type switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A localization element that is predominantly in the 3?-untranslated region (UTR) can direct this mRNA to the bud. Using this element in the three-hybrid in vivo RNA-binding assay, we identified a protein, Loc1p, that binds in vitro directly to the wild-type ASH1 3?-UTR RNA, but not to a mutant RNA incapable of localizing to the bud nor to several other mRNAs. LOC1 codes for a novel protein that recognizes double-stranded RNA structures and is required for efficient localization of ASH1 mRNA. Accordingly, Ash1p gets symmetrically distributed between daughter and mother cells in a loc1 strain. Surprisingly, Loc1p was found to be strictly nuclear, unlike other known RNA-binding proteins involved in mRNA localization which shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We propose that efficient cytoplasmic ASH1 mRNA localization requires a previous interaction with specific nuclear factors. PMID:11309412

  13. Isolation of the MAT1-1 mating type idiomorph and evidence for selfing in the Chinese medicinal fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Bushley, Kathryn E; Li, Yi; Wang, Wen-Jing; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Jiao, Lei; Spatafora, Joseph W; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2013-09-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valued medicinal fungi in China. Research on the mating system and sexual development is vitally important to this endangered species. Previous efforts devoted to investigate the mating type (MAT) locus of O. sinensis, however, resulted in an incomplete understanding. In this study, the MAT1-1 locus of O. sinensis was investigated. The conserved ?-box and HMG-box regions of the MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-3 genes, respectively, and a conserved region of the DNA lyase gene were successfully amplified using degenerate PCR. A combination of TAIL-PCR and long-range PCR were used to connect these genes and obtain the sequence of the MAT1-1 locus. Screening of 22 single spore isolates by PCR demonstrated that both the MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes cooccurred within the same isolate. Additionally, both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 are expressed in vegetative mycelia, providing evidence that O. sinensis is likely capable of selfing. DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining of ascospores and hyphae showed that a majority of hyphal compartments are binucleate, suggesting that O. sinensis may be pseudohomothallic. Analyses of sequence diversity showed lower levels of genetic diversity in MAT1-1-1 compared to MAT1-2-1, indicating the possibility that different selective pressures act on the two MAT idiomorphs. The MAT1-1-1 sequences of O. sinensis and Tolypocladium inflatum cluster as a monophyletic group consistent with phylogenetic classification of Ophiocordycipitaceae. Comparison of the structure of the MAT1-1 locus across hypocrealean taxa showed that O. sinensis contains all three mating type genes (MAT1-1-1, MAT1-1-2, and MAT1-1-3) and supported previous observations that of the four families in Hypocreales, MAT1-1-3 has undergone a lineage specific loss only in some members of the Cordycipitaceae. PMID:24012300

  14. Mating Type Gene Homologues and Putative Sex Pheromone-Sensing Pathway in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, a Presumably Asexual Plant Root Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Halary, Sbastien; Daubois, Laurence; Terrat, Yves; Ellenberger, Sabrina; Wstemeyer, Johannes; Hijri, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The fungal kingdom displays a fascinating diversity of sex-determination systems. Recent advances in genomics provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of sex, mating type determination, and evolution of sexual reproduction in many fungal species in both ancient and modern phylogenetic lineages. All major fungal groups have evolved sexual differentiation and recombination pathways. However, sexuality is unknown in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of the phylum Glomeromycota, an ecologically vital group of obligate plant root symbionts. AMF are commonly considered an ancient asexual lineage dating back to the Ordovician, approximately 460 M years ago. In this study, we used genomic and transcriptomic surveys of several AMF species to demonstrate the presence of conserved putative sex pheromone-sensing mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, comparable to those described in Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. We also find genes for high mobility group (HMG) transcription factors, homologous to SexM and SexP genes in the Mucorales. The SexM genes show a remarkable sequence diversity among multiple copies in the genome, while only a single SexP sequence was detected in some isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis. In the Mucorales and Microsporidia, the sexM gene is flanked by genes for a triosephosphate transporter (TPT) and a RNA helicase, but we find no evidence for synteny in the vicinity of the Sex locus in AMF. Nonetheless, our results, together with previous observations on meiotic machinery, suggest that AMF could undergo a complete sexual reproduction cycle. PMID:24260466

  15. Selective acquisition of novel mating type and vegetative incompatibility genes via interspecies gene transfer in the globally invading eukaryote Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Mathieu; Buck, Kenneth W; Brasier, Clive M

    2006-01-01

    The Dutch elm disease fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, which has destroyed billions of elm trees worldwide, originally invaded Europe as a series of clonal populations with a single mating type (MAT-2) and a single vegetative incompatibility (vic) type. The populations then rapidly became diverse with the appearance of the MAT-1 type and many vegetative incompatibility types. Here, we have investigated the mechanism using isolates from sites in Portugal at which the rapid evolution of O. novo-ulmi populations from clonality to heterogeneity was well established. We show by genetic mapping of vic and MAT loci with AFLP markers and by sequence analysis of MAT loci that this diversification was due to selective acquisition by O. novo-ulmi of the MAT-1 and vic loci from another species, Ophiostoma ulmi. A global survey showed that interspecies transfer of the MAT-1 locus occurred on many occasions as O. novo-ulmi spread across the world. We discuss the possibility that fixation of the MAT-1 and vic loci occurred in response to spread of deleterious viruses in the originally clonal populations. The process demonstrates the potential of interspecies gene transfer for facilitating rapid adaptation of invasive organisms to a new environment. PMID:16367844

  16. Multiple Versions of the a Mating Type Locus of Coprinus Cinereus Are Generated by Three Paralogous Pairs of Multiallelic Homeobox Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, E. H.; O'Shea, S. F.; Casselton, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    The A mating type locus of Coprinus cinereus determines mating compatibility by regulating essential steps in sexual development. Each A locus contains several genes separated into two functionally independent complexes termed A? and A?, and the multiple alleles of these genes generate an estimated 160 A mating specificities. The genes encode two classes of homeodomain-containing proteins designated HD1 and HD2. In this report we describe two newly cloned loci, A2 and A5, and compare them with A42, A43 and A6 that we have described previously. An A?-null locus, retaining just a single active HD1 gene from the ?-complex, was generated by mutation. Using this as a transformation host, gene combinations that promote A-regulated development were identified. We demonstrate that each A locus contains members of three paralogous pairs of HD1 and HD2 genes. Different allelic versions of gene pairs are compatible but paralogous genes are incompatible. The genes present in four uncloned A loci were deduced using Southern analyses and transformations with available cloned genes. The combined analysis of nine A factors identifies sufficient A gene alleles to generate at least 72 A mating specificities. PMID:8878675

  17. Yeast Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... taking antibiotics, it can multiply and cause an infection. Yeast infections affect different parts of the body in different ways: Thrush is a yeast infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida ...

  18. Yeast Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... majority of vaginal yeast infections are caused by Candida Albicans ? There are some less common yeast organisms such as Torulopsis Glabrata that may cause infections that do not clear up with the ...

  19. Energy-Based Pharmacophore and Three-Dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (3D-QSAR) Modeling Combined with Virtual Screening To Identify Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Silent Mating-Type Information Regulation 2 Homologue 1 (SIRT1).

    PubMed

    Pulla, Venkat Koushik; Sriram, Dinavahi Saketh; Viswanadha, Srikant; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal

    2016-01-25

    Silent mating-type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1), being the homologous enzyme of silent information regulator-2 gene in yeast, has multifaceted functions. It deacetylates a wide range of histone and nonhistone proteins; hence, it has good therapeutic importance. SIRT1 was believed to be overexpressed in many cancers (prostate, colon) and inflammatory disorders (rheumatoid arthritis). Hence, designing inhibitors against SIRT1 could be considered valuable. Both structure-based and ligand-based drug design strategies were employed to design novel inhibitors utilizing high-throughput virtual screening of chemical databases. An energy-based pharmacophore was generated using the crystal structure of SIRT1 bound with a small molecule inhibitor and compared with a ligand-based pharmacophore model that showed four similar features. A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model was developed and validated to be employed in the virtual screening protocol. Among the designed compounds, Lead 17 emerged as a promising SIRT1 inhibitor with IC50 of 4.34 ?M and, at nanomolar concentration (360 nM), attenuated the proliferation of prostate cancer cells (LnCAP). In addition, Lead 17 significantly reduced production of reactive oxygen species, thereby reducing pro inflammatory cytokines such as IL6 and TNF-?. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory potential of the compound was ascertained using an animal paw inflammation model induced by carrageenan. Thus, the identified SIRT1 inhibitors could be considered as potent leads to treat both cancer and inflammation. PMID:26636371

  20. The Yeast Deletion Collection: A Decade of Functional Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2014-01-01

    The yeast deletion collections comprise >21,000 mutant strains that carry precise start-to-stop deletions of ∼6000 open reading frames. This collection includes heterozygous and homozygous diploids, and haploids of both MATa and MATα mating types. The yeast deletion collection, or yeast knockout (YKO) set, represents the first and only complete, systematically constructed deletion collection available for any organism. Conceived during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequencing project, work on the project began in 1998 and was completed in 2002. The YKO strains have been used in numerous laboratories in >1000 genome-wide screens. This landmark genome project has inspired development of numerous genome-wide technologies in organisms from yeast to man. Notable spinoff technologies include synthetic genetic array and HIPHOP chemogenomics. In this retrospective, we briefly describe the yeast deletion project and some of its most noteworthy biological contributions and the impact that these collections have had on the yeast research community and on genomics in general. PMID:24939991

  1. The yeast deletion collection: a decade of functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2014-06-01

    The yeast deletion collections comprise >21,000 mutant strains that carry precise start-to-stop deletions of ∼6000 open reading frames. This collection includes heterozygous and homozygous diploids, and haploids of both MAT A: and MATα mating types. The yeast deletion collection, or yeast knockout (YKO) set, represents the first and only complete, systematically constructed deletion collection available for any organism. Conceived during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequencing project, work on the project began in 1998 and was completed in 2002. The YKO strains have been used in numerous laboratories in >1000 genome-wide screens. This landmark genome project has inspired development of numerous genome-wide technologies in organisms from yeast to man. Notable spinoff technologies include synthetic genetic array and HIPHOP chemogenomics. In this retrospective, we briefly describe the yeast deletion project and some of its most noteworthy biological contributions and the impact that these collections have had on the yeast research community and on genomics in general. PMID:24939991

  2. In vitro Detection of Yeast-Like and Mycelial Colonies of Ustilago scitaminea in Tissue-Cultured Plantlets of Sugarcane Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosawi-Jorf, S. Ali; Izadi, Mahin B.

    Plantlets of sugarcane cultivars NCO-310 (susceptible) and CP73-21 (resistant) were generated using in vitro apical meristem tissue culture method of leaf and culturing of the callous. Yeast-like and dikaryotic mycelial colonies were isolated and purified. The plantlets were inoculated with two types of yeast-like and dikaryotic mycelial colonies. Results of the PCR assay in plantlets inoculated with the two types of colonies indicated the detection of bE mating-type gene of sugarcane smut in all treated plantlets at all different times after inoculation. Whereas, the disease symptoms were seen in cuttings inoculated only with dikaryotic mycelia or mixed mating types of sporidia, 6 month after transplanting in pots.

  3. Alternative Mating Type Configurations (a/? versus a/a or ?/?) of Candida albicans Result in Alternative Biofilms Regulated by Different Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Huang, Guanghua; Garnaas, Adam M.; Soll, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Similar multicellular structures can evolve within the same organism that may have different evolutionary histories, be controlled by different regulatory pathways, and play similar but nonidentical roles. In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, a quite extraordinary example of this has occurred. Depending upon the configuration of the mating type locus (a/? versus a/a or ?/?), C. albicans forms alternative biofilms that appear similar morphologically, but exhibit dramatically different characteristics and are regulated by distinctly different signal transduction pathways. Biofilms formed by a/? cells are impermeable to molecules in the size range of 300 Da to 140 kDa, are poorly penetrated by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), and are resistant to antifungals. In contrast, a/a or ?/? biofilms are permeable to molecules in this size range, are readily penetrated by PMNs, and are susceptible to antifungals. By mutational analyses, a/? biofilms are demonstrated to be regulated by the Ras1/cAMP pathway that includes Ras1?Cdc35?cAMP(Pde2|)?Tpk2(Tpk1)?Efg1?Tec1?Bcr1, and a/a biofilms by the MAP kinase pathway that includes Mf??Ste2? (Ste4, Ste18, Cag1)?Ste11?Hst7?Cek2(Cek1)?Tec1. These observations suggest the hypothesis that while the upstream portion of the newly evolved pathway regulating a/a and ?/? cell biofilms was derived intact from the upstream portion of the conserved pheromone-regulated pathway for mating, the downstream portion was derived through modification of the downstream portion of the conserved pathway for a/? biofilm formation. C. albicans therefore forms two alternative biofilms depending upon mating configuration. PMID:21829325

  4. Genomes of Ashbya Fungi Isolated from Insects Reveal Four Mating-Type Loci, Numerous Translocations, Lack of Transposons, and Distinct Gene Duplications

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Fred S.; Voegeli, Sylvia; Kuo, Sidney; Philippsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii is a cotton pathogen transmitted by insects. It is readily grown and manipulated in the laboratory and is commercially exploited as a natural overproducer of vitamin B2. Our previous genome analysis of A. gossypii isolate ATCC10895, collected in Trinidad nearly 100 years ago, revealed extensive synteny with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, leading us to use it as a model organism to understand the evolution of filamentous growth. To further develop Ashbya as a model system, we have investigated the ecological niche of A. gossypii and isolated additional strains and a sibling species, both useful in comparative analysis. We isolated fungi morphologically similar to A. gossypii from different plant-feeding insects of the suborder Heteroptera, generated a phylogenetic tree based on rDNA-ITS sequences, and performed high coverage short read sequencing with one A. gossypii isolate from Florida, a new species, Ashbya aceri, isolated in North Carolina, and a genetically marked derivative of ATCC10895 intensively used for functional studies. In contrast to S. cerevisiae, all strains carry four not three mating type loci, adding a new puzzle in the evolution of Ashbya species. Another surprise was the genome identity of 99.9% between the Florida strain and ATCC10895, isolated in Trinidad. The A. aceri and A. gossypii genomes show conserved gene orders rearranged by eight translocations, 90% overall sequence identity, and fewer tandem duplications in the A. aceri genome. Both species lack transposable elements. Finally, our work identifies plant-feeding insects of the suborder Heteroptera as the most likely natural reservoir of Ashbya, and that infection of cotton and other plants may be incidental to the growth of the fungus in its insect host. PMID:23749448

  5. SIR-nucleosome interactions: structure-function relationships in yeast silent chromatin.

    PubMed

    Oppikofer, Mariano; Kueng, Stephanie; Gasser, Susan M

    2013-09-15

    Discrete regions of the eukaryotic genome assume a heritable chromatin structure that is refractory to gene expression, referred to as heterochromatin or "silent" chromatin. Constitutively silent chromatin is found in subtelomeric domains in a number of species, ranging from yeast to man. In addition, chromatin-dependent repression of mating type loci occurs in both budding and fission yeasts, to enable sexual reproduction. The silencing of chromatin in budding yeast is characterized by an assembly of Silent Information Regulatory (SIR) proteins-Sir2, Sir3 and Sir4-with unmodified nucleosomes. Silencing requires the lysine deacetylase activity of Sir2, extensive contacts between Sir3 and the nucleosome, as well as interactions among the SIR proteins, to generate the Sir2-3-4 or SIR complex. Results from recent structural and reconstitution studies suggest an updated model for the ordered assembly and organization of SIR-dependent silent chromatin in yeast. Moreover, studies of subtelomeric gene expression reveal the importance of subtelomeric silent chromatin in the regulation of genes other than the silent mating type loci. This review covers recent advances in this field. PMID:23791651

  6. Casein kinase 1? acts as a molecular switch for cell polarization through phosphorylation of the polarity factor Tea1 in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Koyano, Takayuki; Barnouin, Karin; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Kume, Kazunori; Hirata, Dai; Toda, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Fission yeast undergoes growth polarity transition from monopolar to bipolar during G2 phase, designated NETO (New End Take Off). It is known that NETO onset involves two prerequisites, the completion of DNA replication and attainment of a certain cell size. However, the molecular mechanism remains unexplored. Here, we show that casein kinase 1?, Cki3 is a critical determinant of NETO onset. Not only did cki3? cells undergo NETO during G1- or S-phase, but they also displayed premature NETO under unperturbed conditions with a smaller cell size, leading to cell integrity defects. Cki3 interacted with the polarity factor Tea1, of which phosphorylation was dependent on Cki3 kinase activity. GFP nanotrap of Tea1 by Cki3 led to Tea1 hyperphosphorylation with monopolar growth, whereas the same entrapment by kinase-dead Cki3 resulted in converse bipolar growth. Intriguingly, the Tea1 interactor Tea4 was dissociated from Tea1 by Cki3 entrapment. Mass spectrometry identified four phosphoserine residues within Tea1 that were hypophosphorylated in cki3? cells. Phosphomimetic Tea1 mutants showed compromised binding to Tea4 and NETO defects, indicating that these serine residues are critical for protein-protein interaction and NETO onset. Our findings provide significant insight into the mechanism by which cell polarization is regulated in a spatiotemporal manner. PMID:26525038

  7. Genomics and Transcriptomics Analyses of the Oil-Accumulating Basidiomycete Yeast Trichosporon oleaginosus: Insights into Substrate Utilization and Alternative Evolutionary Trajectories of Fungal Mating Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bracharz, Felix; Lorenzen, Jan; Kracht, Octavia N.; Chovatia, Mansi; Daum, Chris; Deshpande, Shweta; Lipzen, Anna; Nolan, Matt; Ohm, Robin A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Sun, Sheng; Heitman, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbial fermentation of agro-industrial waste holds great potential for reducing the environmental impact associated with the production of lipids for industrial purposes from plant biomass. However, the chemical complexity of many residues currently prevents efficient conversion into lipids, creating a high demand for strains with the ability to utilize all energy-rich components of agricultural residues. Here, we present results of genome and transcriptome analyses of Trichosporon oleaginosus. This oil-accumulating yeast is able to grow on a wide variety of substrates, including pentoses and N-acetylglucosamine, making it an interesting candidate for biotechnological applications. Transcriptomics shows specific changes in gene expression patterns under lipid-accumulating conditions. Furthermore, gene content and expression analyses indicate that T. oleaginosus is well-adapted for the utilization of chitin-rich biomass. We also focused on the T. oleaginosus mating type, because this species is a member of the Tremellomycetes, a group that has been intensively analyzed as a model for the evolution of sexual development, the best-studied member being Cryptococcus neoformans. The structure of the T. oleaginosus mating-type regions differs significantly from that of other Tremellomycetes and reveals a new evolutionary trajectory paradigm. Comparative analysis shows that recruitment of developmental genes to the ancestral tetrapolar mating-type loci occurred independently in the Trichosporon and Cryptococcus lineages, supporting the hypothesis of a trend toward larger mating-type regions in fungi. PMID:26199329

  8. Sexual agglutination in budding yeasts: structure, function, and regulation of adhesion glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lipke, P N; Kurjan, J

    1992-01-01

    The sexual agglutinins of the budding yeasts are cell adhesion proteins that promote aggregation of cells during mating. In each yeast species, complementary agglutinins are expressed by cells of opposite mating type that interact to mediate aggregation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-agglutinin and its analogs from other yeasts are single-subunit glycoproteins that contain N-linked and O-linked oligosaccharides. The N-glycosidase-sensitive carbohydrate is not necessary for activity. The proposed binding domain of alpha-agglutinin has features characteristic of the immunoglobulin fold structures of cell adhesion proteins of higher eukaryotes. The C-terminal region of alpha-agglutinin plays a role in anchoring the glycoprotein to the cell surface. The S. cerevisiae alpha-agglutinin and its analogs from other species contain multiple subunits; one or more binding subunits, which interact with the opposite agglutinin, are disulfide bonded to a core subunit, which mediates cell wall anchorage. The core subunits are composed of 80 to 95% O-linked carbohydrate. The binding subunits have less carbohydrate, and both carbohydrate and peptide play roles in binding. The alpha-agglutinin and alpha-agglutinin genes from S. cerevisiae have been cloned and shown to be regulated by the mating-type locus, MAT, and by pheromone induction. The agglutinins are necessary for mating under conditions that do not promote cell-cell contact. The role of the agglutinins therefore is to promote close interactions between cells of opposite mating type and possibly to facilitate the response to phermone, thus increasing the efficiency of mating. We speculate that they mediate enhanced response to sex pheromones by providing a synapse at the point of cell-cell contact, at which both pheromone secretion and cell fusion occur. PMID:1579109

  9. Red yeast

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cholesterol levels and triglycerides. However, this specific product contains large amounts of a chemical similar to "statin" ... this product and other red yeast products that contain statins to be illegal unapproved drugs. However, outside ...

  10. Counting Yeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bealer, Jonathan; Welton, Briana

    1998-01-01

    Describes changes to a traditional study of population in yeast colonies. Changes to the procedures include: (1) only one culture per student team; (2) cultures are inoculated only once; and (3) the same tube is sampled daily. (DDR)

  11. A MAT12 wild-type strain from Penicillium chrysogenum: functional mating-type locus characterization, genome sequencing and mating with an industrial penicillin-producing strain

    PubMed Central

    Bhm, Julia; Dahlmann, Tim A; Gm?er, Hendrik; Kck, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In heterothallic ascomycetes, mating is controlled by two nonallelic idiomorphs that determine the sex of the corresponding strains. We recently discovered mating-type loci and a sexual life cycle in the penicillin-producing fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum. All industrial penicillin production strains worldwide are derived from a MAT1-1 isolate. No MAT1-2 strain has been investigated in detail until now. Here, we provide the first functional analysis of a MAT1-2 locus from a wild-type strain. Similar to MAT1-1, the MAT1-2 locus has functions beyond sexual development. Unlike MAT1-1, the MAT1-2 locus affects germination and surface properties of conidiospores and controls light-dependent asexual sporulation. Mating of the MAT1-2 wild type with a MAT1-1 high penicillin producer generated sexual spores. We determined the genomic sequences of parental and progeny strains using next-generation sequencing and found evidence for genome-wide recombination. SNP calling showed that derived industrial strains had an uneven distribution of point mutations compared with the wild type. We found evidence for meiotic recombination in all chromosomes. Our results point to a strategy combining the use of mating-type genes, genetics, and next-generation sequencing to optimize conventional strain improvement methods. PMID:25521009

  12. Molecular epidemiology of clinical and environmental isolates of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex reveals a high genetic diversity and the presence of the molecular type VGII mating type a in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Escandn, Patricia; Snchez, Adriana; Martnez, Marcela; Meyer, Wieland; Castaeda, Elizabeth

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological relationships of clinical and environmental isolates of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex in Colombia. The current study reflects data from 1987 to 2004. In Colombia serotypes A and B are most frequently recovered from patients and the environment. Of the 178 clinical isolates studied, 91.1% were of serotype A, 8.4% serotype B and 0.5% serotype C. Of the 247 environmental isolates, 44.2% were of serotype A, 42.6% serotype B and 13.2% serotype C. No serotype D isolates were isolated. Serotype AD has not been recovered in Colombia. PCR fingerprinting with the primers M13, (GACA)4 and (GTG)5 and URA5 gene restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis grouped the majority of clinical serotype A and environmental serotype B isolates into the molecular types VNI (98.1%) and VGII (100%), respectively. Mating type alpha was determined in 99.3% of serotype A isolates, but 96.6% of serotype B isolates were of mating type a. Similar profiles between clinical and environmental isolates suggest that the patients may have acquired the infection from the environment. The data presented form part of the Colombian contribution to the ongoing global survey of the C. neoformans species complex. PMID:16696659

  13. Fission yeast mutants that alleviate transcriptional silencing in centromeric flanking repeats and disrupt chromosome segregation.

    PubMed Central

    Ekwall, K; Cranston, G; Allshire, R C

    1999-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes are transcriptionally silenced when placed within centromeres, within or close to the silent mating-type loci or adjacent to telomeres. Factors required to maintain mating-type silencing also affect centromeric silencing and chromosome segregation. We isolated mutations that alleviate repression of marker genes in the inverted repeats flanking the central core of centromere I. Mutations csp1 to 13 (centromere: suppressor of position effect) defined 12 loci. Ten of the csp mutants have no effect on mat2/3 or telomere silencing. All csp mutants allow some expression of genes in the centromeric flanking repeat, but expression in the central core is undetectable. Consistent with defective centromere structure and function, chromosome loss rates are elevated in all csp mutants. Mutants csp1 to 6 are temperature-sensitive lethal and csp3 and csp6 cells are defective in mitosis at 36 degrees. csp7 to 13 display a high incidence of lagging chromosomes on late anaphase spindles. Thus, by screening for mutations that disrupt silencing in the flanking region of a fission yeast centromere a novel collection of mutants affecting centromere architecture and chromosome segregation has been isolated. PMID:10545449

  14. Switch wear leveling

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  15. Biochemical Characterization of Kat1: a Domesticated hAT-Transposase that Induces DNA Hairpin Formation and MAT-Switching

    PubMed Central

    Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Rajaei, Naghmeh; Jonna, Venkateswara Rao; Hofer, Anders; Åström, Stefan U.

    2016-01-01

    Kluyveromyces lactis hAT-transposase 1 (Kat1) generates hairpin-capped DNA double strand breaks leading to MAT-switching (MATa to MATα). Using purified Kat1, we demonstrate the importance of terminal inverted repeats and subterminal repeats for its endonuclease activity. Kat1 promoted joining of the transposon end into a target DNA molecule in vitro, a biochemical feature that ties Kat1 to transposases. Gas-phase Electrophoretic Mobility Macromolecule analysis revealed that Kat1 can form hexamers when complexed with DNA. Kat1 point mutants were generated in conserved positions to explore structure-function relationships. Mutants of predicted catalytic residues abolished both DNA cleavage and strand-transfer. Interestingly, W576A predicted to be impaired for hairpin formation, was active for DNA cleavage and supported wild type levels of mating-type switching. In contrast, the conserved CXXH motif was critical for hairpin formation because Kat1 C402A/H405A completely blocked hairpinning and switching, but still generated nicks in the DNA. Mutations in the BED zinc-finger domain (C130A/C133A) resulted in an unspecific nuclease activity, presumably due to nonspecific DNA interaction. Kat1 mutants that were defective for cleavage in vitro were also defective for mating-type switching. Collectively, this study reveals Kat1 sharing extensive biochemical similarities with cut and paste transposons despite being domesticated and evolutionary diverged from active transposons. PMID:26902909

  16. Biochemical Characterization of Kat1: a Domesticated hAT-Transposase that Induces DNA Hairpin Formation and MAT-Switching.

    PubMed

    Chiruvella, Kishore K; Rajaei, Naghmeh; Jonna, Venkateswara Rao; Hofer, Anders; strm, Stefan U

    2016-01-01

    Kluyveromyces lactis hAT-transposase 1 (Kat1) generates hairpin-capped DNA double strand breaks leading to MAT-switching (MATa to MAT?). Using purified Kat1, we demonstrate the importance of terminal inverted repeats and subterminal repeats for its endonuclease activity. Kat1 promoted joining of the transposon end into a target DNA molecule in vitro, a biochemical feature that ties Kat1 to transposases. Gas-phase Electrophoretic Mobility Macromolecule analysis revealed that Kat1 can form hexamers when complexed with DNA. Kat1 point mutants were generated in conserved positions to explore structure-function relationships. Mutants of predicted catalytic residues abolished both DNA cleavage and strand-transfer. Interestingly, W576A predicted to be impaired for hairpin formation, was active for DNA cleavage and supported wild type levels of mating-type switching. In contrast, the conserved CXXH motif was critical for hairpin formation because Kat1 C402A/H405A completely blocked hairpinning and switching, but still generated nicks in the DNA. Mutations in the BED zinc-finger domain (C130A/C133A) resulted in an unspecific nuclease activity, presumably due to nonspecific DNA interaction. Kat1 mutants that were defective for cleavage in vitro were also defective for mating-type switching. Collectively, this study reveals Kat1 sharing extensive biochemical similarities with cut and paste transposons despite being domesticated and evolutionary diverged from active transposons. PMID:26902909

  17. Effect of fungicides on epiphytic yeasts associated with strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Debode, Jane; Van Hemelrijck, Wendy; Creemers, Piet; Maes, Martine

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of two commonly used fungicides on the epiphytic yeast community of strawberry. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted applying Switch (cyprodinil plus fludioxonil) or Signum (boscalid plus pyraclostrobin) to strawberry plants. Yeasts on leaves and fruits were assessed on treated and untreated plants at several time points via plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The yeast counts on plates of the treated plants were similar to the control plants. Unripe fruits had 10 times larger yeast concentrations than ripe fruits or leaves. Some dominant yeast types were isolated and in vitro tests showed that they were at least 10 times less sensitive to Switch and Signum as compared with two important fungal strawberry pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum acutatum, which are the targets for the fungicide control. DGGE analysis showed that the applied fungicides had no effect on the composition of the yeast communities, while the growing system, strawberry tissue, and sampling time did affect the yeast communities. The yeast species most commonly identified were Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, and Sporobolomyces. These results point toward the potential applicability of natural occurring yeast antagonists into an integrated disease control strategy for strawberry diseases.

  18. Modeling Diauxic Glycolytic Oscillations in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hald, Bjrn Olav; Srensen, Preben G.

    2010-01-01

    Glycolytic oscillations in a stirred suspension of starved yeast cells is an excellent model system for studying the dynamics of metabolic switching in living systems. In an open-flow system the oscillations can be maintained indefinitely at a constant operating point where they can be characterized quantitatively by experimental quenching and bifurcation analysis. In this article, we use these methods to show that the dynamics of oscillations in a closed system is a simple transient version of the open-system dynamics. Thus, easy-setup closed-system experiments are also useful for investigations of central metabolism dynamics of yeast cells. We have previously proposed a model for the open system comprised of the primary fermentative reactions in yeast that quantitatively describes the oscillatory dynamics. However, this model fails to describe the transient behavior of metabolic switching in a closed-system experiment by feeding the yeast suspension with a glucose pulsenotably the initial NADH spike and final NADH rise. Another object of this study is to gain insight into the secondary low-flux metabolic pathways by feeding starved yeast cells with various metabolites. Experimental and computational results strongly suggest that regulation of acetaldehyde explains the observed behavior. We have extended the original model with regulation of pyruvate decarboxylase, a reversible alcohol dehydrogenase, and drainage of pyruvate. Using the method of time rescaling in the extended model, the description of the transient closed-system experiments is significantly improved. PMID:21081066

  19. Optical switches and switching methods

    DOEpatents

    Doty, Michael

    2008-03-04

    A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.

  20. UV-induced endonuclease III-sensitive sites at the mating type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are repaired by nucleotide excision repair: RAD7 and RAD16 are not required for their removal from HML alpha.

    PubMed

    Reed, S H; Boiteux, S; Waters, R

    1996-03-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation of DNA induces cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) 6-4'-(pyrimidine 2'-one) pyrimidines and pyrimidine hydrates. The dimer is the major photoproduct, and is specifically recognized by endonuclease V of phage T4. Pyrimidine hydrates represent a small fraction of the total photoproducts, and are substrates for endonuclease III of Escherichia coli. We used these enzymes to follow the fate of their substrates in the mating type loci of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In a RAD strain, CPSs in the transcriptionally active MAT alpha locus are preferentially repaired relative to the inactive HML alpha locus, whilst repair of endonuclease III-sensitive sites is not preferential. The rad1, 2, 3 and 4 mutants, which lack factors that are essential for the incision step of nucleotide excision repair (NER), repair neither CPDs nor endonuclease III-sensitive sites, clearly showing that these lesions are repaired by by NER pathway. Previously it had been shown that the products of the RAD7 and RAD16 genes are required for the NER of CPDs from the HML alpha locus. We show that, in the same locus, these gene products are not needed for removal of endonuclease III-sensitive sites by the same mechanism. This indicates that the components required for NER differ depending on either the type of lesion encountered or on the specific location of the lesion within the genome. PMID:8602168

  1. ION SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Cook, B.

    1959-02-10

    An ion switch capable of transferring large magnitudes of power is described. An ion switch constructed in accordance with the invention includes a pair of spaced control electrodes disposed in a highly evacuated region for connection in a conventional circuit to control the passing of power therethrough. A controllable ionic conduction path is provided directiy between the control electrodes by a source unit to close the ion switch. Conventional power supply means are provided to trigger the source unit and control the magnitude, durations and pulse repetition rate of the aforementioned ionic conduction path.

  2. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Devaney, Howard F. (Cedar Crest, NM); Hake, Lewis W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  3. Solution-state conformation and stoichiometry of yeast Sir3 heterochromatin fibers

    PubMed Central

    Swygert, Sarah G.; Manning, Benjamin J.; Senapati, Subhadip; Kaur, Parminder; Lindsay, Stuart; Demeler, Borries; Peterson, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin is a repressive chromatin compartment essential for maintaining genomic integrity. A hallmark of heterochromatin is the presence of specialized nonhistone proteins that alter chromatin structure to inhibit transcription and recombination. It is generally assumed that heterochromatin is highly condensed. However, surprisingly little is known about the structure of heterochromatin or its dynamics in solution. In budding yeast, formation of heterochromatin at telomeres and the HM silent mating type loci require the Sir3 protein. Here, we use a combination of sedimentation velocity, atomic force microscopy, and nucleosomal array capture to characterize the stoichiometry and conformation of Sir3 nucleosomal arrays. The results indicate that Sir3 interacts with nucleosomal arrays with a stoichiometry of two Sir3 monomers per nucleosome. We also find that Sir3 fibers are less compact than canonical magnesium-induced 30 nm fibers. We suggest that heterochromatin proteins promote silencing by coating nucleosomal arrays, stabilizing interactions between nucleosomal histones and DNA. PMID:25163529

  4. Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vaginal Yeast Infections KidsHealth > For Teens > Vaginal Yeast Infections Print A ... effect of taking antibiotics. What Is a Yeast Infection? A yeast infection is a common infection caused ...

  5. Yeast Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

    Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of yeast based sensors have been developed as analytical tools. Yeasts are known as facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yeast based sensor consisted of a DO electrode and an immobilized omnivorous yeast. In yeast based sensor development, many kinds of yeast have been employed by applying their characteristics to adapt to the analyte. For example, Trichosporon cutaneum was used to estimate organic pollution in industrial wastewater. Yeast based sensors are suitable for online control of biochemical processes and for environmental monitoring. In this review, principles and applications of yeast based sensors are summarized.

  6. Vaginal Yeast Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Vaginal Yeast Infection Vaginal yeast infection, or vulvovaginal candidiasis, is a common cause of vaginal irritation. Nearly 75 percent of all adult women ...

  7. Vaginal yeast infection

    MedlinePLUS

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the vagina , mouth, ...

  8. Optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.

    1985-01-18

    An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

  9. Optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Robert P. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

  10. Optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.

    1987-11-10

    An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching. 3 figs.

  11. Switching Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

  12. Ssn6 Defines a New Level of Regulation of White-Opaque Switching in Candida albicans and Is Required For the Stochasticity of the Switch

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Matthew B.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Noiman, Liron; Laksana, Clement N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human commensal and opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans can switch between two distinct, heritable cell types, named “white” and “opaque,” which differ in morphology, mating abilities, and metabolic preferences and in their interactions with the host immune system. Previous studies revealed a highly interconnected group of transcriptional regulators that control switching between the two cell types. Here, we identify Ssn6, the C. albicans functional homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptional corepressor Cyc8, as a new regulator of white-opaque switching. In a or α mating type strains, deletion of SSN6 results in mass switching from the white to the opaque cell type. Transcriptional profiling of ssn6 deletion mutant strains reveals that Ssn6 represses part of the opaque cell transcriptional program in white cells and the majority of the white cell transcriptional program in opaque cells. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that Ssn6 is tightly integrated into the opaque cell regulatory circuit and that the positions to which it is bound across the genome strongly overlap those bound by Wor1 and Wor2, previously identified regulators of white-opaque switching. This work reveals the next layer in the white-opaque transcriptional circuitry by integrating a transcriptional regulator that does not bind DNA directly but instead associates with specific combinations of DNA-bound transcriptional regulators. PMID:26814177

  13. Switched power workshop. [Switched power electron guns

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a switched power electron gun. Particular topics discussed are: vacuum photodiode switch; laser switched solid state diodes; gun performance; charging supply; and laser requirements. (LSP)

  14. Identification and characterization of genes and mutants for an N-terminal acetyltransferase from yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, J R; Kayne, P S; Moerschell, R P; Tsunasawa, S; Gribskov, M; Colavito-Shepanski, M; Grunstein, M; Sherman, F; Sternglanz, R

    1989-01-01

    A gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been mapped, cloned, sequenced and shown to encode a catalytic subunit of an N-terminal acetyltransferase. Regions of this gene, NAT1, and the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase genes of bacteria have limited but significant homology. A nat1 null mutant is viable but exhibits a variety of phenotypes, including reduced acetyltransferase activity, derepression of a silent mating type locus (HML) and failure to enter G0. All these phenotypes are identical to those of a previously characterized mutant, ard1. NAT1 and ARD1 are distinct genes that encode proteins with no obvious similarity. Concomitant overexpression of both NAT1 and ARD1 in yeast causes a 20-fold increase in acetyltransferase activity in vitro, whereas overexpression of either NAT1 or ARD1 alone does not raise activity over basal levels. A functional iso-1-cytochrome c protein, which is N-terminally acetylated in a NAT1 strain, is not acetylated in an isogenic nat1 mutant. At least 20 other yeast proteins, including histone H2B, are not N-terminally acetylated in either nat1 or ard1 mutants. These results suggest that NAT1 and ARD1 proteins function together to catalyze the N-terminal acetylation of a subset of yeast proteins. Images PMID:2551674

  15. A Large-Scale Functional Analysis of Putative Target Genes of Mating-Type Loci Provides Insight into the Regulation of Sexual Development of the Cereal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Jo, Seong-Mi; Kim, Gi-Yong; Kim, Da-Woon; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Yun, Sung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in cereal crops, produces sexual progeny (ascospore) as an important overwintering and dissemination strategy for completing the disease cycle. This homothallic ascomycetous species does not require a partner for sexual mating; instead, it carries two opposite mating-type (MAT) loci in a single nucleus to control sexual development. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the regulation of sexual development in F. graminearum, we used in-depth and high-throughput analyses to examine the target genes controlled transcriptionally by two-linked MAT loci (MAT1-1, MAT1-2). We hybridized a genome-wide microarray with total RNAs from F. graminearum mutants that lacked each MAT locus individually or together, and overexpressed MAT1-2-1, as well as their wild-type progenitor, at an early stage of sexual development. A comparison of the gene expression levels revealed a total of 1,245 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among all of the mutants examined. Among these, genes involved in metabolism, cell wall organization, cellular response to stimuli, cell adhesion, fertilization, development, chromatin silencing, and signal transduction, were significantly enriched. Protein binding microarray analysis revealed the presence of putative core DNA binding sequences (ATTAAT or ATTGTT) for the HMG (high mobility group)-box motif in the MAT1-2-1 protein. Targeted deletion of 106 DEGs revealed 25 genes that were specifically required for sexual development, most of which were regulated transcriptionally by both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 loci. Taken together with the expression patterns of key target genes, we propose a regulatory pathway for MAT-mediated sexual development, in which both MAT loci may be activated by several environmental cues via chromatin remodeling and/or signaling pathways, and then control the expression of at least 1,245 target genes during sexual development via regulatory cascades and/or networks involving several downstream transcription factors and a putative RNA interference pathway. PMID:26334536

  16. Mcm1 regulates donor preference controlled by the recombination enhancer in Saccharomyces mating-type switching

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cherry; Weiss, Kerstin; Yang, Chen; Harris, Midori A.; Tye, Bik-Kwoon; Newlon, Carol S.; Simpson, Robert T.; Haber, James E.

    1998-01-01

    Switching of Saccharomyces mating type by replacement of sequences at the MAT locus involves a choice between two donors, HML and HMR. MATα cells inhibit recombination along the entire left arm of chromosome III, including HML, whereas MATa cells activate this same region. MATa-dependent activation of HML depends on a small, cis-acting DNA sequence designated the recombination enhancer (RE), located 17 kb centromere-proximal to HML. A comparison of RE sequences interchangeable between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis defines a minimum RE of 244 bp. RE activity is repressed in MATα cells by binding of the Matα2–Mcm1 corepressor to a site within the RE. Mutation of the two Matα2 binding sites removes most, but not all, of this repression, and RE chromatin structure in MATα cells becomes indistinguishable from that seen in MATa. Surprisingly, a 2-bp mutation in the Mcm1 binding site completely abolishes RE activity in MATa cells; moreover, RE chromatin structure in the MATa mutant becomes very similar to that seen in MATα cells with a normal RE, displaying highly ordered nucleosomes despite the absence of Matα2. Further, a mutation that alters the ability of Mcm1 to act with Matα2 in repressing a-specific genes also alters donor preference in either mating type. Thus, Mcm1 is critically responsible for the activation as well as the Matα2-Mcm1-mediated repression of RE activity. PMID:9620858

  17. Functional Complementation of sir2Δ Yeast Mutation by the Human Orthologous Gene SIRT1

    PubMed Central

    Gaglio, Davide; D’Alfonso, Anna; Camilloni, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Sirtuins, class III histone deacetylases, are proteins homologous to the yeast protein Sir2p. Mammalian Sirt1 has been shown to be involved in energy metabolism, brain functions, inflammation and aging through its deacetylase activity, acting on both histone and non-histone substrates. In order to verify whether Sirt1 can replace Sir2p in the yeast cells, we expressed the full-length human Sirt1 protein in S.cerevisiae sir2Δ mutant strain. The structure of chromatin is basically maintained from yeast to human. Thus, yeast chromatin is a favourable environment to evaluate, inhibit or activate an ectopic histone deacetylase activity in an in vivo substrate. Mutant sir2Δ shows a series of different phenotypes, all dependent on the deacetylase activity of Sir2p. We analyzed the three silent loci where normally Sir2p acts: ribosomal DNA, telomeres and the mating type loci. Moreover, we verified extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA circles production and histone hyperacetylation levels, typical marks of sir2Δ strains. By strong SIRT1 overexpression in sir2Δ cells, we found that specific molecular phenotypes of the mutant revert almost to a wild-type condition. In particular, transcriptional silencing at rDNA was restored, extrachromosomal rDNA circles formation was repressed and histone acetylation at H3K9 and H4K16 decreased. The complementation at the other studied loci: HM loci, telomere and sub-telomere does not occur. Overall, our observations indicate that: i) SIRT1 gene is able to complement different molecular phenotypes of the sir2Δ mutant at rDNA ii) the in vivo screening of Sirt1 activity is possible in yeast. PMID:24349441

  18. Swi1Timeless Prevents Repeat Instability at Fission Yeast Telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Gadaleta, Mariana C.; Das, Mukund M.; Tanizawa, Hideki; Chang, Ya-Ting; Noma, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Toru M.; Noguchi, Eishi

    2016-01-01

    Genomic instability associated with DNA replication stress is linked to cancer and genetic pathologies in humans. If not properly regulated, replication stress, such as fork stalling and collapse, can be induced at natural replication impediments present throughout the genome. The fork protection complex (FPC) is thought to play a critical role in stabilizing stalled replication forks at several known replication barriers including eukaryotic rDNA genes and the fission yeast mating-type locus. However, little is known about the role of the FPC at other natural impediments including telomeres. Telomeres are considered to be difficult to replicate due to the presence of repetitive GT-rich sequences and telomere-binding proteins. However, the regulatory mechanism that ensures telomere replication is not fully understood. Here, we report the role of the fission yeast Swi1Timeless, a subunit of the FPC, in telomere replication. Loss of Swi1 causes telomere shortening in a telomerase-independent manner. Our epistasis analyses suggest that heterochromatin and telomere-binding proteins are not major impediments for telomere replication in the absence of Swi1. Instead, repetitive DNA sequences impair telomere integrity in swi1Δ mutant cells, leading to the loss of repeat DNA. In the absence of Swi1, telomere shortening is accompanied with an increased recruitment of Rad52 recombinase and more frequent amplification of telomere/subtelomeres, reminiscent of tumor cells that utilize the alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway (ALT) to maintain telomeres. These results suggest that Swi1 ensures telomere replication by suppressing recombination and repeat instability at telomeres. Our studies may also be relevant in understanding the potential role of Swi1Timeless in regulation of telomere stability in cancer cells. PMID:26990647

  19. Population genetics of the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Louise J; Koufopanou, Vassiliki; Goddard, Matthew R; Hetherington, Richard; Schfer, Stefanie M; Burt, Austin

    2004-01-01

    Saccharomyces paradoxus is the closest known relative of the well-known S. cerevisiae and an attractive model organism for population genetic and genomic studies. Here we characterize a set of 28 wild isolates from a 10-km(2) sampling area in southern England. All 28 isolates are homothallic (capable of mating-type switching) and wild type with respect to nutrient requirements. Nine wild isolates and two lab strains of S. paradoxus were surveyed for sequence variation at six loci totaling 7 kb, and all 28 wild isolates were then genotyped at seven polymorphic loci. These data were used to calculate nucleotide diversity and number of segregating sites in S. paradoxus and to investigate geographic differentiation, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium. Synonymous site diversity is approximately 0.3%. Extensive incompatibilities between gene genealogies indicate frequent recombination between unlinked loci, but there is no evidence of recombination within genes. Some localized clonal growth is apparent. The frequency of outcrossing relative to inbreeding is estimated at 1.1% on the basis of heterozygosity. Thus, all three modes of reproduction known in the lab (clonal replication, inbreeding, and outcrossing) have been important in molding genetic variation in this species. PMID:15020405

  20. Prions in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, Susan W.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a prion as an infectious self-propagating protein isoform was initially proposed to explain certain mammalian diseases. It is now clear that yeast also has heritable elements transmitted via protein. Indeed, the protein only model of prion transmission was first proven using a yeast prion. Typically, known prions are ordered cross-? aggregates (amyloids). Recently, there has been an explosion in the number of recognized prions in yeast. Yeast continues to lead the way in understanding cellular control of prion propagation, prion structure, mechanisms of de novo prion formation, specificity of prion transmission, and the biological roles of prions. This review summarizes what has been learned from yeast prions. PMID:22879407

  1. Magnetic switching

    SciTech Connect

    Birx, D.; Cook, E.; Hawkins, S.; Poor, S.; Reginato, L.; Schmidt, J.; Smith, M.

    1983-06-01

    The paper discusses the development program in magnetic switching which was aimed at solving the rep-rate and reliability limitations of the ATA spark gaps. The end result has been a prototype physically very similar to the present Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) pulse power unit but vastly superior in performance. This prototype, which is easily adaptable to the existing systems, has achieved a burst rep-rate of 20 kHz and an output voltage of 500 kV. A one-on-one substitution of the existing pulse power module would result in a 100 MeV accelerator. Furthermore, the high efficiency of the magnetic pulse compression stages has allowed CW operation of the prototype at one kilohertz opening up other applications for the pulse power. Performance and design details will be described.

  2. Cdc42 explores the cell periphery for mate selection in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Bendez, Felipe O; Martin, Sophie G

    2013-01-01

    How cells polarize in response to external cues is a fundamental biological problem. For mating, yeast cells orient growth toward the source of a pheromone gradient produced by cells of the opposite mating type. Polarized growth depends on the small GTPase Cdc42, a central eukaryotic polarity regulator that controls signaling, cytoskeleton polarization, and vesicle trafficking. However, the mechanisms of polarity establishment and mate selection in complex cellular environments are poorly understood. Here we show that, in fission yeast, low-level pheromone signaling promotes a novel polarization state, where active Cdc42, its GEF Scd1, and scaffold Scd2 form colocalizing dynamic zones that sample the periphery of the cell. Two direct Cdc42 effectors--actin cables marked by myosin V Myo52 and the exocyst complex labeled by Sec6 and Sec8--also dynamically colocalize with active Cdc42. However, these cells do not grow due to a block in the exocytosis of cell wall synthases Bgs1 and Bgs4. High-level pheromone stabilizes active Cdc42 zones and promotes cell wall synthase exocytosis and polarized growth. However, in the absence of prior low-level pheromone signaling, exploration fails, and cells polarize growth at cell poles by default. Consequently, these cells show altered partner choice, mating preferentially with sister rather than nonsister cells. Thus, Cdc42 exploration serves to orient growth for partner selection. This process may also promote genetic diversification. PMID:23200991

  3. Cyberlindnera xylosilytica sp. nov., a xylitol-producing yeast species isolated from lignocellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Cadete, Raquel M; Cheab, Monaliza A M; Santos, Renata O; Safar, Silvana V B; Zilli, Jerri E; Vital, Marcos J S; Basso, Luiz C; Lee, Ching-Fu; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-09-01

    Independent surveys of yeasts associated with lignocellulosic-related materials led to the discovery of a novel yeast species belonging to the Cyberlindnera clade (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). Analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that this species is related to C. japonica, C. maesa and C. easanensis. Six isolates were obtained from different sources, including rotting wood, tree bark and sugar cane filter cake in Brazil, frass from white oak in the USA and decayed leaf in Taiwan. A novel species is suggested to accommodate these isolates, for which the name C. xylosilytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of C. xylosilytica sp. nov. is NRRL YB-2097(T) ( = CBS 13984(T) = UFMG-CM-Y347(T)) and the allotype is UFMG-CM-Y409 ( = CBS 14083). The novel species is heterothallic and complementary mating types are represented by the type and allotype strains. The MycoBank number is MB 811428. PMID:26025941

  4. Apoptosis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Frank; Herker, Eva; Wissing, Silke; Jungwirth, Helmut; Eisenberg, Tobias; Frhlich, Kai-Uwe

    2004-12-01

    Apoptosis is a highly regulated cellular suicide program crucial for metazoan development. However, dysfunction of apoptosis also leads to several diseases. Yeast undergoes apoptosis after application of acetic acid, sugar- or salt-stress, plant antifungal peptides, or hydrogen peroxide. Oxygen radicals seem to be key elements of apoptotic execution, conserved during evolution. Furthermore, several yeast orthologues of central metazoan apoptotic regulators have been identified, such as a caspase and a caspase-regulating serine protease. In addition, physiological occurrence of cell death has been detected during aging and mating in yeast. The finding of apoptosis in yeast, other fungi and parasites is not only of great medical relevance but will also help to understand some of the still unknown molecular mechanisms at the core of apoptotic execution. PMID:15556039

  5. Anaerobic yeast killer systems.

    PubMed

    Polonelli, L; Menozzi, M G; Campani, L; Gerloni, M; Conti, S; Morace, G; Chezzi, C

    1992-05-01

    The influence of anaerobic conditions on the expression of the killer phenomenon of several yeast isolates belonging to recognized killer systems coded by different genetic determinants (Pichia spp., Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was studied. Anaerobiosis influenced the activity of killer toxins from some individual isolates of the genera Pichia and Saccharomyces on sensitive strains of P. anomala, K. lactis and Candida albicans. However, no influence was detectable on a S. cerevisiae sensitive isolate. Thus, anaerobic conditions seem to interfere more with the metabolic process of sensitive strains than with toxin production by killer yeasts. The selection of a panel of killer yeasts, able to display their activity against reference sensitive yeast isolates under anaerobic conditions in a medium that favored the growth of anaerobes, allowed the use of the killer system to type Bacteroides fragilis isolates for epidemiological purposes. PMID:1397211

  6. Yeast infections (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Yeast infections may follow a course of antibiotics that were prescribed for another purpose. The antibiotics change the normal "balance" between organisms in the vagina by suppressing the growth of protective bacteria that normally have an antifungal effect.

  7. Pexophagy in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Oku, Masahide; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Pexophagy, selective degradation of peroxisomes via autophagy, is the main system for reducing organelle abundance. Elucidation of the molecular machinery of pexophagy has been pioneered in studies of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the methylotrophic yeasts Pichia pastoris and Hansenula polymorpha. Recent analyses using these yeasts have elucidated the molecular machineries of pexophagy, especially in terms of the interactions and modifications of the so-called adaptor proteins required for guiding autophagic membrane biogenesis on the organelle surface. Based on the recent findings, functional relevance of pexophagy and another autophagic pathway, mitophagy (selective autophagy of mitochondria), is discussed. We also discuss the physiological importance of pexophagy in these yeast systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Peroxisomes edited by Ralf Erdmann. PMID:26409485

  8. Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain behind the breastbone. Self-Care Guidelines Most yeast infections can be prevented by keeping body-fold areas clean and dry. Diabetics should keep their blood sugar under good control. Treat skin infection with a ...

  9. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

  10. Modeling brewers' yeast flocculation

    PubMed

    van Hamersveld EH; van der Lans RG; Caulet; Luyben

    1998-02-01

    Flocculation of yeast cells occurs during the fermentation of beer. Partway through the fermentation the cells become flocculent and start to form flocs. If the environmental conditions, such as medium composition and fluid velocities in the tank, are optimal, the flocs will grow in size large enough to settle. After settling of the main part of the yeast the green beer is left, containing only a small amount of yeast necessary for rest conversions during the next process step, the lagering. The physical process of flocculation is a dynamic equilibrium of floc formation and floc breakup resulting in a bimodal size distribution containing single cells and flocs. The floc size distribution and the single cell amount were measured under the different conditions that occur during full scale fermentation. Influences on flocculation such as floc strength, specific power input, and total number of yeast cells in suspension were studied. A flocculation model was developed, and the measured data used for validation. Yeast floc formation can be described with the collision theory assuming a constant collision efficiency. The breakup of flocs appears to occur mainly via two mechanisms, the splitting of flocs and the erosion of yeast cells from the floc surface. The splitting rate determines the average floc size and the erosion rate determines the number of single cells. Regarding the size of the flocs with respect to the scale of turbulence, only the viscous subrange needs to be considered. With the model, the floc size distribution and the number of single cells can be predicted at a certain point during the fermentation. For this, the bond strength between the cells, the fractal dimension of the yeast, the specific power input in the tank and the number of yeast cells that are in suspension in the tank have to be known. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10099210

  11. Switch Transcripts in Immunoglobulin Class Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Matthias; Jung, Steffen; Radbruch, Andreas

    1995-03-01

    B cells can exchange gene segments for the constant region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain, altering the class and effector function of the antibodies that they produce. Class switching is directed to distinct classes by cytokines, which induce transcription of the targeted DNA sequences. These transcripts are processed, resulting in spliced "switch" transcripts. Switch recombination can be directed to immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) by the heterologous human metallothionein II_A promoter in mutant mice. Induction of the structurally conserved, spliced switch transcripts is sufficient to target switch recombination to IgG1, whereas transcription alone is not.

  12. Forces in yeast flocculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  13. Latching relay switch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Duimstra, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

  14. Miniature intermittent contact switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, A.

    1972-01-01

    Design of electric switch for providing intermittent contact is presented. Switch consists of flexible conductor surrounding, but separated from, fixed conductor. Flexing of outside conductor to contact fixed conductor completes circuit. Advantage is small size of switch compared to standard switches.

  15. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  16. Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Timothy R.; de Boer, Carl G.

    2013-01-01

    The term transcriptional network refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24018767

  17. Oxygen requirements of yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P

    1990-01-01

    Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. Images PMID:2082825

  18. Temporal switching jitter in photoconductive switches

    SciTech Connect

    GAUDET,JOHN A.; SKIPPER,MICHAEL C.; ABDALLA,MICHAEL D.; AHERN,SEAN M.; MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; ROMERO,SAMUEL P.

    2000-04-13

    This paper reports on a recent comparison made between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the temporal switch jitter times. It is found that the optical trigger laser characteristics are dominant in determining the PCSS jitter.

  19. Yeast killer systems.

    PubMed Central

    Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

    1997-01-01

    The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

  20. Strong nucleosomes of yeasts.

    PubMed

    Trifonov, Edward N; Tripathi, Vijay

    2016-02-01

    Yeast genome lacks visibly periodic sequences characteristic of strong nucleosomes (SNs) originally discovered in A. thaliana, C. elegans, and H. sapiens. Yet, the sequences with good match to the (RRRRRYYYYY)n consensus of the SNs do show preference to centromere regions of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Cryptococcus neoformans - property characteristic of SNs of higher eukaryotes. Candida albicans is the first exception detected so far, where their SNs do not have any affinity to the centromeres, nor pericentromeric regions. Three of the four yeast genomes analyzed possess unique repeating centromere-specific SN sequences (C. albicans, again, is an exception). The results firmly indicate that centromeres of plants, animals, and yeasts in general have special chromatin structure, favoring SNs. PMID:25893982

  1. Evolutionary history of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 20 ascomyceteous yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comp...

  2. Genetics of Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Amparo; Fernndez-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

    The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

  3. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric; Suominen, Pirkko

    2010-12-07

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains. ##STR00001##

  4. Latching micro optical switch

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

    2013-05-21

    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  5. Opportunistic Pathogenic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Uma

    Advances in medical research, made during the last few decades, have improved the prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for variety of infections/diseases. However, many of the prophylactic and therapeutic procedures have been seen in many instances to exact a price of host-vulnerability to an expanding group of opportunistic pathogens and yeasts are one of the important members in it. Fortunately amongst the vast majority of yeasts present in nature only few are considered to have the capability to cause infections when certain opportunities predisposes and these are termed as opportunistic pathogenic yeasts. However, the term pathogenic is quite tricky, as it depends of various factors of the host, the bug and the environment to manifest the clinical infection. The borderline is expanding. In the present century with unprecedented increase in number of immune-compromised host in various disciplines of health care settings, where any yeast, which has the capability to grow at 37 C (normal body temperature of human), can be pathogenic and cause infection in particular situation

  6. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

    2013-02-12

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  7. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

    2014-09-23

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  8. Comparison of Switching and Biofilm Formation between MTL-Homozygous Strains of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Claude; Daniels, Karla J; Soll, David R

    2015-12-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related species that share the same main developmental programs. In C. albicans, it has been demonstrated that the biofilms formed by strains heterozygous and homozygous at the mating type locus (MTL) differ functionally, but studies rarely identify the MTL configuration. This becomes a particular problem in studies of C. dubliniensis, given that one-third of natural strains are MTL homozygous. For that reason, we have analyzed MTL-homozygous strains of C. dubliniensis for their capacity to switch from white to opaque, the stability of the opaque phenotype, CO2 induction of switching, pheromone induction of adhesion, the effects of minority opaque cells on biofilm thickness and dry weight, and biofilm architecture in comparison with C. albicans. Our results reveal that C. dubliniensis strains switch to opaque at lower average frequencies, exhibit a far lower level of opaque phase stability, are not stimulated to switch by high CO2, exhibit more variability in biofilm architecture, and most notably, form mature biofilms composed predominately of pseudohyphae rather than true hyphae. Therefore, while several traits of MTL-homozygous strains of C. dubliniensis appear to be degenerating or have been lost, others, most notably several related to biofilm formation, have been conserved. Within this context, the possibility is considered that C. dubliniensis is transitioning from a hypha-dominated to a pseudohypha-dominated biofilm and that aspects of C. dubliniensis colonization may provide insights into the selective pressures that are involved. PMID:26432632

  9. Comparison of Switching and Biofilm Formation between MTL-Homozygous Strains of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Claude; Daniels, Karla J.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related species that share the same main developmental programs. In C. albicans, it has been demonstrated that the biofilms formed by strains heterozygous and homozygous at the mating type locus (MTL) differ functionally, but studies rarely identify the MTL configuration. This becomes a particular problem in studies of C. dubliniensis, given that one-third of natural strains are MTL homozygous. For that reason, we have analyzed MTL-homozygous strains of C. dubliniensis for their capacity to switch from white to opaque, the stability of the opaque phenotype, CO2 induction of switching, pheromone induction of adhesion, the effects of minority opaque cells on biofilm thickness and dry weight, and biofilm architecture in comparison with C. albicans. Our results reveal that C. dubliniensis strains switch to opaque at lower average frequencies, exhibit a far lower level of opaque phase stability, are not stimulated to switch by high CO2, exhibit more variability in biofilm architecture, and most notably, form mature biofilms composed predominately of pseudohyphae rather than true hyphae. Therefore, while several traits of MTL-homozygous strains of C. dubliniensis appear to be degenerating or have been lost, others, most notably several related to biofilm formation, have been conserved. Within this context, the possibility is considered that C. dubliniensis is transitioning from a hypha-dominated to a pseudohypha-dominated biofilm and that aspects of C. dubliniensis colonization may provide insights into the selective pressures that are involved. PMID:26432632

  10. Heat Switches for ADRs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.

  11. Automatic thermal switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, J. W.; Wing, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Two automatic switches control heat flow from one thermally conductive plate to another. One switch permits heat flow to outside; other limits heat flow. In one switch, heat on conductive plate activates piston that forces saddle against plate. Heat carriers then conduct heat to second plate that radiates it away. After temperature is first plate drops, piston contracts and spring breaks thermal contact with plate. In second switch, action is reversed.

  12. Remote switch actuator

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

    2013-01-29

    The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

  13. Heat switches for ADRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.

    2014-07-01

    Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.

  14. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  15. Apollo Ring Optical Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Maestas, J.H.

    1987-03-01

    An optical switch was designed, built, and installed at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to facilitate the integration of two Apollo computer networks into a single network. This report presents an overview of the optical switch as well as its layout, switch testing procedure and test data, and installation.

  16. Decreased ethyl carbamate generation during Chinese rice wine fermentation by disruption of CAR1 in an industrial yeast strain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dianhui; Li, Xiaomin; Shen, Chao; Lu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Xie, Guangfa

    2014-06-16

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolizes arginine to ornithine and urea during wine fermentations. In the fermentation of Chinese rice wine, yeast strains of S. cerevisiae do not fully metabolize urea, which will be secreted into the spirits and spontaneously reacts with ethanol to form ethyl carbamate, a potential carcinogenic agent for humans. To block the pathway of urea production, we genetically engineered two haploid strains to reduce the arginase (encoded by CAR1) activity, which were isolated from a diploid industrial Chinese rice wine strain. Finally the engineered haploids with opposite mating type were mated back to diploid strains, obtaining a heterozygous deletion strain (CAR1/car1) and a homozygous defect strain (car1/car1). These strains were compared to the parental industrial yeast strain in Chinese rice wine fermentations and spirit production. The strain with the homozygous CAR1 deletion showed significant reductions of urea and EC in the final spirits in comparison to the parental strain, with the concentration reductions by 86.9% and 50.5% respectively. In addition, EC accumulation was in a much lower tempo during rice wine storage. Moreover, the growth behavior and fermentation characteristics of the engineered diploid strain were similar to the parental strain. PMID:24769164

  17. KEX2 mutations suppress RNA polymerase II mutants and alter the temperature range of yeast cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C; Young, R A

    1989-01-01

    Suppressors of a temperature-sensitive RNA polymerase II mutation were isolated to identify proteins that interact with RNA polymerase II in yeast cells. Ten independently isolated extragenic mutations that suppressed the temperature-sensitive mutation rpb1-1 and produced a cold-sensitive phenotype were all found to be alleles of a single gene, SRB1. An SRB1 partial deletion mutant was further investigated and found to exhibit several pleiotropic phenotypes. These included suppression of numerous temperature-sensitive RNA polymerase II mutations, alteration of the temperature growth range of cells containing wild-type RNA polymerase, and sterility of cells of alpha mating type. The ability of SRB1 mutations to suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype of RNA polymerase II mutants did not extend to other temperature-sensitive mutants investigated. Isolation of the SRB1 gene revealed that SRB1 is KEX2. These results indicate that the KEX2 protease, whose only known substrates are hormone precursors, can have an important influence on RNA polymerase II and the temperature-dependent growth properties of yeast cells. Images PMID:2668732

  18. SET1, A Yeast Member of the Trithorax Family, Functions in Transcriptional Silencing and Diverse Cellular Processes

    PubMed Central

    Nislow, Corey; Ray, Evan; Pillus, Lorraine

    1997-01-01

    The trithorax gene family contains members implicated in the control of transcription, development, chromosome structure, and human leukemia. A feature shared by some family members, and by other proteins that function in chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation, is the presence of a 130- to 140-amino acid motif dubbed the SET or Tromo domain. Here we present analysis of SET1, a yeast member of the trithorax gene family that was identified by sequence inspection to encode a 1080-amino acid protein with a C-terminal SET domain. In addition to its SET domain, which is 4050% identical to those previously characterized, SET1 also shares dispersed but significant similarity to Drosophila and human trithorax homologues. To understand SET1 function(s), we created a null mutant. Mutant strains, although viable, are defective in transcriptional silencing of the silent mating-type loci and telomeres. The telomeric silencing defect is rescued not only by full-length episomal SET1 but also by the conserved SET domain of SET1. set1 mutant strains display other phenotypes including morphological abnormalities, stationary phase defects, and growth and sporulation defects. Candidate genes that may interact with SET1 include those with functions in transcription, growth, and cell cycle control. These data suggest that yeast SET1, like its SET domain counterparts in other organisms, functions in diverse biological processes including transcription and chromatin structure. PMID:9398665

  19. The fission yeast chromo domain encoding gene chp1(+) is required for chromosome segregation and shows a genetic interaction with alpha-tubulin.

    PubMed Central

    Doe, C L; Wang, G; Chow, C; Fricker, M D; Singh, P B; Mellor, E J

    1998-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the segregation of chromosomes is co-ordinated by the centromere and must proceed accurately if aneuploidy and cell death are to be avoided. The fission yeast centromere is complex, containing highly repetitive regions of DNA showing the characteristics of heterochromatin. Two proteins, Swi6p and Clr4p, that are associated with the fission yeast centromere also contain a chromo (chromatin organisation modifier) domain and are required for centromere function. We have analysed a novel fission yeast gene encoding a putative chromo domain called chp 1(+) (chromo domain protein in Schizosaccharomyces p ombe ). In the absence of Chp1p protein, cells are viable but show chromosome segregation defects such as lagging chromosomes on the spindle during anaphase and high rates of minichromosome loss, phenotypes which are also displayed by swi 6 and clr 4. A fusion protein between green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Chp1p, like Swi6p, is localized to discrete sites within the nucleus. In contrast to Swi6p and Clr4p, Chp1p is not required to repress silent mating-type genes. We demonstrate a genetic interaction between chp 1(+) and alpha-tubulin ( nda 2(+)) and between swi 6(+) and beta-tubulin ( nda 3(+)). Chp1p and Swi6p proteins may be components of the kinetochore which captures and stabilizes the microtubules of the spindle. PMID:9722643

  20. Optimal Switching Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klich, Israel; Levitov, Leonid

    2005-03-01

    We discuss the noise produced in the process of switching mesoscopic conductors between two noiseless states: perfectly connected and disconnected, in the presence of a bias voltage V. We show that there are two main contributions to the noise: a switching noise logarithmic in the time of observation T, and a quantum shot noise accumulated during the process of switching and proportional to V, this leads to a minimization problem for the optimal switching time. Switching noise is expected to be a fundamental parameter in nano-circuits. We also discuss the relation of this result to an estimation of entangelment entropy of a Fermi sea.

  1. REMOTE CONTROLLED SWITCHING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, J.C.

    1959-02-01

    An electrical switching device which can be remotely controlled and in which one or more switches may be accurately operated at predetermined times or with predetermined intervening time intervals is described. The switching device consists essentially of a deck, a post projecting from the deck at right angles thereto, cam means mounted for rotation around said posts and a switch connected to said deck and actuated by said cam means. Means is provided for rotating the cam means at a constant speed and the switching apparatus is enclosed in a sealed container with external adjusting means and electrical connection elements.

  2. The Conserved Core of a Human SIR2 Homologue Functions in Yeast Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Joyce M.; Stone, Elisa M.; Freeman-Cook, Lisa L.; Brachmann, Carrie B.; Boeke, Jef D.; Pillus, Lorraine

    1999-01-01

    Silencing is a universal form of transcriptional regulation in which regions of the genome are reversibly inactivated by changes in chromatin structure. Sir2 (Silent Information Regulator) protein is unique among the silencing factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae because it silences the rDNA as well as the silent mating-type loci and telomeres. Discovery of a gene family of Homologues of Sir Two (HSTs) in organisms from bacteria to humans suggests that SIR2s silencing mechanism might be conserved. The Sir2 and Hst proteins share a core domain, which includes two diagnostic sequence motifs of unknown function as well as four cysteines of a putative zinc finger. We demonstrate by mutational analyses that the conserved core and each of its motifs are essential for Sir2p silencing. Chimeras between Sir2p and a human Sir2 homologue (hSir2Ap) indicate that this human proteins core can substitute for that of Sir2p, implicating the core as a silencing domain. Immunofluorescence studies reveal partially disrupted localization, accounting for the yeasthuman chimeras ability to function at only a subset of Sir2ps target loci. Together, these results support a model for the involvement of distinct Sir2p-containing complexes in HM/telomeric and rDNA silencing and that HST family members, including the widely expressed hSir2A, may perform evolutionarily conserved functions. PMID:10473645

  3. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

  4. Water Transport in Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Farzana; Prista, Catarina; Madeira, Ana; Moura, Teresa; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C; Soveral, Graça

    2016-01-01

    Water moves across membranes through the lipid bilayer and through aquaporins, in this case in a regulated manner. Aquaporins belong to the MIP superfamily and two subfamilies are represented in yeasts: orthodox aquaporins considered to be specific water channels and aquaglyceroporins (heterodox aquaporins). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, four aquaporin isoforms were identified, two of which are genetically close to orthodox aquaporins (ScAqy1 and ScAqy2) and the other two are more closely related to the aquaglyceroporins (ScFps1 and ScAqy3). Advances in the establishment of water channels structure are reviewed in this chapter in relation with the mechanisms of selectivity, conductance and gating. Aquaporins are important for key aspects of yeast physiology. They have been shown to be involved in sporulation, rapid freeze-thaw tolerance, osmo-sensitivity, and modulation of cell surface properties and colony morphology, although the underlying exact mechanisms are still unknown. PMID:26721272

  5. Tapping into yeast diversity.

    PubMed

    Fay, Justin C

    2012-11-01

    Domesticated organisms demonstrate our capacity to influence wild species but also provide us with the opportunity to understand rapid evolution in the context of substantially altered environments and novel selective pressures. Recent advances in genetics and genomics have brought unprecedented insights into the domestication of many organisms and have opened new avenues for further improvements to be made. Yet, our ability to engineer biological systems is not without limits; genetic manipulation is often quite difficult. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is not only one of the most powerful model organisms, but is also the premier producer of fermented foods and beverages around the globe. As a model system, it entertains a hefty workforce dedicated to deciphering its genome and the function it encodes at a rich mechanistic level. As a producer, it is used to make leavened bread, and dozens of different alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine. Yet, applying the awesome power of yeast genetics to understanding its origins and evolution requires some knowledge of its wild ancestors and the environments from which they were derived. A number of surprisingly diverse lineages of S. cerevisiae from both primeval and secondary forests in China have been discovered by Wang and his colleagues. These lineages substantially expand our knowledge of wild yeast diversity and will be a boon to elucidating the ecology, evolution and domestication of this academic and industrial workhorse. PMID:23281494

  6. Glutathione Production in Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachhawat, Anand K.; Ganguli, Dwaipayan; Kaur, Jaspreet; Kasturia, Neha; Thakur, Anil; Kaur, Hardeep; Kumar, Akhilesh; Yadav, Amit

    Glutathione, ? -glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, is the most abundant non-protein thiol found in almost all eukaryotic cells (and in some prokaryotes). The tripeptide, which is synthesized non-ribosomally by the consecutive action of two soluble enzymes, is needed for carrying out numerous functions in the cell, most important of which is the maintenance of the redox buffer. The cycle of glutathione biosynthesis and degradation forms part of the ? -glutamyl cycle in most organisms although the latter half of the pathway has not been demonstrated in yeasts. Our current understanding of how glutathione levels are controlled at different levels in the cell is described. Several different routes and processes have been attempted to increase commercial production of glutathione using both yeast and bacteria. In this article we discuss the history of glutathione production in yeast. The current bottlenecks for increased glutathione production are presented based on our current understanding of the regulation of glutathione homeostasis, and possible strategies for overcoming these limitations for further enhancing and improving glutathione production are discussed

  7. Teaching Microbial Physiology Using Glucose Repression Phenomenon in Baker's Yeast as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghevendran, Vijayendran; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    The yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" has been used by human beings since ancient times for its ability to convert sugar to alcohol. Continual exposure to glucose in the natural environment for innumerable generations has probably enabled "S. cerevisiae" to grow in fermentative mode on sugars by switching off the genes responsible for respiration…

  8. Teaching Microbial Physiology Using Glucose Repression Phenomenon in Baker's Yeast as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghevendran, Vijayendran; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    The yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" has been used by human beings since ancient times for its ability to convert sugar to alcohol. Continual exposure to glucose in the natural environment for innumerable generations has probably enabled "S. cerevisiae" to grow in fermentative mode on sugars by switching off the genes responsible for respiration

  9. Optoelectronic techniques for broadband switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, S. F.; Jou, L.; Lenart, J.

    1988-01-01

    Optoelectronic switching employs a hybrid optical/electronic principle to perform the switching function and is applicable for either analog broadband or high-bit rate digital switching. The major advantages of optoelectronic switching include high isolation, low crosstalk, small physical size, light weight, and low power consumption. These advantages make optoelectronic switching an excellent candidate for on-board satellite switching. This paper describes a number of optoelectronic switching architectures. System components required for implementing these switching architectures are discussed. Performance of these architectures are evaluated by calculating their crosstalk, isolation, insertion loss, matrix size, drive power, throughput, and switching speed. Technologies needed for monolithic optoelectronic switching are also identified.

  10. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia (Oak Ridge, TN); Peng, Fang Z. (Okemos, MI)

    2007-08-07

    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  11. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  12. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOEpatents

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  13. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

    1983-12-21

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  14. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Emin, David (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  15. Alarm toe switch

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, Floyd P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  16. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid content of the yeast does not exceed 0.04 milligram per gram of yeast (approximately 0.008 milligram of pteroyglutamic acid per gram of yeast)....

  17. BIOSYNTHESIS OF YEAST CAROTENOIDS

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Kenneth L.; Nakayama, T. O. M.; Chichester, C. O.

    1964-01-01

    Simpson, Kenneth L. (University of California, Davis), T. O. M. Nakayama, and C. O. Chichester. Biosynthesis of yeast carotenoids. J. Bacteriol. 88:16881694. 1964.The biosynthesis of carotenoids was followed in Rhodotorula glutinis and in a new strain, 62-506. The treatment of the growing cultures by methylheptenone, or ionone, vapors permitted observations of the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway. On the basis of concentration changes and accumulation in blocked pathways, the sequence of carotenoid formation is postulated as phytoene, phytofluene, ?-carotene, neurosporene, ?-zeacarotene, ?-carotene, torulin, a C40 aldehyde, and torularhodin. Torulin and torularhodin were established as the main carotenoids of 62-506. PMID:14240958

  18. Ethanol tolerance in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Casey, G P; Ingledew, W M

    1986-01-01

    It is now certain that the inherent ethanol tolerance of the Saccharomyces strain used is not the prime factor regulating the level of ethanol that can be produced in a high sugar brewing, wine, sake, or distillery fermentation. In fact, in terms of the maximum concentration that these yeasts can produce under batch (16 to 17% [v/v]) or fed-batch conditions, there is clearly no difference in ethanol tolerance. This is not to say, however, that under defined conditions there is no difference in ethanol tolerance among different Saccharomyces yeasts. This property, although a genetic determinant, is clearly influenced by many factors (carbohydrate level, wort nutrition, temperature, osmotic pressure/water activity, and substrate concentration), and each yeast strain reacts to each factor differently. This will indeed lead to differences in measured tolerance. Thus, it is extremely important that each of these be taken into consideration when determining "tolerance" for a particular set of fermentation conditions. The manner in which each alcohol-related industry has evolved is now known to have played a major role in determining traditional thinking on ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces yeasts. It is interesting to speculate on how different our thinking on ethanol tolerance would be today if sake fermentations had not evolved with successive mashing and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of rice carbohydrate, if distillers' worts were clarified prior to fermentation but brewers' wort were not, and if grape skins with their associated unsaturated lipids had not been an integral part of red wine musts. The time is now ripe for ethanol-related industries to take advantage of these findings to improve the economies of production. In the authors' opinion, breweries could produce higher alcohol beers if oxygenation (leading to unsaturated lipids) and "usable" nitrogen source levels were increased in high gravity worts. White wine fermentations could also, if desired, match the higher ethanol levels in red wines if oxygenation (to provide the unsaturated lipids deleted in part by the removal of the grape skins) were practiced and if care were given to assimilable nitrogen concentrations. This would hold true even at 10 to 14 degrees C, and the more rapid fermentations would maximize utilization of winery tankage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3533426

  19. Transient-Switch-Signal Suppressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Circuit delays transmission of switch-opening or switch-closing signal until after preset suppression time. Used to prevent transmission of undesired momentary switch signal. Basic mode of operation simple. Beginning of switch signal initiates timing sequence. If switch signal persists after preset suppression time, circuit transmits switch signal to external circuitry. If switch signal no longer present after suppression time, switch signal deemed transient, and circuit does not pass signal on to external circuitry, as though no transient switch signal. Suppression time preset at value large enough to allow for damping of underlying pressure wave or other mechanical transient.

  20. Asymmetrical Switch Costs in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefson, Michelle R.; Shapiron, Laura R.; Chater, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Switching between tasks produces decreases in performance as compared to repeating the same task. Asymmetrical switch costs occur when switching between two tasks of unequal difficulty. This asymmetry occurs because the cost is greater when switching to the less difficult task than when switching to the more difficult task. Various theories about

  1. The Budding Yeast Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Angela; Schober, Heiko; Gasser, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The budding yeast nucleus, like those of other eukaryotic species, is highly organized with respect to both chromosomal sequences and enzymatic activities. At the nuclear periphery interactions of nuclear pores with chromatin, mRNA, and transport factors promote efficient gene expression, whereas centromeres, telomeres, and silent chromatin are clustered and anchored away from pores. Internal nuclear organization appears to be function-dependent, reflecting localized sites for tRNA transcription, rDNA transcription, ribosome assembly, and DNA repair. Recent advances have identified new proteins involved in the positioning of chromatin and have allowed testing of the functional role of higher-order chromatin organization. The unequal distribution of silent information regulatory factors and histone modifying enzymes, which arises in part from the juxtaposition of telomeric repeats, has been shown to influence chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. Other localization events suppress unwanted recombination. These findings highlight the contribution budding yeast genetics and cytology have made to dissecting the functional role of nuclear structure. PMID:20554704

  2. Reflective HTS switch

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S. (Albuquerque, NM); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Hohenwarter, Gert K. G. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A HTS switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time.

  3. Power-Switching Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praver, Gerald A.; Theisinger, Peter C.; Genofsky, John

    1987-01-01

    Functions of circuit breakers, meters, and switches combined. Circuit that includes power field-effect transistors (PFET's) provides on/off switching, soft starting, current monitoring, current tripping, and protection against overcurrent for 30-Vdc power supply at normal load currents up to 2 A. Has no moving parts.

  4. Reflective HTS switch

    DOEpatents

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

    1994-09-27

    A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

  5. Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

    2013-01-01

    Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production. PMID:24003656

  6. Imaging individual spindle microtubule dynamics in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Costa, Judite; Fu, Chuanhai; Syrovatkina, Viktoriya; Tran, Phong T

    2013-01-01

    Microtubules exhibit dynamic instability, stochastically switching between infrequent phases of growth and shrinkage. In the cell, microtubule dynamic instability is further modulated by microtubule-associated proteins and motors, which are specifically tuned to cell cycle stages. For example, mitotic microtubules are more dynamic than interphase microtubules. The different parameters of microtubule dynamics can be measured from length versus time data, which are generally obtained from time-lapse acquisition using the optical microscope. The typical maximum resolution of the optical microscope is ~?/2 or ~300 nm. This scale represents a challenge for imaging fission yeast microtubule dynamics specifically during early mitosis, where the bipolar mitotic spindle contains many short dynamic microtubules of ~1-?m scale. Here, we present a novel method to image short fission yeast mitotic microtubules. The method uses the thermosensitive reversible kinesin-5 cut7.24(ts) to create monopolar spindles, where asters of individual mitotic microtubules are presented for imaging and subsequent analysis. PMID:23973085

  7. Erected mirror optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Allen, James J.

    2005-06-07

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

  8. Nanoscale memristive radiofrequency switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Shuang; Ghadiri-Sadrabadi, Mohammad; Bardin, Joseph C.; Xia, Qiangfei

    2015-06-01

    Radiofrequency switches are critical components in wireless communication systems and consumer electronics. Emerging devices include switches based on microelectromechanical systems and phase-change materials. However, these devices suffer from disadvantages such as large physical dimensions and high actuation voltages. Here we propose and demonstrate a nanoscale radiofrequency switch based on a memristive device. The device can be programmed with a voltage as low as 0.4 V and has an ON/OFF conductance ratio up to 1012 with long state retention. We measure the radiofrequency performance of the switch up to 110 GHz and demonstrate low insertion loss (0.3 dB at 40 GHz), high isolation (30 dB at 40 GHz), an average cutoff frequency of 35 THz and competitive linearity and power-handling capability. Our results suggest that, in addition to their application in memory and computing, memristive devices are also a leading contender for radiofrequency switch applications.

  9. Brewer's yeast and sugarcane yeast as protein sources for dogs.

    PubMed

    Martins, M S; Sakomura, N K; Souza, D F; Filho, F O R; Gomes, M O S; Vasconcellos, R S; Carciofi, A C

    2014-10-01

    Brewer's yeast (BY), autolysed sugarcane yeast (ASCY) and integral sugar cane yeast (ISCY) were studied in two experiments as ingredients for dog diets. In the first experiment, 28 dogs were randomly assigned to four diets; one reference diet and three test diets containing 15% of BY, ASCY or ISCY and 85% of the reference diet (as-fed basis). The digestibilities of the yeasts were calculated by the substitution method. In the second experiment, 35 dogs were randomized to five diets with similar chemical composition but different levels of sugarcane yeast inclusion (0%, 7.5% ASCY, 15% ASCY, 7.5% ISCY and 15% ISCY). In both experiments, the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients was determined through total collection of faeces. During experiment, two additional analyses of food palatability, nitrogen balance and urea postprandial responses were performed. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, and the means were compared by orthogonal or polynomial contrasts or Tukey's test (p<0.05). In experiment 1, CTTAD of protein was lower for both sugarcane yeasts than for BY (p=0.012), as was metabolizable energy content (p=0.025). In experiment 2, a linear reduction in energy digestibility with ASCY inclusion (p=0.05) was verified. Furthermore, faecal score and DM content were reduced with ISCY inclusion (p<0.003). No effect of yeast inclusion on nitrogen balance or postprandial urea response was found. Also, the inclusion of 7.5% of ASCY or ISCY increased diet palatability (p<0.01). Yeasts present adequate digestibility by dogs, but its effect on faecal formation needs to be considered. No clear advantage for the use of ASCY over ISCY was found. In conclusion, we find that sugarcane yeast is suitable for inclusion in dog food and can enhance the overall palatability of the diet. PMID:24304448

  10. Agriculturally important yeasts: Biological control of field and postharvest diseases using yeast antagonists, and yeasts as pathogens of plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two important agricultural aspects of yeasts, control of plant diseases through application of yeasts as the control agent, and yeasts that are plant pathogens are reviewed. Yeasts as biocontrol organisms are presented first, followed by a discussion of some of the more common plant pathogenic yeas...

  11. Mating reaction in yeast protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, A

    1976-11-01

    Protoplasts prepared from complementary haploid strains of Saccharomyces cervisiae were studied with regard to their ability of conjugating. Neither fresh protoplasts nor the growing protoplasts possessing fibrillar walls exhibited sex specific agglutination or fusion. However, they were capable of inducing sexual activation in normal cells of opposite mating type. After completing the regeneration of cell walls the protoplasts could conjugate either with each other or with cells of opposite sex. The frequency of conjugations was low, about 1%, and was largely dependent on the degree of completition of the wall during regeneration. From the results the following conclusions may be drawn: 1. The initiation of mating is dependent on the integrity of the cell wall. 2. The sex specific morphogenetic changes do not occur in wall-less protoplasts but may happen after the protoplasts have regenerated their cell walls. 3. The lysis of cell walls does not occur until the walls come into close contact. 4. The fusion of plasma membranes in sex-activated protoplasts cannot be induced by arteficial agglutination. PMID:797332

  12. Optical Circuit Switched Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

  13. Transcription mediated insulation and interference direct gene cluster expression switches

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tania; Brown, David; Murray, Struan C; Haenni, Simon; Halstead, James M; O'Connor, Leigh; Shipkovenska, Gergana; Steinmetz, Lars M; Mellor, Jane

    2014-01-01

    In yeast, many tandemly arranged genes show peak expression in different phases of the metabolic cycle (YMC) or in different carbon sources, indicative of regulation by a bi-modal switch, but it is not clear how these switches are controlled. Using native elongating transcript analysis (NET-seq), we show that transcription itself is a component of bi-modal switches, facilitating reciprocal expression in gene clusters. HMS2, encoding a growth-regulated transcription factor, switches between sense- or antisense-dominant states that also coordinate up- and down-regulation of transcription at neighbouring genes. Engineering HMS2 reveals alternative mono-, di- or tri-cistronic and antisense transcription units (TUs), using different promoter and terminator combinations, that underlie state-switching. Promoters or terminators are excluded from functional TUs by read-through transcriptional interference, while antisense TUs insulate downstream genes from interference. We propose that the balance of transcriptional insulation and interference at gene clusters facilitates gene expression switches during intracellular and extracellular environmental change. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03635.001 PMID:25407679

  14. Molecular switch based on a biologically important redox reaction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ping; Holman, Michael W; Robustelli, Paul; Chowdhury, Arindam; Ishak, Fady I; Adams, David M

    2005-01-13

    Building on our earlier report of a single-molecule probe, we show how biologically important redox centers, nicotinamide and quinone, incorporated into a fluorophore-spacer-receptor molecular structure, form redox active molecular switches, with the photoinduced electron-transfer behavior of each depending on the oxidation state of the receptor subunit. The switch based on nicotinamide (3/6) is strongly fluorescent in its oxidized state (Phi(F) approximately 1.0) but nonfluorescent in the reduced state (Phi(F) < 0.001) due to electron transfer from the reduced nicotinamide to the photoexcited fluorophore. The fluorescence can be reversibly switched off and on chemically by successive reduction with NaBH(3)CN and oxidation with tetrachlorobenzoquinone and switched electrochemically over 10 cycles without significant degradation. A similar switch based on quinonimine turned out to be nonfluorescent in both reduced and oxidized states: in addition to a similar quenching mechanism in the reduced state, quenching also occurs in the oxidized state, due to electron transfer from the fluorophore to the receptor. Ab initio quantum chemical calculations of orbital energy levels were used to corroborate these quenching mechanisms. Calculations predicted photoinduced electron transfer to be energetically favorable in all cases where quenching was observed and unfavorable in all cases where it was not. Application of the perylene analogue as a biosensor has also been demonstrated by coupling the switch to the catalytic pathway of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, a common NADH/NAD(+)-utilizing enzyme. PMID:16850995

  15. Lager yeast comes of age.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Jrgen

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This "web of life" recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

  16. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  17. Lager Yeast Comes of Age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This “web of life” recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

  18. Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, S.; Poli, G.; Siman-Tov, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Revisiting yeast trehalose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Eleutherio, Elis; Panek, Anita; De Mesquita, Joelma Freire; Trevisol, Eduardo; Magalhes, Rayne

    2015-08-01

    Establishing the function of trehalose in yeast cells has led us, over the years, through a long path-from simple energy storage carbohydrate, then a stabilizer and protector of membranes and proteins, through a safety valve against damage caused by oxygen radicals, up to regulator of the glycolytic path. In addition, trehalose biosynthesis has been proposed as a target for novel drugs against several pathogens. Since this pathway is entirely absent in mammalian cells and makes use of highly specific enzymes, trehalose metabolism might be an interesting target for the development of novel therapies. In this review, we want to address some recent points investigated about trehalose metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, focusing mainly on the mechanism by which this simple disaccharide protects against stress and on the enzymes involved in its synthesis and breakdown. We believe that these concepts are of great importance for medical and biotechnological applications. PMID:25209979

  20. BIOSYNTHESIS OF YEAST CAROTENOIDS.

    PubMed

    SIMPSON, K L; NAKAYAMA, T O; CHICHESTER, C O

    1964-12-01

    Simpson, Kenneth L. (University of California, Davis), T. O. M. Nakayama, and C. O. Chichester. Biosynthesis of yeast carotenoids. J. Bacteriol. 88:1688-1694. 1964.-The biosynthesis of carotenoids was followed in Rhodotorula glutinis and in a new strain, 62-506. The treatment of the growing cultures by methylheptenone, or ionone, vapors permitted observations of the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway. On the basis of concentration changes and accumulation in blocked pathways, the sequence of carotenoid formation is postulated as phytoene, phytofluene, zeta-carotene, neurosporene, beta-zeacarotene, gamma-carotene, torulin, a C(40) aldehyde, and torularhodin. Torulin and torularhodin were established as the main carotenoids of 62-506. PMID:14240958

  1. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  2. Photoconductive switch package

    DOEpatents

    Ca[rasp, George J

    2013-10-22

    A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

  3. Photoconductive switch package

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.

    2015-10-27

    A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

  4. Photoconductive switch package

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J

    2015-11-05

    A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

  5. Plastic complementary microelectromechanical switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Nakano, Shintaro; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2008-07-01

    We have fabricated plastic complementary microelectromechanical switches by using ink-jet printing technologies. Two vertically stacked regular plastic microelectromechanical switches that are complementary to each other realize the function of an inverter. While rectangular voltage waveforms were periodically applied to the control electrodes in the air, the delay times and durability were examined systematically. The frequency response was 50 Hz for an operation voltage of 60 V. When the number of periodic cycles exceeded 106, the changes in the on resistance of the top and bottom switches were 9% and 43%, respectively.

  6. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    SciTech Connect

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Jaafar, Reem

    2015-03-14

    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained.

  7. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  8. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  9. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  10. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  11. Biosorption of copper by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Junghans, K; Straube, G

    1991-01-01

    The ability to accumulate copper from aqueous solutions was determined with different yeast species. Yeast cells did not show any significant differences in process kinetics. The uptake was very fast and was influenced by environmental factors. The metal-accumulating capacity differed among the tested strains. The yeast Candida tropicalis and Pichia guilliermondii were chosen for extensive research. Cells of the stationary growth phase were able to adsorb a high amount of copper. The uptake capacity decreased with increasing biomass concentration. Copper adsorption obeyed the Freundlich isotherm. Optimal pH range was between 5 and 7. The biomass could be used repeatedly for biosorption after desorption by mineral acids. PMID:1777357

  12. Molybdate induces thermotolerance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Tiligada, E; Miligkos, V; Ypsilantis, E; Papamichael, K; Delitheos, A

    1999-08-01

    Application of a mild heat pretreatment, performed by shifting cells from 27 degrees C to 37 degrees C led to the protection of yeast cells from death due to a subsequent extreme heat shock at 53 degrees C. The presence of cycloheximide inhibited this induction of thermotolerance, indicating the involvement of de novo protein. The phosphatase inhibitor sodium molybdate induced thermotolerance to the non-pretreated yeast cells. This induction of thermotolerance did not seem to depend upon de novo protein synthesis. Thus, acquisition of thermotolerance in yeast may involve a number of cellular mechanisms depending on the conditions the organism encounters at any particular time. PMID:10499293

  13. Mating-type heterokaryosis in Aspergillus flavus in North Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins (AFs), which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Recently, heterokaryosis and the presence of cryptic alleles were shown to ex...

  14. Population shifts and mating-type heterokaryosis in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, NC. This field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of...

  15. Mating-type heterokaryosis and population shifts in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, NC. This field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of...

  16. Marine yeast isolation and industrial application

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

  17. Plasmonic enhanced ultrafast switch.

    SciTech Connect

    Subramania,Ganapathi Subramanian; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Harris, Tom.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.

    2009-09-01

    Ultrafast electronic switches fabricated from defective material have been used for several decades in order to produce picosecond electrical transients and TeraHertz radiation. Due to the ultrashort recombination time in the photoconductor materials used, these switches are inefficient and are ultimately limited by the amount of optical power that can be applied to the switch before self-destruction. The goal of this work is to create ultrafast (sub-picosecond response) photoconductive switches on GaAs that are enhanced through plasmonic coupling structures. Here, the plasmonic coupler primarily plays the role of being a radiation condenser which will cause carriers to be generated adjacent to metallic electrodes where they can more efficiently be collected.

  18. An optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-04-30

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch having an electron attaching gas wherein electron attachment is brought about by indirect excitation of molecules to long live states by exposure to laser light. 3 figs.

  19. Miniature Intermittent Contact Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, Antony

    1972-01-01

    This tech brief concerns work to provide a shock-resistant switch capable of being actuated by forces of varying magnitude and direction, primarily for use as a sensor on remote control (tele-operator) and prosthetic devices.

  20. Solar array switching unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Jr., Calvin L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A solar array switching (SASU) unit (22) according to the present invention includes a control system (24), a solar cell array (26) and switch circuits (28). The SASU unit (22) is associated with a power card (30) for receiving an output from the array (26). The array (26) has a number (0.5Y) of rows (38) each of which includes a pair of cell strings (42) separated by one of the switch circuits (28). Each of the strings (42) includes a number (X) of cells in electrical series. The SASU (22) switches the array (26) between a short string configuration where the array (26) effectively includes Y strings of X length, and a long string configuration where the array (26) effectively includes 0.5Y strings of 2X length. The SASU (22) thereby facilitates the use of solar power for space missions where solar intensity, operating temperature or other factors vary significantly.

  1. Cygnus Water Switch Jitter

    SciTech Connect

    Charles V. Mitton, George D. Corrow, Mark D. Hansen, David J. Henderson, et al.

    2008-03-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources - Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following x-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rad at 1 m, 50-ns Full Width Half Max. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests which are performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse–forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance is jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the diode pulse. Therefore, PFL switch jitter contributes to shot-to-shot variation in source endpoint energy and dose. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and give the correlation with diode performance. For this analysis the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition to this analysis, PFL switch performance for different switch gap settings taken recently will be examined. Lastly, implications of source jitter for radiographic diagnosis of subcritical shots will be discussed.

  2. Optical shutter switching matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    The interface switching systems are discussed which are related to those used in the Space Shuttle ground control system, transmission systems, communications systems, and airborne radar electronic countermeasure systems. The main goal is to identify a need that exists throughout the comprehensive information processing and communications disciplines supporting the Space Shuttle and Space Station programs, and introduce one viable approach to satisfy that need. The proposed device, described in NASA patent entitled 'Optical Shutter Switch Matrix', is discussed.

  3. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as certain cholesterol-lowering drugs, and some may contain a potentially harmful contaminant. This fact sheet provides ... information. Key Facts Some red yeast rice products contain substantial amounts of monacolin K, which is chemically ...

  4. The Yeast Sphingolipid Signaling Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Montefusco, David J.; Matmati, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Sphingolipids are recognized as signaling mediators in a growing number of pathways, and represent potential targets to address many diseases. The study of sphingolipid signaling in yeast has created a number of breakthroughs in the field, and has the potential to lead future advances. The aim of this article is to provide an inclusive view of two major frontiers in yeast sphingolipid signaling. In the first section, several key studies in the field of sphingolipidomics are consolidated to create a yeast sphingolipidome that ranks nearly all known sphingolipid species by their level in a resting yeast cell. The second section presents an overview of most known phenotypes identified for sphingolipid gene mutants, presented with the intention of illuminating not yet discovered connections outside and inside of the field. PMID:24220500

  5. Pheromone-encoding mRNA is transported to the yeast mating projection by specific RNP granules

    PubMed Central

    Dover-Biterman, Saray; Suss-Toby, Edith; Shmoish, Michael; Duek, Lea; Choder, Mordechai

    2015-01-01

    Association of messenger RNAs with large complexes such as processing bodies (PBs) plays a pivotal role in regulating their translation and decay. Little is known about other possible functions of these assemblies. Exposure of haploid yeast cells, carrying mating type “a,” to “α pheromone” stimulates polarized growth resulting in a “shmoo” projection; it also induces synthesis of “a pheromone,” encoded by MFA2. In this paper, we show that, in response to α pheromone, MFA2 mRNA is assembled with two types of granules; both contain some canonical PB proteins, yet they differ in size, localization, motility, and sensitivity to cycloheximide. Remarkably, one type is involved in mRNA transport to the tip of the shmoo, whereas the other—in local translation in the shmoo. Normal assembly of these granules is critical for their movement, localization, and for mating. Thus, MFA2 mRNAs are transported to the shmoo tip, in complex with PB-like particles, where they are locally translated. PMID:26101218

  6. Multiple genes coding for precursors of rhodotorucine A, a farnesyl peptide mating pheromone of the basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides.

    PubMed Central

    Akada, R; Minomi, K; Kai, J; Yamashita, I; Miyakawa, T; Fukui, S

    1989-01-01

    Haploid cells of mating type A of the basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides secrete a mating pheromone, rhodotorucine A, which is an undecapeptide containing S-farnesyl cysteine at its carboxy terminus. To analyze the processing and secretion pathway of rhodotorucine A, we isolated both genomic and complementary DNAs encoding the peptide moiety. We identified three distinct genes, RHA1, RHA2, and RHA3, encoding four, five, and three copies of the pheromone peptide, respectively. Complementary DNA clones were classified into two types. One type was homologous to RHA1, and the other type was homologous to RHA2. Transcription start sites were identified by primer extension and S1 nuclease protection, from which the site of the initiator methionine was verified. A primary precursor of rhodotorucine A was detected as a 7-kilodalton protein by immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products. On the basis of these results, we propose similar three-precursor structures of rhodotorucine A, each containing the amino-terminal peptide sequence Met-Val-Ala. The precursors contain three, four, or five tandem repeats of the pheromone peptide, each separated by a spacer peptide, Thr-Val-Ser(Ala)-Lys, and each precursor has the carboxy-terminal sequence Thr-Val-Ala. This structure suggests that primary precursors of rhodotorucine A do not contain canonical signal sequences. Images PMID:2571924

  7. Functional dissection of the global repressor Tup1 in yeast: dominant role of the C-terminal repression domain.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhizhou; Varanasi, Ushasri; Trumbly, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Tup1, in association with Cyc8 (Ssn6), functions as a general repressor of transcription. Tup1 and Cyc8 are required for repression of diverse families of genes coordinately controlled by glucose repression, mating type, and other mechanisms. This repression is mediated by recruitment of the Cyc8-Tup1 complex to target promoters by sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. We created a library of XhoI linker insertions and internal in-frame deletion mutations within the TUP1 coding region. Insertion mutations outside of the WD domains were wild type, while insertions within the WD domains induced mutant phenotypes with differential effects on the target genes SUC2, MFA2, RNR2, and HEM13. Deletion mutations confirmed previous findings of two separate repression domains in the N and C termini. The cumulative data suggest that the C-terminal repression domain, located near the first WD repeat, plays the dominant role in repression. Although the N-terminal repression domain is sufficient for partial repression, deletion of this region does not compromise repression. Surprisingly, deletion of the majority of the histone-binding domain of Tup1 also does not significantly reduce repression. The N-terminal region containing potential alpha-helical coiled coils is required for Tup1 oligomerization and association with Cyc8. Association with Cyc8 is required for repression of SUC2, HEM13, and RNR2 but not MFA2 and STE2. PMID:12136003

  8. Pheromone-encoding mRNA is transported to the yeast mating projection by specific RNP granules.

    PubMed

    Aronov, Stella; Dover-Biterman, Saray; Suss-Toby, Edith; Shmoish, Michael; Duek, Lea; Choder, Mordechai

    2015-06-22

    Association of messenger RNAs with large complexes such as processing bodies (PBs) plays a pivotal role in regulating their translation and decay. Little is known about other possible functions of these assemblies. Exposure of haploid yeast cells, carrying mating type "a," to "? pheromone" stimulates polarized growth resulting in a "shmoo" projection; it also induces synthesis of "a pheromone," encoded by MFA2. In this paper, we show that, in response to ? pheromone, MFA2 mRNA is assembled with two types of granules; both contain some canonical PB proteins, yet they differ in size, localization, motility, and sensitivity to cycloheximide. Remarkably, one type is involved in mRNA transport to the tip of the shmoo, whereas the other-in local translation in the shmoo. Normal assembly of these granules is critical for their movement, localization, and for mating. Thus, MFA2 mRNAs are transported to the shmoo tip, in complex with PB-like particles, where they are locally translated. PMID:26101218

  9. A genomics-based screen for yeast mutants with an altered recombination/end-joining repair ratio.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Thomas E

    2002-01-01

    We recently described a yeast assay suitable for genetic screening in which simple religation nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and single-strand annealing (SSA) compete for repair of an I-SceI-created double-strand break. Here, the required allele has been introduced into an array of 4781 MATa deletion mutants and each strain screened individually. Two mutants (rad52 and srs2) showed a clear increase in the NHEJ/SSA ratio due to preferential impairment of SSA, but no mutant increased the absolute frequency of NHEJ significantly above the wild-type level. Seven mutants showed a decreased NHEJ/SSA ratio due to frank loss of NHEJ, which corresponded to all known structural/catalytic NHEJ components (yku70, yku80, dnl4, lif1, rad50, mre11, and xrs2); no new mutants in this category were identified. A clearly separable and surprisingly large set of 16 other mutants showed partial defects in NHEJ. Further examination of these revealed that NEJ1 can entirely account for the mating-type regulation of NHEJ, but that this regulatory role was distinct from the postdiauxic/stationary-phase induction of NHEJ that was deficient in other mutants (especially doa1, fyv6, and mck1). These results are discussed in the context of the minimal set of required proteins and regulatory inputs for NHEJ. PMID:12399380

  10. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation.

    PubMed

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6months storage at 4 and 25C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6months of storage at 4C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6months of storage at 25C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications. PMID:22806747

  11. Study of amyloids using yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Shewmaker, Frank; McGlinchey, Ryan; Edskes, Herman K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism in such fields as the cell cycle, regulation of transcription, protein trafficking and cell biology, primarily because of its ease of genetic manipulation. This is no less so in the area of amyloid studies. The endogenous yeast amyloids described to date include prions, infectious proteins (Table 1), and some cell wall proteins (1). and amyloids of humans and a fungal prion have also been studied using the yeast system. Accordingly, the emphasis of this chapter will be on genetic, biochemical, cell biological and physical methods particularly useful in the study of yeast prions and other amyloids studied in yeast. We limit our description of these methods to those aspects which have been most useful in studying yeast prions, citing more detailed expositions in the literature. Volumes on yeast genetics methods (2–4), and on amyloids and prions (5, 6) are useful, and Masison has edited a volume of Methods on “Identification, analysis and characterization of fungal prions” which covers some of this territory (7). We also outline some useful physical methods, pointing the reader to more extensive and authoratative descriptions. PMID:22528100

  12. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  13. Low inductance gas switching.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.

    2007-10-01

    The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and electrode diameter were conducted.

  14. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  15. Metabolic regulation of yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiechter, A.

    1982-12-01

    Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

  16. Yeast mitochondrial transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Mathilde; Darzacq, Xavier; Devaux, Frederic; Singer, Robert H; Jacq, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Although 30 years ago it was strongly suggested that some cytoplasmic ribosomes are bound to the surface of yeast mitochondria, the mechanisms and the raison d'être of this process are not understood. For instance, it is not perfectly known which of the several hundred nuclearly encoded genes have to be translated to the mitochondrial vicinity to guide the import of the corresponding proteins. One can take advantage of several modern methods to address a number of aspects of the site-specific translation process of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) coding for proteins imported into mitochondria. Three complementary approaches are presented to analyze the spatial distribution of mRNAs coding for proteins imported into mitochondria. Starting from biochemical purifications of mitochondria-bound polysomes, we describe a genomewide approach to classify all the cellular mRNAs according to their physical proximity with mitochondria; we also present real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction monitoring of mRNA distribution to provide a quantified description of this localization. Finally, a fluorescence microscopy approach on a single living cell is described to visualize the in vivo localization of mRNAs involved in mitochondria biogenesis. PMID:18314748

  17. Energy losses in switches

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.H.; Seamen, J.F.; Jobe, D.O.

    1993-07-01

    The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SF{sub 6} polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching losses constitute the major portion of the total energy loss. They found that the switch energy losses scale as (V{sub peak}I{sub peak}){sup 1.1846}. When using this scaling, the energy losses in any of the tested dielectrics are almost the same. This relationship is valid for several orders of magnitude and suggested a theoretical basis for these results. Currents up to .65 MA, with voltages to 3 MV were applied to various gaps during these experiments. The authors data and the developed theory indicates that the switch power loss continues for a much longer time than the resistive time, with peak power loss generally occurring at peak current in a ranging discharge instead of the early current time. All of the experiments were circuit code modeled after developing a new switch loss version based on the theory. The circuit code predicts switch energy loss and peak currents as a function of time. During analysis of the data they noticed slight constant offsets between the theory and data that depended on the dielectric. They modified the plasma conductivity for each tested dielectric to lessen this offset.

  18. Bidirectional motility of the fission yeast kinesin-5, Cut7

    SciTech Connect

    Edamatsu, Masaki

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Motile properties of Cut7 (fission yeast kinesin-5) were studied for the first time. • Half-length Cut7 moved toward plus-end direction of microtubule. • Full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end direction of microtubule. • N- and C-terminal microtubule binding sites did not switch the motile direction. - Abstract: Kinesin-5 is a homotetrameric motor with its motor domain at the N-terminus. Kinesin-5 crosslinks microtubules and functions in separating spindle poles during mitosis. In this study, the motile properties of Cut7, fission yeast kinesin-5, were examined for the first time. In in vitro motility assays, full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end of microtubules, but the N-terminal half of Cut7 moved toward the opposite direction. Furthermore, additional truncated constructs lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal regions, but still contained the motor domain, did not switch the motile direction. These indicated that Cut7 was a bidirectional motor, and microtubule binding regions at the N-terminus and C-terminus were not involved in its directionality.

  19. Switching power pulse system

    DOEpatents

    Aaland, K.

    1983-08-09

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source to a load using a storage capacitor charged through a rectifier, and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch and voltage comparator. A thyristor is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor and fractional turn saturable transformer having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n = n[sup 2]. The saturable reactor functions as a soaker'' while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor into the load through the coupling capacitor. The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core having two secondary windings tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network. To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core is provided around the resistive beampipe to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance until it is fully charged. 5 figs.

  20. Thermionic gas switch

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, G.L.; Brummond, W.A.; Barrus, D.M.

    1984-04-05

    The present invention is directed to an improved temperature responsive thermionic gas switch utilizing a hollow cathode and a folded emitter surface area. The folded emitter surface area of the thermionic switch substantially increases the on/off ratio by changing the conduction surface area involved in the two modes thereof. The improved switch of this invention provides an on/off ratio of 450:1 compared to the 10:1 ratio of the prior known thermionic switch, while providing for adjusting the on current. In the improved switch of this invention the conduction area is made small in the off mode, while in the on mode the conduction area is made large. This is achieved by utilizing a folded hollow cathode configuration and utilizing a folded emitter surface area, and by making the dimensions of the folds small enough so that a space charge will develop in the convolutions of the folds and suppress unignited current, thus limiting the current carrying surface in the off mode.

  1. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch.

    PubMed

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2016-01-13

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore's law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or, at most, a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ratio of 9.2 dB and operation at room temperature up to MHz with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of an integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the atomic level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully integrated and highly scalable chip platform, a platform where optics, electronics, and memory may be controlled at the single-atom level. PMID:26670551

  2. Nanoscale memristive radiofrequency switches.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuang; Ghadiri-Sadrabadi, Mohammad; Bardin, Joseph C; Xia, Qiangfei

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency switches are critical components in wireless communication systems and consumer electronics. Emerging devices include switches based on microelectromechanical systems and phase-change materials. However, these devices suffer from disadvantages such as large physical dimensions and high actuation voltages. Here we propose and demonstrate a nanoscale radiofrequency switch based on a memristive device. The device can be programmed with a voltage as low as 0.4 V and has an ON/OFF conductance ratio up to 10(12) with long state retention. We measure the radiofrequency performance of the switch up to 110 GHz and demonstrate low insertion loss (0.3 dB at 40 GHz), high isolation (30 dB at 40 GHz), an average cutoff frequency of 35 THz and competitive linearity and power-handling capability. Our results suggest that, in addition to their application in memory and computing, memristive devices are also a leading contender for radiofrequency switch applications. PMID:26108890

  3. Yeast and cancer cells common principles in lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Natter, Klaus; Kohlwein, Sepp D.

    2013-01-01

    One of the paradigms in cancer pathogenesis is the requirement of a cell to undergo transformation from respiration to aerobic glycolysis the Warburg effect to become malignant. The demands of a rapidly proliferating cell for carbon metabolites for the synthesis of biomass, energy and redox equivalents, are fundamentally different from the requirements of a differentiated, quiescent cell, but it remains open whether this metabolic switch is a cause or a consequence of malignant transformation. One of the major requirements is the synthesis of lipids for membrane formation to allow for cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. Enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were indeed found to play a major role in cancer cell proliferation, and most of these enzymes are conserved in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most notably, cancer cell physiology and metabolic fluxes are very similar to those in the fermenting and rapidly proliferating yeast. Both types of cells display highly active pathways for the synthesis of fatty acids and their incorporation into complex lipids, and imbalances in synthesis or turnover of lipids affect growth and viability of both yeast and cancer cells. Thus, understanding lipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae during cell cycle progression and cell proliferation may complement recent efforts to understand the importance and fundamental regulatory mechanisms of these pathways in cancer. PMID:22989772

  4. Yeast studies reveal moonlighting functions of the ancient actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Sattlegger, Evelyn; Chernova, Tatiana A.; Gogoi, Neeku M.; Pillai, Indu V.; Chernoff, Yury O.; Munn, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    Classic functions of the actin cytoskeleton include control of cell size and shape and the internal organisation of cells. These functions are manifest in cellular processes of fundamental importance throughout biology such as the generation of cell polarity, cell migration, cell adhesion and cell division. However, studies in the unicellular model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) are giving insights into other functions in which the actin cytoskeleton plays a critical role. These include endocytosis, control of protein translation and determination of protein 3-dimensional shape (especially conversion of normal cellular proteins into prions). Here we present a concise overview of these new "moonlighting" roles for the actin cytoskeleton and how some of these roles might lie at the heart of important molecular switches. This is an exciting time for researchers interested in the actin cytoskeleton. We show here how studies of actin are leading us into many new and exciting realms at the interface of genetics, biochemistry and cell biology. While many of the pioneering studies have been conducted using yeast, the conservation of the actin cytoskeleton and its component proteins throughout eukaryotes suggests that these new roles for the actin cytoskeleton may not be restricted to yeast cells but rather may reflect new roles for the actin cytoskeleton of all eukaryotes. PMID:25138357

  5. Coherent regulation in yeasts cell-cycle network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aral, Ne?e; Kabak?o?lu, Alkan

    2015-05-01

    We define a measure of coherent activity for gene regulatory networks, a property that reflects the unity of purpose between the regulatory agents with a common target. We propose that such harmonious regulatory action is desirable under a demand for energy efficiency and may be selected for under evolutionary pressures. We consider two recent models of the cell-cycle regulatory network of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a case study and calculate their degree of coherence. A comparison with random networks of similar size and composition reveals that the yeasts cell-cycle regulation is wired to yield an exceptionally high level of coherent regulatory activity. We also investigate the mean degree of coherence as a function of the network size, connectivity and the fraction of repressory/activatory interactions.

  6. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Schare, Joshua M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunch, Kyle (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  7. Switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  8. Optical computer switching network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.

  9. SWITCH user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The planning program, SWITCH, and its surrounding changed-goal-replanning program, Runaround, are described. The evolution of SWITCH and Runaround from an earlier planner, DEVISER, is recounted. SWITCH's plan representation, and its process of building a plan by backward chaining with strict chronological backtracking, are described. A guide for writing knowledge base files is provided, as are narrative guides for installing the program, running it, and interacting with it while it is running. Some utility functions are documented. For the sake of completeness, a narrative guide to the experimental discrepancy-replanning feature is provided. Appendices contain knowledge base files for a blocksworld domain, and a DRIBBLE file illustrating the output from, and user interaction with, the program in that domain.

  10. Dynamic switch matrix for the TDMA satellite switching system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, P. T.; Wisniewski, J. H.; Pelose, J. R.; Perasso, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    Future high capacity satellite communication systems require signal processing on board satellites. The on-board signal processing includes switching of RF signals between multiple antennas to provide interconnection between the uplink and downlink beams. This paper describes the development of a dynamic switch matrix for a TDMA satellite switching system to be used in the next generation communications satellites. In this paper, a dynamic switch matrix, which includes the microwave switch matrix, the distribution control unit and the timing source, will be described. Several different microwave switch matrix architectures and switching devices were evaluated and compared. A unique coupler crossbar switch matrix architecture with dual-gate field effect transistor as switching element was developed. Experimental results of both microwave switch matrix (MSM) and distribution control unit (DCU) are presented. These test results verify the MSM with coupler crossbar architecture and dual-gate FET as switching element will meet the future SS-TDMA system requirements. Finally, the reliability of the dynamic switch matrix is addressed. The analysis shows reliability of 0.9981 for 7 year space operation can be achieved for the designed dynamic switch matrix.

  11. Yeast Genetics and Biotechnological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Saroj; Baranwal, Richa

    Yeast can be recognized as one of the very important groups of microorganisms on account of its extensive use in the fermentation industry and as a basic eukaryotic model cellular system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used to elucidate the genetics and regulation of several key functions in the cell such as cell mating, electron transport chain, protein trafficking, cell cycle events and others. Even before the genome sequence of the yeast was out, the structural organization and function of several of its genes was known. With the availability of the origin of replication from the 2 ?m plasmid and the development of transformation system, it became the host of choice for expression of a number of important proteins. A large number of episomal and integrative shuttle vectors are available for expression of mammalian proteins. The latest developments in genomics and micro-array technology have allowed investigations of individual gene function by site-specific deletion method. The application of metabolic profiling has also assisted in understanding the cellular network operating in this yeast. This chapter is aimed at reviewing the use of this system as an experimental tool for conducting classical genetics. Various vector systems available, foreign genes expressed and the limitations as a host will be discussed. Finally, the use of various yeast enzymes in biotechnology sector will be reviewed.

  12. Progress in Yeast Glycosylation Engineering.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Stephen R; Zha, Dongxing

    2015-01-01

    While yeast are lower eukaryotic organisms, they share many common features and biological processes with higher eukaryotes. As such, yeasts have been used as model organisms to facilitate our understanding of such features and processes. To this end, a large number of powerful genetic tools have been developed to investigate and manipulate these organisms. Going hand-in-hand with these genetic tools is the ability to efficiently scale up the fermentation of these organisms, thus making them attractive hosts for the production of recombinant proteins. A key feature of producing recombinant proteins in yeast is that these proteins can be readily secreted into the culture supernatant, simplifying any downstream processing. A consequence of this secretion is that the proteins typically pass through the secretory pathway, during which they may be exposed to various posttranslational modifications. The addition of glycans is one such modification. Unfortunately, while certain aspects of glycosylation are shared between lower and higher eukaryotes, significant differences exist. Over the last two decades much research has focused on engineering the glycosylation pathways of yeast to more closely resemble those of higher eukaryotes, particularly those of humans for the production of therapeutic proteins. In the current review we shall highlight some of the key achievements in yeast glyco-engineering which have led to humanization of both the N- and O-linked glycosylation pathways. PMID:26082216

  13. 36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  14. 43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  15. 35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  16. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  17. Hybrid solid state switch replaces motor- driven power switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, R. A.; Schloss, A. I.

    1967-01-01

    Hybrid solid state switch replaces existing motor-driven power switches used on spacecraft. It uses a transistor circuit to limit the open circuit voltage and allow small relay contacts to handle high transient currents at reasonable cycle life.

  18. Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the North - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  19. Toxicogenomics using yeast DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yasokawa, Daisuke; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2010-11-01

    Development of genomics and bioinformatics enable us to analyze the global gene expression profiles of cells by DNA microarray. Changes in gene expression patterns indicate changes in its physiological conditions. Following the exposure of an organism or cell to toxic chemicals or other environmental stresses, the global genetic responses can be expeditiously and easily analyzed. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is one of the most studied and useful model eukaryotes. The biggest advantage of yeast genomics is the available functional information for each gene and a considerable number of data are accumulating in the field of toxicity assessment using yeast DNA microarray. In this review, we discuss the toxicogenomics of metal ions, alcohols and aldehydes, and other chemicals. PMID:20624688

  20. [Alkalitolerant yeasts from natural biotopes].

    PubMed

    Lisichkina, G A; Bab'eva, I P; Sorokin, D Iu

    2003-01-01

    Using a solid nutrient medium containing alkaline buffer (pH 10) and an antibiotic, alkalitolerant yeasts were isolated from samples of soda-rich saline soils (solonchaks) of Armenia (Arazdayan) and the Transbaikal Region (the Kungur Steppe). The species diversity of the yeast populations of the tested soda-rich soils was relatively insignificant. They only contained alkalitolerant representatives of asporogenic capsulated yeasts belonging to the species Cryptococcus laurentii, C. albidus, Rhodotorula glutinis, R. mucilaginosa, and Sporobolomyces roseus. C. laurentii representatives clearly dominated the isolates obtained, their number exceeding that of the other species by 2-3 orders of magnitude. All of the isolates grew on acidic wort agar, suggesting that they did not include obligate alkaliphiles. PMID:14679910

  1. PHYLOGENETICS OF SACCHAROMYCETALES, THE ASCOMYCETE YEASTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycete yeasts (Phylum Ascomycota: Subphylum Saccharomycotina: Class Saccharomycetes: Order Saccharomycetales) comprise a monophyletic lineage with a single order of about 1000 known species. These yeasts live as saprobes, often in association with plants, animals, and their interfaces. A few s...

  2. Yeast Can Affect Behavior and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, William G.

    1984-01-01

    A pediatrician recounts his experiences in diagnosing and treating allergies to common yeast germs that may result in behavior and learning problems. He lists characteristics that may predispose children to yeast-connected health problems. (CL)

  3. A yeast-based rapid prototype platform for gene control elements in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kathy Y; Chen, Yvonne Y; Smolke, Christina D

    2013-04-01

    Programming genetic circuits in mammalian cells requires flexible, tunable, and user-tailored gene-control systems. However, most existing control systems are either mechanistically specific for microbial organisms or must be laboriously re-engineered to function in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate a ribozyme-based device platform that can be directly transported from yeast to mammalian cells in a "plug-and-play" manner. Ribozyme switches previously prototyped in yeast are shown to regulate gene expression in a predictable, ligand-responsive manner in human HEK 293, HeLa, and U2OS cell lines without any change to device sequence nor further optimization. The ribozyme-based devices, which exhibit activation ratios comparable to the best RNA-based regulatory devices demonstrated in mammalian cells to-date, retain their prescribed functions (ON or OFF switch), tunability of regulatory stringency, and responsiveness to different small-molecule inputs in mammalian hosts. Furthermore, we observe strong correlations of device performance between yeast and all mammalian cell lines tested (R(2)  = 0.63-0.97). Our unique device architecture can therefore act as a rapid prototyping platform (RPP) based on a yeast chassis, providing a well-developed and genetically tractable system that supports rapid and high-throughput screens for generating gene-controllers with a broad range of functions in mammalian cells. This platform will accelerate development of mammalian gene-controllers for diverse applications, including cell-based therapeutics and cell-fate reprogramming. PMID:23184812

  4. Photonic MEMS switch applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Anis

    2001-07-01

    As carriers and service providers continue their quest for profitable network solutions, they have shifted their focus from raw bandwidth to rapid provisioning, delivery and management of revenue generating services. Inherently transparent to data rate the transmission wavelength and data format, MEMS add scalability, reliability, low power and compact size providing flexible solutions to the management and/or fiber channels in long haul, metro, and access networks. MEMS based photonic switches have gone from the lab to commercial availability and are now currently in carrier trials and volume production. 2D MEMS switches offer low up-front deployment costs while remaining scalable to large arrays. They allow for transparent, native protocol transmission. 2D switches enable rapid service turn-up and management for many existing and emerging revenue rich services such as storage connectivity, optical Ethernet, wavelength leasing and optical VPN. As the network services evolve, the larger 3D MEMS switches, which provide greater scalability and flexibility, will become economically viable to serve the ever-increasing needs.

  5. Multipath star switch controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O.

    1980-01-01

    Device concept permits parallel computers to scan several commonnetwork-connected data stations at maximum rate. Sequencers leap-frog to bypass ports already being serviced by another computer. Two-path system for 16-port star switch controller is cost effective if added bandwidth or increased reliability is desired. Triple-path system would be cost effective for 32-port controller.

  6. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Chromatin and Transcription in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rando, Oliver J.; Winston, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which chromatin structure controls eukaryotic transcription has been an intense area of investigation for the past 25 years. Many of the key discoveries that created the foundation for this field came from studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the discovery of the role of chromatin in transcriptional silencing, as well as the discovery of chromatin-remodeling factors and histone modification activities. Since that time, studies in yeast have continued to contribute in leading ways. This review article summarizes the large body of yeast studies in this field. PMID:22345607

  8. Mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Boldogh, I R; Yang, H C; Pon, L A

    2001-06-01

    During the past decade significant advances were made toward understanding the mechanism of mitochondrial inheritance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A combination of genetics, cell-free assays and microscopy has led to the discovery of a great number of components. These fall into three major categories: cytoskeletal elements, mitochondrial membrane components and regulatory proteins. These proteins mediate activities, including movement of mitochondria from mother cells to buds, segregation of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA, and equal distribution of the organelle between mother cells and buds during yeast cell division. PMID:11389764

  9. Molecular Rotors as Switches

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Mei; Wang, Kang L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene) monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V) revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR) associated with the device. The analysis of the device IV characteristics suggests the source of the observed switching effects to be the result of the redox-induced ligand rotation around the copper metal center and this attribution of switching is consistent with the observed temperature dependence of the switching behavior as well as the proposed energy diagram of the device. The observed resistance switching shows the potential for future non-volatile memories and logic devices applications. This review will discuss the progress and provide a perspective of molecular motion for nanoelectronics and other applications.

  10. Closing photoconductive semiconductor switches

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; O'Malley, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most important limitations of Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches (PCSS) for pulsed power applications is the high laser powers required to activate the switches. In this paper, we discuss recent developments on two different aspects of GaAs PCSS that result in reductions in laser power by a factor of nearly 1000. The advantages of using GaAs over Si are many. First of all, the resistivity of GaAs can be orders of magnitude higher than that of the highest resistivity Si material, thus allowing GaAs switches to withstand dc voltages without thermal runaway. Secondly, GaAs has a higher carrier mobility than Si and, thus, is more efficient (per carrier). Finally, GaAs switches can have naturally fast (ns) opening times at room temperature and low fields, microsecond opening times at liquid nitrogen temperature of 77 K, or, on demand, closing and opening at high fields and room temperature by a mechanism called lock-on (see Ref. 1). By contrast, Si switches typically opening times of milliseconds. The amount of laser light required to trigger GaAs for lock-on, or at 77 K, is about three orders of magnitude lower than at room temperature. In this paper we describe the study of lock-on in GaAs and InP, as well as switching of GaAs at 77 K. We shall show that when GaAs is switched at 77 K, the carrier lifetime is about three orders of magnitude longer than it is at room temperature. We shall explain the change in lifetime in terms of the change in electron capture cross section of the deep levels in GaAs (these are defect or impurity levels in the band gap). In the second section, we describe the lock-on effect, now seen in GaAs and InP, and at fields as high as 70 kV/cm. We show how lock-on can be tailored by changing the GaAs temperature or by neutron bombardment. In the third section, we discuss possible lock-on mechanisms. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Heat-transfer thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V.; Anderson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal switch maintains temperature of planetary lander, within definite range, by transferring heat. Switch produces relatively large stroke and force, uses minimum electrical power, is lightweight, is vapor pressure actuated, and withstands sterilization temperatures without damage.

  12. Automatic thermal switch. [spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, J. W.; Wing, L. D. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes two thermally conductive plates and a thermally conductive switch saddle pivotally mounted to the first plate. A flexible heat carrier is connected between the switch saddle and the second plate. A phase-change power unit, including a piston coupled to the switch saddle, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element biases the switch saddle in a predetermined position with respect to the first plate. When the phase-change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first place, the piston extends and causes the switch saddle to pivot, thereby varying the thermal conduction between the two plates through the switch saddle and flexible heat carrier. The biasing element, switch saddle, and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally opened thermally conductive path between the two plates.

  13. Switching power pulse system

    DOEpatents

    Aaland, Kristian

    1983-01-01

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source (10) to a load (20) using a storage capacitor (C3) charged through a rectifier (D1, D2), and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch (Q1) and voltage comparator (12). A thyristor (22) is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor (18) and fractional turn saturable transformer (16) having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n=n.sup.2. The saturable reactor (18) functions as a "soaker" while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor (C4) charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor (C3) into the load through the coupling capacitor (C4). The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core (26) having two secondary windings (28, 30) tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes (32, 34) for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe (40) for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network (42). To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core (44) is provided around the resistive beampipe (40) to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance (42) until it is fully charged.

  14. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Phaffia yeast. 73.355 Section 73.355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried...

  15. Yeast: A Research Organism for Teaching Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manney, Thomas R.; Manney, Monta L.

    1992-01-01

    Explains why laboratory strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are particularly suited for classroom science activities. Describes the sexual life cycle of yeast and the genetic system with visible mutations. Presents an overview of activities that can be done with yeast and gives a source for teachers to obtain more information. (PR)

  16. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

  17. Language Switching and Language Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

  18. Semiconductor ac static power switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrancik, J.

    1968-01-01

    Semiconductor ac static power switch has long life and high reliability, contains no moving parts, and operates satisfactorily in severe environments, including high vibration and shock conditions. Due to their resistance to shock and vibration, static switches are used where accidental switching caused by mechanical vibration or shock cannot be tolerated.

  19. Component Processes in Task Switching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiran, Nachshon; Chorev, Ziv; Sapir, Ayelet

    2000-01-01

    Studied task switching in 4 experiments involving 111 Israeli undergraduates. Results show the preparation for a task switch is not a by-product of general preparation by phasic alertness or predicting target onset and establish reconfiguration as a separate preparatory process. Suggests that there are at least three components of task switching

  20. Language Switching and Language Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant

  1. Abacus switch: a new scalable multicast ATM switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, H. Jonathan; Park, Jin-Soo; Choe, Byeong-Seog

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a new architecture for a scalable multicast ATM switch from a few tens to thousands of input ports. The switch, called Abacus switch, has a nonblocking memoryless switch fabric followed by small switch modules at the output ports; the switch has input and output buffers. Cell replication, cell routing, output contention resolution, and cell addressing are all performed distributedly in the Abacus switch so that it can be scaled up to thousnads input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to resolve output port contention while achieving input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to reolve output port contention while achieving input buffers sharing, fairness among the input ports, and multicast call splitting. The channel grouping concept is also adopted in the switch to reduce the hardware complexity and improve the switch's throughput. The Abacus switch has a regular structure and thus has the advantages of: 1) easy expansion, 2) relaxed synchronization for data and clock signals, and 3) building the switch fabric using existing CMOS technology.

  2. High gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches: Switch longevity

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Mar, A.

    1998-07-01

    Optically activated, high gain GaAs switches are being tested for many different pulsed power applications that require long lifetime (longevity). The switches have p and n contact metallization (with intentional or unintentional dopants) configured in such a way as to produce p-i-n or n-i-n switches. The longevity of the switches is determined by circuit parameters and by the ability of the contacts to resist erosion. This paper will describe how the switches performed in test-beds designed to measure switch longevity. The best longevity was achieved with switches made with diffused contacts, achieving over 50 million pulses at 10 A and over 2 million pulses at 80 A.

  3. Biochemical switching device: how to turn on (off) the switch.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, M; Sakai, T; Hayashi, K

    1989-01-01

    We previously showed with computer simulations that cyclic enzyme systems have the reliability of ON-OFF types of operation (McCulloch-Pitts' neuronic equation) and the applicability for a switching circuit in a biocomputer. The switching time was inevitably determined in accordance with the difference in amount between two inputs of the system. This characteristic is, however, a disadvantage for practical use of a switching device; we need to improve the system in order for the switching time to optionally be changed. We shall present here how to turn on (off) the switch independently of the modes of two inputs. By introducing pulse perturbation, we could optionally set up the switching time of a cyclic enzyme system (biochemical switching device). PMID:2720139

  4. Yeast Proteomics and Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Snyder, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of biological processes as well as human diseases has improved greatly thanks to studies on model organisms such as yeast. The power of scientific approaches with yeast lies in its relatively simple genome, its facile classical and molecular genetics, as well as the evolutionary conservation of many basic biological mechanisms. However, even in this simple model organism, systems biology studies, especially proteomic studies had been an intimidating task. During the past decade, powerful high-throughput technologies in proteomic research have been developed for yeast including protein microarray technology. The protein microarray technology allows the interrogation of protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-small molecule interaction networks as well as post-translational modification networks in a large-scale, high-throughput manner. With this technology, many groundbreaking findings have been established in studies with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most of which could have been unachievable with traditional approaches. Discovery of these networks has profound impact on explicating biological processes with a proteomic point of view, which may lead to a better understanding of normal biological phenomena as well as various human diseases. PMID:20728591

  5. Yeast as factory and factotum.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B

    2000-02-01

    After centuries of vigorous activity in making fine wines, beers and breads, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is now acquiring a rich new portfolio of skills, bestowed by genetic manipulation. As shown in a recent shop-window of research supported by the European Commission, yeasts will soon be benefiting industries as diverse as fish farming, pharmaceuticals and laundering. PMID:11190211

  6. Microtubule dynamics from mating through the first zygotic division in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Maddox, P; Chin, E; Mallavarapu, A; Yeh, E; Salmon, E D; Bloom, K

    1999-03-01

    We have used time-lapse digital imaging microscopy to examine cytoplasmic astral microtubules (Mts) and spindle dynamics during the mating pathway in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mating begins when two cells of opposite mating type come into proximity. The cells arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and grow a projection towards one another forming a shmoo projection. Imaging of microtubule dynamics with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to dynein or tubulin revealed that the nucleus and spindle pole body (SPB) became oriented and tethered to the shmoo tip by a Mt-dependent search and capture mechanism. Dynamically unstable astral Mts were captured at the shmoo tip forming a bundle of three or four astral Mts. This bundle changed length as the tethered nucleus and SPB oscillated toward and away from the shmoo tip at growth and shortening velocities typical of free plus end astral Mts (approximately 0.5 micrometer/min). Fluorescent fiduciary marks in Mt bundles showed that Mt growth and shortening occurred primarily at the shmoo tip, not the SPB. This indicates that Mt plus end assembly/disassembly was coupled to pushing and pulling of the nucleus. Upon cell fusion, a fluorescent bar of Mts was formed between the two shmoo tip bundles, which slowly shortened (0.23 +/- 0.07 micrometer/min) as the two nuclei and their SPBs came together and fused (karyogamy). Bud emergence occurred adjacent to the fused SPB approximately 30 min after SPB fusion. During the first mitosis, the SPBs separated as the spindle elongated at a constant velocity (0.75 micrometer/min) into the zygotic bud. There was no indication of a temporal delay at the 2-micrometer stage of spindle morphogenesis or a lag in Mt nucleation by replicated SPBs as occurs in vegetative mitosis implying a lack of normal checkpoints. Thus, the shmoo tip appears to be a new model system for studying Mt plus end dynamic attachments and much like higher eukaryotes, the first mitosis after haploid cell fusion in budding yeast may forgo cell cycle checkpoints present in vegetative mitosis. PMID:10085295

  7. Cryogenic switched MOSFET characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Both p channel and n channel enhancement mode MOSFETs can be readily switched on and off at temperatures as low as 2.8 K so that switch sampled readout of a VLWIR Ge:Ga focal plane is electronically possible. Noise levels as low as 100 rms electrons per sample (independent of sample rate) can be achieved using existing p channel MOSFETs, at overall rates up to 30,000 samples/second per multiplexed channel (e.g., 32 detectors at a rate of almost 1,000 frames/second). Run of the mill devices, including very low power dissipation n channel FETs would still permit noise levels of the order of 500 electrons/sample.

  8. Optical fiber switch

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  9. Plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Savage, Mark E.; Mendel, Jr., Clifford W.

    2001-01-01

    A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.

  10. Many-Body Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Allan H.

    2014-03-01

    Most current electronic devices use gate voltages to switch individual electron transport channels or off. This architecture necessarily leads to operating voltages that are much larger than the temperature thermal energy, and places lower bounds on power consumption that are becoming. I will discuss strategies for achieving devices in which gates are used to collective many-electron states, in principle allowing charge transport to be switched by smaller voltage changes and both operating voltages and power consumption to reduced. I will specifically address devices based on the properties of itinerant electroninsulating magnetic systems, and devices based on bilayer exciton condensation. This work is based on work performed in collaboration with Sanjay Banerjee and Frank Register.

  11. MCT/MOSFET Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1990-01-01

    Metal-oxide/semiconductor-controlled thyristor (MCT) and metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) connected in switching circuit to obtain better performance. Offers high utilization of silicon, low forward voltage drop during "on" period of operating cycle, fast turnon and turnoff, and large turnoff safe operating area. Includes ability to operate at high temperatures, high static blocking voltage, and ease of drive.

  12. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  13. CREE: Making the Switch

    ScienceCinema

    Grider, David; Palmer, John

    2014-04-09

    CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

  14. Composite Material Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  15. Composite Material Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  16. CREE: Making the Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Grider, David; Palmer, John

    2014-03-06

    CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

  17. Evolution of genetic switch complexity.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Gregory W; Hatfull, Graham F

    2013-01-01

    The circuitry of the phage ? genetic switch determining the outcome of lytic or lysogenic growth is well-integrated and complex, raising the question as to how it evolved. It is plausible that it arose from a simpler ancestral switch with fewer components that underwent various additions and refinements, as it adapted to vast numbers of different hosts and conditions. We have recently identified a new class of genetic switches found in mycobacteriophages and other prophages, in which immunity is dependent on integration. These switches contain only three genes (integrase, repressor and cro) and represent a major departure from the ?-like circuitry, lacking many features such as xis, cII and cIII. These small self-contained switches represent an unrealized, elegant circuitry for controlling infection outcome. In this addendum, we propose a model of possible events in the evolution of a complex ?-like switch from a simpler integration-dependent switch. PMID:23819104

  18. Evolution of genetic switch complexity

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Gregory W.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2013-01-01

    The circuitry of the phage ? genetic switch determining the outcome of lytic or lysogenic growth is well-integrated and complex, raising the question as to how it evolved. It is plausible that it arose from a simpler ancestral switch with fewer components that underwent various additions and refinements, as it adapted to vast numbers of different hosts and conditions. We have recently identified a new class of genetic switches found in mycobacteriophages and other prophages, in which immunity is dependent on integration. These switches contain only three genes (integrase, repressor and cro) and represent a major departure from the ?-like circuitry, lacking many features such as xis, cII and cIII. These small self-contained switches represent an unrealized, elegant circuitry for controlling infection outcome. In this addendum, we propose a model of possible events in the evolution of a complex ?-like switch from a simpler integration-dependent switch. PMID:23819104

  19. Nanomechanics of flexoelectric switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O?enek, J.; Lu, H.; Bark, C. W.; Eom, C. B.; Alcal, J.; Catalan, G.; Gruverman, A.

    2015-07-01

    We examine the phenomenon of flexoelectric switching of polarization in ultrathin films of barium titanate induced by a tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM). The spatial distribution of the tip-induced flexoelectricity is computationally modeled both for perpendicular mechanical load (point measurements) and for sliding load (scanning measurements), and compared with experiments. We find that (i) perpendicular load does not lead to stable ferroelectric switching in contrast to the load applied in the sliding contact load regime, due to nontrivial differences between the strain distributions in both regimes: ferroelectric switching for the perpendicular load mode is impaired by a strain gradient inversion layer immediately underneath the AFM tip; while for the sliding load regime, domain inversion is unimpaired within a greater material volume subjected to larger values of the mechanically induced electric field that includes the region behind the sliding tip; (ii) beyond a relatively small value of an applied force, increasing mechanical pressure does not increase the flexoelectric field inside the film, but results instead in a growing volume of the region subjected to such field that aids domain nucleation processes; and (iii) the flexoelectric coefficients of the films are of the order of few nC/m, which is much smaller than for bulk BaTi O3 ceramics, indicating that there is a "flexoelectric size effect" that mirrors the ferroelectric one.

  20. Ferroelectric switching of elastin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-07-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 ?C/cm(2), whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890

  1. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, C. A.; Martin, T. H.; Patterson, P. E.; Rinehart, L. F.; Rohwein, G. J.; Roose, L. D.; Aurand, J. F.; Buttram, M. T.

    1993-06-01

    Recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less are described. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes less than 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. Pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to 1 kHz were produced and accurately measured. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than 1 nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and waveforms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and pressure. This technology was applied to practical systems driving ultrawideband radiating antennas and bounded wave simulators. A thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch was developed. This pulser driving a Sandia-designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with less than 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF greater than 1 kHz at grater tha n 100 kV/m E field.

  2. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1996-11-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes < 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. We have produced and accurately measured pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to I kHz. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than I nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and wave forms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and pressure. We have applied this technology to practical systems driving ultrawideband radiating antennas and bounded wave simulators. For example, we have developed a thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch. This pulser driving a Sandia- designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with < 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF > 1 kHz at > 100 kV/m E field.

  3. Ferroelectric switching of elastin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 μC/cm2, whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890

  4. Extended lifetime railgap switch

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, D.B.; Mendoza, P.J.

    1988-02-02

    In a railgap switch of the type having an elongate blade electrode made of conductive material, an elongate housing made of insulating material for supporting the blade electrode and plate electrode in opposed relation extending in the same direction with the blade centered over the plate and separated therefrom by a gap, and a gas filling the housing and the gap, the gas being selected to breakdown and switch from a highly insulative state to a highly conductive state upon application of a high voltage across the blade and plate electrodes, the improvement is described comprising: forming the blade with laterally extending transverse wing portions at the edge of the blade and adjacent the gap so as to extend in spaced parallel relation to the surface of the plate, the blade generally following the contour thereof to form an inverted T-shape structure with the wing portions extending transversely of the elongate dimension of the blade. The wing portions terminating in a pair of spaced parallel edges extending along the elongate direction of the blade to thereby create two spaced elongate edges along which arcs form serving to divide the erosion effects of discharge between them, the current through each edge being one-half of that in single-edge devices with ablation wear reduced accordingly to give significantly larger switch lifetime. The blade and wing portions limiting ablation erosion of the edges in a direction generally align with the plate contour so that the edge-to-plate separation remains substantially constant.

  5. Cygnus Diverter Switch Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton et al.

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 50-ns x-ray sources fielded in an underground laboratory at the Nevada Test Site. The tests performed in this laboratory involve study of the dynamic properties of plutonium and are called subcritical experiments. From end-to-end, the Cygnus machines utilize the following components: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), waterfilled coaxial transmission line (WTL), 3-cell inductive voltage adder (IVA), and rod-pinch diode. The upstream WTL interface to the PFL is via a radial insulator with coaxial geometry. The downstream WTL terminates in a manifold where the center conductor splits into three lines which individually connect to each of the IVA cell inputs. There is an impedance mismatch at this juncture. It is a concern that a reflected pulse due to anomalous behavior in the IVA or diode might initiate breakdown upon arrival at the upstream PFL/WTL insulator. Therefore near the beginning of the WTL a radial diverter switch is installed to protect the insulator from over voltage and breakdown. The diverter has adjustable gap spacing, and an in-line aqueous-solution (sodium thiosulfate) resistor array for energy dissipation. There are capacitive voltage probes at both ends of the WTL and on the diverter switch. These voltage signals will be analyzed to determine diverter performance. Using this analysis the usefulness of the diverter switch will be evaluated.

  6. Photoconductive semiconductor switches: Laser Q-switch trigger and switch-trigger laser integration

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; Hamil, R.A.; Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report provides a summary of the Pulser In a Chip 9000-Discretionary LDRD. The program began in January of 1997 and concluded in September of 1997. The over-arching goal of this LDRD is to study whether laser diode triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) can be used to activate electro-optic devices such as Q-switches and Pockels cells and to study possible laser diode/switch integration. The PCSS switches we used were high gain GaAs switches because they can be triggered with small amounts of laser light. The specific goals of the LDRD were to demonstrate: (1) that small laser diode arrays that are potential candidates for laser-switch integration will indeed trigger the PCSS switch, and (2) that high gain GaAs switches can be used to trigger optical Q-switches in lasers such as the lasers to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and the laser used for direct optical initiation (DOI) of explosives. The technology developed with this LDRD is now the prime candidate for triggering the Q switch in the multiple lasers in the laser trigger system of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and may be utilized in other accelerators. As part of the LDRD we developed a commercial supplier. To study laser/switch integration we tested triggering the high gain GaAs switches with: edge emitting laser diodes, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and transverse junction stripe (TJS) lasers. The first two types of lasers (edge emitting and VCSELs) did activate the PCSS but are harder to integrate with the PCSS for a compact package. The US lasers, while easier to integrate with the switch, did not trigger the PCSS at the US laser power levels we used. The PCSS was used to activate the Q-switch of the compact laser to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source.

  7. Heterothallism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates from nature: effect of HO locus on the mode of reproduction

    PubMed Central

    EZOV, TAL KATZ; CHANG, SHANG-LIN; FRENKEL, ZE’EV; SEGRÈ, AYELLET V.; BAHALUL, MORAN; MURRAY, ANDREW W.; LEU, JUN-YI; KOROL, ABRAHAM; KASHI, YECHEZKEL

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of sex and recombination, key factors in the evolution of life, is a major challenge in biology. Studies of reproduction strategies of natural populations are important to complement the theoretical and experimental models. Fungi with both sexual and asexual life cycles are an interesting system for understanding the evolution of sex. In a study of natural populations of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that the isolates are heterothallic, meaning their mating type is stable, while the general belief is that natural S. cerevisiae strains are homothallic (can undergo mating-type switching). Mating-type switching is a gene-conversion process initiated by a site-specific endonuclease HO; this process can be followed by mother–daughter mating. Heterothallic yeast can mate with unrelated haploids (amphimixis), or undergo mating between spores from the same tetrad (intratetrad mating, or automixis), but cannot undergo mother–daughter mating as homothallic yeasts can. Sequence analysis of HO gene in a panel of natural S. cerevisiae isolates revealed multiple mutations. Good correspondence was found in the comparison of population structure characterized using 19 microsatellite markers spread over eight chromosomes and the HO sequence. Experiments that tested whether the mating-type switching pathway upstream and downstream of HO is functional, together with the detected HO mutations, strongly suggest that loss of function of HO is the cause of heterothallism. Furthermore, our results support the hypothesis that clonal reproduction and intratetrad mating may predominate in natural yeast populations, while mother–daughter mating might not be as significant as was considered. PMID:20002587

  8. The birth of yeast peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2016-05-01

    This contribution describes the phenotypic differences of yeast peroxisome-deficient mutants (pex mutants). In some cases different phenotypes were reported for yeast mutants deleted in the same PEX gene. These differences are most likely related to the marker proteins and methods used to detect peroxisomal remnants. This is especially evident for pex3 and pex19 mutants, where the localization of receptor docking proteins (Pex13, Pex14) resulted in the identification of peroxisomal membrane remnants, which do not contain other peroxisomal membrane proteins, such as the ring proteins Pex2, Pex10 and Pex12. These structures in pex3 and pex19 cells are the template for peroxisome formation upon introduction of the missing gene. Taken together, these data suggest that in all yeast pex mutants analyzed so far peroxisomes are not formed de novo but use membrane remnant structures as a template for peroxisome formation upon reintroduction of the missing gene. The relevance of this model for peroxisomal membrane protein and lipid sorting to peroxisomes is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Peroxisomes edited by Ralf Erdmann. PMID:26367802

  9. Nuclear Import of Yeast Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Burcoglu, Julianne; Zhao, Liang; Enenkel, Cordula

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomes are highly conserved protease complexes responsible for the degradation of aberrant and short-lived proteins. In highly proliferating yeast and mammalian cells, proteasomes are predominantly nuclear. During quiescence and cell cycle arrest, proteasomes accumulate in granules in close proximity to the nuclear envelope/ER. With prolonged quiescence in yeast, these proteasome granules pinch off as membraneless organelles, and migrate as stable entities through the cytoplasm. Upon exit from quiescence, the proteasome granules clear and the proteasomes are rapidly transported into the nucleus, a process reflecting the dynamic nature of these multisubunit complexes. Due to the scarcity of studies on the nuclear transport of mammalian proteasomes, we summarised the current knowledge on the nuclear import of yeast proteasomes. This pathway uses canonical nuclear localisation signals within proteasomal subunits and Srp1/Kap95, and the canonical import receptor, named importin/karyopherin αβ. Blm10, a conserved 240 kDa protein, which is structurally related to Kap95, provides an alternative import pathway. Two models exist upon which either inactive precursor complexes or active holo-enzymes serve as the import cargo. Here, we reconcile both models and suggest that the import of inactive precursor complexes predominates in dividing cells, while the import of mature enzymes mainly occurs upon exit from quiescence. PMID:26262643

  10. Neutron activated switch

    DOEpatents

    Barton, David M. (Espanola, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A switch for reacting quickly to a neutron emission. A rod consisting of fissionable material is located inside a vacuum tight body. An adjustable contact is located coaxially at an adjustable distance from one end of the rod. Electrical leads are connected to the rod and to the adjustable contact. With a vacuum drawn inside the body, a neutron bombardment striking the rod causes it to heat and expand longitudinally until it comes into contact with the adjustable contact. This circuit closing occurs within a period of a few microseconds.

  11. Power transistor switching characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The switching properties of power transistors are investigated. The devices studied were housed in IO-3 cases and were of an n(+)-p-n(-)-n(+) vertical dopant structure. The effects of the magnitude of the reverse-base current and temperature on the reverse-bias second breakdown characteristics are discussed. Brief discussions of device degradation due to second breakdown and of a constant voltage turn-off circuit are included. A description of a vacuum tube voltage clamp circuit which reduces clamped collector voltage overshoot is given.

  12. Railway switch transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, Martin; Prosen, Toma; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio

    2012-11-01

    We propose a simple model of coupled heat and particle transport based on zero-dimensional classical deterministic dynamics, which is reminiscent of a railway switch whose action is a function only of the particle's energy. It is shown that already in the minimal three-terminal model, where the second terminal is considered as a probe with zero net particle and heat currents, one can find extremely asymmetric Onsager matrices as a consequence of time-reversal symmetry breaking of the model. This minimalistic transport model provides a better understanding of thermoelectric heat engines in the presence of time-reversal symmetry breaking.

  13. Biological switches and clocks

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, John J.; Albert, Reka; Goldbeter, Albert; Ruoff, Peter; Sible, Jill

    2008-01-01

    To introduce this special issue on biological switches and clocks, we review the historical development of mathematical models of bistability and oscillations in chemical reaction networks. In the 1960s and 1970s, these models were limited to well-studied biochemical examples, such as glycolytic oscillations and cyclic AMP signalling. After the molecular genetics revolution of the 1980s, the field of molecular cell biology was thrown wide open to mathematical modellers. We review recent advances in modelling the geneprotein interaction networks that control circadian rhythms, cell cycle progression, signal processing and the design of synthetic gene networks. PMID:18522926

  14. Composite Thermal Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert; Brawn, Shelly; Harrison, Katherine; O'Toole, Shannon; Moeller, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Lithium primary and lithium ion secondary batteries provide high specific energy and energy density. The use of these batteries also helps to reduce launch weight. Both primary and secondary cells can be packaged as high-rate cells, which can present a threat to crew and equipment in the event of external or internal short circuits. Overheating of the cell interior from high current flows induced by short circuits can result in exothermic reactions in lithium primary cells and fully charged lithium ion secondary cells. Venting of the cell case, ejection of cell components, and fire have been reported in both types of cells, resulting from abuse, cell imperfections, or faulty electronic control design. A switch has been developed that consists of a thin layer of composite material made from nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon that conducts electrons at room temperature and switches to an insulator at an elevated temperature, thus interrupting current flow to prevent thermal runaway caused by internal short circuits. The material is placed within the cell, as a thin layer incorporated within the anode and/or the cathode, to control excess currents from metal-to-metal or metal-to-carbon shorts that might result from cell crush or a manufacturing defect. The safety of high-rate cells is thus improved, preventing serious injury to personnel and sensitive equipment located near the battery. The use of recently available nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon permits an improved, homogeneous material with the potential to be fine-tuned to a unique switch temperature, sufficiently below the onset of a catastrophic chemical reaction. The smaller particles also permit the formation of a thinner control film layer (<50 m), which can be incorporated into commercial high-rate lithium primary and secondary cells. The innovation permits incorporation in current lithium and lithium-ion cell designs with a minimal impact on cell weight and volume. The composite thermal switch (CTS(TradeMark)) coating can be incorporated in either the anode or cathode or both. The coating can be applied in a variety of different processes that permits incorporation in the cell and electrode manufacturing processes. The CTS responds quickly and halts current flow in the hottest parts of the cell first. The coating can be applied to metal foil and supplied as a cell component onto which the active electrode materials are coated.

  15. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOEpatents

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  16. Biopharmaceutical discovery and production in yeast.

    PubMed

    Meehl, Michael A; Stadheim, Terrance A

    2014-12-01

    The selection of an expression platform for recombinant biopharmaceuticals is often centered upon suitable product titers and critical quality attributes, including post-translational modifications. Although notable differences between microbial, yeast, plant, and mammalian host systems exist, recent advances have greatly mitigated any inherent liabilities of yeasts. Yeast expression platforms are important to both the supply of marketed biopharmaceuticals and the pipelines of novel therapeutics. In this review, recent advances in yeast-based expression of biopharmaceuticals will be discussed. The advantages of using glycoengineered yeast as a production host and in the discovery space will be illustrated. These advancements, in turn, are transforming yeast platforms from simple production systems to key technological assets in the discovery and selection of biopharmaceutical lead candidates. PMID:25014890

  17. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  18. Breaking an Epigenetic Chromatin Switch: Curious Features of Hysteresis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Telomeric Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Vijayalakshmi H.; Mukhopadhyay, Swagatam; Dayarian, Adel; Sengupta, Anirvan M.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to gene network switches, local epigenetic modifications to DNA and histones play an important role in all-or-none cellular decision-making. Here, we study the dynamical design of a well-characterized epigenetic chromatin switch: the yeast SIR system, in order to understand the origin of the stability of epigenetic states. We study hysteresis in this system by perturbing it with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. We find that SIR silencing has many characteristics of a non-linear bistable system, as observed in conventional genetic switches, which are based on activities of a few promoters affecting each other through the abundance of their gene products. Quite remarkably, our experiments in yeast telomeric silencing show a very distinctive pattern when it comes to the transition from bistability to monostability. In particular, the loss of the stable silenced state, upon increasing the inhibitor concentration, does not seem to show the expected saddle node behavior, instead looking like a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. In other words, the off state merges with the on state at a threshold concentration leading to a single state, as opposed to the two states remaining distinct up to the threshold and exhibiting a discontinuous jump from the off to the on state. We argue that this is an inevitable consequence of silenced and active regions coexisting with dynamic domain boundaries. The experimental observations in our study therefore have broad implications for the understanding of chromatin silencing in yeast and beyond. PMID:25536038

  19. Optical switch based on thermocapillarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Tomomi; Makihara, Mitsuhiro; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Shimokawa, Fusao; Kaneko, Kazumasa

    2001-11-01

    Space-division optical switches are essential for the protection, optical cross-connects (OXCs), and optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs) needed in future fiber-optic communication networks. For applications in these areas, we proposed a thermocapillarity switch called oil-latching interfacial-tension variation effect (OLIVE) switch. An OLIVE switch is a micro-mechanical optical switch fabricated on planar lightwave circuits (PLC) using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It consists of a crossing waveguide that has a groove at each crossing point and a pair of microheaters. The groove is partially filled with the refractive-index-matching liquid, and optical signals are switched according to the liquid's position in the groove, i.e., whether it is passing straight through the groove or reflecting at the sidewall of the groove. The liquid is driven by thermocapillarity and latched by capillarity. Using the total internal reflection to switch the optical path, the OLIVE switch exhibits excellent optical characteristics, such as high transparency (insertion loss: < 2 dB), high extinction ratio (> 50 dB), and low crosstalk (< -50 dB). Moreover, since this switch has a simple structure and bi-stability, it has wide variety of applications in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks.

  20. Neuromorphic Atomic Switch Networks

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Shieh, Hsien Hang; Aono, Masakazu; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system. PMID:22880101

  1. Data center coolant switch

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-06

    A data center cooling system is operated in a first mode; it has an indoor portion wherein heat is absorbed from components in the data center, and an outdoor heat exchanger portion wherein outside air is used to cool a first heat transfer fluid (e.g., water) present in at least the outdoor heat exchanger portion of the cooling system during the first mode. The first heat transfer fluid is a relatively high performance heat transfer fluid (as compared to the second fluid), and has a first heat transfer fluid freezing point. A determination is made that an appropriate time has been reached to switch from the first mode to a second mode. Based on this determination, the outdoor heat exchanger portion of the data cooling system is switched to a second heat transfer fluid, which is a relatively low performance heat transfer fluid, as compared to the first heat transfer fluid. It has a second heat transfer fluid freezing point lower than the first heat transfer fluid freezing point, and the second heat transfer fluid freezing point is sufficiently low to operate without freezing when the outdoor air temperature drops below a first predetermined relationship with the first heat transfer fluid freezing point.

  2. Yeasts in floral nectar: a quantitative survey

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Carlos M.; de Vega, Clara; Canto, Azucena; Pozo, María I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims One peculiarity of floral nectar that remains relatively unexplored from an ecological perspective is its role as a natural habitat for micro-organisms. This study assesses the frequency of occurrence and abundance of yeast cells in floral nectar of insect-pollinated plants from three contrasting plant communities on two continents. Possible correlations between interspecific differences in yeast incidence and pollinator composition are also explored. Methods The study was conducted at three widely separated areas, two in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and one in the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico). Floral nectar samples from 130 species (37–63 species per region) in 44 families were examined microscopically for the presence of yeast cells. For one of the Spanish sites, the relationship across species between incidence of yeasts in nectar and the proportion of flowers visited by each of five major pollinator categories was also investigated. Key Results Yeasts occurred regularly in the floral nectar of many species, where they sometimes reached extraordinary densities (up to 4 × 105 cells mm−3). Depending on the region, between 32 and 44 % of all nectar samples contained yeasts. Yeast cell densities in the order of 104 cells mm−3 were commonplace, and densities >105 cells mm−3 were not rare. About one-fifth of species at each site had mean yeast cell densities >104 cells mm−3. Across species, yeast frequency and abundance were directly correlated with the proportion of floral visits by bumble-bees, and inversely with the proportion of visits by solitary bees. Conclusions Incorporating nectar yeasts into the scenario of plant–pollinator interactions opens up a number of intriguing avenues for research. In addition, with yeasts being as ubiquitous and abundant in floral nectars as revealed by this study, and given their astounding metabolic versatility, studies focusing on nectar chemical features should carefully control for the presence of yeasts in nectar samples. PMID:19208669

  3. The yeast Golgi apparatus: insights and mysteries

    PubMed Central

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Glick, Benjamin S.

    2009-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is known to modify and sort newly synthesized secretory proteins. However, fundamental mysteries remain about the structure, operation, and dynamics of this organelle. Important insights have emerged from studying the Golgi in yeasts. For example, yeasts have provided direct evidence for Golgi cisternal maturation, a mechanism that is likely to be broadly conserved. Here, we highlight features of the yeast Golgi as well as challenges that lie ahead. PMID:19879270

  4. Role of glucose signaling in yeast metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, K. van

    1996-10-05

    The conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast was the first biochemical pathway to be studied in detail. The initial observation that this process is catalyzed by an extract of yeast led to the discovery of enzymes and coenzymes and laid the foundation for modern biochemistry. In this article, knowledge concerning the relation between uptake of and signaling by glucose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed and compared to the analogous process in prokaryotes. It is concluded that (much) more fundamental knowledge concerning these processes is required before rational redesign of metabolic fluxes from glucose in yeast can be achieved.

  5. Evaluation of Automated Yeast Identification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and nine teleomorphic and anamorphic yeast isolates representing approximately 30 taxa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the Biolog yeast identification system. Isolates derived from nomenclatural types, environmental, and clinica isolates of known identity were tested in the Biolog system. Of the isolates tested, 81 were in the Biolog database. The system correctly identified 40, incorrectly identified 29, and was unable to identify 12. Of the 28 isolates not in the database, 18 were given names, whereas 10 were not. The Biolog yeast identification system is inadequate for the identification of yeasts originating from the environment during space program activities.

  6. A high capacity satellite switched TDMA microwave switch matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cory, B. J.; Berkowitz, M.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of the conceptual design of a high-capacity satellite switched-time division multiple access (SS-TDMA) microwave switch matrix fabricated with GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), including integration of both microwave and control logic circuits into the monolithic design. The technology required for a 30/20 GHz communications system includes an on-board SS-TDMA switch matrix. A conceptual design study that has been completed for a wideband, high-capacity (typically 100 x 100) channel switch matrix using technology anticipated for 1987 is described, noting that the study resulted in a switch matrix design concept using a coupled crossbar architecture implemented with MMIC. The design involves basic building block MMIC, permitting flexible growth and efficient wraparound redundancy to increase reliability.

  7. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  8. Unisexual and heterosexual meiotic reproduction generate aneuploidy and phenotypic diversity de novo in the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Ni, Min; Feretzaki, Marianna; Li, Wenjun; Floyd-Averette, Anna; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Dietrich, Fred S; Heitman, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    Aneuploidy is known to be deleterious and underlies several common human diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders such as trisomy 21 in Down's syndrome. In contrast, aneuploidy can also be advantageous and in fungi confers antifungal drug resistance and enables rapid adaptive evolution. We report here that sexual reproduction generates phenotypic and genotypic diversity in the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, which is globally distributed and commonly infects individuals with compromised immunity, such as HIV/AIDS patients, causing life-threatening meningoencephalitis. C. neoformans has a defined a-? opposite sexual cycle; however, >99% of isolates are of the ? mating type. Interestingly, ? cells can undergo ?-? unisexual reproduction, even involving genotypically identical cells. A central question is: Why would cells mate with themselves given that sex is costly and typically serves to admix preexisting genetic diversity from genetically divergent parents? In this study, we demonstrate that ?-? unisexual reproduction frequently generates phenotypic diversity, and the majority of these variant progeny are aneuploid. Aneuploidy is responsible for the observed phenotypic changes, as chromosome loss restoring euploidy results in a wild-type phenotype. Other genetic changes, including diploidization, chromosome length polymorphisms, SNPs, and indels, were also generated. Phenotypic/genotypic changes were not observed following asexual mitotic reproduction. Aneuploidy was also detected in progeny from a-? opposite-sex congenic mating; thus, both homothallic and heterothallic sexual reproduction can generate phenotypic diversity de novo. Our study suggests that the ability to undergo unisexual reproduction may be an evolutionary strategy for eukaryotic microbial pathogens, enabling de novo genotypic and phenotypic plasticity and facilitating rapid adaptation to novel environments. PMID:24058295

  9. Interaction of the yeast RAD7 and SIR3 proteins: implications for DNA repair and chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Paetkau, D W; Riese, J A; MacMorran, W S; Woods, R A; Gietz, R D

    1994-09-01

    We have used the two-hybrid system to identify proteins that interact with the product of RAD7, a gene involved in DNA repair. A screen of a yeast genomic DNA-GAL4 activation domain (GAD) fusion gene library allowed the isolation of plasmids containing sequences corresponding to the 3' end of the SIR3 gene. This gene is known to be involved in the production of transcriptionally silent DNA at the cryptic mating-type cassettes and at telomeres. The cloned sequences coded for amino acids 307-979 of the Sir3 protein. A sir3 deletion allele, constructed in an isogenic rad7-deletion strain, rescued approximately one-quarter of the UV sensitivity associated with the rad7 deletion, indicating that the two genes interact genetically. Radiolabeled fusion proteins, made with the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene in the vector pGEX-2T, were purified from Escherichia coli and shown to interact in vitro. This evidence suggests that the Sir3 protein interacts with the Rad7 protein to allow the nucleotide excision repair complex access to transcriptionally inactive chromatin. The proportions of 5-FOA-resistant cells in cultures from isogenic RAD+ and rad7-delta strains containing a telomeric URA3 gene were similar, suggesting that the RAD7 gene is not involved in the production or structure of transcriptionally silent chromatin at the telomeres. RAD7-dependent DNA repair of transcriptionally silent chromatin was shown not to induce expression of a telomeric copy of the URA3 gene, suggesting that repair of transcriptionally silent chromatin differs from transcriptionally active chromatin. Expression of a telomeric copy of the URA3 gene was stimulated in a rad7-delta mutant, suggesting that repair of lesions in the absence of Rad7 can result in the activation of transcriptionally silenced genes. PMID:7958876

  10. Unisexual and Heterosexual Meiotic Reproduction Generate Aneuploidy and Phenotypic Diversity De Novo in the Yeast Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Floyd-Averette, Anna; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Dietrich, Fred S.; Heitman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Aneuploidy is known to be deleterious and underlies several common human diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders such as trisomy 21 in Down's syndrome. In contrast, aneuploidy can also be advantageous and in fungi confers antifungal drug resistance and enables rapid adaptive evolution. We report here that sexual reproduction generates phenotypic and genotypic diversity in the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, which is globally distributed and commonly infects individuals with compromised immunity, such as HIV/AIDS patients, causing life-threatening meningoencephalitis. C. neoformans has a defined a-α opposite sexual cycle; however, >99% of isolates are of the α mating type. Interestingly, α cells can undergo α-α unisexual reproduction, even involving genotypically identical cells. A central question is: Why would cells mate with themselves given that sex is costly and typically serves to admix preexisting genetic diversity from genetically divergent parents? In this study, we demonstrate that α-α unisexual reproduction frequently generates phenotypic diversity, and the majority of these variant progeny are aneuploid. Aneuploidy is responsible for the observed phenotypic changes, as chromosome loss restoring euploidy results in a wild-type phenotype. Other genetic changes, including diploidization, chromosome length polymorphisms, SNPs, and indels, were also generated. Phenotypic/genotypic changes were not observed following asexual mitotic reproduction. Aneuploidy was also detected in progeny from a-α opposite-sex congenic mating; thus, both homothallic and heterothallic sexual reproduction can generate phenotypic diversity de novo. Our study suggests that the ability to undergo unisexual reproduction may be an evolutionary strategy for eukaryotic microbial pathogens, enabling de novo genotypic and phenotypic plasticity and facilitating rapid adaptation to novel environments. PMID:24058295

  11. Phenotypic switching in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrin, Jack

    Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial genetic networks that would implement a more general theoretical model of phenotypic switching. We will use a new cloning strategy in order to systematically assemble a large number of genetic features, such as site-specific recombination components from the R64 plasmid, which invert several coexisting DNA segments. The inversion of these segments would lead to discrete phenotypic transitions inside a living cell. These artificial phenotypic switches can be controlled precisely in experiments and may serve as a benchmark for their natural counterparts.

  12. 21 CFR 172.381 - Vitamin D2 bakers yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conventional bakers yeast. (c) The additive may be used in yeast-leavened baked goods and baking mixes and yeast-leavened baked snack foods at levels not to exceed 400 International Units of vitamin D2 per...

  13. EDITORIAL: Molecular switches at surfaces Molecular switches at surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinelt, Martin; von Oppen, Felix

    2012-10-01

    In nature, molecules exploit interaction with their environment to realize complex functionalities on the nanometer length scale. Physical, chemical and/or biological specificity is frequently achieved by the switching of molecules between microscopically different states. Paradigmatic examples are the energy production in proton pumps of bacteria or the signal conversion in human vision, which rely on switching molecules between different configurations or conformations by external stimuli. The remarkable reproducibility and unparalleled fatigue resistance of these natural processes makes it highly desirable to emulate nature and develop artificial systems with molecular functionalities. A promising avenue towards this goal is to anchor the molecular switches at surfaces, offering new pathways to control their functional properties, to apply electrical contacts, or to integrate switches into larger systems. Anchoring at surfaces allows one to access the full range from individual molecular switches to self-assembled monolayers of well-defined geometry and to customize the coupling between molecules and substrate or between adsorbed molecules. Progress in this field requires both synthesis and preparation of appropriate molecular systems and control over suitable external stimuli, such as light, heat, or electrical currents. To optimize switching and generate function, it is essential to unravel the geometric structure, the electronic properties and the dynamic interactions of the molecular switches on surfaces. This special section, Molecular Switches at Surfaces, collects 17 contributions describing different aspects of this research field. They analyze elementary processes, both in single molecules and in ensembles of molecules, which involve molecular switching and concomitant changes of optical, electronic, or magnetic properties. Two topical reviews summarize the current status, including both challenges and achievements in the field of molecular switches on metal surfaces, focusing on electronic and vibrational spectroscopy in one case and scanning tunneling microscopy studies in the other. Original research articles describe results in many aspects of the field, including: Self-assembly, self-organization, and controlled growth of molecular layers on various substrates. Highly-ordered arrays provide model systems with extraordinary structural properties, allowing one to adjust interactions between molecules and between molecule and substrate, and can be robustly prepared from solution, an essential prerequisite for applications. Conformational or electronic switching of molecules adsorbed at metal and semiconductor surfaces. These studies highlight the elementary processes governing molecular switching at surfaces as well as the wide range of possible stimuli. Carbon-based substrates such as graphene or carbon nanotubes. These substrates are attractive due to their effective two-dimensionality which implies that switching of adsorbed molecules can effect a significant back-action on the substrate. Mechanisms of conformational switching. Several contributions study the role of electron-vibron coupling and heating in current-induced conformational switching. We hope that the collection of articles presented here will stimulate and encourage researchers in surface physics and interfacial chemistry to contribute to the still emerging field of molecular switches at surfaces. We wish to acknowledge the support and input from many colleagues in preparing this special section. A significant part of this work has been conducted in the framework of the Sonderforschungsbereich 658 Elementary Processes in Molecular Switches at Surfaces of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, to which we are grateful for financial support. Molecular surfaces at switches contents Molecular switches at surfacesMartin Weinelt and Felix von Oppen Optically and thermally induced molecular switching processes at metal surfacesPetra Tegeder Effects of electron-vibration coupling in transport through single moleculesKatharina J Franke and Jose Ignacio Pascual Vibrational heating in single-molecule switches: an energy-dependent density-of-states approachT Brumme, R Gutierrez and G Cuniberti Reversible switching of single tin phthalocyanine molecules on the InAs(111)A surfaceC Nacci, K Kanisawa and S Fölsch Tuning the interaction between carbon nanotubes and dipole switches: the influence of the change of the nanotube-spiropyran distanceP Bluemmel, A Setaro, C Maity, S Hecht and S Reich Carbon nanotubes as substrates for molecular spiropyran-based switchesE Malic, A Setaro, P Bluemmel, Carlos F Sanz-Navarro, Pablo Ordejón, S Reich and A Knorr Ultrafast dynamics of dithienylethenes differently linked to the surface of TiO2 nanoparticlesLars Dworak, Marc Zastrow, Gehad Zeyat, Karola Rück-Braun and Josef Wachtveitl Switching the electronic properties of Co-octaethylporphyrin molecules on oxygen-covered Ni films by NO adsorptionC F Hermanns, M Bernien, A Krüger, J Miguel and W Kuch STM-switching of organic molecules on semiconductor surfaces: an above threshold density matrix model for 1,5 cyclooctadiene on Si(100)K Zenichowski, Ch Nacci, S Fölsch, J Dokić, T Klamroth and P Saalfrank A switch based on self-assembled thymineFatih Kalkan, Michael Mehlhorn and Karina Morgenstern The growth and electronic structure of azobenzene-based functional molecules on layered crystalsJ Iwicki, E Ludwig, J Buck, M Kalläne, F Köhler, R Herges, L Kipp and K Rossnagel Voltage-dependent conductance states of a single-molecule junctionY F Wang, N Néel, J Kröger, H Vázquez, M Brandbyge, B Wang and R Berndt Molecules with multiple switching units on a Au(111) surface: self-organization and single-molecule manipulationJohannes Mielke, Sofia Selvanathan, Maike Peters, Jutta Schwarz, Stefan Hecht and Leonhard Grill Preparing and regulating a bi-stable molecular switch by atomic manipulationS Sakulsermsuk, R E Palmer and P A Sloan Mixed self-assembled monolayers of azobenzene photoswitches with trifluoromethyl and cyano end groupsDaniel Brete, Daniel Przyrembel, Christian Eickhoff, Robert Carley, Wolfgang Freyer, Karsten Reuter, Cornelius Gahl and Martin Weinelt Reversible electron-induced cis-trans isomerization mediated by intermolecular interactionsCh Lotze, Y Luo, M Corso, K J Franke, R Haag and J I Pascual Transport properties of graphene functionalized with molecular switchesNiels Bode, Eros Mariani and Felix von Oppen

  14. Study of optoelectronic switch for satellite-switched time-division multiple access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Shing-Fong; Jou, Liz; Lenart, Joe

    1987-01-01

    The use of optoelectronic switching for satellite switched time division multiple access will improve the isolation and reduce the crosstalk of an IF switch matrix. The results are presented of a study on optoelectronic switching. Tasks include literature search, system requirements study, candidate switching architecture analysis, and switch model optimization. The results show that the power divided and crossbar switching architectures are good candidates for an IF switch matrix.

  15. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOEpatents

    Boling, Brian E. (Sugar Land, TX)

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  16. Improved switch-resistor packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmerski, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Packaging approach makes resistors more accessible and easily identified with specific switches. Failures are repaired more quickly because of improved accessibility. Typical board includes one resistor that acts as circuit breaker, and others are positioned so that their values can be easily measured when switch is operated. Approach saves weight by using less wire and saves valuable panel space.

  17. Megavolt, Multigigawatt Pulsed Plasma Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma switch proposed for use in high-voltage, high-current pulse power system. Designed not only to out-perform conventional spark-gap switch but also relatively compact and lightweight. Features inverse-pinch configuration to prevent constriction of current sheets into filaments, plus multiple-ring-electrode structure to resist high-voltage breakdown.

  18. YMDB: the Yeast Metabolome Database

    PubMed Central

    Jewison, Timothy; Knox, Craig; Neveu, Vanessa; Djoumbou, Yannick; Guo, An Chi; Lee, Jacqueline; Liu, Philip; Mandal, Rupasri; Krishnamurthy, Ram; Sinelnikov, Igor; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The Yeast Metabolome Database (YMDB, http://www.ymdb.ca) is a richly annotated metabolomic database containing detailed information about the metabolome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Modeled closely after the Human Metabolome Database, the YMDB contains >2000 metabolites with links to 995 different genes/proteins, including enzymes and transporters. The information in YMDB has been gathered from hundreds of books, journal articles and electronic databases. In addition to its comprehensive literature-derived data, the YMDB also contains an extensive collection of experimental intracellular and extracellular metabolite concentration data compiled from detailed Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomic analyses performed in our lab. This is further supplemented with thousands of NMR and MS spectra collected on pure, reference yeast metabolites. Each metabolite entry in the YMDB contains an average of 80 separate data fields including comprehensive compound description, names and synonyms, structural information, physico-chemical data, reference NMR and MS spectra, intracellular/extracellular concentrations, growth conditions and substrates, pathway information, enzyme data, gene/protein sequence data, as well as numerous hyperlinks to images, references and other public databases. Extensive searching, relational querying and data browsing tools are also provided that support text, chemical structure, spectral, molecular weight and gene/protein sequence queries. Because of S. cervesiae's importance as a model organism for biologists and as a biofactory for industry, we believe this kind of database could have considerable appeal not only to metabolomics researchers, but also to yeast biologists, systems biologists, the industrial fermentation industry, as well as the beer, wine and spirit industry. PMID:22064855

  19. ''Smart'' watchdog safety switch

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-10-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring a process having a periodic output so that the process equipment is not damaged in the event of a controller failure, comprising a low-pass and peak clipping filter, an event detector that generates an event pulse for each valid change in magnitude of the filtered periodic output, a timing pulse generator, a counter that increments upon receipt of any timing pulse and resets to zero on receipt of any event pulse, an alarm that alerts when the count reaches some preselected total count, and a set of relays that opens to stop power to process equipment. An interface module can be added to allow the switch to accept a variety of periodic output signals. 21 figures.

  20. "Smart" watchdog safety switch

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (353 Church Rd., Beech Island, SC 29842)

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring a process having a periodic output so that the process equipment is not damaged in the event of a controller failure, comprising a low-pass and peak clipping filter, an event detector that generates an event pulse for each valid change in magnitude of the filtered periodic output, a timing pulse generator, a counter that increments upon receipt of any timing pulse and resets to zero on receipt of any event pulse, an alarm that alerts when the count reaches some preselected total count, and a set of relays that opens to stop power to process equipment. An interface module can be added to allow the switch to accept a variety of periodic output signals.

  1. Automatic thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.; Cunningham, J. W. (inventors)

    1981-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes a first thermally conductive plate, a second thermally conductive plate and a thermal transfer plate pivotally mounted between the first and second plates. A phase change power unit, including a plunger connected to the transfer plate, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element, connected to the transfer plate, biases the transfer plate in a predetermined position with respect to the first and second plates. When the phase change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first plate, the plunger extends and pivots the transfer plate to vary the thermal conduction between the first and second plates through the transfer plate. The biasing element, transfer plate and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally open thermally conductive path between the first and second plates.

  2. Optimized scalable network switch

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2007-12-04

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  3. Optimized scalable network switch

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2010-02-23

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  4. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOEpatents

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  5. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOEpatents

    Rink, John P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  6. The Acetate Switch

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alan J.

    2005-01-01

    To succeed, many cells must alternate between life-styles that permit rapid growth in the presence of abundant nutrients and ones that enhance survival in the absence of those nutrients. One such change in life-style, the “acetate switch,” occurs as cells deplete their environment of acetate-producing carbon sources and begin to rely on their ability to scavenge for acetate. This review explains why, when, and how cells excrete or dissimilate acetate. The central components of the “switch” (phosphotransacetylase [PTA], acetate kinase [ACK], and AMP-forming acetyl coenzyme A synthetase [AMP-ACS]) and the behavior of cells that lack these components are introduced. Acetyl phosphate (acetyl∼P), the high-energy intermediate of acetate dissimilation, is discussed, and conditions that influence its intracellular concentration are described. Evidence is provided that acetyl∼P influences cellular processes from organelle biogenesis to cell cycle regulation and from biofilm development to pathogenesis. The merits of each mechanism proposed to explain the interaction of acetyl∼P with two-component signal transduction pathways are addressed. A short list of enzymes that generate acetyl∼P by PTA-ACKA-independent mechanisms is introduced and discussed briefly. Attention is then directed to the mechanisms used by cells to “flip the switch,” the induction and activation of the acetate-scavenging AMP-ACS. First, evidence is presented that nucleoid proteins orchestrate a progression of distinct nucleoprotein complexes to ensure proper transcription of its gene. Next, the way in which cells regulate AMP-ACS activity through reversible acetylation is described. Finally, the “acetate switch” as it exists in selected eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, including humans, is described. PMID:15755952

  7. [Taxonomic genetics of Zygowilliopsis yeasts].

    PubMed

    Naumov, G I; Kondrat'eva, V I; Naumova, E S

    2009-12-01

    Genetic hybridization analysis was conducted with 16 natural Zygowilliopsis strains isolated in different geographical regions and maintained in collections under species names Z. californica, Hansenula dimennae, and Pichia populi. Genetic relatedness was determined on the basis of mating, viability of hybrid progeny, and meiotic recombination of markers. Four new biological species are recognized in the former monotypic genus Zygowilliopsis. Species Z. californica and Zygowilliopsis sp. 3 probably include divergent geographical populations. It is necessary to reconsider the species composition of the genus Zygowilliopsis and generic assignment of P. populi yeasts. Genetic and molecular identifications of the Zygowilliopsis species are in perfect agreement. PMID:20198971

  8. Isolation of Peroxisomes from Yeast.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Jana; Effelsberg, Daniel; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf

    2015-09-01

    Peroxisomes are multifunctional, dynamic organelles present in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Determining their structural and functional characteristics often requires obtaining isolated and purified peroxisomes via subcellular fractionation. Subcellular fractionation techniques are generally based on a three-step procedure: preparation of a cell-free homogenate (postnuclear supernatant), generation of an organellar pellet by differential centrifugation, and density gradient centrifugation. Here we introduce methods for small-scale isolation of peroxisomes from yeast cells using different gradient media as well as large-scale purification using a two-step gradient centrifugation. PMID:26330630

  9. Phosphatidic acid synthesis in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, N. J.; Lynen, F.

    1965-01-01

    1. The presence of palmitoyl-CoA–l-glycerol 1-phosphate palmitoyltransferase (EC2.3.1.15) has been demonstrated in a particulate fraction of baker's yeast. 2. The enzyme has been characterized, and its activity studied as a function of pH and concentration of substrates. 3. Inhibition by thiol poisons and protection by acyl-CoA have been used to obtain information on the active site. 4. By various methods of supplying acyl radicals, the species `palmitoyl-CoA' has been shown to be the true acyl donor to the transferase. PMID:14342236

  10. Experimental evolution in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss our progress in analyzing evolution in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We take two basic approaches. The first is to try and examine quantitative aspects of evolution, for example by determining how the rate of evolution depends on the mutation rate and the population size or asking whether the rate of mutation is uniform throughout the genome. The second is to try to evolve qualitatively novel, cell biologically interesting phenotypes and track the mutations that are responsible for the phenotype. Our efforts include trying to alter cell morphology, evolve multicellularity, and produce a biological oscillator.

  11. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to...

  12. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to...

  13. Effect of Potassium Ions on Protoplast Generation during Yeast Induction from Mucor circinelloides Tieghem

    PubMed Central

    Omoifo, C. O.

    2013-01-01

    Mucor circinelloides aerobically exhibits coenocytic thallic growth habit with straight and circinate sporangiophores which culminate in globose or pyriform columellae enclosed within sporangial walls. It undergoes dimorphic switch with its conversion to multipolar budding yeast-like cells or thallic conidia. This paper confirms the induction of plurality of reproductive structures of the pleomorphic microorganism in minimal medium. Furthermore, construction of pH differentials at inflection points in the biphasic profiles during sporangiospore-yeast transformation indicated the intensity of H+ release from intracellular medium of the growing microorganism in a study conducted with K+ levels (0.0, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.0,1.10?g/L)-mediated broths. Optimum proton release was at 0.00 and 1.0?g/L?K+-supplemented broths, but specific growth rate was least in the latter. It also coincided with a preponderance of neoplastic units, protoplasts, and terminal budding yeast cells. On either side of this K+ level, variation in morphologies, including neoplasts, protoplasts, septate hyphae, thallic, holothallic, and holoblastic conidia, was greater, although olive-green septate hyphae with vesicular conidiogenous apparatus occurred at all K+ levels tested. This study suggested that following the establishment of transmembrane pH gradient across protoplast membrane, operation of Mitchellian proton pump was further promoted, thus leading to active transport mechanism, a prelude to yeast morphology induction. PMID:25969779

  14. Effect of Potassium Ions on Protoplast Generation during Yeast Induction from Mucor circinelloides Tieghem.

    PubMed

    Omoifo, C O

    2013-01-01

    Mucor circinelloides aerobically exhibits coenocytic thallic growth habit with straight and circinate sporangiophores which culminate in globose or pyriform columellae enclosed within sporangial walls. It undergoes dimorphic switch with its conversion to multipolar budding yeast-like cells or thallic conidia. This paper confirms the induction of plurality of reproductive structures of the pleomorphic microorganism in minimal medium. Furthermore, construction of pH differentials at inflection points in the biphasic profiles during sporangiospore-yeast transformation indicated the intensity of H(+) release from intracellular medium of the growing microorganism in a study conducted with K(+) levels (0.0, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.0,1.10?g/L)-mediated broths. Optimum proton release was at 0.00 and 1.0?g/L?K(+)-supplemented broths, but specific growth rate was least in the latter. It also coincided with a preponderance of neoplastic units, protoplasts, and terminal budding yeast cells. On either side of this K(+) level, variation in morphologies, including neoplasts, protoplasts, septate hyphae, thallic, holothallic, and holoblastic conidia, was greater, although olive-green septate hyphae with vesicular conidiogenous apparatus occurred at all K(+) levels tested. This study suggested that following the establishment of transmembrane pH gradient across protoplast membrane, operation of Mitchellian proton pump was further promoted, thus leading to active transport mechanism, a prelude to yeast morphology induction. PMID:25969779

  15. Prevention of Yeast Spoilage in Feed and Food by the Yeast Mycocin HMK

    PubMed Central

    Lowes, K. F.; Shearman, C. A.; Payne, J.; MacKenzie, D.; Archer, D. B.; Merry, R. J.; Gasson, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe construction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier, which resulted in secretion of biologically active mycocin into the culture media. A partial purification protocol was developed, and a comparison with native W. mrakii mycocin showed that the heterologously expressed mycocin had similar physiological properties and an almost identical spectrum of biological activity against a number of yeasts isolated from silage and yoghurt. Two food and feed production systems prone to yeast spoilage were used as models to assess the ability of mycocin HMK to act as a biocontrol agent. The onset of aerobic spoilage in mature maize silage was delayed by application of A. niger mycocin HMK on opening because the toxin inhibited growth of the indigenous spoilage yeasts. This helped maintain both higher lactic acid levels and a lower pH. In yoghurt spiked with dairy spoilage yeasts, A. niger mycocin HMK was active at all of the storage temperatures tested at which yeast growth occurred, and there was no resurgence of resistant yeasts. The higher the yeast growth rate, the more effective the killing action of the mycocin. Thus, mycocin HMK has potential applications in controlling both silage spoilage and yoghurt spoilage caused by yeasts. PMID:10698773

  16. Switching Phenomena in a System with No Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preis, Tobias; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-02-01

    It is widely believed that switching phenomena require switches, but this is actually not true. For an intriguing variety of switching phenomena in nature, the underlying complex system abruptly changes from one state to another in a highly discontinuous fashion. For example, financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings creating increasing trends ("bubble formation") and decreasing trends ("financial collapse"). Such switching occurs on time scales ranging from macroscopic bubbles persisting for hundreds of days to microscopic bubbles persisting only for a few seconds. We analyze a database containing 13,991,275 German DAX Future transactions recorded with a time resolution of 10 msec. For comparison, a database providing 2,592,531 of all S&P500 daily closing prices is used. We ask whether these ubiquitous switching phenomena have quantifiable features independent of the time horizon studied. We find striking scale-free behavior of the volatility after each switching occurs. We interpret our findings as being consistent with time-dependent collective behavior of financial market participants. We test the possible universality of our result by performing a parallel analysis of fluctuations in transaction volume and time intervals between trades. We show that these financial market switching processes have properties similar to those of phase transitions. We suggest that the well-known catastrophic bubbles that occur on large time scalessuch as the most recent financial crisisare no outliers but single dramatic representatives caused by the switching between upward and downward trends on time scales varying over nine orders of magnitude from very large (?102 days) down to very small (?10 ms).

  17. Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains

    SciTech Connect

    Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

  18. [Glucuronate media for isolating tremelloid yeasts].

    PubMed

    Golubev, V I

    2000-01-01

    D-Glucuronate-containing agar is suggested for evaluation the population density and diversity of tremelloid yeasts in natural cenoses. This medium is superior to the commonly used wort agar on which many representatives of tremelloid yeasts cannot be revealed. PMID:11008697

  19. Yeast: An Experimental Organism for Modern Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botstein, David; Fink, Gerald R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the applicability and advantages of using yeasts as popular and ideal model systems for studying and understanding eukaryotic biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Cites experimental tractability and the cooperative tradition of the research community of yeast biologists as reasons for this success. (RT)

  20. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... stabilized color additive mixture. Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with phaffia yeast may... § 501.4 of this chapter. (3) The presence of the color additive in salmonid fish that have been fed... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  1. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... stabilized color additive mixture. Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with phaffia yeast may... § 501.4 of this chapter. (3) The presence of the color additive in salmonid fish that have been fed... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  2. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stabilized color additive mixture. Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with phaffia yeast may... § 501.4 of this chapter. (3) The presence of the color additive in salmonid fish that have been fed... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  3. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... stabilized color additive mixture. Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with phaffia yeast may... § 501.4 of this chapter. (3) The presence of the color additive in salmonid fish that have been fed... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  4. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis

    PubMed Central

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24932634

  5. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. PMID:24462702

  6. Liquid metal switches for electromagnetic railgun systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mitcham, A.J.; Prothero, D.H.; Brooks, J.C. )

    1991-01-01

    The need for a reliable and effective commutating switch is essential to the operation of an HPG-driven railgun system. This switch must offer the lowest possible resistance during the current build up time and then must commutate the current quickly and efficiently into the railgun barrel. This paper considers the essential requirements for such a switch and, after briefly reviewing the available switch technologies, describes a new type of switch based on a liquid metal switching medium.

  7. Channelized coplanar waveguide pin-diode switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Simons, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    Three different types of p-i-n diode, reflective CPW switches are presented. The first two switches are the series and the shunt mounted diode switches. Each has achieved greater than 15 dB of isolation over a broad bandwidth. The third switch is a narrow band, high isolation switched filter which has achieved 19 dB of isolation. Equivalent circuits and measured performance for each switch is presented.

  8. Channelized coplanar waveguide pin-diode switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Simons, R. N.

    1989-11-01

    Three different types of p-i-n diode, reflective CPW switches are presented. The first two switches are the series and the shunt mounted diode switches. Each has achieved greater than 15 dB of isolation over a broad bandwidth. The third switch is a narrow band, high isolation switched filter which has achieved 19 dB of isolation. Equivalent circuits and measured performance for each switch is presented.

  9. Identification of a Conserved RNA Motif Essential for She2p Recognition and mRNA Localization to the Yeast Bud

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Catherine; Poirier, Guillaume; Gendron, Patrick; Boisgontier, Anita; Major, Franois; Chartrand, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, over twenty mRNAs localize to the bud tip of daughter cells, playing roles in processes as different as mating type switching and plasma membrane targeting. The localization of these transcripts depends on interactions between a cis-acting localization element(s) or zipcodes and the RNA-binding protein She2p. While previous studies identified four different localization elements in the bud-localized ASH1 mRNA, the main determinants for She2p recognition are still unknown. To investigate the RNA-binding specificity of She2p, we isolated She2p-binding RNAs by in vivo selection from libraries of partially randomized ASH1 localization elements. The RNAs isolated contained a similar loop-stem-loop structure with a highly conserved CGA triplet in one loop and a single conserved cytosine in the other loop. Mutating these conserved nucleotides or the stem separating them resulted in the loss of She2p binding and in the delocalization of a reporter mRNA. Using this information, we identified the same RNA motif in two other known bud-localized transcripts, suggesting that this motif is conserved among bud-localized mRNAs. These results show that mRNAs with zipcodes lacking primary sequence similarity can rely on a few conserved nucleotides properly oriented in their three-dimensional structure in order to be recognized by the same localization machinery. PMID:15899876

  10. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast.

    PubMed

    Prakash, S; Prakash, L

    2000-06-30

    In nucleotide excision repair (NER) in eukaryotes, DNA is incised on both sides of the lesion, resulting in the removal of a fragment approximately 25-30 nucleotides long. This is followed by repair synthesis and ligation. The proteins encoded by the various yeast NER genes have been purified, and the incision reaction reconstituted in vitro. This reaction requires the damage binding factors Rad14, RPA, and the Rad4-Rad23 complex, the transcription factor TFIIH which contains the two DNA helicases Rad3 and Rad25, essential for creating a bubble structure, and the two endonucleases, the Rad1-Rad10 complex and Rad2, which incise the damaged DNA strand on the 5'- and 3'-side of the lesion, respectively. Addition of the Rad7-Rad16 complex to this reconstituted system stimulates the incision reaction many fold. The various NER proteins exist in vivo as part of multiprotein subassemblies which have been named NEFs (nucleotide excision repair factors). Rad14 and Rad1-Rad10 form one subassembly called NEF1, the Rad4-Rad23 complex is named NEF2, Rad2 and TFIIH constitute NEF3, and the Rad7-Rad16 complex is called NEF4. Although much has been learned from yeast about the function of NER genes and proteins in eukaryotes, the underlying mechanisms by which damage is recognized, NEFs are assembled at the damage site, and the DNA is unwound and incised, remain to be elucidated. PMID:10915862

  11. Growing yeast into cylindrical colonies.

    PubMed

    Vulin, Clment; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Lindner, Ariel B; Daerr, Adrian; Murray, Andrew; Hersen, Pascal

    2014-05-20

    Microorganisms often form complex multicellular assemblies such as biofilms and colonies. Understanding the interplay between assembly expansion, metabolic yield, and nutrient diffusion within a freely growing colony remains a challenge. Most available data on microorganisms are from planktonic cultures, due to the lack of experimental tools to control the growth of multicellular assemblies. Here, we propose a method to constrain the growth of yeast colonies into simple geometric shapes such as cylinders. To this end, we designed a simple, versatile culture system to control the location of nutrient delivery below a growing colony. Under such culture conditions, yeast colonies grow vertically and only at the locations where nutrients are delivered. Colonies increase in height at a steady growth rate that is inversely proportional to the cylinder radius. We show that the vertical growth rate of cylindrical colonies is not defined by the single-cell division rate, but rather by the colony metabolic yield. This contrasts with cells in liquid culture, in which the single-cell division rate is the only parameter that defines the population growth rate. This method also provides a direct, simple method to estimate the metabolic yield of a colony. Our study further demonstrates the importance of the shape of colonies on setting their expansion. We anticipate that our approach will be a starting point for elaborate studies of the population dynamics, evolution, and ecology of microbial colonies in complex landscapes. PMID:24853750

  12. Growing Yeast into Cylindrical Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Vulin, Clment; DiMeglio, Jean-Marc; Lindner, ArielB.; Daerr, Adrian; Murray, Andrew; Hersen, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms often form complex multicellular assemblies such as biofilms and colonies. Understanding the interplay between assembly expansion, metabolic yield, and nutrient diffusion within a freely growing colony remains a challenge. Most available data on microorganisms are from planktonic cultures, due to the lack of experimental tools to control the growth of multicellular assemblies. Here, we propose a method to constrain the growth of yeast colonies into simple geometric shapes such as cylinders. To this end, we designed a simple, versatile culture system to control the location of nutrient delivery below a growing colony. Under such culture conditions, yeast colonies grow vertically and only at the locations where nutrients are delivered. Colonies increase in height at a steady growth rate that is inversely proportional to the cylinder radius. We show that the vertical growth rate of cylindrical colonies is not defined by the single-cell division rate, but rather by the colony metabolic yield. This contrasts with cells in liquid culture, in which the single-cell division rate is the only parameter that defines the population growth rate. This method also provides a direct, simple method to estimate the metabolic yield of a colony. Our study further demonstrates the importance of the shape of colonies on setting their expansion. We anticipate that our approach will be a starting point for elaborate studies of the population dynamics, evolution, and ecology of microbial colonies in complex landscapes. PMID:24853750

  13. Production of ethanol by immobilized yeast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.; Munnecke, D.M.

    1981-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in calcium alginate beads for use in the continuous production of ethanol. Yeasts were grown in medium supplemented with ethanol to selectively screen for a culture which showed the greatest tolerance to ethanol inhibition. Yeast beads were produced from a yeast slurry containing 1.5% alginate (w/v) which was added as drops to a 0.05M CaCl2 solution. To determine their optimum fermentation parameters, ethanol production using glucose as a substrate was monitored in batch systems at varying physiological conditions (temperature,pH, ethanol concentration), cell densities, and gel concentrations. The data obtained were compared to optimum free cell ethanol fermentation parameters. The immobilized yeast cells were examined in a packed-bed reactor system operated under optimized parameters derived from batch-immobilized yeast cell experiments. Ethanol production rates, as well as residual sugar concentrations were monitored at different feedstock flow rates. (Refs. 13).

  14. Yeasts that utilize lactose in sweet whey

    SciTech Connect

    Gholson, J.H.; Gough, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Since processing costs are usually higher for whey than for other available food or feed nutrients, only about one-third of whey produced in the US is used by food and feed industries. As a result whey disposal costs are a problem. Further; when whey is disposed of through municipal sewerage systems, the lactose present is changed by bacteria to lactic acid which tends to act as a preservative and retards further oxidation of whey constituents. This article describes a method of utilizing lactose-fermenting yeasts to produce large quantities of yeast cells, single-cell protein. Kluveromyces fragilis was found to be the most effective yeast species and the yeast cells produced could be used as a natural food or feed additive. Results of this study determined that certain methods and yeast strains could reduce whey-related pollution and thus help reduce costs of whey disposal.

  15. Yeast community survey in the Tagus estuary.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Joo M G C F

    2005-07-01

    The yeast community in the waters of the Tagus estuary, Portugal, was followed for over a year in order to assess its dynamics. Yeast occurrence and incidence were measured and this information was related to relevant environmental data. Yeast occurrence did not seem to depend upon tides, but river discharge had a dramatic impact both on the density and diversity of the community. The occurrence of some yeasts was partially correlated with faecal pollution indicators. Yeast isolates were characterized by microsatellite primed PCR (MSP-PCR) fingerprinting and rRNA gene sequencing. The principal species found were Candida catenulata, C. intermedia, C. parapsilosis, Clavispora lusitaniae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia guilliermondii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Rhodosporidium diobovatum. The incidence of these species was evaluated against the environmental context of the samples and the current knowledge about the substrates from which they are usually isolated. PMID:16329949

  16. Systematic screens of a Candida albicans homozygous deletion library decouple morphogenetic switching and pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Suzanne M.; French, Sarah; Kohn, Lisa A.; Chen, Victoria; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common cause of serious fungal disease in humans. Creation of isogenic null mutants of this diploid organism, which requires sequential gene targeting, allows dissection of virulence mechanisms. Published analyses of such mutants show a near-perfect correlation between C. albicans pathogenicity and the ability to undergo a yeast-to-hypha morphological switch in vitro. However, most studies used mutants constructed with a marker that is itself a virulence determinant and therefore complicates their interpretation. Using alternative markers, we created ~3000 homozygous deletion strains affecting 674 genes or roughly 11% of the C. albicans genome. Screening for infectivity in a mouse model and for morphological switching and cell proliferation in vitro, we identified 115 infectivity-attenuated mutants, of which nearly half demonstrated normal morphological switching and proliferation. Analysis of such mutants identified the glycolipid, glucosylceramide, as the first small molecule synthesized by this pathogen to be required specifically for virulence. PMID:20543849

  17. Switching of colony morphology and adhesion activity of Trichosporon asahii clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Tomoe; Yoshiyama, Nao; Ohgane, Yuzuha; Ikeda, Reiko

    2016-02-01

    Trichosporon asahii is a pathogenic yeast that causes trichosporonosis, a deep-seated infection, in immunocompromised hosts. Pathogenic factors involved in this infection have not been investigated in detail, but morphological phenotype switching is thought to be important for T. asahii pathogenesis. Therefore, we analyzed adhesion, which may be a key early step in T. asahii infection, after morphological phenotype switching. T. asahii clinical isolates show several colony morphologies. In this study, colonies showing white-farinose (W), off-white-smooth (O), off-white-rugose (OR), smooth (S), and yellowish-white (Y) morphologies were obtained from three isolates and compared in an adhesion assay performed in cell culture dishes. At least one type of colony morphology from each clinical isolate adhered strongly to the culture dish surface, although the colony type that displayed strong adherence varied among the strains. Thus, morphological phenotype switching altered the adhesion of T. asahii strains. PMID:26483434

  18. Structural basis of high-fidelity DNA synthesis by yeast DNA polymerase [delta

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, Michael K.; Johnson, Robert E.; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2009-09-25

    DNA polymerase {delta} (Pol {delta}) is a high-fidelity polymerase that has a central role in replication from yeast to humans. We present the crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of yeast Pol {delta} in ternary complex with a template primer and an incoming nucleotide. The structure, determined at 2.0-{angstrom} resolution, catches the enzyme in the act of replication, revealing how the polymerase and exonuclease domains are juxtaposed relative to each other and how a correct nucleotide is selected and incorporated. The structure also reveals the 'sensing' interactions near the primer terminus, which signal a switch from the polymerizing to the editing mode. Taken together, the structure provides a chemical basis for the bulk of DNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells and a framework for understanding the effects of cancer-causing mutations in Pol {delta}.

  19. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  20. Switch dynamics for stochastic model of genetic toggle switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong; Zhu, Ya-nan; Shen, Jianwei; Su, Jianbin

    2014-12-01

    Recently, more and more biological experiments have indicated that noise plays an important role in bistable systems, such as the case of the bimodal population distribution in the genetic toggle switch. In this paper, we further verify that noises in degradation rates can indeed induce switching in the genetic toggle switch. Meanwhile, we apply the theory of mean first passage time (MFPT) in high dimensional system to the above stochastic model. According to our assumption, the high order finite difference method is used to compute the MFPT (that the average time switching from one steady state to the other) and we find that the relationship between the MFPT and noise intensity is negative correlation. The result is also verified through another numerical simulation method.

  1. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi associated with tree bark: diversity and identification of yeasts producing extracellular endoxylanases.

    PubMed

    Bhadra, Bhaskar; Rao, R Sreenivas; Singh, Pavan K; Sarkar, Partha K; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2008-05-01

    A total of 239 yeast strains was isolated from 52 tree bark samples of the Medaram and Srisailam forest areas of Andhra Pradesh, India. Based on analysis of D1/D2 domain sequence of 26S rRNA gene, 114 strains were identified as ascomycetous; 107 strains were identified as basidiomycetous yeasts; and 18 strains were identified as yeast-like fungi. Among the ascomycetous yeasts, 51% were identified as members of the genus Pichia, and the remaining 49% included species belonging to the genera Clavispora, Debaryomyces, Kluyveromyces, Hanseniaspora, Issatchenkia, Lodderomyces, Kodamaea, Metschnikowia, and Torulaspora. The predominant genera in the basidiomycetous yeasts were Cryptococcus (48.6%), Rhodotorula (29%), and Rhodosporidium (12.1%). The yeast-like fungi were represented by Aureobasidium pullulans (6.7%) and Lecythophora hoffmanii (0.8%). Of the 239 yeast strains tested for Xylanase, only five strains of Aureobasidium sp. produced xylanase on xylan-agar medium. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analysis and N-terminal amino-acid sequence of the xylanase of isolate YS67 showed high similarity with endo-1-4-beta-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) of Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanigenum. PMID:18219522

  2. Characteristics of switching plasma in an inverse-pinch switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Choi, Sang H.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Han, Kwang S.; Nam, Sang H.

    1993-01-01

    Characteristics of the plasma that switches on tens of giga volt-ampere in an inverse-pinch plasma switch (INPIStron) have been made. Through optical and spectroscopic diagnostics of the current carrying plasma, the current density, the motion of current paths, dominant ionic species have been determined in order to access their effects on circuit parameters and material erosion. Also the optimum operational condition of the plasma-puff triggering method required for azimuthally uniform conduction in the INPIStron has been determined.

  3. Power diode switching behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourick, Paul Christiaan

    1988-12-01

    The objective is the analysis of the relations between the return current behavior and the diode configuration and the waking conditions. In case of rupture, very high overvoltages due to inductivities appear because of the high values of di/dt, which can delete the diode or other components. In the case of soft recovery, a great dissipation arises by switching and the diode is not useful for the high frequencies. Five types of net diode are studied: p+n n+ diode with thick middle zone, charge carrier life expectancy is high and returns currents; p+n n+ diode with thin middle zone, an homogeneous distribution of recombination centers makes the zone n available for the dynamic inverse voltage and a good choice of concentration limits return currents; p+n n+ diode with extremely thin middle zone, because of the weak inductivity, and the high value of du/dt, return current peak and work losses are minimal; p+n n+ diode with a doping which limits the room charge zone, the result is analog to the second diode; p+n n+p+n+, if the p-base is well dimensioned, there is no blocking voltage and the conduction voltage is very low.

  4. The magnetoelectrochemical switch

    PubMed Central

    Lunca Popa, Petru; Kemp, Neil T.; Majjad, Hicham; Dalmas, Guillaume; Faramarzi, Vina; Andreas, Christian; Hertel, Riccardo; Doudin, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    In the field of spintronics, the archetype solid-state two-terminal device is the spin valve, where the resistance is controlled by the magnetization configuration. We show here how this concept of spin-dependent switch can be extended to magnetic electrodes in solution, by magnetic control of their chemical environment. Appropriate nanoscale design allows a huge enhancement of the magnetic force field experienced by paramagnetic molecular species in solutions, which changes between repulsive and attractive on changing the electrodes’ magnetic orientations. Specifically, the field gradient force created within a sub-100-nm-sized nanogap separating two magnetic electrodes can be reversed by changing the orientation of the electrodes’ magnetization relative to the current flowing between the electrodes. This can result in a breaking or making of an electric nanocontact, with a change of resistance by a factor of up to 103. The results reveal how an external field can impact chemical equilibrium in the vicinity of nanoscale magnetic circuits. PMID:25009179

  5. The magnetoelectrochemical switch.

    PubMed

    Popa, Petru Lunca; Kemp, Neil T; Majjad, Hicham; Dalmas, Guillaume; Faramarzi, Vina; Andreas, Christian; Hertel, Riccardo; Doudin, Bernard

    2014-07-22

    In the field of spintronics, the archetype solid-state two-terminal device is the spin valve, where the resistance is controlled by the magnetization configuration. We show here how this concept of spin-dependent switch can be extended to magnetic electrodes in solution, by magnetic control of their chemical environment. Appropriate nanoscale design allows a huge enhancement of the magnetic force field experienced by paramagnetic molecular species in solutions, which changes between repulsive and attractive on changing the electrodes' magnetic orientations. Specifically, the field gradient force created within a sub-100-nm-sized nanogap separating two magnetic electrodes can be reversed by changing the orientation of the electrodes' magnetization relative to the current flowing between the electrodes. This can result in a breaking or making of an electric nanocontact, with a change of resistance by a factor of up to 10(3). The results reveal how an external field can impact chemical equilibrium in the vicinity of nanoscale magnetic circuits. PMID:25009179

  6. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, James D.

    1998-01-01

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a seriesed combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided.

  7. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, J.D.

    1998-06-02

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a series combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electrically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided. 14 figs.

  8. Task Switching versus Cue Switching: Using Transition Cuing to Disentangle Sequential Effects in Task-Switching Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2007-01-01

    Recent methodological advances have allowed researchers to address confounds in the measurement of task-switch costs in task-switching performance by dissociating cue switching from task switching. For example, in the transition-cuing procedure, which involves presenting cues for task transitions rather than for tasks, cue transitions (cue

  9. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Pikur, Jure

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. PMID:24932634

  10. Accelerating Yeast Prion Biology using Droplet Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ung, Lloyd; Rotem, Assaf; Jarosz, Daniel; Datta, Manoshi; Lindquist, Susan; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    Prions are infectious proteins in a misfolded form, that can induce normal proteins to take the misfolded state. Yeast prions are relevant, as a model of human prion diseases, and interesting from an evolutionary standpoint. Prions may also be a form of epigenetic inheritance, which allow yeast to adapt to stressful conditions at rates exceeding those of random mutations and propagate that adaptation to their offspring. Encapsulation of yeast in droplet microfluidic devices enables high-throughput measurements with single cell resolution, which would not be feasible using bulk methods. Millions of populations of yeast can be screened to obtain reliable measurements of prion induction and loss rates. The population dynamics of clonal yeast, when a fraction of the cells are prion expressing, can be elucidated. Furthermore, the mechanism by which certain strains of bacteria induce yeast to express prions in the wild can be deduced. Integrating the disparate fields of prion biology and droplet microfluidics reveals a more complete picture of how prions may be more than just diseases and play a functional role in yeast.

  11. Genomics and the making of yeast biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Hittinger, Chris Todd; Rokas, Antonis; Bai, Feng-Yan; Boekhout, Teun; Gonçalves, Paula; Jeffries, Thomas W; Kominek, Jacek; Lachance, Marc-André; Libkind, Diego; Rosa, Carlos A; Sampaio, José Paulo; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2015-12-01

    Yeasts are unicellular fungi that do not form fruiting bodies. Although the yeast lifestyle has evolved multiple times, most known species belong to the subphylum Saccharomycotina (syn. Hemiascomycota, hereafter yeasts). This diverse group includes the premier eukaryotic model system, Saccharomyces cerevisiae; the common human commensal and opportunistic pathogen, Candida albicans; and over 1000 other known species (with more continuing to be discovered). Yeasts are found in every biome and continent and are more genetically diverse than angiosperms or chordates. Ease of culture, simple life cycles, and small genomes (∼10-20Mbp) have made yeasts exceptional models for molecular genetics, biotechnology, and evolutionary genomics. Here we discuss recent developments in understanding the genomic underpinnings of the making of yeast biodiversity, comparing and contrasting natural and human-associated evolutionary processes. Only a tiny fraction of yeast biodiversity and metabolic capabilities has been tapped by industry and science. Expanding the taxonomic breadth of deep genomic investigations will further illuminate how genome function evolves to encode their diverse metabolisms and ecologies. PMID:26649756

  12. Hobetron current regulating switch tube

    SciTech Connect

    True, R.B.; Hansen, R.J.; Deb, D.N.; Good, G.R.; Reass, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a novel high power electron tube that can hold off voltages up to hundreds of kilovolts, and switch hundreds of amps of current. They call the divide the Hobertron since it utilizes a hollow electron beam. Unlike magnetron injection gun (MIG) switch tubes, it does not require a magnet. Further, it uses nonintercepting control laments, and a dispenser cathode for long life and reliability. Finally, it features a double walled Faraday cage collector for high power dissipation capability. Current is very tightly controlled against changes in voltage across the switch (it is an almost perfect pentode), thus this tube is ideally suited for direct series switching applications. In the paper, various Hobertron designs, and the computer codes and methods used to create them, will be described.

  13. Switching for electric rail guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, J. P.; Bauer, D. P.

    1984-03-01

    The switching requirements of single-stage electric railguns powered by inductive energy stores are analyzed, and the design of a 500-kA commutation switch is shown. The closed, commutation, and off states of the switch and the reclosure function at the end of the projectile acceleration are discussed in general terms, and the specific requirements of the railgun facility at Australian National University are listed. The switch designed is essentially a railgun mounted perpendicular to the breech of the electric railgun, with the armature accelerating down copper rails at closing speeds from 50 m/sec at 100 kA to 300 m/sec at 500 kA to commutate current to the railgun. Commutation time and maximum voltage during 200 shots at 400 kA were found to be 50 microsec and 100 V; commutation inductance was 18-20 nH.

  14. Solid state bistable power switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartko, J.; Shulman, H.

    1970-01-01

    Tin and copper provide high current and switching time capabilities for high-current resettable fuses. They show the best performance for trip current and degree of reliability, and have low coefficients of thermal expansion.

  15. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J S

    2012-01-17

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  16. Theory of molecular hysteresis switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhushner, Mortko; Oleynik, Ivan

    2006-03-01

    Molecular hysteresis switching has been recently observed in a series of experiments that measured the I-V spectrum of bipyridyl-dinitro oligophenylene-ethylene dithiol (BPDN) based molecular devices [1]. The experimental observations clearly show the presence of Coulomb blockade in single organic molecules that is responsible for the voltage-induced switching. We present the theory of the hysteresis switch which explains the non-linear hysteresis I-V characteristics based on the mechanisms of Coulomb blockade and the existence of two different molecular conformations of neutral and charged states of the molecule. [1] A.S. Blum, J.G. Kushmerick, D.P. Long, C.H. Patterson, J.C. Yang, J.C. Henderson, Y.X. Yao, J.M. Tour, R. Shashidhar, and B.R. Ratna, ``Molecularly inherent voltage-controlled conductance switching'' , Nature Materials 4, 167 (2005).

  17. Electron collisions in gas switches

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    Many technologies rely on the conduction/insulation properties of gaseous matter for their successful operation. Many others (e.g., pulsed power technologies) rely on the rapid change (switching or modulation) of the properties of gaseous matter from an insulator to a conductor and vice versa. Studies of electron collision processes in gases aided the development of pulsed power gas switches, and in this paper we shall briefly illustrate the kind of knowledge on electron collision processes which is needed to optimize the performance of such switching devices. To this end, we shall refer to three types of gas switches: spark gap closing, self-sustained diffuse discharge closing, and externally-sustained diffuse discharge opening. 24 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Rheologically interesting polysaccharides from yeasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Nelson, G. A.; Cathey, C. A.; Fuller, G. G.

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the relationships between primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of polysaccharides exhibiting the rheological property of friction (drag) reduction in turbulent flows. We found an example of an exopolysaccharide from the yeast Cryptococcus laurentii that possessed high molecular weight but exhibited lower than expected drag reducing activity. Earlier correlations by Hoyt showing that beta 1 --> 3, beta 2 --> 4, and alpha 1 --> 3 linkages in polysaccharides favored drag reduction were expanded to include correlations to secondary structure. The effect of sidechains in a series of gellan gums was shown to be related to sidechain length and position. Disruption of secondary structure in drag reducing polysaccharides reduced drag reducing activity for some but not all exopolysaccharides. The polymer from C. laurentii was shown to be more stable than xanthan gum and other exopolysaccharides under the most vigorous of denaturing conditions. We also showed a direct relationship between extensional viscosity measurements and the drag reducing coefficient for four exopolysaccharides.

  19. MAP kinase dynamics in yeast.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, F; Peter, M

    2001-09-01

    MAP kinase pathways play key roles in cellular responses towards extracellular signals. In several cases, the three core kinases interact with a scaffold molecule, but the function of these scaffolds is poorly understood. They have been proposed to contribute to signal specificity, signal amplification, or subcellular localization of MAP kinases. Several MAP kinases translocate to the nucleus in response to their activation, suggesting that nuclear transport may provide a regulatory mechanism. Here we describe new applications for Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Loss In Photobleaching (FLIP), to study dynamic translocations of MAPKs between different subcellular compartments. We have used these methods to measure the nuclear/cytoplasmic dynamics of several yeast MAP kinases, and in particular to address the role of scaffold proteins for MAP-kinase signaling. PMID:11730324

  20. Engineering alcohol tolerance in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Felix H.; Ghaderi, Adel; Fink, Gerald R.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol toxicity in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae limits titer and productivity in the industrial production of transportation bioethanol. We show that strengthening the opposing potassium and proton electrochemical membrane gradients is a mechanism that enhances general resistance to multiple alcohols. Elevation of extracellular potassium and pH physically bolster these gradients, increasing tolerance to higher alcohols and ethanol fermentation in commercial and laboratory strains (including a xylose-fermenting strain) under industrial-like conditions. Production per cell remains largely unchanged with improvements deriving from heightened population viability. Likewise, up-regulation of the potassium and proton pumps in the laboratory strain enhances performance to levels exceeding industrial strains. Although genetically complex, alcohol tolerance can thus be dominated by a single cellular process, one controlled by a major physicochemical component but amenable to biological augmentation. PMID:25278607

  1. Extracellular Deoxyribonuclease Production by Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Cazin, John; Kozel, Thomas R.; Lupan, David M.; Burt, Wayne R.

    1969-01-01

    A total of 20 genera of yeasts and yeastlike organisms were tested for their ability to produce an extracellular deoxyribonuclease. Results indicate that ability to produce the enzyme appears to be a specific characteristic of the three genera Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, and Tremella. A single strain of Endomycopsis fibuligera was also shown to be positive for the enzyme. In comparing the ability of the organisms to excrete extracellular deoxyribonuclease with their ability to produce urease, a surprisingly close correlation was found. With the exception of Lipomyces starkeyi, all the organisms which were deoxyribonuclease-negative were also urease-negative. Of those organisms which were deoxyribonuclease-positive, only E. fibuligera was urease-negative. The ability of cryptococci to produce extracellular deoxyribonuclease is discussed in relation to the implication which this finding may have for the taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus. PMID:5354946

  2. High PRF high current switch

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Stuart L. (Fredericksburg, VA); Hutcherson, R. Kenneth (College Park, MD)

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  3. A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

  4. Terabit switching and routing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, Aleksandra

    2005-02-01

    The Internet is growing, and terabit routers are needed. We will discuss two scalable architectures, and their performances: the packet switch with input buffers based on a cross-bar fabric, and the packet switch based on a Clos fabric and load balancing. Both architectures provide non-blocking, and, therefore agile admission control for unicast and multicast traffic. They will be also shown to provide rate and delay guarantees to the sensitive applications.

  5. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast protein. 172.325 Section 172.325 Food... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast protein is...

  6. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bakers yeast protein. 172.325 Section 172.325 Food... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast protein is...

  7. Yeast cell-surface expression of chitosanase from Paenibacillus fukuinensis.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Isogawa, Danya; Takagi, Madoka; Kato-Murai, Michiko; Kimoto, Hisashi; Kusaoke, Hideo; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Suye, Shin-Ichiro

    2007-11-01

    To produce chitoorigosaccharides using chitosan, we attempted to construct Paenibacillus fukuinensis chitosanase-displaying yeast cells as a whole-cell biocatalyst through yeast cell-surface engineering. The localization of the chitosanase on the yeast cell surface was confirmed by immunofluorescence labeling of cells. The chitosanase activity of the constructed yeast was investigated by halo assay and the dinitrosalicylic acid method. PMID:17986777

  8. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bakers yeast protein. 172.325 Section 172.325 Food... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast protein is...

  9. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bakers yeast protein. 172.325 Section 172.325 Food... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast protein is...

  10. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast protein. 172.325 Section 172.325 Food... Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast protein is the insoluble proteinaceous material...

  11. K-Band Latching Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piotrowski, W. S.; Raue, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Design, development, and tests are described for two single-pole-double-throw latching waveguide ferrite switches: a K-band switch in WR-42 waveguide and a Ka-band switch in WR-28 waveguide. Both switches have structurally simple junctions, mechanically interlocked without the use of bonding materials; they are impervious to the effects of thermal, shock, and vibration stresses. Ferrite material for the Ka-band switch with a proper combination of magnetic and dielectric properties was available and resulted in excellent low loss, wideband performance. The high power handling requirement of the K-band switch limited the choice of ferrite to nickel-zinc compositions with adequate magnetic properties, but with too low relative dielectric constant. The relative dielectric constant determines the junction dimensions for given frequency responses. In this case the too low value unavoidably leads to a larger than optimum junction volume, increasing the insertion loss and restricting the operating bandwidth. Efforts to overcome the materials-related difficulties through the design of a composite junction with increased effective dielectric properties efforts to modify the relative dielectric constant of nickel-zinc ferrite are examined.

  12. Vanadium dioxide phase change switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, M.; Hillman, C.; Stupar, P.; Hacker, J.; Griffith, Z.; Lee, K.-J.

    2015-05-01

    The thermally driven metal insulator transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2) is used to create a low loss millimeter wave switch which operates up to and beyond W-band frequencies. We have built RF switches using vanadium dioxide thin films fabricated within a section of inverted transmission line with integrated on chip heaters to provide local thermal control. On heating the films above the metal insulator transition we obtain record low switch insertion loss of 0.13 dB at 50 GHz and 0.5 dB at 110 GHz. The switch cut-off frequency is high, fc ~ 45 THz, due to the low on state resistance and off state capacitance. We have investigated the device physics of these switches including self-latching of the devices under high RF powers, and demonstrated their integration with silicon germanium RF circuits where the switch heater current sources and control logic are also integrated into the same silicon germanium circuit.

  13. Sealed reed relay limit switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. P.; Svintsov, G. P.; Yefimova, M. A.; Lebedev, A. V.; Samsonov, Y. P.

    1986-01-01

    Sealed reed relay limit switches are described which overcome the inherent deficiencies traditionally present in these devices: high material, labor consumption, and difficult operation. Series VSG limit switches developed at the All-Union Scientific Research and Technological Planning Institute for Relay Engineering (Cheboksary) for use in buildings are described. The VSG1 has a single switching contact, the VSG2 a single normally open contact, and the VSG3 a single normally closed contact. The VSG1 employs type MKS-27103 sealed reed relays, while the VSG2 and VSG3 employ KEM-1 reed relays. The magnet system, which consists of magnets and a plate, and the sealed reed relay are contained in a nonmagnetic casing with a slit in it. The mathematical expression defining the geometric dimensions of the magnet system is given. The basic parameteres of all three types of switches are tabulated. The VSG series switches can be used to replace VBK and BVK switches, thus saving electricity, labor, and materials, including silver.

  14. Assembly of eukaryotic algal chromosomes in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Synthetic genomic approaches offer unique opportunities to use powerful yeast and Escherichia coli genetic systems to assemble and modify chromosome-sized molecules before returning the modified DNA to the target host. For example, the entire 1 Mb Mycoplasma mycoides chromosome can be stably maintained and manipulated in yeast before being transplanted back into recipient cells. We have previously demonstrated that cloning in yeast of large (> ~ 150 kb), high G + C (55%) prokaryotic DNA fragments was improved by addition of yeast replication origins every ~100 kb. Conversely, low G + C DNA is stable (up to at least 1.8 Mb) without adding supplemental yeast origins. It has not been previously tested whether addition of yeast replication origins similarly improves the yeast-based cloning of large (>150 kb) eukaryotic DNA with moderate G + C content. The model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has an average G + C content of 48% and a 27.4 Mb genome sequence that has been assembled into chromosome-sized scaffolds making it an ideal test case for assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic chromosomes in yeast. Results We present a modified chromosome assembly technique in which eukaryotic chromosomes as large as ~500 kb can be assembled from cloned ~100 kb fragments. We used this technique to clone fragments spanning P. tricornutum chromosomes 25 and 26 and to assemble these fragments into single, chromosome-sized molecules. We found that addition of yeast replication origins improved the cloning, assembly, and maintenance of the large chromosomes in yeast. Furthermore, purification of the fragments to be assembled by electroelution greatly increased assembly efficiency. Conclusions Entire eukaryotic chromosomes can be successfully cloned, maintained, and manipulated in yeast. These results highlight the improvement in assembly and maintenance afforded by including yeast replication origins in eukaryotic DNA with moderate G + C content (48%). They also highlight the increased efficiency of assembly that can be achieved by purifying fragments before assembly. PMID:24325901

  15. Efforts to make and apply humanized yeast

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Jon M.; Young, Jonathan H.; Kachroo, Aashiq H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a billion years of divergent evolution, the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has long proven to be an invaluable model organism for studying human biology. Given its tractability and ease of genetic manipulation, along with extensive genetic conservation with humans, it is perhaps no surprise that researchers have been able to expand its utility by expressing human proteins in yeast, or by humanizing specific yeast amino acids, proteins or even entire pathways. These methods are increasingly being scaled in throughput, further enabling the detailed investigation of human biology and disease-specific variations of human genes in a simplified model organism. PMID:26462863

  16. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... monthly access minutes for such service to compute the monthly credit to such a carrier. (d) If all local... required to access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Price... access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Non-price...

  17. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... monthly access minutes for such service to compute the monthly credit to such a carrier. (d) If all local... required to access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Price... access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Non-price...

  18. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... monthly access minutes for such service to compute the monthly credit to such a carrier. (d) If all local... required to access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Price... access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Non-price...

  19. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... monthly access minutes for such service to compute the monthly credit to such a carrier. (d) If all local... required to access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Price... access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Non-price...

  20. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... monthly access minutes for such service to compute the monthly credit to such a carrier. (d) If all local... required to access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Price... access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Non-price...

  1. Working Memory Costs of Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Barrouillet, Pierre; Vandierendonck, Andre; Camos, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Although many accounts of task switching emphasize the importance of working memory as a substantial source of the switch cost, there is a lack of evidence demonstrating that task switching actually places additional demands on working memory. The present study addressed this issue by implementing task switching in continuous complex span tasks…

  2. Working Memory Costs of Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Barrouillet, Pierre; Vandierendonck, Andre; Camos, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Although many accounts of task switching emphasize the importance of working memory as a substantial source of the switch cost, there is a lack of evidence demonstrating that task switching actually places additional demands on working memory. The present study addressed this issue by implementing task switching in continuous complex span tasks

  3. Nanomechanical switch for integration with CMOS logic.

    SciTech Connect

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Wolfley, Steven L.; Baker, Michael Sean; Czaplewski, David A.; Wendt, Joel Robert; Kraus, Garth Merlin; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Patrizi, Gary A.

    2008-11-01

    We designed, fabricated and measured the performance of nanoelectromechanical (NEMS) switches. Initial data are reported with one of the switch designs having a measured switching time of 400 ns and an operating voltage of 5 V. The switches operated laterally with unmeasurable leakage current in the 'off' state. Surface micromachining techniques were used to fabricate the switches. All processing was CMOS compatible. A single metal layer, defined by a single mask step, was used as the mechanical switch layer. The details of the modeling, fabrication and testing of the NEMS switches are reported.

  4. Evaluation of the Uni-Yeast-Tek kit for the identification of medically important yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, P I; Ahearn, D G

    1975-01-01

    The Uni-Yeast-Tek system, a commercially prepared kit and scheme for the rapid identification of medically important yeasts (Corning Medical), was evaluated in comparison with a conventional procedure in the identification of 623 yeasts. The system permitted the presumptive identification of 99.8% of 436 isolates representing 16 common species commonly isolated in the clinical laboratory. Correct biochemical and morphological analyses were obtained with 48 other species, but their specific identification required additional data. Images PMID:1102563

  5. Electronic logic for enhanced switch reliability

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-20

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and fail-safe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  6. 49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover... Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. (a)(1...) General. Employees operating or verifying the position of a hand-operated switch shall: (1) Conduct...

  7. 49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover... Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. (a)(1...) General. Employees operating or verifying the position of a hand-operated switch shall: (1) Conduct...

  8. Non-latching relay switch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Duimstra, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    A non-latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes a permanent magnet and an electromagnet. The respective sections are arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch has a "normal" position and is selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly. The switch returns to the "normal" position when the overriding electromagnetic assembly is inactive.

  9. High speed packet switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This document constitutes the final report prepared by Proteon, Inc. of Westborough, Massachusetts under contract NAS 5-30629 entitled High-Speed Packet Switching (SBIR 87-1, Phase 2) prepared for NASA-Greenbelt, Maryland. The primary goal of this research project is to use the results of the SBIR Phase 1 effort to develop a sound, expandable hardware and software router architecture capable of forwarding 25,000 packets per second through the router and passing 300 megabits per second on the router's internal busses. The work being delivered under this contract received its funding from three different sources: the SNIPE/RIG contract (Contract Number F30602-89-C-0014, CDRL Sequence Number A002), the SBIR contract, and Proteon. The SNIPE/RIG and SBIR contracts had many overlapping requirements, which allowed the research done under SNIPE/RIG to be applied to SBIR. Proteon funded all of the work to develop new router interfaces other than FDDI, in addition to funding the productization of the router itself. The router being delivered under SBIR will be a fully product-quality machine. The work done during this contract produced many significant findings and results, summarized here and explained in detail in later sections of this report. The SNIPE/RIG contract was completed. That contract had many overlapping requirements with the SBIR contract, and resulted in the successful demonstration and delivery of a high speed router. The development that took place during the SNIPE/RIG contract produced findings that included the choice of processor and an understanding of the issues surrounding inter processor communications in a multiprocessor environment. Many significant speed enhancements to the router software were made during that time. Under the SBIR contract (and with help from Proteon-funded work), it was found that a single processor router achieved a throughput significantly higher than originally anticipated. For this reason, a single processor router was developed and the final delivery under this contract will include a single processor CNX-500 router. The router and its interface boards (2 FDDIs and 2 dual-ethernets) are all product-quality components.

  10. CYGD: the Comprehensive Yeast Genome Database.

    PubMed

    Gldener, U; Mnsterktter, M; Kastenmller, G; Strack, N; van Helden, J; Lemer, C; Richelles, J; Wodak, S J; Garca-Martnez, J; Prez-Ortn, J E; Michael, H; Kaps, A; Talla, E; Dujon, B; Andr, B; Souciet, J L; De Montigny, J; Bon, E; Gaillardin, C; Mewes, H W

    2005-01-01

    The Comprehensive Yeast Genome Database (CYGD) compiles a comprehensive data resource for information on the cellular functions of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species, chosen as the best understood model organism for eukaryotes. The database serves as a common resource generated by a European consortium, going beyond the provision of sequence information and functional annotations on individual genes and proteins. In addition, it provides information on the physical and functional interactions among proteins as well as other genetic elements. These cellular networks include metabolic and regulatory pathways, signal transduction and transport processes as well as co-regulated gene clusters. As more yeast genomes are published, their annotation becomes greatly facilitated using S.cerevisiae as a reference. CYGD provides a way of exploring related genomes with the aid of the S.cerevisiae genome as a backbone and SIMAP, the Similarity Matrix of Proteins. The comprehensive resource is available under http://mips.gsf.de/genre/proj/yeast/. PMID:15608217

  11. CYGD: the Comprehensive Yeast Genome Database

    PubMed Central

    Gldener, U.; Mnsterktter, M.; Kastenmller, G.; Strack, N.; van Helden, J.; Lemer, C.; Richelles, J.; Wodak, S. J.; Garca-Martnez, J.; Prez-Ortn, J. E.; Michael, H.; Kaps, A.; Talla, E.; Dujon, B.; Andr, B.; Souciet, J. L.; De Montigny, J.; Bon, E.; Gaillardin, C.; Mewes, H. W.

    2005-01-01

    The Comprehensive Yeast Genome Database (CYGD) compiles a comprehensive data resource for information on the cellular functions of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species, chosen as the best understood model organism for eukaryotes. The database serves as a common resource generated by a European consortium, going beyond the provision of sequence information and functional annotations on individual genes and proteins. In addition, it provides information on the physical and functional interactions among proteins as well as other genetic elements. These cellular networks include metabolic and regulatory pathways, signal transduction and transport processes as well as co-regulated gene clusters. As more yeast genomes are published, their annotation becomes greatly facilitated using S.cerevisiae as a reference. CYGD provides a way of exploring related genomes with the aid of the S.cerevisiae genome as a backbone and SIMAP, the Similarity Matrix of Proteins. The comprehensive resource is available under http://mips.gsf.de/genre/proj/yeast/. PMID:15608217

  12. Protection from nitrosative stress by yeast flavohemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Limin; Zeng, Ming; Hausladen, Alfred; Heitman, Joseph; Stamler, Jonathan S.

    2000-01-01

    Yeast hemoglobin was discovered close to half a century ago, but its function has remained unknown. Herein, we report that this flavohemoglobin protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae from nitrosative stress. Deletion of the flavohemoglobin gene (YHB1) abolished the nitric oxide (NO)-consuming activity of yeast cells. Levels of protein nitrosylation were more than 10-fold higher in yhb1 mutant yeast than in isogenic wild-type cells after incubation with NO donors. Growth of mutant cells was inhibited by a nitrosative challenge that had little effect on wild-type cells, whereas the resistance of mutant cells to oxidative stress was unimpaired. Protection conferred by yeast flavohemoglobin against NO and S-nitrosothiols was seen under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, consistent with a primary function in NO detoxification. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that protection from nitrosative stress is likely to be a conserved function among microorganismal flavohemoglobins. Flavohemoglobin is therefore a potential target for antimicrobial therapy. PMID:10758168

  13. Genomic Evolution of the Ascomycete Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Salamov, Asaf; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Goker, Markus; Hittinger, Chris; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lopes, Mariana; Meir-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos; Scheuner, Carmen; Soares, Marco; Stielow, Benjamin; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Wolfe, Ken; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus; Grigoriev, Igor; Jeffries, Thomas

    2015-03-16

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. Phylogenetic analysis of these and previously published yeast genomes helped resolve the placement of species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora, Hyphopichia burtonii, and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Moreover, we find that alternative nuclear codon usage, where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine, are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with a large fraction of single exon genes, and a tendency towards more introns in early-diverging species. Analysis of enzyme phylogeny gives insights into the evolution of metabolic capabilities such as methanol utilization and assimilation of alternative carbon sources.

  14. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  15. [Regulation of gene expression in methylotrophic yeasts].

    PubMed

    Grabek-Lejko, Dorota; Sibirny, Vladimir; Sibirny, Andriy

    2013-01-01

    Methylotrophic yeasts are unique eukaryotic organisms, that can metabolize toxic one-carbon substrate, methyl alcohol or methanol. About 50 species of methylotrophic yeasts is known, among them 4 species are the best studied: Pichia methanolica, Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia pastoris i Candida boidinii. These organisms, especially P. pastoris i H. polymorpha appeared to be very perspective overproducers of heterologous proteins and nowadays are used for industrial production of some of them. In this review, we provide information on the organization of the genome, mechanisms of regulation of gene expression and the use of strong promoters of these yeast species to construct the producers of heterologous proteins. In more details, we analyze genetic control of carbon and nitrogen catabolic repression in H. polymorpha and also the identification of metabolites inducing catabolite repression or peroxisome selective autophagy in the medium with ethanol in the Pichia methanolica yeast. PMID:23821948

  16. Multidrug resistant yeasts in synanthropic wild birds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of multidrug resistant yeasts in the faeces of synanthropic wild birds from the Bangsar suburb of Kuala Lumpur. Methods Species characterisations of yeast isolates and determinations of antimycotic susceptibility profiles were undertaken using the commercial characterization kit, Integral System Yeasts Plus (Liofilchem, Italy). Results Fourteen species of yeasts were detected in the bird faecal samples.Candida albicans was present in 28.89% of bird faecal samples, Candida krusei (13.33%), Candida tropicalis (4.44%), Candida glabrata (4.44%), Candida parapsilosis (2.22%), Candida lambica (2.22%), Candida stellatoidea (2.22%), Candida rugosa (2.22%) and Candida lusitaniae (2.22%). Amongst the non-candidal yeast isolates, Cryptococcus laurentii was present in 6.67% of bird faecal samples, Cryptococcus uniguttulatus (4.44%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (4.44%), Trichosporon pullulans (2.22%), Trichosporon pullulans/Cryptococcus albidus (8.89%) and Rhodotorula rubra/Rhodotorula glutinis (4.44%). Of the isolated yeasts, 18.1% (or 26/144) were found to be resistant to all 11 antimycotic agents they were tested against i.e. Nystatin, Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, Econazole, Ketoconazole, Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Fluconazole 16 and Fluconazole 64. 45.8% (or 66/144) of the bird faecal yeast isolates were resistant to four or more of the 11 antimycotic agents they were tested against. Conclusions This finding is of public health significance as these synanthropic wild birds may be reservoirs for transmission of drug resistant yeast infections to humans. PMID:20307325

  17. Metallothionein function and genetic regulation in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, D.J.; Butt, T.R.; Crooke, S.T.

    1986-05-01

    Copper resistance in yeast is mediated by the CUP1 locus which codes for yeast metallothionein (MT). A genetic approach was taken to study yeast MT gene regulation and to test the function of MT in the detoxification of metal ions other than copper. A yeast strain was constructed (cup1/sup ..delta../) in which the MT structural and regulatory sequences were deleted. The deleted gene was then replaced with the following genetically modified forms of MT on high copy episomal plasmid (YE/sup p/ 13): 1) the intact yeast gene with normal structural and regulatory sequences; 2) a constitutively expressed yeast promoter (TDH) running the yeast MT structural gene. Metal resistance in the cup1/sup ..delta../ strain and the cup1/sup ..delta../ strain transformed with the MT plasmid constructions was compared on metal-supplemented agar plates. Both of the high copy MT plasmids conferred in excess of 500-fold greater copper resistance to the cup1/sup ..delta../ strain. Increased cadmium resistance was not observed in any of the strains that had MT under normal regulatory control. However, the strain with constitutively expressed MT was in excess of 1000-fold more resistant to cadmium. Neither of the MT constructions conferred resistance to Hg,Zn,Co,Ni,Ag,Au,Pt,La,U or Sn. MT gene induction measured by the analysis of MT mRNA on northern blots showed that the yeast MT promoter is not induced by Cd, Zn, Au, Hg, Ag, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, steroid hormones or heat shock.

  18. Physiological and environmental control of yeast prions

    PubMed Central

    Chernova, Tatiana A.; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2014-01-01

    Prions are self-perpetuating protein isoforms that cause fatal and incurable neurodegenerative disease in mammals. Recent evidence indicates that a majority of human proteins involved in amyloid and neural inclusion disorders possess at least some prion properties. In lower eukaryotes, such as yeast, prions act as epigenetic elements, which increase phenotypic diversity by altering a range of cellular processes. While some yeast prions are clearly pathogenic, it is also postulated that prion formation could be beneficial in variable environmental conditions. Yeast and mammalian prions have similar molecular properties. Crucial cellular factors and conditions influencing prion formation and propagation were uncovered in the yeast models. Stress-related chaperones, protein quality control deposits, degradation pathways and cytoskeletal networks control prion formation and propagation in yeast. Environmental stresses trigger prion formation and loss, supposedly acting via influencing intracellular concentrations of the prion-inducing proteins, and/or by localizing prionogenic proteins to the prion induction sites via heterologous ancillary helpers. Physiological and environmental modulation of yeast prions points to new opportunities for pharmacological intervention and/or prophylactic measures targeting general cellular systems rather than the properties of individual amyloids and prions. PMID:24236638

  19. The growth of solar radiated yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, T.

    1995-09-01

    This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland; and (2) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The procedure used was based on the fact that yeast is most often used in consumable baked goods. Therefore, the yeast was incorporated into a basic Betty Crocker bread recipe. Data was collected by placing measured amounts of dough into sample containers with fifteen minute growth in height measurements collected and recorded. This researcher assumed the viability of yeast to be relative to its ability to produce carbon dioxide gas and cause the dough to rise. As all ingredients and surroundings were equal, this researcher assumed the yeast will produce the only significant difference in data collected. This researcher noted the approximate use date on all sample packages to be prior to arrival and experiment date. All dates equal, it was then assumed each would act in a similar manner of response. This assumption will allow for equally correct data collection.

  20. The growth of solar radiated yeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Tyrone

    1995-01-01

    This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland; and (2) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The procedure used was based on the fact that yeast is most often used in consumable baked goods. Therefore, the yeast was incorporated into a basic Betty Crocker bread recipe. Data was collected by placing measured amounts of dough into sample containers with fifteen minute growth in height measurements collected and recorded. This researcher assumed the viability of yeast to be relative to its ability to produce carbon dioxide gas and cause the dough to rise. As all ingredients and surroundings were equal, this researcher assumed the yeast will produce the only significant difference in data collected. This researcher noted the approximate use date on all sample packages to be prior to arrival and experiment date. All dates equal, it was then assumed each would act in a similar manner of response. This assumption will allow for equally correct data collection.