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1

Thermodynamic model of yeast mating type switch Baris Avsaroglu*,, Gabriel Bronk*, Jungoh Ham**, Susannah Gordon-Messer**,  

E-print Network

Thermodynamic model of yeast mating type switch Baris Avsaroglu*,, Gabriel Bronk*, Jungoh Ham In budding yeast, mating type can be switched by repairing a DNA double strand break (DSB) created at the MAT this model of donor preference we use a polymer model of yeast chromosome III to compute the distribution

Fraden, Seth

2

Asymmetric Accumulation of Ash1p in Postanaphase Nuclei Depends on a Myosin and Restricts Yeast Mating-Type Switching to Mother Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell division in haploid yeast gives rise to a “mother” cell capable of mating-type switching and a “daughter” cell that is not. Switching is initiated by the HO endonuclease, whose gene is only transcribed in cells that have previously given birth to a bud (mother cells). HO expression depends on a minimyosin, She1p\\/Myo4p, which accumulates preferentially in growing buds. We

Nicoletta Bobola; Ralf-Peter Jansen; Tae Ho Shin; Kim Nasmyth

1996-01-01

3

Global Chromatin Structure of 45,000 Base Pairs of Chromosome III in a- and ?-Cell Yeast and during Mating-Type Switching  

PubMed Central

Directionality of yeast mating-type switching has been attributed to differences in chromatin structure for the left arm of chromosome III. We have mapped the structure of ?45 kbp of the left arm of chromosome III in a and ? cells in logarithmically growing cultures and in a cells during switching. Distinctive features of chromatin structure were the occurrence of DNase I-hypersensitive sites in the promoter region of nearly every gene and some replication origins and the presence of extended regions of positioned nucleosomes in ?25% of the open reading frames. Other than the recombination enhancer, chromatin structures were identical in the two cell types. Changes in chromatin structure during switching were confined to the recombination enhancer. This unbiased analysis of an extended region of chromatin reveals that significant features of organized chromatin exist for the entire region, and these features are largely static with respect to mating type and mating-type switching. Our analysis also shows that primary chromatin structure does not cause the documented differences in recombinational frequency of the left arm of chromosome III in yeast a and ? cells. PMID:15509803

Ercan, Sevinc; Simpson, Robert T.

2004-01-01

4

Inversion of the Chromosomal Region between Two Mating Type Loci Switches the Mating Type in Hansenula polymorpha  

PubMed Central

Yeast mating type is determined by the genotype at the mating type locus (MAT). In homothallic (self-fertile) Saccharomycotina such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluveromyces lactis, high-efficiency switching between a and ? mating types enables mating. Two silent mating type cassettes, in addition to an active MAT locus, are essential components of the mating type switching mechanism. In this study, we investigated the structure and functions of mating type genes in H. polymorpha (also designated as Ogataea polymorpha). The H. polymorpha genome was found to harbor two MAT loci, MAT1 and MAT2, that are ?18 kb apart on the same chromosome. MAT1-encoded ?1 specifies ? cell identity, whereas none of the mating type genes were required for a identity and mating. MAT1-encoded ?2 and MAT2-encoded a1 were, however, essential for meiosis. When present in the location next to SLA2 and SUI1 genes, MAT1 or MAT2 was transcriptionally active, while the other was repressed. An inversion of the MAT intervening region was induced by nutrient limitation, resulting in the swapping of the chromosomal locations of two MAT loci, and hence switching of mating type identity. Inversion-deficient mutants exhibited severe defects only in mating with each other, suggesting that this inversion is the mechanism of mating type switching and homothallism. This chromosomal inversion-based mechanism represents a novel form of mating type switching that requires only two MAT loci. PMID:25412462

Maekawa, Hiromi; Kaneko, Yoshinobu

2014-01-01

5

Mating-type switching by chromosomal inversion in methylotrophic yeasts suggests an origin for the three-locus Saccharomyces cerevisiae system  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a complex system for switching the mating type of haploid cells, requiring the genome to have three mating-type (MAT)–like loci and a mechanism for silencing two of them. How this system originated is unknown, because the three-locus system is present throughout the family Saccharomycetaceae, whereas species in the sister Candida clade have only one locus and do not switch. Here we show that yeasts in a third clade, the methylotrophs, have a simpler two-locus switching system based on reversible inversion of a section of chromosome with MATa genes at one end and MATalpha genes at the other end. In Hansenula polymorpha the 19-kb invertible region lies beside a centromere so that, depending on the orientation, either MATa or MATalpha is silenced by centromeric chromatin. In Pichia pastoris, the orientation of a 138-kb invertible region puts either MATa or MATalpha beside a telomere and represses transcription of MATa2 or MATalpha2. Both species are homothallic, and inversion of their MAT regions can be induced by crossing two strains of the same mating type. The three-locus system of S. cerevisiae, which uses a nonconservative mechanism to replace DNA at MAT, likely evolved from a conservative two-locus system that swapped genes between expression and nonexpression sites by inversion. The increasing complexity of the switching apparatus, with three loci, donor bias, and cell lineage tracking, can be explained by continuous selection to increase sporulation ability in young colonies. Our results provide an evolutionary context for the diversity of switching and silencing mechanisms. PMID:25349420

Hanson, Sara J.; Byrne, Kevin P.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.

2014-01-01

6

Mating-type switching by chromosomal inversion in methylotrophic yeasts suggests an origin for the three-locus Saccharomyces cerevisiae system.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a complex system for switching the mating type of haploid cells, requiring the genome to have three mating-type (MAT)-like loci and a mechanism for silencing two of them. How this system originated is unknown, because the three-locus system is present throughout the family Saccharomycetaceae, whereas species in the sister Candida clade have only one locus and do not switch. Here we show that yeasts in a third clade, the methylotrophs, have a simpler two-locus switching system based on reversible inversion of a section of chromosome with MATa genes at one end and MATalpha genes at the other end. In Hansenula polymorpha the 19-kb invertible region lies beside a centromere so that, depending on the orientation, either MATa or MATalpha is silenced by centromeric chromatin. In Pichia pastoris, the orientation of a 138-kb invertible region puts either MATa or MATalpha beside a telomere and represses transcription of MATa2 or MATalpha2. Both species are homothallic, and inversion of their MAT regions can be induced by crossing two strains of the same mating type. The three-locus system of S. cerevisiae, which uses a nonconservative mechanism to replace DNA at MAT, likely evolved from a conservative two-locus system that swapped genes between expression and nonexpression sites by inversion. The increasing complexity of the switching apparatus, with three loci, donor bias, and cell lineage tracking, can be explained by continuous selection to increase sporulation ability in young colonies. Our results provide an evolutionary context for the diversity of switching and silencing mechanisms. PMID:25349420

Hanson, Sara J; Byrne, Kevin P; Wolfe, Kenneth H

2014-11-11

7

A Recombinationally Repressed Region between Mat2 and Mat3 Loci Shares Homology to Centromeric Repeats and Regulates Directionality of Mating-Type Switching in Fission Yeast  

PubMed Central

Cells of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe switch mating type by replacing genetic information at the transcriptionally active mat1 locus with sequences copied from one of two closely linked silent loci, mat2-P or mat3-M. By a process referred to as directionality of switching, cells predominantly switch to the opposite mat1 allele; the mat1-P allele preferentially recombines with mat3, while mat1-M selects the mat2. In contrast to efficient recombination at mat1, recombination within the adjoining mat2-mat3 interval is undetectable. We defined the role of sequences between mat2 and mat3, designated the K-region, in directionality as well as recombinational suppression. Cloning and sequencing analysis revealed that a part of the K-region is homologous to repeat sequences present at centromeres, which also display transcriptional and recombinational suppression. Replacement of 7.5 kb of the K-region with the ura4(+) gene affected directionality in a variegated manner. Analysis of the swi6-mod locus, which was previously shown to affect directionality, in K?::ura4(+) strains suggested the existence of at least two overlapping directionality mechanisms. Our work furthers the model that directionality is regulated by cell-type-specific organization of the heterochromatin-like structure in the mating-type region and provides evidence that the K-region contributes to silencing of the mat2-mat3 interval. PMID:9258669

Grewal, SIS.; Klar, AJS.

1997-01-01

8

Swi6, a Gene Required for Mating-Type Switching, Prohibits Meiotic Recombination in the Mat2-Mat3 ``cold Spot'' of Fission Yeast  

PubMed Central

Mitotic interconversion of the mating-type locus (mat1) of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is initiated by a double-strand break at mat1. The mat2 and mat3 loci act as nonrandom donors of genetic information for mat1 switching such that switches occur primarily (or only) to the opposite mat1 allele. Location of the mat1 ``hot spot'' for transposition should be contrasted with the ``cold spot'' of meiotic recombination located within the adjoining mat2-mat3 interval. That is, meiotic interchromosomal recombination in mat2, mat3 and the intervening 15-kilobase region does not occur at all. swi2 and swi6 switching-deficient mutants possess the normal level of double-strand break at mat1, yet they fail to switch efficiently. By testing for meiotic recombination in the cold spot, we found the usual lack of recombination in a swi2 mutant but a significant level of recombination in a swi6 mutant. Therefore, the swi6 gene function is required to keep the donor loci inert for interchromosomal recombination. This finding, combined with the additional result that switching primarily occurs intrachromosomally, suggests that the donor loci are made accessible for switching by folding them onto mat1, thus causing the cold spot of recombination. PMID:1783290

Klar, AJS.; Bonaduce, M. J.

1991-01-01

9

Mating-Type Genes and MAT Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MAT?. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MAT?1, and MAT?2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific homologous recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite MAT allele. This replacement process involves the participation of two intact but unexpressed copies of mating-type information at the heterochromatic loci, HML? and HMRa, which are located at opposite ends of the same chromosome-encoding MAT. The study of MAT switching has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, the formation of heterochromatin, and the regulation of accessibility of the donor sequences. Real-time analysis of MAT switching has provided the most detailed description of the molecular events that occur during the homologous recombinational repair of a programmed double-strand chromosome break. PMID:22555442

Haber, James E.

2012-01-01

10

The Mating-Type Proteins of Fission Yeast Induce Meiosis by Directly Activating mei3 Transcription  

PubMed Central

Cell type control of meiotic gene regulation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by a cascade of transcriptional repressors, a1-?2 and Rme1. Here, we investigate the analogous regulatory pathway in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe by analyzing the promoter of mei3, the single gene whose expression is sufficient to trigger meiosis. The mei3 promoter does not appear to contain a negative regulatory element that represses transcription in haploid cells. Instead, correct regulation of mei3 transcription depends on a complex promoter that contains at least five positive elements upstream of the TATA sequence. These elements synergistically activate mei3 transcription, thereby constituting an on-off switch for the meiosis pathway. Element C is a large region containing multiple sequences that resemble binding sites for Mc, an HMG domain protein encoded by the mating-type locus. The function of element C is extremely sensitive to spacing changes but not to linker-scanning mutations, suggesting the possibility that Mc functions as an architectural transcription factor. Altered-specificity experiments indicate that element D interacts with Pm, a homeodomain protein encoded by the mating-type locus. This indicates that Pm functions as a direct activator of the meiosis pathway, whereas the homologous mating-type protein in S. cerevisiae (?2) functions as a repressor. Thus, despite the strong similarities between the mating-type loci of S. cerevisiae and S. pombe, the regulatory logic that governs the tight control of the key meiosis-inducing genes in these organisms is completely different. PMID:9819418

van Heeckeren, Willem J.; Dorris, David R.; Struhl, Kevin

1998-01-01

11

The Clr1 Locus Regulates the Expression of the Cryptic Mating-Type Loci of Fission Yeast  

PubMed Central

The mat2-P and mat3-M loci of fission yeast contain respectively the plus (P) and minus (M) mating-type information in a transcriptionally silent state. That information is transposed from the mat2 or mat3 donor locus via recombination into the expressed mating-type locus (mat1) resulting in switching of the cellular mating type. We have identified a gene, named clr1 (for cryptic loci regulator), whose mutations allow expression of the mat2 and mat3 loci. clr1 mutants undergo aberrant haploid meiosis, indicative of transcription of the silent genes. Production of mRNA from mat3 is detectable in clr1 mutants. Furthermore, the ura4 gene inserted near mat3, weakly expressed in wild-type cells, is derepressed in clr1 mutants. The clr1 mutations also permit meiotic recombination in the 15-kb mat2-mat3 interval, where recombination is normally inhibited. The clr1 locus is in the right arm of chromosome II. We suggest that clr1 regulates silencing of the mat2 and mat3 loci, and participates in establishing the ``cold spot'' for recombination by organizing the chromatin structure of the mating-type region. PMID:1644273

Thon, G.; Klar, AJS.

1992-01-01

12

Directionality of Fission Yeast Mating-Type Interconversion Is Controlled by the Location of the Donor Loci  

PubMed Central

Cells of homothallic strains of Schizosaccharomyces pombe efficiently switch between two mating types called P and M. The phenotypic switches are due to conversion of the expressed mating-type locus (mat1) by two closely linked silent loci, mat2-P and mat3-M, that contain unexpressed information for the P and M mating types, respectively. In this process, switching-competent cells switch to the opposite mating type in 72-90% of the cell divisions. Hence, mat2-P is a preferred donor of information to mat1 in M cells, whereas mat3-M is a preferred donor in P cells. We investigated the reason for the donor preference by constructing a strain in which the genetic contents of the donor loci were swapped. We found that switching to the opposite mating type was very inefficient in that strain. This shows that the location of the silent cassettes in the chromosome, rather than their content, is the deciding factor for recognition of the donor for each cell type. We propose a model in which switching is achieved by regulating accessibility of the donor loci, perhaps by changing the chromatin structure in the mating-type region, thus promoting an intrachromosomal folding of mat2 or mat3 onto mat1 in a cell type-specific fashion. We also present evidence for the involvement of the Swi6 and Swi6-mod trans-acting factors in the donor-choice mechanism. We suggest that these factors participate in forming the proposed folded structure. PMID:8375648

Thon, G.; Klar, AJS.

1993-01-01

13

Mating type and sporulation in yeast. II. Meiosis, recombination, and radiation sensitivity in an alpha-alpha diploid with altered sporulation control.  

PubMed

In wild-type S. cerevisiae, diploid cells must be heterozygous at the mating-type locus in order to sporulate. In the preceding paper, we described a number of mutants (CSP mutants), isolated from nonsporulating aa and alpha-alpha parent strains, in which sporulation appeared to be uncoupled from control by mating type. The characterization of one of these mutants (CSP1) is now extended to other processes controlled by mating type. This mutant is indistinguishable from alpha-alpha cells and unlike aalpha cells for mating factor production and response, zygote formation, intragenic mitotic recombination, and for X-ray sensitivity. The mutant apparently undergoes a full round of DNA synthesis in sporulation medium, but with delayed kinetics. Only 20% of the cells complete sporulation. Among spores in completed asci, the frequency of both intra- and intergenic recombination is the same as it is for spores produced by aalpha cells. However, experiments in which cells were shifted from sporulation medium back to minimal growth medium gave a frequency of meiotic recombination between ade2 or leu2 heteroalleles only 25% to 29% as high for CSP1 alpha-alpha diploid or CSP1 aa disomic cells as for aalpha diploid or disomic cells. Because the latter result, indicating recombination defectiveness, measured recombinant production in the entire cell population, whereas the result indicating normal recombination sampled only completed spores, we infer that all meiotic recombination events occuring in the population of CSP1 alpha-alpha cells are concentrated in those few cells which complete sporulation. This high degree of correlation between meiotic recombination and the completion of meiosis and sporulation suggests that recombination may be required for proper meiotic chromosome segregation in yeast just as it appears to be in maize and in Drosophila. PMID:1093937

Hopper, A K; Kirsch, J; Hall, B D

1975-05-01

14

Epigenetic Inheritance of Transcriptional Silencing and Switching Competence in Fission Yeast  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic events allow the inheritance of phenotypic changes that are not caused by an alteration in DNA sequence. Here we characterize an epigenetic phenomenon occuring in the mating-type region of fission yeast. Cells of fission yeast switch between the P and M mating-type by interconverting their expressed mating-type cassette between two allelic forms, mat1-P and mat1-M. The switch results from gene conversions of mat1 by two silent cassettes, mat2-P and mat3-M, which are linked to each other and to mat1. GREWAL and KLAR observed that the ability to both switch mat1 and repress transcription near mat2-P and mat3-M was maintained epigenetically in a strain with an 8-kb deletion between mat2 and mat3. Using a strain very similar to theirs, we determined that interconversions between the switching-and silencing-proficient state and the switching and silencing-deficient state occurred less frequently than once per 1000 cell divisions. Although transcriptional silencing was alleviated by the 8-kb deletion, it was not abolished. We performed a mutant search and obtained a class of trans-acting mutations that displayed a strong cumulative effect with the 8-kb deletion. These mutations allow to assess the extent to which silencing is affected by the deletion and provide new insights on the redundancy of the silencing mechanism. PMID:9055078

Thon, G.; Friis, T.

1997-01-01

15

Mutations in Rik1, Clr2, Clr3 and Clr4 Genes Asymmetrically Derepress the Silent Mating-Type Loci in Fission Yeast  

PubMed Central

In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the mating-type information is stored at two transcriptionally silent loci (mat2 and mat3). The region between these sites (K region) is inert for meiotic crossing over. The mating-type genes (M or P) are expressed only when present at a third, active locus (mat1). We have earlier shown that the positional regulation of P genes is based on repression at the silent site, caused by elements in the flanking DNA sequences. In this study we have mutagenized a sterile mat1 deleted strain and selected for cells that are able to conjugate. Recessive mutations of this type should define genes encoding trans-acting factors involved in repression of the silent mating-type loci. Before this work mutations in two genes, clr1 and swi6, had been shown to allow both expression of the silent loci and recombination in the K region. The sensitivity of the present selection is demonstrated by the isolation of new mutations that derepress one or both of the silent loci (M-mating or bi-mating). The frequency of M-mating mutants was almost two orders of magnitude higher than that of bi-mating mutants and in all mutants analyzed mat3-M expression was significantly higher than mat2-P expression. The mutations define three new genes, clr2, clr3 and clr4. In addition we show that the rik1 mutant previously known to allow recombination in the K region also derepresses the silent loci. PMID:8138176

Ekwall, K.; Ruusala, T.

1994-01-01

16

Diversity of Mating-Type Chromosome Structures in the Yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii Caused by Ectopic Exchanges between MAT-Like Loci  

PubMed Central

We investigated sex chromosome diversity in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (Z. rouxii). In the current study, we show that the organization of the mating-type (MAT) locus is highly variable in the Z. rouxii population, indicating the MAT, HML, and HMR loci are translocation hotspots. Although NBRC1130 and CBS732 were originally two stocks of the type strain of the species, only NBRC1130 retains the original karyotype. A reciprocal translocation between the MAT and HMR loci appears to have occurred during the early passage culture of CBS732, which was used for genome sequencing. In NBRC1733, NBRC0686, NBRC0740 and NBRC1053, the terminal region of the chromosome containing the HMR locus was replaced with the chromosomal region to the left of the MAT or HML loci. The translocation events found in NBRC1733, NBRC0686, NBRC0740, and NBRC1053 were reconstructed under our experimental conditions using the DA2 background, and the reconstruction suggests that the frequency of this type of translocation is approximately 10?7. These results suggest that the MAT and MAT-like loci were the susceptible regions in the genome, and the diversity of mating-type chromosome structures in Z. rouxii was caused by ectopic exchanges between MAT-like loci. PMID:23614024

Watanabe, Jun; Uehara, Kenji; Mogi, Yoshinobu

2013-01-01

17

A Genome Sequence Survey Shows that the Pathogenic Yeast Candida parapsilosis Has a Defective MTLa1 Allele at Its Mating Type Locus†  

PubMed Central

Candida parapsilosis is responsible for ca. 15% of Candida infections and is of particular concern in neonates and surgical intensive care patients. The related species Candida albicans has recently been shown to possess a functional mating pathway. To analyze the analogous pathway in C. parapsilosis, we carried out a genome sequence survey of the type strain. We identified ca. 3,900 genes, with an average amino acid identity of 59% with C. albicans. Of these, 23 are predicted to be predominantly involved in mating. We identified a genomic locus homologous to the MTLa mating type locus of C. albicans, but the C. parapsilosis type strain has at least two internal stop codons in the MTLa1 open reading frame, and two predicted introns are not spliced. These stop codons were present in MTLa1 of all eight C. parapsilosis isolates tested. Furthermore, we found that all isolates of C. parapsilosis tested appear to contain only the MTLa idiomorph at the presumptive mating locus, unlike C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. MTL? sequences are present but at a different chromosomal location. It is therefore likely that all (or at least the majority) of C. parapsilosis isolates have a mating pathway that is either defective or substantially different from that of C. albicans. PMID:15947193

Logue, Mary E.; Wong, Simon; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Butler, Geraldine

2005-01-01

18

Basidiomycete Mating Type Genes and Pheromone Signaling?  

PubMed Central

The genome sequences of the basidiomycete Agaricomycetes species Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Schizophyllum commune, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Postia placenta, as well as of Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis, are now publicly available. Out of these fungi, C. cinerea, S. commune, and U. maydis, together with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been investigated for years genetically and molecularly for signaling in sexual reproduction. The comparison of the structure and organization of mating type genes in fungal genomes reveals an amazing conservation of genes regulating the sexual reproduction throughout the fungal kingdom. In agaricomycetes, two mating type loci, A, coding for homeodomain type transcription factors, and B, encoding a pheromone/receptor system, regulate the four typical mating interactions of tetrapolar species. Evidence for both A and B mating type genes can also be identified in basidiomycetes with bipolar systems, where only two mating interactions are seen. In some of these fungi, the B locus has lost its self/nonself discrimination ability and thus its specificity while retaining the other regulatory functions in development. In silico analyses now also permit the identification of putative components of the pheromone-dependent signaling pathways. Induction of these signaling cascades leads to development of dikaryotic mycelia, fruiting body formation, and meiotic spore production. In pheromone-dependent signaling, the role of heterotrimeric G proteins, components of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways can now be defined. Additionally, the pheromone-dependent signaling through monomeric, small GTPases potentially involved in creating the polarized cytoskeleton for reciprocal nuclear exchange and migration during mating is predicted. PMID:20190072

Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Kothe, Erika

2010-01-01

19

Acid phosphatase activity in mating type I and mating type II cell lines of Paramecium primaurelia.  

PubMed

The cellular acid phosphatase content, a marker enzyme for lysosomal activity, in Paramecium primaurelia mating type I and mating type II cells was determined by optical laser scanning microscopy. The naphthol AS-TR phosphatase-hexazotized pararosaniline method was used to visualize acid phosphatase activity by the light microscopy. Cell lines of both mating types were tested during culture life, from the early log phase to the death phase. The amount of acid phosphatase was higher in mating type II than in mating type I until the onset of the stationary phase, and then the values reversed. Indeed, during the log phase of growth, mating type II cells formed a higher number of food vacuoles, so that, by taking up a higher amount of bacteria, they sooner became deprived of food. It is suggested that, by lacking nutrients, their synthesis activities and acid phosphatase content were reduced as compared with mating type I cells. PMID:7549019

Ramoino, P; Beltrame, F; Fato, M; Marcenaro, G

1995-01-01

20

Isolation of the Mating-Type Genes of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Magnaporthe Grisea Using Genomic Subtraction  

PubMed Central

Using genomic subtraction, we isolated the mating-type genes (Mat1-1 and Mat1-2) of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. Transformation of M. grisea strains of one mating type with a linearized cosmid clone carrying the opposite mating-type gene resulted in many ``dual maters,'' strains that contain both mating-type genes and successfully mate with both Mat1-1 and Mat1-2 testers. Dual maters differed in the frequency of production of perithecia in pure culture. Ascospores isolated from these homothallic crosses were either Mat1-1 or Mat1-2, but there were no dual maters. Most conidia from dual maters also had one or the other of the mating-type genes, but not both. Thus, dual maters appear to lose one of the mating-type genes during vegetative growth. The incidence of self-mating in dual maters appears to depend on the co-occurrence of strains with each mating type in vegetative cultures. In rare transformants, the incoming sequences had replaced the resident mating-type gene. Nearly isogenic pairs produced from three M. grisea laboratory strains were mated to investigate their fertility. One transformant with switched mating type appears to have a mutation that impairs the development of asci when its mating partner has a similar genetic background. The M. grisea Mat1-1 and Mat1-2 genes are idiomorphs approximately 2.5 and 3.5 kb in length, respectively. PMID:7828813

Kang, S.; Chumley, F. G.; Valent, B.

1994-01-01

21

Mother Cell–Specific HO Expression in Budding Yeast Depends on the Unconventional Myosin Myo4p and Other Cytoplasmic Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain cell types give rise to progeny that adopt different patterns of gene expression in the absence of any differences in their environment. Cells of budding yeast give birth to mother and daughter cells that differ in that only mother cells express the HO endonuclease gene and thereby switch mating types. We describe the identification of five genes, called SHE1–SHE5,

Ralf-Peter Jansen; Celia Dowzer; Christine Michaelis; Marta Galova; Kim Nasmyth

1996-01-01

22

Spatial organization and dynamics of interphase yeast chromosomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how the genome is spatially organized is an important problem in cell biology, due to its key roles in gene expression and DNA recombination. Here we report on a combined experimental and theoretical study of the organization and dynamics of yeast chromosome III which has a functional role in the yeast life cycle, in particular, it is responsible for mating type switching. By imaging two fluorescent markers, one at the spindle pole body (SPB) and the other proximal to the HML locus that is involved in DNA recombination during mating type switching, we measured the cell to cell distribution of distances and the mean square displacement between the markers as a function of time. We compared our experimental results with a random-walk polymer model that takes into account tethering and confinement of chromosomes in the nucleus, and found that the model recapitulates the observed spatial and temporal organization of chromosome III in yeast in quantitative detail. The polymer model makes specific predictions for mating-type switching in yeast, and suggests new experiments to test them.

Avsaroglu, Baris; Gordon-Messer, Susannah; Fritsche, Miriam; Ham, Jungoh; Heermann, Dieter W.; Haber, James E.; Kondev, Jane

2012-02-01

23

Mating Type Sequences in Asexually Reproducing Fusarium Species  

PubMed Central

To assess the potential for mating in several Fusarium species with no known sexual stage, we developed degenerate and semidegenerate oligonucleotide primers to identify conserved mating type (MAT) sequences in these fungi. The putative ? and high-mobility-group (HMG) box sequences from Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae, and F. semitectum were compared to similar sequences that were described previously for other members of the genus. The DNA sequences of the regions flanking the amplified MAT regions were obtained by inverse PCR. These data were used to develop diagnostic primers suitable for the clear amplification of conserved mating type sequences from any member of the genus Fusarium. By using these diagnostic primers, we identified mating types of 122 strains belonging to 22 species of Fusarium. The ? box and the HMG box from the mating type genes are transcribed in F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae, and F. semitectum. The novelty of the PCR-based mating type identification system that we developed is that this method can be used on a wide range of Fusarium species, which have proven or expected teleomorphs in different ascomycetous genera, including Calonectria, Gibberella, and Nectria. PMID:15294768

Kerenyi, Zoltan; Moretti, Antonio; Waalwijk, Cees; Olah, Brigitta; Hornok, Laszlo

2004-01-01

24

Sequence diversity of mating-type genes in Phaeosphaeria avenaria.  

PubMed

Phaeosphaeria avenaria, one of the causal agents of stagonospora leaf blotch diseases in cereals, is composed of two subspecies, P. avenaria f. sp. triticea (Pat) and P. avenaria f. sp. avenaria (Paa). The Pat subspecies was grouped into Pat1-Pat3, based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences in previous studies. Mating-type genes and their potential use in phylogeny and molecular classification were studied by DNA hybridization and PCR amplification. The majority of Pat1 isolates reported to be homothallic and producing sexual reproduction structures on cultural media had only the MAT1-1 gene. Minor sequence variations were found in the conserved region of MAT1-1 gene in Pat1 isolates. However, both mating-type genes, MAT1-1 and MAT1-2, were identified in P. avenaria isolates represented by ATCC12277 from oats (Paa) and the Pat2 isolates from foxtail barley ( Hordeum jubatum L.). Cluster analyses based on mating-type gene conserved regions revealed that cereal Phaeosphaeria is not phylogenetically closely related to other ascomycetes, including Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph Septoria tritici). The sequence diversity of mating-type genes in Pat and Paa supports our previous phylogenetic relationship and molecular classification based on RFLP fingerprinting and rDNA ITS sequences. PMID:12695852

Ueng, Peter P; Dai, Qun; Cui, Kai-rong; Czembor, Pawe? C; Cunfer, Barry M; Tsang, H; Arseniuk, Edward; Bergstrom, Gary C

2003-05-01

25

Sequence diversity of mating-type genes in Phaeosphaeria avenaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phaeosphaeria avenaria, one of the causal agents of stagonospora leaf blotch diseases in cereals, is composed of two subspecies, P. avenaria f. sp. triticea (Pat) and P. avenaria f. sp. avenaria (Paa). The Pat subspecies was grouped into Pat1-Pat3, based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences in previous studies. Mating-type genes

Peter P. Ueng; Qun Dai; Kai-rong Cui; Pawe? C. Czembor; Barry M. Cunfer; H. Tsang; Edward Arseniuk; Gary C. Bergstrom

2003-01-01

26

The Chlamydomonas Mating Type Plus Fertilization Tubule, a Prototypic Cell Fusion Organelle: Isolation, Characterization, and In Vitro Adhesion to Mating Type Minus Gametes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the biflagellated alga Chlamydomonas , adhesion and fusion of the plasma membranes of ga- metes during fertilization occurs via an actin-filled, mi- crovillus-like cell protrusion. Formation of this z 3- m m- long fusion organelle, the Chlamydomonas fertilization tubule, is induced in mating type plus (mt 1 ) gametes during flagellar adhesion with mating type minus (mt 2 )

Nedra F. Wilson; Mary J. Foglesong; William J. Snell

1997-01-01

27

Selecting One of Several Mating Types through Gene Segment Joining and Deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila  

PubMed Central

The unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila has seven mating types. Cells can mate only when they recognize cells of a different mating type as non-self. As a ciliate, Tetrahymena separates its germline and soma into two nuclei. During growth the somatic nucleus is responsible for all gene transcription while the germline nucleus remains silent. During mating, a new somatic nucleus is differentiated from a germline nucleus and mating type is decided by a stochastic process. We report here that the somatic mating type locus contains a pair of genes arranged head-to-head. Each gene encodes a mating type-specific segment and a transmembrane domain that is shared by all mating types. Somatic gene knockouts showed both genes are required for efficient non-self recognition and successful mating, as assessed by pair formation and progeny production. The germline mating type locus consists of a tandem array of incomplete gene pairs representing each potential mating type. During mating, a complete new gene pair is assembled at the somatic mating type locus; the incomplete genes of one gene pair are completed by joining to gene segments at each end of germline array. All other germline gene pairs are deleted in the process. These programmed DNA rearrangements make this a fascinating system of mating type determination. PMID:23555191

Cervantes, Marcella D.; Hamilton, Eileen P.; Xiong, Jie; Lawson, Michael J.; Yuan, Dongxia; Hadjithomas, Michalis; Miao, Wei; Orias, Eduardo

2013-01-01

28

Comparative Genomics of the Mating-Type Loci of the Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Reveals Widespread Synteny and Recent Inversions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMating-type loci of mushroom fungi contain master regulatory genes that control recognition between compatible nuclei, maintenance of compatible nuclei as heterokaryons, and fruiting body development. Regions near mating-type loci in fungi often show adapted recombination, facilitating the generation of novel mating types and reducing the production of self-compatible mating types. Compared to other fungi, mushroom fungi have complex mating-type systems,

Arend F. van Peer; Soon-Young Park; Pyung-Gyun Shin; Kab-Yeul Jang; Young-Bok Yoo; Young-Jin Park; Byoung-Moo Lee; Gi-Ho Sung; Timothy Y. James; Won-Sik Kong

2011-01-01

29

Mating Type in Chlamydomonas Is Specified by Mid, the minus-Dominance Gene  

PubMed Central

Diploid cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that are heterozygous at the mating-type locus (mt(+)/mt(-)) differentiate as minus gametes, a phenomenon known as minus dominance. We report the cloning and characterization of a gene that is necessary and sufficient to exert this minus dominance over the plus differentiation program. The gene, called mid, is located in the rearranged (R) domain of the mt(-) locus, and has duplicated and transposed to an autosome in a laboratory strain. The imp11 mt(-) mutant, which differentiates as a fusion-incompetent plus gamete, carries a point mutation in mid. Like the fus1 gene in the mt(+) locus, mid displays low codon bias compared with other nuclear genes. The mid sequence carries a putative leucine zipper motif, suggesting that it functions as a transcription factor to switch on the minus program and switch off the plus program of gametic differentiation. This is the first sex-determination gene to be characterized in a green organism. PMID:9215892

Ferris, P. J.; Goodenough, U. W.

1997-01-01

30

A Multiplex PCR Test for Determination of Mating Type Applied to the Plant Pathogens Tapesia  

E-print Network

Europe, North America, and New Zealand. Isolates of both mating types were found on all continents of mating-type genes and progress has been made in cloning these genes from certain ascomycete species. 173 #12;genes have been cloned from the hemiascomycete, pyreno- mycete, loculoascomycete

Murray, Timothy D.

31

Comparative Genomics of the Mating-Type Loci of the Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Reveals Widespread  

E-print Network

of mushroom fungi contain master regulatory genes that control recognition between compatible nuclei and reducing the production of self-compatible mating types. Compared to other fungi, mushroom fungi haveComparative Genomics of the Mating-Type Loci of the Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Reveals

James, Timothy

32

A Large Pheromone and Receptor Gene Complex Determines Multiple B Mating Type Specificities in Coprinus cinereus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pheromone signaling plays an essential role in the mating and sexual development of mushroom fungi. Multiallelic genes encoding the peptide pheromones and their cognate 7-transmembrane helix (7-TM) receptors are sequestered in the B mating type locus. Here we describe the isolation of the B6 mating type locus of Coprinus cinereus. DNA sequencing and transformation analysis identified nine genes encoding three

Suzanne F. O'Shea; Pushpalata T. Chaure; John R. Halsall; Natalie S. Olesnicky; Andreas Leibbrandt; Ian F. Connerton; Lorna A. Casselton

33

Domesticated transposase Kat1 and its fossil imprints induce sexual differentiation in yeast.  

PubMed

Transposable elements (TEs) have had a major influence on shaping both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, largely through stochastic events following random or near-random insertions. In the mammalian immune system, the recombination activation genes1/2 (Rag1/2) recombinase has evolved from a transposase gene, demonstrating that TEs can be domesticated by the host. In this study, we uncovered a domesticated transposase, Kluyveromyces lactis hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposase 1 (Kat1), operating at the fossil imprints of an ancient transposon, that catalyzes the differentiation of cell type. Kat1 induces mating-type switching from mating type a (MATa) to MAT? in the yeast K. lactis. Kat1 activates switching by introducing two hairpin-capped DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the MATa1-MATa2 intergenic region, as we demonstrate both in vivo and in vitro. The DSBs stimulate homologous recombination with the cryptic hidden MAT left alpha (HML?) locus resulting in a switch of the cell type. The sites where Kat1 acts in the MATa locus most likely are ancient remnants of terminal inverted repeats from a long-lost TE. The KAT1 gene is annotated as a pseudogene because it contains two overlapping ORFs. We demonstrate that translation of full-length Kat1 requires a programmed -1 frameshift. The frameshift limited Kat1 activity, because restoring the zero frame causes switching to the MAT? genotype. Kat1 also was transcriptionally activated by nutrient limitation via the transcription factor mating type switch 1 (Mts1). A phylogenetic analysis indicated that KAT1 was domesticated specifically in the Kluyveromyces clade of the budding yeasts. We conclude that Kat1 is a highly regulated transposase-derived endonuclease vital for sexual differentiation. PMID:25313032

Rajaei, Naghmeh; Chiruvella, Kishore K; Lin, Feng; Aström, Stefan U

2014-10-28

34

Tuber melanosporum: mating type distribution in a natural plantation and dynamics of strains of different mating types on the roots of nursery-inoculated host plants.  

PubMed

• In light of the recent finding that Tuber melanosporum, the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete that produces the most highly prized black truffles, is a heterothallic species, we monitored the spatial distribution of strains with opposite mating types (MAT) in a natural truffle ground and followed strain dynamics in artificially inoculated host plants grown under controlled conditions. • In a natural truffle ground, ectomycorrhizas (ECMs), soil samples and fruit bodies were sampled and genotyped to determine mating types. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were also used to fingerprint ECMs and fruit bodies. The ECMs from nursery-inoculated host plants were analysed for mating type at 6 months and 19 months post-inoculation. • In open-field conditions, all ECMs from the same sampling site showed an identical mating type and an identical haploid genotype, based on SSR analysis. Interestingly, the gleba of fruit bodies always demonstrated the same genotype as the surrounding ECMs. Although root tips from nursery-grown plants initially developed ECMs of both mating types, a dominance of ECMs of the same MAT were found after several months. • The present study deepens our understanding of the vegetative and sexual propagation modes of T. melanosporum. These results are highly relevant for truffle cultivation. PMID:20964691

Rubini, Andrea; Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Arcioni, Sergio; Martin, Francis; Paolocci, Francesco

2011-02-01

35

Evolution of the gene encoding mitochondrial intermediate peptidase and its cosegregation with the A mating-type locus  

E-print Network

with the A mating-type locus of mushroom fungi Timothy Y. James,a,* Ursula Kues,b Stephen A. Rehner,c and Rytas polymorphism at the mating-type loci of mushroom fungi has made the cloning of mating-type genes difficult fa- cilitate the cloning of A mating-type genes from mushroom fungi. It has been shown that a gene

James, Timothy

36

Molecular characterization of tol, a mediator of mating-type-associated vegetative incompatibility in Neurospora crassa.  

PubMed Central

The mating-type locus in the haploid filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, controls mating and sexual development. The fusion of reproductive structures of opposite mating type, A and a, is required to initiate sexual reproduction. However, the fusion of hyphae of opposite mating type during vegetative growth results in growth inhibition and cell death, a process that is mediated by the tol locus. Mutations in tol are recessive and suppress mating-type-associated heterokaryon incompatibility. In this study, we describe the cloning and characterization of tol. The tol gene encodes a putative 1011-amino-acid polypeptide with a coiled-coil domain and a leucine-rich repeat. Both regions are required for tol activity. Repeat-induced point mutations in tol result in mutants that are wild type during vegetative growth and sexual reproduction, but that allow opposite mating-type individuals to form a vigorous heterokaryon. Transcript analyses show that tol mRNA is present during vegetative growth but absent during a cross. These data suggest that tol transcription is repressed to allow the coexistence of opposite mating-type nuclei during the sexual reproductive phase. tol is expressed in a mat A, mat a, A/a partial diploid and in a mating-type deletion strain, indicating that MAT A-1 and MAT a-1 are not absolutely required for transcription or repression of tol. These data suggest that TOL may rather interact with MAT A-1 and/or MAT a-1 (or downstream products) to form a death-triggering complex. PMID:9927450

Shiu, P K; Glass, N L

1999-01-01

37

Sex-determination system in the diploid yeast Zygosaccharomyces sapae.  

PubMed

Sexual reproduction and breeding systems are driving forces for genetic diversity. The mating-type (MAT) locus represents a mutation and chromosome rearrangement hotspot in yeasts. Zygosaccharomyces rouxii complex yeasts are naturally faced with hostile low water activity (aw) environments and are characterized by gene copy number variation, genome instability, and aneuploidy/allodiploidy. Here, we investigated sex-determination system in Zygosaccharomyces sapae diploid strain ABT301(T), a member of the Z. rouxii complex. We cloned three divergent mating type-like (MTL) ?-idiomorph sequences and designated them as ZsMTL? copies 1, 2, and 3. They encode homologs of Z. rouxii CBS 732(T) MAT?2 (amino acid sequence identities spanning from 67.0 to 99.5%) and MAT?1 (identity range 81.5-99.5%). ABT301(T) possesses two divergent HO genes encoding distinct endonucleases 100% and 92.3% identical to Z. rouxii HO. Cloning of MATA: -idiomorph resulted in a single ZsMTLA: locus encoding two Z. rouxii-like proteins MATA: 1 and MATA: 2. To assign the cloned ZsMTL? and ZsMTLA: idiomorphs as MAT, HML, and HMR cassettes, we analyzed their flanking regions. Three ZsMTL? loci exhibited the DIC1-MAT-SLA2 gene order canonical for MAT expression loci. Furthermore, four putative HML cassettes were identified, two containing the ZsMTL? copy 1 and the remaining harboring ZsMTL? copies 2 and 3. Finally, the ZsMTLA: locus was 3'-flanked by SLA2, suggesting the status of MAT expression locus. In conclusion, Z. sapae ABT301(T) displays an a??? genotype missing of the HMR silent cassette. Our results demonstrated that mating-type switching is a hypermutagenic process in Z. rouxii complex that generates genetic diversity de novo. This error-prone mechanism could be suitable to generate progenies more rapidly adaptable to hostile environments. PMID:24939186

Solieri, Lisa; Dakal, Tikam Chand; Giudici, Paolo; Cassanelli, Stefano

2014-06-01

38

High variability in a mating type linked region in the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans caused by frequency-dependent selection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The mating type loci that govern the mating process in fungi are thought to be influenced by negative frequency-dependent selection due to rare allele advantage. In this study we used a mating type linked DNA marker as a proxy to indirectly study the allelic richness and geographic distribution of mating types of one mating type locus (MAT A) in

Ingeborg Bjorvand Engh; Inger Skrede; Glenn-Peter Sætre; Håvard Kauserud

2010-01-01

39

Evolution of sexes from an ancestral mating-type specification pathway.  

PubMed

Male and female sexes have evolved repeatedly in eukaryotes but the origins of dimorphic sexes and their relationship to mating types in unicellular species are not understood. Volvocine algae include isogamous species such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, with two equal-sized mating types, and oogamous multicellular species such as Volvox carteri with sperm-producing males and egg-producing females. Theoretical work predicts genetic linkage of a gamete cell-size regulatory gene(s) to an ancestral mating-type locus as a possible step in the evolution of dimorphic gametes, but this idea has not been tested. Here we show that, contrary to predictions, a single conserved mating locus (MT) gene in volvocine algae-MID, which encodes a RWP-RK domain transcription factor-evolved from its ancestral role in C. reinhardtii as a mating-type specifier, to become a determinant of sperm and egg development in V. carteri. Transgenic female V. carteri expressing male MID produced functional sperm packets during sexual development. Transgenic male V. carteri with RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdowns of VcMID produced functional eggs, or self-fertile hermaphrodites. Post-transcriptional controls were found to regulate cell-type-limited expression and nuclear localization of VcMid protein that restricted its activity to nuclei of developing male germ cells and sperm. Crosses with sex-reversed strains uncoupled sex determination from sex chromosome identity and revealed gender-specific roles for male and female mating locus genes in sexual development, gamete fitness and reproductive success. Our data show genetic continuity between the mating-type specification and sex determination pathways of volvocine algae, and reveal evidence for gender-specific adaptations in the male and female mating locus haplotypes of Volvox. These findings will enable a deeper understanding of how a master regulator of mating-type determination in an ancestral unicellular species was reprogrammed to control sexually dimorphic gamete development in a multicellular descendant. PMID:25003332

Geng, Sa; De Hoff, Peter; Umen, James G

2014-07-01

40

Transcription of Two Long Noncoding RNAs Mediates Mating-Type Control of Gametogenesis in Budding Yeast  

E-print Network

The cell-fate decision leading to gametogenesis is essential for sexual reproduction. In S. cerevisiae, only diploid MATa/? but not haploid MATa or MAT? cells undergo gametogenesis, known as sporulation. We find that ...

van Werven, Folkert J.

41

Mating-Type Genes from the Homothallic Fungus Sordaria Macrospora Are Functionally Expressed in a Heterothallic Ascomycete  

PubMed Central

Homokaryons from the homothallic ascomycte Sordaria macrospora are able to enter the sexual pathway and to form fertile fruiting bodies. To analyze the molecular basis of homothallism and to elucidate the role of mating-products during fruiting body development, we cloned and sequenced the entire S. macrospora mating-type locus. Comparison of the Sordaria mating-type locus with mating-type idiomorphs from the heterothallic ascomycetes Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina revealed that sequences from both idiomorphs (A/a and mat-/mat+, respectively) are contiguous in S. macrospora. DNA sequencing of the S. macrospora mating-type region allowed the identification of four open reading frames (ORFs), which were termed Smt-a1, SmtA-1, SmtA-2 and SmtA-3. While Smt-a1, SmtA-1, and SmtA-2 show strong sequence similarities with the corresponding N. crassa mating-type ORFs, SmtA-3 has a chimeric character. It comprises sequences that are similar to the A and a mating-type idiomorph from N. crassa. To determine functionality of the S. macrospora mating-type genes, we show that all ORFs are transcriptionally expressed. Furthermore, we transformed the S. macrospora mating-type genes into mat- and mat+ strains of the closely related heterothallic fungus P. anserina. The transformation experiments show that mating-type genes from S. macrospora induce fruiting body formation in P. anserina. PMID:9335594

Poggeler, S.; Risch, S.; Kuck, U.; Osiewacz, H. D.

1997-01-01

42

Pycnial nectar of rust fungi induces cap formation on pycniospores of opposite mating type1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pycnial nectar (including pycniospores) transferred between pycnia of opposite mating type (as indicated by subsequent aecium formation) in- duced formation of a cap on one end of pycnio- spores. The polar caps developed with seven species of Puccinia and four of Uromyces, but not with P he- lianthi, Tranzschelia pruni-spinosae, or ll vignae. Caps were induced equally in reciprocal transfers

Y Anikster; T. Eilam; L. Mittelman; L. J. Szabo; W. R. Bushnel

1999-01-01

43

Selective loss of polymorphic mating types is associated with rapid phenotypic evolution  

E-print Network

Selective loss of polymorphic mating types is associated with rapid phenotypic evolution during cases. Polymorphism loss was associated with accelerated evolution of male size, female size, and sexual that polymorphisms, such as alter- native mating strategies, are common within species (7­9). Here we investigate

Davis, Alison R.

44

Two Portable Recombination Enhancers Direct Donor Choice in Fission Yeast Heterochromatin  

PubMed Central

Mating-type switching in fission yeast results from gene conversions of the active mat1 locus by heterochromatic donors. mat1 is preferentially converted by mat2-P in M cells and by mat3-M in P cells. Here, we report that donor choice is governed by two portable recombination enhancers capable of promoting use of their adjacent cassette even when they are transposed to an ectopic location within the mat2-mat3 heterochromatic domain. Cells whose silent cassettes are swapped to mat2-M mat3-P switch mating-type poorly due to a defect in directionality but cells whose recombination enhancers were transposed together with the cassette contents switched like wild type. Trans-acting mutations that impair directionality affected the wild-type and swapped cassettes in identical ways when the recombination enhancers were transposed together with their cognate cassette, showing essential regulatory steps occur through the recombination enhancers. Our observations lead to a model where heterochromatin biases competitions between the two recombination enhancers to achieve directionality. PMID:24204285

Jakociunas, Tadas; Holm, Laerke Rebekka; Verhein-Hansen, Janne; Trusina, Ala; Thon, Genevieve

2013-01-01

45

A MADS Box Protein Interacts with a Mating-Type Protein and Is Required for Fruiting Body Development in the Homothallic Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora  

PubMed Central

MADS box transcription factors control diverse developmental processes in plants, metazoans, and fungi. To analyze the involvement of MADS box proteins in fruiting body development of filamentous ascomycetes, we isolated the mcm1 gene from the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora, which encodes a putative homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MADS box protein Mcm1p. Deletion of the S. macrospora mcm1 gene resulted in reduced biomass, increased hyphal branching, and reduced hyphal compartment length during vegetative growth. Furthermore, the S. macrospora ?mcm1 strain was unable to produce fruiting bodies or ascospores during sexual development. A yeast two-hybrid analysis in conjugation with in vitro analyses demonstrated that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein can interact with the putative transcription factor SMTA-1, encoded by the S. macrospora mating-type locus. These results suggest that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein is involved in the transcriptional regulation of mating-type-specific genes as well as in fruiting body development. PMID:16835449

Nolting, Nicole; Poggeler, Stefanie

2006-01-01

46

The Chlamydomonas mating type plus fertilization tubule, a prototypic cell fusion organelle: isolation, characterization, and in vitro adhesion to mating type minus gametes.  

PubMed

In the biflagellated alga Chlamydomonas, adhesion and fusion of the plasma membranes of gametes during fertilization occurs via an actin-filled, microvillus-like cell protrusion. Formation of this approximately 3-microm-long fusion organelle, the Chlamydomonas fertilization tubule, is induced in mating type plus (mt+) gametes during flagellar adhesion with mating type minus (mt-) gametes. Subsequent adhesion between the tip of the mt+ fertilization tubule and the apex of a mating structure on mt- gametes is followed rapidly by fusion of the plasma membranes and zygote formation. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of fertilization tubules from mt+ gametes activated for cell fusion. Fertilization tubules were detached by homogenization of activated mt+ gametes in an EGTA-containing buffer and purified by differential centrifugation followed by fractionation on sucrose and Percoll gradients. As determined by fluorescence microscopy of samples stained with a fluorescent probe for filamentous actin, the method yielded 2-3 x 10(6) fertilization tubules/microg protein, representing up to a 360-fold enrichment of these organelles. Examination by negative stain electron microscopy demonstrated that the purified fertilization tubules were morphologically indistinguishable from fertilization tubules on intact, activated mt+ gametes, retaining both the extracellular fringe and the internal array of actin filaments. Several proteins, including actin as well as two surface proteins identified by biotinylation studies, copurified with the fertilization tubules. Most importantly, the isolated mt+ fertilization tubules bound to the apical ends of activated mt- gametes between the two flagella, the site of the mt- mating structure; a single fertilization tubule bound per cell, binding was specific for gametes, and fertilization tubules isolated from trypsin-treated, activated mt+ gametes did not bind to activated mt- gametes. PMID:9199169

Wilson, N F; Foglesong, M J; Snell, W J

1997-06-30

47

Characteristic differences in monosaccharide composition of glycoconjugates from opposite mating types of Chlamydomonas eugametos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monosaccharide composition of the isoagglutinins derived from the flagellar membranes of the opposite mating types of Chlamydomonas eugametos (mt+ and mt?) differ strikingly. Besides the common occurrence of L-arabinose, L-rhamnose, D-xylose, D-mannose, D-galactose, L-galactose, D-glucose, and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, the mt+ isoagglutinin carbohydrate chains contain gulose, 4-O-methyxylose, a 2-O-methylpentose, and 3-O-methyl-D-galactose, whereas those of the mt? isoagglutinin contain 6-O-methyl-D-mannose and 3-O-methyl-L-glucose.

J. F. G. Vliegenthart; G. J. Gerwig; J. P. Kamerling; Wieger L. Homan; Piet van Egmond; Herman van den Ende

1984-01-01

48

Isolation and characterization of the mating-type locus of the barley pathogen Pyrenophora teres and frequencies of mating-type idiomorphs within and among fungal populations collected from barley landraces.  

PubMed

Pyrenophora teres f. sp. teres mating-type genes (MAT-1: 1190 bp; MAT-2: 1055 bp) have been identified. Their predicted proteins, measuring 379 and 333 amino acids, respectively, are similar to those of other Pleosporales, such as Pleospora sp., Cochliobolus sp., Alternaria alternata, Leptosphaeria maculans, and Phaeosphaeria nodorum. The structure of the MAT locus is discussed in comparison with those of other fungi. A mating-type PCR assay has also been developed; with this assay we have analyzed 150 isolates that were collected from 6 Sardinian barley landrace populations. Of these, 68 were P. teres f. sp. teres (net form; NF) and 82 were P. teres f. sp. maculata (spot form; SF). Within each mating type, the NF and SF amplification products were of the same length and were highly similar in sequence. The 2 mating types were present in both the NF and the SF populations at the field level, indicating that they have all maintained the potential for sexual reproduction. Despite the 2 forms being sympatric in 5 fields, no intermediate isolates were detected with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. These results suggest that the 2 forms are genetically isolated under the field conditions. In all of the samples of P. teres, the ratio of the 2 mating types was consistently in accord with the 1:1 null hypothesis. This ratio is expected when segregation distortion and clonal selection among mating types are absent or asexual reproduction is rare. Overall, sexual reproduction appears to be the major process that equalizes the frequencies of the 2 mating types within populations. PMID:16391692

Rau, Domenico; Maier, Frank J; Papa, Roberto; Brown, Anthony H D; Balmas, Virgilio; Saba, Eva; Schaefer, Wilhelm; Attene, Giovanna

2005-10-01

49

Design of a minimal silencer for the silent mating-type locus HML of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The silent mating-type loci HML and HMR of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain mating-type information that is permanently repressed. This silencing is mediated by flanking sequence elements, the E- and I-silencers. They contain combinations of binding sites for the proteins Rap1, Abf1 and Sum1 as well as for the origin recognition complex (ORC). Together, they recruit other silencing factors, foremost the repressive Sir2/Sir3/Sir4 complex, to establish heterochromatin-like structures at the HM loci. However, the HM silencers exhibit considerable functional redundancy, which has hampered the identification of further silencing factors. In this study, we constructed a synthetic HML-E silencer (HML-SS ?I) that lacked this redundancy. It consisted solely of Rap1 and ORC-binding sites and the D2 element, a Sum1-binding site. All three elements were crucial for minimal HML silencing, and mutations in these elements led to a loss of Sir3 recruitment. The silencer was sensitive to a mutation in RAP1, rap1-12, but less sensitive to orc mutations or sum1?. Moreover, deletions of SIR1 and DOT1 lead to complete derepression of the HML-SS ?I silencer. This fully functional, minimal HML-E silencer will therefore be useful to identify novel factors involved in HML silencing. PMID:20699276

Weber, Jan M; Ehrenhofer-Murray, Ann E

2010-12-01

50

Genetic Variability and Distribution of Mating Type Alleles in Field Populations of Leptosphaeria maculans from France  

PubMed Central

Leptosphaeria maculans is the most ubiquitous fungal pathogen of Brassica crops and causes the devastating stem canker disease of oilseed rape worldwide. We used minisatellite markers to determine the genetic structure of L. maculans in four field populations from France. Isolates were collected at three different spatial scales (leaf, 2-m2 field plot, and field) enabling the evaluation of spatial distribution of the mating type alleles and of genetic variability within and among field populations. Within each field population, no gametic disequilibrium between the minisatellite loci was detected and the mating type alleles were present at equal frequencies. Both sexual and asexual reproduction occur in the field, but the genetic structure of these populations is consistent with annual cycles of randomly mating sexual reproduction. All L. maculans field populations had a high level of gene diversity (H = 0.68 to 0.75) and genotypic diversity. Within each field population, the number of genotypes often was very close to the number of isolates. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that >99.5% of the total genetic variability was distributed at a small spatial scale, i.e., within 2-m2 field plots. Population differentiation among the four field populations was low (GST < 0.02), suggesting a high degree of gene exchange between these populations. The high gene flow evidenced here in French populations of L. maculans suggests a rapid countrywide diffusion of novel virulence alleles whenever novel resistance sources are used. PMID:16391041

Gout, Lilian; Eckert, Maria; Rouxel, Thierry; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène

2006-01-01

51

The Genetic Control of Cell Growth and Development in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae : Disturbed Sporulation in Diploids with a Decreased Activity of the Ras\\/cAMP Signal Transduction Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven haploid strains (four with the MATa mating type and three with the MATa mating type) were selected from the Peterhof genetic collection of yeast. Previous phenotypic analysis assigned six of these strains to a physiological group of strains with changed activity of the Ras\\/cAMP signal transduction pathway. The haploids were crossed, and the resulting 12 diploids showed higher glycogen

R. Rakauskaite; D. Citavicius

2003-01-01

52

Functional analysis of the MATB mating-type idiomorph of the dimorphic fungus Yarrowia lipolytica.  

PubMed

The whole MATA cassette from Yarrowia lipolytica, a dimorphic fungus, was replaced by the URA3 gene through a double homologous recombination. This MAT-less strain lost its mate capacity with A or B Y. lipolytica strains. Introduction of polymerase chain reaction-synthesized idiomorph MATB in a null strain of A locus by double homologous recombination gave rise to a "transsexual" B strain. Mating capacity of this engineered mutant was assayed using Y. lipolytica strains of either A or B mating type. Mating took place only with an A strain, demonstrating the MATB idiomorph functionality in a MATA phenotype. Our data suggest that specific downstream genes are responsible for the final A or B phenotypes present in all Y. lipolytica cells, independent of their MAT idiomorph phenotype. PMID:18461384

Rosas-Quijano, Raymundo; Gaillardin, Claude; Ruiz-Herrera, José

2008-08-01

53

Global changes in gene expression associated with phenotypic switching of wild yeast  

PubMed Central

Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from natural settings form structured biofilm colonies that are equipped with intricate protective mechanisms. These wild strains are able to reprogram themselves with a certain frequency during cultivation in plentiful laboratory conditions. The resulting domesticated strains switch off certain protective mechanisms and form smooth colonies that resemble those of common laboratory strains. Results Here, we show that domestication can be reversed when a domesticated strain is challenged by various adverse conditions; the resulting feral strain restores its ability to form structured biofilm colonies. Phenotypic, microscopic and transcriptomic analyses show that phenotypic transition is a complex process that affects various aspects of feral strain physiology; it leads to a phenotype that resembles the original wild strain in some aspects and the domesticated derivative in others. We specify the genetic determinants that are likely involved in the formation of a structured biofilm colonies. In addition to FLO11, these determinants include genes that affect the cell wall and membrane composition. We also identify changes occurring during phenotypic transitions that affect other properties of phenotypic strain-variants, such as resistance to the impact of environmental stress. Here we document the regulatory role of the histone deacetylase Hda1p in developing such a resistance. Conclusions We provide detailed analysis of transcriptomic and phenotypic modulations of three related S. cerevisiae strains that arose by phenotypic switching under diverse environmental conditions. We identify changes specifically related to a strain’s ability to create complex structured colonies; we also show that other changes, such as genome rearrangement(s), are unrelated to this ability. Finally, we identify the importance of histone deacetylase Hda1p in strain resistance to stresses. PMID:24533484

2014-01-01

54

Gene Conversion Occurs within the Mating-Type Locus of Cryptococcus neoformans during Sexual Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Meiotic recombination of sex chromosomes is thought to be repressed in organisms with heterogametic sex determination (e.g. mammalian X/Y chromosomes), due to extensive divergence and chromosomal rearrangements between the two chromosomes. However, proper segregation of sex chromosomes during meiosis requires crossing-over occurring within the pseudoautosomal regions (PAR). Recent studies reveal that recombination, in the form of gene conversion, is widely distributed within and may have played important roles in the evolution of some chromosomal regions within which recombination was thought to be repressed, such as the centromere cores of maize. Cryptococcus neoformans, a major human pathogenic fungus, has an unusually large mating-type locus (MAT, >100 kb), and the MAT alleles from the two opposite mating-types show extensive nucleotide sequence divergence and chromosomal rearrangements, mirroring characteristics of sex chromosomes. Meiotic recombination was assumed to be repressed within the C. neoformans MAT locus. A previous study identified recombination hot spots flanking the C. neoformans MAT, and these hot spots are associated with high GC content. Here, we investigated a GC-rich intergenic region located within the MAT locus of C. neoformans to establish if this region also exhibits unique recombination behavior during meiosis. Population genetics analysis of natural C. neoformans isolates revealed signals of homogenization spanning this GC-rich intergenic region within different C. neoformans lineages, consistent with a model in which gene conversion of this region during meiosis prevents it from diversifying within each lineage. By analyzing meiotic progeny from laboratory crosses, we found that meiotic recombination (gene conversion) occurs around the GC-rich intergenic region at a frequency equal to or greater than the meiotic recombination frequency observed in other genomic regions. We discuss the implications of these findings with regards to the possible functional and evolutionary importance of gene conversion within the C. neoformans MAT locus and, more generally, in fungi. PMID:22792079

Sun, Sheng; Hsueh, Yen-Ping; Heitman, Joseph

2012-01-01

55

Evolution of the bipolar mating system of the mushroom Coprinellus disseminatus from its tetrapolar ancestors involves loss of mating-type-specific pheromone receptor function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating incompatibility in mushroom fungi is controlled by the mating-type loci. In tetrapolar species, two unlinked mating-type loci exist (A and B), whereas in bipolar species there is only one locus. The A and B mating-type loci encode homeodomain transcription factors and pheromones and pheromone receptors, respectively. Most mushroom species have a tetrapolar mating system, but numerous transitions to bipolar

Timothy Y. James; Prayook Srivilai; Ursula Kües; Rytas Vilgalys

2006-01-01

56

Further evidence for sexual reproduction in Rhynchosporium secalis based on distribution and frequency of mating-type alleles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhynchosporium secalis, the causal agent of scald on barley, is thought to be exclusively asexual because no teleomorph has been found. Partial sequences of the HMG-box and ?-domain of Rhynchosporium secalis isolates were identified and used to develop a PCR assay for the mating-type locus. PCR amplification of only one of these two domains was possible in each strain, suggesting

Celeste C. Linde; Marcello Zala; Sara Ceccarelli; Bruce A. McDonald

2003-01-01

57

Mating-type distribution and genetic diversity of Cercospora sojina populations on soybean from Arkansas: evidence for potential sexual reproduction.  

PubMed

Cercospora sojina causes frogeye leaf spot of soybean, which can cause serious economic losses in the United States. In this study, 132 C. sojina isolates were collected from six fields (from two counties, Cross and Crawford) in Arkansas. To determine mating type, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with primers specific for C. sojina. Of the 132 isolates, 68 isolates had the MAT1-1-1 idiomorph and 64 isolates had the MAT1-2 idiomorph; no isolates possessed both idiomorphs. Both mating types were present in a variety of spatial scales, including separate lesions on individual leaves. Clone-corrected data from eight microsatellites indicated that mating-type loci were present in approximately equal proportions in all populations analyzed, which suggests that Arkansas populations of C. sojina are undergoing cryptic sexual reproduction. All six populations evaluated had high genotypic diversity of 26 to 79%. In addition, among strains isolated from a single leaf, multiple and distinct haplotypes were associated with both mating types, supporting the hypothesis that sexual reproduction occurs within the populations. Most populations showed significant gametic disequilibrium but levels of disequilibrium were relatively low, particularly in populations from Crawford County. A low differentiation index (GST) was observed for all simple-sequence repeat markers across all populations. Furthermore, the value of G statistics between populations suggests that significant genetic exchange exists among the populations. Taken together, these results demonstrate that C. sojina populations from Arkansas are genetically diverse and most likely undergoing sexual reproduction. PMID:23721180

Kim, Hun; Newell, Annakay D; Cota-Sieckmeyer, Robyn G; Rupe, John C; Fakhoury, Ahmad M; Bluhm, Burton H

2013-10-01

58

Deletion of the Schizophyllum Commune A? Locus: The Roles of A? Y and Z Mating-Type Genes  

PubMed Central

The A? locus is one of four master regulatory loci that determine mating type and regulate sexual development in Schizophyllum commune. We have made a plasmid containing a URA1 gene disruption of the A? Y1 gene. Y1 is the sole A? gene in A?1 strains. We used the plasmid construction to produce an A? null (i.e., A??) strain by replacing the genomic Y1 gene with URA1 in an A?1 strain. To characterize the role of the A? genes in the regulation of sexual development, we transformed various A? Y and Z alleles into A?? strains and examined the acquired mating types and mating abilities of the transformants. These experiments demonstrate that the A? Y gene is not essential for fungal viability and growth, that a solitary Z A? mating-type gene does not itself activate development, that A? proteins are sufficient to activate the A developmental pathway in the absence of A? proteins and confirm that Y and Z genes are the sole determinants of A? mating type. The data from these experiments support and refine our model of the regulation of A-pathway events by Y and Z proteins. PMID:8978032

Robertson, C. I.; Bartholomew, K. A.; Novotny, C. P.; Ullrich, R. C.

1996-01-01

59

Mating-type orthologous genes in the primarily homothallic Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao.  

PubMed

The cacao-pathogenic Moniliophthora perniciosa C-biotype is a primarily homothallic Agaricomycete of which the genome has recently become available. Searching of the genome sequence with mating type proteins from other basidiomycetes detected one or possibly two potential genes for HD1 homeodomain transcription factors, 7 or possibly 8 genes for potential pheromone receptors and five genes for putative pheromone precursors. Apparently, the fungus possesses gene functions encoded in the tetrapolar basidiomycetes in the A and B mating loci, respectively. In the tetrapolar species, the A and B mating type genes govern formation of clamp cells at hyphal septa of the dikaryon and their fusion with sub-apical cells as well as mushroom production. The C-biotype forms fused clamp cells and also basidiocarps on mycelia germinated from basidiospores and their development might be controlled by the detected genes. It represents the first example of a primarily homothallic basidiomycete where A - and B -mating-type-like genes were found. Various strategies are discussed as how self-compatibility in presence of such genes can evolve. An A -mating-type like gene for an HD2 homeodomain transcription factor is, however, not included in the available sequence representing estimated 69% coverage of the haploid genome but there are non-mating genes for other homeodomain transcription factors of currently unknown function that are conserved in basidiomycetes and also various ascomycetes. PMID:20586074

Kües, Ursula; Navarro-González, Mónica

2010-10-01

60

DNA polymorphism in recombining and non-recombing mating-type-specific loci of the smut fungus Microbotryum  

PubMed Central

The population-genetic processes leading to the genetic degeneration of non-recombining regions have mainly been studied in animal and plant sex chromosomes. Here, we report population genetic analysis of the processes in the non-recombining mating-type-specific regions of the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum. M. violaceum has A1 and A2 mating types, determined by mating-type-specific ‘sex chromosomes' that contain 1–2?Mb long non-recombining regions. If genetic degeneration were occurring, then one would expect reduced DNA polymorphism in the non-recombining regions of this fungus. The analysis of DNA diversity among 19 M. violaceum strains, collected across Europe from Silene latifolia flowers, revealed that (i) DNA polymorphism is relatively low in all 20 studied loci (??0.15%), (ii) it is not significantly different between the two mating-type-specific chromosomes nor between the non-recombining and recombining regions, (iii) there is substantial population structure in M. violaceum populations, which resembles that of its host species, S. latifolia, and (iv) there is significant linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that widespread selfing in this species results in a reduction of the effective recombination rate across the genome. We hypothesise that selfing-related reduction of recombination across the M. violaceum genome negates the difference in the level of DNA polymorphism between the recombining and non-recombining regions, and may possibly lead to similar levels of genetic degeneration in the mating-type-specific regions of the non-recombining ‘sex chromosomes' and elsewhere in the genome. PMID:21081967

Votintseva, A A; Filatov, D A

2011-01-01

61

Mating type and the genetic basis of self-fertility in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Sexual reproduction occurs in two fundamentally different ways: by outcrossing, in which two distinct partners contribute nuclei, or by self-fertilization (selfing), in which both nuclei are derived from the same individual. Selfing is common in flowering plants, fungi, and some animal taxa. We investigated the genetic basis of selfing in the homothallic fungus Aspergillus nidulans. We demonstrate that alpha and high-mobility group domain mating-type (MAT) genes, found in outcrossing species, are both present in the genome of A. nidulans and that their expression is required for normal sexual development and ascospore production. Balanced overexpression of MAT genes suppressed vegetative growth and stimulated sexual differentiation under conditions unfavorable for sex. Sexual reproduction was correlated with significantly increased expression of MAT genes and key genes of a pheromone-response MAP-kinase signaling pathway involved in heterothallic outcrossing. Mutation of a component MAP-kinase mpkB gene resulted in sterility. These results indicate that selfing in A. nidulans involves activation of the same mating pathways characteristic of sex in outcrossing species, i.e., self-fertilization does not bypass requirements for outcrossing sex but instead requires activation of these pathways within a single individual. However, unlike heterothallic species, aspects of pheromone signaling appeared to be independent of MAT control. PMID:17669651

Paoletti, Mathieu; Seymour, Fabian A; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Kaur, Navgeet; Calvo, Ana M; Archer, David B; Dyer, Paul S

2007-08-21

62

Structure and evolution of the Fusarium mating type locus: new insights from the Gibberellafujikuroi complex.  

PubMed

Mating type genes are central to sexual reproduction and compatibility in Ascomycete fungi. However the "MAT" loci experience unique evolutionary pressures that can result in rapid divergence and enhanced inter-specific gene-flow (lateral gene transfer). In this study, molecular evolution of MAT loci was considered using the genus Fusarium (Teleomorph: Gibberella) as a model. Both MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 "idiomorphs" from eleven species of the Gibberellafujikuroi species complex were sequenced. Molecular evolution of the MAT loci from these heterothallic (self-sterile) species was compared with that of the MAT loci from nine homothallic (self-fertile) species in the Fusariumgraminearum species complex. Although Fusarium has previously been thought to have the same complement of four MAT genes that are found in Neurospora, we found evidence of a novel gene, MAT1-2-3, that may be specific to the Hypocreales. All MAT genes share a similar set of cis-regulatory motifs, although homothallic species might have recruited novel regulatory elements, which could potentially facilitate alternate expression of MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1. FusariumMAT loci displayed evidence consistent with historical lateral gene-flow. Most notably, the MAT1-1 idiomorph of Fusariumsacchari appears to be unrelated to those of other species in the G.fujikuroi complex. In general, FusariumMAT genes are highly divergent. Both positive selection and relaxed selective constraint could account for this phenomenon. However, the extent of both recombination and inter-specific gene-flow in the MAT locus also appears to affect the rate of divergence. PMID:21453780

Martin, Simon H; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J; Steenkamp, Emma T

2011-07-01

63

Localization and properties of a silencing element near the mat3-M mating-type cassette of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

PubMed Central

Transcription is repressed in a segment of Schizosaccharomyces pombe chromosome II that encompasses the mat2-P and mat3-M mating-type cassettes. Chromosomal deletion analysis revealed the presence of a repressor element within 500 bp of mat3-M. This element acted in synergy with the trans-acting factors Swi6, Clr1, Clr2, Clr3, and Clr4 and had several properties characteristic of silencers: it did not display promoter specificity, being able to silence not only the M mating-type genes but also the S. pombe ura4 and ade6 genes placed on the centromere-distal side of the mat3-M cassette; it could repress a gene when placed further than 2.6 kb from the promoter and it acted in both orientations, although with different efficiencies, the natural orientation repressing more stringently than the reverse. Following deletion of this element, two semistable states of expression of the mat3-M region were observed and these two states could interconvert. The deletion did not affect gene expression in the vicinity of the mat2-P cassette, 11 kb away from mat3-M. Conversely, deleting 1.5 kb on the centromere-proximal side of the mat2-P cassette, which was previously shown to partially derepress transcription around mat2-P, had no effect on gene expression near mat3-M. A double deletion removing the mat2-P and mat3-M repressor elements had the same effect as the single deletions on their respective cassettes when assayed in cells of the M mating type. These observations allow us to refine a model proposing that redundant pathways silence the mating type region of S. pombe. PMID:10049914

Thon, G; Bjerling, K P; Nielsen, I S

1999-01-01

64

Identification of the Minus-Dominance Gene Ortholog in the Mating-Type Locus of Gonium pectorale  

PubMed Central

The evolution of anisogamy/oogamy in the colonial Volvocales might have occurred in an ancestral isogamous colonial organism like Gonium pectorale. The unicellular, close relative Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has a mating-type (MT) locus harboring several mating-type-specific genes, including one involved in mating-type determination and another involved in the function of the tubular mating structure in only one of the two isogametes. In this study, as the first step in identifying the G. pectorale MT locus, we isolated from G. pectorale the ortholog of the C. reinhardtii mating-type-determining minus-dominance (CrMID) gene, which is localized only in the MT? locus. 3?- and 5?-RACE RT–PCR using degenerate primers identified a CrMID-orthologous 164-amino-acid coding gene (GpMID) containing a leucine-zipper RWP-RK domain near the C-terminal, as is the case with CrMID. Genomic Southern blot analysis showed that GpMID was coded only in the minus strain of G. pectorale. RT–PCR revealed that GpMID expression increased during nitrogen starvation. Analysis of F1 progeny suggested that GpMID and isopropylmalate dehydratase LEU1S are tightly linked, suggesting that they are harbored in a chromosomal region under recombinational suppression that is comparable to the C. reinhardtii MT locus. However, two other genes present in the C. reinhardtii MT locus are not linked to the G. pectorale LEU1S/MID, suggesting that the gene content of the volvocalean MT loci is not static over time. Inheritance of chloroplast and mitochondria genomes in G. pectorale is uniparental from the plus and minus parents, respectively, as is also the case in C. reinhardtii. PMID:18202374

Hamaji, Takashi; Ferris, Patrick J.; Coleman, Annette W.; Waffenschmidt, Sabine; Takahashi, Fumio; Nishii, Ichiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

2008-01-01

65

Genetic variation, occurrence of mating types and different forms of Pyrenophora teres causing net blotch of barley in Finland.  

PubMed

The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to study genetic variation in Pyrenophora teres causing net blotch of barley in Finland. The mean similarity was 93% between all isolates and a bit higher within two distinct populations based on 175 AFLP markers. Despite the high genetic similarity, 70 unique AFLP genotypes were identified among 72 isolates. Most of the genetic variation (68.5%) was observed within a field population and a smaller portion (30.3%) between them. Significant genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.308, P < 0.001) was identified between field populations. However only 1.2% of the variation was observed between mating types within a field and a lack of genetic differentiation (Fsc = 0.017, P = 0.087) was observed. The occurrence of the form of blotch (spot type, f. sp. maculata, or net type, P. teres f. sp. teres) was identified with specific PCR. All isolates were found to be of the net type. The existence of both mating types (MAT1 and MAT2) was identified for the first time in Finland and the ratio of the two mating types was almost 1:1 in both locations. The evolutionary potential and the possibility of sexual reproduction of P. teres occurring in Finland are discussed. PMID:16121567

Serenius, Marjo; Mironenko, Nina; Manninen, Outi

2005-07-01

66

Identification of mating type loci and development of SCAR marker genetically linked to the B3 locus in Pleurotus eryngii.  

PubMed

In order to estimate how diverse the mating types in Pleurotus eryngii from different regions are, pairings between monokaryons derived from inter- and intragroups were done. Sixteen and 15 alleles were identified at loci A and B from the 12 strains. In the P. eryngii KNR2312, widely used for commercial production, four mating loci, A3, A4, B3, and B4, were determined. Those loci, except A3, were found in 4 strains out of 12 strains. To improve breeding efficiency, especially in mating type determination, RAPD and BSA were performed to screen for a mating type specific marker. The SCAR marker 13- 2(2100) was developed based on the RAPD-derived sequence typing B3 locus. The sequence analysis of 13-2(2100) revealed that it contained a conserved domain, the STE3 superfamily, and consensus sequences like the TATA box and GC box. It seems likely that the SCAR marker region is a part of the pheromone receptor gene. PMID:22814489

Ryu, Jae-San; Kim, Min Keun; Ro, Hyeon-Su; Kang, Young Min; Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk; Kong, Won-Sik; Lee, Hyun-Sook

2012-09-01

67

Evidence from comparative genomics for a complete sexual cycle in the 'asexual' pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata  

PubMed Central

Background Candida glabrata is a pathogenic yeast of increasing medical concern. It has been regarded as asexual since it was first described in 1917, yet phylogenetic analyses have revealed that it is more closely related to sexual yeasts than other Candida species. We show here that the C. glabrata genome contains many genes apparently involved in sexual reproduction. Results By genome survey sequencing, we find that genes involved in mating and meiosis are as numerous in C. glabrata as in the sexual species Kluyveromyces delphensis, which is its closest known relative. C. glabrata has a putative mating-type (MAT) locus and a pheromone gene (MFALPHA2), as well as orthologs of at least 31 other Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes that have no known roles apart from mating or meiosis, including FUS3, IME1 and SMK1. Conclusions We infer that C. glabrata is likely to have an undiscovered sexual stage in its life cycle, similar to that recently proposed for C. albicans. The two Candida species represent two distantly related yeast lineages that have independently become both pathogenic and 'asexual'. Parallel evolution in the two lineages as they adopted mammalian hosts resulted in separate but analogous switches from overtly sexual to cryptically sexual life cycles, possibly in response to defense by the host immune system. PMID:12620120

Wong, Simon; Fares, Mario A; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Butler, Geraldine; Wolfe, Kenneth H

2003-01-01

68

The Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Mating Type Locus (MAT) Contains a 3.6-kb Region That Is Inverted in Every Meiotic Generation  

PubMed Central

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a fungal plant pathogen and the causal agent of lettuce drop, an economically important disease of California lettuce. The structure of the S. sclerotiorum mating type locus MAT has previously been reported and consists of two idiomorphs that are fused end-to-end as in other homothallics. We investigated the diversity of S. sclerotiorum MAT using a total of 283 isolates from multiple hosts and locations, and identified a novel MAT allele that differed by a 3.6-kb inversion and was designated Inv+, as opposed to the previously known S. sclerotiorum MAT that lacked the inversion and was Inv-. The inversion affected three of the four MAT genes: MAT1-2-1 and MAT1-2-4 were inverted and MAT1-1-1 was truncated at the 3’-end. Expression of MAT genes differed between Inv+ and Inv- isolates. In Inv+ isolates, only one of the three MAT1-2-1 transcript variants of Inv- isolates was detected, and the alpha1 domain of Inv+ MAT1-1-1 transcripts was truncated. Both Inv- and Inv+ isolates were self-fertile, and the inversion segregated in a 1?1 ratio regardless of whether the parent was Inv- or Inv+. This suggested the involvement of a highly regulated process in maintaining equal proportions of Inv- and Inv+, likely associated with the sexual state. The MAT inversion region, defined as the 3.6-kb MAT inversion in Inv+ isolates and the homologous region of Inv- isolates, was flanked by a 250-bp inverted repeat on either side. The 250-bp inverted repeat was a partial MAT1-1-1 that through mediation of loop formation and crossing over, may be involved in the inversion process. Inv+ isolates were widespread, and in California and Nebraska constituted half of the isolates examined. We speculate that a similar inversion region may be involved in mating type switching in the filamentous ascomycetes Chromocrea spinulosa, Sclerotinia trifoliorum and in certain Ceratocystis species. PMID:23457637

Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Wu, Bo-Ming; Subbarao, Krishna V.

2013-01-01

69

Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from Infected Animals Reveal Genetic Exchange in Unisexual,   Mating Type Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual reproduction and genetic exchange are important for the evolution of fungal pathogens and for producing potentially infective spores. Studies to determine whether sex occurs in the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii have produced enigmatic results, however: basidiospores are the most likely infective propagules, and clinical isolates are fertile and genetically diverse, consistent with a sexual species, but almost

Tien Bui; Xiaorong Lin; Richard Malik; Joseph Heitman; Dee Carter

2008-01-01

70

Complex Mechanisms Regulate Developmental Expression of the matA (HMG) Mating Type Gene in Homothallic Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Sexual reproduction is a fundamental developmental process that allows for genetic diversity through the control of zygote formation, recombination, and gametogenesis. The correct regulation of these events is paramount. Sexual reproduction in filamentous fungi, including mating strategy (self-fertilization/homothallism or outcrossing/heterothallism), is determined by the expression of mating type genes at mat loci. Aspergillus nidulans matA encodes a critical regulator that is a fungal ortholog of the hSRY/SOX9 HMG box proteins. In contrast to well-studied outcrossing systems, the molecular basis of homothallism and role of mating type genes during a self-fertile sexual cycle remain largely unknown. In this study the genetic model organism, A. nidulans, has been used to investigate the regulation and molecular functions of the matA mating type gene in a homothallic system. Our data demonstrate that complex regulatory mechanisms underlie functional matA expression during self-fertilization and sexual reproduction in A. nidulans. matA expression is suppressed in vegetative hyphae and is progressively derepressed during the sexual cycle. Elevated levels of matA transcript are required for differentiation of fruiting bodies, karyogamy, meiosis, and efficient formation of meiotic progeny. matA expression is driven from both initiator (Inr) and novel promoter elements that are tightly developmentally regulated by position-dependent and position-independent mechanisms. Deletion of an upstream silencing element, matA SE, results in derepressed expression from wild-type (wt) promoter elements and activation of an additional promoter. These studies provide novel insights into the molecular basis of homothallism in fungi and genetic regulation of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. PMID:21868608

Czaja, Wioletta; Miller, Karen Y.; Miller, Bruce L.

2011-01-01

71

The MAT1-2-1 mating-type gene upregulates photo-inducible carotenoid biosynthesis in Fusarium verticillioides.  

PubMed

Filamentous ascomycetes, including mitotic holomorphs, have constitutively transcribed MAT (mating type) genes. These genes encode transcription factors considered to be the major regulators of sexual communication. The proven targets of the MAT transcription factors are pheromone precursor and pheromone receptor genes. However, recent studies demonstrated that MAT proteins may also affect other genes not involved directly in the mating process. When grown in the light, Fusarium verticillioides produces the acidic xanthophyll neurosporoxanthin and lower amounts of nonpolar precursor carotenes, such as phytoene, torulene, ?-carotene, and ?-carotene. Depending on the illumination conditions, a drastic decrease or the absence of light-inducible carotenoid accumulation was detected in three independent ?FvMAT1-2-1 knockout mutants of F. verticillioides as compared with the parental wild-type strain. Transcript levels of the carB, carRA, and carT genes, encoding key enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, were also significantly reduced in the mutants. The downregulation of these genes in the ?FvMAT1-2-1 mutant indicates that MAT genes play a role in the control of carotenogenesis in Fusarium. The finding that mating-type genes regulate important processes unrelated to sex helps to understand the presence of functional MAT genes in asexually reproducing fungus populations. PMID:21314709

Adám, Attila L; García-Martínez, Jorge; Szucs, Endre P; Avalos, Javier; Hornok, László

2011-05-01

72

Mating type locus of Chinese black truffles reveals heterothallism and the presence of cryptic species within the T. indicum species complex.  

PubMed

Tuber spp. are filamentous ascomycetes which establish symbiosis with the roots of trees and shrub species. By virtue of this symbiosis they produce hypogeous ascocarps, known as truffles. Filamentous ascomycetes can reproduce by homothallism or heterothallism depending on the structure and organization of their mating type locus. The first mating type locus in a truffle species has been recently characterized in Tuber melanosporum and it has been shown that this fungus, endemic in Europe, is heterothallic. The availability of sequence information for T. melanosporum mating type genes is seminal to cloning their orthologs from other Tuber species and assessing their reproductive mode. Here we report on the organization of the mating type region in T. indicum, the black truffle species present in Asia, which is the closest relative to T. melanosporum and is characterized by an high level of morphological and genetic variability. The present study shows that T. indicum is also heterothallic. Examination of Asiatic black truffles belonging to different genetic classes, sorted according to the sequence polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region, has revealed sequence variations and rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions of the mating type locus, to suggest the existence of cryptic species within the T. indicum complex. The presence of transposable elements within or linked to the mating type region suggests a role of these elements in generating the genotypic diversity present among T. indicum strains. Overall, comparative analyses of the mating type locus have thus allowed us to tackle taxonomical and phylogenetic issues within black truffles and make inferences about the evolution of T. melanosporum-T. indicum lineage. Our results are not only of fundamental but also of applied relevance as T. indicum produces edible fruit bodies that are imported also into Europe and thus may represent a biological threat for T. melanosporum. PMID:24358175

Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea

2013-01-01

73

Characterization of mating type genes supports the hypothesis that Stagonosporopsis chrysanthemi is homothallic and provides evidence that Stagonosporopsis tanaceti is heterothallic.  

PubMed

To understand the organization of the mating type locus of Stagonosporopsis tanaceti and Stagonosporopsis chrysanthemi, and its potential role in the epidemiology of ray blight of pyrethrum and chrysanthemum, respectively, the mating type (MAT) locus of these species was cloned and characterized using PCR-based techniques. The complete MAT locus of each species was cloned and annotated including complete and/or partial hypothetical genes flanking the idiomorphs. Analysis of the MAT locus organization indicated that S. chrysanthemi is likely homothallic with both MAT1-2-1 and MAT1-1-1 co-located within the idiomorph, and this was supported by production of the teleomorph in cultures of single-conidial-derived isolates. Sequencing of the MAT locus and flanking genes of S. tanaceti demonstrated that only a single MAT gene, MAT1-1-1, was located within this idiomorph and suggesting that S. tanaceti is heterothallic. MAT-specific PCR primers were developed and used to determine mating type of isolates sampled from diseased pyrethrum fields in Australia. These results indicated that only one mating type of S. tanaceti was present in Tasmania, Australia. The absence of a second mating type suggests that this species does not reproduce sexually in Tasmania, Australia and that ascospores are unlikely to be a source of inoculum for ray blight of pyrethrum. The MAT-specific PCR assay will be a valuable tool to distinguish mating types present among isolates of S. tanaceti, to monitor populations of S. tanaceti for the introduction of a second mating type and to differentiate S. tanaceti from S. chrysanthemi. PMID:24974310

Chilvers, Martin I; Jones, Suzanne; Meleca, Joseph; Peever, Tobin L; Pethybridge, Sarah J; Hay, Frank S

2014-11-01

74

Mating Type Locus of Chinese Black Truffles Reveals Heterothallism and the Presence of Cryptic Species within the T. indicum Species Complex  

PubMed Central

Tuber spp. are filamentous ascomycetes which establish symbiosis with the roots of trees and shrub species. By virtue of this symbiosis they produce hypogeous ascocarps, known as truffles. Filamentous ascomycetes can reproduce by homothallism or heterothallism depending on the structure and organization of their mating type locus. The first mating type locus in a truffle species has been recently characterized in Tuber melanosporum and it has been shown that this fungus, endemic in Europe, is heterothallic. The availability of sequence information for T. melanosporum mating type genes is seminal to cloning their orthologs from other Tuber species and assessing their reproductive mode. Here we report on the organization of the mating type region in T. indicum, the black truffle species present in Asia, which is the closest relative to T. melanosporum and is characterized by an high level of morphological and genetic variability. The present study shows that T. indicum is also heterothallic. Examination of Asiatic black truffles belonging to different genetic classes, sorted according to the sequence polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region, has revealed sequence variations and rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions of the mating type locus, to suggest the existence of cryptic species within the T. indicum complex. The presence of transposable elements within or linked to the mating type region suggests a role of these elements in generating the genotypic diversity present among T. indicum strains. Overall, comparative analyses of the mating type locus have thus allowed us to tackle taxonomical and phylogenetic issues within black truffles and make inferences about the evolution of T. melanosporum-T. indicum lineage. Our results are not only of fundamental but also of applied relevance as T. indicum produces edible fruit bodies that are imported also into Europe and thus may represent a biological threat for T. melanosporum. PMID:24358175

Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea

2013-01-01

75

High variability in a mating type linked region in the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans caused by frequency-dependent selection?  

PubMed Central

Background The mating type loci that govern the mating process in fungi are thought to be influenced by negative frequency-dependent selection due to rare allele advantage. In this study we used a mating type linked DNA marker as a proxy to indirectly study the allelic richness and geographic distribution of mating types of one mating type locus (MAT A) in worldwide populations of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. This fungus, which causes serious destruction to wooden constructions in temperate regions worldwide, has recently expanded its geographic range with a concomitant genetic bottleneck. Results High allelic richness and molecular variation was detected in the mating type linked marker as compared to other presumably neutral markers. Comparable amounts of genetic variation appeared in the mating type linked marker in populations from nature and buildings, which contrast the pattern observed with neutral genetic markers where natural populations were far more variable. Some geographic structuring of the allelic variation in the mating type linked marker appeared, but far less than that observed with neutral markers. In founder populations of S. lacrymans, alleles co-occurring in heterokaryotic individuals were more divergent than expected by chance, which agrees with the expectation for populations where few mating alleles exists. The analyzed DNA marker displays trans-species polymorphism wherein some alleles from the closely related species S. himantoides are more similar to those of S. lacrymans than other alleles from S. himantoides. Conclusions Our results support the idea that strong negative frequency-dependent selection maintains high levels of genetic variation in MAT-linked genomic regions, even in recently bottlenecked populations of S. lacrymans. PMID:20624315

2010-01-01

76

A sex recognition glycoprotein is encoded by the plus mating-type gene fus1 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed Central

Sexual fusion between plus and minus gametes of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii entails adhesion between plus-specific and minus-specific "fringe" proteins displayed on the plasma membrane of gametic mating structures. We report the identification of the gene (fus1) encoding the plus fringe glycoprotein, which resides in a unique domain of the mating-type plus (mt+) locus, and which was identified by transposon insertions in three fusion-defective mutant strains. Transformation with fus1+ restores fringe and fusion competence to these mutants and to the pseudo-plus mutant imp11 mt-, defective in minus differentiation. The fus1 gene is remarkable in lacking the codon bias found in all other nuclear genes of C. reinhardtii. Images PMID:8856667

Ferris, P J; Woessner, J P; Goodenough, U W

1996-01-01

77

Maintenance of Sex-Related Genes and the Co-Occurrence of Both Mating Types in Verticillium dahliae  

PubMed Central

Verticillium dahliae is a cosmopolitan, soilborne fungus that causes a significant wilt disease on a wide variety of plant hosts including economically important crops, ornamentals, and timber species. Clonal expansion through asexual reproduction plays a vital role in recurring plant epidemics caused by this pathogen. The recent discovery of recombination between clonal lineages and preliminary investigations of the meiotic gene inventory of V. dahliae suggest that cryptic sex appears to be rare in this species. Here we expanded on previous findings on the sexual nature of V. dahliae. Only 1% of isolates in a global collection of 1120 phytopathogenic V. dahliae isolates contained the MAT1-1 idiomorph, whereas 99% contained MAT1-2. Nine unique multilocus microsatellite types comprised isolates of both mating types, eight of which were collected from the same substrate at the same time. Orthologs of 88 previously characterized sex-related genes from fungal model systems in the Ascoymycota were identified in the genome of V. dahliae, out of 93 genes investigated. Results of RT-PCR experiments using both mating types revealed that 10 arbitrarily chosen sex-related genes, including MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1, were constitutively expressed in V. dahliae cultures grown under laboratory conditions. Ratios of non-synonymous (amino-acid altering) to synonymous (silent) substitutions in V. dahliae MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 sequences were indistinguishable from the ratios observed in the MAT genes of sexual fungi in the Pezizomycotina. Patterns consistent with strong purifying selection were also observed in 18 other arbitrarily chosen V. dahliae sex-related genes, relative to the patterns in orthologs from fungi with known sexual stages. This study builds upon recent findings from other laboratories and mounts further evidence for an ancestral or cryptic sexual stage in V. dahliae. PMID:25383550

Hu, Xiaoping; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Subbarao, Krishna V.

2014-01-01

78

Distribution of the Sex-Determining Gene MID and Molecular Correspondence of Mating Types within the Isogamous Genus Gonium (Volvocales, Chlorophyta)  

PubMed Central

Background Isogamous organisms lack obvious cytological differences in the gametes of the two complementary mating types. Consequently, it is difficult to ascertain which of the two mating types are homologous when comparing related but sexual isolated strains or species. The colonial volvocalean algal genus Gonium consists of such isogamous organisms with heterothallic mating types designated arbitrarily as plus or minus in addition to homothallic strains. Homologous molecular markers among lineages may provide an “objective” framework to assign heterothallic mating types. Methodology/Principal Findings Using degenerate primers designed based on previously reported MID orthologs, the “master regulator” of mating types/sexes in the colonial Volvocales, MID homologs were identified and their presence/absence was examined in nine strains of four species of Gonium. Only one of the two complementary mating types in each of the four heterothallic species has a MID homolog. In addition to heterothallic strains, a homothallic strain of G. multicoccum has MID. Molecular evolutionary analysis suggests that MID of this homothallic strain retains functional constraint comparable to that of the heterothallic strains. Conclusion/Significance We coordinated mating genotypes based on presence or absence of a MID homolog, respectively, in heterothallic species. This scheme should be applicable to heterothallic species of other isogamous colonial Volvocales including Pandorina and Yamagishiella. Homothallism emerged polyphyletically in the colonial Volvocales, although its mechanism remains unknown. Our identification of a MID homolog for a homothallic strain of G. multicoccum suggests a MID-dependent mechanism is involved in the sexual developmental program of this homothallic species. PMID:23696888

Hamaji, Takashi; Ferris, Patrick J.; Nishii, Ichiro; Nishimura, Yoshiki; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

2013-01-01

79

Cloning of Mating-Type Gene MAT1-1 from the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) Using TAIL-PCR Technology.  

PubMed

Cordyceps militaris and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), 2 well-known traditional Chinese medicines, contain the same bioactive components and share a similar developmental process. In this study, one C. militaris strain preserved in our laboratory was proven to be a MAT1 mating-type strain using a polymerase chain reaction-based mating-type assay. A 5000-bp nucleotide sequence of the mating-type MAT1-1 from C. militaris was amplified by thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction, but genes within the mating-type MAT1-2 remain undetectable. Sequence analysis shows that the mating-type gene MAT1-1 idiomorph contains 2 genes, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2. The MAT1-1-1 gene consists of 1480-bp nucleotides that encode 456 amino acids and contain the conserved a-box domain interrupted by 2 introns; the MAT1-1-2 gene consists of 1066 nucleotides that encode 377 amino acids interrupted by one intron. The intervening distance between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2 is 778 bp. The C. militaris MAT1-1 idiomorph organization is the same as that of Cordyceps takaomontana. The MAT1-1 mating-type idiomorph of both Cordyceps species lacks the MAT1-1-3 gene, which is typically present in Pyrenomycetes. These studies provide some insights for further study of the morphological development of C. militaris and will eventually benefit the domestication of O. sinensis. PMID:25271980

Cong, Wei-Ran; Gong, Zhen-Hua; Shi, Dan-Dan; Guo, Hui; Zhou, Xuanwei

2014-01-01

80

Prion-Dependent Switching between Respiratory Competence and Deficiency in the Yeast nam9-1 Mutant  

PubMed Central

Nam9p is a protein of the mitochondrial ribosome. The respiration-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain MB43-nam9-1 expresses Nam9-1p containing the point mutation S82L. Respiratory deficiency correlates with a decrease in the steady level of some mitochondrially encoded proteins and the complete lack of mitochondrially encoded cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 (Cox2). De novo synthesis of Cox2 in MB43-nam9-1 is unaffected, indicating that newly synthesized Cox2 is rapidly degraded. Respiratory deficiency of MB43-nam9-1 is overcome by transient overexpression of HSP104, by deletion of HSP104, by transient exposure to guanidine hydrochloride, and by expression of the C-terminal portion of Sup35, indicating an involvement of the yeast prion [PSI+]. Respiratory deficiency of MB43-nam9-1 can be reinduced by transfer of cytosol from S. cerevisiae that harbors [PSI+]. We conclude that nam9-1 causes respiratory deficiency only in combination with the cytosolic prion [PSI+], presenting the first example of a synthetic effect between cytosolic [PSI+] and a mutant mitochondrial protein. PMID:10982839

Chacinska, Agnieszka; Boguta, Magdalena; Krzewska, Joanna; Rospert, Sabine

2000-01-01

81

The Distribution of Mating-Type Bias in Natural Populations of the Anther-Smut Ustilago violacea on Silene alba in Virginia  

E-print Network

from natural populations of its host, Silene alba. The bias was usually to mating type A1, but the frequency of bias and its spatial distribution varied from region to region. Populations with high frequencies of bias still showed high rates of disease...

Oudemans, Peter V.; Alexander, Helen M.; Antonovics, Janice; Altizer, S.; Thrall, Peter H.; Rose, L.

1998-05-01

82

The genetic structure and diversity of the A and B mating-type genes from the tropical oyster mushroom, Pleurotus djamor  

E-print Network

mushroom, Pleurotus djamor Timothy Y. James,* Shian-Ren Liou,1 and Rytas Vilgalys Department of Biology Available online 9 April 2004 Abstract In most heterothallic mushroom species, inbreeding is avoided). In this study we investigated the genetic structure of the mating-type loci in the tropical oyster mushroom

James, Timothy

83

Diversity of the Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiota in the Switch from Firm- to Liquid-Sourdough Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Four traditional type I sourdoughs were comparatively propagated (28 days) under firm (dough yield, 160) and liquid (dough yield, 280) conditions to mimic the alternative technology options frequently used for making baked goods. After 28 days of propagation, liquid sourdoughs had the lowest pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), the lowest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids and free amino acids, and the most stable density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria. The cell density of yeasts was the highest in liquid sourdoughs. Liquid sourdoughs showed simplified microbial diversity and harbored a low number of strains, which were persistent. Lactobacillus plantarum dominated firm sourdoughs over time. Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus brevis dominated only some firm sourdoughs, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis persisted for some time only in some firm sourdoughs. Leuconostoc citreum persisted in all firm and liquid sourdoughs, and it was the only species detected in liquid sourdoughs at all times; it was flanked by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in some sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida humilis, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces bayanus-Kazachstania sp., and Torulaspora delbrueckii were variously identified in firm and liquid sourdoughs. A total of 197 volatile components were identified through purge and trap–/solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT–/SPME–GC-MS). Aldehydes, several alcohols, and some esters were at the highest levels in liquid sourdoughs. Firm sourdoughs mainly contained ethyl acetate, acetic acid, some sulfur compounds, and terpenes. The use of liquid fermentation would change the main microbial and biochemical features of traditional baked goods, which have been manufactured under firm conditions for a long time. PMID:24632249

Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Lattanzi, Anna; Valerio, Francesca; Calasso, Maria

2014-01-01

84

Phylogeny and evolution of mating-type genes from Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of barley "net blotch" disease.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study was to test the patterns of sequence divergence and haplotype structure at the MAT locus of Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of barley 'net blotch' disease. P. teres is a heterothallic ascomycete that co-occurs in two symptomatological forms, the net form (NF) and the spot form (SF). The mating-type genes MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 were sequenced from 22 NF isolates (12 MAT1-1-1 and 10 MAT1-2-1 sequences) and 17 SF isolates (10 MAT1-1-1 and seven MAT1-2-1 sequences) collected from Sardinian barley landrace populations and worldwide. On the basis of a parsimony network analysis, the two forms of P. teres are phylogenetically separated. More than 85% of the total nucleotide variation was found between formae speciales. The two forms do not share any polymorphisms. Six diagnostic nucleotide polymorphisms were found in the MAT1-1-1 intron (1) and in the MAT1-1-1 (3) and MAT1-2-1 (2) exons. Three diagnostic non-synonymous mutations were found, one in MAT1-1-1 and two in MAT1-2-1. For comparison with P. teres sequence data, the mating-type genes from Pyrenophora graminea were also isolated and sequenced. Divergence between P. graminea and P. teres is of a similar magnitude to that between NF and SF of P. teres. The MAT genes of P. graminea were closer to those of SF than to NF, with the MAT1-2-1 SF peptide not different from the MAT1-2-1 peptide of P. graminea. Overall, these data suggest long genetic isolation between the two forms of P. teres and that hybridization is rare or absent under field conditions, with each form having some particular niche specialization. This indicates that research on resistance to P. teres should consider the two forms separately, as different species. PMID:17426975

Rau, D; Attene, G; Brown, A H D; Nanni, L; Maier, F J; Balmas, V; Saba, E; Schäfer, W; Papa, R

2007-06-01

85

Unequal Recombination and Evolution of the Mating-Type (MAT) Loci in the Pathogenic Fungus Grosmannia clavigera and Relatives  

PubMed Central

Sexual reproduction in fungi is regulated by the mating-type (MAT) locus where recombination is suppressed. We investigated the evolution of MAT loci in eight fungal species belonging to Grosmannia and Ophiostoma (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) that include conifer pathogens and beetle symbionts. The MAT1-2 idiomorph/allele was identified from the assembled and annotated Grosmannia clavigera genome, and the MAT locus is flanked by genes coding for cytoskeleton protein (SLA) and DNA lyase. The synteny of these genes is conserved and consistent with other members in Ascomycota. Using sequences from SLA and flanking regions, we characterized the MAT1-1 idiomorph from other isolates of G. clavigera and performed dotplot analysis between the two idiomorphs. Unexpectedly, the MAT1-2 idiomorph contains a truncated MAT1-1-1 gene upstream of the MAT1-2-1 gene that bears the high-mobility-group domain. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is similar to its homologous copy in the MAT1-1 idiomorph in the opposite mating-type isolate, except that positive selection is acting on the truncated gene and the alpha(?)-box that encodes the transcription factor has been deleted. The MAT idiomorphs sharing identical gene organization were present in seven additional species in the Ophiostomatales, suggesting that the presence of truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is a general pattern in this order. We propose that an ancient unequal recombination event resulted in the ancestral MAT1-1-1 gene integrated into the MAT1-2 idiomorph and surviving as the truncated MAT1-1-1 genes. The ?-box domain of MAT1-1-1 gene, located at the same MAT locus adjacent to the MAT1-2-1 gene, could have been removed by deletion after recombination due to mating signal interference. Our data confirmed a 1:1 MAT/sex ratio in two pathogen populations, and showed that all members of the Ophiostomatales studied here including those that were previously deemed asexual have the potential to reproduce sexually. This ability can potentially increase genetic variability and can enhance fitness in new, ecological niches. PMID:23450093

Tsui, Clement K.-M.; DiGuistini, Scott; Wang, Ye; Feau, Nicolas; Dhillon, Braham; Bohlmann, Jorg; Hamelin, Richard C.

2013-01-01

86

High-Resolution Structural Analysis of Chromatin at Specific Loci: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Silent Mating Type Locus HML?  

PubMed Central

Genetic studies have suggested that chromatin structure is involved in repression of the silent mating type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chromatin mapping at nucleotide resolution of the transcriptionally silent HML? and the active MAT? shows that unique organized chromatin structure characterizes the silent state of HML?. Precisely positioned nucleosomes abutting the silencers extend over the ?1 and ?2 coding regions. The HO endonuclease recognition site, nuclease hypersensitive at MAT?, is protected at HML?. Although two precisely positioned nucleosomes incorporate transcription start sites at HML?, the promoter region of the ?1 and ?2 genes is nucleosome free and more nuclease sensitive in the repressed than in the transcribed locus. Mutations in genes essential for HML silencing disrupt the nucleosome array near HML-I but not in the vicinity of HML-E, which is closer to the telomere of chromosome III. At the promoter and the HO site, the structure of HML? in Sir protein and histone H4 N-terminal deletion mutants is identical to that of the transcriptionally active MAT?. The discontinuous chromatin structure of HML? contrasts with the continuous array of nucleosomes found at repressed a-cell-specific genes and the recombination enhancer. Punctuation at HML? may be necessary for higher-order structure or karyoskeleton interactions. The unique chromatin architecture of HML? may relate to the combined requirements of transcriptional repression and recombinational competence. PMID:9710623

Weiss, Kerstin; Simpson, Robert T.

1998-01-01

87

Multiple Genes Encoding Pheromones and a Pheromone Receptor Define the B?1 Mating-Type Specificity in Schizophyllum Commune  

PubMed Central

The genes defining multiple B mating types in the wood-rotting mushroom Schizophyllum commune are predicted to encode multiple pheromones and pheromone receptors. These genes are clustered in each of two recombinable and independently functioning loci, B? and B?. A difference in specificity at either locus between a mated pair of individuals initiates an identical series of events in sexual morphogenesis. The B?1 locus was recently found to contain genes predicted to encode three lipopeptide pheromones and a pheromone receptor with a seven-transmembrane domain. These gene products interact in hetero-specific pairs, the pheromone of one B? specificity with the receptor of any one of the other eight B? specificities, and are likely to activate a signaling cascade similar to that known for mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report here that the B?1 locus also contains at least three pheromone genes and one pheromone receptor gene, which function similarly to the genes in the B?1 locus, but only within the series of B? specificities. A comparison of the DNA sequences of the B?1 and B?1 loci suggest that each arose from a common ancestral sequence, allowing us to speculate about the evolution of this unique series of regulatory genes. PMID:9178005

Vaillancourt, L. J.; Raudaskoski, M.; Specht, C. A.; Raper, C. A.

1997-01-01

88

ATP Binding to Hemoglobin Response Gene 1 Protein Is Necessary for Regulation of the Mating Type Locus in Candida albicans*  

PubMed Central

HBR1 (hemoglobin response gene 1) is an essential gene in Candida albicans that positively regulates mating type locus MTL? gene expression and thereby regulates cell type-specific developmental genes. Hbr1p contains a phosphate-binding loop (P-loop), a highly conserved motif characteristic of ATP- and GTP-binding proteins. Recombinant Hbr1p was isolated in an oligomeric state that specifically bound ATP with Kd ?2 ?m. ATP but not ADP, AMP, GTP, or dATP specifically protected Hbr1p from proteolysis by trypsin. Site-directed mutagenesis of the highly conserved P-loop lysine (K22Q) and the less conserved glycine (G19S) decreased the binding affinity for soluble ATP and ATP immobilized through its ?-phosphate. ATP bound somewhat more avidly than ATP?S to wild type and mutant Hbr1p. Although Hbr1p exhibits sequence motifs characteristic of adenylate kinases, and adenylate kinase and ATPase activities have been reported for the apparent human ortholog of Hbr1p, assays for adenylate kinase activity, autophosphorylation, and ATPase activity proved negative. Overexpression of wild type but not the mutant forms of Hbr1p restored MTl?2 expression in an HBR1/hbr1 mutant, indicating that ATP binding to the P-loop is necessary for this function of Hbr1p. PMID:21372131

Peterson, Alexander W.; Pendrak, Michael L.; Roberts, David D.

2011-01-01

89

Molecular Complementarity of Yeast Glycoprotein Mating Factors  

PubMed Central

Cell fusion between opposite mating types 5 and 21 of the yeast Hansenula wingei is initiated by a strong sexual agglutination reaction. The mating factors responsible for the specificity of cellular recognition are complementary glycoproteins which form a physical complex in vitro. The complex is assayed by recovery of agglutination activity of the multivalent 5-factor after the univalent 21-factor has been inactivated by treatment of the complex with alkali. The 5-factor·21-factor complex, purified on Sepharose 6B, is large (several million daltons) and heterogeneous. The three peaks of 5-factor activity contain a number of combining sites proportional to molecular size. PMID:4521055

Crandall, Marjorie; Lawrence, Lawrence M.; Saunders, Robert M.

1974-01-01

90

Molecular complementarity of yeast glycoprotein mating factors.  

PubMed

Cell fusion between opposite mating types 5 and 21 of the yeast Hansenula wingei is initiated by a strong sexual agglutination reaction. The mating factors responsible for the specificity of cellular recognition are complementary glycoproteins which form a physical complex in vitro. The complex is assayed by recovery of agglutination activity of the multivalent 5-factor after the univalent 21-factor has been inactivated by treatment of the complex with alkali. The 5-factor.21-factor complex, purified on Sepharose 6B, is large (several million daltons) and heterogeneous. The three peaks of 5-factor activity contain a number of combining sites proportional to molecular size. PMID:4521055

Crandall, M; Lawrence, L M; Saunders, R M

1974-01-01

91

The RAD7 and RAD16 genes, which are essential for pyrimidine dimer removal from the silent mating type loci, are also required for repair of the nontranscribed strand of an active gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

The rad16 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was previously shown to be impaired in removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the silent mating-type loci (D. D. Bang, R. A. Verhage, N. Goosen, J. Brouwer, and P. van de Putte, Nucleic Acids Res. 20:3925-3931, 1992). Here we show that rad7 as well as rad7 rad16 double mutants have the same repair phenotype, indicating that the RAD7 and RAD16 gene products might operate in the same nucleotide excision repair subpathway. Dimer removal from the genome overall is essentially incomplete in these mutants, leaving about 20 to 30% of the DNA unrepaired. Repair analysis of the transcribed RPB2 gene shows that the nontranscribed strand is not repaired at all in rad7 and rad16 mutants, whereas the transcribed strand is repaired in these mutants at a fast rate similar to that in RAD+ cells. When the results obtained with the RPB2 gene can be generalized, the RAD7 and RAD16 proteins not only are essential for repair of silenced regions but also function in repair of nontranscribed strands of active genes in S. cerevisiae. The phenotype of rad7 and rad16 mutants closely resembles that of human xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XP-C) cells, suggesting that RAD7 and RAD16 in S. cerevisiae function in the same pathway as the XPC gene in human cells. RAD4, which on the basis of sequence homology has been proposed to be the yeast XPC counterpart, seems to be involved in repair of both inactive and active yeast DNA, challenging the hypothesis that RAD4 and XPC are functional homologs. Images PMID:8065346

Verhage, R; Zeeman, A M; de Groot, N; Gleig, F; Bang, D D; van de Putte, P; Brouwer, J

1994-01-01

92

Mating type-correlated molecular markers and demonstration of heterokaryosis in the phytopathogenic fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani) AG 1-IC by AFLP DNA fingerprinting analysis.  

PubMed

The destructive soil-borne plant pathogenic basidiomycetous fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk [anamorph: Rhizoctonia solani Kühn] is not a homogeneous species, but is composed of at least twelve anastomosis groups (AG), which seem to be genetically isolated. The genetics of several T. cucumeris anastomosis groups has been studied by analysis of heterokaryotic tuft formation in the area of contact between homokaryotic single-spore isolates, revealing that AG 1 is heterokaryotic and bipolar. To prove that tuft formation is due to heterokaryosis, AFLP DNA fingerprinting has been applied to a heterokaryotic T. cucumeris AG 1-IC isolate, its homokaryotic single spore-derived progeny, and newly formed heterokaryons. By means of AFLP markers, it is demonstrated that fluffy tufts formed upon pairing of homokaryons from different mating types are newly formed heterokaryons. Mating type-correlated markers have also been found, which will be useful for future studies of the genetics of this fungal species complex. PMID:9987848

Julián, M C; Acero, J; Salazar, O; Keijer, J; Rubio, V

1999-01-01

93

Genealogical concordance between the mating type locus and seven other nuclear genes supports formal recognition of nine phylogenetically distinct species within the Fusarium graminearum clade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species limits were investigated within the Fusarium graminearum clade (Fg clade) through phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from portions of 11 nuclear genes including the mating-type (MAT) locus. Nine phylogenetically distinct species were resolved within the Fg clade, and they all possess contiguous MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs consistent with a homothallic reproductive mode. In contrast, only one of the two

Kerry O’Donnell; Todd J. Ward; David M. Geiser; H. Corby Kistler; Takayuki Aoki

2004-01-01

94

DNA structure-dependent requirements for yeast RAD genes in gene conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN Saccharomyces cerevisiae, HO endonuclease-induced mating-type (MAT) switching is a specialized mitotic recombination event in which MAT sequences are replaced by those copied from a distant, unexpressed donor (HML or HMR1,2. The donors have a chromatin structure inaccessible for both transcription and HO cleavage1,2. Here we use physical monitoring of DNA to show that MAT switching is completely blocked at

N. Sugawara; E. L. Ivanov; J. Fishman-Lobell; B. L. Ray; X. Wu; J. E. Haber

1995-01-01

95

Evidence for Gene Duplication and Allelic Codominance (not Hierarchical Dominance) at the Mating-Type Locus of the Ciliate, Euplotes crassus.  

PubMed

The high-multiple mating system of Euplotes crassus is known to be controlled by multiple alleles segregating at a single locus and manifesting relationships of hierarchical dominance, so that heterozygous cells would produce a single mating-type substance (pheromone). In strain L-2D, now known to be homozygous at the mating-type locus, we previously identified two pheromones (Ec-? and Ec-1) characterized by significant variations in their amino acid sequences and structure of their macronuclear coding genes. In this study, pheromones and macronuclear coding genes have been analyzed in strain POR-73 characterized by a heterozygous genotype and strong mating compatibility with L-2D strain. It was found that POR-73 cells contain three distinct pheromone coding genes and, accordingly, secrete three distinct pheromones. One pheromone revealed structural identity in amino acid sequence and macronuclear coding gene to the Ec-? pheromone of L-2D cells. The other two pheromones were shown to be new and were designated Ec-2 and Ec-3 to denote their structural homology with the Ec-1 pheromone of L-2D cells. We interpreted these results as evidence of a phenomenon of gene duplication at the E. crassus mating-type locus, and lack of hierarchical dominance in the expression of the macronuclear pheromone genes in cells with heterozygous genotypes. PMID:25040318

Vallesi, Adriana; Alimenti, Claudio; Federici, Sergio; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando; Guella, Graziano; Luporini, Pierangelo

2014-11-01

96

Fine-scale spatial genetic structure of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) investigated with neutral microsatellites and functional mating type genes.  

PubMed

The genetic structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal populations results from both vegetative and sexual propagation. In this study, we have analysed the spatial genetic structure of Tuber melanosporum populations, a heterothallic ascomycete that produces edible fruit bodies. Ectomycorrhizas from oaks and hazels from two orchards were mapped and genotyped using simple sequence repeat markers and the mating type locus. The distribution of the two T. melanosporum mating types was also monitored in the soil. In one orchard, the genetic profiles of the ascocarps were compared with those of the underlying mycorrhizas. A pronounced spatial genetic structure was found. The maximum genet sizes were 2.35 and 4.70 m in the two orchards, with most manifesting a size < 1 m. Few genets persisted throughout two seasons. A nonrandom distribution pattern of the T. melanosporum was observed, resulting in field patches colonized by genets that shared the same mating types. Our findings suggest that competition occurs between genets and provide basic information on T. melanosporum propagation patterns that are relevant for the management of productive truffle orchards. PMID:23574460

Murat, Claude; Rubini, Andrea; Riccioni, Claudia; De la Varga, Herminia; Akroume, Emila; Belfiori, Beatrice; Guaragno, Marco; Le Tacon, François; Robin, Christophe; Halkett, Fabien; Martin, Francis; Paolocci, Francesco

2013-07-01

97

Impact of the competition between mating types on the cultivation of Tuber melanosporum: Romeo and Juliet and the matter of space and time.  

PubMed

Major breakthroughs in our understanding of the life cycles of the symbiotic ascomycetes belonging to the genus Tuber have occurred over the last several years. A number of Tuber species produce edible fruiting bodies, known as truffles, that are marketed worldwide. A better understanding of the basic biological characteristics of Tuber spp. is likely to have tremendous practical relevance for their cultivation. Tuber melanosporum produces the most valuable black truffles and its genome has been recently sequenced. This species is now serving as a model for studying the biology of truffles. Here, we review recent progress in the understanding of sexual reproduction modalities in T. melanosporum. The practical relevance of these findings is outlined. In particular, the discoveries that T. melanosporum is heterothallic and that strains of different mating types compete to persist on the roots of host plants suggest that the spatial and temporal distributional patterns of strains of different mating types are key determinants of truffle fructification. The spatial segregation of the two mating types in areas where T. melanosporum occurs likely limits truffle production. Thus, host plant inoculation techniques and agronomic practices that might be pursued to manage T. melanosporum orchards with a balanced presence of the two mating partners are described. PMID:24384788

Rubini, Andrea; Riccioni, Claudia; Belfiori, Beatrice; Paolocci, Francesco

2014-04-01

98

Characterization of Null Mutants of the RAD55 Gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Effects of Temperature, Osmotic Strength and Mating Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAD55 belongs to a group of genes required for resistance to ionizing radiation, RAD50-RAD57, which are thought to define a pathway of recombinational repair. Since all four alleles of RAD55 are temperature conditional (cold sensitive) for their radiation phenotype, we investigated the phenotype produced by null mutations in the RAD55 gene, constructed in vitro and transplaced to the yeast chromosome.

Susan T. Lovett; Robert K. Mortimer

1987-01-01

99

The oxygen effect in haploid and diploid yeast strains of different sensitivities.  

PubMed

The extent of the oxygen effect for cell survival was studied in diploid and haploid wild-type yeast and in mutants belonging to the rad2, rad6 and rad50 epistatic group. In haploids, reduced oxygen enhancement ratios were found in rad52, rad6 and rad18. The latter two also showed some influence of the mating type. In diploids the oxygen effect was decreased in rad2, rad52 and rad18. PMID:7038471

Mock, G; Kiefer, J

1982-03-01

100

Genetic diversity and mating type distribution of Tuber melanosporum and their significance to truffle cultivation in artificially planted truffieres in Australia.  

PubMed

Tuber melanosporum is a truffle native to Europe and is cultivated in countries such as Australia for the gastronomic market, where production yields are often lower than expected. We assessed the genetic diversity of T. melanosporum with six microsatellite loci to assess the effect of genetic drift on truffle yield in Australia. Genetic diversity as assessed on 210 ascocarps revealed a higher allelic diversity compared to previous studies from Europe, suggesting a possible genetic expansion and/or multiple and diverse source populations for inoculum. The results also suggest that the single sequence repeat diversity of locus ME2 is adaptive and that, for example, the probability of replication errors is increased for this locus. Loss of genetic diversity in Australian populations is therefore not a likely factor in limiting ascocarp production. A survey of nursery seedlings and trees inoculated with T. melanosporum revealed that <70% of seedlings and host trees were colonized with T. melanosporum and that some trees had been contaminated by Tuber brumale, presumably during the inoculation process. Mating type (MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1) analyses on seedling and four- to ten-year-old host trees found that 100% of seedlings but only approximately half of host trees had both mating types present. Furthermore, MAT1-1-1 was detected significantly more commonly than MAT1-2-1 in established trees, suggesting a competitive advantage for MAT1-1-1 strains. This study clearly shows that there are more factors involved in ascocarp production than just the presence of both mating types on host trees. PMID:22773652

Linde, C C; Selmes, H

2012-09-01

101

Genetic Diversity and Mating Type Distribution of Tuber melanosporum and Their Significance to Truffle Cultivation in Artificially Planted Truffi?res in Australia  

PubMed Central

Tuber melanosporum is a truffle native to Europe and is cultivated in countries such as Australia for the gastronomic market, where production yields are often lower than expected. We assessed the genetic diversity of T. melanosporum with six microsatellite loci to assess the effect of genetic drift on truffle yield in Australia. Genetic diversity as assessed on 210 ascocarps revealed a higher allelic diversity compared to previous studies from Europe, suggesting a possible genetic expansion and/or multiple and diverse source populations for inoculum. The results also suggest that the single sequence repeat diversity of locus ME2 is adaptive and that, for example, the probability of replication errors is increased for this locus. Loss of genetic diversity in Australian populations is therefore not a likely factor in limiting ascocarp production. A survey of nursery seedlings and trees inoculated with T. melanosporum revealed that <70% of seedlings and host trees were colonized with T. melanosporum and that some trees had been contaminated by Tuber brumale, presumably during the inoculation process. Mating type (MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1) analyses on seedling and four- to ten-year-old host trees found that 100% of seedlings but only approximately half of host trees had both mating types present. Furthermore, MAT1-1-1 was detected significantly more commonly than MAT1-2-1 in established trees, suggesting a competitive advantage for MAT1-1-1 strains. This study clearly shows that there are more factors involved in ascocarp production than just the presence of both mating types on host trees. PMID:22773652

Selmes, H.

2012-01-01

102

Mating type locus-specific polymerase chain reaction markers for differentiation of Pyrenophora teres f. teres and P. teres f. maculata, the causal agents of barley net blotch.  

PubMed

Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at the mating type (MAT) loci of Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt), which causes net form (NF) net blotch, and P. teres f. maculata (Ptm), which causes spot form (SF) net blotch of barley. MAT-specific SNP primers were developed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the two forms were differentiated by distinct PCR products: PttMAT1-1 (1,143 bp) and PttMAT1-2 (1,421 bp) for NF MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates; PtmMAT1-1 (194 bp) and PtmMAT1-2 (939 bp) for SF MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates, respectively. Specificity was validated using 37 NF and 17 SF isolates collected from different geographic regions. Both MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 SNP primers retained respective specificity when used in duplex PCR. No cross-reactions were observed with DNA from P. graminea, P. tritici-repentis, or other ascomycetes, or barley. Single or mixed infections of the two different forms were also differentiated. This study provides the first evidence that the limited SNPs at the MAT locus are sufficient for distinguishing closely related heterothallic ascomycetes at subspecies levels, thus allowing pathogenicity and mating type characteristics of the fungus to be determined simultaneously. Methods presented will facilitate pathogen detection, disease management, and epidemiological studies. PMID:20731534

Lu, Shunwen; Platz, Gregory J; Edwards, Michael C; Friesen, Timothy L

2010-12-01

103

A Single Mating-Type Locus Composed of Homeodomain Genes Promotes Nuclear Migration and Heterokaryosis in the White-Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium ? †  

PubMed Central

The white-rot basidiomycete fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Agaricomycetes) is a model species that produces potent wood-degrading enzymes. The mating system of the species has been difficult to characterize due to its cryptic fruiting habit and lack of clamp connections in the heterokaryotic phase. By exploiting the draft genome sequence, we reevaluated the mating system of P. chrysosporium by studying the inheritance and segregation of putative mating-type gene homologues, the homeodomain transcription factor genes (MAT-A) and the pheromone receptors (MAT-B). A pattern of mating incompatibility and fructification consistent with a bipolar system with a single MAT locus was observed, but the rejection response was much weaker than that seen in other agaricomycete species, leading to stable heterokaryons with identical MAT alleles. The homeodomain genes appear to comprise the single MAT locus because they are heterozygous in wild strains and hyperpolymorphic at the DNA sequence level and promote aspects of sexual reproduction, such as nuclear migration, heterokaryon stability, and basidiospore formation. The pheromone receptor loci that might constitute a MAT-B locus, as in many other Agaricomycetes, are not linked to the MAT-A locus and display low levels of polymorphism. This observation is inconsistent with a bipolar mating system that includes pheromones and pheromone receptors as mating-type determinants. The partial uncoupling of nuclear migration and mating incompatibility in this species may be predicted to lead to parasexual recombination and may have contributed to the homothallic behavior observed in previous studies. PMID:21131435

James, Timothy Y.; Lee, Maria; van Diepen, Linda T. A.

2011-01-01

104

Size and competitive mating success in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

In unicellular organisms like yeast, mating with the right partner is critical to future fitness because each individual can only mate once. Because cell size is important for viability, mating with a partner of the right size could be a significant advantage. To investigate this idea, we manipulated the size of unmated yeast cells and showed that their viability depended on environmental conditions; large cells do better on rich medium and small cells do better on poor medium. We also found that the fitness of offspring is determined by the size of their parents. Finally, we demonstrated that when a focal cell of one mating type was placed with a large and a small cell of the opposite mating type, it was more likely to mate with the cell that was closer to the optimum size for growth in a given environment. This pattern was not generated by differences in passive mating efficiency of large and small cells across environments but by competitive mating behavior, mate preference, or both. We conclude that the most likely mechanism underlying this interesting behavior is that yeast cells compete for mates by producing pheromone signals advertising their viability, and cells with the opportunity to choose prefer to mate with stronger signalers because such matings produce more viable offspring. PMID:24616602

2014-01-01

105

Grapevine MATE-Type Proteins Act as Vacuolar H+-Dependent Acylated Anthocyanin Transporters1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

In grapevine (Vitis vinifera), anthocyanins are responsible for most of the red, blue, and purple pigmentation found in the skin of berries. In cells, anthocyanins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and accumulated into the vacuole. However, little is known about the transport of these compounds through the tonoplast. Recently, the sequencing of the grapevine genome allowed us to identify genes encoding proteins with high sequence similarity to the Multidrug And Toxic Extrusion (MATE) family. Among them, we selected two genes as anthocyanin transporter candidates and named them anthoMATE1 (AM1) and AM3. The expression of both genes was mainly fruit specific and concomitant with the accumulation of anthocyanin pigment. Subcellular localization assays in grapevine hairy roots stably transformed with AM1? or AM3?green fluorescent protein fusion protein revealed that AM1 and AM3 are primarily localized to the tonoplast. Yeast vesicles expressing anthoMATEs transported acylated anthocyanins in the presence of MgATP. Inhibitor studies demonstrated that AM1 and AM3 proteins act in vitro as vacuolar H+-dependent acylated anthocyanin transporters. By contrast, under our experimental conditions, anthoMATEs could not transport malvidin 3-O-glucoside or cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that the acyl conjugation was essential for the uptake. Taken together, these results provide evidence that in vitro the two grapevine AM1 and AM3 proteins mediate specifically acylated anthocyanin transport. PMID:19297587

Gomez, Camila; Terrier, Nancy; Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Verries, Clotilde; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Klein, Markus; Cheynier, Veronique; Ageorges, Agnes

2009-01-01

106

Evidence of the accumulation of allele-specific non-synonymous substitutions in the young region of recombination suppression within the mating-type chromosomes of Neurospora tetrasperma  

PubMed Central

Currently, little is known about the origin and early evolution of sex chromosomes. This is largely due to the fact that ancient non-recombining sex chromosomes are highly degenerated, and thus provide little information about the early genomic events in their evolution. The Neurospora tetrasperma mating-type (mat) chromosomes contain a young (<6 Mya) and large region (>6.6?Mb) of suppressed recombination, thereby providing a model system to study early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Here, we examined alleles of 207 genes located on the N. tetrasperma mat a and mat A chromosomes to test for signs of genomic alterations at the protein level in the young region of recombination suppression. We report that the N. tetrasperma mat a and mat A chromosomes have each independently accumulated allele-specific non-synonymous codon substitutions in a time-dependent, and gene-specific manner in the recombinationally suppressed region. In addition, examination of the ratio (?) of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) to synonymous substitutions (dS) using maximum likelihood analyses, indicates that such changes are associated with relaxed purifying selection, a finding consistent with genomic degeneration. We also reveal that sex specific biases in mutation rates or selection pressures are not necessary for genomic alterations in sex chromosomes, and that recombination suppression in itself is sufficient to explain these results. The present findings extend our current understanding of genomic events associated within the young region of recombination suppression in these fungal sex-regulating chromosomes. PMID:21386869

Whittle, C A; Johannesson, H

2011-01-01

107

RNA Methylation by the MIS Complex Regulates a Cell Fate Decision in Yeast  

E-print Network

For the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient limitation is a key developmental signal causing diploid cells to switch from yeast-form budding to either foraging pseudohyphal (PH) growth or meiosis and sporulation. ...

Agarwala, Sundeep

108

Construction of a large synthetic human Fab antibody library on yeast cell surface by optimized yeast mating.  

PubMed

Yeast surface-displayed antibody libraries provide an efficient and quantitative screening resource for given antigens, but suffer from typically modest library sizes owing to low yeast transformation efficiency. Yeast mating is an attractive method for overcoming the limit of yeast transformation to construct a large, combinatorial antibody library, but the optimal conditions have not been reported. Here, we report a large synthetic human Fab (antigen binding fragment) yeast surface-displayed library generated by stepwise optimization of yeast mating conditions. We first constructed HC (heavy chain) and LC (light chain) libraries, where all of the six CDRs (complementarity-determining regions) of the variable domains were diversified mimicking the human germline antibody repertoires by degenerate codons, onto single frameworks of VH3-23 and Vkappa1-16 germline sequences, in two haploid cells of opposite mating types. Yeast mating conditions were optimized in the order of cell density, media pH, and cell growth phase, yielding a mating efficiency of ~58% between the two haploid cells carrying HC and LC libraries. We constructed two combinatorial Fab libraries with CDR-H3 of 9 or 11 residues in length with colony diversities of more than 10(9) by one round of yeast mating between the two haploid HC and LC libraries, with modest diversity sizes of ~10(7). The synthetic human Fab yeast-displayed libraries exhibited relative amino acid compositions in each position of the six CDRs that were very similar to those of the designed repertoires, suggesting that they are a promising source for human Fab antibody screening. PMID:24394194

Baek, Du-San; Kim, Yong-Sung

2014-03-28

109

Genomes of Ashbya Fungi Isolated from Insects Reveal Four Mating-Type Loci, Numerous Translocations, Lack of Transposons, and Distinct Gene Duplications  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii is a cotton pathogen transmitted by insects. It is readily grown and manipulated in the laboratory and is commercially exploited as a natural overproducer of vitamin B2. Our previous genome analysis of A. gossypii isolate ATCC10895, collected in Trinidad nearly 100 years ago, revealed extensive synteny with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, leading us to use it as a model organism to understand the evolution of filamentous growth. To further develop Ashbya as a model system, we have investigated the ecological niche of A. gossypii and isolated additional strains and a sibling species, both useful in comparative analysis. We isolated fungi morphologically similar to A. gossypii from different plant-feeding insects of the suborder Heteroptera, generated a phylogenetic tree based on rDNA-ITS sequences, and performed high coverage short read sequencing with one A. gossypii isolate from Florida, a new species, Ashbya aceri, isolated in North Carolina, and a genetically marked derivative of ATCC10895 intensively used for functional studies. In contrast to S. cerevisiae, all strains carry four not three mating type loci, adding a new puzzle in the evolution of Ashbya species. Another surprise was the genome identity of 99.9% between the Florida strain and ATCC10895, isolated in Trinidad. The A. aceri and A. gossypii genomes show conserved gene orders rearranged by eight translocations, 90% overall sequence identity, and fewer tandem duplications in the A. aceri genome. Both species lack transposable elements. Finally, our work identifies plant-feeding insects of the suborder Heteroptera as the most likely natural reservoir of Ashbya, and that infection of cotton and other plants may be incidental to the growth of the fungus in its insect host. PMID:23749448

Dietrich, Fred S.; Voegeli, Sylvia; Kuo, Sidney; Philippsen, Peter

2013-01-01

110

Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

111

Rare-Cell Fusion Events between Diploid and Haploid Strains of the Sexually Agglutinative Yeast HANSENULA WINGEI.  

PubMed

Diploids of the yeast Hansenula wingei are nonagglutinative and do not form zygotes in mixed cultures with either sexually agglutinative haploid mating type. However, a low frequency of diploid x haploid cell fusions (about 10(-3)) is detectable by prototrophic selection. This frequency of rare diploid x haploid matings is not increased after the diploid culture is induced for sexual agglutination. Therefore, we conclude that genes that repress mating are different from those that repress sexual agglutination.--Six prototrophs isolated from one diploid x haploid cross had an average DNA value (microg DNA per 10(8) cells) of 6.19, compared to 2.53 and 4.35 for the haploid and diploid strains, respectively. Four prototrophs were clearly cell-fusion products because they contained genes from both the diploid and the haploid partners. However, genetic analysis of the prototrophs yielded results inconsistent with triploid meiosis; all six isolates yielded a 2:2 segregation for the mating-type alleles and linked genes.--Mitotic segregation of monosomic (2n-1) cells lacking one homolog of the chromosome carrying the mating-type locus is proposed to explain the rare production of sexually active cells in the diploid cultures. Fusion between such monosomic cells and normal haploids is thought to have produced 3n-1 cells, disomic for the chromosome carrying the mating-type locus. We conclude that in the diploid strain we studied, the physiological mechanisms repressing sexual agglutination and conjugation function efficiently, but events occuring during mitosis lead to a low frequency of genetically altered cells in the population. PMID:17248985

Crandall, M; Caulton, J H

1979-12-01

112

Rare-Cell Fusion Events between Diploid and Haploid Strains of the Sexually Agglutinative Yeast HANSENULA WINGEI  

PubMed Central

Diploids of the yeast Hansenula wingei are nonagglutinative and do not form zygotes in mixed cultures with either sexually agglutinative haploid mating type. However, a low frequency of diploid x haploid cell fusions (about 10-3) is detectable by prototrophic selection. This frequency of rare diploid x haploid matings is not increased after the diploid culture is induced for sexual agglutination. Therefore, we conclude that genes that repress mating are different from those that repress sexual agglutination.——Six prototrophs isolated from one diploid x haploid cross had an average DNA value (µg DNA per 108 cells) of 6.19, compared to 2.53 and 4.35 for the haploid and diploid strains, respectively. Four prototrophs were clearly cell-fusion products because they contained genes from both the diploid and the haploid partners. However, genetic analysis of the prototrophs yielded results inconsistent with triploid meiosis; all six isolates yielded a 2:2 segregation for the mating-type alleles and linked genes.——Mitotic segregation of monosomic (2n-1) cells lacking one homolog of the chromosome carrying the mating-type locus is proposed to explain the rare production of sexually active cells in the diploid cultures. Fusion between such monosomic cells and normal haploids is thought to have produced 3n-1 cells, disomic for the chromosome carrying the mating-type locus. We conclude that in the diploid strain we studied, the physiological mechanisms repressing sexual agglutination and conjugation function efficiently, but events occuring during mitosis lead to a low frequency of genetically altered cells in the population. PMID:17248985

Crandall, Marjorie; Caulton, Joan H.

1979-01-01

113

Task switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everyday life requires frequent shifts between cognitive tasks. Research reviewed in this article probes the control processes that reconfigure mental resources for a change of task by requiring subjects to switch frequently among a small set of simple tasks. Subjects' responses are substantially slower and, usually, more error-prone immediately after a task switch. This ‘switch cost’ is reduced, but not

Stephen Monsell

2003-01-01

114

Exciter switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.

Mcpeak, W. L.

1975-01-01

115

Analysis of mutations in the mat1 region of Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain with the deletion of gene rhp55 +  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA double-strand breaks may occur both under the action of various exogenous factors and in the course of cell metabolism\\u000a processes, in particular, upon mating type switching in yeast. Genes belonging to the epistatic group RAD52 are known to repiar such DNA damage. Molecular defects in mating type switching occurring after the deletion of gene rhp55\\u000a + encoding the paralog

D. A. Vagin; V. I. Bashkirov; F. K. Khasanov

2006-01-01

116

Yeast 14, 14531469 (1998) Expanding Yeast Knowledge Online  

E-print Network

YEAST Yeast 14, 1453­1469 (1998) Expanding Yeast Knowledge Online KARA DOLINSKI1 , CATHERINE A in the amount of new yeast genetics and molecular biology data. Efficient organization, presentation Sequences; Yeast Protein Database CONTENTS Introduction

Botstein, David

117

Effect of fungicides on epiphytic yeasts associated with strawberry  

PubMed Central

We studied the effect of two commonly used fungicides on the epiphytic yeast community of strawberry. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted applying Switch (cyprodinil plus fludioxonil) or Signum (boscalid plus pyraclostrobin) to strawberry plants. Yeasts on leaves and fruits were assessed on treated and untreated plants at several time points via plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The yeast counts on plates of the treated plants were similar to the control plants. Unripe fruits had 10 times larger yeast concentrations than ripe fruits or leaves. Some dominant yeast types were isolated and in vitro tests showed that they were at least 10 times less sensitive to Switch and Signum as compared with two important fungal strawberry pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum acutatum, which are the targets for the fungicide control. DGGE analysis showed that the applied fungicides had no effect on the composition of the yeast communities, while the growing system, strawberry tissue, and sampling time did affect the yeast communities. The yeast species most commonly identified were Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, and Sporobolomyces. These results point toward the potential applicability of natural occurring yeast antagonists into an integrated disease control strategy for strawberry diseases.

Debode, Jane; Van Hemelrijck, Wendy; Creemers, Piet; Maes, Martine

2013-01-01

118

Genetic structure of Kurtzmaniella cleridarum, a cactus flower beetle yeast of the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts: speciation by distance?  

PubMed

We studied 95 isolates of the yeast species Kurtzmaniella cleridarum recovered from nitidulid beetles collected in flowers of cacti of the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona and the Mojave Desert of California. They were characterized on the basis of mating type and ten polymorphic DNA markers in relation to their geographic distribution. Although all loci appeared to be free of strong linkage, the recovered haplotypes represented but a small fraction of possible combinations, indicating that abundant asexual reproduction of local genotypes accounts for much of population growth, even though the yeast is capable of sexual recombination in nature. Much of the genetic differentiation took place at the local level, indicating that gene flow across the various localities is limited. However, a relationship exists between overall genetic differentiation and geography over long distances. We estimated that populations separated by c. 1300 km would share no alleles in common and that such a separation might be enough to favor the onset of speciation. PMID:23865628

Lachance, Marc-André; Perri, Ami M; Farahbakhsh, Amy S; Starmer, William T

2013-11-01

119

Acceleration switch  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

Abbin, Jr., Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Devaney, Howard F. (Cedar Crest, NM); Hake, Lewis W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1982-08-17

120

Magnetic switching  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic switching is a pulse compression technique that uses a saturable inductor (reactor) to pass pulses of energy between two capacitors. A high degree of pulse compression can be achieved in a network when several of these simple, magnetically switched circuits are connected in series. Individual inductors are designed to saturate in cascade as a pulse moves along the network. The technique is particularly useful when a single-pulse network must be very reliable or when a multi-pulse network must operate at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Today, magnetic switches trigger spark gaps, sharpen the risetimes of high energy pulses, power large lasers, and drive high PRF linear induction accelerators. This paper will describe the technique of magnetic pulse compression using simple networks and design equations. A brief review of modern magnetic materials and of their role in magnetic switch design will be presented. 12 refs., 8 figs.

Kirbie, H.C.

1989-04-14

121

Momentum switches  

E-print Network

Certain continuous-time quantum walks can be viewed as scattering processes. These processes can perform quantum computations, but it is challenging to design graphs with desired scattering behavior. In this paper, we study and construct momentum switches, graphs that route particles depending on their momenta. We also give an example where there is no exact momentum switch, although we construct an arbitrarily good approximation.

Andrew M. Childs; David Gosset; Daniel Nagaj; Mouktik Raha; Zak Webb

2014-06-17

122

Protein expression-yeast.  

PubMed

Yeast is an excellent system for the expression of recombinant eukaryotic proteins. Both endogenous and heterologous proteins can be overexpressed in yeast (Phan et al., 2001; Ton and Rao, 2004). Because yeast is easy to manipulate genetically, a strain can be optimized for the expression of a specific protein. Many eukaryotic proteins contain posttranslational modifications that can be performed in yeast but not in bacterial expression systems. In comparison with mammalian cell culture expression systems, growing yeast is both faster and less expensive, and large-scale cultures can be performed using fermentation. While several different yeast expression systems exist, this chapter focuses on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and will briefly describe some options to consider when selecting vectors and tags to be used for protein expression. Throughout this chapter, the expression and purification of yeast eIF3 is shown as an example alongside a general scheme outline. PMID:24423273

Nielsen, Klaus H

2014-01-01

123

Yeast Based Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of yeast based sensors have been developed as analytical tools. Yeasts are known as facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yeast based sensor consisted of a DO electrode and an immobilized omnivorous yeast. In yeast based sensor development, many kinds of yeast have been employed by applying their characteristics to adapt to the analyte. For example, Trichosporon cutaneum was used to estimate organic pollution in industrial wastewater. Yeast based sensors are suitable for online control of biochemical processes and for environmental monitoring. In this review, principles and applications of yeast based sensors are summarized.

Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

124

Reinventing Heterochromatin in Budding Yeasts: Sir2 and the Origin Recognition Complex Take Center Stage ?  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional silencing of the cryptic mating-type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best-studied models of repressive heterochromatin. However, this type of heterochromatin, which is mediated by the Sir proteins, has a distinct molecular composition compared to the more ubiquitous type of heterochromatin found in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, other fungi, animals, and plants and characterized by the presence of HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1). This review discusses how the loss of important heterochromatin proteins, including HP1, in the budding yeast lineage presented an evolutionary opportunity for the development and diversification of alternative varieties of heterochromatin, in which the conserved deacetylase Sir2 and the replication protein Orc1 play key roles. In addition, we highlight how this diversification has been facilitated by gene duplications and has contributed to adaptations in lifestyle. PMID:21764908

Hickman, Meleah A.; Froyd, Cara A.; Rusche, Laura N.

2011-01-01

125

CLONTECHInnovative Yeast Protocols Handbook  

E-print Network

CLONTECHInnovative Tools to Accelerate Discovery Yeast Protocols Handbook PT3024-1 (PR13103 FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY #12;Yeast Protocols Handbook CLONTECH Laboratories, Inc. www.clontech.com Protocol # PT3024-1 2 Version # PR13103 I. Introduction 4 II. Introduction to Yeast Promoters 5 III. Culturing

Erickson, F. Les

126

[Yeasts contaminating salmon roe].  

PubMed

Quantitative and species compositions of yeast contaminating eggs, fry and fingerlings of Salmo gairdneri Rich under artificial breeding have been studied. Prevalence of species of genera Candida, Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus and Debaryomyces is noted. Yeast isolated from perished eggs and sick fry do not possess pathogenic properties. Certain strains of yeast make stimulating effect on the studied microorganisms. PMID:8983527

Nagornaia, S S; Ignatova, E A; Isaeva, N M; Davydov, O N; Podgorski?, V S

1996-01-01

127

YEAST GENETICS Fred Winston  

E-print Network

YEAST GENETICS Fred Winston 7.1 Introduction Key Concepts · Genetic studies of the yeast. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ideal experimental organism. It is a microorganism that has a fast rate of growth, with a generation time of only ninety minutes under optimal conditions. Genetic methods

Winston, Fred

128

Optical Networks Circuit switched, Burst switched,  

E-print Network

Optical Networks Circuit switched, Burst switched, Packet switched Electronic vs. Optical) ·switched networks ? (Gigabit Ethernet) · optical core (WAN) · routed virtual topology (circuits/leased lines) ( )·dynamic provisioning (circuits ondemand) ·optical burst (packet/flow) switching (IP) Packet

Shihada, Basem

129

Optical switch  

DOEpatents

An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

Reedy, Robert P. (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01

130

Evidence the yeast STE3 gene encodes a receptor for the peptide pheromone a factor: gene sequence and implications for the structure of the presumed receptor.  

PubMed Central

Haploid yeast cells of the a mating type secrete a peptide pheromone, a factor, which acts on cells of the alpha mating type to prepare them for conjugation. We show that the STE3 gene, which is required for mating only by alpha cells and is transcribed only in alpha cells, likely encodes a cell-surface receptor for a factor. This view is based on three findings. First, wild-type Ste3 product is required for response to the pheromone: mutants with any one of five different ste3 mutations are unresponsive to a factor. Second, a hybrid Ste3-beta-galactosidase protein encoded by a STE3-lacZ gene fusion fractionates to the particulate fraction of yeast cell extracts, suggesting that Ste3 is a membrane protein. Finally, the DNA sequence of STE3, which we report here, encodes a protein of 470 amino acid residues that contains seven distinct hydrophobic segments of sufficient length to span a lipid bilayer. PMID:3006051

Hagen, D C; McCaffrey, G; Sprague, G F

1986-01-01

131

Switched power workshop. [Switched power electron guns  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design of a switched power electron gun. Particular topics discussed are: vacuum photodiode switch; laser switched solid state diodes; gun performance; charging supply; and laser requirements. (LSP)

Palmer, R.B.

1988-01-01

132

Switching Transistor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

1981-01-01

133

Central Roles of Small GTPases in the Development of Cell Polarity in Yeast and Beyond  

PubMed Central

Summary: The establishment of cell polarity is critical for the development of many organisms and for the function of many cell types. A large number of studies of diverse organisms from yeast to humans indicate that the conserved, small-molecular-weight GTPases function as key signaling proteins involved in cell polarization. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly attractive model because it displays pronounced cell polarity in response to intracellular and extracellular cues. Cells of S. cerevisiae undergo polarized growth during various phases of their life cycle, such as during vegetative growth, mating between haploid cells of opposite mating types, and filamentous growth upon deprivation of nutrition such as nitrogen. Substantial progress has been made in deciphering the molecular basis of cell polarity in budding yeast. In particular, it becomes increasingly clear how small GTPases regulate polarized cytoskeletal organization, cell wall assembly, and exocytosis at the molecular level and how these GTPases are regulated. In this review, we discuss the key signaling pathways that regulate cell polarization during the mitotic cell cycle and during mating. PMID:17347519

Park, Hay-Oak; Bi, Erfei

2007-01-01

134

Reset Switching Probability of Resistive Switching Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reset switching probability of resistive switching devices is characterized in array testing. The measured switching probability can be quantitatively explained based on the mecha- nism of a thermally activated reset process. An analytical model of switching probability is developed to describe the dependence of reset probability on operation parameters, including applied voltage, selection transistor gate voltage, and pulsewidth. The

An Chen; Ming-Ren Lin

2011-01-01

135

Integrated photonic switches for nanosecond packet-switched  

E-print Network

-speed waveguide switches for optical packet-switched routers and networks," OFC, paper MF53, Los Angeles, CAIntegrated photonic switches for nanosecond packet-switched optical wavelength conversion Onur controlled packet switching with a reconfiguration time of packet switching

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

136

Functional Complementation of sir2? Yeast Mutation by the Human Orthologous Gene SIRT1  

PubMed Central

Sirtuins, class III histone deacetylases, are proteins homologous to the yeast protein Sir2p. Mammalian Sirt1 has been shown to be involved in energy metabolism, brain functions, inflammation and aging through its deacetylase activity, acting on both histone and non-histone substrates. In order to verify whether Sirt1 can replace Sir2p in the yeast cells, we expressed the full-length human Sirt1 protein in S.cerevisiae sir2? mutant strain. The structure of chromatin is basically maintained from yeast to human. Thus, yeast chromatin is a favourable environment to evaluate, inhibit or activate an ectopic histone deacetylase activity in an in vivo substrate. Mutant sir2? shows a series of different phenotypes, all dependent on the deacetylase activity of Sir2p. We analyzed the three silent loci where normally Sir2p acts: ribosomal DNA, telomeres and the mating type loci. Moreover, we verified extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA circles production and histone hyperacetylation levels, typical marks of sir2? strains. By strong SIRT1 overexpression in sir2? cells, we found that specific molecular phenotypes of the mutant revert almost to a wild-type condition. In particular, transcriptional silencing at rDNA was restored, extrachromosomal rDNA circles formation was repressed and histone acetylation at H3K9 and H4K16 decreased. The complementation at the other studied loci: HM loci, telomere and sub-telomere does not occur. Overall, our observations indicate that: i) SIRT1 gene is able to complement different molecular phenotypes of the sir2? mutant at rDNA ii) the in vivo screening of Sirt1 activity is possible in yeast. PMID:24349441

Gaglio, Davide; D’Alfonso, Anna; Camilloni, Giorgio

2013-01-01

137

Mitochondrial assembly in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is likely to be the first organism for which a complete inventory of mitochondrial proteins and their functions can be drawn up. A survey of the 340 or so proteins currently known to be localised in yeast mitochondria reveals the considerable investment required to maintain the organelle’s own genetic system, which itself contributes seven key components

Les A Grivell; Marta Artal-Sanz; Gertjan Hakkaart; Liesbeth de Jong; Leo G. J Nijtmans; Katinka van Oosterum; Michel Siep; Hans van der Spek

1999-01-01

138

Yeasts: Neglected Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current research on Crohn’s disease (CD) concerns molecular events related to loss of tolerance to microbes that could trigger or maintain inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. CD is also associated with antimicrobial antibodies, including the antibodies we described against yeast oligomannosides (ASCA). This prompted us to investigate a role for another yeast, Candida albicans, a very common commensal of

Daniel Poulain; Boualem Sendid; Annie Standaert-Vitse; Chantal Fradin; Thierry Jouault; Samir Jawhara; Jean-Frederic Colombel

2009-01-01

139

Packet switching. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report assembles information on the theories of store-and-forward packet switching, and surveys existing operational packet-switching networks. It includes a comparison of the types of packet switching; packet-switching techniques; procedures for controlling errors, flow, and congestion; and protocol layers used in packet-switching networks. 132 references, 25 figures, 2 tables.

Derr, K.W.

1980-03-01

140

Prions in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The concept of a prion as an infectious self-propagating protein isoform was initially proposed to explain certain mammalian diseases. It is now clear that yeast also has heritable elements transmitted via protein. Indeed, the “protein only” model of prion transmission was first proven using a yeast prion. Typically, known prions are ordered cross-? aggregates (amyloids). Recently, there has been an explosion in the number of recognized prions in yeast. Yeast continues to lead the way in understanding cellular control of prion propagation, prion structure, mechanisms of de novo prion formation, specificity of prion transmission, and the biological roles of prions. This review summarizes what has been learned from yeast prions. PMID:22879407

Liebman, Susan W.; Chernoff, Yury O.

2012-01-01

141

[Analysis of mutations in the mat1 region of Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain with the deletion of gene rhp55+].  

PubMed

DNA double-strand breaks may occur both under the action of various exogenous factors and in the course of cell metabolism processes, in particular, upon mating type switching in yeast. Genes belonging to the epistatic group RAD52 are known to repair such DNA damage. Molecular defects in mating type switching occurring after the deletion of gene rhp55+ encoding the paralog of recombinational protein Rhp51, which is a functional homolog of Escherichia coli RecA, were studied in fission yeast. Analysis of stable nonswitching segregants in h90 rhp55 mutants with unchanged configuration of the mating type switching locus but with a drastically decreased level of double-strand DNA break formation at the mat1 :1 locus demonstrated changes in DNA sequences within the region responsible for the generation of the breaks. These changes might have resulted from incorrect gene conversion upon repair of double-strand DNA breaks in Schizosaccharomyces pombe rhp55 mutants. PMID:16808240

Vagin, D A; Bashkirov, V I; Khasanov, F K

2006-05-01

142

Cloning of a novel constitutively expressed pectate lyase gene pelB from Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Nectria haematococca, mating type VI) and characterization of the gene product expressed in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed Central

Since plant-pathogenic fungi must penetrate through pectinaceous layers of the host cell wall, pectin-degrading enzymes are thought to be important for pathogenesis. Antibodies prepared against a pectin-inducible pectate lyase (pectate lyase A [PLA]) produced by a phytopathogenic fungus, Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Nectria haematococca, mating type VI), was previously found to protect the host from infection. The gene (pelA) and its cDNA were cloned and sequenced. Here we report the isolation of a new pectate lyase gene, pelB, from a genomic library of F. solani f. sp. pisi with the pelA cDNA as the probe. A 2.6-kb DNA fragment containing pelB and its flanking regions was sequenced. The coding region of pelB was amplified by reverse transcription-mediated PCR, using total RNA isolated from F. solani pisi culture grown in the presence of glucose as the sole carbon source. The predicted open reading frame of pelB would encode a 25.6-kDa protein of 244 amino acids which has 65% amino acid sequence identity with PLA from F. solani f. sp. pisi but no significant homology with other pectinolytic enzymes. The first 16 amino acid residues at the N terminus appeared to be a signal peptide. The pelB cDNA was expressed in Pichia pastoris, yielding a pectate lyase B (PLB) which was found to be a glycoprotein of 29 kDa. PLB was purified to homogeneity by using a two-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Superdex G75 gel filtration chromatography. Purified PLB showed optimal lyase activity at pH 10.0. A rapid drop in the viscosity of the substrate and Mono Q anion-exchange chromatography of the products generated by the lyase showed that PLB cleaved polygalacturonate chains in an endo fashion. Western blotting (immunoblotting) with antibodies raised against PLA showed that PLB and PLA are immunologically related to each other. The 5' flanking regions of both pelA and pelB were translationally fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene and introduced into F. solani f. sp. pisi, and beta-glucuronidase activities of the transformants were measured. Expression of the marker gene by the transformants showed that pelA expression is induced by pectin and repressed by glucose, whereas expression of pelB is constitutive and is not subject to glucose repression. Reverse transcription-mediated PCR showed that both pelA and pelB are expressed when F. solani f. sp. pisi infects pea epicotyl. PMID:8522511

Guo, W; Gonzalez-Candelas, L; Kolattukudy, P E

1995-01-01

143

Yeast Proteome Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yeast organisms, and specifically Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have become model systems for many aspects in fundamental and applied research. Consistently, many papers have been published applying proteome techniques to study these organisms. The review will give an overview on the proteome research performed on yeast systems so far; however, due to the large number of publications, only selected reports can be cited neglecting many more interesting ones in the interest of space. The review will focus on research involving mass spectrom-etry as a basic proteome technique, although many more approaches are relevant for the functional characterization of proteins in the cell, e.g. the yeast two-hybrid system. We will provide an overview on yeasts as models in the context of pro-teome analysis, and explain the basic techniques currently applied in proteome approaches. The main part of the review will deal with a survey on the current status of proteomic studies in yeasts. In a first part of this chapter, we will deal with the currently available proteome maps of yeasts, and in the following part we will discuss studies dealing with fundamental aspects, but also mention proteome studies related to applied microbiology. Finally, we will envisage future perspectives of the proteome technology for studying yeasts, and draw major conclusion on the current status reached in this field of functional genomics.

Matros, Andrea; Mock, Hans-Peter

144

Prion Switching in Response to Environmental Jens Tyedmers1[  

E-print Network

Prion Switching in Response to Environmental Stress Jens Tyedmers1[ , Maria Lucia Madariaga1, might provide such a mechanism. In yeast, the prion [PSIþ ] exposes a large array of previously hidden genes were particularly prominent. Furthermore, prion induction increased by as much as 60-fold when

Lindquist, Susan

145

Yeast transcription factors Kevin Struhl  

E-print Network

Yeast transcription factors Kevin Struhl Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA Studies of yeast Transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are fundamentally similar in eukaryotic organisms from yeasts to humans (for reviews of yeast transcription, see [1,2]). Compo- nents of the chromatin template and the basic RNA

146

Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and

Ai Leng Teoh; Gillian Heard; Julian Cox

2004-01-01

147

Genetic, genomic, and molecular tools for studying the protoploid yeast, L. waltii  

PubMed Central

Sequencing of the yeast Kluyveromyces waltii (recently renamed Lachancea waltii) provided evidence of a whole genome duplication event in the lineage leading to the well-studied Saccharomyces cerevisiae. While comparative genomic analyses of these yeasts have proven to be extremely instructive in modeling the loss or maintenance of gene duplicates, experimental tests of the ramifications following such genome alterations remain difficult. To transform L. waltii from an organism of the computational comparative genomic literature into an organism of the functional comparative genomic literature, we have developed genetic, molecular and genomic tools for working with L. waltii. In particular, we have characterized basic properties of L. waltii (growth, ploidy, molecular karyotype, mating type and the sexual cycle), developed transformation, cell cycle arrest and synchronization protocols, and have created centromeric and non-centromeric vectors as well as a genome browser for L. waltii. We hope that these tools will be used by the community to follow up on the ideas generated by sequence data and lead to a greater understanding of eukaryotic biology and genome evolution. PMID:21246627

Di Rienzi, Sara C.; Lindstrom, Kimberly C.; Lancaster, Ragina; Rolczynski, Lisa; Raghuraman, M. K.; Brewer, Bonita J.

2011-01-01

148

RNAi in Budding Yeast  

E-print Network

RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing pathway triggered by double-stranded RNA, is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species but has been lost in the model budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that RNAi ...

Drinnenberg, Ines A.

149

RNAi in budding yeast.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing pathway triggered by double-stranded RNA, is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species but has been lost in the model budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that RNAi is present in other budding yeast species, including Saccharomyces castellii and Candida albicans. These species use noncanonical Dicer proteins to generate small interfering RNAs, which mostly correspond to transposable elements and Y' subtelomeric repeats. In S. castellii, RNAi mutants are viable but have excess Y' messenger RNA levels. In S. cerevisiae, introducing Dicer and Argonaute of S. castellii restores RNAi, and the reconstituted pathway silences endogenous retrotransposons. These results identify a previously unknown class of Dicer proteins, bring the tool of RNAi to the study of budding yeasts, and bring the tools of budding yeast to the study of RNAi. PMID:19745116

Drinnenberg, Ines A; Weinberg, David E; Xie, Kathleen T; Mower, Jeffrey P; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Fink, Gerald R; Bartel, David P

2009-10-23

150

[Penicillium-inhibiting yeasts].  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to establish the in vitro and in vivo inhibition of post-harvest pathogenic moulds by yeasts in order to make a biocontrol product. Post-harvest pathogenic moulds Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum, P. ulaiense, Phyllosticta sp., Galactomyces geotrichum and yeasts belonging to genera Brettanomyces, Candida, Cryptococcus, Kloeckera, Pichia, Rhodotorula were isolated from citrus fruits. Some yeasts strains were also isolated from other sources. The yeasts were identified by their macro and micro-morphology and physiological tests. The in vitro and in vivo activities against P. digitatum or P. ulaiense were different. Candida cantarellii and one strain of Pichia subpelliculosa produced a significant reduction of the lesion area caused by the pathogenic moulds P. digitatum and P. ulaiense, and could be used in a biocontrol product formulation. PMID:15786872

Benítez Ahrendts, M R; Carrillo, L

2004-01-01

151

Molecular cloning and expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae STS1 gene product. A yeast ABC transporter conferring mycotoxin resistance.  

PubMed

We have cloned a yeast gene that confers a multidrug resistance phenotype on Saccharomyces cerevisiae when present in multiple copies. The STS1 (for Sporidesmin Toxicity Suppressor) gene encodes a 1511-residue protein whose predicted structural organization is characterized by 12 alpha-helical membrane segments and two domains containing consensus sites for ATP binding, indicating that STS1 is a new yeast ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. A chromosomal deletion of STS1 leads to viable delta sts1 cells of both mating types, suggesting that STS1 is not essential for cell growth. However, delta sts1 cells exhibit supersensitivity to sporidesmin and to other structurally unrelated drugs such as cycloheximide. Conversely, overexpression of STS1 leads to increased resistance to the same drugs. Although Northern analysis showed that STS1 mRNA is present in all yeast cell types, its drastically reduced level in alpha-factor-arrested cells indicates that expression of STS1 is regulated by mating pheromones. Subcellular fractionation and immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies, which recognize a fully functional epitope-tagged Sts1 protein, showed that Sts1 is a 175-kDa membrane protein localized mainly to intracellular membranes. PMID:8307980

Bissinger, P H; Kuchler, K

1994-02-11

152

Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

153

Temporal switching jitter in photoconductive switches  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a recent comparison made between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the temporal switch jitter times. It is found that the optical trigger laser characteristics are dominant in determining the PCSS jitter.

GAUDET,JOHN A.; SKIPPER,MICHAEL C.; ABDALLA,MICHAEL D.; AHERN,SEAN M.; MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; ROMERO,SAMUEL P.

2000-04-13

154

Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks  

PubMed Central

The term “transcriptional network” refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24018767

Hughes, Timothy R.; de Boer, Carl G.

2013-01-01

155

Oxygen requirements of yeasts.  

PubMed Central

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. Images PMID:2082825

Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P

1990-01-01

156

Gal80 Dimerization and the Yeast GAL Gene Switch  

PubMed Central

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gal80 protein has two binding partners: Gal4 and Gal3. In the absence of galactose, Gal80 binds to and inhibits the transcriptional activation domain (AD) of the GAL gene activator, Gal4, preventing GAL gene expression. Galactose triggers an association between Gal3 and Gal80, relieving Gal80 inhibition of Gal4. We selected for GAL80 mutants with impaired capacity of Gal80 to bind to Gal3 or Gal4AD. Most Gal80 variants selected for impaired binding to Gal4AD retained their capacity to bind to Gal3 and to self-associate, whereas most of those selected for impaired binding to Gal3 lost their ability to bind to Gal4AD and self-associate. Thus, some Gal80 amino acids are determinants for both the Gal80-Gal3 association and the Gal80 self-association, and Gal80 self-association may be required for binding to Gal4AD. We propose that the binding of Gal3 to the Gal80 monomer competes with Gal80 self-association, reducing the amount of the Gal80 dimer available for inhibition of Gal4. PMID:15695361

Pilauri, Vepkhia; Bewley, Maria; Diep, Cuong; Hopper, James

2005-01-01

157

Yeast killer systems.  

PubMed Central

The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

1997-01-01

158

Latching micro optical switch  

DOEpatents

An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

2013-05-21

159

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains. ##STR00001##

Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Singh, Arjun (Lakewood, CO); Knoshaug, Eric (Golden, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Jarvis, Eric (Boulder, CO); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN)

2010-12-07

160

Mitochondrial assembly in yeast.  

PubMed

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is likely to be the first organism for which a complete inventory of mitochondrial proteins and their functions can be drawn up. A survey of the 340 or so proteins currently known to be localised in yeast mitochondria reveals the considerable investment required to maintain the organelle's own genetic system, which itself contributes seven key components of the electron transport chain. Translation and respiratory complex assembly are particularly expensive processes, together requiring around 150 of the proteins so far known. Recent developments in both areas are reviewed and approaches to the identification of novel mitochondrial proteins are discussed. PMID:10376678

Grivell, L A; Artal-Sanz, M; Hakkaart, G; de Jong, L; Nijtmans, L G; van Oosterum, K; Siep, M; van der Spek, H

1999-06-01

161

Optically Controlled 22 Switching Cell for Packet-Switched Networks  

E-print Network

Optically Controlled 2Ã?2 Switching Cell for Packet-Switched Networks C. C. Lee1 , L. F. K. Lui1-optical switches for all-optical packet-switched networks. All-optical packet-switching is performed based-optical packet add-drop for an all-optical packet-switched network [3]. In this paper, we demonstrated a 10 Gb

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

162

Triggered plasma opening switch  

SciTech Connect

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

163

Triggered plasma opening switch  

SciTech Connect

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

Mendel, C.W.

1988-02-23

164

Apollo Ring Optical Switch  

SciTech Connect

An optical switch was designed, built, and installed at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to facilitate the integration of two Apollo computer networks into a single network. This report presents an overview of the optical switch as well as its layout, switch testing procedure and test data, and installation.

Maestas, J.H.

1987-03-01

165

Aneuploidy underlies a multicellular phenotypic switch.  

PubMed

Although microorganisms are traditionally used to investigate unicellular processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the ability to form colonies with highly complex, multicellular structures. Colonies with the "fluffy" morphology have properties reminiscent of bacterial biofilms and are easily distinguished from the "smooth" colonies typically formed by laboratory strains. We have identified strains that are able to reversibly toggle between the fluffy and smooth colony-forming states. Using a combination of flow cytometry and high-throughput restriction-site associated DNA tag sequencing, we show that this switch is correlated with a change in chromosomal copy number. Furthermore, the gain of a single chromosome is sufficient to switch a strain from the fluffy to the smooth state, and its subsequent loss to revert the strain back to the fluffy state. Because copy number imbalance of six of the 16 S. cerevisiae chromosomes and even a single gene can modulate the switch, our results support the hypothesis that the state switch is produced by dosage-sensitive genes, rather than a general response to altered DNA content. These findings add a complex, multicellular phenotype to the list of molecular and cellular traits known to be altered by aneuploidy and suggest that chromosome missegregation can provide a quick, heritable, and reversible mechanism by which organisms can toggle between phenotypes. PMID:23812752

Tan, Zhihao; Hays, Michelle; Cromie, Gareth A; Jeffery, Eric W; Scott, Adrian C; Ahyong, Vida; Sirr, Amy; Skupin, Alexander; Dudley, Aimée M

2013-07-23

166

Fast electroholographic switching.  

PubMed

Electroholographic switching with a rise time of 13 ns is henceforth presented. The switching was demonstrated in a potassium lithium tantalate crystal doped with copper and titanium with Tc=10 degrees C. The crystal was operated at 17 degrees C. The switching operation was done in the g11/g12 configuration, in which the Bragg condition remains fulfilled at all levels of the applied field. As electroholography is a wavelength-selective switching method, this opens the way for implementing optical packet switching and fast wavelength addressing schemes in optical fiber networks that apply wavelength division multiplexing. PMID:19183656

Sapiens, Noam; Weissbrod, Aharon; Agranat, Aharon J

2009-02-01

167

Photoconductive power switches  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the advantages and the potential of photoconductive switches applied to high-power systems. The photoconductive effect can be used to switch large amounts of energy by changing the conductivity of a solid-state circuit element many orders of magnitude with a high-power laser. The simplicity of these devices offers many advantages in high-power applications when combined with high-power pulsed lasers. The surge capability, the switched energy gain, and the maximum average power for photoconductive power switches are discussed. In addition, the results of a 100-kV, 100-MW photoconductive switch experiment transferring 20 J in 200 ns are presented.

Nunnally, W.C.; Hammond, R.B.

1983-01-01

168

Switching Languages, Switching Palabras (Words): An Electrophysiological Study of Code Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switching languages has often been associated with a processing cost. In this study, the authors used event-related potentials to compare switches between two languages with within-language lexical switches as bilinguals read for comprehension. Stimuli included English sentences and idioms ending either with the expected English words, their Spanish translations (code switches), or English synonyms (lexical switches). As expected, lexical switches

Eva M. Moreno; Kara D. Federmeier; Marta Kutas

2002-01-01

169

Mutant telomeres inhibit transcriptional silencing at native telomeres of the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the identification and characterization of transcriptional silencing at native telomeres in the budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. We show that K. lactis telomeres are able to repress the transcription of a gene located at the junction between the telomeric repeat tract and the subtelomeric domain. As in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, switching between the repressed and derepressed transcriptional states occurs. C-terminal

R. Gurevich; S. Smolikov; H. Maddar; A. Krauskopf

2003-01-01

170

Differential arrival of leading and lagging strand DNA polymerases at fission yeast telomeres  

E-print Network

Differential arrival of leading and lagging strand DNA polymerases at fission yeast telomeres of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA To maintain genomic integrity, telomeres must undergo switches from a protected state to an accessible state that allows telomerase recruitment. To better understand how telomere

Nakamura, Toru M.

171

Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

172

Optoelectronic techniques for broadband switching  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optoelectronic switching employs a hybrid optical/electronic principle to perform the switching function and is applicable for either analog broadband or high-bit rate digital switching. The major advantages of optoelectronic switching include high isolation, low crosstalk, small physical size, light weight, and low power consumption. These advantages make optoelectronic switching an excellent candidate for on-board satellite switching. This paper describes a number of optoelectronic switching architectures. System components required for implementing these switching architectures are discussed. Performance of these architectures are evaluated by calculating their crosstalk, isolation, insertion loss, matrix size, drive power, throughput, and switching speed. Technologies needed for monolithic optoelectronic switching are also identified.

Su, S. F.; Jou, L.; Lenart, J.

1988-01-01

173

Yeast artificial chromosome cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) cloning systems enable the cloning of DNA stretches of 50 to well over 2000 kb. This makes\\u000a it possible to study large intact regions of DNA in detail, by restriction mapping the YAC to produce a physical map and by\\u000a examining the YAC for coding sequences or genes. YACs are important for their ability to clone

Michele Ramsay

1994-01-01

174

Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter  

DOEpatents

A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

Su, Gui-Jia (Oak Ridge, TN); Peng, Fang Z. (Okemos, MI)

2007-08-07

175

AC magnetohydrodynamic microfluidic switch  

SciTech Connect

A microfluidic switch has been demonstrated using an AC Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pumping mechanism in which the Lorentz force is used to pump an electrolytic solution. By integrating two AC MHD pumps into different arms of a Y-shaped fluidic circuit, flow can be switched between the two arms. This type of switch can be used to produce complex fluidic routing, which may have multiple applications in {micro}TAS.

Lemoff, A V; Lee, A P

2000-03-02

176

Thermally actuated thermionic switch  

SciTech Connect

A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

Barrus, Donald M. (San Jose, CA); Shires, Charles D. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

177

Alarm toe switch  

DOEpatents

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

Ganyard, Floyd P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1982-01-01

178

Production of food yeast from starchy substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen yeast strains were selected for the production of food yeast from starchy substrates. From comparison with the amylolytic yeasts, a strain of Schwanniomyces castellii was selected and its characteristics are described.

A. Touzi; J. P. Prebois; G. Moulin; F. Deschamps; P. Galzy

1982-01-01

179

21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food provided the...

2014-04-01

180

Parasite epigenetics and immune evasion: lessons from budding yeast  

PubMed Central

The remarkable ability of many parasites to evade host immunity is the key to their success and pervasiveness. The immune evasion is directly linked to the silencing of the members of extended families of genes that encode for major parasite antigens. At any time only one of these genes is active. Infrequent switches to other members of the gene family help the parasites elude the immune system and cause prolonged maladies. For most pathogens, the detailed mechanisms of gene silencing and switching are poorly understood. On the other hand, studies in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have revealed similar mechanisms of gene repression and switching and have provided significant insights into the molecular basis of these phenomena. This information is becoming increasingly relevant to the genetics of the parasites. Here we summarize recent advances in parasite epigenetics and emphasize the similarities between S. cerevisiae and pathogens such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Candida, and Pneumocystis. We also outline current challenges in the control and the treatment of the diseases caused by these parasites and link them to epigenetics and the wealth of knowledge acquired from budding yeast. PMID:24252437

2013-01-01

181

Task switching and the measurement of “switch costs”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of “switch costs” is held to be of interest because, as is widely believed, they may reflect the control\\u000a processes that are engaged when subjects switch between two (or more) competing tasks. [In task-switching experiments, the\\u000a reaction time (RT) switch cost is typically measured as the difference in RT between switch and non-switch (repeat) trials.]\\u000a In this report

Glenn Wylie; Alan Allport

2000-01-01

182

Autoregulation of convergent RNAi genes in fission yeast  

PubMed Central

RNAi plays a central role in the regulation of eukaryotic genes. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe fission yeast, RNAi involves the formation of siRNA from dsRNA that acts to establish and maintain heterochromatin over centromeres, telomeres, and mating loci. We showed previously that transient heterochromatin also forms over S. pombe convergent genes (CGs). Remarkably, most RNAi genes are themselves convergent. We demonstrate here that transient heterochromatin formed by the RNAi pathway over RNAi CGs leads to their autoregulation in G1–S. Furthermore, the switching of RNAi gene orientation from convergent to tandem causes loss of their G1–S down-regulation. Surprisingly, yeast mutants with tandemized dcr1, ago1, or clr4 genes display aberrant centromeric heterochromatin, which results in abnormal cell morphology. Our results emphasize the significance of gene orientation for correct RNAi gene expression, and suggest a role for cell cycle-dependent formation of RNAi CG heterochromatin in cellular integrity. PMID:21357674

Gullerova, Monika; Moazed, Danesh; Proudfoot, Nick J.

2011-01-01

183

Photonic switching fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strengths and limitations of the photonic technology are reviewed, beginning with the temporal bandwidth limitations of photonic devices and then focusing on spatial bandwidth, commonly referred to as the parallelism of optics, and how it can be used in photonic fabrics. Some of the proposed photonic switching fabrics that are based on guided-wave devices are discussed, comprising switching fabrics

H. Scott Hinton

1990-01-01

184

Novel RF MEMS Switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews three novel RF MEMS ohmic contact switches, each being designed for specific applications. All three were developed at Imperial College London. The first is a packaged single-pole double throw (SPDT) version intended for space applications, operating from DC to 6 GHz; the second is a single-pole single throw (SPST) switch for high power applications in the 40

S. Lucyszyn; S. Pranonsatit; J. Y. Choi; R. W. Moseley; E. M. Yeatman; A. S. Holmes

2007-01-01

185

New and emerging yeast pathogens.  

PubMed Central

The most common yeast species that act as agents of human disease are Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The incidence of infections by other yeasts has increased during the past decade. The most evident emerging pathogens are Malassezia furfur, Trichosporon beigelii, Rhodotorula species, Hansenula anomala, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida krusei. Organisms once considered environmental contaminants or only industrially important, such as Candida utilis and Candida lipolytica, have now been implicated as agents of fungemia, onychomycosis, and systemic disease. The unusual yeasts primarily infect immunocompromised patients, newborns, and the elderly. The role of central venous catheter removal and antifungal therapy in patient management is controversial. The antibiograms of the unusual yeasts range from resistant to the most recent azoles and amphotericin B to highly susceptible to all antifungal agents. Current routine methods for yeast identification may be insufficient to identify the unusual yeasts within 2 days after isolation. The recognition of unusual yeasts as agents of sometimes life-threatening infection and their unpredictable antifungal susceptibilities increase the burden on the clinical mycology laboratory to pursue complete species identification and MIC determinations. Given the current and evolving medical practices for management of seriously ill patients, further evaluations of the clinically important data about these yeasts are needed. PMID:8665465

Hazen, K C

1995-01-01

186

Optical Label Switching Technologies for Optical Packet Switched Networks.  

E-print Network

??Optical packet switching (OPS) is the most prominent candidate transport solution that can seamlessly integrate electrical and optical layers by transferring certain switching functionality from… (more)

Chowdhury, Arshad M.

2006-01-01

187

Triggered plasma opening switch  

SciTech Connect

A triggerable plasma opening switch for connecting a megavolt, megampere power supply to a load is described comprising: cathode means having an input end, an output end, and a switch portion between the ends; anode means having an input end, an output end, and a switch portion between the ends and spaced from the switch portion of the cathode means by a gap; whereby the power supply is connectable between the input ends and the load is connectable between the output ends; plasma source means for filling the gap with a plasma for providing a current path for shorting current from the load; and triggering means for generating a magnetic field for controllably moving the plasma away from one of the anode or the cathode to generate an insulating gap and to block the electron flow across the gap, thereby opening the switch and permitting current to flow from the power supply to the load.

Mendel, C.W.

1988-02-23

188

The green monster process for the generation of yeast strains carrying multiple gene deletions.  

PubMed

Phenotypes for a gene deletion are often revealed only when the mutation is tested in a particular genetic background or environmental condition(1,2). There are examples where many genes need to be deleted to unmask hidden gene functions(3,4). Despite the potential for important discoveries, genetic interactions involving three or more genes are largely unexplored. Exhaustive searches of multi-mutant interactions would be impractical due to the sheer number of possible combinations of deletions. However, studies of selected sets of genes, such as sets of paralogs with a greater a priori chance of sharing a common function, would be informative. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, gene knockout is accomplished by replacing a gene with a selectable marker via homologous recombination. Because the number of markers is limited, methods have been developed for removing and reusing the same marker(5,6,7,8,9,10). However, sequentially engineering multiple mutations using these methods is time-consuming because the time required scales linearly with the number of deletions to be generated. Here we describe the Green Monster method for routinely engineering multiple deletions in yeast(11). In this method, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter integrated into deletions is used to quantitatively label strains according to the number of deletions contained in each strain (Figure 1). Repeated rounds of assortment of GFP-marked deletions via yeast mating and meiosis coupled with flow-cytometric enrichment of strains carrying more of these deletions lead to the accumulation of deletions in strains (Figure 2). Performing multiple processes in parallel, with each process incorporating one or more deletions per round, reduces the time required for strain construction. The first step is to prepare haploid single-mutants termed 'ProMonsters,' each of which carries a GFP reporter in a deleted locus and one of the 'toolkit' loci-either Green Monster GMToolkit-a or GMToolkit-? at the can1? locus (Figure 3). Using strains from the yeast deletion collection(12), GFP-marked deletions can be conveniently generated by replacing the common KanMX4 cassette existing in these strains with a universal GFP-URA3 fragment. Each GMToolkit contains: either the a- or ?-mating-type-specific haploid selection marker(1) and exactly one of the two markers that, when both GMToolkits are present, collectively allow for selection of diploids. The second step is to carry out the sexual cycling through which deletion loci can be combined within a single cell by the random assortment and/or meiotic recombination that accompanies each cycle of mating and sporulation. PMID:23271437

Suzuki, Yo; Stam, Jason; Novotny, Mark; Yachie, Nozomu; Lasken, Roger S; Roth, Frederick P

2012-01-01

189

Brewer's yeast and sugarcane yeast as protein sources for dogs.  

PubMed

Brewer's yeast (BY), autolysed sugarcane yeast (ASCY) and integral sugar cane yeast (ISCY) were studied in two experiments as ingredients for dog diets. In the first experiment, 28 dogs were randomly assigned to four diets; one reference diet and three test diets containing 15% of BY, ASCY or ISCY and 85% of the reference diet (as-fed basis). The digestibilities of the yeasts were calculated by the substitution method. In the second experiment, 35 dogs were randomized to five diets with similar chemical composition but different levels of sugarcane yeast inclusion (0%, 7.5% ASCY, 15% ASCY, 7.5% ISCY and 15% ISCY). In both experiments, the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients was determined through total collection of faeces. During experiment, two additional analyses of food palatability, nitrogen balance and urea postprandial responses were performed. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, and the means were compared by orthogonal or polynomial contrasts or Tukey's test (p < 0.05). In experiment 1, CTTAD of protein was lower for both sugarcane yeasts than for BY (p = 0.012), as was metabolizable energy content (p = 0.025). In experiment 2, a linear reduction in energy digestibility with ASCY inclusion (p = 0.05) was verified. Furthermore, faecal score and DM content were reduced with ISCY inclusion (p < 0.003). No effect of yeast inclusion on nitrogen balance or postprandial urea response was found. Also, the inclusion of 7.5% of ASCY or ISCY increased diet palatability (p < 0.01). Yeasts present adequate digestibility by dogs, but its effect on faecal formation needs to be considered. No clear advantage for the use of ASCY over ISCY was found. In conclusion, we find that sugarcane yeast is suitable for inclusion in dog food and can enhance the overall palatability of the diet. PMID:24304448

Martins, M S; Sakomura, N K; Souza, D F; Filho, F O R; Gomes, M O S; Vasconcellos, R S; Carciofi, A C

2014-10-01

190

Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.  

PubMed

Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species. PMID:15282124

Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

2004-09-01

191

Sleep State Switching  

PubMed Central

We take for granted the ability to fall asleep or to snap out of sleep into wakefulness, but these changes in behavioral state require specific switching mechanisms in the brain that allow well-defined state transitions. In this review, we examine the basic circuitry underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, and discuss a theoretical framework wherein the interactions between reciprocal neuronal circuits enable relatively rapid and complete state transitions. We also review how homeostatic, circadian, and allostatic drives help regulate sleep state switching, and discuss how breakdown of the switching mechanism may contribute to sleep disorders such as narcolepsy. PMID:21172606

Saper, Clifford B.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Lu, Jun; Scammell, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

192

Photoconductive switch package  

SciTech Connect

A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

Ca[rasp, George J

2013-10-22

193

Switching between oral anticoagulants.  

PubMed

Until about 4 years ago, warfarin was the only oral anticoagulant approved in the United States, and switching between oral anticoagulants has become an option since the emergence of the novel oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. What are the reasons one may switch between the agents and how is this done? Discussed in this article are the 4 agents approved in the United States, their characteristics, reasons one may switch, and methods for conversion. After a thorough search of original trial data and recent expert review articles, we have summarized the most recent recommendations below and briefly discuss upcoming oral anticoagulants that show promise. PMID:25255408

Strasser, Kristen M; Qasem, Abdulraheem; Madhusudhana, Sheshadri

2014-08-01

194

SLOB: a switch with large optical buffers for packet switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, optical packet switch architectures, composed of devices such as optical switches, fiber delay lines, and passive couplers, have been proposed to overcome the electromagnetic interference (EMI), pinout and interconnection problems that would be encountered in future large electronic switch cores. However, attaining the buffer size (buffer depth) in optical packet switches required in practice is a major problem; in

David K. Hunter; W. David Cornwell; Tim H. Gilfedder; A. Franzen; I. Andonovic

1998-01-01

195

Basics of Safety Switches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course is one of the quickStep series offered by Siemens in Safety Switches. These are FREE on-line industrial knowledge building tutorials. quickSTEPs are a great start for industry novices moving into technical jobs or staff in operational support rolls. They can also be very effectively used as out of class assignments for review or to build fundamental skills. Each course includes: an online tutorial organized as a number of units, lessons with self check quiz questions, a glossary of terms, a self-check final exam with scoring, an extensive downloadable PDF study guide. This course offers: current protection, fuses, enclosures, switch design, switch terminology, safety switches, a final exam, a glossary and a 72 page study guide.

2008-11-25

196

Plasmonic enhanced ultrafast switch.  

SciTech Connect

Ultrafast electronic switches fabricated from defective material have been used for several decades in order to produce picosecond electrical transients and TeraHertz radiation. Due to the ultrashort recombination time in the photoconductor materials used, these switches are inefficient and are ultimately limited by the amount of optical power that can be applied to the switch before self-destruction. The goal of this work is to create ultrafast (sub-picosecond response) photoconductive switches on GaAs that are enhanced through plasmonic coupling structures. Here, the plasmonic coupler primarily plays the role of being a radiation condenser which will cause carriers to be generated adjacent to metallic electrodes where they can more efficiently be collected.

Subramania,Ganapathi Subramanian; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Harris, Tom.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.

2009-09-01

197

Switching power supply filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

1989-01-01

198

uv preilluminated gas switches  

SciTech Connect

We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10/sup 12/ amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters.

Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.

1980-06-03

199

Optical shutter switching matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interface switching systems are discussed which are related to those used in the Space Shuttle ground control system, transmission systems, communications systems, and airborne radar electronic countermeasure systems. The main goal is to identify a need that exists throughout the comprehensive information processing and communications disciplines supporting the Space Shuttle and Space Station programs, and introduce one viable approach to satisfy that need. The proposed device, described in NASA patent entitled 'Optical Shutter Switch Matrix', is discussed.

Grove, Charles H.

1991-01-01

200

Cygnus Water Switch Jitter  

SciTech Connect

The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources - Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following x-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rad at 1 m, 50-ns Full Width Half Max. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests which are performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse–forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance is jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the diode pulse. Therefore, PFL switch jitter contributes to shot-to-shot variation in source endpoint energy and dose. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and give the correlation with diode performance. For this analysis the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition to this analysis, PFL switch performance for different switch gap settings taken recently will be examined. Lastly, implications of source jitter for radiographic diagnosis of subcritical shots will be discussed.

Charles V. Mitton, George D. Corrow, Mark D. Hansen, David J. Henderson, et al.

2008-03-01

201

Yeast Metabolism Lab Mrs. Zimmerman  

E-print Network

Energy from sunlight #12;Respiration #12;Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energyYeast Metabolism Lab Mrs. Zimmerman 10/22/10 #12;Photosynthesis 6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Oxygen Glucose Carbon Dioxide Water Energy #12;Yeast · Unicellular · Eukaryotic (like us) · Kingdom Fungi

Rose, Michael R.

202

Study of amyloids using yeast  

PubMed Central

Summary Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism in such fields as the cell cycle, regulation of transcription, protein trafficking and cell biology, primarily because of its ease of genetic manipulation. This is no less so in the area of amyloid studies. The endogenous yeast amyloids described to date include prions, infectious proteins (Table 1), and some cell wall proteins (1). and amyloids of humans and a fungal prion have also been studied using the yeast system. Accordingly, the emphasis of this chapter will be on genetic, biochemical, cell biological and physical methods particularly useful in the study of yeast prions and other amyloids studied in yeast. We limit our description of these methods to those aspects which have been most useful in studying yeast prions, citing more detailed expositions in the literature. Volumes on yeast genetics methods (2–4), and on amyloids and prions (5, 6) are useful, and Masison has edited a volume of Methods on “Identification, analysis and characterization of fungal prions” which covers some of this territory (7). We also outline some useful physical methods, pointing the reader to more extensive and authoratative descriptions. PMID:22528100

Wickner, Reed B.; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Shewmaker, Frank; McGlinchey, Ryan; Edskes, Herman K.

2012-01-01

203

Yeast models for amyloid disease.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) is a well-established eukaryotic model organism, which has significantly contributed to our understanding of mechanisms that drive numerous core cellular processes in higher eukaryotes. Moreover, this has led to a greater understanding of the underlying pathobiology associated with disease in humans. This tractable model offers an abundance of analytical capabilities, including a vast array of global genetics and molecular resources that allow genome-wide screening to be carried out relatively simply and cheaply. A prime example of the versatility and potential for applying yeast technologies to explore a mammalian disease is in the development of yeast models for amyloid diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's. The present chapter provides a broad overview of high profile human neurodegenerative diseases that have been modelled in yeast. We focus on some of the most recent findings that have been developed through genetic and drug screening studies using yeast genomic resources. Although this relatively simple unicellular eukaryote seems far removed from relatively complex multicellular organisms such as mammals, the conserved mechanisms for how amyloid exhibits toxicity clearly underscore the value of carrying out such studies in yeast. PMID:25131588

Panaretou, Barry; Jones, Gary W

2014-01-01

204

Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6 months storage at 4 and 25 °C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6 months of storage at 4 °C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25 °C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4 months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4 °C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications. PMID:22806747

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2012-11-01

205

PS'2006 -Photonics in Switching Conference Optical Buffering and Switching for Optical Packet Switching  

E-print Network

for future optical communication networking. Optical packet switching is a highly desirable approach; however, but severely limit network performance if used as the sole solution. The architecture for the packet switchPS'2006 - Photonics in Switching Conference Optical Buffering and Switching for Optical Packet

Bowers, John

206

Thiol-Based Redox Switches and Gene Regulation  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cysteine is notable among the universal, proteinogenic amino acids for its facile redox chemistry. Cysteine thiolates are readily modified by reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive electrophilic species (RES), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Although thiol switches are commonly triggered by disulfide bond formation, they can also be controlled by S-thiolation, S-alkylation, or modification by RNS. Thiol-based switches are common in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and activate functions that detoxify reactive species and restore thiol homeostasis while repressing functions that would be deleterious if expressed under oxidizing conditions. Here, we provide an overview of the best-understood examples of thiol-based redox switches that affect gene expression. Intra- or intermolecular disulfide bond formation serves as a direct regulatory switch for several bacterial transcription factors (OxyR, OhrR/2-Cys, Spx, YodB, CrtJ, and CprK) and indirectly regulates others (the RsrA anti-? factor and RegB sensory histidine kinase). In eukaryotes, thiol-based switches control the yeast Yap1p transcription factor, the Nrf2/Keap1 electrophile and oxidative stress response, and the Chlamydomonas NAB1 translational repressor. Collectively, these regulators reveal a remarkable range of chemical modifications exploited by Cys residues to effect changes in gene expression. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1049—1063. PMID:20626317

2011-01-01

207

Suppressors of Defective Silencing in Yeast: Effects on Transcriptional Repression at the Hmr Locus, Cell Growth and Telomere Structure  

PubMed Central

To identify factors that affect transcriptional silencing at the HMR mating-type locus in yeast, we characterized a set of extragenic suppressor mutations that restore metastable repression in cells containing both a mutant silencer-binding protein (rap1(s)) and a mutated silencer element (hmr?A). A total of 57 suppressors comprising 21 different complementation groups was identified. This report describes a detailed genetic analysis of these suppressors of defective silencing (sds) mutants. The sds mutants fall into several distinct categories based on secondary phenotypes, such as their ability to suppress the rap1(s) telomere lengthening phenotype, general effects on telomere length, temperature-dependent growth defects, and the ability to bypass the requirement for cis regulatory elements at the HMR-E silencer. One particular mutant, sds4-1, strongly suppresses the rap1(s) silencing defect, restores telomeres to nearly wild-type length, and displays a severe growth defect at all temperatures. SDS4 mutations also suppress the silencing defect caused by mutations in the RAP1-interacting factor RIF1. We cloned the SDS4 gene and show that it is identical to GAL11(SPT13), which encodes a component of a protein complex that mediates transcriptional activation. Possible mechanism(s) of suppression by sds4 and the other sds mutations is discussed. PMID:8582633

Sussel, L.; Vannier, D.; Shore, D.

1995-01-01

208

Yeast and cancer cells - common principles in lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

One of the paradigms in cancer pathogenesis is the requirement of a cell to undergo transformation from respiration to aerobic glycolysis - the Warburg effect - to become malignant. The demands of a rapidly proliferating cell for carbon metabolites for the synthesis of biomass, energy and redox equivalents, are fundamentally different from the requirements of a differentiated, quiescent cell, but it remains open whether this metabolic switch is a cause or a consequence of malignant transformation. One of the major requirements is the synthesis of lipids for membrane formation to allow for cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. Enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were indeed found to play a major role in cancer cell proliferation, and most of these enzymes are conserved in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most notably, cancer cell physiology and metabolic fluxes are very similar to those in the fermenting and rapidly proliferating yeast. Both types of cells display highly active pathways for the synthesis of fatty acids and their incorporation into complex lipids, and imbalances in synthesis or turnover of lipids affect growth and viability of both yeast and cancer cells. Thus, understanding lipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae during cell cycle progression and cell proliferation may complement recent efforts to understand the importance and fundamental regulatory mechanisms of these pathways in cancer. PMID:22989772

Natter, Klaus; Kohlwein, Sepp D

2013-02-01

209

Yeast studies reveal moonlighting functions of the ancient actin cytoskeleton.  

PubMed

Classic functions of the actin cytoskeleton include control of cell size and shape and the internal organization of cells. These functions are manifest in cellular processes of fundamental importance throughout biology such as the generation of cell polarity, cell migration, cell adhesion, and cell division. However, studies in the unicellular model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) are giving insights into other functions in which the actin cytoskeleton plays a critical role. These include endocytosis, control of protein translation, and determination of protein 3-dimensional shape (especially conversion of normal cellular proteins into prions). Here, we present a concise overview of these new "moonlighting" roles for the actin cytoskeleton and how some of these roles might lie at the heart of important molecular switches. This is an exciting time for researchers interested in the actin cytoskeleton. We show here how studies of actin are leading us into many new and exciting realms at the interface of genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology. While many of the pioneering studies have been conducted using yeast, the conservation of the actin cytoskeleton and its component proteins throughout eukaryotes suggests that these new roles for the actin cytoskeleton may not be restricted to yeast cells but rather may reflect new roles for the actin cytoskeleton of all eukaryotes. © 2014 IUBMB Life, 66(8):538-545, 2014. PMID:25138357

Sattlegger, Evelyn; Chernova, Tatiana A; Gogoi, Neeku M; Pillai, Indu V; Chernoff, Yury O; Munn, Alan L

2014-08-01

210

SWITCH user's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planning program, SWITCH, and its surrounding changed-goal-replanning program, Runaround, are described. The evolution of SWITCH and Runaround from an earlier planner, DEVISER, is recounted. SWITCH's plan representation, and its process of building a plan by backward chaining with strict chronological backtracking, are described. A guide for writing knowledge base files is provided, as are narrative guides for installing the program, running it, and interacting with it while it is running. Some utility functions are documented. For the sake of completeness, a narrative guide to the experimental discrepancy-replanning feature is provided. Appendices contain knowledge base files for a blocksworld domain, and a DRIBBLE file illustrating the output from, and user interaction with, the program in that domain.

1987-01-01

211

Optical computer switching network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.

Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.

1985-01-01

212

Switching power supply  

DOEpatents

The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

Mihalka, A.M.

1984-06-05

213

Magnetic switches and circuits  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines the use of saturable inductors as switches in lumped-element, magnetic-pulse compression circuits is discussed and the characteristic use of each is defined. In addition, the geometric constraints and magnetic pulse compression circuits used in short-pulse, low-inductance systems are considered. The scaling of presaturation leakage currents, magnetic energy losses, and switching times with geometrical and material parameters are developed to aid in evaluating magnetic pulse compression systems in a particular application. Finally, a scheme for increasing the couping coefficient in saturable stripline transformers is proposed to enable their use in the short-pulse, high-voltage regime.

Nunnally, W.C.

1982-05-01

214

Improved optical pseudospark switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disclosed is a high-voltage, high-current, multichannel, optically-triggered switch with the potential for improved lifetime of operation. Triggering of the switch is accomplished by ultraviolet illumination of multiple cathode apertures via fiber-optic cables. The trigger optics for each channel, being composed of a fiber-optic cable terminated by some collimating optics, are protected from damaging metalization by enclosing them in an angled metal or dielectric tubes in the cathode back-space. The use of collimating optics at the output of the fiber allows the fiber to be recessed inside the shield tube, providing further protection from discharge by-products.

Grothaus, Michael G.; Bernardes, Jack S.; Stoudt, David C.

1993-05-01

215

Thermionic gas switch  

DOEpatents

A temperature responsive thermionic gas switch having folded electron emitting surfaces. An ionizable gas is located between the emitter and an interior surface of a collector, coaxial with the emitter. In response to the temperature exceeding a predetermined level, sufficient electrons are derived from the emitter to cause the gas in the gap between the emitter and collector to become ionized, whereby a very large increase in current in the gap occurs. Due to the folded emitter surface area of the switch, increasing the "on/off" current ratio and adjusting the "on" current capacity is accomplished.

Hatch, George L. (San Francisco, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Barrus, Donald M. (San Jose, CA)

1986-01-01

216

Bearingless switched reluctance motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.

Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

217

A nanophotonic switching cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a nanophotonic/nanometric switching cell to operate in the infrared and terahertz frequency range of telecommunications. This switching cell is based on a directional coupler made of two graphene nanoribbons separated in the vertical direction, which are embedded in a hexagonal boron nitride substrate. Theoretical analysis revealed that a graphene based nanophotonics coupler, initially working in the bar state (or cross state), can be brought into the cross state (or bar state), by modifying the graphene sheet chemical potential via the gate voltage. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite element method simulations and numerical analysis scripts.

Wirth L, A.; Sombra, A. S. B.

2014-10-01

218

Polariton Condensate Transistor Switch  

E-print Network

A polariton condensate transistor switch is realized through optical excitation of a microcavity ridge with two beams. The ballistically ejected polaritons from a condensate formed at the source are gated using the 20 times weaker second beam to switch on and off the flux of polaritons. In the absence of the gate beam the small built-in detuning creates potential landscape in which ejected polaritons are channelled toward the end of the ridge where they condense. The low loss photon-like propagation combined with strong nonlinearities associated with their excitonic component makes polariton based transistors particularly attractive for the implementation of all-optical integrated circuits.

Gao, T; Liew, T C H; Tsintzos, S I; Stavrinidis, G; Deligeorgis, G; Hatzopoulos, Z; Savvidis, P G

2012-01-01

219

Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the North - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

220

41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

221

35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

222

36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

223

Nuclear transport of yeast proteasomes.  

PubMed

Proteasomes are conserved protease complexes enriched in the nuclei of dividing yeast cells, a major site for protein degradation. If yeast cells do not proliferate and transit to quiescence, metabolic changes result in the dissociation of proteasomes into proteolytic core and regulatory complexes and their sequestration into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli. These granuli rapidly clear with the resumption of growth, releasing the stored proteasomes, which relocalize back to the nucleus to promote cell cycle progression. Here, I report on three models of how proteasomes are transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus of yeast cells. The first model applies for dividing yeast and is based on the canonical pathway using classical nuclear localization sequences of proteasomal subcomplexes and the classical import receptor importin/karyopherin ??. The second model applies for quiescent yeast cells, which resume growth and use Blm10, a HEAT-like repeat protein structurally related to karyopherin ?, for nuclear import of proteasome core particles. In the third model, the fully-assembled proteasome is imported into the nucleus. Our still marginal knowledge about proteasome dynamics will inspire the discussion on how protein degradation by proteasomes may be regulated in different cellular compartments of dividing and quiescent eukaryotic cells. PMID:25333764

Enenkel, Cordula

2014-01-01

224

Modeling Task Switching Without Switching Tasks: A Short-Term Priming Account of Explicitly Cued Performance  

E-print Network

Modeling Task Switching Without Switching Tasks: A Short-Term Priming Account of Explicitly Cued Performance Darryl W. Schneider and Gordon D. Logan Vanderbilt University Switch costs in task switching--including putative switch costs-- without switching tasks. Keywords: task switching, switch cost, priming, compound

Logan, Gordon D.

225

Cdc42 Oscillations in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A fundamental problem in cell biology is how cells define one or several discrete sites of polarity. Through mechanisms involving positive and negative feedback, the small Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase Cdc42 breaks symmetry in round budding yeast cells to define a single site of polarized cell growth. However, it is not clear how cells can define multiple sites of polarization concurrently. We discuss a study in which rod-shaped fission yeast cells, which naturally polarize growth at their two cell ends, exhibited oscillations of Cdc42 activity between these sites. We compare these findings with similar oscillatory behavior of Cdc42 detected in budding yeast cells and discuss the possible mechanism and functional outputs of these oscillations.

Felipe O. Bendezu (Switzerland;University of Lausanne REV); Sophie G. Martin (Switzerland;University of Lausanne REV)

2012-12-04

226

The yeasts of cheese brines.  

PubMed

A total of 365 yeasts were isolated from the brines of soft, semihard and hard cheeses from different manufacturers. Identification was based on 131 characteristics, primarily employing a method with microtitration plates. Most brines exhibited a characteristic yeast flora. The predominant strains proved to be mainly Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida versatilis. In a few brines Trichosporon beigelii, C. rugosa, C. intermedia, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces sp. and C. tenuis/polymorpha were predominant. Also of importance were C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. zeylanoides, Issatchenkia orientalis and Geotrichum klebahnii. Not all strains could be clearly identified. Lists of characters are provided for subdividing D. hansenii and T. beigelii. The specificity of the yeast flora of brines is assumed to contribute to the sensory variety of cheeses. PMID:2282287

Seiler, H; Busse, M

1990-12-01

227

280 EXPRESSION IN YEAST [23] [23] Manipulating Yeast Genome Using Plasmid Vectors  

E-print Network

280 EXPRESSION IN YEAST [23] [23] Manipulating Yeast Genome Using Plasmid Vectors By TIM STEARNS, HONG MA, and DAVID BOTSTEIN The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proved to be a popular high status of yeast as an experimental system is in large part due to the work of the many geneticists

Botstein, David

228

APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA  

E-print Network

APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA Like Escherichia coli, yeast can be grown in either liquid media or on the surface of (or embedded in) solid agar plates. Yeast cells grow well on a minimal medium containing dextrose (glucose) as a carbon source and salts

Winston, Fred

229

Pre-Absorbing Antibody with Yeast Cells Preparation of Fixed Yeast  

E-print Network

106 Pre-Absorbing Antibody with Yeast Cells Preparation of Fixed Yeast 1. Plan to do steps 1-10 in the yeast immunofluorescence method. But, start with 100 mls of cells at OD600=0.2. Then, do all steps in quadruplicate. Do pretreatment, and digest cells for 10 minutes. 2. Pool all yeast in SPC + Pics in one

Aris, John P.

230

Switching of ferroelectrics without domains.  

PubMed

A discussion of switching in polyvinyl difluoride copolymers is given (see L. Zhang, EPL 2010, 91, 47001) in terms of the general history of ferroelectric switching with and without domain wall participation. PMID:21170923

Scott, James F

2010-12-01

231

Kiowa Creek Switching Station  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-03-01

232

High Speed Packet Switching.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document constitutes the final report prepared by Proteon, Inc. of Westborough, Massachusetts under contract NAS 5-30629 entitled High-Speed Packet Switching (SBIR 87-1, Phase 2) prepared for NASA-Greenbelt, Maryland. The primary goal of this researc...

1991-01-01

233

Multipath star switch controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device concept permits parallel computers to scan several commonnetwork-connected data stations at maximum rate. Sequencers leap-frog to bypass ports already being serviced by another computer. Two-path system for 16-port star switch controller is cost effective if added bandwidth or increased reliability is desired. Triple-path system would be cost effective for 32-port controller.

Anderson, T. O.

1980-01-01

234

Tag switching architecture overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tag switching is a way to combine the label-swapping forwarding paradigm with network-layer routing with particular application to the Internet. This has several advantages. Tags can have a wide spectrum of forwarding granularities, so at one end of the spectrum a tag could be associated with a group of destinations, while at the other end, a tag could be associated

YAKOV REKHTER; BRUCE DAVIE; ERIC ROSEN; GEORGE SWALLOW; DINO FARINACCI; DAVE KATZ

1997-01-01

235

Molecular Rotors as Switches  

PubMed Central

The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene) monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V) revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR) associated with the device. The analysis of the device I–V characteristics suggests the source of the observed switching effects to be the result of the redox-induced ligand rotation around the copper metal center and this attribution of switching is consistent with the observed temperature dependence of the switching behavior as well as the proposed energy diagram of the device. The observed resistance switching shows the potential for future non-volatile memories and logic devices applications. This review will discuss the progress and provide a perspective of molecular motion for nanoelectronics and other applications.

Xue, Mei; Wang, Kang L.

2012-01-01

236

The Yeast Nuclear Pore Complex  

PubMed Central

An understanding of how the nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleocytoplasmic exchange requires a comprehensive inventory of the molecular components of the NPC and a knowledge of how each component contributes to the overall structure of this large molecular translocation machine. Therefore, we have taken a comprehensive approach to classify all components of the yeast NPC (nucleoporins). This involved identifying all the proteins present in a highly enriched NPC fraction, determining which of these proteins were nucleoporins, and localizing each nucleoporin within the NPC. Using these data, we present a map of the molecular architecture of the yeast NPC and provide evidence for a Brownian affinity gating mechanism for nucleocytoplasmic transport. PMID:10684247

Rout, Michael P.; Aitchison, John D.; Suprapto, Adisetyantari; Hjertaas, Kelly; Zhao, Yingming; Chait, Brian T.

2000-01-01

237

Chromatin and Transcription in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms by which chromatin structure controls eukaryotic transcription has been an intense area of investigation for the past 25 years. Many of the key discoveries that created the foundation for this field came from studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the discovery of the role of chromatin in transcriptional silencing, as well as the discovery of chromatin-remodeling factors and histone modification activities. Since that time, studies in yeast have continued to contribute in leading ways. This review article summarizes the large body of yeast studies in this field. PMID:22345607

Rando, Oliver J.; Winston, Fred

2012-01-01

238

Transparent electrode for optical switch  

DOEpatents

The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

1984-10-19

239

Task set switching in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors used a task-switching paradigm to investigate set shifting ability in schizophre- nia. This paradigm included 2 choice reaction time (RT) tasks: up--down and right-left. Switching tasks were associated with costs (i.e., longer RT in task-switch trials than in task-repetition trials); patients responded more slowly than controls and suffered greater switching costs, were as efficient as controls in engaging

Nachshon Meiran; Joseph Levine; Naama Meiran; Avishai Henik

2000-01-01

240

Easily-wired toggle switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crimp-type connectors reduce assembly and disassembly time. With design, no switch preparation is necessary and socket contracts are crimped to wires inserted in module attached to back of toggle switch engaging pins inside module to make electrical connections. Wires are easily removed with standard detachment tool. Design can accommodate wires of any gage and as many terminals can be placed on switch as wire gage and switch dimensions will allow.

Dean, W. T.; Stringer, E. J.

1979-01-01

241

Activation of the Cph1-Dependent MAP Kinase Signaling Pathway Induces White-Opaque Switching in Candida  

E-print Network

in Candida albicans Bernardo Rami´rez-Zavala1 , Michael Weyler1 , Tsvia Gildor2 , Christian Schmauch3 on the environmental conditions, the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can undergo different developmental programs-Opaque Switching in Candida albicans. PLoS Pathog 9(10): e1003696. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003696 Editor: Aaron P

Boyer, Edmond

242

Modelling the Yeast Interactome Vuk Janjic1  

E-print Network

Modelling the Yeast Interactome Vuk Janjic´1 , Roded Sharan2 & Natasa Przulj1 1 Department of any empirical observation regarding those networks. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of yeast complexity (human and yeast); (3) clear topological difference is present between PPI networks

Shamir, Ron

243

Yeast communities associated with stingless bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast communities associated with the stingless bees Tetragonisca angustula, Melipona quadrifasciata and Frieseomelitta varia were studied. The bees T. angustula and F. varia showed a strong association with the yeast Starmerella meliponinorum. M. quadrifasciata more frequently carried a species related to Candida apicola, but also vectored low numbers of S. meliponinorum. Some of the yeasts isolated from adult bees

Carlos A Rosa; Marc-André Lachance; Jana??na O. C Silva; Ana Carolina P Teixeira; Marjorie M Marini; Yasmine Antonini; Rogerio P Martins

2003-01-01

244

Red yeast rice: a new hypolipidemic drug  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red yeast rice is a source of fermented pigment with possible bioactive effect. Evidence shows that fermented red yeast rice lowers cholesterol levels moderately compared to other statin drugs, but with the added advantage of causing less adverse effects. A review of the body of evidence surrounding the properties of red yeast rice underscores its potential as a new alternative

Mélanie Journoud; Peter J. H Jones

2004-01-01

245

Yeast community survey in the Tagus estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast community in the waters of the Tagus estuary, Portugal, was followed for over a year in order to assess its dynamics. Yeast occurrence and incidence were measured and this information was related to relevant environmental data. Yeast occurrence did not seem to depend upon tides, but river discharge had a dramatic impact both on the density and diversity

João M. G. C. F. de Almeida

2005-01-01

246

Language Switching and Language Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

2012-01-01

247

Organic Materials For Optical Switching  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equations predict properties of candidate materials. Report presents results of theoretical study of nonlinear optical properties of organic materials. Such materials used in optical switching devices for computers and telecommunications, replacing electronic switches. Optical switching potentially offers extremely high information throughout in compact hardware.

Cardelino, Beatriz H.

1993-01-01

248

High-power microstrip switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Switch, which uses only two p-i-n diodes on microstrip substrate, has been developed for application in spacecraft radio systems. Switch features improved power drain, weight, volume, magnetic cleanliness, and reliability, over currently-used circulator and electromechanical switches.

Choi, S. D.

1974-01-01

249

Research Article Inhibition Versus Switching  

E-print Network

information. We used a task-switching paradigm that can distinguish between these two processes. Two rumination are associated with difficulties in switching to a new task set, but not with inhibitionResearch Article Inhibition Versus Switching Deficits in Different Forms of Rumination Anson J

Banich, Marie T.

250

Component Processes in Task Switching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied task switching in 4 experiments involving 111 Israeli undergraduates. Results show the preparation for a task switch is not a by-product of general preparation by phasic alertness or predicting target onset and establish reconfiguration as a separate preparatory process. Suggests that there are at least three components of task switching

Meiran, Nachshon; Chorev, Ziv; Sapir, Ayelet

2000-01-01

251

Task Switching: A PDP Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

When subjects switch between a pair of stimulus–response tasks, reaction time is slower on trial N if a different task was performed on trial N ? 1. We present a parallel distributed processing (PDP) model that simulates this effect when subjects switch between word reading and color naming in response to Stroop stimuli. Reaction time on “switch trials” can be

Sam J. Gilbert; Tim Shallice

2002-01-01

252

High speed switching in gases  

SciTech Connect

A fast, efficient and reliable switch is the basic ingredient of a pulse power accelerator. Two switches have been proposed so far: the solid state switch, and the vacuum photodiode switch. The solid state version has been tested to some extent, albeit at low (few kilovolts) level, with risetime around 10 ps in the radial line transformer configuration. The vacuum photodiode is being investigated by Fisher and Rao at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Common to both switches is the need of a short laser pulse; near infrared for the solid state switch, and ultraviolet for the vacuum photodiode switch. Another common feature is the poor energy gain of these switches: the gain being the ratio between the electrical energy switched and the laser energy needed to drive the switch. For the solid state switch, calculations and experimental data show that the energy gain cannot exceed a value between 5 and 10. For the vacuum photodiode, the situation is somewhat similar, unless very high quantum efficiency, rugged photocathodes can be found. A closing switch also can be used to produce short pulses of rf at frequencies related to its closing time, using a well-known device called the frozen wave generator. For a risetime of the order of 30 ps, one could produce several Gigawatts of rf at Xband at very low cost. 12 refs., 12 figs.

Cassell, R.E.; Villa, F.

1989-02-01

253

Task Switching: A PDP Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When subjects switch between a pair of stimulus-response tasks, reaction time is slower on trial N if a different task was performed on trial N--1. We present a parallel distributed processing (PDP) model that simulates this effect when subjects switch between word reading and color naming in response to Stroop stimuli. Reaction time on "switch

Gilbert, Sam J.; Shallice, Tim

2002-01-01

254

Illuminated push-button switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An illuminated push-button switch is described. It is characterized by the fact that is consists of a switch group, an operator button opening and closing the switch group, and a light-emitting element which illuminates the face of the operator button.

Iwagiri, T.

1983-01-01

255

Requirement of Replication Checkpoint Protein Kinases Mec1/Rad53 for Postreplication Repair in Yeast  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT DNA lesions in the template strand block the replication fork. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, replication through DNA lesions occurs via a Rad6/Rad18-dependent pathway where lesions can be bypassed by the action of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases ? and ? or by Rad5-mediated template switching. An alternative Rad6/Rad18-independent but Rad52-dependent template switching pathway can also restore the continuity of the replication fork. The Mec1/Rad53-dependent replication checkpoint plays a crucial role in the maintenance of stable and functional replication forks in yeast cells with DNA damage; however, it has remained unclear which of the lesion bypass processes requires the activation of replication checkpoint-mediated fork stabilization. Here we show that postreplication repair (PRR) of newly synthesized DNA in UV-damaged yeast cells is inhibited in the absence of Mec1 and Rad53 proteins. Since TLS remains functional in cells lacking these checkpoint kinases and since template switching by the Rad5 and Rad52 pathways provides the alternative means of lesion bypass and requires Mec1/Rad53, we infer that lesion bypass by the template switching pathways occurs in conjunction with the replication fork that has been stabilized at the lesion site by the action of Mec1/Rad53-mediated replication checkpoint. PMID:21586645

Gangavarapu, Venkateswarlu; Santa Maria, Sergio R.; Prakash, Satya; Prakash, Louise

2011-01-01

256

Observations on the Yeast Lipomyces  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN 1946, Starkey1 isolated and described a soil yeast characterized by a peculiar method of spore formation after a relatively long period of growth on solid medium. Large, round vegetative cells containing fat globules gave rise to irregularly shaped protuberances in which were afterwards formed 4-16 or more lightly pigmented spores. Lodder and Kregervan Rij2 considered these spores to be

Catherine Roberts

1957-01-01

257

Genetically modified industrial yeast ready for application.  

PubMed

Tremendous progress in the genetic engineering of yeast had been achieved at the end of 20th century, including the complete genome sequence, genome-wide gene expression profiling, and whole gene disruption strains. Nevertheless, genetically modified (GM) baking, brewing, wine, and sake yeasts have not, as yet, been used commercially, although numerous industrial recombinant yeasts have been constructed. The recent progress of genetic engineering for the construction of GM yeast is reviewed and possible requirements for their application are discussed. 'Self-cloning' yeast will be the most likely candidate for the first commercial application of GM microorganisms in food and beverage industries. PMID:16233347

Akada, Rinji

2002-01-01

258

Optical fiber switch  

DOEpatents

Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

2002-01-01

259

Plasma opening switch  

DOEpatents

A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.

Savage, Mark E. (Albuquerque, NM); Mendel, Jr., Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

260

Switching Power Supplies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module walks visitors through the basics of switching power supplies. The content of the site is divided into four areas: SMPS Basics and Switching Regulators; DC-DC Converters: Charge Pumps, Forwards Converters and Flyback Converters; Inverters, UPS and Hysteresis Curve, and SMPS: Advantages, Disadvantages and Troubleshooting. There is a quiz for each area in the Knowledge Probe area, and the Learning Resources section contains five activities to help cement student understanding. There are also further resources - both print and Web based - for more information and two Questors, a Flash trivia game. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource students and educators in electronics technician programs.

2008-09-05

261

Discovery of a "White-Gray-Opaque" Tristable Phenotypic Switching System in Candida albicans: Roles of Non-genetic Diversity in Host Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Non-genetic phenotypic variations play a critical role in the adaption to environmental changes in microbial organisms. Candida albicans, a major human fungal pathogen, can switch between several morphological phenotypes. This ability is critical for its commensal lifestyle and for its ability to cause infections. Here, we report the discovery of a novel morphological form in C. albicans, referred to as the “gray” phenotype, which forms a tristable phenotypic switching system with the previously reported white and opaque phenotypes. White, gray, and opaque cell types differ in a number of aspects including cellular and colony appearances, mating competency, secreted aspartyl proteinase (Sap) activities, and virulence. Of the three cell types, gray cells exhibit the highest Sap activity and the highest ability to cause cutaneous infections. The three phenotypes form a tristable phenotypic switching system, which is independent of the regulation of the mating type locus (MTL). Gray cells mate over 1,000 times more efficiently than do white cells, but less efficiently than do opaque cells. We further demonstrate that the master regulator of white-opaque switching, Wor1, is essential for opaque cell formation, but is not required for white-gray transitions. The Efg1 regulator is required for maintenance of the white phenotype, but is not required for gray-opaque transitions. Interestingly, the wor1/wor1 efg1/efg1 double mutant is locked in the gray phenotype, suggesting that Wor1 and Efg1 could function coordinately and play a central role in the regulation of gray cell formation. Global transcriptional analysis indicates that white, gray, and opaque cells exhibit distinct gene expression profiles, which partly explain their differences in causing infections, adaptation ability to diverse host niches, metabolic profiles, and stress responses. Therefore, the white-gray-opaque tristable phenotypic switching system in C. albicans may play a significant role in a wide range of biological aspects in this common commensal and pathogenic fungus. PMID:24691005

Guan, Guobo; Dai, Yu; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Liang, Weihong; Cao, Chengjun; Zhang, Qiuyu; Zhong, Jin; Huang, Guanghua

2014-01-01

262

The Acetate Switch  

PubMed Central

To succeed, many cells must alternate between life-styles that permit rapid growth in the presence of abundant nutrients and ones that enhance survival in the absence of those nutrients. One such change in life-style, the “acetate switch,” occurs as cells deplete their environment of acetate-producing carbon sources and begin to rely on their ability to scavenge for acetate. This review explains why, when, and how cells excrete or dissimilate acetate. The central components of the “switch” (phosphotransacetylase [PTA], acetate kinase [ACK], and AMP-forming acetyl coenzyme A synthetase [AMP-ACS]) and the behavior of cells that lack these components are introduced. Acetyl phosphate (acetyl?P), the high-energy intermediate of acetate dissimilation, is discussed, and conditions that influence its intracellular concentration are described. Evidence is provided that acetyl?P influences cellular processes from organelle biogenesis to cell cycle regulation and from biofilm development to pathogenesis. The merits of each mechanism proposed to explain the interaction of acetyl?P with two-component signal transduction pathways are addressed. A short list of enzymes that generate acetyl?P by PTA-ACKA-independent mechanisms is introduced and discussed briefly. Attention is then directed to the mechanisms used by cells to “flip the switch,” the induction and activation of the acetate-scavenging AMP-ACS. First, evidence is presented that nucleoid proteins orchestrate a progression of distinct nucleoprotein complexes to ensure proper transcription of its gene. Next, the way in which cells regulate AMP-ACS activity through reversible acetylation is described. Finally, the “acetate switch” as it exists in selected eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, including humans, is described. PMID:15755952

Wolfe, Alan J.

2005-01-01

263

Automatic switching matrix  

DOEpatents

An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

Schlecht, Martin F. (Cambridge, MA); Kassakian, John G. (Newton, MA); Caloggero, Anthony J. (Lynn, MA); Rhodes, Bruce (Dorchester, MA); Otten, David (Newton, MA); Rasmussen, Neil (Sudbury, MA)

1982-01-01

264

Composite Material Switches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

2001-01-01

265

Composite Material Switches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

2002-01-01

266

CREE: Making the Switch  

ScienceCinema

CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

Grider, David; Palmer, John

2014-04-09

267

Occurrence and Growth of Yeasts in Yogurts  

PubMed Central

Yogurts purchased from retail outlets were examined for the presence of yeasts by being plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar. Of the 128 samples examined, 45% exhibited yeast counts above 103 cells per g. A total of 73 yeast strains were isolated and identified as belonging to the genera Torulopsis, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Candida, Rhodotorula, Pichia, Debaryomyces, and Sporobolomyces. Torulopsis candida and Kluyveromyces fragilis were the most frequently isolated species, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula rubra, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Torulopsis versatilis. The growth of yeasts in yogurts was related to the ability of the yeasts to grow at refrigeration temperatures, to ferment lactose and sucrose, and to hydrolyze milk casein. Most yeast isolates grew in the presence of 100 ?g of sorbate and benzoate preservatives per ml. Higher yeast counts from yogurts were obtained when the yogurts were plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar than when they were plated onto acidified malt extract agar. PMID:16345853

Suriyarachchi, V. R.; Fleet, G. H.

1981-01-01

268

Optical switch fabric design for gigabit switching router  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key issues of high performance IP Gigabit Switching Router (GSR) design is about switching fabrics. In the traditional bus-based router architectures, the data transfer rate of copper backplanes will soon reach the speed limit because of connector reflections and crosstalk. An alternative optical switching fabric technology is necessary in order to satisfy the demand for high switching bandwidth. In this paper we firstly present a novel all-optical broadcasting switch fabric design scheme based on broadcasting bus architecture. In this section we also illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of this kind of architecture and demonstrate that this kind of switching fabric architecture have no interior block as well as none I/O block. Second, we discuss such implementation scheme of all-optical broadcasting switch fabric architecture as queuing, scheduling and multicasting. Finally, we get a conclusion that all-optical broadcasting switch fabric is one of the cost-effective solutions to design high-speed, scalable and simple switch fabrics compared with those complicated electric crossbar switch fabrics in GSR design.

Wei, Wei; Zeng, QingJi

2001-10-01

269

Ultrafast gas switching experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less are described. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes less than 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. Pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to 1 kHz were produced and accurately measured. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than 1 nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and waveforms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and pressure. This technology was applied to practical systems driving ultrawideband radiating antennas and bounded wave simulators. A thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch was developed. This pulser driving a Sandia-designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with less than 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF greater than 1 kHz at grater tha n 100 kV/m E field.

Frost, C. A.; Martin, T. H.; Patterson, P. E.; Rinehart, L. F.; Rohwein, G. J.; Roose, L. D.; Aurand, J. F.; Buttram, M. T.

1993-06-01

270

Cygnus Diverter Switch Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 50-ns x-ray sources fielded in an underground laboratory at the Nevada Test Site. The tests performed in this laboratory involve study of the dynamic properties of plutonium and are called subcritical experiments. From end-to-end, the Cygnus machines utilize the following components: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), waterfilled coaxial transmission line (WTL), 3-cell inductive voltage adder (IVA), and rod-pinch diode. The upstream WTL interface to the PFL is via a radial insulator with coaxial geometry. The downstream WTL terminates in a manifold where the center conductor splits into three lines which individually connect to each of the IVA cell inputs. There is an impedance mismatch at this juncture. It is a concern that a reflected pulse due to anomalous behavior in the IVA or diode might initiate breakdown upon arrival at the upstream PFL/WTL insulator. Therefore near the beginning of the WTL a radial diverter switch is installed to protect the insulator from over voltage and breakdown. The diverter has adjustable gap spacing, and an in-line aqueous-solution (sodium thiosulfate) resistor array for energy dissipation. There are capacitive voltage probes at both ends of the WTL and on the diverter switch. These voltage signals will be analyzed to determine diverter performance. Using this analysis the usefulness of the diverter switch will be evaluated.

G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton et al.

2008-02-01

271

Components of task switching: a closer look at task switching and cue switching.  

PubMed

Research using the diffusion model to decompose task-switching effects has contributed to a better understanding of the processes underlying the observed effect in the explicit task cueing paradigm: Previous findings could be reconciled with multiple component models of task switching or with an account on compound-cue retrieval/repetition priming. In the present study, we used two cues for each task in order to decompose task-switch and cue-switch effects. Response time data support previous findings that comparable parts of the switching effect can be attributed to cue-switching and task-switching. A diffusion model analysis of the data confirmed that non-decision time is increased and drift rates are decreased in unpredicted task-switches. Importantly, it was shown that non-decision time was selectively increased in task-switching trials but not in cue-switching trials. Results of the present study specifically support the notion of additional processes in task-switches and can be reconciled with broader multiple component accounts. PMID:25004102

Schmitz, Florian; Voss, Andreas

2014-09-01

272

Photoconductive semiconductor switches: Laser Q-switch trigger and switch-trigger laser integration  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of the Pulser In a Chip 9000-Discretionary LDRD. The program began in January of 1997 and concluded in September of 1997. The over-arching goal of this LDRD is to study whether laser diode triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) can be used to activate electro-optic devices such as Q-switches and Pockels cells and to study possible laser diode/switch integration. The PCSS switches we used were high gain GaAs switches because they can be triggered with small amounts of laser light. The specific goals of the LDRD were to demonstrate: (1) that small laser diode arrays that are potential candidates for laser-switch integration will indeed trigger the PCSS switch, and (2) that high gain GaAs switches can be used to trigger optical Q-switches in lasers such as the lasers to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and the laser used for direct optical initiation (DOI) of explosives. The technology developed with this LDRD is now the prime candidate for triggering the Q switch in the multiple lasers in the laser trigger system of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and may be utilized in other accelerators. As part of the LDRD we developed a commercial supplier. To study laser/switch integration we tested triggering the high gain GaAs switches with: edge emitting laser diodes, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and transverse junction stripe (TJS) lasers. The first two types of lasers (edge emitting and VCSELs) did activate the PCSS but are harder to integrate with the PCSS for a compact package. The US lasers, while easier to integrate with the switch, did not trigger the PCSS at the US laser power levels we used. The PCSS was used to activate the Q-switch of the compact laser to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source.

Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; Hamil, R.A.; Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.

1997-12-01

273

Preparation of extracts from yeast.  

PubMed

Because yeast is exceptionally well suited to genetic analysis, both classical and molecular, it is an attractive system for expressing recombinant animal proteins for purification purposes. Methods available for lysing yeast cells include autolysis, pressure cells (e.g., French press), abrasives (glass bead vortexing), and enzymatic lysis (e.g., zymolase). One of the simplest methods, discussed in this protocol, involves the abrasive action of well-agitated glass beads. This is a very effective method for both low volumes (e.g., <1 mL using a microcentrifuge tube) and many liters using a specialized DynoMill apparatus. Cell breakage is typically >95%, as assessed by phase-contrast microscopy. PMID:21205845

Simpson, Richard J

2011-01-01

274

Oxidative stress responses in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast, and especially S. cerevisiae, is a unique eukaryotic model organism for studying oxidative stress and its cellular responses. S. cerevisiae has become a very powerful tool to decipher the complexity of these biologically important responses, because it offers the\\u000a relative simplicity of a single celled eukaryotic organism that enables the combination and integration of genetic, biochemical,\\u000a physico-chemical, cell biological,

Michel B. Toledano; Agnes Delaunay; Benoit Biteau; Daniel Spector; Dulce Azevedo

275

Yeast adaptation on softwood prehydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several strains and genera of yeast, includingSaccharomyces cerevisiae D5A,Pachysolen tannophilus, S. cerevisiae K-l,Brettanomyces custersii, Candida shehatae, andCandida acidothermophilum, are screened for growth on dilute acid-pretreated softwood prehydrolysate. Selected softwood species found in forest underbrush\\u000a of the western United States, which contain predominantly hexosan hemicellulose, were studied. This phase of the work emphasized\\u000a debarked Douglas fir. The two best initial isolates

Fcred A. Keller; Delicia Bates; Ray Ruiz; Quang Nguyen

1998-01-01

276

Composite Thermal Switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium primary and lithium ion secondary batteries provide high specific energy and energy density. The use of these batteries also helps to reduce launch weight. Both primary and secondary cells can be packaged as high-rate cells, which can present a threat to crew and equipment in the event of external or internal short circuits. Overheating of the cell interior from high current flows induced by short circuits can result in exothermic reactions in lithium primary cells and fully charged lithium ion secondary cells. Venting of the cell case, ejection of cell components, and fire have been reported in both types of cells, resulting from abuse, cell imperfections, or faulty electronic control design. A switch has been developed that consists of a thin layer of composite material made from nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon that conducts electrons at room temperature and switches to an insulator at an elevated temperature, thus interrupting current flow to prevent thermal runaway caused by internal short circuits. The material is placed within the cell, as a thin layer incorporated within the anode and/or the cathode, to control excess currents from metal-to-metal or metal-to-carbon shorts that might result from cell crush or a manufacturing defect. The safety of high-rate cells is thus improved, preventing serious injury to personnel and sensitive equipment located near the battery. The use of recently available nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon permits an improved, homogeneous material with the potential to be fine-tuned to a unique switch temperature, sufficiently below the onset of a catastrophic chemical reaction. The smaller particles also permit the formation of a thinner control film layer (<50 m), which can be incorporated into commercial high-rate lithium primary and secondary cells. The innovation permits incorporation in current lithium and lithium-ion cell designs with a minimal impact on cell weight and volume. The composite thermal switch (CTS(TradeMark)) coating can be incorporated in either the anode or cathode or both. The coating can be applied in a variety of different processes that permits incorporation in the cell and electrode manufacturing processes. The CTS responds quickly and halts current flow in the hottest parts of the cell first. The coating can be applied to metal foil and supplied as a cell component onto which the active electrode materials are coated.

McDonald, Robert; Brawn, Shelly; Harrison, Katherine; O'Toole, Shannon; Moeller, Michael

2011-01-01

277

The packet switching brain.  

PubMed

The computer metaphor has served brain science well as a tool for comprehending neural systems. Nevertheless, we propose here that this metaphor be replaced or supplemented by a new metaphor, the "Internet metaphor," to reflect dramatic new network theoretic understandings of brain structure and function. We offer a "weak" form and a "strong" form of this metaphor: The former suggests that structures and processes unique to Internet-like architectures (e.g., domains and protocols) can profitably guide our thinking about brains, whereas the latter suggests that one particular feature of the Internet-packet switching-may be instantiated in the structure of certain brain networks, particularly mammalian neocortex. PMID:20350173

Graham, Daniel; Rockmore, Daniel

2011-02-01

278

Laparoscopic Duodenal Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) is one of the most effective weight loss procedures currently\\u000a available. Both short- and long-term weight loss exceed that of any other bariatric operation. BPD-DS involves a 150- to 200-cc\\u000a sleeve or vertical gastrectomy, a duodenoileal anastomosis, and a long Roux-en-Y with a 150-cm alimentary limb and a 100-cm\\u000a common channel (Fig. 14.1).

Manish Parikh; Michel Gagner; Alfons Pomp

279

Switching biologic agents for uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo observe whether switching between biological agents helps to gain or maintain uveitis remission in cases with sight-threatening refractory uveitis.MethodsWe reviewed the case notes of seven patients with refractory uveitis, who had switched between biological agents. The switch between biological agents (infliximab or adalimumab) was for gaining control of systemic symptoms, uveitis, or for the ease of administration.ResultsThere were three

N Dhingra; J Morgan; A D Dick

2009-01-01

280

Component Processes in Task Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants switched between two randomly ordered, two-choice reaction-time (RT) tasks, where an instructional cue preceded the target stimulus and indicated which task to execute. Task-switching cost dissipated passively while the participants waited for the instructional cue in order to know which task to execute (during the Response–Cue Interval). Switching cost was sharply reduced, but not abolished, when the participants actively

Nachshon Meiran; Ziv Chorev; Ayelet Sapir

2000-01-01

281

Biodegradation of Oil Pollutants by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In exploring the feasibility of the use of microbial systems for the facilitated biodegradation of waste oils, yeasts and yeast-like fungi from marine, freshwater and terrestrial sources were screened for their ability to utilize hydrocarbons. Mixed cultu...

D. G. Ahearn, N. H. Berner

1978-01-01

282

Heat pipe thermal switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal switch for controlling the dissipation of heat between a body is described. The thermal switch is comprised of a flexible bellows defining an expansible vapor chamber for a working fluid located between an evaporation and condensation chamber. Inside the bellows is located a coiled retaining spring and four axial metal mesh wicks, two of which have their central portions located inside of the spring while the other two have their central portions located between the spring and the side wall of the bellows. The wicks are terminated and are attached to the inner surfaces of the outer end walls of evaporation and condensation chambers respectively located adjacent to the heat source and heat sink. The inner surfaces of the end walls furthermore include grooves to provide flow channels of the working fluid to and from the wick ends. The evaporation and condensation chambers are connected by turnbuckles and tension springs to provide a set point adjustment for setting the gap between an interface plate on the condensation chamber and the heat sink.

Wolf, D. A. (inventor)

1983-01-01

283

Assembly of eukaryotic algal chromosomes in yeast  

PubMed Central

Background Synthetic genomic approaches offer unique opportunities to use powerful yeast and Escherichia coli genetic systems to assemble and modify chromosome-sized molecules before returning the modified DNA to the target host. For example, the entire 1 Mb Mycoplasma mycoides chromosome can be stably maintained and manipulated in yeast before being transplanted back into recipient cells. We have previously demonstrated that cloning in yeast of large (>?~?150 kb), high G?+?C (55%) prokaryotic DNA fragments was improved by addition of yeast replication origins every ~100 kb. Conversely, low G?+?C DNA is stable (up to at least 1.8 Mb) without adding supplemental yeast origins. It has not been previously tested whether addition of yeast replication origins similarly improves the yeast-based cloning of large (>150 kb) eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content. The model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has an average G?+?C content of 48% and a 27.4 Mb genome sequence that has been assembled into chromosome-sized scaffolds making it an ideal test case for assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic chromosomes in yeast. Results We present a modified chromosome assembly technique in which eukaryotic chromosomes as large as ~500 kb can be assembled from cloned ~100 kb fragments. We used this technique to clone fragments spanning P. tricornutum chromosomes 25 and 26 and to assemble these fragments into single, chromosome-sized molecules. We found that addition of yeast replication origins improved the cloning, assembly, and maintenance of the large chromosomes in yeast. Furthermore, purification of the fragments to be assembled by electroelution greatly increased assembly efficiency. Conclusions Entire eukaryotic chromosomes can be successfully cloned, maintained, and manipulated in yeast. These results highlight the improvement in assembly and maintenance afforded by including yeast replication origins in eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content (48%). They also highlight the increased efficiency of assembly that can be achieved by purifying fragments before assembly. PMID:24325901

2013-01-01

284

Yeasts in floral nectar: a quantitative survey  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims One peculiarity of floral nectar that remains relatively unexplored from an ecological perspective is its role as a natural habitat for micro-organisms. This study assesses the frequency of occurrence and abundance of yeast cells in floral nectar of insect-pollinated plants from three contrasting plant communities on two continents. Possible correlations between interspecific differences in yeast incidence and pollinator composition are also explored. Methods The study was conducted at three widely separated areas, two in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and one in the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico). Floral nectar samples from 130 species (37–63 species per region) in 44 families were examined microscopically for the presence of yeast cells. For one of the Spanish sites, the relationship across species between incidence of yeasts in nectar and the proportion of flowers visited by each of five major pollinator categories was also investigated. Key Results Yeasts occurred regularly in the floral nectar of many species, where they sometimes reached extraordinary densities (up to 4 × 105 cells mm?3). Depending on the region, between 32 and 44 % of all nectar samples contained yeasts. Yeast cell densities in the order of 104 cells mm?3 were commonplace, and densities >105 cells mm?3 were not rare. About one-fifth of species at each site had mean yeast cell densities >104 cells mm?3. Across species, yeast frequency and abundance were directly correlated with the proportion of floral visits by bumble-bees, and inversely with the proportion of visits by solitary bees. Conclusions Incorporating nectar yeasts into the scenario of plant–pollinator interactions opens up a number of intriguing avenues for research. In addition, with yeasts being as ubiquitous and abundant in floral nectars as revealed by this study, and given their astounding metabolic versatility, studies focusing on nectar chemical features should carefully control for the presence of yeasts in nectar samples. PMID:19208669

Herrera, Carlos M.; de Vega, Clara; Canto, Azucena; Pozo, Maria I.

2009-01-01

285

The AutoBlast Interrupter Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air interrupter switch may be defined as a nonautomatic air switch which combines the functions of a disconnecting switch with the ability to interrupt current up to a predetermined magnitude. It primarily differs in function from a circuit breaker in that it cannot interrupt overload or short-circuit currents. General specifications for interrupter switches are proposed. The Auto-Blast interrupter switch

E. A. Williams; W. G. Harlow

1943-01-01

286

Fast Switched Backplane for a Gigabit Switched Router  

E-print Network

1 Fast Switched Backplane for a Gigabit Switched Router Nick McKeown Department of Electrical....................................................................................................................2 3 The Architecture of Internet Routers..............................................................................................................29 #12;2 2 Abstract There is a new trend in the architecture of high performance Internet routers

Ratnasamy, Sylvia

287

Tuning the temperature dependence for switching in dithienylethene photochromic switches.  

PubMed

Diarylethene photochromic switches use light to drive structural changes through reversible electrocyclization reactions. High efficiency in dynamic photoswitching is a prerequisite for applications, as is thermal stability and the selective addressability of both isomers ring-opened and -closed diarylethenes. These properties can be optimized readily through rational variation in molecular structure. The efficiency with regard to switching as a function of structural variation is much less understood, with the exception of geometric requirements placed on the reacting atoms. Ultimately, increasing the quantum efficiency of photochemical switching in diarylethenes requires a detailed understanding of the excited-state potential energy surface(s) and the mechanisms involved in switching. Through studies of the temperature dependence, photoswitching and theoretical studies demonstrate the occurrence or absence of thermal activation barriers in three constitutional isomers that bear distinct ?-conjugated systems. We found that a decrease in the thermal barriers correlates with an increase in switching efficiency. The origin of the barriers is assigned to the decrease in ?-conjugation that is concomitant with the progress of the photoreaction. Furthermore, we show that balanced molecular design can minimize the change in the extent of ?-conjugation during switching and lead to optimal bidirectional switching efficiencies. Our findings hold implications for future structural design of diarylethene photochromic switches. PMID:23889496

Kudernac, Tibor; Kobayashi, Takao; Uyama, Ayaka; Uchida, Kingo; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Feringa, Ben L

2013-08-29

288

Introduction to Photonic Packet Switching Yatindra Nath Singh  

E-print Network

in a switch - why optical packet switching? - switching in near future optical networks - basic switching Modern day switching devices (for backbone networks) IP Switches/ routers - example of packet switch ATM, YNS Photonic Packet Switching 8 Functions in a packet switch - routing - providing network

Singh Yatindra Nath

289

EDITORIAL: Molecular switches at surfaces Molecular switches at surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nature, molecules exploit interaction with their environment to realize complex functionalities on the nanometer length scale. Physical, chemical and/or biological specificity is frequently achieved by the switching of molecules between microscopically different states. Paradigmatic examples are the energy production in proton pumps of bacteria or the signal conversion in human vision, which rely on switching molecules between different configurations or conformations by external stimuli. The remarkable reproducibility and unparalleled fatigue resistance of these natural processes makes it highly desirable to emulate nature and develop artificial systems with molecular functionalities. A promising avenue towards this goal is to anchor the molecular switches at surfaces, offering new pathways to control their functional properties, to apply electrical contacts, or to integrate switches into larger systems. Anchoring at surfaces allows one to access the full range from individual molecular switches to self-assembled monolayers of well-defined geometry and to customize the coupling between molecules and substrate or between adsorbed molecules. Progress in this field requires both synthesis and preparation of appropriate molecular systems and control over suitable external stimuli, such as light, heat, or electrical currents. To optimize switching and generate function, it is essential to unravel the geometric structure, the electronic properties and the dynamic interactions of the molecular switches on surfaces. This special section, Molecular Switches at Surfaces, collects 17 contributions describing different aspects of this research field. They analyze elementary processes, both in single molecules and in ensembles of molecules, which involve molecular switching and concomitant changes of optical, electronic, or magnetic properties. Two topical reviews summarize the current status, including both challenges and achievements in the field of molecular switches on metal surfaces, focusing on electronic and vibrational spectroscopy in one case and scanning tunneling microscopy studies in the other. Original research articles describe results in many aspects of the field, including: Self-assembly, self-organization, and controlled growth of molecular layers on various substrates. Highly-ordered arrays provide model systems with extraordinary structural properties, allowing one to adjust interactions between molecules and between molecule and substrate, and can be robustly prepared from solution, an essential prerequisite for applications. Conformational or electronic switching of molecules adsorbed at metal and semiconductor surfaces. These studies highlight the elementary processes governing molecular switching at surfaces as well as the wide range of possible stimuli. Carbon-based substrates such as graphene or carbon nanotubes. These substrates are attractive due to their effective two-dimensionality which implies that switching of adsorbed molecules can effect a significant back-action on the substrate. Mechanisms of conformational switching. Several contributions study the role of electron-vibron coupling and heating in current-induced conformational switching. We hope that the collection of articles presented here will stimulate and encourage researchers in surface physics and interfacial chemistry to contribute to the still emerging field of molecular switches at surfaces. We wish to acknowledge the support and input from many colleagues in preparing this special section. A significant part of this work has been conducted in the framework of the Sonderforschungsbereich 658 Elementary Processes in Molecular Switches at Surfaces of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, to which we are grateful for financial support. Molecular surfaces at switches contents Molecular switches at surfacesMartin Weinelt and Felix von Oppen Optically and thermally induced molecular switching processes at metal surfacesPetra Tegeder Effects of electron-vibration coupling in transport through single moleculesKatharina J Franke and Jose Ignaci

Weinelt, Martin; von Oppen, Felix

2012-10-01

290

A high capacity satellite switched TDMA microwave switch matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the conceptual design of a high-capacity satellite switched-time division multiple access (SS-TDMA) microwave switch matrix fabricated with GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), including integration of both microwave and control logic circuits into the monolithic design. The technology required for a 30/20 GHz communications system includes an on-board SS-TDMA switch matrix. A conceptual design study that has been completed for a wideband, high-capacity (typically 100 x 100) channel switch matrix using technology anticipated for 1987 is described, noting that the study resulted in a switch matrix design concept using a coupled crossbar architecture implemented with MMIC. The design involves basic building block MMIC, permitting flexible growth and efficient wraparound redundancy to increase reliability.

Cory, B. J.; Berkowitz, M.

1981-01-01

291

Construction of an efficient amylolytic industrial yeast strain containing DNA exclusively derived from yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

An amylolytic industrial yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing the Schwanniomyces occidentalis SWA2 amylase gene was generated. The new strain contains DNA derived exclusively from yeast and expresses a high starch hydrolyzing activity. Yeast transformation was carried out by an integrative process targeted to a dispensable upstream region of the ILV2 locus, which determines sulfometuron resistance. The SWA2 enzyme was

D Mar??n; A Jiménez; M Fernández Lobato

2001-01-01

292

Executive Control in Set Switching: Residual Switch Cost and Task-set Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive processes necessary for flexibly switching between different tasks were studied using a set switching paradigm that requires participants to rapidly switch between different tasks across consecutive trials. Switch cost reflects poorer performance for task-switch trials than for consecutive same-task trials. Significant switch cost was observed even with considerable preparation time before a task-switch, an effect known as residual switch

KATHERINE ARBUTHNOTT; JANIS FRANK

2000-01-01

293

Study of optoelectronic switch for satellite-switched time-division multiple access  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of optoelectronic switching for satellite switched time division multiple access will improve the isolation and reduce the crosstalk of an IF switch matrix. The results are presented of a study on optoelectronic switching. Tasks include literature search, system requirements study, candidate switching architecture analysis, and switch model optimization. The results show that the power divided and crossbar switching architectures are good candidates for an IF switch matrix.

Su, Shing-Fong; Jou, Liz; Lenart, Joe

1987-01-01

294

Networking proteins in yeast Tony R. Hazbun* and Stanley Fields  

E-print Network

of a reporter gene whose product is easily assayed, generally by growth of the yeast on a defined media. Ito et,000 predicted yeast proteins. They generated 62 pools of each type of yeast transformant, containing up to 96

Dunham, Maitreya

295

Phenotypic switching in bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial genetic networks that would implement a more general theoretical model of phenotypic switching. We will use a new cloning strategy in order to systematically assemble a large number of genetic features, such as site-specific recombination components from the R64 plasmid, which invert several coexisting DNA segments. The inversion of these segments would lead to discrete phenotypic transitions inside a living cell. These artificial phenotypic switches can be controlled precisely in experiments and may serve as a benchmark for their natural counterparts.

Merrin, Jack

296

IP switching and gigabit routers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To cope with the growth in the Internet and corporate IP networks, we require IP routers capable of much higher performance than is possible with existing architectures. This article examines two approaches to the design of a high-performance router, the gigabit router and the IP switch, and then provides some detail on the implementation of an IP switch and the

P. Newman; G. Minshall; T. Lyon; L. Huston

1997-01-01

297

Performance evaluation of transoceanic switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of synchronous digital hierarchy self-healing ring (SDH SHR) in submarine operation is being developed to improve the reliability of international submarine optical communications. Transoceanic switching is applied in SDH SHR because of the unique features of an international optical submarine cable network: longer distance, submarine environment and fewer terminal stations. We study the system performance of transoceanic switching.

Du Yingzi; Hao Weimin

1998-01-01

298

s s 1 SECTIONALISING SWITCH  

E-print Network

AN OPEN SWITCH TO FORM A LOOP DETERMINE THE OPTIMAL FLOW PATTERN IN THE LOOP OPEN THE SWITCH CARRYING 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 2930 31 32 33 72 3435 36 44 45 46 47 48 49 50515253 54 55565758 59 6061 62 63 64

Sivaramakrishnan, Kartik K.

299

Basic Switching George Mason University  

E-print Network

and protocols for low and high speed digital packet networks (e.g. Ethernet, Frame Relay, MPLS, MPLS L3VPNs that involve configuring switches and routers. Course Text (Optional): Data Communications and NetworkingTCOM 514 Basic Switching George Mason University Summer 2011 Class Meeting Time and Location

300

Switching Matrix For Optical Signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed matrix of electronically controlled shutters switches signals in optical fibers between multiple input and output channels. Size, weight, and power consumption reduced. Device serves as building block for small, low-power, broad-band television- and data-signal-switching systems providing high isolation between nominally disconnected channels.

Grove, Charles H.

1990-01-01

301

Breathalyzer enabled ignition switch system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breath alcohol detector or better known as breathalyzer plays a vital role in monitoring alcohol concentration in a person's bloodstream. This project involves the design and development of breathalyzer device which controls ignition switch. The hardware modules include the PIC16F877A microcontroller, alcohol sensor, LCD panel and ignition switch circuitry. The software component includes the programming and source code which is

H. Abdul Rahim; S. D. S. Hassan

2010-01-01

302

Drosophila Regulate Yeast Density and Increase Yeast Community Similarity in a Natural Substrate  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogaster adults and larvae, but especially larvae, had profound effects on the densities and community structure of yeasts that developed in banana fruits. Pieces of fruit exposed to adult female flies previously fed fly-conditioned bananas developed higher yeast densities than pieces of the same fruits that were not exposed to flies, supporting previous suggestions that adult Drosophila vector yeasts to new substrates. However, larvae alone had dramatic effects on yeast density and species composition. When yeast densities were compared in pieces of the same fruits assigned to different treatments, fruits that developed low yeast densities in the absence of flies developed significantly higher yeast densities when exposed to larvae. Across all of the fruits, larvae regulated yeast densities within narrow limits, as compared to a much wider range of yeast densities that developed in pieces of the same fruits not exposed to flies. Larvae also affected yeast species composition, dramatically reducing species diversity across fruits, reducing variation in yeast communities from one fruit to the next (beta diversity), and encouraging the consistent development of a yeast community composed of three species of yeast (Candida californica, C. zemplinina, and Pichia kluvyeri), all of which were palatable to larvae. Larvae excreted viable cells of these three yeast species in their fecal pools, and discouraged the growth of filamentous fungi, processes which may have contributed to their effects on the yeast communities in banana fruits. These and other findings suggest that D. melanogaster adults and their larval offspring together engage in ‘niche construction’, facilitating a predictable microbial environment in the fruit substrates in which the larvae live and develop. PMID:22860093

Stamps, Judy A.; Yang, Louie H.; Morales, Vanessa M.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

2012-01-01

303

Sonic crystal acoustic switch device.  

PubMed

This study reports a wave-controlled sonic crystal switch device that exhibits a destructive interference-based wave to wave reverse switching effect. By applying control waves, this acoustic device, composed of a two-dimensional square lattice sonic crystal block, reduces acoustic wave transmission from input to output. The finite difference time domain simulation and experimental results confirm the wave-to-wave reverse switching effect at the peak frequencies of the second band. The proposed sonic crystal switch prototype provides a contrast rate of 86% at 11.3 kHz frequency. This wave-to-wave switching effect is useful for controlling wave propagation for smart structure applications. PMID:23742444

Alagoz, Serkan; Alagoz, Baris Baykant

2013-06-01

304

Optimized scalable network switch  

DOEpatents

In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

2007-12-04

305

Automatic thermal switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes a first thermally conductive plate, a second thermally conductive plate and a thermal transfer plate pivotally mounted between the first and second plates. A phase change power unit, including a plunger connected to the transfer plate, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element, connected to the transfer plate, biases the transfer plate in a predetermined position with respect to the first and second plates. When the phase change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first plate, the plunger extends and pivots the transfer plate to vary the thermal conduction between the first and second plates through the transfer plate. The biasing element, transfer plate and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally open thermally conductive path between the first and second plates.

Wing, L. D.; Cunningham, J. W. (inventors)

1981-01-01

306

MIRO Calibration Switch Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed, analyzed, built, and tested a calibration switch mechanism for the MIRO instrument on the ROSETTA spacecraft. MIRO is the Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter; this instrument hopes to investigate the origin of the solar system by studying the origin of comets. Specifically, the instrument will be the first to use submillimeter and millimeter wave heterodyne receivers to remotely examine the P-54 Wirtanen comet. In order to calibrate the instrument, it needs to view a hot and cold target. The purpose of the mechanism is to divert the instrument's field of view from the hot target, to the cold target, and then back into space. This cycle is to be repeated every 30 minutes for the duration of the 1.5 year mission. The paper describes the development of the mechanism, as well as analysis and testing techniques.

Suchman, Jason; Salinas, Yuki; Kubo, Holly

2001-01-01

307

High voltage coaxial switch  

DOEpatents

A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

Rink, J.P.

1983-07-19

308

Yeast Breads: Made at Home.  

E-print Network

are developed by stirring and beating the batter I .-. combined and only enough flour is added to than by kneading. Batters are allowed tc make a thick batter. This batter is set in a warm either in the bowl or baking pan. Combining i ngre for bre rolls...- ing, since it is an accurate guide in keeping the correct temperature. Active dry yeast is dissolved in warm, not hot, water. The "feel" test may be used by experienced bread makers. Place a drop of liquid on the inside of the wrist. If the liquid...

Cox, Maeona; Harris, Jimmie Nell; Reasonover, Frances; Mason, Lousie

1957-01-01

309

Yeast Breads: Made at Home.  

E-print Network

the bread. Sugar helps give a golden brown color to the crust. fat Some type of fat or oil is included in nearly all yeast bread. It conditions the gluten, making other ingredients Eggs give extra flavor and richness and s! to the food value.... They help produce a f~r delicate texture and a golden brown crust. Rn' and breads made with egg whites and \\\\a. usually have an open grain and a somewhat tila' crisp crust. For various kinds of fancy bre;l' and rolls, fruits, nuts, spices and other...

Reasonover, Frances

1971-01-01

310

Engineering the Substrate Specificity of the DhbE Adenylation Domain by Yeast Cell Surface Display  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The adenylation (A) domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) activate aryl acids or amino acids to launch their transfer through the NRPS assembly line for the biosynthesis of many medicinally important natural products. In order to expand the substrate pool of NRPSs, we developed a method based on yeast cell surface display to engineer the substrate specificities of the A-domains. We acquired A-domain mutants of DhbE that have 11- and 6-fold increases in kcat/Km with nonnative substrates 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and 2-aminobenzoic acid, respectively and corresponding 3- and 33-fold decreases in kcat/Km values with the native substrate 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, resulting in a dramatic switch in substrate specificity of up to 200-fold. Our study demonstrates that yeast display can be used as a high throughput selection platform to reprogram the “nonribosomal code” of A-domains. PMID:23352143

Zhang, Keya; Nelson, Kathryn M.; Bhuripanyo, Karan; Grimes, Kimberly D.; Zhao, Bo; Aldrich, Courtney C.; Yin, Jun

2013-01-01

311

Structural basis of high-fidelity DNA synthesis by yeast DNA polymerase [delta  

SciTech Connect

DNA polymerase {delta} (Pol {delta}) is a high-fidelity polymerase that has a central role in replication from yeast to humans. We present the crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of yeast Pol {delta} in ternary complex with a template primer and an incoming nucleotide. The structure, determined at 2.0-{angstrom} resolution, catches the enzyme in the act of replication, revealing how the polymerase and exonuclease domains are juxtaposed relative to each other and how a correct nucleotide is selected and incorporated. The structure also reveals the 'sensing' interactions near the primer terminus, which signal a switch from the polymerizing to the editing mode. Taken together, the structure provides a chemical basis for the bulk of DNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells and a framework for understanding the effects of cancer-causing mutations in Pol {delta}.

Swan, Michael K.; Johnson, Robert E.; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya; Aggarwal, Aneel K.; (Sinai); (Texas)

2009-09-25

312

Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains  

SciTech Connect

The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

1981-01-01

313

Evolutionary constraints on yeast protein size  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite a strong evolutionary pressure to reduce genome size, proteins vary in length over a surprisingly wide range also in very compact genomes. Here we investigated the evolutionary forces that act on protein size in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing a system-wide bioinformatics approach. Data on yeast protein size was compared to global experimental data on protein expression, phenotypic

Jonas Warringer; Anders Blomberg

2006-01-01

314

Can yeast transcriptomics help improve wine fermentation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wine fermentation is a dynamic and complex process in which the yeast cell is subjected to multiple stress conditions. A successful adaptation involves changes in gene expression profiles where a large number of genes are up- or down-regulated. Functional genomic approaches are com- monly used to obtain global gene expression profiles, providing a comprehensive view of yeast physiology. We used

C. Varela; J. Cárdenas; E. Agosin

315

Oily yeasts as oleaginous cell factories.  

PubMed

Oily yeasts have been described to be able to accumulate lipids up to 20% of their cellular dry weight. These yeasts represent a minor proportion of the total yeast population, and only 5% of them have been reported as able to accumulate more than 25% of lipids. The oily yeast genera include Yarrowia, Candida, Rhodotorula, Rhodosporidium, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Lipomyces. More specifically, examples of oleaginous yeasts include the species: Lipomyces starkeyi, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Rhodotorula glutinis, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Yeast do exhibit advantages for lipid production over other microbial sources, namely, their duplication times are usually lower than 1 h, are much less affected than plants by season or climate conditions, and their cultures are more easily scaled up than those of microalgae. Additionally, some oily yeasts have been reported to accumulate oil up to 80% of their dry weight and can indeed generate different lipids from different carbon sources or from lipids present in the culture media. Thus, they can vary their lipid composition by replacing the fatty acids present in their triglycerides. Due to the diversity of microorganisms and growth conditions, oily yeasts can be useful for the production of triglycerides, surfactants, or polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:21465305

Ageitos, Jose Manuel; Vallejo, Juan Andres; Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Villa, Tomas G

2011-05-01

316

Identification of yeasts isolated from poultry meat.  

PubMed

In an assessment of the potential role of yeasts in the spoilage of poultry meat, the population and species diversity of yeasts were determined on 50 commercial raw and processed chicken and turkey product samples. Initial populations (log10 cfu/g) ranged from less than 0.1 to 2.9, and increased by the expiration date to 0.4 to 5.1, respectively. 145 of 152 isolates were identified as belonging to 12 species. Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida zeylanoides were predominant, accounting for 39% and 26% of the isolates, respectively. Six different species of basidiomycetous yeasts were determined representing 24% of the isolates. The ability of the predominant yeast species to grow at refrigeration temperatures and their proteolytic and lipolytic activies suggest that yeasts may play a more significant role than previously recognised in the spoilage of poultry products. PMID:11426853

Deák, T

2001-01-01

317

Global nucleosome occupancy in yeast  

PubMed Central

Background Although eukaryotic genomes are generally thought to be entirely chromatin-associated, the activated PHO5 promoter in yeast is largely devoid of nucleosomes. We systematically evaluated nucleosome occupancy in yeast promoters by immunoprecipitating nucleosomal DNA and quantifying enrichment by microarrays. Results Nucleosome depletion is observed in promoters that regulate active genes and/or contain multiple evolutionarily conserved motifs that recruit transcription factors. The Rap1 consensus was the only binding motif identified in a completely unbiased search of nucleosome-depleted promoters. Nucleosome depletion in the vicinity of Rap1 consensus sites in ribosomal protein gene promoters was also observed by real-time PCR and micrococcal nuclease digestion. Nucleosome occupancy in these regions was increased by the small molecule rapamycin or, in the case of the RPS11B promoter, by removing the Rap1 consensus sites. Conclusions The presence of transcription factor-binding motifs is an important determinant of nucleosome depletion. Most motifs are associated with marked depletion only when they appear in combination, consistent with a model in which transcription factors act collaboratively to exclude nucleosomes and gain access to target sites in the DNA. In contrast, Rap1-binding sites cause marked depletion under steady-state conditions. We speculate that nucleosome depletion enables Rap1 to define chromatin domains and alter them in response to environmental cues. PMID:15345046

Bernstein, Bradley E; Liu, Chih Long; Humphrey, Emily L; Perlstein, Ethan O; Schreiber, Stuart L

2004-01-01

318

Switch dynamics for stochastic model of genetic toggle switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, more and more biological experiments have indicated that noise plays an important role in bistable systems, such as the case of the bimodal population distribution in the genetic toggle switch. In this paper, we further verify that noises in degradation rates can indeed induce switching in the genetic toggle switch. Meanwhile, we apply the theory of mean first passage time (MFPT) in high dimensional system to the above stochastic model. According to our assumption, the high order finite difference method is used to compute the MFPT (that the average time switching from one steady state to the other) and we find that the relationship between the MFPT and noise intensity is negative correlation. The result is also verified through another numerical simulation method.

Xu, Yong; Zhu, Ya-nan; Shen, Jianwei; Su, Jianbin

2014-12-01

319

Engineering precision RNA molecular switches  

PubMed Central

Ligand-specific molecular switches composed of RNA were created by coupling preexisting catalytic and receptor domains via structural bridges. Binding of ligand to the receptor triggers a conformational change within the bridge, and this structural reorganization dictates the activity of the adjoining ribozyme. The modular nature of these tripartite constructs makes possible the rapid construction of precision RNA molecular switches that trigger only in the presence of their corresponding ligand. By using similar enzyme engineering strategies, new RNA switches can be made to operate as designer molecular sensors or as a new class of genetic control elements. PMID:10097080

Soukup, Garrett A.; Breaker, Ronald R.

1999-01-01

320

Switching behavior of different contact materials under capacitive switching conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

For vacuum circuit-breakers capacitive current switching means a specific operating condition. Though it differs notably from the short-circuit current interruption situation, the circuit-breaker design needs to be reconsidered and adapted. Capacitive switching combines high inrush-currents at the connection of a capacitive load and considerable low breaking currents at its disconnection. A reliable dielectric performance of the breaker is required since

Florian Körner; Manfred Lindmayer; Michael Kurrat; Dietmar Gentsch

2008-01-01

321

Task Switching versus Cue Switching: Using Transition Cuing to Disentangle Sequential Effects in Task-Switching Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent methodological advances have allowed researchers to address confounds in the measurement of task-switch costs in task-switching performance by dissociating cue switching from task switching. For example, in the transition-cuing procedure, which involves presenting cues for task transitions rather than for tasks, cue transitions (cue…

Schneider, Darryl W.; Logan, Gordon D.

2007-01-01

322

Heteroleptic Copper Switches  

PubMed Central

Heteroleptic copper compounds have been designed and synthesized on solid supports. Chemical redox agents were used to change the oxidation state of the SiO2-immobilized heteroleptic copper compounds from Cu(I) to Cu(II) and then back to Cu(I). Optical spectroscopy of a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) suspension demonstrated the reversibility of the Cu(I)/Cu(II) SiO2-immobilized compounds by monitoring the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) peak at about 450 nm. EPR spectroscopy was used to monitor the isomerization of Cu(I) tetrahedral to Cu(II) square planar. This conformational change corresponds to a 90° rotation of one ligand with respect to the other. Conductive AFM (cAFM) and macroscopic gold electrodes were used to study the electrical properties of a p+ Si-immobilized heteroleptic copper compound where switching between the Cu(I)/Cu(II) states occurred at ?0.8 and +2.3 V. PMID:20964417

Kabehie, Sanaz; Xue, Mei; Stieg, Adam Z.; Liong, Monty; Wang, Kang L.

2013-01-01

323

Regenerative switching CMOS system  

DOEpatents

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a series combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electrically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided. 14 figs.

Welch, J.D.

1998-06-02

324

Regenerative switching CMOS system  

DOEpatents

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a seriesed combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided.

Welch, James D. (10328 Pinehurst Ave., Omaha, NE 68124)

1998-01-01

325

49 CFR 236.342 - Switch circuit controller.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...342 Switch circuit controller. Switch circuit controller connected at the point to switch, derail, or movable-point frog, shall be maintained so that its contacts will not be in position corresponding to switch point closure when switch point...

2012-10-01

326

49 CFR 236.342 - Switch circuit controller.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...342 Switch circuit controller. Switch circuit controller connected at the point to switch, derail, or movable-point frog, shall be maintained so that its contacts will not be in position corresponding to switch point closure when switch point...

2011-10-01

327

49 CFR 236.342 - Switch circuit controller.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...342 Switch circuit controller. Switch circuit controller connected at the point to switch, derail, or movable-point frog, shall be maintained so that its contacts will not be in position corresponding to switch point closure when switch point...

2013-10-01

328

49 CFR 236.342 - Switch circuit controller.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...342 Switch circuit controller. Switch circuit controller connected at the point to switch, derail, or movable-point frog, shall be maintained so that its contacts will not be in position corresponding to switch point closure when switch point...

2010-10-01

329

Electron collisions in gas switches  

SciTech Connect

Many technologies rely on the conduction/insulation properties of gaseous matter for their successful operation. Many others (e.g., pulsed power technologies) rely on the rapid change (switching or modulation) of the properties of gaseous matter from an insulator to a conductor and vice versa. Studies of electron collision processes in gases aided the development of pulsed power gas switches, and in this paper we shall briefly illustrate the kind of knowledge on electron collision processes which is needed to optimize the performance of such switching devices. To this end, we shall refer to three types of gas switches: spark gap closing, self-sustained diffuse discharge closing, and externally-sustained diffuse discharge opening. 24 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

Christophorou, L.G.

1989-01-01

330

Electromagnetic Activation of Capillary Switches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By designing coupled droplet pairs with the appropriate length scale to promote surface tension as the dominant force, one can create bi-stable capillary switches. This bi-stability can be triggered by pressure pulses, surface chemistry, electroosmosis, or body forces. To exploit the latter, we designed a capillary switch with electromagnetic activation. The resulting setup consists of a sub-millimeter tube, overfilled with a ferrofluid, surrounded by a wire coil to generate a magnetic field. Evidence of this capillary switching will be presented along with some theoretical basis in fluid- and electro-dynamics. The approach may also be used to investigate other transport phenomena in electromagnetically-coupled microfluidic systems, including the relative effects of translational motion of the ferrofluid (both particles and solvent molecules) versus the rotational effects of the individual magnetic grains. These individually addressable capillary switches offer intriguing applications including high-speed adaptive optics, actuators at the microscale, and possible PCB integration.

Malouin, Bernie; Dayal, Rohan; Parsa, Leila; Hirsa, Amir

2008-11-01

331

High PRF high current switch  

DOEpatents

A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

Moran, Stuart L. (Fredericksburg, VA); Hutcherson, R. Kenneth (College Park, MD)

1990-03-27

332

Transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling mechanisms at PHO5  

E-print Network

in nucleosome remodeling. The most widely studied complex is the Swi-Snf complex in yeast, named for its role in mating- type switching as well as sucrose fermentation (reviewed in Martens and Winston, 2003). Defects in the human Swi-Snf complex are linked... with permission from Archana Dhasarathy. 12 An earlier study showed that yeast genes could be classified into three distinct classes based on their requirement for the chromatin remodelers Swi- Snf and SAGA: 1) those genes which require both Swi-Snf...

Carvin, Christopher Dumas

2005-08-29

333

Accelerating Yeast Prion Biology using Droplet Microfluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prions are infectious proteins in a misfolded form, that can induce normal proteins to take the misfolded state. Yeast prions are relevant, as a model of human prion diseases, and interesting from an evolutionary standpoint. Prions may also be a form of epigenetic inheritance, which allow yeast to adapt to stressful conditions at rates exceeding those of random mutations and propagate that adaptation to their offspring. Encapsulation of yeast in droplet microfluidic devices enables high-throughput measurements with single cell resolution, which would not be feasible using bulk methods. Millions of populations of yeast can be screened to obtain reliable measurements of prion induction and loss rates. The population dynamics of clonal yeast, when a fraction of the cells are prion expressing, can be elucidated. Furthermore, the mechanism by which certain strains of bacteria induce yeast to express prions in the wild can be deduced. Integrating the disparate fields of prion biology and droplet microfluidics reveals a more complete picture of how prions may be more than just diseases and play a functional role in yeast.

Ung, Lloyd; Rotem, Assaf; Jarosz, Daniel; Datta, Manoshi; Lindquist, Susan; Weitz, David

2012-02-01

334

Bridges, Switches, Routers 1.1 Introduction  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Bridges, Switches, Routers 1.1 Introduction ¯ Packet vs circuit (and virtual circuit ¯ Packet processors--Bridges, Routers, ATM switches 1 #12;2 CHAPTER 1. BRIDGES, SWITCHES, ROUTERS Routing in an extended LAN. See Problem 2. #12;4 CHAPTER 1. BRIDGES, SWITCHES, ROUTERS Figure 1.3: LAN vs VLAN topology

Varaiya, Pravin

335

WDM burst switching for petabit capacity routers  

Microsoft Academic Search

WDM burst switching is an approach to building very high capacity routing switches based on optical data paths and electronic control. Burst switches assign user data bursts to channels in WDM links on-the-fly in order to provide efficient statistical multiplexing of high rate data channels. The overall system architecture is designed to facilitate the introduction of optical switching components as

Yuhua Chen; Jonathan S. Turner

1999-01-01

336

Ferroelectric liquid crystal optical interconnect switching systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This grant explored the possible use of ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLC's) in the reamization of photonic switching fabrics. Problems addressed included device fabrication, switch architectures, and switch performance. Experimental versions of most architectures were constructed. The aim of the contract was to develop techniques for using ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLC's) for novel photonic switching architectures. Initial work was devoted to

Joseph W. Goodman

1993-01-01

337

Optical Packet Switching -1 Optical Networks  

E-print Network

Optical Packet Switching - 1 Optical Networks: from fiber transmission to photonic switching Optical Packet Switching Fabio Neri and Marco Mellia TLC Networks Group ­ Electronics Department e networks · Network management, reliability and fault recovery · Optical packet switching #12;Optical Packet

Mellia, Marco

338

Adaptive Optical Burst Switching Thomas Bonald  

E-print Network

Adaptive Optical Burst Switching Thomas Bonald Telecom ParisTech Paris, France thomas.indre,sara.oueslati}@orange-ftgroup.com Abstract--We propose a modified version of Optical Burst Switching (OBS) that adapts the size of switched refer to this technique as Adaptive Optical Burst Switching. We prove that the proposed scheme

Bonald, Thomas

339

Micromachined RF Switch With High Mechanical Reliability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For this project, MESA (MEMS Early-Stage Analysis) was implemented to develop ,'tri state multi-contact' switch. The switch was designed and processed to enhance mechanical and RF performance compare to the conventional RF MEMS switches. The switch was su...

K. Ishikawa, H. Mamiya, T. Miki, Q. Yu

2005-01-01

340

Wavelength conversion in optical packet switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed traffic analysis of optical packet switch design is performed. Special consideration is given to the complexity of the optical buffering and the overall switch block structure is considered in general. Wavelength converters are shown to improve the traffic performance of the switch blocks for both random and bursty traffic. Furthermore, the traffic performance of switch blocks with add-drop

Soeren Lykke Danielsen; Peter Bukhave Hansen; Kristian E. Stubkjaer

1998-01-01

341

Original article Effect of a viable yeast culture on digestibility  

E-print Network

cultures to improve productivity in livestock husbandry. In comparison with antimicrobial agents, yeast that the effect of yeast culture on ru- men fermentation may depend on the nature of.the diet. Living yeast cell culture offers a natural alternative to manipulate animal performance. Positive effects of a yeast culture

Boyer, Edmond

342

Computational Predictions of Structures of Multichromosomes of Budding Yeast  

E-print Network

Computational Predictions of Structures of Multichromosomes of Budding Yeast (Accepted, Conf Proc of budding yeast nucleus. We successfully generated a large number of model genomes of yeast with appropriate yeast genome realistically. The model developed here provides a general computational framework

Liang, Jie

343

Yeast (in press) Published online in Wiley InterScience  

E-print Network

Yeast Yeast (in press) Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/yea.1502 Yeast Functional Analysis Report A suite of Gateway cloning vectors for high of overexpression plasmids containing the entire complement of yeast open reading frames (ORFs) have recently been

Lycan, Deborah E.

344

Original article Screening for the potential probiotic yeast strains  

E-print Network

Original article Screening for the potential probiotic yeast strains from raw milk to assimilate yeast strains, isolated from raw milk, were tested to obtain potential probiotic yeasts for assimilating cholesterol. During in vitro tests, 17 yeast strains were capable of growth in bile salt solutions, and most

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

345

Yeast adaptation on softwood prehydrolysate.  

PubMed

Several strains and genera of yeast, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A, Pachysolen tannophilus, S. cerevisiae K-1, Brettanomyces custersii, Candida shehatae, and Candida acidothermophilum, are screened for growth on dilute acid-pretreated softwood prehydrolysate. Selected softwood species found in forest underbrush of the western United States, which contain predominantly hexosan hemicellulose, were studied. This phase of the work emphasized debarked Douglas fir. The two best initial isolates were gradually selected for improved growth by adaptation to increasing prehydrolysate concentrations in batch culture, with due consideration of nutrient requirements. Microaerophilic conditions were evaluated to encourage tolerance of pretreatment hydrolysate, as well as ethanol product. Adaptation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) results are used to illustrate improved performance with an adapted strain, compared to the wild type. PMID:9627379

Keller, F A; Bates, D; Ruiz, R; Nguyen, Q

1998-01-01

346

Extracellular Deoxyribonuclease Production by Yeasts  

PubMed Central

A total of 20 genera of yeasts and yeastlike organisms were tested for their ability to produce an extracellular deoxyribonuclease. Results indicate that ability to produce the enzyme appears to be a specific characteristic of the three genera Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, and Tremella. A single strain of Endomycopsis fibuligera was also shown to be positive for the enzyme. In comparing the ability of the organisms to excrete extracellular deoxyribonuclease with their ability to produce urease, a surprisingly close correlation was found. With the exception of Lipomyces starkeyi, all the organisms which were deoxyribonuclease-negative were also urease-negative. Of those organisms which were deoxyribonuclease-positive, only E. fibuligera was urease-negative. The ability of cryptococci to produce extracellular deoxyribonuclease is discussed in relation to the implication which this finding may have for the taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus. PMID:5354946

Cazin, John; Kozel, Thomas R.; Lupan, David M.; Burt, Wayne R.

1969-01-01

347

Extracellular deoxyribonuclease production by yeasts.  

PubMed

A total of 20 genera of yeasts and yeastlike organisms were tested for their ability to produce an extracellular deoxyribonuclease. Results indicate that ability to produce the enzyme appears to be a specific characteristic of the three genera Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, and Tremella. A single strain of Endomycopsis fibuligera was also shown to be positive for the enzyme. In comparing the ability of the organisms to excrete extracellular deoxyribonuclease with their ability to produce urease, a surprisingly close correlation was found. With the exception of Lipomyces starkeyi, all the organisms which were deoxyribonuclease-negative were also urease-negative. Of those organisms which were deoxyribonuclease-positive, only E. fibuligera was urease-negative. The ability of cryptococci to produce extracellular deoxyribonuclease is discussed in relation to the implication which this finding may have for the taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus. PMID:5354946

Cazin, J; Kozel, T R; Lupan, D M; Burt, W R

1969-11-01

348

Biology of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata.  

PubMed

The yeasts, being favorite eukaryotic microorganisms used in food industry and biotechnologies for production of biomass and various substances, are also used as model organisms in genetic manipulation, molecular and biological research. In this respect, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the best-known species but current situation in medicine and industry requires the use of other species. Here we summarize the basic taxonomic, morphological, physiological, genetic, etc. information about the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata that is evolutionarily very closely related to baker's yeast. PMID:16821705

Bialková, A; Subík, J

2006-01-01

349

Corning and Kroger turn whey to yeast  

SciTech Connect

It is reported that Corning and Kroger intend to build a 35,000 sq. ft. plant in Winchester, Ky., that will turn whey into bakers' yeast. The plant will convert whey from Kroger's dairies into bakers' yeast, supplying about 60% of the yeast needed for nine Kroger bakeries. It will also produce syrups and whey protein concentrate for use in other food processing activities. In addition to making useful products, the project will convert the whey to glucose and galactose. The protein component of the whey will be concentrated and used in various foods and feeds.

Not Available

1981-11-16

350

Characterizing Uniformly Ultimately Bounded Switching Signals for Uncertain Switched Linear Systems  

E-print Network

exhibit unbounded behaviors under some switching signals [15], [7]. Therefore, the first task here task here is to identify a subclass of admissible switching signals such that the switched system hasCharacterizing Uniformly Ultimately Bounded Switching Signals for Uncertain Switched Linear Systems

Antsaklis, Panos

351

Electrohydrostatics of Capillary Switches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pair of supported droplets that are coupled via a liquid filled cylindrical hole of radius R in a plate is referred to as a capillary switch (CS). A CS is known to exhibit two stable equilibrium states when the combined volume of the top and the bottom droplets is greater than 4/3 ?R^3. This fact is exploited in various applications, including optical lenses and adhesion, where the main challenge is to come up with a method to"toggle" the CS between the two stable states that is reliable, is energy efficient, and has fast response. The use of an electric field to achieve this purpose is explored here through simulations in which the axisymmetric shapes and stability of a CS are determined as a function of applied field strength. In the simulations, the liquid is taken to be perfectly conducting and the ambient fluid on either side of the plate outside the CS to be a passive gas. An axial electric field is applied either on one or both sides of a grounded plate. The equilibrium shapes of the CS and the electric potential in the surrounding gas are governed by an augmented Young-Laplace equation and the Laplace equation, respectively. These equations are solved computationally using the Galerkin finite element method. Results are shown as plots of dimensionless volume difference between the two droplets against electrical Bond number (ratio of electric to surface tension force). These phase diagrams are used to infer whether an electric field represents an effective means for toggling a CS.

Sambath, Krishnaraj; Basaran, Osman

2010-11-01

352

Testing results for the HCT-1400 switch  

SciTech Connect

The High Current Thyristor (HCT)-1400 was characterized for switching performance. This is a Soviet switching device that has recently become available to the U.S. community. Substantial claims have been made regarding the performance of this switch. In particular, the switch was claimed to be able to switch high currents, with very short risetime without any significant jitter. This is an independent evaluation of the high current thyristor.

Hoeberling, R.F.; Wheeler, R.B.

1996-07-01

353

Yeast Transformation (introducing plasmid vector into a yeast strain): This protocol is a modification (shortened version) of "The BEST  

E-print Network

Yeast Transformation (introducing plasmid vector into a yeast strain): This protocol://www.umanitoba.ca/medicine/biochem/gietz/Trafo.html) 1. Inoculate 5 ml of YPD with a yeast colony from plate. 2. Grow culture overnight at 300 C. 3 and centrifuging at 1750xg (high speed in clinical centrifuge) for 2 minutes. 6. Carefully pour media off of yeast

354

Kinetochore Structure: Pulling Answers from Yeast  

E-print Network

Despite the identification of multiple kinetochore proteins, their structure and organization has remained unclear. New work uses electron microscopy to visualize isolated budding yeast kinetochore particles and reveal the ...

Cheeseman, Iain M.

355

Protection from nitrosative stress by yeast flavohemoglobin  

PubMed Central

Yeast hemoglobin was discovered close to half a century ago, but its function has remained unknown. Herein, we report that this flavohemoglobin protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae from nitrosative stress. Deletion of the flavohemoglobin gene (YHB1) abolished the nitric oxide (NO)-consuming activity of yeast cells. Levels of protein nitrosylation were more than 10-fold higher in yhb1 mutant yeast than in isogenic wild-type cells after incubation with NO donors. Growth of mutant cells was inhibited by a nitrosative challenge that had little effect on wild-type cells, whereas the resistance of mutant cells to oxidative stress was unimpaired. Protection conferred by yeast flavohemoglobin against NO and S-nitrosothiols was seen under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, consistent with a primary function in NO detoxification. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that protection from nitrosative stress is likely to be a conserved function among microorganismal flavohemoglobins. Flavohemoglobin is therefore a potential target for antimicrobial therapy. PMID:10758168

Liu, Limin; Zeng, Ming; Hausladen, Alfred; Heitman, Joseph; Stamler, Jonathan S.

2000-01-01

356

Prion formation by a yeast GLFG nucleoporin  

E-print Network

The self-assembly of proteins into higher order structures is both central to normal biology and a dominant force in disease. Certain glutamine/asparagine (Q/N)-rich proteins in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...

Halfmann, Randal

357

Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts  

E-print Network

The fission yeast clade—comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus—occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative ...

Regev, Aviv

358

Mitochondria, metabolism, and aging in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Quantitative and qualitative changes in metabolism take place when the lifespan is extended in yeast either by genetic or\\u000a nutritional manipulation. In particular, remodeling of mitochondrial function occurs, and the relationship between this organelle\\u000a and other cellular compartments moves to the fore. Two separate pathways, the retrograde response and calorie restriction,\\u000a operate as metabolic mechanisms for life extension in yeast.

S. Michal Jazwinski

359

Yeast flocculation: what brewers should know  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many industrial applications in which the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used, e.g. beer, wine and alcohol production, appropriate flocculation behaviour is certainly one of the most important characteristics of a good production strain. Yeast flocculation is a very complex process that depends on the expression of specific flocculation genes such as FLO1, FLO5, FLO8 and FLO11. The transcriptional activity

K. J. Verstrepen; G. Derdelinckx; H. Verachtert; F. R. Delvaux

2003-01-01

360

Cooperative regulation in yeast cell cycle network  

E-print Network

We define a measure of cooperativity for gene regulatory networks which we propose should be maximized under a demand for energy efficiency. We investigate its dependence on network size, connectivity and the fraction of repressory/activatory interactions. Next, we consider the cell-cycle regulatory network of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a case study and calculate its degree of cooperativity. A comparison with random networks of similar size and composition reveals that the yeast's cell-cycle regulation is exceptionally cooperative.

Nese Aral; Alkan Kabakcioglu

2014-06-28

361

High power solid state switches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have successfully produced an optically triggered thyristor based in Gallium Arsenide, developed a model for breakdown, and are developing two related devices, including a Gallium Arsenide based static inductor thyristor. We are getting at the basic limitations of Gallium Arsenide for these applications, and are developing models for the physical processes that will determine device limitations. The previously supported gas phase work - resulting in the back-lighted thyratron (BLT) - has actually resulted in a very changed view of how switching can be accomplished, and this is impacting the design of important machines. The BLT is being studied internationally: in Japan for laser fusion and laser isotope separation. ITT has built a BLT that has switched 30 kA at 60 kV in testing at NSWC Dahlgren and the device is being commercialized by another American company. Versions of the switch are now being tested for excimer laser and other applications. Basically, the switch, which arose from pulse power physics studies at USC, can switch more current faster (higher di/dt), with less housekeeping, and with other advantageous properties. There are a large number of other new applications, include kinetic energy weapons, pulsed microwave sources and R.F. accelerators.

Gundersen, Martin

1991-11-01

362

[Yeasts--biosorbents of heavy metals].  

PubMed

The sharp increase of the level of environment pollution by heavy metals caused the increase of interest to the problem of live organisms (including microorganisms) resistance to these metals. Biosorption is one of the mechanisms of microorganisms resistance to heavy metals. Yeasts as biosorbents are of special interest. An analysis of the data from literature have shown that the yeast biomass may be used successfully as biosorption material for such metals as Ag, Au, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, U, Th, Zn. Yeasts of genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Pichia are efficient biosorbents of metals. The sorptional system estimation is based on the classic sorption isotherm obtained in the course of equilibrium experiments and depends on pH, properties of metal ions, biomass concentration, preliminary physical or chemical treatment of the biomass, presence of various organic and inorganic ions and on temperature. The yeast biomass may be obtained using numerous industrial processes, that decreases considerably the biosorbent cost. Most yeasts can sorb a wide range of metals or be strictly specific in respect of only one metal. Special attention would be paid to the cell wall which structure determines sorption proceeding mechanisms. Problems of mechanisms of heavy metal biosorption by microorganisms at molecular level are discussed. The review also deals with the newest developments on improving the biosorption processes in microorganisms, yeast in particular. PMID:15104060

Podgorski?, V S; Kasatkina, T P; Lozovaia, O G

2004-01-01

363

Binary switching in a 'symmetric' potential landscape  

PubMed Central

A binary switch is the basic building block for information processing. The potential energy profile of a bistable binary switch is a ‘symmetric' double well. The traditional method of switching it from one state (one well) to the other is to tilt the profile towards the desired state. Here, we present a case, where no such tilting is necessary to switch successfully, even in the presence of thermal noise. This happens because of the built-in dynamics inside the switch itself. It differs from the general perception on binary switching that in a ‘symmetric' potential landscape, the switching probability is 50% in the presence of thermal noise. Our results, considering the complete three-dimensional potential landscape, demonstrate intriguing phenomena on binary switching mechanism. With experimentally feasible parameters, we theoretically demonstrate such intriguing possibility in electric field induced magnetization switching of a shape-anisotropic single-domain magnetostrictive nanomagnet with two stable states at room-temperature. PMID:24154561

Roy, Kuntal; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

2013-01-01

364

Molecular mechanisms creating bistable switches at cell cycle transitions.  

PubMed

Progression through the eukaryotic cell cycle is characterized by specific transitions, where cells move irreversibly from stage i-1 of the cycle into stage i. These irreversible cell cycle transitions are regulated by underlying bistable switches, which share some common features. An inhibitory protein stalls progression, and an activatory protein promotes progression. The inhibitor and activator are locked in a double-negative feedback loop, creating a one-way toggle switch that guarantees an irreversible commitment to move forward through the cell cycle, and it opposes regression from stage i to stage i-1. In many cases, the activator is an enzyme that modifies the inhibitor in multiple steps, whereas the hypo-modified inhibitor binds strongly to the activator and resists its enzymatic activity. These interactions are the basis of a reaction motif that provides a simple and generic account of many characteristic properties of cell cycle transitions. To demonstrate this assertion, we apply the motif in detail to the G1/S transition in budding yeast and to the mitotic checkpoint in mammalian cells. Variations of the motif might support irreversible cellular decision-making in other contexts. PMID:23486222

Verdugo, Anael; Vinod, P K; Tyson, John J; Novak, Bela

2013-03-01

365

Domain dynamics during ferroelectric switching.  

PubMed

The utility of ferroelectric materials stems from the ability to nucleate and move polarized domains using an electric field. To understand the mechanisms of polarization switching, structural characterization at the nanoscale is required. We used aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy to follow the kinetics and dynamics of ferroelectric switching at millisecond temporal and subangstrom spatial resolution in an epitaxial bilayer of an antiferromagnetic ferroelectric (BiFeO(3)) on a ferromagnetic electrode (La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO(3)). We observed localized nucleation events at the electrode interface, domain wall pinning on point defects, and the formation of ferroelectric domains localized to the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic interface. These results show how defects and interfaces impede full ferroelectric switching of a thin film. PMID:22096196

Nelson, Christopher T; Gao, Peng; Jokisaari, Jacob R; Heikes, Colin; Adamo, Carolina; Melville, Alexander; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Folkman, Chad M; Winchester, Benjamin; Gu, Yijia; Liu, Yuanming; Zhang, Kui; Wang, Enge; Li, Jiangyu; Chen, Long-Qing; Eom, Chang-Beom; Schlom, Darrell G; Pan, Xiaoqing

2011-11-18

366

Molecular DNA switches and DNA chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an assay to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms on a chip using molecular DNA switches and isothermal rolling- circle amplification. The basic principle behind the switch is an allele-specific oligonucleotide circularization, mediated by DNA ligase. A DNA switch is closed when perfect hybridization between the probe oligonucleotide and target DNA allows ligase to covalently circularize the probe. Mismatches around the ligation site prevent probe circularization, resulting in an open switch. DNA polymerase is then used to preferentially amplify the closed switches, via rolling-circle amplification. The stringency of the molecular switches yields 102 - 103 fold discrimination between matched and mismatched sequences.

Sabanayagam, Chandran R.; Berkey, Cristin; Lavi, Uri; Cantor, Charles R.; Smith, Cassandra L.

1999-06-01

367

The one hour yeast proteome.  

PubMed

We describe the comprehensive analysis of the yeast proteome in just over one hour of optimized analysis. We achieve this expedited proteome characterization with improved sample preparation, chromatographic separations, and by using a new Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer equipped with a mass filter, a collision cell, a high-field Orbitrap analyzer, and, finally, a dual cell linear ion trap analyzer (Q-OT-qIT, Orbitrap Fusion). This system offers high MS(2) acquisition speed of 20 Hz and detects up to 19 peptide sequences within a single second of operation. Over a 1.3 h chromatographic method, the Q-OT-qIT hybrid collected an average of 13,447 MS(1) and 80,460 MS(2) scans (per run) to produce 43,400 (x) peptide spectral matches and 34,255 (x) peptides with unique amino acid sequences (1% false discovery rate (FDR)). On average, each one hour analysis achieved detection of 3,977 proteins (1% FDR). We conclude that further improvements in mass spectrometer scan rate could render comprehensive analysis of the human proteome within a few hours. PMID:24143002

Hebert, Alexander S; Richards, Alicia L; Bailey, Derek J; Ulbrich, Arne; Coughlin, Emma E; Westphall, Michael S; Coon, Joshua J

2014-01-01

368

Glycogenolytic enzymes in sporulating yeast.  

PubMed Central

During meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the polysaccharide glycogen is first synthesized and then degraded during the period of spore maturation. We have detected, in sporulating yeast strains, an enzyme activity which is responsible for the glycogen catabolism. The activity was absent in vegetative cells, appeared coincidently with the beginning of glycogenolysis and the appearance of mature ascospores, and increased progressively until spourlation was complete. The specific activity of glycogenolytic enzymes in the intact ascus was about threefold higher than in isolated spores. The glycogenolysis was not due to combinations of phosphorylase plus phosphatase or amylase plus maltase. Nonsporulating cells exhibited litle or no glycogen catabolism and contained only traces of glycogenolytic enzyme, suggesting that the activity is sporulation specific. The partially purified enzyme preparation degraded amylose and glycogen, releasing glucose as the only low-molecular-weight product. Maltotriose was rapidly hydrolyzed; maltose was less susceptible. Alpha-methyl-D-glucoside, isomaltose, and linear alpha-1,6-linked dextran were not attacked. However, the enzyme hydrolyzed alpha-1,6-glucosyl-Schardinger dextrin and increased the beta-amylolysis of beta-amylase-limit dextrin. Thus, the preparation contains alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-glucosidase activities. Sephadex G-150 chromatography partially resolved the enzyme into two activities, one of which may be a glucamylase and the other a debranching enzyme. Images PMID:350852

Colonna, W J; Magee, P T

1978-01-01

369

RNA Methylation by the MIS Complex Regulates a Cell Fate Decision in Yeast  

PubMed Central

For the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient limitation is a key developmental signal causing diploid cells to switch from yeast-form budding to either foraging pseudohyphal (PH) growth or meiosis and sporulation. Prolonged starvation leads to lineage restriction, such that cells exiting meiotic prophase are committed to complete sporulation even if nutrients are restored. Here, we have identified an earlier commitment point in the starvation program. After this point, cells, returned to nutrient-rich medium, entered a form of synchronous PH development that was morphologically and genetically indistinguishable from starvation-induced PH growth. We show that lineage restriction during this time was, in part, dependent on the mRNA methyltransferase activity of Ime4, which played separable roles in meiotic induction and suppression of the PH program. Normal levels of meiotic mRNA methylation required the catalytic domain of Ime4, as well as two meiotic proteins, Mum2 and Slz1, which interacted and co-immunoprecipitated with Ime4. This MIS complex (Mum2, Ime4, and Slz1) functioned in both starvation pathways. Together, our results support the notion that the yeast starvation response is an extended process that progressively restricts cell fate and reveal a broad role of post-transcriptional RNA methylation in these decisions. PMID:22685417

Agarwala, Sudeep D.; Blitzblau, Hannah G.; Hochwagen, Andreas; Fink, Gerald R.

2012-01-01

370

An efficient multi-channel wireless switching system  

E-print Network

service in packet- switching networks,” Proceedings of thepacket communication in multi-channel wireless switching networks.packet scheduling strategy for wireless networks,” High Perfor- mance Switching

Shim, Jaewook

2010-01-01

371

Boolean Model of Yeast Apoptosis as a Tool to Study Yeast and Human Apoptotic Regulations  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) is an essential cellular mechanism that is evolutionary conserved, mediated through various pathways and acts by integrating different stimuli. Many diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancers are found to be caused by, or associated with, regulations in the cell death pathways. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a unicellular eukaryotic organism that shares with human cells components and pathways of the PCD and is therefore used as a model organism. Boolean modeling is becoming promising approach to capture qualitative behavior and describe essential properties of such complex networks. Here we present large literature-based and to our knowledge first Boolean model that combines pathways leading to apoptosis (a type of PCD) in yeast. Analysis of the yeast model confirmed experimental findings of anti-apoptotic role of Bir1p and pro-apoptotic role of Stm1p and revealed activation of the stress protein kinase Hog proposing the maximal level of activation upon heat stress. In addition we extended the yeast model and created an in silico humanized yeast in which human pro- and anti-apoptotic regulators Bcl-2 family and Valosin-contain protein (VCP) are included in the model. We showed that accumulation of Bax in silico humanized yeast shows apoptotic markers and that VCP is essential target of Akt Signaling. The presented Boolean model provides comprehensive description of yeast apoptosis network behavior. Extended model of humanized yeast gives new insights of how complex human disease like neurodegeneration can initially be tested. PMID:23233838

Kazemzadeh, Laleh; Cvijovic, Marija; Petranovic, Dina

2012-01-01

372

Boolean model of yeast apoptosis as a tool to study yeast and human apoptotic regulations.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death (PCD) is an essential cellular mechanism that is evolutionary conserved, mediated through various pathways and acts by integrating different stimuli. Many diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancers are found to be caused by, or associated with, regulations in the cell death pathways. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a unicellular eukaryotic organism that shares with human cells components and pathways of the PCD and is therefore used as a model organism. Boolean modeling is becoming promising approach to capture qualitative behavior and describe essential properties of such complex networks. Here we present large literature-based and to our knowledge first Boolean model that combines pathways leading to apoptosis (a type of PCD) in yeast. Analysis of the yeast model confirmed experimental findings of anti-apoptotic role of Bir1p and pro-apoptotic role of Stm1p and revealed activation of the stress protein kinase Hog proposing the maximal level of activation upon heat stress. In addition we extended the yeast model and created an in silico humanized yeast in which human pro- and anti-apoptotic regulators Bcl-2 family and Valosin-contain protein (VCP) are included in the model. We showed that accumulation of Bax in silico humanized yeast shows apoptotic markers and that VCP is essential target of Akt Signaling. The presented Boolean model provides comprehensive description of yeast apoptosis network behavior. Extended model of humanized yeast gives new insights of how complex human disease like neurodegeneration can initially be tested. PMID:23233838

Kazemzadeh, Laleh; Cvijovic, Marija; Petranovic, Dina

2012-01-01

373

Inhibition of spoilage yeasts in cheese by killer yeast Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus.  

PubMed

Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus is a known killer toxin-producing yeast. The effects of this yeast as a biopreservative against spoilage yeasts (galactose fermenting) were investigated in cheeses made under laboratory conditions. At an inoculation level of approximately 10(6) CFU/g of cheese, this killer yeast inhibited growth of lactose non-fermenting but galactose-fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae VL1 inoculated at approximately 10(3) CFU/g; it also inhibited growth of lactose-fermenting and galactose-fermenting yeast Kluvyveromyces marxianus ATCC8640 inoculated at approximately 10(3)-10(4) CFU/g in the cheeses manufactured with galactose-producing starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus. In contrast, the two spoilage yeasts grew to approximately 10(6) CFU/g from the initial cell count of approximately 10(3) CFU/g without the killer yeast. This study indicated that W. saturnus var. saturnus could be an effective biopreservative for cheese spoilage control. PMID:19349088

Liu, Shao-Quan; Tsao, Marlene

2009-05-31

374

Selection in yeast I: Assessing genetic stability and relative fitness of commercial yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The potential for changes in allele frequencies in yeast populations by selection was examined. Cells from the wine yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae (strain Montrachet) were grown over a large number of generations using two different culturing techniques, each with two variations: serial transfers on WLN agar plates with and without UV irradiation, and continuous culture in autoclaved and in filter-sterilized grape

Ronald E. Subden; Robert L. Charlebois; C. Kenneth Carey

1987-01-01

375

A piezoelectric cryogenic heat switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios of about 100-200 at lowest and highest measures temperature were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N, respectively. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an ideal PZHS.

Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.

2014-06-01

376

A piezoelectric cryogenic heat switch.  

PubMed

We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios of about 100-200 at lowest and highest measures temperature were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N, respectively. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an ideal PZHS. PMID:24985863

Jahromi, Amir E; Sullivan, Dan F

2014-06-01

377

Temporal system-level organization of the switch from glycolytic to gluconeogenic operation in yeast  

PubMed Central

The diauxic shift in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ideal model to study how eukaryotic cells readjust their metabolism from glycolytic to gluconeogenic operation. In this work, we generated time-resolved physiological data, quantitative metabolome (69 intracellular metabolites) and proteome (72 enzymes) profiles. We found that the diauxic shift is accomplished by three key events that are temporally organized: (i) a reduction in the glycolytic flux and the production of storage compounds before glucose depletion, mediated by downregulation of phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase reactions; (ii) upon glucose exhaustion, the reversion of carbon flow through glycolysis and onset of the glyoxylate cycle operation triggered by an increased expression of the enzymes that catalyze the malate synthase and cytosolic citrate synthase reactions; and (iii) in the later stages of the adaptation, the shutting down of the pentose phosphate pathway with a change in NADPH regeneration. Moreover, we identified the transcription factors associated with the observed changes in protein abundances. Taken together, our results represent an important contribution toward a systems-level understanding of how this adaptation is realized. PMID:23549479

Zampar, Guillermo G; Kummel, Anne; Ewald, Jennifer; Jol, Stefan; Niebel, Bastian; Picotti, Paola; Aebersold, Ruedi; Sauer, Uwe; Zamboni, Nicola; Heinemann, Matthias

2013-01-01

378

A heritable switch in carbon source utilization driven by an unusual yeast prion  

E-print Network

Several well-characterized fungal proteins act as prions, proteins capable of multiple conformations, each with different activities, at least one of which is self-propagating. Through such self-propagating changes in ...

Lindquist, Susan

379

In Vivo Yeast Cell Morphogenesis Is Regulated by a p21-Activated Kinase in the Human Pathogen Penicillium marneffei  

PubMed Central

Pathogens have developed diverse strategies to infect their hosts and evade the host defense systems. Many pathogens reside within host phagocytic cells, thus evading much of the host immune system. For dimorphic fungal pathogens which grow in a multicellular hyphal form, a central attribute which facilitates growth inside host cells without rapid killing is the capacity to switch from the hyphal growth form to a unicellular yeast form. Blocking this transition abolishes or severely reduces pathogenicity. Host body temperature (37°C) is the most common inducer of the hyphal to yeast transition in vitro for many dimorphic fungi, and it is often assumed that this is the inducer in vivo. This work describes the identification and analysis of a new pathway involved in sensing the environment inside a host cell by a dimorphic fungal pathogen, Penicillium marneffei. The pakB gene, encoding a p21-activated kinase, defines this pathway and operates independently of known effectors in P. marneffei. Expression of pakB is upregulated in P. marneffei yeast cells isolated from macrophages but absent from in vitro cultured yeast cells produced at 37°C. Deletion of pakB leads to a failure to produce yeast cells inside macrophages but no effect in vitro at 37°C. Loss of pakB also leads to the inappropriate production of yeast cells at 25°C in vitro, and the mechanism underlying this requires the activity of the central regulator of asexual development. The data shows that this new pathway is central to eliciting the appropriate morphogenetic response by the pathogen to the host environment independently of the common temperature signal, thus clearly separating the temperature- and intracellular-dependent signaling systems. PMID:19956672

Boyce, Kylie J.; Schreider, Lena; Andrianopoulos, Alex

2009-01-01

380

Rga4, a Rho-GAP from fission yeast  

PubMed Central

Regulation by signaling molecules of pathways involved in determining cell size and shape is fundamental to understand morphogenesis. In eukaryotic cells, Rho GTPases modulate cellular events by acting as molecular switches. GTPase Activating Proteins (GAPs) control the fine-tuning of Rho GTPase activity as downregulators that promote their inactive state. We use Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model to unveil key mechanisms underlying processes of general significance. Rga4, one of the nine RhoGAPs present in the fission yeast, is a key factor in the control of cell polarity and morphogenesis by negatively regulating the activity of the essential Rho GTPase Cdc42. We have demonstrated that Rga4 is also a GAP for Rho2 GTPase, which acts upstream of the Pmk1 cell integrity MAP kinase pathway and positively regulates cell integrity and cell separation. Our findings suggest that Rga4 control of both Cdc42 and Rho2 function is rather independent, thus providing a good example of regulatory specificity. Additionally, we describe multiple GAPs that can downregulate Pmk1 activity in a Rho2-dependent and independent fashion. These studies corroborate the existence of a sophisticated regulatory network by which different RhoGAPs modulate differentially the activity of Rho GTPases, and the existence of different inputs for the Pmk1 cell integrity MAP kinase pathway. PMID:21057634

Soto, Teresa; Gacto, Mariano; Perez, Pilar

2010-01-01

381

Tension-dependent nucleosome remodeling at the pericentromere in yeast  

PubMed Central

Nucleosome positioning is important for the structural integrity of chromosomes. During metaphase the mitotic spindle exerts physical force on pericentromeric chromatin. The cell must adjust the pericentromeric chromatin to accommodate the changing tension resulting from microtubule dynamics to maintain a stable metaphase spindle. Here we examine the effects of spindle-based tension on nucleosome dynamics by measuring the histone turnover of the chromosome arm and the pericentromere during metaphase in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that both histones H2B and H4 exhibit greater turnover in the pericentromere during metaphase. Loss of spindle-based tension by treatment with the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole or compromising kinetochore function results in reduced histone turnover in the pericentromere. Pericentromeric histone dynamics are influenced by the chromatin-remodeling activities of STH1/NPS1 and ISW2. Sth1p is the ATPase component of the Remodels the Structure of Chromatin (RSC) complex, and Isw2p is an ATP-dependent DNA translocase member of the Imitation Switch (ISWI) subfamily of chromatin-remodeling factors. The balance between displacement and insertion of pericentromeric histones provides a mechanism to accommodate spindle-based tension while maintaining proper chromatin packaging during mitosis. PMID:22593210

Verdaasdonk, Jolien S.; Gardner, Ryan; Stephens, Andrew D.; Yeh, Elaine; Bloom, Kerry

2012-01-01

382

Regulated assembly and disassembly of the yeast telomerase quaternary complex.  

PubMed

The enzyme telomerase, which elongates chromosome termini, is a critical factor in determining long-term cellular proliferation and tissue renewal. Hence, even small differences in telomerase levels can have substantial consequences for human health. In budding yeast, telomerase consists of the catalytic Est2 protein and two regulatory subunits (Est1 and Est3) in association with the TLC1 RNA, with each of the four subunits essential for in vivo telomerase function. We show here that a hierarchy of assembly and disassembly results in limiting amounts of the quaternary complex late in the cell cycle, following completion of DNA replication. The assembly pathway, which is driven by interaction of the Est3 telomerase subunit with a previously formed Est1-TLC1-Est2 preassembly complex, is highly regulated, involving Est3-binding sites on both Est2 and Est1 as well as an interface on Est3 itself that functions as a toggle switch. Telomerase subsequently disassembles by a mechanistically distinct pathway due to dissociation of the catalytic subunit from the complex in every cell cycle. The balance between the assembly and disassembly pathways, which dictate the levels of the active holoenzyme in the cell, reveals a novel mechanism by which telomerase (and hence telomere homeostasis) is regulated. PMID:25240060

Tucey, Timothy M; Lundblad, Victoria

2014-10-01

383

Laser-activated optical bubble switch element  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Agilent's photonic switching platform, resistive heaters control tiny bubbles enabling all-optical switching. This paper reports on the addition of more efficient laser-activated heaters. Measurements confirm improvements in power dissipation and insertion loss stability.

Stephan Hengstler; John J. Uebbing; Patrick McGuire

2003-01-01

384

Ultrafast Beam Switching Using Coupled VCSELs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose a new approach to performing ultrafast beam switching using two coupled Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs). The strategy is demonstrated by numerical simulation, showing a beam switching of 10 deg at 42 GHz.

Ning, Cun-Zheng; Goorjian, Peter

2001-01-01

385

Solar array switching power management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar array power switching concepts are explored for a 250 kWe manned LEO platform, a 50-250 kWe load for an orbit transfer vehicle (OTV), and an unmanned platform with a 50 kWe load in GEO. A solar array switching power management (SASPM) system is under study to satisfy the switching demands. Direct connections to arrays would be implemented for voltage regulations, power distribution, and the capability of reconfiguring the arrays to meet requirements. Mission characteristics that would require the power sources were explored. The LEO platform was projected to use a concentrator, have no reconfigurability, use 250 NiH2 batteries, supply 80-0 Vdc to an ion drive, and have a 20-30 yr life. Both GEO and OTV arrays were planar, would feature reconfigurability, and supply 800 Vdc to an ion drive. NiH2 batteries would be on the OTV, while the GEO spacecraft would use AgH2 cells. A block diagram of the basic switching configuration is presented.

Cassinelli, J. E.; Smith, L. D.; Valgora, M.

1982-01-01

386

Remotely-actuated biomedical switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remotely-actuated biomedical switching circuit using transistors consumes no power in the off position and can be actuated by a single-frequency telemetry pulse to control implanted instrumentation. Silicon controlled rectifiers permit the circuit design which imposes zero drain on supply batteries when not in use.

Lee, R. D.

1969-01-01

387

Switching in High Vacuum Enviroment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is made of the properties and problems of Maximum current interrupting ability and photos of contacts contacts, switching, and holding off high and low voltages, high which are interrupting up to 18,000 a are shown. and low currents ac, dc, and RF in a high vacuum environment with some relation to outer space problems. Characteristics of contacts from

H. Ross

1963-01-01

388

Fast all-optical switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method wherein polarization rotation in alkali vapors or other mediums is used for all-optical switching and digital logic and where the rate of operation is proportional to the amplitude of the pump field. High rates of speed are accomplished by Rabi flopping of the atomic states using a continuously operating monochromatic atomic beam as the pump.

Shay, Thomas M. (Inventor); Poliakov, Evgeni Y. (Inventor); Hazzard, David A. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

389

A Scaffold Makes the Switch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Protein kinase cascades are a reoccurring feature of signal transduction pathways. Recent investigations have focused on how kinase-scaffolding proteins help to convert a graded stimulus into a switch-like or binary response. New findings reveal that the graded-to-binary conversion can be turned on or off, depending on the location of the scaffold within the cell.

Henrik G. Dohlman (Chapel Hill;University of North Carolina REV)

2008-10-21

390

Fast microwave switching power divider  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unit divides power from single input among any 12 of 120 output terminals and redistributes it in 6 microseconds. Microwave current from coaxial line excites disk feeding many radial strip transmission lines. Built for use in electronically-steered S-band antenna, device also divides and switches energy among filters and phase shifters.

Johnson, R. W.; Stockton, R. J.

1981-01-01

391

Tag-switching architecture: overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tag switching is a way to combine the label-swapping forwarding paradigm with network layer routing. This has several advantages. Tags can have a wide spectrum of forwarding granularities, so at one end of the spectrum a tag could be associated with a group of desti-nations, while at the other a tag could be associated with a single application flow. At

Yakov Rekhter; B. Davie; E. Rosen; G. Swallow; D. Farinacci; D. Katz

1997-01-01

392

High voltage MOSFET switching circuit  

DOEpatents

The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1994-07-26

393

High voltage MOSFET switching circuit  

DOEpatents

The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

394

Anode initiated surface flashover switch  

DOEpatents

A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Koss, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-29

395

Buffering in optical packet switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper consists of a categorization of optical buffering strategies for optical packet switches, and a comparison of the performance of these strategies both with respect to packet loss\\/delay and bit error rate (BER) performance. Issues surrounding optical buffer implementation are discussed, and representative architectures are introduced under different categories. Conclusions are drawn about packet loss and BER performance, and

David K. Hunter; Meow C. Chia; Ivan Andonovic

1998-01-01

396

Mitochondrial membrane lipidome defines yeast longevity.  

PubMed

Our studies revealed that lithocholic acid (LCA), a bile acid, is a potent anti-aging natural compound that in yeast cultured under longevity-extending caloric restriction (CR) conditions acts in synergy with CR to enable a significant further increase in chronological lifespan. Here, we investigate a mechanism underlying this robust longevity-extending effect of LCA under CR. We found that exogenously added LCA enters yeast cells, is sorted to mitochondria, resides mainly in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and also associates with the outer mitochondrial membrane. LCA elicits an age-related remodeling of glycerophospholipid synthesis and movement within both mitochondrial membranes, thereby causing substantial changes in mitochondrial membrane lipidome and triggering major changes in mitochondrial size, number and morphology. In synergy, these changes in the membrane lipidome and morphology of mitochondria alter the age-related chronology of mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential, ATP synthesis and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. The LCA-driven alterations in the age-related dynamics of these vital mitochondrial processes extend yeast longevity. In sum, our findings suggest a mechanism underlying the ability of LCA to delay chronological aging in yeast by accumulating in both mitochondrial membranes and altering their glycerophospholipid compositions. We concluded that mitochondrial membrane lipidome plays an essential role in defining yeast longevity. PMID:23924582

Beach, Adam; Richard, Vincent R; Leonov, Anna; Burstein, Michelle T; Bourque, Simon D; Koupaki, Olivia; Juneau, Mylène; Feldman, Rachel; Iouk, Tatiana; Titorenko, Vladimir I

2013-07-01

397

A study of ethanol tolerance in yeast.  

PubMed

The ethanol tolerance of yeast and other microorganisms has remained a controversial area despite the many years of study. The complex inhibition mechanism of ethanol and the lack of a universally accepted definition and method to measure ethanol tolerance have been prime reasons for the controversy. A number of factors such as plasma membrane composition, media composition, mode of substrate feeding, osmotic pressure, temperature, intracellular ethanol accumulation, and byproduct formation have been shown to influence the ethanol tolerance of yeast. Media composition was found to have a profound effect upon the ability of a yeast strain to ferment concentrated substrates (high osmotic pressure) and to ferment at higher temperatures. Supplementation with peptone-yeast extract, magnesium, or potassium salts has a significant and positive effect upon overall fermentation rates. An intracellular accumulation of ethanol was observed during the early stages of fermentation. As fermentation proceeds, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations become similar. In addition, increases in osmotic pressure are associated with increased intracellular accumulation of ethanol. However, it was observed that nutrient limitation, not increased intracellular accumulation of ethanol, is responsible to some extent for the decreases in growth and fermentation activity of yeast cells at higher osmotic pressure and temperature. PMID:2178780

D'Amore, T; Panchal, C J; Russell, I; Stewart, G G

1990-01-01

398

Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.  

PubMed

The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

2011-01-01

399

Ecology of pathogenic yeasts in Amazonian soil.  

PubMed Central

In an investigation of Amazonian soil as a natural reservoir for pathogenic fungi, 1,949 soil samples collected from diverse geographical and ecological settings of the Brazilian Amazon Basin were analyzed for the presence of non-keratinophilic fungi by the indirect mouse inoculation procedure and for the presence of keratinophilic fungi by the hair bait technique. All soil samples were acidic with low pH values. From 12% of the soil samples, 241 yeast and yeastlike isolates pertaining to six genera and 82 species were recovered, of which 63% were Torulopsis and 26% were Candida species. Nine fungi with known pathogenic potentials were encountered among 43% (104) of the isolates: T. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. albicans, C. pseudotropicalis, C. stellatoidea, C. tropicalis, Rhodotorula rubra, and Wangiella dermatitidis. The yeast flora was marked by species diversity, low frequency of each species, random geographical distribution, and an apparent lack of species clustering. The composition and distribution of the yeast flora in soil differed from those of the yeast flora harbored by bats, suggesting that the Amazonian external environment and internal bat organs act as independent natural habitats for yeasts. PMID:6538774

Mok, W Y; Luizao, R C; do Socorro Barreto da Silva, M; Teixeira, M F; Muniz, E G

1984-01-01

400

Spark gap switch with spiral gas flow  

DOEpatents

A spark gap switch having a contaminate removal system using an injected gas. An annular plate concentric with an electrode of the switch defines flow paths for the injected gas which form a strong spiral flow of the gas in the housing which is effective to remove contaminates from the switch surfaces. The gas along with the contaminates is exhausted from the housing through one of the ends of the switch.

Brucker, John P. (Espanola, NM)

1989-01-01

401

Energy loss in spark gap switches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports on numerical study of the energy loss in spark gap switches. The operation of the switches is analyzed using the Braginsky model which allows calculation of the time dependence of the spark channel resistance. The Braginsky equation is solved simultaneously with generator circuit equations for different load types. Based on the numerical solutions, expressions which determine both the energy released in a spark gap switch and the switching time are derived.

Oreshkin, V. I.; Lavrinovich, I. V.

2014-04-01

402

Oxygen Response of the Wine Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 Grown under Carbon-Sufficient, Nitrogen-Limited Enological Conditions  

PubMed Central

Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological conditions. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-limited continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 ?M, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen conditions, suggesting that the limitation of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:23001663

Aceituno, Felipe F.; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastian; Slater, Alex W.; Melo, Francisco

2012-01-01

403

Oxygen response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 grown under carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited enological conditions.  

PubMed

Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological conditions. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-limited continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 ?M, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen conditions, suggesting that the limitation of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:23001663

Aceituno, Felipe F; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastián; Slater, Alex W; Melo, Francisco; Agosin, Eduardo

2012-12-01

404

A zero-current-switching PWM flyback converter with a simple auxiliary switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and effective approach of turning an isolated hard-switched converter design into a soft-switched one is presented. By adding an auxiliary winding, switch and small capacitor to the conventional pulsewidth modulation (PWM) isolated flyback converter, all switches and diodes are softly turned on and off. No extra active or passive voltage clamp circuit is needed to suppress voltage stress

Henry Shu-Hung Chung; S. Y. R. Hui; Wei-Hua Wang

1999-01-01

405

Degree of Conversational Code-Switching Enhances Verbal Task Switching in Cantonese-English Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined individual differences in code-switching to determine the relationship between code-switching frequency and performance in verbal and non-verbal task switching. Seventy-eight Cantonese-English bilinguals completed a semi-structured conversation to quantify natural code-switching, a verbal fluency task requiring language…

Yim, Odilia; Bialystok, Ellen

2012-01-01

406

Comparison of switching devices in scalable switch concept for medium voltage medium frequency power conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comparison of switch concepts for medium frequency (MF) medium voltage (MV) applications in the lower power range (> 1 kHz). The comparison is based on measurements of actual discrete switches for hard-switched and ZVS forward topologies. It is shown that standard low power IGBTs in a scalable switch can be used to obtain the lowest losses

Jochen Mast; Guntram Scheible; Henry Gueldner

2001-01-01

407

BER Performance in Wavelength Packet Switched WDM systems during Nano-second Wavelength Switching Events  

E-print Network

. This effect may ultimately influence the design of WDM wavelength packet- switched networks employing transmitter, as the overall design of the wavelength packet-switched WDM networks will be heavily dependentBER Performance in Wavelength Packet Switched WDM systems during Nano-second Wavelength Switching

408

Task Set Formation: Switching to a Completely Novel Task Enhances Task Switching Costs  

E-print Network

Task Set Formation: Switching to a Completely Novel Task Enhances Task Switching Costs Michael W from general task switching. Further, it is unclear how high-level task set formation processes a unique task set formation process, and that it would be reflected in enhanced task switching costs

409

49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover...Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover...operating or verifying the position of a hand-operated switch shall: (1)...

2011-10-01

410

49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover...Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover...operating or verifying the position of a hand-operated switch shall: (1)...

2010-10-01

411

49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover...Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover...operating or verifying the position of a hand-operated switch shall: (1)...

2013-10-01

412

49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover...Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover...operating or verifying the position of a hand-operated switch shall: (1)...

2012-10-01

413

BER Performance in Wavelength Packet Switched WDM systems during Nano-second Wavelength Switching Events  

E-print Network

BER Performance in Wavelength Packet Switched WDM systems during Nano-second Wavelength Switching of another WDM signal during fast wavelength switching events. A nano-second tuneable laser is switched across the monitored channel to perform the study. Introduction The migration from single wavelength SDH

414

Structural Constraints in Code-Switched Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Code switching, the use of mixed-language expressions, is gaining prominence in advertising targeting linguistic minorities. Two studies investigate the existence of linguistic rules governing the use of code switching and identify situations in which those rules have a greater impact on persuasion. The studies extend Myers-Scotton's 1995 model of code switching by revealing an interaction between linguistic correctness and type

David Luna; Dawn Lerman

2005-01-01

415

Switch for serial or parallel communication networks  

DOEpatents

A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination. 9 figs.

Crosette, D.B.

1994-07-19

416

Algorithmic aspects of high speed switching  

E-print Network

A major drawback of the traditional output queuing technique is that it requires a switch speedup of N, where N is the size of the switch. This dependence on N makes the switch non-scalable at high speeds. Input queuing ...

Mneimneh, Saadeddine S

2002-01-01

417

Packet Scheduling with Switch Conguration Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern packet switches, technology limitations may introduce switch cong- uration delays that are non-negligible compared with the time required to transmit a single packet. In this paper, we propose a methodology for scheduling of packets, in the context of these technology limitations. If the total tolerable delay through a packet switch is at least on the order of the

R. L. Cruz; Saleh Al-Harthi

418

Switch for serial or parallel communication networks  

DOEpatents

A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination.

Crosette, Dario B. (DeSoto, TX)

1994-01-01

419

Voluntary Task Switching: Chasing the Elusive Homunculus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the voluntary task switching procedure, subjects choose the task to perform on a series of bivalent stimuli, requiring top-down control of task switching. Experiments 1-3 contrasted voluntary task switching and explicit task cuing. Choice behavior showed small, inconsistent effects of external stimulus characteristics, supporting the assumption…

Arrington, Catherine M.; Logan, Gordon D.

2005-01-01

420

Components of Attentional Set-switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of distinct event-related potentials (ERPs) have been recorded from the scalp of human subjects as they switch from one task to another. It is possible that task switching may depend on different mechanisms depending on whether the switch requires a change in attentional set, in other words the redirecting of attention to different aspects of a sensory stimulus,

M. F. S. Rushworth; R. E. Passingham; A. C. Nobre

2005-01-01

421

A Bilingual Advantage in Task Switching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the possibility that lifelong bilingualism may lead to enhanced efficiency in the ability to shift between mental sets. We compared the performance of monolingual and fluent bilingual college students in a task-switching paradigm. Bilinguals incurred reduced switching costs in the task-switching paradigm when compared with…

Prior, Anat; MacWhinney, Brian

2010-01-01

422

Optimal control of switched autonomous linear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the optimal control of switched piecewise linear autonomous systems, where the objective is that of minimizing a quadratic performance index over an infinite time horizon. We assume that the switching sequence and the corresponding jump matrix sequence is known, while the unknown switching times are the optimization parameters. The optimal control for this class of systems,

Alessandro Giua; Carla Seatzu; Cornelis Van Der Mee

2001-01-01

423

Programmable Switch for Shared Bus Replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A switching interconnection architecture with programmable priorities is described. The switch has been designed to replace shared buses in order to increase bandwidth in the local clusters of large systems-on-chip. The design features guaranteed service for the highest priority input port and best effort service for the rest. Suitable standard cell switch fabrics are discussed and their implementations compared. A

T. Ahonen; J. Nurmi

2006-01-01

424

A CW Gunn Diode Switching Element.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a study of the application of communication satellites to educational development, certain technical aspects of such a system were examined. A current controlled bistable switching element using a CW Gunn diode is reported on here. With modest circuits switching rates of the order of 10 MHz have been obtained. Switching is initiated by…

Hurtado, Marco; Rosenbaum, Fred J.

425

Quality-switched laser tattoo removal.  

PubMed

Quality-switched (Q-switched) laser is the most effective method to remove tattoos with minimal adverse outcomes. This article reviews the types of tattoos commonly treated with Q-switched lasers, mechanisms behind the procedure, technologies used, patient considerations and contraindications, addressing patient expectations, treatment procedures, possible adverse reactions, and future techniques and technology. PMID:24853159

Williams, Nkaya

2014-06-01

426

A Model for Cell Wall Dissolution in Mating Yeast Cells: Polarized Secretion and Restricted Diffusion of Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Induces Local Dissolution  

PubMed Central

Mating of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, occurs when two haploid cells of opposite mating types signal using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, grow towards each other, and fuse to form a single diploid cell. To fuse, both cells dissolve their cell walls at the point of contact. This event must be carefully controlled because the osmotic pressure differential between the cytoplasm and extracellular environment causes cells with unprotected plasma membranes to lyse. If the cell wall-degrading enzymes diffuse through the cell wall, their concentration would rise when two cells touched each other, such as when two pheromone-stimulated cells adhere to each other via mating agglutinins. At the surfaces that touch, the enzymes must diffuse laterally through the wall before they can escape into the medium, increasing the time the enzymes spend in the cell wall, and thus raising their concentration at the point of attachment and restricting cell wall dissolution to points where cells touch each other. We tested this hypothesis by studying pheromone treated cells confined between two solid, impermeable surfaces. This confinement increases the frequency of pheromone-induced cell death, and this effect is diminished by reducing the osmotic pressure difference across the cell wall or by deleting putative cell wall glucanases and other genes necessary for efficient cell wall fusion. Our results support the model that pheromone-induced cell death is the result of a contact-driven increase in the local concentration of cell wall remodeling enzymes and suggest that this process plays an important role in regulating cell wall dissolution and fusion in mating cells. PMID:25329559

Huberman, Lori B.; Murray, Andrew W.

2014-01-01

427

The organization of oligonucleosomes in yeast.  

PubMed Central

We have developed a method of preparing yeast chromatin that facilitates the analysis of nucleoprotein organization. Yeast chromatin, isolated as an insoluble complex, is digested with micrococcal nuclease and fractionated into major insoluble and soluble fractions. No nucleosomal repeat is seen early in digestion for the insoluble fraction. Nucleosomal complexes of the soluble fraction are excised by nuclease in a distinctive non-random pattern; they are markedly depleted in mononucleosomes. When we analyze the soluble material by high resolution native electrophoresis, we find that the nucleoproteins resolve into two bands for each DNA multimer of the nucleosomal repeat. Our results suggest that there are structural similarities between bulk yeast chromatin and chromatin configurations found in transcribing genes of complex eukaryotes. Images PMID:6344013

Szent-Gyorgyi, C; Isenberg, I

1983-01-01

428

Biofuels. Altered sterol composition renders yeast thermotolerant.  

PubMed

Ethanol production for use as a biofuel is mainly achieved through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by yeast. Operating at ?40°C would be beneficial in terms of increasing efficiency of the process and reducing costs, but yeast does not grow efficiently at those temperatures. We used adaptive laboratory evolution to select yeast strains with improved growth and ethanol production at ?40°C. Sequencing of the whole genome, genome-wide gene expression, and metabolic-flux analyses revealed a change in sterol composition, from ergosterol to fecosterol, caused by mutations in the C-5 sterol desaturase gene, and increased expression of genes involved in sterol biosynthesis. Additionally, large chromosome III rearrangements and mutations in genes associated with DNA damage and respiration were found, but contributed less to the thermotolerant phenotype. PMID:25278608

Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Ghiaci, Payam; Feizi, Amir; Buskov, Steen; Hallström, Björn M; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

2014-10-01

429

Cytotoxic Mechanism of Selenomethionine in Yeast*  

PubMed Central

Although selenium is an essential element, its excessive uptake is detrimental to living organisms. The significance of selenium for living organisms has been exploited for various purposes. However, the molecular basis of selenium toxicity is not completely understood. Here, we applied a capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach to analysis of yeast cells treated with selenomethionine. The data indicated that intracellular thiol compounds are significantly decreased, and diselenide and selenosulfide compounds are increased in selenomethionine-treated cells. The growth defect induced by selenomethionine was recovered by extracellular addition of cysteine and by genetic modification of yeast cells that have an additional de novo synthetic pathway for cysteine. Because cysteine is an intermediate of thiol compounds, these results suggested that the loss of a reduced form of thiol compounds due to selenomethionine causes a growth defect of yeast cells. PMID:22311978

Kitajima, Toshihiko; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Chiba, Yasunori

2012-01-01

430

[Molecular taxonomy techniques used for yeast identification].  

PubMed

Due to the major impact of yeasts in human life based on the existence of pathogen yeast species and of species with biotechnological abilities, in the last few years new molecular techniques are performed for an accurate identification of natural isolates. Our study is aimed to review some of these techniques such as electrokariotyping by PFGE (Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis), estimation of the molar percentage of guanine and cytosine, the applications of PCR reaction in yeast identification using RAPD (Random amplified polymorphic DNA), UP-PCR (Universally Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction), MLST (Multilocus sequence typing) techniques, mtDNA and rDNA homology studies. Such molecular techniques complete the phenotypical characterization based on classical taxonomical tests allowing thus the polyphasic identification of the microorganisms. PMID:16938931

Ghindea, Raluca; Csutak, Ortansa; Stoica, Ileana; Ionescu, Robertina; Soare, Simona; Pelinescu, Diana; Nohit, Ana-Maria; Creang?, Oana; Vassu, Tatiana

2004-01-01

431

Metabolic cycling without cell division cycling in respiring yeast  

E-print Network

Despite rapid progress in characterizing the yeast metabolic cycle, its connection to the cell division cycle (CDC) has remained unclear. We discovered that a prototrophic batch culture of budding yeast, growing in a ...

Slavov, Nikolai G.

432

21 CFR 172.381 - Vitamin D2 bakers yeast.  

...prescribed conditions: (a) Vitamin D2 bakers yeast is the substance produced by exposing bakers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) to ultraviolet light, resulting in the photochemical conversion of endogenous ergosterol in bakers...

2014-04-01

433

Original article Chromium yeast affects growth performance but not  

E-print Network

Original article Chromium yeast affects growth performance but not whole carcass composition the effects of supplemented trivalent chromium (Cr) from chromium yeast on growth performance, carcass vs. ad libitum in other reported experiments). (© Elsevier / Inra) chromium / pig / carcass

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

434

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Histone modification pattern evolution after yeast  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Histone modification pattern evolution after yeast gene duplication for evolutionary innovations. Many studies evidenced that genetic regulatory network evolved rapidly shortly after gene duplication. In this study, we conducted detailed analyses on yeast histone modification (HM

Gu, Xun

435

[The yeast biofilm in human medicine].  

PubMed

In recent years, the role of Candida yeasts as causative agents of nosocomial infections has increased. One of the important virulence factors contributing to the development of such infections is biofilm production. This virulence factor enables yeast to colonize both native surfaces and artificial implants. The most common sources of infection are patients themselves, in particular the gastrointestinal tract and skin. The vectors of exogenous yeast infections are predominantly the hands of the health personnel and contaminated medical instruments. The adhesion of yeasts to the implant surfaces is determined both by implant surface and yeast characteristics. This is followed by proliferation and production of microcolonies and extracellular matrix. The final biofilm structure is also influenced by the production of hyphae and pseudohyphae. The entire process of biofilm production is controlled by numerous regulatory systems, with the key role being played by the quorum sensing system. Like the adhered bacterial cultures, candidas growing in the form of a biofilm are highly resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Resistance of yeast biofilms to antifungals is a complex process with multiple contributing factors. These are especially increased gene expression (e.g. genes encoding the so called multidrug efflux pumps), limited penetration of substances through the extracellular matrix, inhibited cell growth and altered microenvironment in deeper biofilm layers. The concentrations of antifungals able to effectively affect the biofilm cells exceed, by several orders of magnitude, the values of conventionally determined MICs. High biofilm resistance results in ineffective antifungal therapy of biofilm infections. Therefore, if possible, the colonized implant should be removed. Conservative therapy should involve antifungals with a proven effect on the biofilm (e.g. caspofungin). The most effective measure in fighting biofilm infections is prevention, especially adhering to aseptic techniques when manipulating with implants and their correct maintenance. PMID:17929219

R?zicka, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav

2007-08-01

436

[Effect of stress on the composition of yeast lipids].  

PubMed

Pigmented (Rhodotorula glutinis) and nonpigmented (Lipomyces starkeyi) yeasts were studied. Exogenous stressors (UV irradiation and methylene blue) were shown to change the composition of yeast lipids (especially the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids) and to increase the content of lipid peroxidation products formed (particularly in nonpigmented yeasts). In carotene-synthesizing yeasts, these stressors decreased the amount of carotenoids produced and did not affect the ratio between carotenoid pigments (beta-carotene, torulene, and torularhodin). PMID:10752082

Zalashko, M V; Salokhina, G A; Koroleva, I F

2000-01-01

437

[Growth of epiphytic and soil yeasts on wheat seedlings].  

PubMed

Colonization of wheat seedlings by epiphytic (Rhodotorula glutinis) and soil (Lipomyces starkeyi) yeasts was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Epiphytic yeast cells dominated on the plant surface. Soil yeast cells were randomly distributed among both the zones of a seedling and the particles of an inorganic substrate. It has been found that epiphytic yeast strains can readily grow on the surface of a plant. PMID:561879

Guzeva, I S; Guzev, V S; Bab'eva, I P; Zviagintsev, D G

1977-01-01

438

Effects of stress on the composition of yeast lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigmented(Rhodotorula glutinis) and nonpigmented(Lipomyces starkeyi) yeasts were studied. Exogenous Stressors (UV irradiation and methylene blue) were shown to change the composition of yeast\\u000a lipids (especially the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids) and to increase the content of lipid peroxidation products formed\\u000a (particularly in nonpigmented yeasts). In carotene-synthesizing yeasts, these Stressors decreased the amount of carotenoids\\u000a produced and did not affect

M. V. Zalashko; G. A. Salokhina; I. F. Koroleva

2000-01-01

439

Construction of an efficient amylolytic industrial yeast strain containing DNA exclusively derived from yeast.  

PubMed

An amylolytic industrial yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing the Schwanniomyces occidentalis SWA2 amylase gene was generated. The new strain contains DNA derived exclusively from yeast and expresses a high starch hydrolyzing activity. Yeast transformation was carried out by an integrative process targeted to a dispensable upstream region of the ILV2 locus, which determines sulfometuron resistance. The SWA2 enzyme was constitutively expressed under the ADH1 promoter. The growth, substrate utilization and fermentative capacity of this organism are described. PMID:11470369

Marín, D; Jiménez, A; Fernández Lobato, M

2001-07-24

440

Mitochondrial network size scaling in budding yeast.  

PubMed

Mitochondria must grow with the growing cell to ensure proper cellular physiology and inheritance upon division. We measured the physical size of mitochondrial networks in budding yeast and found that mitochondrial network size increased with increasing cell size and that this scaling relation occurred primarily in the bud. The mitochondria-to-cell size ratio continually decreased in aging mothers over successive generations. However, regardless of the mother's age or mitochondrial content, all buds attained the same average ratio. Thus, yeast populations achieve a stable scaling relation between mitochondrial content and cell size despite asymmetry in inheritance. PMID:23139336

Rafelski, Susanne M; Viana, Matheus P; Zhang, Yi; Chan, Yee-Hung M; Thorn, Kurt S; Yam, Phoebe; Fung, Jennifer C; Li, Hao; Costa, Luciano da F; Marshall, Wallace F

2012-11-01

441

Mitochondrial Network Size Scaling in Budding Yeast**  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria must grow with the growing cell to ensure proper cellular physiology and inheritance upon division. We measured the physical size of mitochondrial networks in budding yeast and found that mitochondrial network size increased with increasing cell size and that this scaling relation occurred primarily in the bud. The mitochondria to cell size ratio continually decreased in aging mothers over successive generations. However, regardless of mother age or mitochondrial content, all buds attained the same average ratio. Thus, yeast populations achieve a stable scaling relation between mitochondrial content and cell size despite asymmetry in inheritance. PMID:23139336

Rafelski, Susanne M.; Viana, Matheus P.; Zhang, Yi; Chan, Yee-Hung M.; Thorn, Kurt S.; Yam, Phoebe; Fung, Jennifer C.; Li, Hao; Costa, Luciano da F.; Marshall, Wallace F.

2013-01-01

442

Principles of chromosomal organization: lessons from yeast  

PubMed Central

The spatial organization of genes and chromosomes plays an important role in the regulation of several DNA processes. However, the principles and forces underlying this nonrandom organization are mostly unknown. Despite its small dimension, and thanks to new imaging and biochemical techniques, studies of the budding yeast nucleus have led to significant insights into chromosome arrangement and dynamics. The dynamic organization of the yeast genome during interphase argues for both the physical properties of the chromatin fiber and specific molecular interactions as drivers of nuclear order. PMID:21383075

Zimmer, Christophe

2011-01-01

443

Strand invasion by HLTF as a mechanism for template switch in fork rescue.  

PubMed

Stalling of replication forks at unrepaired DNA lesions can result in discontinuities opposite the damage in the newly synthesized DNA strand. Translesion synthesis or facilitating the copy from the newly synthesized strand of the sister duplex by template switching can overcome such discontinuities. During template switch, a new primer-template junction has to be formed and two mechanisms, including replication fork reversal and D-loop formation have been suggested. Genetic evidence indicates a major role for yeast Rad5 in template switch and that both Rad5 and its human orthologue, Helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF), a potential tumour suppressor can facilitate replication fork reversal. This study demonstrates the ability of HLTF and Rad5 to form a D-loop without requiring ATP binding and/or hydrolysis. We also show that this strand-pairing activity is independent of RAD51 in vitro and is not mechanistically related to that of another member of the SWI/SNF family, RAD54. In addition, the 3'-end of the invading strand in the D-loop can serve as a primer and is extended by DNA polymerase. Our data indicate that HLTF is involved in a RAD51-independent D-loop branch of template switch pathway that can promote repair of gaps formed during replication of damaged DNA. PMID:24198246

Burkovics, Peter; Sebesta, Marek; Balogh, David; Haracska, Lajos; Krejci, Lumir

2014-02-01

444

Secure videoconferencing equipment switching system and method  

DOEpatents

A switching system and method are provided to facilitate use of videoconference facilities over a plurality of security levels. The system includes a switch coupled to a plurality of codecs and communication networks. Audio/Visual peripheral components are connected to the switch. The switch couples control and data signals between the Audio/Visual peripheral components and one but nor both of the plurality of codecs. The switch additionally couples communication networks of the appropriate security level to each of the codecs. In this manner, a videoconferencing facility is provided for use on both secure and non-secure networks.

Hansen, Michael E. (Livermore, CA)

2009-01-13

445

Yeast identification in floral nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nectar is such a sugar-rich resource that serves as a natural habitat in which microbes thrive. As a result, yeasts arrive to nectar on the bodies of pollinators such as hummingbirds and bees. Yeasts use the sugar in nectar for their own needs when introduced. This research focuses on the identification of different types of yeast that are found in

C. Kyauk; M. Belisle; T. Fukami

2009-01-01

446

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

... 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

2014-04-01

447

Boolean Network Model Predicts Cell Cycle Sequence of Fission Yeast  

E-print Network

Boolean Network Model Predicts Cell Cycle Sequence of Fission Yeast Maria I. Davidich, Stefan network model of the cell-cycle regulatory network of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces Pombe sequence being a strongly attractive trajectory. Comparing the fission yeast cell-cycle model to a similar

Bornholdt, Stefan

448

Research Focus A short history of recombination in yeast  

E-print Network

Research Focus A short history of recombination in yeast Clifford W. Zeyl1* and Sarah P. Otto2* 1 of fungal genomics, we know little about either the ecology or reproductive biology of the budding yeast of a studyofhistoricalpoutcrossingeventsand inferthe genomic positions of previous recombination events in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Otto, Sarah

449

Robust Spatial Sensing of Mating Pheromone Gradients by Yeast Cells  

E-print Network

Robust Spatial Sensing of Mating Pheromone Gradients by Yeast Cells Travis I. Moore1,2 , Ching not degrade the pheromone input. The yeast cells exhibited good accuracy with the mating projection typically caused defects in both sensing and response. Interestingly, yeast cells employed adaptive mechanisms

Nie, Qing

450

Clustering, Communication and Environmental Oscillations in Populations of Budding Yeast  

E-print Network

Clustering, Communication and Environmental Oscillations in Populations of Budding Yeast Chris describe how simple models of communication, consistent with known yeast phys- iological mechanisms relevant variables during yeast growth and division have been reported and studied for over 40 years [8, 12

Young, Todd

451

Yeast Genes That Enhance the Toxicity of a Mutant Huntingtin  

E-print Network

Yeast Genes That Enhance the Toxicity of a Mutant Huntingtin Fragment or -Synuclein Stephen-wide screens were performed in yeast to identify genes that enhance the toxicity of a mutant huntingtin's yeast Sac- charomyces cerevisiae as a model eukaryotic organism to test the hypothesis that the down

Lindquist, Susan