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1

The Yeast Mating-Type Switching Mechanism: A Memoir  

PubMed Central

It has been 33 years since I first presented results of genetic experiments that established the gene transposition model as the mechanism of mating-type switching in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) Yeast Genetics meeting in August 1977. Over two decades ago the Genetics Perspectives editors solicited a perspective on my participation in the studies that deciphered the mechanism of mating-type switching and revealed the phenomenon of gene silencing in yeast. Although flattered at the time, I thought that preparation of such an article called for a more seasoned researcher who had benefitted from seeing his contributions stand the test of time. Now realizing that our discovery of the transposition of a mutation from the HM? locus into the MAT (mating type) locus has provided the genetic evidence that established the gene transposition model, and having witnessed our conclusions confirmed by subsequent molecular studies, I decided that perhaps this is a good time to recount the chronology of events as they unfolded for me decades ago.

Klar, Amar J. S.

2010-01-01

2

The mating type in fission yeast is switched independently of its expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mating type of fission yeast is determined by the mat1 locus on chromosome II. The sequence content of this locus, and hence the mating type, is switched in a strictly regular pattern by transposition from one of two unexpressed mating type sequences. The expressed and the two silent sequences are located on the same chromosome. It is not understood

Tarmo Ruusala

1991-01-01

3

Evolutionary erosion of yeast sex chromosomes by mating-type switching accidents  

PubMed Central

We investigate yeast sex chromosome evolution by comparing genome sequences from 16 species in the family Saccharomycetaceae, including data from genera Tetrapisispora, Kazachstania, Naumovozyma, and Torulaspora. We show that although most yeast species contain a mating-type (MAT) locus and silent HML and HMR loci structurally analogous to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, their detailed organization is highly variable and indicates that the MAT locus is a deletion hotspot. Over evolutionary time, chromosomal genes located immediately beside MAT have continually been deleted, truncated, or transposed to other places in the genome in a process that is gradually shortening the distance between MAT and HML. Each time a gene beside MAT is removed by deletion or transposition, the next gene on the chromosome is brought into proximity with MAT and is in turn put at risk for removal. This process has also continually replaced the triplicated sequence regions, called Z and X, that allow HML and HMR to be used as templates for DNA repair at MAT during mating-type switching. We propose that the deletion and transposition events are caused by evolutionary accidents during mating-type switching, combined with natural selection to keep MAT and HML on the same chromosome. The rate of deletion accelerated greatly after whole-genome duplication, probably because genes were redundant and could be deleted without requiring transposition. We suggest that, despite its mutational cost, switching confers an evolutionary benefit by providing a way for an isolated germinating spore to reform spores if the environment is too poor.

Gordon, Jonathan L.; Armisen, David; Proux-Wera, Estelle; OhEigeartaigh, Sean S.; Byrne, Kevin P.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.

2011-01-01

4

INTERCONVERSION OF YEAST MATING TYPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The HO gene promotes,interconversion between a and a mating,types. As a consequence, homothallic diploid cells are formed by mating between siblings descended,from,a single crH0 or a HO spore. In order to determine,the frequency and pattern of the mating-type switch, we have used a simple technique by which,the mating,phenotype,can be assayed without losing the cell to the mating process itself.

Homothallism Gene; James B. Hicks; Ira Herskowitz

5

Mating-type switching in yeast is induced by thymine nucleotide depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thymidylate biosynthesis was inhibited in a haploid heterothallic strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When the treated cells were mixed with a haploid strain of the same mating-type, there was an increase in the recovery of diploid colonies. Genetic and biochemical analyses demonstrated that the diploid clones arose as a consequence of induced mating-type interconversion.

B. A. Kunz; G. R. Taylor; R. H. Haynes

1985-01-01

6

Mating type switching in the tetrapolar basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita.  

PubMed

The study of fruiting in the basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita has shown that some haploid homokaryotic strains can spontaneously switch their mating specificities at the two unlinked A and B mating type factors. This event causes the dikaryotisation of primary homokaryons without plasmogamy and leads to the differentiation of sporulating fruit-bodies (pseudo-homokaryotic fruiting). For each mating type factor, the genetic analyses have revealed that: (1) parental and switched mating types segregate meiotically as Mendelian markers, (2) a total of six switched mating type factors (two parental and four nonparental) were obtained from a wild strain, (3) most of the nonparental factors have specificities differing from those of a large series of wild factors, (4) strains with the same expressed mating type can generate different specificities, (5) switching is always restricted to the same mating type in a homokaryon, (6) nonparental types can switch again, and (7) meiosis fixes the specificities to which switching can occur. This suggests, for the first time in filamentous fungi, the existence of a mechanism analogous to the mating type switching in yeasts. We hypothese that both A and B mating type regions in A. aegerita are constituted of three loci, one specialized in expression and two other carrying silent information. Mating type switching in homokaryotic strains would occur by copy transposition of silent A and B information into the expression loci. Moreover, we propose that during meiosis the silent loci are substituted by copies of the expressed loci. PMID:1644274

Labarère, J; Noël, T

1992-06-01

7

SCFCdc4 Enables Mating Type Switching in Yeast by Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-Mediated Elimination of the Ash1 Transcriptional Repressor? †  

PubMed Central

In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mother cells switch mating types between a and ? forms, whereas daughter cells do not. This developmental asymmetry arises because the expression of the HO endonuclease, which initiates the interconversion of a and ? mating type cassettes, is extinguished by the daughter-specific Ash1 transcriptional repressor. When daughters become mothers in the subsequent cell cycle, Ash1 must be eliminated to enable a new developmental state. Here, we report that the ubiquitin ligase SCFCdc4 mediates the phosphorylation-dependent elimination of Ash1. The inactivation of SCFCdc4 stabilizes Ash1 in vivo, and consistently, Ash1 binds to and is ubiquitinated by SCFCdc4 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner in vitro. The mutation of a critical in vivo cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) phosphorylation site (Thr290) on Ash1 reduces its ubiquitination and rate of degradation in vivo and decreases the frequency of mating type switching. Ash1 associates with active Cdc28 kinase in vivo and is targeted to SCFCdc4 in a Cdc28-dependent fashion in vivo and in vitro. Ash1 recognition by Cdc4 appears to be mediated by at least three phosphorylation sites that form two redundant diphosphorylated degrons. The phosphorylation-dependent elimination of Ash1 by the ubiquitin-proteasome system thus underpins developmental asymmetry in budding yeast.

Liu, Qingquan; Larsen, Brett; Ricicova, Marketa; Orlicky, Stephen; Tekotte, Hille; Tang, Xiaojing; Craig, Karen; Quiring, Adam; Le Bihan, Thierry; Hansen, Carl; Sicheri, Frank; Tyers, Mike

2011-01-01

8

A Recombinationally Repressed Region between Mat2 and Mat3 Loci Shares Homology to Centromeric Repeats and Regulates Directionality of Mating-Type Switching in Fission Yeast  

PubMed Central

Cells of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe switch mating type by replacing genetic information at the transcriptionally active mat1 locus with sequences copied from one of two closely linked silent loci, mat2-P or mat3-M. By a process referred to as directionality of switching, cells predominantly switch to the opposite mat1 allele; the mat1-P allele preferentially recombines with mat3, while mat1-M selects the mat2. In contrast to efficient recombination at mat1, recombination within the adjoining mat2-mat3 interval is undetectable. We defined the role of sequences between mat2 and mat3, designated the K-region, in directionality as well as recombinational suppression. Cloning and sequencing analysis revealed that a part of the K-region is homologous to repeat sequences present at centromeres, which also display transcriptional and recombinational suppression. Replacement of 7.5 kb of the K-region with the ura4(+) gene affected directionality in a variegated manner. Analysis of the swi6-mod locus, which was previously shown to affect directionality, in K?::ura4(+) strains suggested the existence of at least two overlapping directionality mechanisms. Our work furthers the model that directionality is regulated by cell-type-specific organization of the heterochromatin-like structure in the mating-type region and provides evidence that the K-region contributes to silencing of the mat2-mat3 interval.

Grewal, SIS.; Klar, AJS.

1997-01-01

9

Two different Swi5-containing protein complexes are involved in mating-type switching and recombination repair in fission yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homologous recombination is an important biological process that occurs in all organisms and facilitates genome rearrangements and repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Eukaryotic Rad51 proteins (Rad51sp or Rhp51 in fission yeast) are functional and structural homologs of bacterial RecA protein, an evolutionarily conserved protein that plays a key role in homologous pairing and strand exchange between homologous DNA molecules in

Yufuko Akamatsu; Dorota Dziadkowiec; Mitsunori Ikeguchi; Hideo Shinagawa; Hiroshi Iwasaki

2003-01-01

10

Rearrangements of the transposable mating-type cassettes of fission yeast.  

PubMed Central

The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, switches mating type every few cell divisions. Switching is controlled by the genes of the mating-type locus, which consists of three components, mat1, mat2-P and mat3-M, each separated by approximately 15 kb. Copy transposition of P (Plus) or M (Minus) information from mat2-P or mat3-M into the expression locus mat1 mediates cell type switching. The mating-type locus undergoes events at high frequency (10(-2)-10(-6)) which stabilize one or other mating type. These events are shown to be rearrangements which result in either deletion or insertion of DNA between cassettes. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8.

Beach, D H; Klar, A J

1984-01-01

11

RAS/Cyclic AMP and Transcription Factor Msn2 Regulate Mating and Mating-Type Switching in the Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis ?  

PubMed Central

In response to harsh environmental conditions, ascomycetes produce stress-resistant spores to promote survival. As sporulation requires a diploid DNA content, species with a haploid lifestyle, such as Kluyveromyces lactis, first induce mating in response to stress. In K. lactis, mating and mating-type switching are induced by the DNA-binding protein Mts1. Mts1 expression is known to be upregulated by nutrient limitation, but the mechanism is unknown. We show that a ras2 mutation results in a hyperswitching phenotype. In contrast, strains lacking the phosphodiesterase Pde2 had lower switching rates compared to that of the wild type (WT). As Ras2 promotes cyclic AMP (cAMP) production and Pde2 degrades cAMP, these data suggest that low cAMP levels induce switching. Because the MTS1 regulatory region contains several Msn2 binding sites and Msn2 is a transcription factor that is activated by low cAMP levels, we investigated if Msn2 regulates MTS1 transcription. Consistently with this idea, an msn2 mutant strain displayed lower switching rates than the WT strain. The transcription of MTS1 is highly induced in the ras2 mutant strain. In contrast, an msn2 ras2 double mutant strain displays WT levels of the MTS1 transcript, showing that Msn2 is a critical inducer of MTS1 transcription. Strains lacking Msn2 and Pde2 also exhibit mating defects that can be complemented by the ectopic expression of Mts1. Finally, we show that MTS1 is subjected to negative autoregulation, presumably adding robustness to the mating and switching responses. We suggest a model in which Ras2/cAMP/Msn2 mediates the stress-induced mating and mating-type switching responses in K. lactis.

Barsoum, E.; Rajaei, N.; Astrom, S. U.

2011-01-01

12

Remarkably high rate of DNA amplification promoted by the mating-type switching mechanism in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

PubMed

A novel mating-type switching-defective mutant showed a highly unstable rearrangement at the mating-type locus (mat1) in fission yeast. The mutation resulted from local amplification of a 134-bp DNA fragment by the mat1-switching phenomenon. We speculate that the rolling-circle-like replication and homologous recombination might be the general mechanisms for local genome region expansion. PMID:22377633

Yu, Chuanhe; Bonaduce, Michael J; Klar, Amar J S

2012-02-29

13

Remarkably High Rate of DNA Amplification Promoted by the Mating-Type Switching Mechanism in Schizosaccharomyces pombe  

PubMed Central

A novel mating-type switching-defective mutant showed a highly unstable rearrangement at the mating-type locus (mat1) in fission yeast. The mutation resulted from local amplification of a 134-bp DNA fragment by the mat1-switching phenomenon. We speculate that the rolling-circle-like replication and homologous recombination might be the general mechanisms for local genome region expansion.

Yu, Chuanhe; Bonaduce, Michael J.; Klar, Amar J. S.

2012-01-01

14

The Mating Type Switch-Activating Protein Sap1 Is Required for Replication Fork Arrest at the rRNA Genes of Fission Yeast  

PubMed Central

Schizosaccharomyces pombe rRNA genes contain three replication fork barriers (RFB1-3) located in the nontranscribed spacer. RFB2 and RFB3 require binding of the transcription terminator factor Reb1p to two identical recognition sequences that colocalize with these barriers. RFB1, which is the strongest of the three barriers, functions in a Reb1p-independent manner, and cognate DNA-binding proteins for this barrier have not been identified yet. Here we functionally define RFB1 within a 78-bp sequence located near the 3? end of the rRNA coding region. A protein that specifically binds to this sequence was purified by affinity chromatography and identified as Sap1p by mass spectrometry. Specific binding to RFB1 was confirmed by using Sap1p expressed in Escherichia coli. Sap1p is essential for viability and is required for efficient mating-type switching. Mutations in RFB1 that precluded formation of the Sap1p-RFB1 complex systematically abolished replication barrier function, indicating that Sap1p is required for replication fork blockage at RFB1.

Mejia-Ramirez, Eva; Sanchez-Gorostiaga, Alicia; Krimer, Dora B.; Schvartzman, Jorge B.; Hernandez, Pablo

2005-01-01

15

Zygote formation and recombination between like mating types in the yeast Saccharomycopsis lipolytica by protoplast fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplasts from auxotrophic strains of the alkane yeast, Saccharomycopsis (Candida) lipolytica, will hybridize despite identity in mating type. Fusion products following regeneration and selection form stable prototrophic diploids, and recombinant progeny can be obtained either through the parasexual or the sexual cycle. These results confirm that mating type alleles of this yeast control only the initial steps in the mating

Ulf Stahl

1978-01-01

16

Mating type-dependent constraints on the mobility of the left arm of yeast chromosome III  

PubMed Central

Mating-type gene (MAT) switching in budding yeast exhibits donor preference. MATa preferentially recombines with HML near the left telomere of chromosome III, whereas MAT? prefers HMR near the right telomere. Donor preference is controlled by the recombination enhancer (RE) located proximal to HML. To test if HML is constrained in pairing with MAT?, we examined live-cell mobility of LacI-GFP–bound lactose operator (lacO) arrays inserted at different chromosomal sites. Without induction of recombination, lacO sequences adjacent to HML are strongly constrained in both MAT? and RE-deleted MATa strains, compared with MATa. In contrast, chromosome movement at HMR or near a telomere of chromosome V is mating-type independent. HML is more constrained in MATa ?re and less constrained in MATa RE+ compared with other sites. Although HML and MATa are not prealigned before inducing recombination, the three-dimensional configuration of MAT, HML, and HMR is mating-type dependent. These data suggest there is constitutive tethering of HML, which is relieved in MATa cells through the action of RE.

Bressan, Debra A.; Vazquez, Julio; Haber, James E.

2004-01-01

17

INTERCONVERSION OF YEAST MATING TYPES I. DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF THE ACTION OF THE HOMOTHALLISM (HO) GENE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HO gene promotes interconversion between a and a mating types. As a consequence, homothallic diploid cells are formed by mating between siblings descended from a single crH0 or a HO spore. In order to determine the frequency and pattern of the mating-type switch, we have used a simple technique by which the mating phenotype can be assayed without losing

JAMES B. HICKS; IRA HERSKOWITZ

18

Role of DNA replication in the repression of silent mating type loci in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A putative origin of DNA replication is associated with the DNA sequences necessary for the repression of silent mating type loci in yeast. These sequences lie about a kilobase away from the affected promoters, so the repression must act at a distance. We show here that DNA replication is required for the onset of repression.

Allan M. Miller; Kim A. Nasmyth

1984-01-01

19

Mutations in XRS2 and RAD50 delay but do not prevent mating-type switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a large number of genes in the RAD52 epistasis group has been implicated in the repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks and in both mitotic and meiotic homologous recombination. While most of these genes are essential for yeast mating-type (MAT) gene switching, neither RAD50 nor XRS2 is required to complete this specialized mitotic gene conversion process. Using a galactose-inducible HO endonuclease gene to initiate MAT switching, we have examined the effect of null mutations of RAD50 and of XRS2 on intermediate steps of this recombination event. Both rad50 and xrs2 mutants exhibit a marked delay in the completion of switching. Both mutations reduce the extent of 5'-to-3' degradation from the end of the HO-created double-strand break. The steps of initial strand invasion and new DNA synthesis are delayed by approximately 30 min in mutant cells. However, later events are still further delayed, suggesting that XRS2 and RAD50 affect more than one step in the process. In the rad50 xrs2 double mutant, the completion of MAT switching is delayed more than in either single mutant, without reducing the overall efficiency of the process. The XRS2 gene encodes an 854-amino-acid protein with no obvious similarity to the Rad50 protein or to any other protein in the database. Overexpression of RAD50 does not complement the defects in xrs2 or vice versa. Images

Ivanov, E L; Sugawara, N; White, C I; Fabre, F; Haber, J E

1994-01-01

20

Expression-state boundaries in the mating-type region of fission yeast.  

PubMed Central

A transcriptionally silent chromosomal domain is found in the mating-type region of fission yeast. Here we show that this domain is delimited by 2-kb inverted repeats, IR-L and IR-R. IR-L and IR-R prevent the expansion of transcription-permissive chromatin into the silenced region and that of silenced chromatin into the expressed region. Their insulator activity is partially orientation dependent. The silencing defects that follow deletion or inversion of IR-R are suppressed by high dosage of the chromodomain protein Swi6. Combining chromosomal deletions and Swi6 overexpression shows that IR-L and IR-R provide firm borders in a region where competition between silencing and transcriptional competence occurs. IR-R possesses autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) activity, leading to a model where replication factors, or replication itself, participate in boundary formation.

Thon, Genevieve; Bjerling, Pernilla; Bunner, Camilla Marie; Verhein-Hansen, Janne

2002-01-01

21

Transcription of two long non-coding RNAs mediates mating type control of gametogenesis in budding yeast  

PubMed Central

Summary The cell fate decision leading to gametogenesis is essential for sexual reproduction. In S. cerevisiae, only diploid MATa/? but not haploid MATa or MAT? cells undergo gametogenesis, known as sporulation. We find that transcription of two long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) mediates mating type control of sporulation. In MATa or MAT? haploids expression of IME1, the central inducer of gametogenesis, is inhibited in cis by transcription of the lncRNA IRT1, located in the IME1 promoter. IRT1 transcription recruits the Set2 histone methyltransferase and the Set3 histone deacetylase complex to establish repressive chromatin at the IME1 promoter. Inhibiting expression of IRT1 and an antisense transcript that antagonizes the expression of the meiotic regulator IME4, allows cells expressing the haploid mating-type to sporulate with kinetics that are indistinguishable from that of MATa/? diploids. Conversely, expression of the two lncRNAs abolishes sporulation in MATa/? diploids. Thus, transcription of two lncRNAs governs mating type control of gametogenesis in yeast.

van Werven, Folkert J.; Neuert, Gregor; Hendrick, Natalie; Lardenois, Aurelie; Buratowski, Stephen; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Primig, Michael; Amon, Angelika

2012-01-01

22

A dominant mutation ( SAD ) bypassing the requirement for the a mating type locus in yeast sporulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SAD (suppressor of a deficiencies) is a mutation that allows a-mater diploids such as a\\/a or a1-\\/a strains to sporulate. This mutation is unstable and reverts to wildtype (sad+) even in strains homozygous for SAD. SAD is dominant to sad+: a\\/a and a1-\\/a sad1\\/SAD diploids are sporulation-proficient. SAD is located on chromosome III, 40 cM distal to the mating type

Yona Kassir; Ira Herskowitz

1980-01-01

23

Characterization of two genes required for the position-effect control of yeast mating-type genes.  

PubMed Central

The mating type of haploid yeast (a or alpha) is determined by information present at the MAT locus. Identical copies of a and alpha information are present at distal loci (HMR and HML), but transcription of these copies is repressed by the action, in trans, of four unlinked genes called SIR (silent information regulator). Repression by SIR also requires, in cis, DNA sequences called E which are found to the left of HML and HMR (but not MAT) and are greater than 1 kb from the mating-type gene promoters. SIR control can act on other promoters when they are brought near the E sequence, and thus the SIR gene products act in some general manner to repress transcription. We have determined the DNA sequence of two fragments which complement mutations in the SIR2 and SIR3 genes and show that these contain the structural genes by mapping the cloned sequences onto the yeast chromosome. The SIR2 and SIR3 coding sequences were identified by constructing gene disruptions and using these mutations to replace the normal chromosomal copies. Such null mutants of both SIR2 and SIR3 are defective in the position-effect control of the silent loci but have no other detectable phenotype. We have mapped the 5' and 3' ends of the SIR2 and SIR3 mRNAs and show that their level is unaffected by mutations in any of the four known SIR complementation groups. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4.

Shore, D; Squire, M; Nasmyth, K A

1984-01-01

24

The Fission Yeast Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes UbcP3, Ubc15, and Rhp6 Affect Transcriptional Silencing of the Mating-Type Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II are silenced when introduced near the mat2 or mat3 mating-type loci of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Silencing is mediated by a number of gene products and cis-acting elements. We report here the finding of novel trans-acting factors identified in a screen for high- copy-number disruptors of silencing. Expression of cDNAs encoding the putative

Inga Sig Nielsen; Olaf Nielsen; Johanne M. Murray; Genevieve Thon

2002-01-01

25

Mating-Type Structure, Evolution, and Function in Euascomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past several years have seen a rapid rise in the number of cloned and characterized mating-type loci from an ever-expanding\\u000a group of filamentous Ascomycetes. However, the available mating-type gene database still lacks some representatives of functionally\\u000a or taxonomically important groups. No complete mating-type sequences are available for the Euascomycetes that undergo mating-type\\u000a switching, or for lichen-forming fungi. The analysis

R. Debuchy; B. G. Turgeon

26

Identification of Mating Type Genes in the Bipolar Basidiomycetous Yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides: First Insight into the MAT Locus Structure of the Sporidiobolales? †  

PubMed Central

Rhodosporidium toruloides is a heterothallic, bipolar, red yeast that belongs to the Sporidiobolales, an order within a major lineage of basidiomycetes, the Pucciniomycotina. In contrast to other basidiomycetes, considerably less is known about the nature of the mating type (MAT) loci that control sexual reproduction in this lineage. Three genes (RHA1, RHA2, and RHA3) encoding precursors of the MAT A1 pheromone (rhodotorucine A) were previously identified and formed the basis for a genome walking approach that led to the identification of additional MAT genes in complementary mating strains of R. toruloides. Two mating type-specific alleles encoding a p21-activated kinase (PAK; Ste20 homolog) were found between the RHA2 and RHA3 genes, and identification in MAT A2 strains of a gene encoding a presumptive pheromone precursor enabled prediction of the structure of rhodotorucine a. In addition, a putative pheromone receptor gene (STE3 homolog) was identified upstream of RHA1. Analyses of genomic data from two closely related species, Sporobolomyces roseus and Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, identified syntenic regions that contain homologs of all the above-mentioned genes. Notably, six novel pheromone precursor genes were uncovered, which encoded, similarly to the RHA genes, multiple tandem copies of the peptide moiety. This suggests that this structure, which is unique among fungal lipopeptide pheromones, seems to be prevalent in red yeasts. Species comparisons provided evidence for a large, multigenic MAT locus structure in the Sporidiobolales, but no putative homeodomain transcription factor genes (which are present in all basidiomycetous MAT loci characterized thus far) could be found in any of the three species in the vicinity of the MAT genes identified.

Coelho, Marco A.; Rosa, Andre; Rodrigues, Nadia; Fonseca, Alvaro; Goncalves, Paula

2008-01-01

27

Identification of mating type genes in the bipolar basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides: first insight into the MAT locus structure of the Sporidiobolales.  

PubMed

Rhodosporidium toruloides is a heterothallic, bipolar, red yeast that belongs to the Sporidiobolales, an order within a major lineage of basidiomycetes, the Pucciniomycotina. In contrast to other basidiomycetes, considerably less is known about the nature of the mating type (MAT) loci that control sexual reproduction in this lineage. Three genes (RHA1, RHA2, and RHA3) encoding precursors of the MAT A1 pheromone (rhodotorucine A) were previously identified and formed the basis for a genome walking approach that led to the identification of additional MAT genes in complementary mating strains of R. toruloides. Two mating type-specific alleles encoding a p21-activated kinase (PAK; Ste20 homolog) were found between the RHA2 and RHA3 genes, and identification in MAT A2 strains of a gene encoding a presumptive pheromone precursor enabled prediction of the structure of rhodotorucine a. In addition, a putative pheromone receptor gene (STE3 homolog) was identified upstream of RHA1. Analyses of genomic data from two closely related species, Sporobolomyces roseus and Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, identified syntenic regions that contain homologs of all the above-mentioned genes. Notably, six novel pheromone precursor genes were uncovered, which encoded, similarly to the RHA genes, multiple tandem copies of the peptide moiety. This suggests that this structure, which is unique among fungal lipopeptide pheromones, seems to be prevalent in red yeasts. Species comparisons provided evidence for a large, multigenic MAT locus structure in the Sporidiobolales, but no putative homeodomain transcription factor genes (which are present in all basidiomycetous MAT loci characterized thus far) could be found in any of the three species in the vicinity of the MAT genes identified. PMID:18408057

Coelho, Marco A; Rosa, André; Rodrigues, Nádia; Fonseca, Alvaro; Gonçalves, Paula

2008-04-11

28

Mutations in Rik1, Clr2, Clr3 and Clr4 Genes Asymmetrically Derepress the Silent Mating-Type Loci in Fission Yeast  

PubMed Central

In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the mating-type information is stored at two transcriptionally silent loci (mat2 and mat3). The region between these sites (K region) is inert for meiotic crossing over. The mating-type genes (M or P) are expressed only when present at a third, active locus (mat1). We have earlier shown that the positional regulation of P genes is based on repression at the silent site, caused by elements in the flanking DNA sequences. In this study we have mutagenized a sterile mat1 deleted strain and selected for cells that are able to conjugate. Recessive mutations of this type should define genes encoding trans-acting factors involved in repression of the silent mating-type loci. Before this work mutations in two genes, clr1 and swi6, had been shown to allow both expression of the silent loci and recombination in the K region. The sensitivity of the present selection is demonstrated by the isolation of new mutations that derepress one or both of the silent loci (M-mating or bi-mating). The frequency of M-mating mutants was almost two orders of magnitude higher than that of bi-mating mutants and in all mutants analyzed mat3-M expression was significantly higher than mat2-P expression. The mutations define three new genes, clr2, clr3 and clr4. In addition we show that the rik1 mutant previously known to allow recombination in the K region also derepresses the silent loci.

Ekwall, K.; Ruusala, T.

1994-01-01

29

Mating types and sexual development in filamentous ascomycetes.  

PubMed Central

The progress made in the molecular characterization of the mating types in several filamentous ascomycetes has allowed us to better understand their role in sexual development and has brought to light interesting biological problems. The mating types of Neurospora crassa, Podospora anserina, and Cochliobolus heterostrophus consist of unrelated and unique sequences containing one or several genes with multiple functions, related to sexuality or not, such as vegetative incompatibility in N. crassa. The presence of putative DNA binding domains in the proteins encoded by the mating-type (mat) genes suggests that they may be transcriptional factors. The mat genes play a role in cell-cell recognition at fertilization, probably by activating the genes responsible for the hormonal signal whose occurrence was previously demonstrated by physiological experiments. They also control recognition between nuclei at a later stage, when reproductive nuclei of each mating type which have divided in the common cytoplasm pair within the ascogenous hyphae. How self is distinguished from nonself at the nuclear level is not known. The finding that homothallic species, able to mate in the absence of a partner, contain both mating types in the same haploid genome has raised more issues than it has resolved. The instability of the mating type, in particular in Sclerotinia trifolorium and Botrytinia fuckeliana, is also unexplained. This diversity of mating systems, still more apparent if the yeasts and the basidiomycetes are taken into account, clearly shows that no single species can serve as a universal mating-type model.

Coppin, E; Debuchy, R; Arnaise, S; Picard, M

1997-01-01

30

The cell type of Rhodosporidium toruloides after protoplast fusion between strains of identical and opposite mating type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplast fusions between strains of identical and of opposite mating type were performed. Sexual crosses and protoplast fusions inRhodosporidium toruloides led to different hybrid types. Sexual crosses gave rise exclusively to a dikaryotic mycelium. In protoplast fusions between strains of identical mating type (A ora), monokaryotic yeast-like hybrids which sustained the parental mating type were obtained. In protoplast fusions between

Dietmar Becher; Fritz Böttcher

1983-01-01

31

Sex pheromone of ? mating type in the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri and its synthetic analogues in relation to sex pheromones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hansenula wingei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three analogues of the peptidyl pheromone, a pheromone of Saccharomyces kluyveri, synthesized based on the amino acid sequence proposed by Sato et al. (Agric Biol Chem 45:1531–1533, 1981) were tested for both shmoo-inducing and agglutinability-inducing actions. Purified natural a pheromone of the yeast showed the highest activity among the peptides tested. When methionine in the peptides was oxidized, the activity

Hiroaki Fujimura; Naohiko Yanagishima; Akira Sakurai; Chieko Kitada; Masahiko Fujino; Isao Banno

1982-01-01

32

Corepressor-Directed Preacetylation of Histone H3 in Promoter Chromatin Primes Rapid Transcriptional Switching of Cell-Type-Specific Genes in Yeast ?  

PubMed Central

Switching between alternate states of gene transcription is fundamental to a multitude of cellular regulatory pathways, including those that govern differentiation. In spite of the progress in our understanding of such transitions in gene activity, a major unanswered question is how cells regulate the timing of these switches. Here, we have examined the kinetics of a transcriptional switch that accompanies the differentiation of yeast cells of one mating type into a distinct new cell type. We found that cell-type-specific genes silenced by the ?2 repressor in the starting state are derepressed to establish the new mating-type-specific gene expression program coincident with the loss of ?2 from promoters. This rapid derepression does not require the preloading of RNA polymerase II or a preinitiation complex but instead depends upon the Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase. Surprisingly, Gcn5-dependent acetylation of nucleosomes in the promoters of mating-type-specific genes requires the corepressor Ssn6-Tup1 even in the repressed state. Gcn5 partially acetylates the amino-terminal tails of histone H3 in repressed promoters, thereby priming them for rapid derepression upon loss of ?2. Thus, Ssn6-Tup1 not only efficiently represses these target promoters but also functions to initiate derepression by creating a chromatin state poised for rapid activation.

DeSimone, Alec M.; Laney, Jeffrey D.

2010-01-01

33

Corepressor-directed preacetylation of histone H3 in promoter chromatin primes rapid transcriptional switching of cell-type-specific genes in yeast.  

PubMed

Switching between alternate states of gene transcription is fundamental to a multitude of cellular regulatory pathways, including those that govern differentiation. In spite of the progress in our understanding of such transitions in gene activity, a major unanswered question is how cells regulate the timing of these switches. Here, we have examined the kinetics of a transcriptional switch that accompanies the differentiation of yeast cells of one mating type into a distinct new cell type. We found that cell-type-specific genes silenced by the alpha2 repressor in the starting state are derepressed to establish the new mating-type-specific gene expression program coincident with the loss of alpha2 from promoters. This rapid derepression does not require the preloading of RNA polymerase II or a preinitiation complex but instead depends upon the Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase. Surprisingly, Gcn5-dependent acetylation of nucleosomes in the promoters of mating-type-specific genes requires the corepressor Ssn6-Tup1 even in the repressed state. Gcn5 partially acetylates the amino-terminal tails of histone H3 in repressed promoters, thereby priming them for rapid derepression upon loss of alpha2. Thus, Ssn6-Tup1 not only efficiently represses these target promoters but also functions to initiate derepression by creating a chromatin state poised for rapid activation. PMID:20439496

Desimone, Alec M; Laney, Jeffrey D

2010-05-03

34

GENE CONVERSION OF THE MATING-TYPE LOCUS IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAEi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrad analysis of MATa\\/MATa diploids of Szccharomyces cerevisiae generally yields 2 MATa:2MATa meiotic products. About 1 to 1.8% of the tetrads yield aberrant segregations for this marker. Described here are experi- ments that determine whether the aberrant meiotic segregations at the mating- type locus are ascribable to gene conversions or to MAT switches, that is, to mating-type interconversions. Diploid strains

AMAR J. S. KLAR; SEYMOUR FOGEL; KARIN LUSNAK

35

Dynamics of mitochondrial inheritance in the evolution of binary mating types and two sexes  

PubMed Central

The uniparental inheritance (UPI) of mitochondria is thought to explain the evolution of two mating types or even true sexes with anisogametes. However, the exact role of UPI is not clearly understood. Here, we develop a new model, which considers the spread of UPI mutants within a biparental inheritance (BPI) population. Our model explicitly considers mitochondrial mutation and selection in parallel with the spread of UPI mutants and self-incompatible mating types. In line with earlier work, we find that UPI improves fitness under mitochondrial mutation accumulation, selfish conflict and mitonuclear coadaptation. However, we find that as UPI increases in the population its relative fitness advantage diminishes in a frequency-dependent manner. The fitness benefits of UPI ‘leak’ into the biparentally reproducing part of the population through successive matings, limiting the spread of UPI. Critically, while this process favours some degree of UPI, it neither leads to the establishment of linked mating types nor the collapse of multiple mating types to two. Only when two mating types exist beforehand can associated UPI mutants spread to fixation under the pressure of high mitochondrial mutation rate, large mitochondrial population size and selfish mutants. Variation in these parameters could account for the range of UPI actually observed in nature, from strict UPI in some Chlamydomonas species to BPI in yeast. We conclude that UPI of mitochondria alone is unlikely to have driven the evolution of two mating types in unicellular eukaryotes.

Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Lane, Nick; Seymour, Robert M.; Pomiankowski, Andrew

2013-01-01

36

Degradation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mating-Type Regulator ?1: Genetic Dissection of Cis-determinants and Trans-acting Pathways  

PubMed Central

Mating phenotype in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a dynamic trait, and efficient transitions between alternate haploid cell types allow the organism to access the advantageous diploid form. Mating identity is determined by cell type-specific transcriptional regulators, but these factors must be rapidly removed upon mating-type switching to allow the master regulators of the alternate state to establish a new gene expression program. Targeted proteolysis by the ubiquitin–proteasome system is a commonly employed strategy to quickly disassemble regulatory networks, and yeast use this approach to evoke efficient switching from the ? to the a phenotype by ensuring the rapid removal of the ?2 transcriptional repressor. Transition to the a cell phenotype, however, also requires the inactivation of the ?1 transcriptional activator, but the mechanism by which this occurs is currently unknown. Here, we report a central role for the ubiquitin–proteasome system in ?1 inactivation. The ?1 protein is constitutively short lived and targeted for rapid turnover by multiple ubiquitin-conjugation pathways. Intriguingly, the ?-domain, a conserved region of unknown function, acts as a degradation signal for a pathway defined by the SUMO-targeted ligase Slx5–Slx8, which has also been implicated in the rapid destruction of ?2. Our observations suggest coordinate regulation in the turnover of two master regulatory transcription factors ensures a rapid mating-type switch.

Nixon, Christina E.; Wilcox, Alexander J.; Laney, Jeffrey D.

2010-01-01

37

Selective Gene Expression in Multigene Families from Yeast to Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cell identity is the direct consequence of the genes expressed. This STKE Review highlights the diverse mechanisms that cells use to achieve exclusive gene expression. The details of the molecular mechanism underlying yeast mating-type switching are compared and contrasted with the mechanisms involved in immunoglobulin gene expression and odorant receptor gene expression in mammals.

Jacob Z. Dalgaard (Marie Curie Research Institute; REV); Sonya Vengrova (Marie Curie Research Institute; REV)

2004-10-26

38

The mating-type locus of Neurospora crassa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mating-type locus regulates choice of mating partner and the formation of mixed-mating-type heterokaryons inNeurospora crassa. These biological activities reflect the effects of the mating-type genes on several distinct biochemical pathways. Some\\u000a elements of such pathways are probably common to many other fungi. An example of such a pathway would be the mating-type-specific\\u000a pheromone production and response known inN. crassa

Chuck Staben; T. H. Morgan

1996-01-01

39

Mating-type genes for classical strain improvements of ascomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to mate fungi in the laboratory is a valuable tool for genetic analysis and for classical strain improvement. In ascomycetous fungi, mating typically occurs between morphologically identical partners that are distinguished by their mating type. In most cases, the single mating-type locus conferring mating behavior consists of dissimilar DNA sequences (idiomorphs) in the mating partners. All ascomycete mating-type

S. Pöggeler

2001-01-01

40

Cloning the Mating Types of the Heterothallic Fungus Podospora anserina: Developmental Features of Haploid Transformants Carrying Both Mating Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNAs that encode the mating-type functions (mat+ and mat-) of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina were cloned with the use of the mating-type A probe from Neurospora crassa. Cloning the full mat information was ascertained through gene replacement experiments. Molecular and functional analyses of haploid transformants carrying both mating types lead to several striking conclusions. Mat+ mat- strains are dual

Marguerite Picard; Robert Debuchy; Evelyne Coppin

41

12 Evolution of Mating-Type Loci and Mating-Type Chromosomes in Model Species of Filamentous Ascomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sexual reproduction in fungi is regulated by relatively small genomic regions containing the mating-type loci. In this chapter\\u000a we describe the genomic traits and evolutionary features of the mating-type loci and the mating-type chromosomes in model\\u000a systems of filamentous ascomycetes. The main focus of the chapter lies in the recent scientific advances from studies in Neurospora, particularly N. tetrasperma. The

Carrie A. Whittle; Hanna Johannesson

42

High-Resolution Structural Analysis of Chromatin at Specific Loci: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Silent Mating-Type Locus HMRa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic and biochemical evidence implicates chromatin structure in the silencing of the two quiescent mating-type loci near the telomeres of chromosome III in yeast. With high-resolution micrococcal nuclease mapping, we show that the HMRa locus has 12 precisely positioned nucleosomes spanning the distance between the E and I silencer elements. The nucleosomes are arranged in pairs with very short linkers;

ANISH RAVINDRA; KERSTIN WEISS; ROBERT T. SIMPSON

1999-01-01

43

Design Principles of the Yeast G1/S Switch  

PubMed Central

A hallmark of the G1/S transition in budding yeast cell cycle is the proteolytic degradation of the B-type cyclin-Cdk stoichiometric inhibitor Sic1. Deleting SIC1 or altering Sic1 degradation dynamics increases genomic instability. Certain key facts about the parts of the G1/S circuitry are established: phosphorylation of Sic1 on multiple sites is necessary for its destruction, and both the upstream kinase Cln1/2-Cdk1 and the downstream kinase Clb5/6-Cdk1 can phosphorylate Sic1 in vitro with varied specificity, cooperativity, and processivity. However, how the system works as a whole is still controversial due to discrepancies between in vitro, in vivo, and theoretical studies. Here, by monitoring Sic1 destruction in real time in individual cells under various perturbations to the system, we provide a clear picture of how the circuitry functions as a switch in vivo. We show that Cln1/2-Cdk1 sets the proper timing of Sic1 destruction, but does not contribute to its destruction speed; thus, it acts only as a trigger. Sic1's inhibition target Clb5/6-Cdk1 controls the speed of Sic1 destruction through a double-negative feedback loop, ensuring a robust all-or-none transition for Clb5/6-Cdk1 activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the degradation of a single-phosphosite mutant of Sic1 is rapid and switch-like, just as the wild-type form. Our mathematical model confirms our understanding of the circuit and demonstrates that the substrate sharing between the two kinases is not a redundancy but a part of the design to overcome the trade-off between the timing and sharpness of Sic1 degradation. Our study provides direct mechanistic insight into the design features underlying the yeast G1/S switch.

Tang, Chao

2013-01-01

44

Design principles of the yeast g1/s switch.  

PubMed

A hallmark of the G1/S transition in budding yeast cell cycle is the proteolytic degradation of the B-type cyclin-Cdk stoichiometric inhibitor Sic1. Deleting SIC1 or altering Sic1 degradation dynamics increases genomic instability. Certain key facts about the parts of the G1/S circuitry are established: phosphorylation of Sic1 on multiple sites is necessary for its destruction, and both the upstream kinase Cln1/2-Cdk1 and the downstream kinase Clb5/6-Cdk1 can phosphorylate Sic1 in vitro with varied specificity, cooperativity, and processivity. However, how the system works as a whole is still controversial due to discrepancies between in vitro, in vivo, and theoretical studies. Here, by monitoring Sic1 destruction in real time in individual cells under various perturbations to the system, we provide a clear picture of how the circuitry functions as a switch in vivo. We show that Cln1/2-Cdk1 sets the proper timing of Sic1 destruction, but does not contribute to its destruction speed; thus, it acts only as a trigger. Sic1's inhibition target Clb5/6-Cdk1 controls the speed of Sic1 destruction through a double-negative feedback loop, ensuring a robust all-or-none transition for Clb5/6-Cdk1 activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the degradation of a single-phosphosite mutant of Sic1 is rapid and switch-like, just as the wild-type form. Our mathematical model confirms our understanding of the circuit and demonstrates that the substrate sharing between the two kinases is not a redundancy but a part of the design to overcome the trade-off between the timing and sharpness of Sic1 degradation. Our study provides direct mechanistic insight into the design features underlying the yeast G1/S switch. PMID:24130459

Yang, Xiaojing; Lau, Kai-Yeung; Sevim, Volkan; Tang, Chao

2013-10-01

45

Spatial organization and dynamics of interphase yeast chromosomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how the genome is spatially organized is an important problem in cell biology, due to its key roles in gene expression and DNA recombination. Here we report on a combined experimental and theoretical study of the organization and dynamics of yeast chromosome III which has a functional role in the yeast life cycle, in particular, it is responsible for mating type switching. By imaging two fluorescent markers, one at the spindle pole body (SPB) and the other proximal to the HML locus that is involved in DNA recombination during mating type switching, we measured the cell to cell distribution of distances and the mean square displacement between the markers as a function of time. We compared our experimental results with a random-walk polymer model that takes into account tethering and confinement of chromosomes in the nucleus, and found that the model recapitulates the observed spatial and temporal organization of chromosome III in yeast in quantitative detail. The polymer model makes specific predictions for mating-type switching in yeast, and suggests new experiments to test them.

Avsaroglu, Baris; Gordon-Messer, Susannah; Fritsche, Miriam; Ham, Jungoh; Heermann, Dieter W.; Haber, James E.; Kondev, Jane

2012-02-01

46

The alpha-mating type locus of Cryptococcus neoformans contains a peptide pheromone gene.  

PubMed Central

The opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has two mating types, MATa and MAT alpha. The MAT alpha strains are more virulent. Mating of opposite mating type haploid yeast cells results in the production of a filamentous hyphal phase. The MAT alpha locus has been isolated in this study in order to identify the genetic differences between mating types and their contribution to virulence. A 138-bp fragment of MAT alpha-specific DNA which cosegregates with alpha-mating type was isolated by using a difference cloning method. Overlapping phage and cosmid clones spanning the entire MAT alpha locus were isolated by using this MAT alpha-specific fragment as a probe. Mapping of these clones physically defined the MAT alpha locus to a 35- to 45-kb region which is present only in MAT alpha strains. Transformation studies with fragments of the MAT alpha locus identified a 2.1-kb XbaI-HindIII fragment that directs starvation-induced filament formation in MATa cells but not in MAT alpha cells. This 2.1-kb fragment contains a gene, MF alpha, with a small open reading frame encoding a pheromone precursor similar to the lipoprotein mating factors found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ustilago maydis, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The ability of the MATa cells to express, process, and secrete the MAT alpha pheromone in response to starvation suggests similar mechanisms for these processes in both cell types. These results also suggest that the production of pheromone is under a type of nutritional control shared by the two cell types. Images

Moore, T D; Edman, J C

1993-01-01

47

RNA asymmetric distribution and daughter\\/mother differentiation in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active transport and localized translation of the ASH1 mRNA at the bud tip of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an essential process that is required for the regulation of the mating type switching. ASH1 mRNA localization has been extensively studied over the past few years and the core components of the translocation machinery have been identified. It is composed

Xavier Darzacq; Erin Powrie; Wei Gu; Robert H Singer; Daniel Zenklusen

2003-01-01

48

Mating Type Sequences in Asexually Reproducing Fusarium Species  

PubMed Central

To assess the potential for mating in several Fusarium species with no known sexual stage, we developed degenerate and semidegenerate oligonucleotide primers to identify conserved mating type (MAT) sequences in these fungi. The putative ? and high-mobility-group (HMG) box sequences from Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae, and F. semitectum were compared to similar sequences that were described previously for other members of the genus. The DNA sequences of the regions flanking the amplified MAT regions were obtained by inverse PCR. These data were used to develop diagnostic primers suitable for the clear amplification of conserved mating type sequences from any member of the genus Fusarium. By using these diagnostic primers, we identified mating types of 122 strains belonging to 22 species of Fusarium. The ? box and the HMG box from the mating type genes are transcribed in F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae, and F. semitectum. The novelty of the PCR-based mating type identification system that we developed is that this method can be used on a wide range of Fusarium species, which have proven or expected teleomorphs in different ascomycetous genera, including Calonectria, Gibberella, and Nectria.

Kerenyi, Zoltan; Moretti, Antonio; Waalwijk, Cees; Olah, Brigitta; Hornok, Laszlo

2004-01-01

49

Nonsex Genes in the Mating Type Locus of Candida albicans Play Roles in a/? Biofilm Formation, Including Impermeability and Fluconazole Resistance  

PubMed Central

The mating type locus (MTL) of Candida albicans contains the mating type genes and has, therefore, been assumed to play an exclusive role in the mating process. In mating-incompetent a/? cells, two of the mating type genes, MTLa1 and MTL?2, encode components of the a1-?2 corepressor that suppresses mating and switching. But the MTL locus of C. albicans also contains three apparently unrelated “nonsex” genes (NSGs), PIK, PAP and OBP, the first two essential for growth. Since it had been previously demonstrated that deleting either the a/? copy of the entire MTL locus, or either MTLa1 or MTL?2, affected virulence, we hypothesized that the NSGs in the MTL locus may also play a role in pathogenesis. Here by mutational analysis, it is demonstrated that both the mating type and nonsex genes in the MTL locus play roles in a/? biofilm formation, and that OBP is essential for impermeability and fluconazole resistance.

Pujol, Claude; Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Soll, David R.

2012-01-01

50

THE MATING TYPE LOCUS, AN EXAMPLE OF SYNTENY AMONG ASCOMYCETES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Both mating type loci of Mycosphaerella graminicola were recently cloned and sequenced. Within the non-idiomorphic sequences high similarity was found with palI, encoding a membrane receptor from Aspergillus nidulans, with apc, a putative component of the anaphase promoting complex from Schizosaccha...

51

Species-specific and mating type-specific DNA regions adjacent to mating type idiomorphs in the genus Neurospora.  

PubMed

Mating type idiomorphs control mating and subsequent sexual development in Neurospora crassa and were previously shown to be well conserved in other Neurospora species. The centromere-proximal flanks of the A and a idiomorphs, but not the distal flanks from representative heterothallic, pseudohomothallic, and homothallic Neurospora species contain apparent species-specific and/or mating type-specific sequences adjacent to the well-conserved idiomorphs. The variable flank is bordered by regions that are highly homologous in all species. The sequence of approximately 1 kb immediately flanking the conserved idiomorphs of each species was determined. Sequence identity between species ranged from 20% (essentially unrelated) to > 90%. By contrast, the mt-A1 gene shows 88-98% identity. Sequence and hybridization data also show that the centromere-proximal flanks are very different between the two mating types for N. intermedia, N. discreta, and N. tetrasperma, but not for N. sitophila and N. crassa. The data suggest a close evolutionary relationship between several of the species; this is suppported by phylogenetic analysis of their respective mt-A1 genes. The origin of the variable regions adjacent to the evolutionarily conserved mating type idiomorphs is unknown. PMID:8536961

Randall, T A; Metzenberg, R L

1995-09-01

52

Species-Specific and Mating Type-Specific DNA Regions Adjacent to Mating Type Idiomorphs in the Genus Neurospora  

PubMed Central

Mating type idiomorphs control mating and subsequent sexual development in Neurospora crassa and were previously shown to be well conserved in other Neurospora species. The centromere-proximal flanks of the A and a idiomorphs, but not the distal flanks from representative heterothallic, pseudohomothallic, and homothallic Neurospora species contain apparent species-specific and/or mating type-specific sequences adjacent to the well-conserved idiomorphs. The variable flank is bordered by regions that are highly homologous in all species. The sequence of ~1 kb immediately flanking the conserved idiomorphs of each species was determined. Sequence identity between species ranged from 20% (essentially unrelated) to >90%. By contrast, the mt-A1 gene shows 88-98% identity. Sequence and hybridization data also show that the centromere-proximal flanks are very different between the two mating types for N. intermedia, N. discreta, and N. tetrasperma, but not for N. sitophila and N. crassa. The data suggest a close evolutionary relationship between several of the species; this is supported by phylogenetic analysis of their respective mt-A1 genes. The origin of the variable regions adjacent to the evolutionarily conserved mating type idiomorphs is unknown.

Randall, T. A.; Metzenberg, R. L.

1995-01-01

53

Localization of ASH1 mRNA Particles in Living Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASH1 mRNA localizes to the bud tip in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to establish asymmetry of HO expression, important for mating type switching. To visualize real time localization of the mRNA in living yeast cells, green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused to the RNA-binding protein MS2 to follow a reporter mRNA containing MS2-binding sites. Formation and localization of a GFP particle in

Edouard Bertrand; Pascal Chartrand; Matthias Schaefer; Shailesh M. Shenoy; Robert H. Singer; Roy M. Long

1998-01-01

54

Three Mating Type-Like Loci in Candida glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 23 September 2002\\/Accepted 6 January 2003 Candida glabrata, the second most prevalent Candida species colonizing humans, possesses three mating type-like (MTL) loci (MTL1, MTL2, and MTL3). These loci contain pairs of MTL genes with their respective coding regions on complementary Crick and Watson DNA strands. Each pair of genes is separated by a shared intergenic promoter region, the same

Thyagarajan Srikantha; Salil A. Lachke; David R. Soll

2003-01-01

55

Sequence diversity of mating-type genes in Phaeosphaeria avenaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phaeosphaeria avenaria, one of the causal agents of stagonospora leaf blotch diseases in cereals, is composed of two subspecies, P. avenaria f. sp. triticea (Pat) and P. avenaria f. sp. avenaria (Paa). The Pat subspecies was grouped into Pat1-Pat3, based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences in previous studies. Mating-type genes

Peter P. Ueng; Qun Dai; Kai-rong Cui; Pawe? C. Czembor; Barry M. Cunfer; H. Tsang; Edward Arseniuk; Gary C. Bergstrom

2003-01-01

56

Mating types in Paramecium and a molecular approach to their determination.  

PubMed

Mating types are expressed in ciliates for the duration of the mature period of their clonal cycle. During cell conjugation the reciprocal fertilization of complementary mating types takes place. Models of mating type determination in the Paramecium aurelia species complex based on classical genetics are reviewed including molecular aspects of the studies. PMID:22428300

Sawka, Natalia

2012-01-01

57

The Chlamydomonas Mating Type Plus Fertilization Tubule, a Prototypic Cell Fusion Organelle: Isolation, Characterization, and In Vitro Adhesion to Mating Type Minus Gametes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the biflagellated alga Chlamydomonas , adhesion and fusion of the plasma membranes of ga- metes during fertilization occurs via an actin-filled, mi- crovillus-like cell protrusion. Formation of this z 3- m m- long fusion organelle, the Chlamydomonas fertilization tubule, is induced in mating type plus (mt 1 ) gametes during flagellar adhesion with mating type minus (mt 2 )

Nedra F. Wilson; Mary J. Foglesong; William J. Snell

1997-01-01

58

Selecting One of Several Mating Types through Gene Segment Joining and Deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila  

PubMed Central

The unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila has seven mating types. Cells can mate only when they recognize cells of a different mating type as non-self. As a ciliate, Tetrahymena separates its germline and soma into two nuclei. During growth the somatic nucleus is responsible for all gene transcription while the germline nucleus remains silent. During mating, a new somatic nucleus is differentiated from a germline nucleus and mating type is decided by a stochastic process. We report here that the somatic mating type locus contains a pair of genes arranged head-to-head. Each gene encodes a mating type-specific segment and a transmembrane domain that is shared by all mating types. Somatic gene knockouts showed both genes are required for efficient non-self recognition and successful mating, as assessed by pair formation and progeny production. The germline mating type locus consists of a tandem array of incomplete gene pairs representing each potential mating type. During mating, a complete new gene pair is assembled at the somatic mating type locus; the incomplete genes of one gene pair are completed by joining to gene segments at each end of germline array. All other germline gene pairs are deleted in the process. These programmed DNA rearrangements make this a fascinating system of mating type determination.

Cervantes, Marcella D.; Hamilton, Eileen P.; Xiong, Jie; Lawson, Michael J.; Yuan, Dongxia; Hadjithomas, Michalis; Miao, Wei; Orias, Eduardo

2013-01-01

59

Selecting one of several mating types through gene segment joining and deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila.  

PubMed

The unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila has seven mating types. Cells can mate only when they recognize cells of a different mating type as non-self. As a ciliate, Tetrahymena separates its germline and soma into two nuclei. During growth the somatic nucleus is responsible for all gene transcription while the germline nucleus remains silent. During mating, a new somatic nucleus is differentiated from a germline nucleus and mating type is decided by a stochastic process. We report here that the somatic mating type locus contains a pair of genes arranged head-to-head. Each gene encodes a mating type-specific segment and a transmembrane domain that is shared by all mating types. Somatic gene knockouts showed both genes are required for efficient non-self recognition and successful mating, as assessed by pair formation and progeny production. The germline mating type locus consists of a tandem array of incomplete gene pairs representing each potential mating type. During mating, a complete new gene pair is assembled at the somatic mating type locus; the incomplete genes of one gene pair are completed by joining to gene segments at each end of germline array. All other germline gene pairs are deleted in the process. These programmed DNA rearrangements make this a fascinating system of mating type determination. PMID:23555191

Cervantes, Marcella D; Hamilton, Eileen P; Xiong, Jie; Lawson, Michael J; Yuan, Dongxia; Hadjithomas, Michalis; Miao, Wei; Orias, Eduardo

2013-03-26

60

An Exclusively Nuclear RNA-Binding Protein Affects Asymmetric Localization of ASH1 mRNA and Ash1p in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localization of ASH1 mRNA to the dis- tal tip of budding yeast cells is essential for the proper regulation of mating type switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . A localization element that is predominantly in the 3 9 -untranslated region (UTR) can direct this mRNA to the bud. Using this element in the three- hybrid in vivo RNA-binding assay, we

Roy M. Long; Wei Gu; Xiuhua Meng; Graydon Gonsalvez; Robert H. Singer; Pascal Chartrand

2001-01-01

61

A new yeast PUF family protein, Puf6p, represses ASH1 mRNA translation and is required for its localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ash1p, a protein determinant for mating-type switching, is segregated within the daughter cell nucleus to establish asymmetry of HO expression. The accumulation of Ash1p results from ASH1 mRNA that is sorted as a ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP or locasome) to the distal tip of the bud where translation occurs. To study the mechanism regulating ASH1 mRNA translation,

Wei Gu; Yingfeng Deng; Daniel Zenklusen; Robert H. Singer

2004-01-01

62

Dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in the fungus Microbotryum violaceum.  

PubMed Central

Fungi often mate as haploids, and sex chromosomes (i.e., mating-type chromosomes) that are dimorphic for their size or overall DNA content have never been reported in this kingdom. Using electrophoretic techniques for karyotype analysis, a highly dimorphic chromosome pair that determines mating compatibility is shown to occur in populations of the fungus Microbotryum violaceum. This substantiates the evolution of such dimorphism as a general feature associated with haploid determination of mating compatibility, which previously had been known only in haplodioecious plants (mosses and liverworts). Size-dimorphic sex chromosomes are present in a lineage of M. violaceum native to Europe, as well as a lineage native to North America. However, they are very different in size between these lineages, indicating either independent evolution of the dimorphism or a large degree of divergence since their isolation. Several DNA sequences that show sequence similarity to transposons were isolated from these sex chromosomes.

Hood, Michael E

2002-01-01

63

Asymmetrical cell division in Blepharisma japonicum: difference between daughter cells in mating-type expression.  

PubMed

In cell division of high-frequency-selfers in the ciliate Blepharisma japonicum, daughter cells are different in mating-type expression. The anterior daughter cell is mating type I. The posterior daughter cell is mating type II at first and then changes to mating type I after about 24 h. The anteroposterior polarity of predivision cells appears to correlate with the asymmetrical cell division. This work introduces a unicellular organism about the size of microscopic metazoa as a model system for the study of asymmetrical cell division, which is particularly important in developmental processes. PMID:2117545

Miyake, A; Harumoto, T

1990-09-01

64

Mating Type in Chlamydomonas Is Specified by Mid, the minus-Dominance Gene  

PubMed Central

Diploid cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that are heterozygous at the mating-type locus (mt(+)/mt(-)) differentiate as minus gametes, a phenomenon known as minus dominance. We report the cloning and characterization of a gene that is necessary and sufficient to exert this minus dominance over the plus differentiation program. The gene, called mid, is located in the rearranged (R) domain of the mt(-) locus, and has duplicated and transposed to an autosome in a laboratory strain. The imp11 mt(-) mutant, which differentiates as a fusion-incompetent plus gamete, carries a point mutation in mid. Like the fus1 gene in the mt(+) locus, mid displays low codon bias compared with other nuclear genes. The mid sequence carries a putative leucine zipper motif, suggesting that it functions as a transcription factor to switch on the minus program and switch off the plus program of gametic differentiation. This is the first sex-determination gene to be characterized in a green organism.

Ferris, P. J.; Goodenough, U. W.

1997-01-01

65

Mating type gene analysis in apparently asexual Cercospora species is suggestive of cryptic sex.  

PubMed

The genus Cercospora consists of numerous important, apparently asexual plant pathogens. We designed degenerate primers from homologous sequences in related species to amplify part of the C. apii, C. apiicola, C. beticola, C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina mating type genes. Chromosome walking was used to determine the full length mating type genes of these species. Primers were developed to amplify and sequence homologous portions of the mating type genes of additional species. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed little variation among members of the C. apii complex, whereas C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina were found to be dissimilar. The presence of both mating types in approximately even proportions in C. beticola, C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina populations, in contrast to single mating types in C. apii (MAT1) and C. apiicola (MAT2), suggests that a sexual cycle may be active in some of these species. PMID:16839791

Groenewald, Marizeth; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Harrington, Thomas C; Abeln, Edwin C A; Crous, Pedro W

2006-07-12

66

Tuber melanosporum: mating type distribution in a natural plantation and dynamics of strains of different mating types on the roots of nursery-inoculated host plants.  

PubMed

• In light of the recent finding that Tuber melanosporum, the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete that produces the most highly prized black truffles, is a heterothallic species, we monitored the spatial distribution of strains with opposite mating types (MAT) in a natural truffle ground and followed strain dynamics in artificially inoculated host plants grown under controlled conditions. • In a natural truffle ground, ectomycorrhizas (ECMs), soil samples and fruit bodies were sampled and genotyped to determine mating types. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were also used to fingerprint ECMs and fruit bodies. The ECMs from nursery-inoculated host plants were analysed for mating type at 6 months and 19 months post-inoculation. • In open-field conditions, all ECMs from the same sampling site showed an identical mating type and an identical haploid genotype, based on SSR analysis. Interestingly, the gleba of fruit bodies always demonstrated the same genotype as the surrounding ECMs. Although root tips from nursery-grown plants initially developed ECMs of both mating types, a dominance of ECMs of the same MAT were found after several months. • The present study deepens our understanding of the vegetative and sexual propagation modes of T. melanosporum. These results are highly relevant for truffle cultivation. PMID:20964691

Rubini, Andrea; Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Arcioni, Sergio; Martin, Francis; Paolocci, Francesco

2010-10-22

67

Evidence of Recombination in Mixed-Mating-Type and ?-Only Populations of Cryptococcus gattii Sourced from Single Eucalyptus Tree Hollows?  

PubMed Central

Disease caused by the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus gattii begins with the inhalation of an infectious propagule. As C. gattii is heavily encapsulated, this propagule is most likely to be a basidiospore. However, most C. gattii strains are infertile in laboratory crosses, and population studies indicate that recombination and dispersal are very restricted. In addition, strains of the ? mating type predominate, which would not be expected in a mating population. C. gattii comprises four genetically distinct molecular genotypes, designated VGI to VGIV. C. gattii molecular type VGI has a strong association with Eucalyptus camaldulensis and can be found in high numbers in E. camaldulensis hollows. Previous work on isolates obtained from E. camaldulensis suggested that environmental populations of C. gattii are highly fragmented, have limited ability to disperse, and are confined to individual tree hollows. In the current study, we examined large numbers of isolates from three separate hollows for evidence of recombination. In two hollows, the ? and a mating types were present in approximately equal numbers. The third hollow had ? cells only and was from a region where a isolates have never been found. Statistical analysis of multilocus genotypes revealed recombining subpopulations in the three Eucalyptus hollows. Recombination was equally present in the ?-a and ?-only populations. This is consistent with recent studies that have found evidence suggestive of ?-? mating in C. gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans and raises the possibility this may be a widespread phenomenon, allowing these fungi to recombine despite a paucity of a mating partners.

Saul, Nathan; Krockenberger, Mark; Carter, Dee

2008-01-01

68

Dimorphism and haploid fruiting in Cryptococcus neoformans: association with the alpha-mating type.  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen in AIDS and other immunosuppressed patients. We have shown that wild-type haploid C. neoformans can develop an extensive hyphal phase under appropriate conditions. Hyphae produced under these conditions are monokaryotic, possess unfused clamp connections, and develop basidia with viable basidiospores. The ability to undergo this transition is determined by the presence of the alpha-mating type locus and is independent of serotype. The association of the hyphal phase with the alpha-mating type may explain the preponderance of this mating type in the environment and the nature of the infectious propagule of C. neoformans. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Wickes, B L; Mayorga, M E; Edman, U; Edman, J C

1996-01-01

69

Mating-Type Locus of Cryptococcus neoformans: a Step in the Evolution of Sex Chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sexual development and virulence of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is controlled by a bipolar mating system determined by a single locus that exists in two alleles, and a. The and a mating-type alleles from two divergent varieties were cloned and sequenced. The C. neoformans mating-type locus is unique, spans >100 kb, and contains more than 20 genes. MAT-encoded

Klaus B. Lengeler; Deborah S. Fox; James A. Fraser; Andria Allen; Keri Forrester; Fred S. Dietrich; Joseph Heitman

2002-01-01

70

The mating types of Podospora anserina : functional analysis and sequence of the fertilization domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two idiomorphic alleles calledmat+ andmat-, which control the mating types inPodospora anserina, have been cloned.Mat+ andmat- encompass 3.8 kb and 4.7 kb respectively, of unrelated DNA sequences flanked by common sequences. Subcloning allowed the identification and localization in each locus of the gene that controls fertilization, probably by determining the mating type. Themat+ gene, calledFPR1, encodes a protein with

Robert Debuchy; Evelyne Coppin

1992-01-01

71

Chromosomal heteromorphism linked to the mating type locus of the oomycete Phytophthora infestans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mating type locus of the oomycete,Phytophthora infestans, is embedded in a region of DNA that displays distorted and non-Mendelian segregation. By using DNA probes linked to the mating type locus to genetically and physically characterize that region, a large zone of chromosomal heteromorphism was detected. LocusS1 was shown to represent a tandemly repeated array of DNA that was typically

Howard S. Judelson

1996-01-01

72

Characterization and distribution of mating type genes in the Dothistroma needle blight pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dothistroma septosporum and D. pini are the two causal agents of Dothistroma needle blight of Pinus spp. in natural forests and plantations. Degenerate primers amplified portions of mating type genes (MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2) and chromosome walking was applied to obtain the full-length genes in both species. The mating-type-specific primers designed in this study could distinguish between the morphologically similar D.

Marizeth Groenewald; Irene Barnes; Rosie E. Bradshaw; Anna V. Brown; Angie Dale; Johannes Z. Groenewald; Kathy J. Lewis; Brenda D. Wingfield; Michael J. Wingfield; Pedro W. Crous

2007-01-01

73

Meiotic nuclear reorganization: switching the position of centromeres and telomeres in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

PubMed Central

In fission yeast meiotic prophase, telomeres are clustered near the spindle pole body (SPB; a centrosome-equivalent structure in fungi) and take the leading position in chromosome movement, while centromeres are separated from the SPB. This telomere position contrasts with mitotic nuclear organization, in which centromeres remain clustered near the SPB and lead chromosome movement. Thus, nuclear reorganization switching the position of centromeres and telomeres must take place upon entering meiosis. In this report, we analyze the nuclear location of centromeres and telomeres in genetically well-characterized meiotic mutant strains. An intermediate structure for telomere-centromere switching was observed in haploid cells induced to undergo meiosis by synthetic mating pheromone; fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that in these cells, both telomeres and centromeres were clustered near the SPB. Further analyses in a series of mutants showed that telomere-centromere switching takes place in two steps; first, association of telomeres with the SPB and, second, dissociation of centromeres from the SPB. The first step can take place in the haploid state in response to mating pheromone, but the second step does not take place in haploid cells and probably depends on conjugation-related events. In addition, a linear minichromosome was also co-localized with authentic telomeres instead of centromeres, suggesting that telomere clustering plays a role in organizing chromosomes within a meiotic prophase nucleus.

Chikashige, Y; Ding, D Q; Imai, Y; Yamamoto, M; Haraguchi, T; Hiraoka, Y

1997-01-01

74

Mating-type genes for basidiomycete strain improvement in mushroom farming.  

PubMed

Mushroom production is dependent on the quality of the spawn used to inoculate the cultures. In order to produce high-quality spawn, breeding programs for strains resistant to certain diseases and able to form high-quality fruit bodies under standard growth conditions are necessary. The investigation of the molecular basis for mating provides access to the use of mating-type genes in order to facilitate breeding. For research purposes, two mushroom-forming homobasidiomycetes have been used due to their easy cultivation and sexual propagation on defined minimal media: Schizophyllum commune and Coprinus cinereus. The mating-type genes control formation of the dikaryon from two haploid strains. Only the dikaryon is fertile and able to form mushrooms under the right environmental conditions. These genes are now used in mating-type-assisted breeding programs for economically important mushrooms, especially the white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, and the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, aiming at high-yield and high-quality standard mushroom production. Most mushroom species posses two mating-type loci that control their breeding. The genes encoded in the A loci lead to the formation of transcription factors that belong to the class of homeodomain proteins. Active transcription factors are formed by heterodimerization of two proteins of different allelic specificities. In nature, this is only the case if two cells of different mating type have fused to combine the different proteins in one cytoplasm. While fusion in homobasidiomycetes is found irrespectively of mating type, exchange of nuclei between mating mycelia is dependent on the products of the B mating-type loci. The B genes form a pheromone and receptor system that enables the fungi to initiate nuclear migration. The molecular details of the two genetic systems controlling breeding in basidiomycetes are presented in this review. PMID:11601606

Kothe, E

2001-09-01

75

Molecular characterization of tol, a mediator of mating-type-associated vegetative incompatibility in Neurospora crassa.  

PubMed Central

The mating-type locus in the haploid filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, controls mating and sexual development. The fusion of reproductive structures of opposite mating type, A and a, is required to initiate sexual reproduction. However, the fusion of hyphae of opposite mating type during vegetative growth results in growth inhibition and cell death, a process that is mediated by the tol locus. Mutations in tol are recessive and suppress mating-type-associated heterokaryon incompatibility. In this study, we describe the cloning and characterization of tol. The tol gene encodes a putative 1011-amino-acid polypeptide with a coiled-coil domain and a leucine-rich repeat. Both regions are required for tol activity. Repeat-induced point mutations in tol result in mutants that are wild type during vegetative growth and sexual reproduction, but that allow opposite mating-type individuals to form a vigorous heterokaryon. Transcript analyses show that tol mRNA is present during vegetative growth but absent during a cross. These data suggest that tol transcription is repressed to allow the coexistence of opposite mating-type nuclei during the sexual reproductive phase. tol is expressed in a mat A, mat a, A/a partial diploid and in a mating-type deletion strain, indicating that MAT A-1 and MAT a-1 are not absolutely required for transcription or repression of tol. These data suggest that TOL may rather interact with MAT A-1 and/or MAT a-1 (or downstream products) to form a death-triggering complex.

Shiu, P K; Glass, N L

1999-01-01

76

Suppressed recombination and a pairing anomaly on the mating-type chromosome of Neurospora tetrasperma.  

PubMed Central

Neurospora crassa and related heterothallic ascomycetes produce eight homokaryotic self-sterile ascospores per ascus. In contrast, asci of N. tetrasperma contain four self-fertile ascospores each with nuclei of both mating types (matA and mata). The self-fertile ascospores of N. tetrasperma result from first-division segregation of mating type and nuclear spindle overlap at the second meiotic division and at a subsequent mitotic division. Recently, Merino et al. presented population-genetic evidence that crossing over is suppressed on the mating-type chromosome of N. tetrasperma, thereby preventing second-division segregation of mating type and the formation of self-sterile ascospores. The present study experimentally confirmed suppressed crossing over for a large segment of the mating-type chromosome by examining segregation of markers in crosses of wild strains. Surprisingly, our study also revealed a region on the far left arm where recombination is obligatory. In cytological studies, we demonstrated that suppressed recombination correlates with an extensive unpaired region at pachytene. Taken together, these results suggest an unpaired region adjacent to one or more paired regions, analogous to the nonpairing and pseudoautosomal regions of animal sex chromosomes. The observed pairing and obligate crossover likely reflect mechanisms to ensure chromosome disjunction.

Gallegos, A; Jacobson, D J; Raju, N B; Skupski, M P; Natvig, D O

2000-01-01

77

Roles for Receptors, Pheromones, G Proteins, and Mating Type Genes During Sexual Reproduction in Neurospora crassa  

PubMed Central

Here we characterize the relationship between the PRE-2 pheromone receptor and its ligand, CCG-4, and the general requirements for receptors, pheromones, G proteins, and mating type genes during fusion of opposite mating-type cells and sexual sporulation in the multicellular fungus Neurospora crassa. PRE-2 is highly expressed in mat a cells and is localized in male and female reproductive structures. ?pre-2 mat a females do not respond chemotropically to mat A males (conidia) or form mature fruiting bodies (perithecia) or meiotic progeny (ascospores). Strains with swapped identity due to heterologous expression of pre-2 or ccg-4 behave normally in crosses with opposite mating-type strains. Coexpression of pre-2 and ccg-4 in the mat A background leads to self-attraction and development of barren perithecia without ascospores. Further perithecial development is achieved by inactivation of Sad-1, a gene required for meiotic gene silencing. Findings from studies involving forced heterokaryons of opposite mating-type strains show that presence of one receptor and its compatible pheromone is necessary and sufficient for perithecial development and ascospore production. Taken together, the results demonstrate that although receptors and pheromones control sexual identity, the mating-type genes (mat A and mat a) must be in two different nuclei to allow meiosis and sexual sporulation to occur.

Kim, Hyojeong; Wright, Sara J.; Park, Gyungsoon; Ouyang, Shouqiang; Krystofova, Svetlana; Borkovich, Katherine A.

2012-01-01

78

Microbiological characteristics of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans in Taiwan: serotypes, mating types, molecular types, virulence factors, and antifungal susceptibility.  

PubMed

This study investigated the microbiological characteristics of 100 clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans species complex, including serotypes, mating types, molecular types, antifungal susceptibility and virulence. The isolates were collected at National Taiwan University Hospital from 1999 to 2004. Eight isolates of C. neoformans from pigeon droppings were also evaluated. Among these isolates, 99 were C. neoformans var. grubii serotype A and one was C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B. All of these isolates were alpha mating types. PCR fingerprinting, generated by primers M13 and (GACA)(4), and URA5 gene restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that C. neoformans var. grubii isolates belonged to the VNI (98 isolates) and the VNII (one isolate) types, and the single C. neoformans var. gattii was VGI type. The similar profiles of clinical and environmental isolates suggest that patients might acquire these yeasts from the environment. The MIC(90) for fluconazole, itraconazole, 5-flucytosine, voriconazole and amphotericin B against all C. neoformans isolates were 8, 0.5, 4, 0.125 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. All clinical isolates produced urease, phospholipase, capsule and melanin, but these activities varied with individual isolates. Analysis of six clinical and two environmental isolates with various levels of phospholipase activity indicated a correlation between phospholipase activity and the ability to adhere to the lung epithelial cell line, A549. The extent of cell damage, as indicated by lactate dehydrogenase release, also paralleled the phospholipase activity of these isolates. In addition, production of melanin contributed significant protection against amphotericin B killing of the isolates tested. PMID:19694765

Liaw, S-J; Wu, H-C; Hsueh, P-R

2009-08-20

79

Mating type gene (MAT1-1) in Japanese isolates of Trichophyton rubrum.  

PubMed

Trichophyton rubrum is an anthropophilic species that is the most frequent etiologic agent of human dermatophytosis throughout the world. No teleomorph has been identified for T. rubrum strains. This study used PCR analysis to confirm the presence of a mating type locus in the genome of Japanese isolates of T. rubrum. To clarify the epidemiological and ecological characteristics of this fungus, mating type sequences were tested for correlation of MAT genotype to mating type. This study examined clinical isolates of T. rubrum that had been obtained from 206 human cases of tinea pedis and tinea unguium in Japan, including those from Fukuoka (29 strains), Gifu (23 strains), Kanazawa (63 strains), and Tokyo (91 strains), along with 10 isolates derived from 10 cases of canine dermatophytosis. PCR detected the presence of MAT1-1 in all of the human and animal isolates. Therefore, all isolates examined were expected to react as (-) type on the mating test and not as (+) type. PMID:23212652

Kano, Rui; Isizuka, Maiko; Hiruma, Masataro; Mochizuki, Takashi; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

2012-12-02

80

Identification of the Mating-Type (MAT) Locus That Controls Sexual Reproduction of Blastomyces dermatitidis  

PubMed Central

Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungal pathogen that primarily causes blastomycosis in the midwestern and northern United States and Canada. While the genes controlling sexual development have been known for a long time, the genes controlling sexual reproduction of B. dermatitidis (teleomorph, Ajellomyces dermatitidis) are unknown. We identified the mating-type (MAT) locus in the B. dermatitidis genome by comparative genomic approaches. The B. dermatitidis MAT locus resembles those of other dimorphic fungi, containing either an alpha-box (MAT1-1) or an HMG domain (MAT1-2) gene linked to the APN2, SLA2, and COX13 genes. However, in some strains of B. dermatitidis, the MAT locus harbors transposable elements (TEs) that make it unusually large compared to the MAT locus of other dimorphic fungi. Based on the MAT locus sequences of B. dermatitidis, we designed specific primers for PCR determination of the mating type. Two B. dermatitidis isolates of opposite mating types were cocultured on mating medium. Immature sexual structures were observed starting at 3 weeks of coculture, with coiled-hyphae-containing cleistothecia developing over the next 3 to 6 weeks. Genetic recombination was detected in potential progeny by mating-type determination, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses, suggesting that a meiotic sexual cycle might have been completed. The F1 progeny were sexually fertile when tested with strains of the opposite mating type. Our studies provide a model for the evolution of the MAT locus in the dimorphic and closely related fungi and open the door to classic genetic analysis and studies on the possible roles of mating and mating type in infection and virulence.

Li, Wenjun; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Walton, Eric; Averette, Anna Floyd; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Cuomo, Christina A.; Klein, Bruce S.

2013-01-01

81

Mating-Type Genes from the Homothallic Fungus Sordaria Macrospora Are Functionally Expressed in a Heterothallic Ascomycete  

PubMed Central

Homokaryons from the homothallic ascomycte Sordaria macrospora are able to enter the sexual pathway and to form fertile fruiting bodies. To analyze the molecular basis of homothallism and to elucidate the role of mating-products during fruiting body development, we cloned and sequenced the entire S. macrospora mating-type locus. Comparison of the Sordaria mating-type locus with mating-type idiomorphs from the heterothallic ascomycetes Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina revealed that sequences from both idiomorphs (A/a and mat-/mat+, respectively) are contiguous in S. macrospora. DNA sequencing of the S. macrospora mating-type region allowed the identification of four open reading frames (ORFs), which were termed Smt-a1, SmtA-1, SmtA-2 and SmtA-3. While Smt-a1, SmtA-1, and SmtA-2 show strong sequence similarities with the corresponding N. crassa mating-type ORFs, SmtA-3 has a chimeric character. It comprises sequences that are similar to the A and a mating-type idiomorph from N. crassa. To determine functionality of the S. macrospora mating-type genes, we show that all ORFs are transcriptionally expressed. Furthermore, we transformed the S. macrospora mating-type genes into mat- and mat+ strains of the closely related heterothallic fungus P. anserina. The transformation experiments show that mating-type genes from S. macrospora induce fruiting body formation in P. anserina.

Poggeler, S.; Risch, S.; Kuck, U.; Osiewacz, H. D.

1997-01-01

82

Identification of an Asymmetrically Localized Determinant, Ash1p, Required for Lineage-Specific Transcription of the Yeast HO Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

S. cerevisiae cells exhibit asymmetric determination of cell fate. Cell division yields a mother cell, which is competent to transcribe the HO gene and switch mating type, and a daughter cell, which is not. We have isolated a mutant in which daughters transcribe HO and switch mating type. This mutation defines the ASH1 gene (asymmetric synthesis of HO). Deletion and

Anita Sil; Ira Herskowitz

1996-01-01

83

CLONING AND ANALYSIS OF THE MATING-TYPE IDIOMORPHS FROM THE BARLEY PATHOGENSEPTORIA PASSERINII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One hypothesis to explain the lack of a known sexual stage (teleomorph) for species of the fungal genus Septoria could be that many of them are recent, asexual derivatives of sexual species that have lost the ability to mate. To test this hypothesis, the mating-type region of S. passerinii, a specie...

84

Ascospore dimorphism-associated mating types of Sclerotinia trifoliorum equally capable of infecting chickpea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia trifoliorum causes stem and crown rot of chickpea and other forage and grain legumes, and is one of the three important species of the genus Sclerotinia. S. trifoliorum is unique from the other two species in that it is heterothallic and has two opposite mating types required for comple...

85

Extensive divergence between mating-type chromosomes of the anther-smut fungus.  

PubMed

Genomic regions that determine mating compatibility are subject to distinct evolutionary forces that can lead to a cessation of meiotic recombination and the accumulation of structural changes between members of the homologous chromosome pair. The relatively recent discovery of dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in fungi can aid the understanding of sex chromosome evolution that is common to dioecious plants and animals. For the anther-smut fungus, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (= M. violaceum isolated from Silene latifolia), the extent of recombination cessation on the dimorphic mating-type chromosomes has been conflictingly reported. Comparison of restriction digest optical maps for the two mating-type chromosomes shows that divergence extends over 90% of the chromosome lengths, flanked at either end by two pseudoautosomal regions. Evidence to support the expansion of recombination cessation in stages from the mating-type locus toward the pseudoautosomal regions was not found, but evidence of such expansion could be obscured by ongoing processes that affect genome structure. This study encourages the comparison of forces that may drive large-scale recombination suppression in fungi and other eukaryotes characterized by dimorphic chromosome pairs associated with sexual life cycles. PMID:23150606

Hood, Michael E; Petit, Elsa; Giraud, Tatiana

2012-11-12

86

Phylogenetic and structural analyses of the mating-type loci in Clavicipitaceae.  

PubMed

Entomopathogens and other econutritional fungi belonging to Clavicipitaceae were phylogenetically analyzed on the basis of the 18S rRNA gene and mating-type genes (MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1). The phylogenies of the mating-type genes yielded better resolutions than that of 18S rRNA gene. Entomopathogens (Cordyceps bassiana, Cordyceps brongniartii, Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps sinclairii, Cordyceps takaomontana, Isaria cateniannulata, Isaria farinosa, Isaria fumosorosea, Isaria javanica, Lecanicillium muscarium and Torrubiella flava) were considered as a phylogenetically defined group, and were closely related to mycopathogens (Lecanicillium psalliotae and Verticillium fungicola). They located at more descendant positions in the mating-type trees than other fungi, and lacked the mating-type gene MAT1-1-3. The deletion of MAT1-1-3 was supposed to have occurred once in Clavicipitaceae, and a good indication for the evolution of Clavicipitaceae. Other entomopathogens (Cordyceps cylindrica, Cordyceps subsessilis, Metarhizium anisopliae and Nomuraea rileyi) and pathogens of plants, nematodes and slime molds, were relatively related to each other, and possessed MAT1-1-3, but were supposed to be heterogeneous. Root-associated fungi did not form any clade with other species. PMID:17064371

Yokoyama, Eiji; Arakawa, Masao; Yamagishi, Kenzo; Hara, Akira

2006-11-01

87

The Unusual Sexual Preferences of a Chlamydomonas Mutant May Provide Insight into Mating-Type Evolution  

PubMed Central

Chlamydomonas monoica undergoes intraclonal mating-type differentiation (homothallism). Although the species differs in this regard from the more commonly studied heterothallic C. reinhardtii, cell-cell interactions and progression of the sexual cycle are similar for many homothallic and heterothallic species of the genus. Regulation of chloroplast gene transmission by the nuclear mating-type alleles (mt(+) and mt(-)) is another common denominator for Chlamydomonas species studied thus far. We have previously reported the use of chloroplast inheritance patterns to identify mutants of C. monoica that have lost the potential to function as the mt(+) mating-type. A similar screening procedure led to the isolation of an unusual mutant, mtl-3 whose phenotype is less readily explained. Chloroplast gene transmission patterns in crosses involving mtl-3 suggest that the mtl-3 strain mates preferentially as mt(+). However, normal mating efficiencies and high zygospore viability are observed in clonal culture, indicating the unbiased production of functional opposite mating-types. By construction of appropriately marked strains we have been able to show that mtl-3 mt(-) gametes prefer the mt(+) gametes of their own strain. A model is presented which invokes unequal crossing over between highly homologous flagellar agglutinin genes to account for the unusual properties of the mtl-3 strain and for the evolution of mating barriers within the genus.

Van-Winkle-Swift, K. P.; Thuerauf, D. J.

1991-01-01

88

LOW DIVERSITY OF VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY TYPES AND MATING TYPE OF CRYPHONECTRIA PARASITICA IN THE SOUTHERN BALKANS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diversity of vegetative compatibility types and mating type was estimated in populations of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, throughout Macedonia and selected areas in Greece. Nearly all of the 786 isolates from Macedonia were in a single vc type, EU-12; all 379 isolates fr...

89

The mating-type-related bias of gene conversion in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

PubMed

The mating-type bias (mat-bias) of gene conversion was previously described as a phenomenon in which the number of prototrophic recombinants in an ura4A heteroallelic two-factor cross relates to the mating types of the parents. We show now that the mat-bias is restricted neither to ura4A nor to recombination hotspots, but occurs at other genomic loci, too. It is specific for gene conversion and absent in azygotic meiosis. Thus, the mat-bias must originate from mating-type-specific "imprinting" events before karyogamy takes place. Structural variations of the mating-type locus, such as h(+N), h(+S), h(-S), h(+smtDelta), or h(-smtDelta), showed mat-bias manifestation. Mutations in genes coding for histone acetylase (gcn5, ada2) and histone deacetylase (hos2, clr6) activities smooth or abolish the mat-bias. In addition, the mat-bias depends on the presence of Swi5. We propose a new role for Swi5 and the histone acetylation status in mat-bias establishment through directionality of repair from the intact chromatid to the broken chromatid. PMID:18845847

Parvanov, Emil; Kohli, Juerg; Ludin, Katja

2008-10-09

90

Regulation of transcription in expressed and unexpressed mating type cassettes of yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes that control the a, alpha and a\\/alpha cell types in Saccharomyces are carried on transposable elements known as a and alpha cassettes which reside at three different chromosomal loci. Examination of the transcripts by R-looping and filter hybridization indicates that each cassette is capable of producing two divergent transcripts. Cassettes at the MAT locus are transcribed constitutively. Transcription

Amar J. S. Klar; Jeffrey N. Strathern; James R. Broach; James B. Hicks

1981-01-01

91

Presence of a and a Mating Types in Environmental and Clinical Collections of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii Strains from Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii lives in association with certain species of eucalyptus trees and is a causative agent of cryptococcosis. It exists as two mating types, MATa and MATa, which is determined by a single-locus, two-allele system. In the closely related C. neoformans var. neoformans, the a mating type has been found to outnumber its a counterpart by at least

C. L. HALLIDAY; T. BUI; M. KROCKENBERGER; R. MALIK; D. H. ELLIS; D. A. CARTER

1999-01-01

92

Population structure and mating type distribution of the chickpea blight pathogen Ascochyta rabiei from Pakistan and United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascochyta blight caused by the fungus Ascochyta rabiei (AR) depresses chickpea production in Pakistan and worldwide. Thirty two AR isolates representing six geographical regions of Pakistan was compared with a US AR population for frequency of mating types and genetic variation. Mating type results ...

93

Distribution of mating type alleles in the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola over spatial scales from lesions to continents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 2035 Mycosphaerella graminicola strains collected from 16 geographic locations on four continents were assayed for the mating type locus. RFLP fingerprints were used to identify clones in each population. At the smallest spatial scale analyzed, both mating types were found among fungal strains sampled from different lesions of the same leaf as well as from different pycnidia

J. Zhan; G. H. J. Kema; C. Waalwijk; B. A. McDonalda

2002-01-01

94

Mating-type genes for basidiomycete strain improvement in mushroom farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushroom production is dependent on the quality of the spawn used to inoculate the cultures. In order to produce high-quality spawn, breeding programs for strains resistant to certain diseases and able to form high-quality fruit bodies under standard growth conditions are necessary. The investigation of the molecular basis for mating provides access to the use of mating-type genes in order

E. Kothe

2001-01-01

95

Genetic Structure of the Mating-Type Locus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portions of the cloned mating-type (MT) loci (mt and mt )o fChlamydomonas reinhardtii, defined as the 1-Mb domains of linkage group VI that are under recombinational suppression, were subjected to North- ern analysis to elucidate their coding capacity. The four central rearranged segments of the loci were found to contain both housekeeping genes (expressed during several life-cycle stages) and mating-related

Patrick J. Ferris; E. Virginia Armbrust; Ursula W. Goodenough

96

Molecular Organization of Mating Type Loci in Heterothallic, Homothallic, and Asexual Gibberella\\/ Fusarium Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating type (MAT) genes were cloned from three members of the Gibberella\\/Fusarium complex that differ in reproductive mode: heterothallic G. fujikuroi, homothallic G. zeae, and asexual F. oxysporum. The G. fujikuroi MAT locus organization is typical of other heterothallic pyrenomycetes characterized to date; i.e., there are three genes at MAT1-1 and one at MAT1-2. G. zeae has homologues of all

Sung-Hwan Yun; Tsutomu Arie; Isao Kaneko; O. C. Yoder; B. Gillian Turgeon

2000-01-01

97

Conservation of the b mating-type gene complex among bipolar and tetrapolar smut fungi.  

PubMed Central

In the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago hordei, one locus with two alternate alleles, MAT-1 and MAT-2, controls mating and the establishment of the infectious dikaryon (bipolar mating). In contrast, for U. maydis, these functions are associated with two different gene complexes, called a and b (tetrapolar mating); the a complex has two alternate specificities, and the b gene complex is multiallelic. We have found homologs for the b gene complex in U. hordei and have cloned one from each mating type using sequences from one bEast allele of U. maydis as a probe. Sequence analysis revealed two divergent open reading frames in each b complex, which we called bW (bWest) and bE (bEast) in analogy with the b gene complex of U. maydis. The predicted bW and bE gene products from the two different mating types showed approximately 75% identity when homologous polypeptides were compared. All of the characterized bW and bE gene products have variable amino-terminal regions, conserved carboxy-terminal regions, and similar homeodomain motifs. Sequence comparisons with the bW1 and bE1 genes of U. maydis showed conservation in organization and structure. Transformation of the U. hordei b gene complex into a U. hordei strain of opposite mating type showed that the b genes from the two mating types are functional alleles. The U. hordei b genes, when introduced into U. maydis, rendered the haploid transformants weakly pathogenic on maize. These results indicate that structurally and functionally conserved b genes are present in U. hordei.

Bakkeren, G; Kronstad, J W

1993-01-01

98

Serotypes and mating types of clinical strains of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one strains ofCryptococcus neoformans isolated from patients in Taiwan were characterized for serotypes and mating types. Slide agglutination test was performed with 8 factor-specific sera (Iatron Company, Japan) to determine the serotypes. Wheat bran agar (WBA) and malt extract agar (MEA, Wickerham) media were used for the mating tests. Twenty of the isolates were of serotype A, and one was

Mark Ming-Long Hsu; Jen-Chyi Chang; Koji Yokoyama; Kazuko Nishimura; Makoto Miyaji

1994-01-01

99

Mating type genes and cryptic sexuality as tools for genetically manipulating industrial molds.  

PubMed

A large number of molds serve as producer strains for the industrial production of pharmaceuticals, foods, or organic chemicals. To optimize strains for production processes, conventional strain development programs use random mutagenesis and, more recently, recombinant technologies to generate microbial strains with novel and advantageous properties. The recent detection of mating type genes in fungal production strains and the discovery of cryptic sexuality in presumably asexual fungi open up novel strategies for generating progeny with new, as yet unobserved properties. Mating type genes, which can be considered as "sex genes," not only direct sexual development but also regulate a broad range of fungal secondary metabolites. In addition, they control hyphal morphology, which has a direct impact on production processes that are often conducted in huge fermenter tanks. Here, we survey the occurrence and function of mating type genes that have been discovered in a wide range of industrial fungal producer strains. The possibility to obtain progeny from industrial producers by sexual mating provides an exciting alternative to conventional strain improvement programs aiming to generate optimized recombinant production strains. PMID:24085397

Kück, Ulrich; Böhm, Julia

2013-10-02

100

The Search for Mating-Type-Limited Genes in the Homothallic Alga CHLAMYDOMONAS MONOICA  

PubMed Central

The non-Mendelian erythromycin resistance mutation ery-u1 shows bidirectional uniparental inheritance in crosses between homothallic ery-u1 and ery-u1+ strains of Chlamydomonas monoica . This inheritance pattern supports a general model for homothallism invoking intrastrain differentiation into opposite compatible mating types and, further, suggests that non-Mendelian inheritance is under mating-type (mt) control in C. monoica as in heterothallic species. However, the identification of genes expressed or required by one gametic cell type, but not the other, is essential to verify the existence of a regulatory mating-type locus in C. monoica and to understand its role in cell differentiation and sexual development. By screening for a shift from bidirectional to unidirectional transmission of the non-Mendelian ery-u1 marker, a mutant with an apparent mating-type-limited sexual cycle defect was obtained. The responsible mutation, mtl-1, causes a 1000-fold reduction in zygospore germination in populations homozygous for the mutant allele and, approximately, a 50% reduction in germination for heterozygous (mtl-1/mtl-1 +) zygospores. By next screening for strains unable to yield any viable zygospores in a cross to mtl-1, a second putative mating-type-limited mutant, mtl-2, was obtained. The mtl-2 strain, although self-sterile, mates efficiently with mtl-2+ strains and shows a unidirectional uniparental pattern of inheritance for the ery-u1 cytoplasmic marker, similar to that observed for crosses involving mtl-1. Genetic analysis indicates that mtl-1 and mtl-2 define unique unlinked Mendelian loci and that the sexual cycle defects of reduced germination (mtl-1) or self-sterility (mtl-2) cosegregate with the effect on ery-u1 cytoplasmic gene transmission. By analogy to C. reinhardtii, the mtl-1 and mtl-2 phenotypes can be explained if the expression of these gene loci is limited to the mt+ gametic cell type, or if the wild-type alleles at these loci are required for the normal formation and/or functioning of mt + gametes only.

VanWinkle-Swift, Karen P.; Hahn, Jang-Hee

1986-01-01

101

Flagellar adhesion between mating type plus and mating type minus gametes activates a flagellar protein-tyrosine kinase during fertilization in Chlamydomonas.  

PubMed

When Chlamydomonas gametes of opposite mating type are mixed together, flagellar adhesion through sex-specific adhesion molecules triggers a transient elevation of intracellular cAMP, leading to gamete activation in preparation for cell-cell fusion and zygote formation. Here, we have identified a protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity that is stimulated by flagellar adhesion. We determined that the protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibited fertilization, and that fertilization was rescued by dibutyryl cAMP, indicating that the genistein-sensitive step was upstream of the increase in cAMP. Incubation with ATP of flagella isolated from non-adhering and adhering gametes followed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies showed that adhesion activated a flagellar PTK that phosphorylated a 105-kDa flagellar protein. Assays using an exogenous protein-tyrosine kinase substrate confirmed that the activated PTK could be detected only in flagella isolated from adhering gametes. Our results indicate that stimulation of the PTK is a very early event during fertilization. Activation of the PTK was blocked when gametes underwent flagellar adhesion in the presence of the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine, but not in the presence of the cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, H8, which (unlike staurosporine) does not block the increases in cAMP. In addition, incubation of gametes of a single mating type in dibutyryl cAMP failed to activate the PTK. Finally, flagella adhesion between plus and minus fla10-1 gametes, which have a temperature-sensitive lesion in the microtubule motor protein kinesin-II, failed to activate the PTK at elevated temperatures. Our results show that kinesin-II is essential for coupling flagellar adhesion to activation of a flagellar PTK and cAMP generation during fertilization in Chlamydomonas. PMID:12821679

Wang, Qian; Snell, William J

2003-06-23

102

Mating-type genes and the genetic structure of a world-wide collection of the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum.  

PubMed

Two mating-type genes, designated MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1, were cloned and sequenced from the presumed asexual ascomycete Cladosporium fulvum (syn. Passalora fulva). The encoded products are highly homologous to mating-type proteins from members of the Mycosphaerellaceae, such as Mycosphaerella graminicola and Cercospora beticola. In addition, the two MAT idiomorphs of C. fulvum showed regions of homology and each contained one additional putative ORF without significant similarity to known sequences. The distribution of the two mating-type genes in a world-wide collection of 86 C. fulvum strains showed a departure from a 1:1 ratio (chi(2)=4.81, df=1). AFLP analysis revealed a high level of genotypic diversity, while strains of the fungus were identified with similar virulence spectra but distinct AFLP patterns and opposite mating-types. These features could suggest the occurrence of recombination in C. fulvum. PMID:17178244

Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Groenewald, Marizeth; Staats, Martijn; Lindhout, Pim; Crous, Pedro W; De Wit, Pierre J G M

2006-12-18

103

Chromosomal heteromorphism and an apparent translocation detected using a BAC contig spanning the mating type locus of Phytophthora infestans.  

PubMed

Genetic and physical irregularities associated with the mating type locus of the oomycete, Phytophthora infestans, were revealed by analyzing a contig spanning the locus that was constructed using a bacterial artificial chromosome library. Contigs from both homologs of an A1 strain A/a genotype at mating type locus) had chromosome-specific differences, flanked by regions of similarity. Such heteromorphism was detected within multiple isolates. The mating type locus was narrowed to a 60-70kb interval by genetic mapping of candidate genes, identified using a cDNA library. During these analyses, an unusual isolate of P. infestans was identified in which the mating type determinant had apparently translocated from its location in typical strains. Comparative mapping of the cDNAs between P. infestans and P. parasitica revealed partial synteny between the species however; substantial rearrangements existed and no cDNA was tightly linked to mating type in P. parasitica. These findings add to previous observations of unusual genetic behavior involving mating type in Phytophthora. PMID:12553938

Randall, Thomas A; Ah Fong, Audrey; Judelson, Howard S

2003-02-01

104

Scanning electron microscopy as a tool for the analysis of colony architecture produced by phenotypic switching of a human pathogenic yeast Candida tropicalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Candida tropicalis has been identified as one of the most prevalent pathogenic yeast species of the Candida-non-albicans group. Phenotypic switching is a biological phenomenon related to the occurrence of spontaneous emergence of colonies with different morphologies that provides variability within colonizing populations in order to adapt to different environments. Currently, studies of the microstructure of switching variant colonies are not subject of extensive research. SEM analysis was used to verify the architecture of whole Candida colonies. The strain 49/07 exhibited a hemispherical shape character, while the strain 335/07 showed a volcano shape with mycelated-edge colony. The ring switch variant is characterized by a highly wrinkled centre and an irregular periphery. The rough phenotype exhibited a three-dimensional architecture and was characterized by the presence of deep central and peripheral depressions areas. The ultrastructural analysis also allowed the observation of the arrangement of individual cells within the colonies. The whole smooth colony consisted entirely of yeast cells. Differently, aerial filaments were found all around the colony periphery of the volcano shape colony. For this colony type the mycelated-edge consisted mainly of hyphae, although yeast cells are also seen. The ring and rough colonies phenotypes comprised mainly yeast cells with the presence of extracellular material connecting neighbouring cells. This study has shown that SEM can be used effectively to examine the microarchitecture of colonies morphotypes of the yeast C. tropicalis and further our understanding of switching event in this pathogen.

Furlaneto, M. C.; Andrade, C. G. T. J.; Aragão, P. H. A.; França, E. J. G.; Moralez, A. T. P.; Ferreira, L. C. S.

2012-07-01

105

Presence and Functionality of Mating Type Genes in the Supposedly Asexual Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae  

PubMed Central

The potential for sexual reproduction in Aspergillus oryzae was assessed by investigating the presence and functionality of MAT genes. Previous genome studies had identified a MAT1-1 gene in the reference strain RIB40. We now report the existence of a complementary MAT1-2 gene and the sequencing of an idiomorphic region from A. oryzae strain AO6. This allowed the development of a PCR diagnostic assay, which detected isolates of the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genotypes among 180 strains assayed, including industrial tane-koji isolates. Strains used for sake and miso production showed a near-1:1 ratio of the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 mating types, whereas strains used for soy sauce production showed a significant bias toward the MAT1-2 mating type. MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isogenic strains were then created by genetic manipulation of the resident idiomorph, and gene expression was compared by DNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) methodologies under conditions in which MAT genes were expressed. Thirty-three genes were found to be upregulated more than 10-fold in either the MAT1-1 host strain or the MAT1-2 gene replacement strain relative to each other, showing that both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes functionally regulate gene expression in A. oryzae in a mating type-dependent manner, the first such report for a supposedly asexual fungus. MAT1-1 expression specifically upregulated an ?-pheromone precursor gene, but the functions of most of the genes affected were unknown. The results are consistent with a heterothallic breeding system in A. oryzae, and prospects for the discovery of a sexual cycle are discussed.

Wada, Ryuta; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Yamaguchi, Haruka; Yamamoto, Nanase; Wagu, Yutaka; Paoletti, Mathieu; Archer, David B.; Dyer, Paul S.

2012-01-01

106

Characterization of the mating-type genes in Leptographium procerum and Leptographium profanum.  

PubMed

Leptographium procerum and the closely related species Leptographium profanum, are ascomycetes associated with root-infesting beetles on pines and hardwood trees, respectively. Both species occur in North America where they are apparently native. L. procerum has also been found in Europe, China New Zealand, and South Africa where it has most probably been introduced. As is true for many other Leptographium species, sexual states have never been observed in L. procerum or L. profanum. The objectives of this study were to clone and characterize the mating type loci of these fungi, and to develop markers to determine the mating types of individual isolates. To achieve this, a partial sequence of MAT1-2-1 was amplified using degenerate primers targeting the high mobility group (HMG) sequence. A complete MAT1-2 idiomorph of L. profanum was subsequently obtained by screening a genomic library using the HMG sequence as a probe. Long range PCR was used to amplify the complete MAT1-1 idiomorph of L. profanum and both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs of L. procerum. Characterization of the MAT idiomorphs suggests that the MAT genes are fully functional and that individuals of both these species are self-sterile in nature with a heterothallic mating system. Mating type markers were developed and tested on a population of L. procerum isolates from the USA, the assumed center of origin for this species. The results suggest that cryptic sexual reproduction is occurring or has recently taken place within this population. PMID:23809651

Duong, Tuan A; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

2013-04-23

107

Characterization of Phytophthora infestans populations in Colombia: first report of the A2 mating type.  

PubMed

Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight in crops of the Solanaceae family, is one of the most important plant pathogens in Colombia. Not only are Solanum lycopersicum, and S. tuberosum at risk, but also several other solanaceous hosts (Physalis peruviana, S. betaceum, S. phureja, and S. quitoense) that have recently gained importance as new crops in Colombia may be at risk. Because little is known about the population structure of Phytophthora infestans in Colombia, we report here the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 97 isolates collected from these six different solanaceous plants in Colombia. All the isolates were analyzed for mating type, mitochondrial haplotypes, genotype for several microsatellites, and sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. This characterization identified a single individual of A2 mating type (from Physalis peruviana) for the first time in Colombia. All isolates had an ITS sequence that was at least 97% identical to the consensus sequence. Of the 97 isolates, 96 were mitochondrial haplotype IIa, with the single A2 isolate being Ia. All isolates were invariant for the microsatellites. Additionally, isolates collected from S. tuberosum and P. peruviana (64 isolates) were tested for: aggressiveness on both hosts, genotype for the isozymes (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and peptidase), and restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint pattern as detected by RG57. Isolates from S. tuberosum were preferentially pathogenic on S. tuberosum, and isolates from P. peruviana were preferentially pathogenic on P. peruviana. The population from these two hosts was dominated by a single clonal lineage (59 of 64 individuals assayed), previously identified from Ecuador and Peru as EC-1. This lineage was mating type A1, IIa for mitochondrial DNA, invariant for two microsatellites, and invariant for both isozymes. The remaining four A1 isolates were in lineages very closely related to EC-1 (named EC-1.1, CO-1, and CO-2). The remaining lineage (the A2 mating type) had characteristics of the US-8 lineage (previously identified in Mexico, the United States, and Canada). These results have important epidemiological implications for the production of these two crops in Colombia. PMID:19055438

Vargas, Angela M; Quesada Ocampo, Lina M; Céspedes, Maria Catalina; Carreño, Natalia; González, Adriana; Rojas, Alejandro; Zuluaga, A Paola; Myers, Kevin; Fry, William E; Jiménez, Pedro; Bernal, Adriana J; Restrepo, Silvia

2009-01-01

108

Comparative Genomics of the Mating-Type Loci of the Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Reveals Widespread Synteny and Recent Inversions  

PubMed Central

Background Mating-type loci of mushroom fungi contain master regulatory genes that control recognition between compatible nuclei, maintenance of compatible nuclei as heterokaryons, and fruiting body development. Regions near mating-type loci in fungi often show adapted recombination, facilitating the generation of novel mating types and reducing the production of self-compatible mating types. Compared to other fungi, mushroom fungi have complex mating-type systems, showing both loci with redundant function (subloci) and subloci with many alleles. The genomic organization of mating-type loci has been solved in very few mushroom species, which complicates proper interpretation of mating-type evolution and use of those genes in breeding programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We report a complete genetic structure of the mating-type loci from the tetrapolar, edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes mating type A3B3. Two matB3 subloci, matB3a that contains a unique pheromone and matB3b, were mapped 177 Kb apart on scaffold 1. The matA locus of F. velutipes contains three homeodomain genes distributed over 73 Kb distant matA3a and matA3b subloci. The conserved matA region in Agaricales approaches 350 Kb and contains conserved recombination hotspots showing major rearrangements in F. velutipes and Schizophyllum commune. Important evolutionary differences were indicated; separation of the matA subloci in F. velutipes was diverged from the Coprinopsis cinerea arrangement via two large inversions whereas separation in S. commune emerged through transposition of gene clusters. Conclusions/Significance In our study we determined that the Agaricales have very large scale synteny at matA (?350 Kb) and that this synteny is maintained even when parts of this region are separated through chromosomal rearrangements. Four conserved recombination hotspots allow reshuffling of large fragments of this region. Next to this, it was revealed that large distance subloci can exist in matB as well. Finally, the genes that were linked to specific mating types will serve as molecular markers in breeding.

van Peer, Arend F.; Park, Soon-Young; Shin, Pyung-Gyun; Jang, Kab-Yeul; Yoo, Young-Bok; Park, Young-Jin; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Sung, Gi-Ho; James, Timothy Y.; Kong, Won-Sik

2011-01-01

109

Maximum-likelihood estimation of rates of recombination within mating-type regions.  

PubMed

Features common to many mating-type regions include recombination suppression over large genomic tracts and cosegregation of genes of various functions, not necessarily related to reproduction. Model systems for homomorphic self-incompatibility (SI) in flowering plants share these characteristics. We introduce a method for the exact computation of the joint probability of numbers of neutral mutations segregating at the determinant of mating type and at a linked marker locus. The underlying Markov model incorporates strong balancing selection into a two-locus coalescent. We apply the method to obtain a maximum-likelihood estimate of the rate of recombination between a marker locus, 48A, and S-RNase, the determinant of SI specificity in pistils of Nicotiana alata. Even though the sampled haplotypes show complete allelic linkage disequilibrium and recombinants have never been detected, a highly significant deficiency of synonymous substitutions at 48A compared to S-RNase suggests a history of recombination. Our maximum-likelihood estimate indicates a rate of recombination of perhaps 3 orders of magnitude greater than the rate of synonymous mutation. This approach may facilitate the construction of genetic maps of regions tightly linked to targets of strong balancing selection. PMID:15342543

Takebayashi, Naoki; Newbigin, Ed; Uyenoyama, Marcy K

2004-08-01

110

Efficient Cloning of Ascomycete Mating Type Genes by PCR Amplification of the Conserved MAT HMG Box  

PubMed

Cloning of mating type (MAT) genes from ascomycetes has been hampered by low conservation among them. One of the pair of MAT genes, represented by MAT-2 of Cochliobolus heterostrophus (a loculoascomycete) and mt a of Neurospora crassa (a pyrenomycete), encodes a protein with a conserved DNA binding motif called the high mobility group (HMG) box. PCR with primer pairs corresponding to the borders of the C. heterostrophus and the N. crassa HMG boxes generated an approximately 0.3-kb product from genomic DNAs of MAT-2 and mt a strains, respectively, but not from MAT-1 and mt A strains. The C. heterostrophus primers amplified approximately 0.3-kb products from DNA of most loculoascomycete genera tested but not from DNA of pyrenomycete genera; this specificity was reversed with the N. crassa primers. The validity of the PCR procedure was documented by near sequence identity between the C. heterostrophus MAT-2 HMG box and PCR products from several Cochliobolus spp. and by cosegregation of the PCR product with mating type in progeny of Setosphaeria turcica and of Cryphonectria parasitica. Regions of the MAT locus flanking the HMG box were readily cloned using the TAIL-PCR procedure with a combination of random and specific primers. PMID:9073486

Christiansen; Yoder; Turgeon

1997-02-01

111

Efficient cloning of ascomycete mating type genes by PCR amplification of the conserved MAT HMG Box.  

PubMed

Cloning of mating type (MAT) genes from ascomycetes has been hampered by low conservation among them. One of the pair of MAT genes, represented by MAT-2 of Cochliobolus heterostrophus (a loculoascomycete) and mt a of Neurospora crassa (a pyrenomycete), encodes a protein with a conserved DNA binding motif called the high mobility group (HMG) box. PCR with primer pairs corresponding to the borders of the C. heterostrophus and the N. crassa HMG boxes generated an approximately 0.3-kb product from genomic DNAs of MAT-2 and mt a strains, respectively, but not from MAT-1 and mt A strains. The C. heterostrophus primers amplified approximately 0.3-kb products from DNA of most loculoascomycete genera tested but not from DNA of pyrenomycete genera; this specificity was reversed with the N. crassa primers. The validity of the PCR procedure was documented by near sequence identity between the C. heterostrophus MAT-2 HMG box and PCR products from several Cochliobolus spp. and by cosegregation of the PCR product with mating type in progeny of Setosphaeria turcica and of Cryphonectria parasitica. Regions of the MAT locus flanking the HMG box were readily cloned using the TAIL-PCR procedure with a combination of random and specific primers. PMID:9126621

Arie, T; Christiansen, S K; Yoder, O C; Turgeon, B G

1997-02-01

112

Mating Type Loci of Sporisorium reilianum: Novel Pattern with Three a and Multiple b Specificities  

PubMed Central

Sporisorium reilianum and Ustilago maydis are two closely related smut fungi, which both infect maize but differ fundamentally in their mode of plant invasion and site of symptom development. As a prelude to studying the molecular basis of these differences, we have characterized the mating type loci of S. reilianum. S. reilianum has two unlinked mating type loci, a and b. Genes in both loci and adjacent regions show a high degree of synteny to the corresponding genes of U. maydis. The b locus occurs in at least five alleles and encodes two subunits of a heterodimeric homeodomain transcription factor, while the a locus encodes a pheromone/receptor system. However, in contrast to that of U. maydis, the a locus of S. reilianum exists in three alleles containing two active pheromone genes each. The alleles of the a locus appear to have arisen through recent recombination events within the locus itself. This has created a situation where each pheromone is specific for recognition by only one mating partner.

Schirawski, Jan; Heinze, Bernadette; Wagenknecht, Martin; Kahmann, Regine

2005-01-01

113

The evolutionary trajectory of the mating-type (mat) genes in Neurospora relates to reproductive behavior of taxa  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative sequencing studies among a wide range of taxonomic groups, including fungi, have led to the discovery that reproductive genes evolve more rapidly than other genes. However, for fungal reproductive genes the question has remained whether the rapid evolution is a result of stochastic or deterministic processes. The mating-type (mat) genes constitute the master regulators of sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and here we present a study of the molecular evolution of the four mat-genes (mat a-1, mat A-1, mat A-2 and mat A-3) of 20 Neurospora taxa. Results We estimated nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates of genes to infer their evolutionary rate, and confirmed that the mat-genes evolve rapidly. Furthermore, the evolutionary trajectories are related to the reproductive modes of the taxa; likelihood methods revealed that positive selection acting on specific codons drives the diversity in heterothallic taxa, while among homothallic taxa the rapid evolution is due to a lack of selective constraint. The latter finding is supported by presence of stop codons and frame shift mutations disrupting the open reading frames of mat a-1, mat A-2 and mat A-3 in homothallic taxa. Lower selective constraints of mat-genes was found among homothallic than heterothallic taxa, and comparisons with non-reproductive genes argue that this disparity is not a nonspecific, genome-wide phenomenon. Conclusion Our data show that the mat-genes evolve rapidly in Neurospora. The rapid divergence is due to either adaptive evolution or lack of selective constraints, depending on the reproductive mode of the taxa. This is the first instance of positive selection acting on reproductive genes in the fungal kingdom, and illustrates how the evolutionary trajectory of reproductive genes can change after a switch in reproductive behaviour of an organism.

2008-01-01

114

Orchestration of sexual reproduction and virulence by the fungal mating-type locus.  

PubMed

The mating-type locus (MAT) orchestrates sexual reproduction in fungi. Sexual reproduction is related not only to fitness of an organism, but also correlated with virulence in certain pathogens. In the dandruff-associated fungus Malassesia globosa, although the sexual cycle remains to be discovered, whole genome analysis has led to the hypothesis that mating may occur on host skin. Furthermore, the MAT locus of M. globosa and U. hordei provides evidence that transitions between tetrapolar and bipolar systems have independently occurred. These results, together with studies recapitulating the ancestral tetrapolar mating system in Cryptococcus and the structure of MAT in related smut fungi, have furthered understanding on transitions between different mating systems and the evolution of MAT in the Basidiomycota. PMID:18935978

Hsueh, Yen-Ping; Heitman, Joseph

2008-11-05

115

Identification of the DNA-binding domains of the switch-activating-protein Sap1 from S.pombe by random point mutations screening in E.coli.  

PubMed Central

Mating type switching in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is initiated by a site-specific double-strand break (DSB) at the mat1 locus. The DSB is controlled from a distance by cis- and trans-acting elements. The switch-activating protein, Sap1 binds to the SAS1 cis-acting element which controls the frequency of the DSB at the mat1 locus and, consequently the efficiency of mating type switching. We developed a general method for screening randomly mutagenized expression libraries of DNA-binding protein in E.coli. Sap1 gene was mutagenized by PCR under conditions of reduced Taq polymerase fidelity. The mutated DNA was expressed in E.coli and screened for SAS1-recognition. This method was used to isolated 16 point mutations that abolished SAS1 interaction together with 18 mutations that did not affect binding. The position of these point mutations allowed the identification of three protein domains located in the N-terminal part of Sap1 that are essential for DNA-binding. Deletions and biochemical analysis showed that Sap1 is a dimer both in solution and when bound to SAS1 sequence. The dimerization domain was localized C-terminally to the three domains described above and when used in exess it inhibited DNA binding. Images

Arcangioli, B; Ghazvini, M; Ribes, V

1994-01-01

116

Identification of the DNA-binding domains of the switch-activating-protein Sap1 from S.pombe by random point mutations screening in E.coli.  

PubMed

Mating type switching in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is initiated by a site-specific double-strand break (DSB) at the mat1 locus. The DSB is controlled from a distance by cis- and trans-acting elements. The switch-activating protein, Sap1 binds to the SAS1 cis-acting element which controls the frequency of the DSB at the mat1 locus and, consequently the efficiency of mating type switching. We developed a general method for screening randomly mutagenized expression libraries of DNA-binding protein in E.coli. Sap1 gene was mutagenized by PCR under conditions of reduced Taq polymerase fidelity. The mutated DNA was expressed in E.coli and screened for SAS1-recognition. This method was used to isolated 16 point mutations that abolished SAS1 interaction together with 18 mutations that did not affect binding. The position of these point mutations allowed the identification of three protein domains located in the N-terminal part of Sap1 that are essential for DNA-binding. Deletions and biochemical analysis showed that Sap1 is a dimer both in solution and when bound to SAS1 sequence. The dimerization domain was localized C-terminally to the three domains described above and when used in exess it inhibited DNA binding. PMID:8065904

Arcangioli, B; Ghazvini, M; Ribes, V

1994-08-11

117

Centrosomal MPF triggers the mitotic and morphogenetic switches of fission yeast.  

PubMed

Activation of mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) drives mitotic commitment. In human cells active MPF appears first on centrosomes. We show that local activation of MPF on the equivalent organelle of fission yeast, the spindle pole body (SPB), promotes Polo kinase activity at the SPBs long before global MPF activation drives mitotic commitment. Artificially promoting MPF or Polo activity at various locations revealed that this local control of Plo1 activity on G2 phase SPBs dictates the timing of mitotic commitment. Cytokinesis of the rod-shaped fission yeast cell generates a naive, new, cell end. Growth is restricted to the experienced old end until a point in G2 phase called new end take off (NETO) when bipolar growth is triggered. NETO coincided with MPF activation of Plo1 on G2 phase SPBs (ref. 4). Both MPF and Polo activities were required for NETO and both induced NETO when ectopically activated at interphase SPBs. NETO promotion by MPF required polo. Thus, local MPF activation on G2 SPBs directs polo kinase to control at least two distinct and temporally separated, cell-cycle transitions at remote locations. PMID:23222840

Grallert, Agnes; Patel, Avinash; Tallada, Victor A; Chan, Kuan Yoow; Bagley, Steven; Krapp, Andrea; Simanis, Viesturs; Hagan, Iain M

2012-12-09

118

Simultaneous identification of molecular and mating types within the Cryptococcus species complex by PCR-RFLP analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cryptococcus species complex consists of two species, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, which cause systemic infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Both species have a bipolar mating system, with mating type (MAT) a being predominant in clinical and environmental isolates. The strains of the Cryptococcus species complex have been divided into eight major molecular types, which show differences

Xiaobo Feng; Zhirong Yao; Daming Ren; Wanqing Liao

2008-01-01

119

Mutations in mating-type genes of the heterothallic fungus Podospora anserina lead to self-fertility.  

PubMed Central

The heterothallic fungus Podospora anserina has two mating-type alleles termed mat+ and mat-. The mat+ sequence contains one gene, FPR1, while mat- contains three genes: FMR1, SMR1, and SMR2. FPR1 and FMR1 are required for fertilization, which is followed by mitotic divisions of the two parental nuclei inside the female organ. This leads to the formation of plurinucleate cells containing a mixture of parental mat+ and mat- nuclei. Further development requires a recognition between mat+ and mat- nuclei before migration of the mat+/mat- pairs into specialized hyphae in which karyogamy, meiosis, and ascospore formation take place. FPR1, FMR1, and SMR2 control this internuclear recognition step. Initial development of the dikaryotic stage is supposed to require SMR1; disruption of SMR1 results in barren perithecia. In a systematic search for suppressors restoring fertility, we isolated 15 suppressors-all of them mutations in the mating-type genes. These fmr1, smr2, and fpr1 mutants, as well as the strains disrupted for FMR1, SMR2, and FPR1, are weakly self-fertile. They are able to act as the male partner on a strain of the same mating type and give a mixture of biparental and uniparental progeny when crossed with a wild-type strain of opposite mating type. These observations lead us to propose that SMR2, FMR1, and FPR1 act as activators and repressors of fertilization and internuclear recognition functions.

Arnaise, S; Zickler, D; Le Bilcot, S; Poisier, C; Debuchy, R

2001-01-01

120

Cloning of the Lentinula edodes B mating-type locus and identification of the genetic structure controlling B mating.  

PubMed

During the life cycle of heterothallic tetrapolar Agaricomycetes such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, the mating type system, composed of unlinked A and B loci, plays a vital role in controlling sexual development and resulting formation of the fruit body. L. edodes is produced worldwide for consumption and medicinal purposes, and understanding its sexual development is therefore of great importance. A considerable amount of mating type factors has been indicated over the past decades but few genes have actually been identified, and no complete genetic structures of L. edodes B mating-type loci are available. In this study, we cloned the matB regions from two mating compatible L. edodes strains, 939P26 and 939P42. Four pheromone receptors were identified on each new matB region, together with three and four pheromone precursor genes in the respective strains. Gene polymorphism, phylogenetic analysis and distribution of pheromone receptors and pheromone precursors clearly indicate a bipartite matB locus, each sublocus containing a pheromone receptor and one or two pheromone precursors. Detailed sequence comparisons of genetic structures between the matB regions of strains 939P42, 939P26 and a previously reported strain SUP2 further supported this model and allowed identification of the B mating type subloci borders. Mating studies confirmed the control of B mating by the identified pheromone receptors and pheromones in L. edodes. PMID:24029079

Wu, Lin; van Peer, Arend; Song, Wenhua; Wang, Hong; Chen, Mingjie; Tan, Qi; Song, Chunyan; Zhang, Meiyan; Bao, Dapeng

2013-09-09

121

Mating-Type Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Cercospora sojina Populations on Soybean from Arkansas: Evidence for Potential Sexual Reproduction.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Cercospora sojina causes frogeye leaf spot of soybean, which can cause serious economic losses in the United States. In this study, 132 C. sojina isolates were collected from six fields (from two counties, Cross and Crawford) in Arkansas. To determine mating type, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with primers specific for C. sojina. Of the 132 isolates, 68 isolates had the MAT1-1-1 idiomorph and 64 isolates had the MAT1-2 idiomorph; no isolates possessed both idiomorphs. Both mating types were present in a variety of spatial scales, including separate lesions on individual leaves. Clone-corrected data from eight microsatellites indicated that mating-type loci were present in approximately equal proportions in all populations analyzed, which suggests that Arkansas populations of C. sojina are undergoing cryptic sexual reproduction. All six populations evaluated had high genotypic diversity of 26 to 79%. In addition, among strains isolated from a single leaf, multiple and distinct haplotypes were associated with both mating types, supporting the hypothesis that sexual reproduction occurs within the populations. Most populations showed significant gametic disequilibrium but levels of disequilibrium were relatively low, particularly in populations from Crawford County. A low differentiation index (GST) was observed for all simple-sequence repeat markers across all populations. Furthermore, the value of G statistics between populations suggests that significant genetic exchange exists among the populations. Taken together, these results demonstrate that C. sojina populations from Arkansas are genetically diverse and most likely undergoing sexual reproduction. PMID:23721180

Kim, Hun; Newell, Annakay D; Cota-Sieckmeyer, Robyn G; Rupe, John C; Fakhoury, Ahmad M; Bluhm, Burton H

2013-10-01

122

Characterization of Ascochyta rabiei for population structure, mating type and pathogenic variability from Pakistan and United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chickpea production is greatly hampered by blight causing fungal pathogen Ascochyta rabiei (AR) in chickpea growing regions of the world. Genetic variability and mating type frequency of thirty-two AR isolates from six geographical regions of Pakistan were compared with a US-AR population. Pakistani...

123

Analysis of Mycosphaerella Graminicola from California, Indiana, Kansas and North Dakota with Mating Type and SSR Markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Septoria tritici blotch, caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola, is one of the most important foliar diseases of wheat. Genetic diversity of 333 isolates of M. graminicola collected from spring (California, North Dakota) and winter wheat (Indiana, Kansas) was analyzed for mating type and 17 SSR marker...

124

DNA polymorphism in recombining and non-recombing mating-type-specific loci of the smut fungus Microbotryum  

PubMed Central

The population-genetic processes leading to the genetic degeneration of non-recombining regions have mainly been studied in animal and plant sex chromosomes. Here, we report population genetic analysis of the processes in the non-recombining mating-type-specific regions of the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum. M. violaceum has A1 and A2 mating types, determined by mating-type-specific ‘sex chromosomes' that contain 1–2?Mb long non-recombining regions. If genetic degeneration were occurring, then one would expect reduced DNA polymorphism in the non-recombining regions of this fungus. The analysis of DNA diversity among 19 M. violaceum strains, collected across Europe from Silene latifolia flowers, revealed that (i) DNA polymorphism is relatively low in all 20 studied loci (??0.15%), (ii) it is not significantly different between the two mating-type-specific chromosomes nor between the non-recombining and recombining regions, (iii) there is substantial population structure in M. violaceum populations, which resembles that of its host species, S. latifolia, and (iv) there is significant linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that widespread selfing in this species results in a reduction of the effective recombination rate across the genome. We hypothesise that selfing-related reduction of recombination across the M. violaceum genome negates the difference in the level of DNA polymorphism between the recombining and non-recombining regions, and may possibly lead to similar levels of genetic degeneration in the mating-type-specific regions of the non-recombining ‘sex chromosomes' and elsewhere in the genome.

Votintseva, A A; Filatov, D A

2011-01-01

125

Development of PCR based diagnostic techniques for the two mating types of Pyrenopeziza brassicae (light leaf spot) on winter oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ssp. oleifera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sets of PCR primers were designed from DNA sequence which flanked the 3? end of thePyrenopeziza brassicae mating type idiomorphs (MAT-1 and MAT-2). The first set of primers facilitated the amplification of a 750 bp product from genomic DNA of 50 isolates of P. brassicae , which included both mating types. The 750 bp PCR product was also amplified

S. J FOSTER; G SINGH; B. D. L FITT; A. M ASHBY

1999-01-01

126

Genetic structure of the mating-type locus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed Central

Portions of the cloned mating-type (MT) loci (mt(+) and mt(-)) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, defined as the approximately 1-Mb domains of linkage group VI that are under recombinational suppression, were subjected to Northern analysis to elucidate their coding capacity. The four central rearranged segments of the loci were found to contain both housekeeping genes (expressed during several life-cycle stages) and mating-related genes, while the sequences unique to mt(+) or mt(-) carried genes expressed only in the gametic or zygotic phases of the life cycle. One of these genes, Mtd1, is a candidate participant in gametic cell fusion; two others, Mta1 and Ezy2, are candidate participants in the uniparental inheritance of chloroplast DNA. The identified housekeeping genes include Pdk, encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and GdcH, encoding glycine decarboxylase complex subunit H. Unusual genetic configurations include three genes whose sequences overlap, one gene that has inserted into the coding region of another, several genes that have been inactivated by rearrangements in the region, and genes that have undergone tandem duplication. This report extends our original conclusion that the MT locus has incurred high levels of mutational change.

Ferris, Patrick J; Armbrust, E Virginia; Goodenough, Ursula W

2002-01-01

127

Female Fertility and Mating Type Effects on Effective Population Size and Evolution in Filamentous Fungi  

PubMed Central

The idealized individual in many fungal species is a haploid self-sterile hermaphrodite that may be propagated by asexually produced spores or that may reproduce sexually. In field populations, polymorphism occurs for female-sterile/hermaphrodite status, and female-sterile mutants, which function only as males during sexual reproduction, may comprise >50% of the population. The effective population number may be based on the number of strains of different mating type or the relative frequency of hermaphrodites. The female-sterile mutants are at a selective disadvantage every time sexual reproduction occurs, and must have an advantage during vegetative propagation to persist at a significant frequency. When a high frequency of female-sterile strains is observed in field populations, it indicates that vegetative propagation is a significant component of the fungus' natural history. Depending on the mutation rate to female sterility and the selective advantage of the female-sterile strains during vegetative propagation, the ratio of sexual:asexual generations can range from 1:15 to 1:2300 for species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex. The relative rarity of sexual reproduction may permit female-sterile strains to accumulate to a level such that local populations could completely lose sexuality and appear as asexual (imperfect) species.

Leslie, J. F.; Klein, K. K.

1996-01-01

128

Activation of the Cph1-Dependent MAP Kinase Signaling Pathway Induces White-Opaque Switching in Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Depending on the environmental conditions, the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can undergo different developmental programs, which are controlled by dedicated transcription factors and upstream signaling pathways. C. albicans strains that are homozygous at the mating type locus can switch from the normal yeast form (white) to an elongated cell type (opaque), which is the mating-competent form of this fungus. Both white and opaque cells use the Ste11-Hst7-Cek1/Cek2 MAP kinase signaling pathway to react to the presence of mating pheromone. However, while opaque cells employ the transcription factor Cph1 to induce the mating response, white cells recruit a different downstream transcription factor, Tec1, to promote the formation of a biofilm that facilitates mating of opaque cells in the population. The switch from the white to the opaque cell form is itself induced by environmental signals that result in the upregulation of the transcription factor Wor1, the master regulator of white-opaque switching. To get insight into the upstream signaling pathways controlling the switch, we expressed all C. albicans protein kinases from a tetracycline-inducible promoter in a switching-competent strain. Screening of this library of strains showed that a hyperactive form of Ste11 lacking its N-terminal domain (Ste11?N467) efficiently stimulated white cells to switch to the opaque phase, a behavior that did not occur in response to pheromone. Ste11?N467-induced switching specifically required the downstream MAP kinase Cek1 and its target transcription factor Cph1, but not Cek2 and Tec1, and forced expression of Cph1 also promoted white-opaque switching in a Wor1-dependent manner. Therefore, depending on the activation mechanism, components of the pheromone-responsive MAP kinase pathway can be reconnected to stimulate an alternative developmental program, switching of white cells to the mating-competent opaque phase.

Ramirez-Zavala, Bernardo; Weyler, Michael; Gildor, Tsvia; Schmauch, Christian; Kornitzer, Daniel; Arkowitz, Robert; Morschhauser, Joachim

2013-01-01

129

Activation of the Cph1-Dependent MAP Kinase Signaling Pathway Induces White-Opaque Switching in Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Depending on the environmental conditions, the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can undergo different developmental programs, which are controlled by dedicated transcription factors and upstream signaling pathways. C. albicans strains that are homozygous at the mating type locus can switch from the normal yeast form (white) to an elongated cell type (opaque), which is the mating-competent form of this fungus. Both white and opaque cells use the Ste11-Hst7-Cek1/Cek2 MAP kinase signaling pathway to react to the presence of mating pheromone. However, while opaque cells employ the transcription factor Cph1 to induce the mating response, white cells recruit a different downstream transcription factor, Tec1, to promote the formation of a biofilm that facilitates mating of opaque cells in the population. The switch from the white to the opaque cell form is itself induced by environmental signals that result in the upregulation of the transcription factor Wor1, the master regulator of white-opaque switching. To get insight into the upstream signaling pathways controlling the switch, we expressed all C. albicans protein kinases from a tetracycline-inducible promoter in a switching-competent strain. Screening of this library of strains showed that a hyperactive form of Ste11 lacking its N-terminal domain (Ste11(?N467)) efficiently stimulated white cells to switch to the opaque phase, a behavior that did not occur in response to pheromone. Ste11(?N467)-induced switching specifically required the downstream MAP kinase Cek1 and its target transcription factor Cph1, but not Cek2 and Tec1, and forced expression of Cph1 also promoted white-opaque switching in a Wor1-dependent manner. Therefore, depending on the activation mechanism, components of the pheromone-responsive MAP kinase pathway can be reconnected to stimulate an alternative developmental program, switching of white cells to the mating-competent opaque phase. PMID:24130492

Ramírez-Zavala, Bernardo; Weyler, Michael; Gildor, Tsvia; Schmauch, Christian; Kornitzer, Daniel; Arkowitz, Robert; Morschhäuser, Joachim

2013-10-10

130

Repressive chromatin affects factor binding at yeast HO (homothallic switching) promoter.  

PubMed

The yeast HO gene is tightly regulated, with multiple activators and coactivators needed to overcome repressive chromatin structures that form over this promoter. Coactivator binding is strongly interdependent, as loss of one factor sharply reduces recruitment of other factors. The Rpd3(L) histone deacetylase is recruited to HO at two distinct times during the cell cycle, first by Ash1 to the URS1 region of the promoter and then by SBF/Whi5/Stb1 to URS2. SBF itself is localized to only a subset of its potential binding sites in URS2, and this localization takes longer and is less robust than at other SBF target genes, suggesting that binding to the HO promoter is limited by chromatin structures that dynamically change as the cell cycle progresses. Ash1 only binds at the URS1 region of the promoter, but an ash1 mutation results in markedly increased binding of SBF and Rpd3(L) at URS2, some 450 bp distant from the site of Ash1 binding, suggesting these two regions of the promoter interact. An ash1 mutation also results in increased coactivator recruitment, Swi/Snf and Mediator localization in the absence of the normally required Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase, and HO expression even in the presence of a taf1 mutation affecting TFIID activity that otherwise blocks HO transcription. Ash1 therefore appears to play a central role in generating the strongly repressive environment at the HO promoter, which limits the binding of several coactivators at URS2 and TATA region. PMID:21840992

Takahata, Shinya; Yu, Yaxin; Stillman, David J

2011-08-12

131

Deletion of the mating-type sequences in Podospora anserina abolishes mating without affecting vegetative functions and sexual differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mating-type locus of Podospora anserina controls fusion of sexual cells as well as subsequent stages of development of the fruiting bodies. The two alleles at the locus are defined by specific DNA regions comprising 3.8 kb for mat+ and 4.7 kb for mat-, which have identical flanking sequences. Here we present the characterization of several mutants that have lost

Evelyne Coppin; Sylvie Arnaise; Véronique Contamine; Marguerite Picard

1993-01-01

132

What is a bona fide mating-type gene? Internuclear complementation of mat mutants in Podospora anserina  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the heterothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina, the mating-type locus is occupied by two mutually exclusive sequences termed mat+ and mat–. The mat+ sequence contains only one gene, FPR1, while the mat– sequence contains three genes: FMR1, SMR1 and SMR2. Previous studies have demonstrated that FPR1 and FMR1 are required for fertilization. Further analyses have led to the hypothesis that mat+

S. Arnaise; R. Debuchy; M. Picard

1997-01-01

133

The Transcription Factor Rbf1 Is the Master Regulator for b-Mating Type Controlled Pathogenic Development in Ustilago maydis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the phytopathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis, sexual and pathogenic development are tightly connected and controlled by the heterodimeric bE\\/bW transcription factor complex encoded by the b-mating type locus. The formation of the active bE\\/bW heterodimer leads to the formation of filaments, induces a G2 cell cycle arrest, and triggers pathogenicity. Here, we identify a set of 345 bE\\/bW responsive genes

Kai Heimel; Mario Scherer; Miroslav Vranes; Ramon Wahl; Chetsada Pothiratana; David Schuler; Volker Vincon; Florian Finkernagel; Ignacio Flor-Parra; Jörg Kämper

2010-01-01

134

Localization and properties of a silencing element near the mat3-M mating-type cassette of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

PubMed Central

Transcription is repressed in a segment of Schizosaccharomyces pombe chromosome II that encompasses the mat2-P and mat3-M mating-type cassettes. Chromosomal deletion analysis revealed the presence of a repressor element within 500 bp of mat3-M. This element acted in synergy with the trans-acting factors Swi6, Clr1, Clr2, Clr3, and Clr4 and had several properties characteristic of silencers: it did not display promoter specificity, being able to silence not only the M mating-type genes but also the S. pombe ura4 and ade6 genes placed on the centromere-distal side of the mat3-M cassette; it could repress a gene when placed further than 2.6 kb from the promoter and it acted in both orientations, although with different efficiencies, the natural orientation repressing more stringently than the reverse. Following deletion of this element, two semistable states of expression of the mat3-M region were observed and these two states could interconvert. The deletion did not affect gene expression in the vicinity of the mat2-P cassette, 11 kb away from mat3-M. Conversely, deleting 1.5 kb on the centromere-proximal side of the mat2-P cassette, which was previously shown to partially derepress transcription around mat2-P, had no effect on gene expression near mat3-M. A double deletion removing the mat2-P and mat3-M repressor elements had the same effect as the single deletions on their respective cassettes when assayed in cells of the M mating type. These observations allow us to refine a model proposing that redundant pathways silence the mating type region of S. pombe.

Thon, G; Bjerling, K P; Nielsen, I S

1999-01-01

135

Distribution of mating types and genetic diversity induced by sexual recombination in Setosphaeria turcica in northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature ascocarps and ascospores in the heterothallic ascomycete fungus, Setosphaeria turcica, were successfully produced in Sach’s medium with barley culm as the mating stimulator after four weeks’ coincubation of\\u000a two opposite mating type isolates at 25°C in darkness. A single isolate could not produce ascospores or ascocarps. The ascocarps\\u000a were produced on the exposed surface and embedded parts of barley

Yongshan Fan; Jifang Ma; Xiumei Gui; Xinlong An; Shuqin Sun; Jingao Dong

2007-01-01

136

Simultaneous identification of molecular and mating types within the Cryptococcus species complex by PCR-RFLP analysis.  

PubMed

The Cryptococcus species complex consists of two species, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, which cause systemic infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Both species have a bipolar mating system, with mating type (MAT) alpha being predominant in clinical and environmental isolates. The strains of the Cryptococcus species complex have been divided into eight major molecular types, which show differences in epidemiology, biology and pathogenicity. In this study, two PCR-RFLP analyses, based on the CAP1 and GEF1 genes, which are both located at the MAT locus, were developed for simultaneous identification of the molecular and mating types of isolates of the Cryptococcus species complex. The molecular and mating types of all 144 cryptococcal isolates, including rare subtypes, were successfully determined by both PCR-RFLP approaches. Pattern analysis of the AD hybrids revealed that the serotype A MATa allele in strains of AaDalpha derived from genotype VNB, whereas the serotype A MATalpha allele among strains of AalphaDa and AalphaDalpha derived from molecular type VNI. PMID:19018017

Feng, Xiaobo; Yao, Zhirong; Ren, Daming; Liao, Wanqing

2008-12-01

137

The Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Mating Type Locus (MAT) Contains a 3.6-kb Region That Is Inverted in Every Meiotic Generation  

PubMed Central

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a fungal plant pathogen and the causal agent of lettuce drop, an economically important disease of California lettuce. The structure of the S. sclerotiorum mating type locus MAT has previously been reported and consists of two idiomorphs that are fused end-to-end as in other homothallics. We investigated the diversity of S. sclerotiorum MAT using a total of 283 isolates from multiple hosts and locations, and identified a novel MAT allele that differed by a 3.6-kb inversion and was designated Inv+, as opposed to the previously known S. sclerotiorum MAT that lacked the inversion and was Inv-. The inversion affected three of the four MAT genes: MAT1-2-1 and MAT1-2-4 were inverted and MAT1-1-1 was truncated at the 3’-end. Expression of MAT genes differed between Inv+ and Inv- isolates. In Inv+ isolates, only one of the three MAT1-2-1 transcript variants of Inv- isolates was detected, and the alpha1 domain of Inv+ MAT1-1-1 transcripts was truncated. Both Inv- and Inv+ isolates were self-fertile, and the inversion segregated in a 1?1 ratio regardless of whether the parent was Inv- or Inv+. This suggested the involvement of a highly regulated process in maintaining equal proportions of Inv- and Inv+, likely associated with the sexual state. The MAT inversion region, defined as the 3.6-kb MAT inversion in Inv+ isolates and the homologous region of Inv- isolates, was flanked by a 250-bp inverted repeat on either side. The 250-bp inverted repeat was a partial MAT1-1-1 that through mediation of loop formation and crossing over, may be involved in the inversion process. Inv+ isolates were widespread, and in California and Nebraska constituted half of the isolates examined. We speculate that a similar inversion region may be involved in mating type switching in the filamentous ascomycetes Chromocrea spinulosa, Sclerotinia trifoliorum and in certain Ceratocystis species.

Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Wu, Bo-Ming; Subbarao, Krishna V.

2013-01-01

138

[Mating types in the ciliate Dileptus anser. Inheritance and genetic determination].  

PubMed

Hybridological analysis of mating types (MTs) has been first made for the lower ciliate Dileptus anser. Clones of an initially unknown genotype belonging to three MTs (MT I, MT II and MT III), characteristic of D. anser, were isolated from natural reservoirs and further used for crosses. In one group crosses, synclonal inheritance and typical Mendelian behaviour of the character were observed over sexual generations of ciliates. The results suggest that MTs in D. anser may be directly controlled by a single mat locus with three alleles showing peck-order dominance (mat1 > mat2 > mat3). In other words, cells with mat1/mat1, mat1/mat2 and mat1/mat3 genotypes belong to MT I, those with mat2/mat2 and mat2/mat3, and the mat3/mat3 belong to MT II and MT III, respectively. Sexually mature exconjugant clones stably retain their MTs corresponding to their genotypes on vegetative reproduction. The progeny of other group crosses showed various deviations from typical Mendelian behaviour of the character. In some cases, standard Mendelian ratios were more or less violated. Most typical was instability of differentiation for MT in maturing exconjugant clones. Shortly after their maturation, the majority of clones change their MT, rather frequently more than once, although the finally established MT is stably inherited afterwards, during vegetative reproduction. When unstable, exconjugant clones can successively express two or even three MTs characteristic of this species, including MTs that should not have been expected on the basis of parental genotypes available in a given cross. It looks likely that the mat locus in D. anser is complex and multipotential; it is inherited as a whole providing for expression of any MT characteristic of the species (in this respect bearing similarity with Tetrahymena thermophila). Other mechanisms, epigenetic in particular (Nanney, 1958), determine the final expression of one of the three MT potentialities by a given exconjugant clone. Stable, persistent functioning of these mechanisms ensures a stable differentiation for MT and Mendelian behaviour of the character in sexual generations and in crosses. Any disturbances in differentiation control may trigger MT instability in maturing exconjugant clones and violation of regular Mendelian behaviour. PMID:16841498

Iudin, A L; Uspenskaia, Z I

2006-01-01

139

White-opaque switching of Candida albicans allows immune evasion in an environment-dependent fashion.  

PubMed

Candida albicans strains that are homozygous at the mating type locus can spontaneously and reversibly switch from the normal yeast morphology (white) to an elongated cell type (opaque), which is the mating-competent form of the fungus. White-opaque switching also influences the ability of C. albicans to colonize and proliferate in specific host niches and its susceptibility to host defense mechanisms. We used live imaging to observe the interaction of white and opaque cells with host phagocytic cells. For this purpose, we generated derivatives of the switching-competent strain WO-1 that express green fluorescent protein from a white-specific promoter and red fluorescent protein from an opaque-specific promoter or vice versa. When mixed populations of these differentially labeled white and opaque cells were incubated with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) on a glass slide, the neutrophils selectively phagocytosed and killed white cells, despite frequent physical interaction with opaque cells. White cells were attacked only after they started to form a germ tube, indicating that the suppression of filamentation in opaque cells saved them from recognition by the PMNs. In contrast to neutrophils, dendritic cells internalized white as well as opaque cells. However, when embedded in a collagen matrix, the PMNs also phagocytosed both white and opaque cells with similar efficiency. These results suggest that, depending on the environment, white-opaque switching enables C. albicans to escape from specific host defense mechanisms. PMID:23125350

Sasse, Christoph; Hasenberg, Mike; Weyler, Michael; Gunzer, Matthias; Morschhäuser, Joachim

2012-11-02

140

Interaction of the A? Y and Z Mating-Type Homeodomain Proteins of Schizophyllum commune Detected by the Two-Hybrid System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The A? locus is one of four mating-type loci that control sexual development in Schizophyllum commune. A? has nine alternative mating types (A?1-A?9) which encode specific alleles of two homeodomain-related proteins, Y and Z. For example, proteins Y4 and Z4 are encoded by A?4, and Y5 and Z5 are encoded by A?5. Our previous studies showed that A?-regulated development is

Y. Magae; C. Novotny; R. Ullrich

1995-01-01

141

Functional Characterization of MAT1-1-Specific Mating-Type Genes in the Homothallic Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora Provides New Insights into Essential and Nonessential Sexual Regulators?†  

PubMed Central

Mating-type genes in fungi encode regulators of mating and sexual development. Heterothallic ascomycete species require different sets of mating-type genes to control nonself-recognition and mating of compatible partners of different mating types. Homothallic (self-fertile) species also carry mating-type genes in their genome that are essential for sexual development. To analyze the molecular basis of homothallism and the role of mating-type genes during fruiting-body development, we deleted each of the three genes, SmtA-1 (MAT1-1-1), SmtA-2 (MAT1-1-2), and SmtA-3 (MAT1-1-3), contained in the MAT1-1 part of the mating-type locus of the homothallic ascomycete species Sordaria macrospora. Phenotypic analysis of deletion mutants revealed that the PPF domain protein-encoding gene SmtA-2 is essential for sexual reproduction, whereas the ? domain protein-encoding genes SmtA-1 and SmtA-3 play no role in fruiting-body development. By means of cross-species microarray analysis using Neurospora crassa oligonucleotide microarrays hybridized with S. macrospora targets and quantitative real-time PCR, we identified genes expressed under the control of SmtA-1 and SmtA-2. Both genes are involved in the regulation of gene expression, including that of pheromone genes.

Klix, V.; Nowrousian, M.; Ringelberg, C.; Loros, J. J.; Dunlap, J. C.; Poggeler, S.

2010-01-01

142

Complex mechanisms regulate developmental expression of the matA (HMG) mating type gene in homothallic Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Sexual reproduction is a fundamental developmental process that allows for genetic diversity through the control of zygote formation, recombination, and gametogenesis. The correct regulation of these events is paramount. Sexual reproduction in filamentous fungi, including mating strategy (self-fertilization/homothallism or outcrossing/heterothallism), is determined by the expression of mating type genes at mat loci. Aspergillus nidulans matA encodes a critical regulator that is a fungal ortholog of the hSRY/SOX9 HMG box proteins. In contrast to well-studied outcrossing systems, the molecular basis of homothallism and role of mating type genes during a self-fertile sexual cycle remain largely unknown. In this study the genetic model organism, A. nidulans, has been used to investigate the regulation and molecular functions of the matA mating type gene in a homothallic system. Our data demonstrate that complex regulatory mechanisms underlie functional matA expression during self-fertilization and sexual reproduction in A. nidulans. matA expression is suppressed in vegetative hyphae and is progressively derepressed during the sexual cycle. Elevated levels of matA transcript are required for differentiation of fruiting bodies, karyogamy, meiosis, and efficient formation of meiotic progeny. matA expression is driven from both initiator (Inr) and novel promoter elements that are tightly developmentally regulated by position-dependent and position-independent mechanisms. Deletion of an upstream silencing element, matA SE, results in derepressed expression from wild-type (wt) promoter elements and activation of an additional promoter. These studies provide novel insights into the molecular basis of homothallism in fungi and genetic regulation of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. PMID:21868608

Czaja, Wioletta; Miller, Karen Y; Miller, Bruce L

2011-08-25

143

ADP-ribosylation factor arf6p may function as a molecular switch of new end take off in fission yeast  

SciTech Connect

Small GTPases act as molecular switches in a wide variety of cellular processes. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the directions of cell growth change from a monopolar manner to a bipolar manner, which is known as 'New End Take Off' (NETO). Here I report the identification of a gene, arf6{sup +}, encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor small GTPase, that may be essential for NETO. arf6{delta} cells completely fail to undergo NETO. arf6p localizes at both cell ends and presumptive septa in a cell-cycle dependent manner. And its polarized localization is not dependent on microtubules, actin cytoskeletons and some NETO factors (bud6p, for3p, tea1p, tea3p, and tea4p). Notably, overexpression of a fast GDP/GTP-cycling mutant of arf6p can advance the timing of NETO. These findings suggest that arf6p functions as a molecular switch for the activation of NETO in fission yeast.

Fujita, Atsushi [Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566 (Japan)], E-mail: a-fujita@aist.go.jp

2008-02-01

144

The mating-type locus B alpha 1 of Schizophyllum commune contains a pheromone receptor gene and putative pheromone genes.  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the multispecific B alpha mating-type locus of Schizophyllum commune provided evidence that pheromones and pheromone receptors govern recognition of self versus non-self and sexual development in this homobasidiomycetous fungus. Four subclones of an 8.2 kb genomic fragment carrying B alpha 1 specificity induced B-regulated sexual morphogenesis when introduced into a strain with one of the eight compatible B alpha specificities that are known to exist in nature. One of these clones, which activated all other B alpha specificities, contains a gene termed bar1. The predicted protein product of bar1, as well as that of bar2, a homologous gene isolated from a B alpha 2 strain, has significant homology to known fungal pheromone receptor proteins in the rhodopsin-like superfamily of G protein-linked receptors. The other three active B alpha 1 clones were subcloned further to identify the minimal active element in each clone. Every active subclone contains a putative pheromone gene ending in a signal for possible isoprenylation. A message of approximately 600 bp was observed for one of these genes, bap1(1). This paper presents the first evidence for a system of multiple pheromones and pheromone receptors as a basis for multispecific mating types in a fungus. Images

Wendland, J; Vaillancourt, L J; Hegner, J; Lengeler, K B; Laddison, K J; Specht, C A; Raper, C A; Kothe, E

1995-01-01

145

The mating-type locus B alpha 1 of Schizophyllum commune contains a pheromone receptor gene and putative pheromone genes.  

PubMed

Analysis of the multispecific B alpha mating-type locus of Schizophyllum commune provided evidence that pheromones and pheromone receptors govern recognition of self versus non-self and sexual development in this homobasidiomycetous fungus. Four subclones of an 8.2 kb genomic fragment carrying B alpha 1 specificity induced B-regulated sexual morphogenesis when introduced into a strain with one of the eight compatible B alpha specificities that are known to exist in nature. One of these clones, which activated all other B alpha specificities, contains a gene termed bar1. The predicted protein product of bar1, as well as that of bar2, a homologous gene isolated from a B alpha 2 strain, has significant homology to known fungal pheromone receptor proteins in the rhodopsin-like superfamily of G protein-linked receptors. The other three active B alpha 1 clones were subcloned further to identify the minimal active element in each clone. Every active subclone contains a putative pheromone gene ending in a signal for possible isoprenylation. A message of approximately 600 bp was observed for one of these genes, bap1(1). This paper presents the first evidence for a system of multiple pheromones and pheromone receptors as a basis for multispecific mating types in a fungus. PMID:7489716

Wendland, J; Vaillancourt, L J; Hegner, J; Lengeler, K B; Laddison, K J; Specht, C A; Raper, C A; Kothe, E

1995-11-01

146

A fungal mating type protein that regulates sexual and asexual development contains a POU-related domain.  

PubMed Central

The A mating type factor of the fungus Coprinus cinereus regulates essential steps in sexual development. Here we describe features of one of the four specificity genes of the A42 factor. By transformation we show that the gene regulates not only sexual development but also asexual sporulation. DNA sequence analysis shows that the gene beta 1-1, encodes a protein with a DNA binding motif and is thus likely to be a transcription factor. The DNA binding domain is an unusual homeodomain with D replacing the normally invariant N in the recognition helix and apparent absence of helix II. The homeodomain is linked to a helical region related to the POUs domain, which is part of a bipartite DNA binding domain of certain animal transcription factors. Like POU factors, the beta 1-1 protein has regions rich in serine, threonine and proline which are possible transactivation domains. Putative dimerization domains and sites for post-translational modification are described. Images

Tymon, A M; Kues, U; Richardson, W V; Casselton, L A

1992-01-01

147

Mating Type Protein Mat1-2 from Asexual Aspergillus fumigatus Drives Sexual Reproduction in Fertile Aspergillus nidulans?  

PubMed Central

The lack of an experimentally amenable sexual genetic system in Aspergillus fumigatus is a major limitation in the study of the organism's pathogenesis. A recent comparative genome analysis revealed evidence for potential sexuality in A. fumigatus. Homologs of mating type genes as well as other genes of the “sexual machinery” have been identified in anamorphic A. fumigatus. The mat1-2 gene encodes a homolog of MatA, an HMG box mating transcriptional factor (MatHMG) that regulates sexual development in fertile Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, the functionalities of A. fumigatus mat1-2 and the Mat1-2 protein were determined by interspecies gene exchange between sterile A. fumigatus and fertile A. nidulans. Ectopically integrated A. fumigatus mat1-2 (driven by its own promoter) was not functional in a sterile A. nidulans ?matA strain, and no sexual development was observed. In contrast, the A. fumigatus mat1-2 open reading frame driven by the A. nidulans matA promoter and integrated by homologous gene replacement at the matA locus was functional and conferred full fertility. This is the first report showing that cross species mating type gene exchange between closely related Ascomycetes did not function in sexual development. This is also the first report demonstrating that a MatHMG protein from an asexual species is fully functional, with viable ascospore differentiation, in a fertile homothallic species. The expression of mat1-2 was assessed in A. fumigatus and A. nidulans. Our data suggest that mat1-2 may not be properly regulated to allow sexuality in A. fumigatus. This study provides new insights about A. fumigatus asexuality and also suggests the possibility for the development of an experimentally amenable sexual cycle.

Pyrzak, Wioletta; Miller, Karen Y.; Miller, Bruce L.

2008-01-01

148

A-Mating-Type Gene Expression Can Drive Clamp Formation in the Bipolar Mushroom Pholiota microspora (Pholiota nameko) ?  

PubMed Central

In the bipolar basidiomycete Pholiota microspora, a pair of homeodomain protein genes located at the A-mating-type locus regulates mating compatibility. In the present study, we used a DNA-mediated transformation system in P. microspora to investigate the homeodomain proteins that control the clamp formation. When a single homeodomain protein gene (A3-hox1 or A3-hox2) from the A3 monokaryon strain was transformed into the A4 monokaryon strain, the transformants produced many pseudoclamps but very few clamps. When two homeodomain protein genes (A3-hox1 and A3-hox2) were transformed either separately or together into the A4 monokaryon, the ratio of clamps to the clamplike cells in the transformants was significantly increased to ca. 50%. We therefore concluded that the gene dosage of homeodomain protein genes is important for clamp formation. When the sip promoter was connected to the coding region of A3-hox1 and A3-hox2 and the fused fragments were introduced into NGW19-6 (A4), the transformants achieved more than 85% clamp formation and exhibited two nuclei per cell, similar to the dikaryon (NGW12-163 × NGW19-6). The results of real-time reverse transcription-PCR confirmed that sip promoter activity is greater than that of the native promoter of homeodomain protein genes in P. microspora. Thus, we concluded that nearly 100% clamp formation requires high expression levels of homeodomain protein genes and that altered expression of the A-mating-type genes alone is sufficient to drive true clamp formation.

Yi, Ruirong; Mukaiyama, Hiroyuki; Tachikawa, Takashi; Shimomura, Norihiro; Aimi, Tadanori

2010-01-01

149

Tracing the Origin of the fungal Sex a1 domain places its ancestor in the HMG-box superfamily: implication for fungal mating-type evolution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungal mating types in self-incompatible Pezizomycotina are specified by one of two alternate sequences occupying the same locus on corresponding chromosomes. One sequence is characterized by a gene encoding an HMG protein, while the hallmark of the other is a gene encoding a protein with an a1 doma...

150

Unbiased segregation of fission yeast chromosome 2 strands to daughter cells.  

PubMed

The base complementarity feature (Watson and Crick in Nature 171(4356):737-738, 1953) and the rule of semi-conservative mode of DNA replication (Messelson and Stahl in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 44:671-682, 1958) dictate that two identical replicas of the parental chromosome are produced during replication. In principle, the inherent strand sequence differences could generate nonequivalent daughter chromosome replicas if one of the two strands were epigenetically imprinted during replication to effect silencing/expression of developmentally important genes. Indeed, inheritance of such a strand- and site-specific imprint confers developmental asymmetry to fission yeast sister cells by a phenomenon called mating/cell-type switching. Curiously, location of DNA strands with respect to each other at the centromere is fixed, and as a result, their selected segregation to specific sister chromatid copies occurs in eukaryotic cells. The yeast system provides a unique opportunity to determine the significance of such biased strand distribution to sister chromatids. We determined whether the cylindrical-shaped yeast cell distributes the specific chromosomal strand to the same cellular pole in successive cycles of cell division. By observing the pattern of recurrent mating-type switching in progenies of individual cells by microscopic analyses, we found that chromosome 2 strands are distributed by the random mode in successive cell divisions. We also exploited unusual "hotspot" recombination features of this system to investigate whether there is selective segregation of strands such that oldest Watson-containing strands co-segregate in the diploid cell at mitosis. Our data suggests that chromosome 2 strands are segregated independently to those of the homologous chromosome. PMID:23681661

Klar, Amar J S; Bonaduce, Michael J

2013-05-01

151

Unequal Recombination and Evolution of the Mating-Type (MAT) Loci in the Pathogenic Fungus Grosmannia clavigera and Relatives  

PubMed Central

Sexual reproduction in fungi is regulated by the mating-type (MAT) locus where recombination is suppressed. We investigated the evolution of MAT loci in eight fungal species belonging to Grosmannia and Ophiostoma (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) that include conifer pathogens and beetle symbionts. The MAT1-2 idiomorph/allele was identified from the assembled and annotated Grosmannia clavigera genome, and the MAT locus is flanked by genes coding for cytoskeleton protein (SLA) and DNA lyase. The synteny of these genes is conserved and consistent with other members in Ascomycota. Using sequences from SLA and flanking regions, we characterized the MAT1-1 idiomorph from other isolates of G. clavigera and performed dotplot analysis between the two idiomorphs. Unexpectedly, the MAT1-2 idiomorph contains a truncated MAT1-1-1 gene upstream of the MAT1-2-1 gene that bears the high-mobility-group domain. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is similar to its homologous copy in the MAT1-1 idiomorph in the opposite mating-type isolate, except that positive selection is acting on the truncated gene and the alpha(?)-box that encodes the transcription factor has been deleted. The MAT idiomorphs sharing identical gene organization were present in seven additional species in the Ophiostomatales, suggesting that the presence of truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is a general pattern in this order. We propose that an ancient unequal recombination event resulted in the ancestral MAT1-1-1 gene integrated into the MAT1-2 idiomorph and surviving as the truncated MAT1-1-1 genes. The ?-box domain of MAT1-1-1 gene, located at the same MAT locus adjacent to the MAT1-2-1 gene, could have been removed by deletion after recombination due to mating signal interference. Our data confirmed a 1:1 MAT/sex ratio in two pathogen populations, and showed that all members of the Ophiostomatales studied here including those that were previously deemed asexual have the potential to reproduce sexually. This ability can potentially increase genetic variability and can enhance fitness in new, ecological niches.

Tsui, Clement K.-M.; DiGuistini, Scott; Wang, Ye; Feau, Nicolas; Dhillon, Braham; Bohlmann, Jorg; Hamelin, Richard C.

2013-01-01

152

Unequal recombination and evolution of the mating-type (MAT) loci in the pathogenic fungus Grosmannia clavigera and relatives.  

PubMed

Sexual reproduction in fungi is regulated by the mating-type (MAT) locus where recombination is suppressed. We investigated the evolution of MAT loci in eight fungal species belonging to Grosmannia and Ophiostoma (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) that include conifer pathogens and beetle symbionts. The MAT1-2 idiomorph/allele was identified from the assembled and annotated Grosmannia clavigera genome, and the MAT locus is flanked by genes coding for cytoskeleton protein (SLA) and DNA lyase. The synteny of these genes is conserved and consistent with other members in Ascomycota. Using sequences from SLA and flanking regions, we characterized the MAT1-1 idiomorph from other isolates of G. clavigera and performed dotplot analysis between the two idiomorphs. Unexpectedly, the MAT1-2 idiomorph contains a truncated MAT1-1-1 gene upstream of the MAT1-2-1 gene that bears the high-mobility-group domain. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is similar to its homologous copy in the MAT1-1 idiomorph in the opposite mating-type isolate, except that positive selection is acting on the truncated gene and the alpha(?)-box that encodes the transcription factor has been deleted. The MAT idiomorphs sharing identical gene organization were present in seven additional species in the Ophiostomatales, suggesting that the presence of truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is a general pattern in this order. We propose that an ancient unequal recombination event resulted in the ancestral MAT1-1-1 gene integrated into the MAT1-2 idiomorph and surviving as the truncated MAT1-1-1 genes. The ?-box domain of MAT1-1-1 gene, located at the same MAT locus adjacent to the MAT1-2-1 gene, could have been removed by deletion after recombination due to mating signal interference. Our data confirmed a 1:1 MAT/sex ratio in two pathogen populations, and showed that all members of the Ophiostomatales studied here including those that were previously deemed asexual have the potential to reproduce sexually. This ability can potentially increase genetic variability and can enhance fitness in new, ecological niches. PMID:23450093

Tsui, Clement K-M; DiGuistini, Scott; Wang, Ye; Feau, Nicolas; Dhillon, Braham; Bohlmann, Jörg; Hamelin, Richard C

2013-03-01

153

Mapping the Heterogeneous DNA Region That Determines the Nine A? Mating-Type Specificities of Schizophyllum Commune  

PubMed Central

Classical genetic studies identified nine mating-type specificities at the A? locus of the Basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune. We have used Southern blot hybridizations to generate EcoRI restriction maps of the A? locus for 18 strains, including all nine specificities. A?1, A?3 and A?4 DNA was subcloned from three cosmids and used as probes. A unique region of DNA was found for each of the three cloned specificities. Hybridization was detected in this region only if the probe(s) and the blotted genomic DNAs were from strains with the same A? specificity. DNAs from strains with the same A? specificity hybridize regardless of geographic origin, but DNAs from strains with different A? specificities do not cross-hybridize. The results demonstrate two size classes of unique A? DNA. This unique DNA is about 4.5 kb in A?1 strains and about 7.0-8.5 kb in other strains. Transcription regulators Z and Y, which were deduced previously from the DNA sequence of the A?1, A?3 and A?4 loci, are probably encoded by all non-A?1 loci. The smaller A?1 loci appear to encode only Y and lack sequence for Z. No evidence was found for a locus that encodes only Z. The lack of hybridization detected between A? loci with different specificities suggests that the evolution of A? has resulted from extensive sequence divergence.

Specht, C. A.; Stankis, M. M.; Novotny, C. P.; Ullrich, R. C.

1994-01-01

154

Theme and Variation Among Silencing Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryptic mating type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae act as reservoirs of mating type information used in mating type switching in homothallic yeast strains. The transcriptional silencing of these loci depends on the formation of a repressive chromatin structure that is reminiscent of heterochromatin. Silent information regulator (Sir) proteins 2-4 are absolutely required for silencing. To learn more about silencing,

Stefan U. Astrom; Jasper Rine

155

Budding Yeast Silencing Complexes and Regulation of Sir2 Activity by Protein-Protein Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene silencing in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the enzymatic activity of the Sir2 protein, a highly conserved NAD-dependent deacetylase. In order to study the activity of native Sir2, we purified and characterized two budding yeast Sir2 complexes: the Sir2\\/Sir4 complex, which mediates silencing at mating-type loci and at telomeres, and the RENT complex, which mediates silencing at the

Jason C. Tanny; Donald S. Kirkpatrick; Scott A. Gerber; Steven P. Gygi; Danesh Moazed

2004-01-01

156

Single Cell Visualization of Yeast Gene Expression Shows Correlation of Epigenetic Switching between Multiple Heterochromatic Regions through Multiple Generations  

PubMed Central

Differences in gene expression between individual cells can be mediated by epigenetic regulation; thus, methods that enable detailed analyses of single cells are crucial to understanding this phenomenon. In this study, genomic silencing regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are subject to epigenetic regulation, including the HMR, HML, and telomere regions, were investigated using a newly developed single cell analysis method. This method uses fluorescently labeled proteins to track changes in gene expression over multiple generations of a single cell. Epigenetic control of gene expression differed depending on the specific silencing region at which the reporter gene was inserted. Correlations between gene expression at the HMR-left and HMR-right regions, as well as the HMR-right and HML-right regions, were observed in the single-cell level; however, no such correlations involving the telomere region were observed. Deletion of the histone acetyltransferase GCN5 gene from a yeast strain carrying a fluorescent reporter gene at the HMR-left region reduced the frequency of changes in gene expression over a generation. The results presented here suggest that epigenetic control within an individual cell is reversible and can be achieved via regulation of histone acetyltransferase activity.

Mano, Yasunobu; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Nakayama, Jun-ichi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Oki, Masaya

2013-01-01

157

Diploids in the Cryptococcus neoformans Serotype A Population Homozygous for the ? Mating Type Originate via Unisexual Mating  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitous environmental human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is traditionally considered a haploid fungus with a bipolar mating system. In nature, the ? mating type is overwhelmingly predominant over a. How genetic diversity is generated and maintained by this heterothallic fungus in a largely unisexual ? population is unclear. Recently it was discovered that C. neoformans can undergo same-sex mating under laboratory conditions generating both diploid intermediates and haploid recombinant progeny. Same-sex mating (?-?) also occurs in nature as evidenced by the existence of natural diploid ?AD? hybrids that arose by fusion between two ? cells of different serotypes (A and D). How significantly this novel sexual style contributes to genetic diversity of the Cryptococcus population was unknown. In this study, ?500 natural C. neoformans isolates were tested for ploidy and close to 8% were found to be diploid by fluorescence flow cytometry analysis. The majority of these diploids were serotype A isolates with two copies of the ? MAT locus allele. Among those, several are intra-varietal allodiploid hybrids produced by fusion of two genetically distinct ? cells through same-sex mating. The majority, however, are autodiploids that harbor two seemingly identical copies of the genome and arose via either endoreplication or clonal mating. The diploids identified were isolated from different geographic locations and varied genotypically and phenotypically, indicating independent non-clonal origins. The present study demonstrates that unisexual mating produces diploid isolates of C. neoformans in nature, giving rise to populations of hybrids and mixed ploidy. Our findings underscore the importance of same-sex mating in shaping the current population structure of this important human pathogenic fungus, with implications for mechanisms of selfing and inbreeding in other microbial pathogens.

Lin, Xiaorong; Patel, Sweta; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Floyd, Anna; Mitchell, Thomas G.; Heitman, Joseph

2009-01-01

158

Large-Scale Introgression Shapes the Evolution of the Mating-Type Chromosomes of the Filamentous Ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma  

PubMed Central

The significance of introgression as an evolutionary force shaping natural populations is well established, especially in animal and plant systems. However, the abundance and size of introgression tracts, and to what degree interspecific gene flow is the result of adaptive processes, are largely unknown. In this study, we present medium coverage genomic data from species of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora, and we use comparative genomics to investigate the introgression landscape at the genomic level in this model genus. We revealed one large introgression tract in each of the three investigated phylogenetic lineages of Neurospora tetrasperma (sizes of 5.6 Mbp, 5.2 Mbp, and 4.1 Mbp, respectively). The tract is located on the chromosome containing the locus conferring sexual identity, the mating-type (mat) chromosome. The region of introgression is confined to the region of suppressed recombination and is found on one of the two mat chromosomes (mat a). We used Bayesian concordance analyses to exclude incomplete lineage sorting as the cause for the observed pattern, and multilocus genealogies from additional species of Neurospora show that the introgression likely originates from two closely related, freely recombining, heterothallic species (N. hispaniola and N. crassa/N. perkinsii). Finally, we investigated patterns of molecular evolution of the mat chromosome in Neurospora, and we show that introgression is correlated with reduced level of molecular degeneration, consistent with a shorter time of recombination suppression. The chromosome specific (mat) and allele specific (mat a) introgression reported herein comprise the largest introgression tracts reported to date from natural populations. Furthermore, our data contradicts theoretical predictions that introgression should be less likely on sex-determining chromosomes. Taken together, the data presented herein advance our general understanding of introgression as a force shaping eukaryotic genomes.

Menkis, Audrius; Whittle, Carrie A.; Andersson, Siv G. E.; Johannesson, Hanna

2012-01-01

159

Degradation of a-factor by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mating-type-specific endopeptidase: evidence for a role in recovery of cells from G1 arrest.  

PubMed Central

Mating response between opposite mating types of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is dependent upon alpha factor, a tridecapeptide, and a-factor, an isoprenylated, methyl esterified dodecapeptide whose interaction with the alpha target cell has not been characterized. We report on the first biochemical and physiological evidence of an alpha-mating-type-specific a-factor-degrading activity. Radioiodinated a-factor was used to identify the a-factor-degrading activity, which is cell associated, endoproteolytic, and not required for response to pheromone. a-factor degradation was not energy dependent, nor did it require pheromone internalization or interaction with its receptor. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and tosyl-L-arginyl-methyl ester inhibited degradation of a-factor and increased the time required by alpha cells to recover from a-factor-induced growth arrest and morphological alteration, providing evidence that a-factor degradation plays a role in the recovery of alpha cells from the pheromone response. Images

Marcus, S; Xue, C B; Naider, F; Becker, J M

1991-01-01

160

STEll is a protein kinase required for cell-type-specific transcription and signal transduction in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STEll gene of Saccbaromyces cerevisiae is one of several genes required for mating between two haploid cell types of this yeast. Its product is required for response to a signal that causes arrest of the mitotic cell cycle in the Gi phase and induction of mating-type-specific genes. The nucleotide sequence of the STEll gene was determined. The predicted amino

Nelson Rhodes; Laurie Connell; Beveriy Errede; Beverly Errede

2009-01-01

161

Genealogical concordance between the mating type locus and seven other nuclear genes supports formal recognition of nine phylogenetically distinct species within the Fusarium graminearum clade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species limits were investigated within the Fusarium graminearum clade (Fg clade) through phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from portions of 11 nuclear genes including the mating-type (MAT) locus. Nine phylogenetically distinct species were resolved within the Fg clade, and they all possess contiguous MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs consistent with a homothallic reproductive mode. In contrast, only one of the two

Kerry O’Donnell; Todd J. Ward; David M. Geiser; H. Corby Kistler; Takayuki Aoki

2004-01-01

162

Genotype and mating type distribution within clinical Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates from patients with cryptococcal meningitis in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

We molecularly characterized 81 cryptococcal isolates recovered from cerebrospinal fluid samples of 77 patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2007 as having cryptococcal meningitis in Uberaba Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fifty-seven (74%) were male with a mean age 35.6 years. Seventy-two (88.9%) of the isolates were from 68 AIDS patients and cryp-tococcosis was the first AIDS-defining condition in 38 (55.9%) patients. Cryptococcosis and AIDS were simultaneously diagnosed in 25 (65.8%) of these 38 patients. Genotypes were characterized through the use of URA5 restriction fragment length polymorphisms analysis, the genetic variability was determined using PCR-fingerprinting with the minisatellite-specific primer M13, and the mating type and serotypes were established by PCR. Seventy-six of the 81 isolates were Cryptococcus neoformans (93.8%), while the remaining five were C. gattii (6.1%), but all were mating type alpha. C. neoformans isolates were genotype VNI (serotype A), while C. gattii isolates were VGII. Four of the latter isolates were identical, but only two were from AIDS patients. Six of the nine isolates from non-AIDS patients were VNI. PCR fingerprints of the isolates from two of the three AIDS patients with clinical relapse were 100% identical. The predominance of VNI and mating type alpha is in accordance with data from other parts of the world. The occurrence of VGII in Minas Gerais indicates a geographical expansion within Brazil. PMID:19905964

Mora, Delio José; Pedrosa, André Luiz; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Leite Maffei, Claudia Maria; Trilles, Luciana; Dos Santos Lazéra, Márcia; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

2010-06-01

163

Fine-scale spatial genetic structure of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) investigated with neutral microsatellites and functional mating type genes.  

PubMed

The genetic structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal populations results from both vegetative and sexual propagation. In this study, we have analysed the spatial genetic structure of Tuber melanosporum populations, a heterothallic ascomycete that produces edible fruit bodies. Ectomycorrhizas from oaks and hazels from two orchards were mapped and genotyped using simple sequence repeat markers and the mating type locus. The distribution of the two T. melanosporum mating types was also monitored in the soil. In one orchard, the genetic profiles of the ascocarps were compared with those of the underlying mycorrhizas. A pronounced spatial genetic structure was found. The maximum genet sizes were 2.35 and 4.70 m in the two orchards, with most manifesting a size < 1 m. Few genets persisted throughout two seasons. A nonrandom distribution pattern of the T. melanosporum was observed, resulting in field patches colonized by genets that shared the same mating types. Our findings suggest that competition occurs between genets and provide basic information on T. melanosporum propagation patterns that are relevant for the management of productive truffle orchards. PMID:23574460

Murat, Claude; Rubini, Andrea; Riccioni, Claudia; De la Varga, Herminia; Akroume, Emila; Belfiori, Beatrice; Guaragno, Marco; Le Tacon, François; Robin, Christophe; Halkett, Fabien; Martin, Francis; Paolocci, Francesco

2013-04-10

164

Clavispora opuntiae and other yeasts associated with the moth Sigelgaita sp. in the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clavispora opuntiae was the prevalent yeast associated with the feeding sites ofSigelgaita sp. larvae in the cactusPilosocereus arrabidae. Also associated with this habitat wereCandida sonorensis, Pichia cactophila, Pichia barkeri, Candida sp. A,Geotrichum sp.,Geotrichum sericeum and the yeast like organismsPrototheca zopfii andAcremonium sp. Atypical yeast biotypes that may represent new species ofPichia, Sporopachydermia andCandida were isolated. Mating types ofClavispora opuntiae were

Carlos Augusto Rosa; Allen Norton Hagler; Leda Cristina S. Mendonça-Hagler; Paula Benevides Morais; Newton Carlos Marcial Gomes; Ricardo F. Monteiro

1992-01-01

165

DNA structure-dependent requirements for yeast RAD genes in gene conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN Saccharomyces cerevisiae, HO endonuclease-induced mating-type (MAT) switching is a specialized mitotic recombination event in which MAT sequences are replaced by those copied from a distant, unexpressed donor (HML or HMR1,2. The donors have a chromatin structure inaccessible for both transcription and HO cleavage1,2. Here we use physical monitoring of DNA to show that MAT switching is completely blocked at

N. Sugawara; E. L. Ivanov; J. Fishman-Lobell; B. L. Ray; X. Wu; J. E. Haber

1995-01-01

166

Expression of silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 1 and its role in human intervertebral disc cell homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intervertebral disc tissue homeostasis is modulated by a variety of molecules. Silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) plays a key role in various physiological processes. The aim of the present study was to verify the expression of SIRT1 and determine SIRT1 function in human intervertebral disc cell homeostasis. Methods Human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were obtained from 24 surgical patients (mean age: 39.4 years) and monolayer-cultured. SIRT1 expression was investigated using RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemical staining. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed to detect mRNA expression of SIRT1 and other genes: aggrecan, collagen type 2 and Sox9. The effect of SIRT1 on the extracellular matrix metabolism of NP cells was examined using recombinant human SIRT1 protein and a protein delivery reagent. Cell number and proliferation activity were measured following SIRT1 treatment. To reveal the deacetylation potential of transfected recombinant human SIRT1, western blotting for acetylated p53 was utilized. R-phycoerythrin was used for the negative control. Results SIRT1 expression was confirmed at both mRNA and protein levels in almost all NP cells. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed SIRT1 mRNA expression significantly increased with donor age (P <0.05, ? = 0.492). Pfirrmann grade 3 discs showed significantly higher SIRT1 mRNA expression than other grades. SIRT1 treatment significantly reduced aggrecan, Sox9 and collagen type 2 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner in all disease classes and disc degeneration grades. Proliferation activity was decreased by SIRT1 treatment in lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar disc herniation, Pfirrmann grade 3 and grade 4 discs. In contrast, it was significantly upregulated in idiopathic scoliosis, Pfirrmann grade 2 discs. The negative control protein did not affect extracellular matrix metabolism or proliferation activity. Conclusions We demonstrate for the first time that SIRT1 is expressed by human NP cells. SIRT1 expression was significantly elevated in an early degeneration stage. SIRT1 affected both extracellular matrix metabolism and proliferation activity; the effect of SIRT1 was altered according to disease class and disc degeneration grade. SIRT1 appears to play a key role in homeostasis during the human intervertebral disc degeneration process.

2011-01-01

167

Interaction of the yeast Swi4 and Swi6 cell cycle regulatory proteins in vitro.  

PubMed Central

In budding yeast, two transcription factors, Swi4 and Swi6, control the expression of important cell cycle regulatory proteins (the G1 cyclins, Cln1 and Cln2, and the cyclin-like Hcs26) as well as the HO gene, whose product initiates mating-type switching. Both Swi4 and Swi6 are components of a protein complex that forms at a repeated sequence element, SCB (SWI4, -6-dependent cell cycle box), found in the upstream regulatory sequences of target genes. We show, by using proteins synthesized in vitro, a direct association between Swi4 and Swi6. The cdc10-Swi6 or ankyrin motifs present in both Swi4 and Swi6 are dispensable for their association, which is mediated instead by a region near the C terminus of each protein. Furthermore, we show that interaction with Swi6 is not necessary for specific recognition of the SCB sequence by the Swi4 protein; we propose that Swi4 is responsible for binding to the SCB sequence while Swi6, through its association with Swi4, regulates activity of the complex. Images

Andrews, B J; Moore, L A

1992-01-01

168

Serotype AD Strains of Cryptococcus neoformans Are Diploid or Aneuploid and Are Heterozygous at the Mating-Type Locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic basidiomycete with a defined sexual cycle involving mating between haploid yeast cells with a transient diploid state. C. neoformans occurs in four predominant serotypes (A, B, C, and D), which represent different varieties or species. Rare clinical and environmental isolates with an unusual AD serotype have been reported and suggested to be diploid. We found

KLAUS B. LENGELER; GARY M. COX; JOSEPH HEITMAN

2001-01-01

169

Genetic Diversity and Mating Type Distribution of Tuber melanosporum and Their Significance to Truffle Cultivation in Artificially Planted Truffi?res in Australia  

PubMed Central

Tuber melanosporum is a truffle native to Europe and is cultivated in countries such as Australia for the gastronomic market, where production yields are often lower than expected. We assessed the genetic diversity of T. melanosporum with six microsatellite loci to assess the effect of genetic drift on truffle yield in Australia. Genetic diversity as assessed on 210 ascocarps revealed a higher allelic diversity compared to previous studies from Europe, suggesting a possible genetic expansion and/or multiple and diverse source populations for inoculum. The results also suggest that the single sequence repeat diversity of locus ME2 is adaptive and that, for example, the probability of replication errors is increased for this locus. Loss of genetic diversity in Australian populations is therefore not a likely factor in limiting ascocarp production. A survey of nursery seedlings and trees inoculated with T. melanosporum revealed that <70% of seedlings and host trees were colonized with T. melanosporum and that some trees had been contaminated by Tuber brumale, presumably during the inoculation process. Mating type (MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1) analyses on seedling and four- to ten-year-old host trees found that 100% of seedlings but only approximately half of host trees had both mating types present. Furthermore, MAT1-1-1 was detected significantly more commonly than MAT1-2-1 in established trees, suggesting a competitive advantage for MAT1-1-1 strains. This study clearly shows that there are more factors involved in ascocarp production than just the presence of both mating types on host trees.

Selmes, H.

2012-01-01

170

Genetic diversity and mating type distribution of Tuber melanosporum and their significance to truffle cultivation in artificially planted truffieres in Australia.  

PubMed

Tuber melanosporum is a truffle native to Europe and is cultivated in countries such as Australia for the gastronomic market, where production yields are often lower than expected. We assessed the genetic diversity of T. melanosporum with six microsatellite loci to assess the effect of genetic drift on truffle yield in Australia. Genetic diversity as assessed on 210 ascocarps revealed a higher allelic diversity compared to previous studies from Europe, suggesting a possible genetic expansion and/or multiple and diverse source populations for inoculum. The results also suggest that the single sequence repeat diversity of locus ME2 is adaptive and that, for example, the probability of replication errors is increased for this locus. Loss of genetic diversity in Australian populations is therefore not a likely factor in limiting ascocarp production. A survey of nursery seedlings and trees inoculated with T. melanosporum revealed that <70% of seedlings and host trees were colonized with T. melanosporum and that some trees had been contaminated by Tuber brumale, presumably during the inoculation process. Mating type (MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1) analyses on seedling and four- to ten-year-old host trees found that 100% of seedlings but only approximately half of host trees had both mating types present. Furthermore, MAT1-1-1 was detected significantly more commonly than MAT1-2-1 in established trees, suggesting a competitive advantage for MAT1-1-1 strains. This study clearly shows that there are more factors involved in ascocarp production than just the presence of both mating types on host trees. PMID:22773652

Linde, C C; Selmes, H

2012-07-06

171

Characterization of Null Mutants of the RAD55 Gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Effects of Temperature, Osmotic Strength and Mating Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAD55 belongs to a group of genes required for resistance to ionizing radiation, RAD50-RAD57, which are thought to define a pathway of recombinational repair. Since all four alleles of RAD55 are temperature conditional (cold sensitive) for their radiation phenotype, we investigated the phenotype produced by null mutations in the RAD55 gene, constructed in vitro and transplaced to the yeast chromosome.

Susan T. Lovett; Robert K. Mortimer

1987-01-01

172

[On the identity of Candida utilis and Pichia jadinii yeast species].  

PubMed

Life cycles of Candida utilis (Henneberg) Lodder et Kreger-van Rij imperfect yeast (13 strains) used in industry were the study subject. When the strains were mated, we detected one of the stages of sexual process--conjugation of cells of the opposite mating type. Most of the studied cultures conjugated on the 2d-3d day. No ascospores were formed. Haploidy and heterothallism of the studied C. utilis strains were confirmed by hybridization of auxotrophic mutants. Based on PCR assay results, the yeasts are demonstrated to belong to the ascospore perfect yeast species of Pichia jadinii (A. et R. Sartory. We ill et Meyer, Wickerham) Kurtzman. PMID:11944341

Ignatova, E A; Nagornaia, S S; Sudenko, V I; Podgorski?, V S

173

A Single Mating-Type Locus Composed of Homeodomain Genes Promotes Nuclear Migration and Heterokaryosis in the White-Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium ? †  

PubMed Central

The white-rot basidiomycete fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Agaricomycetes) is a model species that produces potent wood-degrading enzymes. The mating system of the species has been difficult to characterize due to its cryptic fruiting habit and lack of clamp connections in the heterokaryotic phase. By exploiting the draft genome sequence, we reevaluated the mating system of P. chrysosporium by studying the inheritance and segregation of putative mating-type gene homologues, the homeodomain transcription factor genes (MAT-A) and the pheromone receptors (MAT-B). A pattern of mating incompatibility and fructification consistent with a bipolar system with a single MAT locus was observed, but the rejection response was much weaker than that seen in other agaricomycete species, leading to stable heterokaryons with identical MAT alleles. The homeodomain genes appear to comprise the single MAT locus because they are heterozygous in wild strains and hyperpolymorphic at the DNA sequence level and promote aspects of sexual reproduction, such as nuclear migration, heterokaryon stability, and basidiospore formation. The pheromone receptor loci that might constitute a MAT-B locus, as in many other Agaricomycetes, are not linked to the MAT-A locus and display low levels of polymorphism. This observation is inconsistent with a bipolar mating system that includes pheromones and pheromone receptors as mating-type determinants. The partial uncoupling of nuclear migration and mating incompatibility in this species may be predicted to lead to parasexual recombination and may have contributed to the homothallic behavior observed in previous studies.

James, Timothy Y.; Lee, Maria; van Diepen, Linda T. A.

2011-01-01

174

A single mating-type locus composed of homeodomain genes promotes nuclear migration and heterokaryosis in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed

The white-rot basidiomycete fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Agaricomycetes) is a model species that produces potent wood-degrading enzymes. The mating system of the species has been difficult to characterize due to its cryptic fruiting habit and lack of clamp connections in the heterokaryotic phase. By exploiting the draft genome sequence, we reevaluated the mating system of P. chrysosporium by studying the inheritance and segregation of putative mating-type gene homologues, the homeodomain transcription factor genes (MAT-A) and the pheromone receptors (MAT-B). A pattern of mating incompatibility and fructification consistent with a bipolar system with a single MAT locus was observed, but the rejection response was much weaker than that seen in other agaricomycete species, leading to stable heterokaryons with identical MAT alleles. The homeodomain genes appear to comprise the single MAT locus because they are heterozygous in wild strains and hyperpolymorphic at the DNA sequence level and promote aspects of sexual reproduction, such as nuclear migration, heterokaryon stability, and basidiospore formation. The pheromone receptor loci that might constitute a MAT-B locus, as in many other Agaricomycetes, are not linked to the MAT-A locus and display low levels of polymorphism. This observation is inconsistent with a bipolar mating system that includes pheromones and pheromone receptors as mating-type determinants. The partial uncoupling of nuclear migration and mating incompatibility in this species may be predicted to lead to parasexual recombination and may have contributed to the homothallic behavior observed in previous studies. PMID:21131435

James, Timothy Y; Lee, Maria; van Diepen, Linda T A

2010-12-03

175

Haploinsufficiency and the sex chromosomes from yeasts to humans  

PubMed Central

Background Haploinsufficient (HI) genes are those for which a reduction in copy number in a diploid from two to one results in significantly reduced fitness. Haploinsufficiency is increasingly implicated in human disease, and so predicting this phenotype could provide insights into the genetic mechanisms behind many human diseases, including some cancers. Results In the present work we show that orthologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae HI genes are preferentially retained across the kingdom Fungi, and that the HI genes of S. cerevisiae can be used to predict haploinsufficiency in humans. Our HI gene predictions confirm known associations between haploinsufficiency and genetic disease, and predict several further disorders in which the phenotype may be relevant. Haploinsufficiency is also clearly relevant to the gene-dosage imbalances inherent in eukaryotic sex-determination systems. In S. cerevisiae, HI genes are over-represented on chromosome III, the chromosome that determines yeast's mating type. This may be a device to select against the loss of one copy of chromosome III from a diploid. We found that orthologues of S. cerevisiae HI genes are also over-represented on the mating-type chromosomes of other yeasts and filamentous fungi. In animals with heterogametic sex determination, accumulation of HI genes on the sex chromosomes would compromise fitness in both sexes, given X chromosome inactivation in females. We found that orthologues of S. cerevisiae HI genes are significantly under-represented on the X chromosomes of mammals and of Caenorhabditis elegans. There is no X inactivation in Drosophila melanogaster (increased expression of X in the male is used instead) and, in this species, we found no depletion of orthologues to yeast HI genes on the sex chromosomes. Conclusion A special relationship between HI genes and the sex/mating-type chromosome extends from S. cerevisiae to Homo sapiens, with the microbe being a useful model for species throughout the evolutionary range. Furthermore, haploinsufficiency in yeast can predict the phenotype in higher organisms.

2011-01-01

176

Genetically Controlled Self-Aggregation of Cell-Surface-Engineered Yeast Responding to Glucose Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed an arming (cell-surface-engineered) yeast displaying two types of agglutinin (modified a-agglutinin and a-agglutinin) on the cell surface, with agglutination being independent of both mating type and pheromones. The modified a-agglutinin was artificially prepared by the fusion of the genes encoding Aga1p and Aga2p. The modified a-agglutinin could induce agglutination of cells displaying Aga1p (a-agglutinin). The upstream region of

WEN ZOU; MITSUYOSHI UEDA; ATSUO TANAKA

2001-01-01

177

RNA Polymerase Switch in Transcription of Yeast rDNA: Role of Transcription Factor UAF (Upstream Activation Factor) in Silencing rDNA Transcription by RNA Polymerase II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription factor UAF (upstream activation factor) is required for a high level of transcription, but not for basal transcription, of rDNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RRN9 encodes one of the UAF subunits. We have found that rrn9 deletion mutants grow extremely slowly but give rise to faster growing variants that can grow without

Loan Vu; Imran Siddiqi; Bum-Soo Lee; Cathleen A. Josaitis; Masayasu Nomura

1999-01-01

178

DNA sequence characterization and molecular evolution of MAT1 and MAT2 mating-type loci of the self-compatible ascomycete mold Neosartorya fischeri.  

PubMed

Degenerate PCR and chromosome-walking approaches were used to identify mating-type (MAT) genes and flanking regions from the homothallic (sexually self-fertile) euascomycete fungus Neosartorya fischeri, a close relative of the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Both putative alpha- and high-mobility-group-domain MAT genes were found within the same genome, providing a functional explanation for self-fertility. However, unlike those in many homothallic euascomycetes (Pezizomycotina), the genes were not found adjacent to each other and were termed MAT1 and MAT2 to recognize the presence of distinct loci. Complete copies of putative APN1 (DNA lyase) and SLA2 (cytoskeleton assembly control) genes were found bordering the MAT1 locus. Partial copies of APN1 and SLA2 were also found bordering the MAT2 locus, but these copies bore the genetic hallmarks of pseudogenes. Genome comparisons revealed synteny over at least 23,300 bp between the N. fischeri MAT1 region and the A. fumigatus MAT locus region, but no such long-range conservation in the N. fischeri MAT2 region was evident. The sequence upstream of MAT2 contained numerous candidate transposase genes. These results demonstrate a novel means involving the segmental translocation of a chromosomal region by which the ability to undergo self-fertilization may be acquired. The results are also discussed in relation to their significance in indicating that heterothallism may be ancestral within the Aspergillus section Fumigati. PMID:17384199

Rydholm, C; Dyer, P S; Lutzoni, F

2007-03-23

179

DNA Sequence Characterization and Molecular Evolution of MAT1 and MAT2 Mating-Type Loci of the Self-Compatible Ascomycete Mold Neosartorya fischeri?  

PubMed Central

Degenerate PCR and chromosome-walking approaches were used to identify mating-type (MAT) genes and flanking regions from the homothallic (sexually self-fertile) euascomycete fungus Neosartorya fischeri, a close relative of the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Both putative alpha- and high-mobility-group-domain MAT genes were found within the same genome, providing a functional explanation for self-fertility. However, unlike those in many homothallic euascomycetes (Pezizomycotina), the genes were not found adjacent to each other and were termed MAT1 and MAT2 to recognize the presence of distinct loci. Complete copies of putative APN1 (DNA lyase) and SLA2 (cytoskeleton assembly control) genes were found bordering the MAT1 locus. Partial copies of APN1 and SLA2 were also found bordering the MAT2 locus, but these copies bore the genetic hallmarks of pseudogenes. Genome comparisons revealed synteny over at least 23,300 bp between the N. fischeri MAT1 region and the A. fumigatus MAT locus region, but no such long-range conservation in the N. fischeri MAT2 region was evident. The sequence upstream of MAT2 contained numerous candidate transposase genes. These results demonstrate a novel means involving the segmental translocation of a chromosomal region by which the ability to undergo self-fertilization may be acquired. The results are also discussed in relation to their significance in indicating that heterothallism may be ancestral within the Aspergillus section Fumigati.

Rydholm, C.; Dyer, P. S.; Lutzoni, F.

2007-01-01

180

Rapid, selective digestion of mitochondrial DNA in accordance with the matA hierarchy of multiallelic mating types in the mitochondrial inheritance of Physarum polycephalum.  

PubMed Central

Although mitochondria are inherited uniparentally in nearly all eukaryotes, the mechanism for this is unclear. When zygotes of the isogamous protist Physarum polycephalum were stained with DAPI, the fluorescence of mtDNA in half of the mitochondria decreased simultaneously to give small spots and then disappeared completely approximately 1.5 hr after nuclear fusion, while the other mitochondrial nucleoids and all of the mitochondrial sheaths remained unchanged. PCR analysis of single zygote cells confirmed that the loss was limited to mtDNA from one parent. The vacant mitochondrial sheaths were gradually eliminated by 60 hr after mating. Using six mating types, the transmission patterns of mtDNA were examined in all possible crosses. In 39 of 60 crosses, strict uniparental inheritance was confirmed in accordance with a hierarchy of relative sexuality. In the other crosses, however, mtDNA from both parents was transmitted to plasmodia. The ratio of parental mtDNA was estimated to be from 1:1 to 1:10(-4). Nevertheless, the matA hierarchy was followed. In these crosses, the mtDNA was incompletely digested, and mtDNA replicated during subsequent plasmodial development. We conclude that the rapid, selective digestion of mtDNA promotes the uniparental inheritance of mitochondria; when this fails, biparental inheritance occurs.

Moriyama, Y; Kawano, S

2003-01-01

181

ASH1 mRNA localization in yeast involves multiple secondary structural elementsand Ash1 protein translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Localization of ASH1 mRNA to the distal cortex of daughter but not mother cells at the end of anaphase is responsible for the two cell's differential mating-type switching during the subsequent cell cycle. This localization depends on actin filaments and a type V myosin (She1\\/Myo4). The 3? untranslated region (3? UTR) of ASH1 mRNA is reportedly capable of directing heterologous

Isabel Gonzalez; Sara B. C. Buonomo; Kim Nasmyth; Uwe von Ahsen

1999-01-01

182

Mating types in screwworm populations  

SciTech Connect

Response is given to questions raised by L.E. LaChance, et al., regarding the types of screwworm that occur in Mexico and anatomical differences in male genitalia among types. Errors in chromosome length and arm ratios are discussed. Results of testing the V-81 strain (sterile males) indicate that mating barriers exist even at high release rates. Mating discrimination must be high for a population to withstand an excess of sterile flies. The relevance of this to eradication programs is discussed. (RJC)

Richardson, R.H.; Ellison, J.R.; Averhoff, W.W.

1982-12-10

183

In vitro Detection of Yeast-Like and Mycelial Colonies of Ustilago scitaminea in Tissue-Cultured Plantlets of Sugarcane Using Polymerase Chain Reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plantlets of sugarcane cultivars NCO-310 (susceptible) and CP73-21 (resistant) were generated using in vitro apical meristem tissue culture method of leaf and culturing of the callous. Yeast-like and dikaryotic mycelial colonies were isolated and purified. The plantlets were inoculated with two types of yeast-like and dikaryotic mycelial colonies. Results of the PCR assay in plantlets inoculated with the two types of colonies indicated the detection of bE mating-type gene of sugarcane smut in all treated plantlets at all different times after inoculation. Whereas, the disease symptoms were seen in cuttings inoculated only with dikaryotic mycelia or mixed mating types of sporidia, 6 month after transplanting in pots.

Moosawi-Jorf, S. Ali; Izadi, Mahin B.

184

SIR-nucleosome interactions: structure-function relationships in yeast silent chromatin.  

PubMed

Discrete regions of the eukaryotic genome assume a heritable chromatin structure that is refractory to gene expression, referred to as heterochromatin or "silent" chromatin. Constitutively silent chromatin is found in subtelomeric domains in a number of species, ranging from yeast to man. In addition, chromatin-dependent repression of mating type loci occurs in both budding and fission yeasts, to enable sexual reproduction. The silencing of chromatin in budding yeast is characterized by an assembly of Silent Information Regulatory (SIR) proteins-Sir2, Sir3 and Sir4-with unmodified nucleosomes. Silencing requires the lysine deacetylase activity of Sir2, extensive contacts between Sir3 and the nucleosome, as well as interactions among the SIR proteins, to generate the Sir2-3-4 or SIR complex. Results from recent structural and reconstitution studies suggest an updated model for the ordered assembly and organization of SIR-dependent silent chromatin in yeast. Moreover, studies of subtelomeric gene expression reveal the importance of subtelomeric silent chromatin in the regulation of genes other than the silent mating type loci. This review covers recent advances in this field. PMID:23791651

Oppikofer, Mariano; Kueng, Stephanie; Gasser, Susan M

2013-06-18

185

Gene Switch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Regulatory "switches" are found upstream from a gene. Regulatory molecules bind to the switches and recruit RNA polymerase to bind to the gene's promoter region, increasing the transcription of the gene into messenger RNA.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2008-04-09

186

Electric Switches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners incorporate a simple switch into a battery/bulb circuit. Learners will use their knowledge of circuits to design and make their own switches using common materials. Learners will also identify switches found in common appliances. Note: This activity is designed to be done under the supervision of an educator familiar with electrical and electronic concepts.

Ieee

2013-07-08

187

Dry yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yeast is a type of eukaryotic organism that can live in a dormant state. It can be activated from its dormant state by water and sugar. The yeast uses the sugar to grow and produces carbon dioxide gas as a byproduct.

Ranveig Thattai (None;)

2005-09-27

188

Vaginal Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... HIV/AIDS Sexually transmitted infections fact sheet Vaginal yeast infections fact sheet What is a vaginal yeast ... on vaginal yeast infections What is a vaginal yeast infection? A vaginal yeast infection is irritation of ...

189

Candida orba sp. nov., a new cactus-specific yeast species from Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

A new species of yeast from decaying cladodes of Opuntia cactus, Candida orba, is described. This species is a member of a four-species clade of cactophilic yeasts. The new species has only been found in one region of Queensland, Australia, where it was presumably introduced during attempts to eradicate prickly pear cactus. DNA-DNA relatedness, phylogenetic analysis, physiological differences, killer-sensitivity profiles and mating reactions establish the distinctness of the taxon as a new species. C. orba is most closely related to Phaffomyces thermotolerans, a species found associated with columnar cacti in the North American Sonoran Desert. The type strain of C. orba, isolated from rotting cladodes of Opuntia stricta in the State of Queensland, Australia, is strain UCD-FST 84-833.1T (= CBS 8782T = NRRL Y-27336T = ATCC MYA-341). Only the h- mating type of the species has been recovered. The lack of the opposite mating type could be the result of a bottleneck during its introduction to Australia. The original geographic/host distribution of this species in the Americas is unknown. PMID:11321117

Starmer, W T; Phaff, H J; Ganter, P F; Lachance, M A

2001-03-01

190

Counting Yeast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes changes to a traditional study of population in yeast colonies. Changes to the procedures include: (1) only one culture per student team; (2) cultures are inoculated only once; and (3) the same tube is sampled daily. (DDR)|

Bealer, Jonathan; Welton, Briana

1998-01-01

191

Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

192

Optical Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Controlling the route light takes through a set of alternative fibre pathways is a basic photonic function. Optical switching\\u000a is required in all aspect s of photonics, from the manufacture of basic components to the operation of large-scale telecommunications\\u000a networks. Recent developments are placing a new importance on switching.

R. Ian MacDonald; Ken Garrett; Philip Garel-Jones; Winfried H. G. Horsthuis; Edmond J. Murphy

193

An integrated model of glucose and galactose metabolism regulated by the GAL genetic switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose and galactose are two alternative carbon sources in yeast for energy production, producing CO2 and alcohol. The yeast needs to switch from glucose to galactose metabolism as required, by transcriptional regulation of the respective metabolic enzymes. This regulation is achieved mainly through the GAL genetic switch, in addition to glucose repression mechanism. This study integrates the two metabolic pathways

Ozlem Demir; Isil Aksan Kurnaz

2006-01-01

194

Breeding of lager yeast with Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves stress resistance and fermentation performance.  

PubMed

Lager beer brewing relies on strains collectively known as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, which are hybrids between S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus-like strains. Lager yeasts are particularly adapted to low-temperature fermentations. Selection of new yeast strains for improved traits or fermentation performance is laborious, due to the allotetraploid nature of lager yeasts. Initially, we have generated new F1 hybrids by classical genetics, using spore clones of lager yeast and S. cerevisiae and complementation of auxotrophies of the single strains upon mating. These hybrids were improved on several parameters, including growth at elevated temperature and resistance against high osmolarity or high ethanol concentrations. Due to the uncertainty of chromosomal make-up of lager yeast spore clones, we introduced molecular markers to analyse mating-type composition by PCR. Based on these results, new hybrids between a lager and an ale yeast strain were isolated by micromanipulation. These hybrids were not subject to genetic modification. We generated and verified 13 hybrid strains. All of these hybrid strains showed improved stress resistance as seen in the ale parent, including improved survival at the end of fermentation. Importantly, some of the strains showed improved fermentation rates using 18° Plato at 18-25°C. Uniparental mitochondrial DNA inheritance was observed mostly from the S. cerevisiae parent. PMID:22887121

Garcia Sanchez, Rosa; Solodovnikova, Natalia; Wendland, Jürgen

2012-08-01

195

Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A This is a candida (yeast) infection of the skin folds of the abdomen. Overview Candidiasis, commonly known as a yeast infection, is an infection with the common yeast ( ...

196

Gene Switches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how genetic switches function and the role of genetic switches in the process of evolution. To make these concepts less abstract and more understandable, learners first view a series of video clips and animations from the HHMI DVD (or online) "Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads." Then, learners construct a model of a gene switch using craft materials or FridgiGears (magnetic gears). This activity can be done as a demonstration, a student inquiry activity, or a combination of the two.

Colvard, Mary

2010-01-01

197

Yeast Droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the Young's law and surface tension govern the shape of liquid droplets on solid surfaces. Here we address through experiments and theory the shape of growing aggregates of yeast on agar substrates, and assess whether these ideas still hold. Experiments are carried out on Baker's yeast, with different levels of expressions of an adhesive protein governing cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Changing either the agar concentration or the expression of this protein modifies the local contact angle of a yeast droplet. When the colony is small, the shape is a spherical cap with the contact angle obeying Young's law. However, above a critical volume this structure is unstable, and the droplet becomes nonspherical. We present a theoretical model where this instability is caused by bulk elastic effects. The model predicts that the transition depends on both volume and contact angle, in a manner quantitatively consistent with our experiments.

Nguyen, Baochi; Upadhyaya, Arpita; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Brenner, Michael

2002-11-01

198

Nanoelectromechanical switches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power dissipation is perhaps the most important problem confronting the electronics industry. To address this issue, we investigate vertical nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches suitable for complementary logic, reconfigurable interconnects, and static power management. NEM switches have the following advantages: (i) Near elimination of source-drain static tunneling losses, (ii) Improved subthreshold characteristics [1]-- allowing lower operating voltage and hence lower dynamic power dissipation, (iii) Ability to run at much higher temperatures than Si-based CMOS. Our approach employs a carbon nanotube-based relay. We have prototyped this approach by inserting a tube into an etched gap between two contacts. Using a nanopositioner to align the tube, the prototype has demonstrated multiple switching at 5V. We will characterize this device and also integrated NEM switches. [1] Ghosh, A. W., Rakshit, T. & Datta, S. Gating of a molecular transistor: Electrostatic and Conformational. Nano Letters 4, 565-568 (2004).

Baldo, Marc

2008-03-01

199

Acceleration switch  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

Abbin, Jr., Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Devaney, Howard F. (Cedar Crest, NM); Hake, Lewis W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1982-08-17

200

Magnetic switching  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic switching is a pulse compression technique that uses a saturable inductor (reactor) to pass pulses of energy between two capacitors. A high degree of pulse compression can be achieved in a network when several of these simple, magnetically switched circuits are connected in series. Individual inductors are designed to saturate in cascade as a pulse moves along the network. The technique is particularly useful when a single-pulse network must be very reliable or when a multi-pulse network must operate at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Today, magnetic switches trigger spark gaps, sharpen the risetimes of high energy pulses, power large lasers, and drive high PRF linear induction accelerators. This paper will describe the technique of magnetic pulse compression using simple networks and design equations. A brief review of modern magnetic materials and of their role in magnetic switch design will be presented. 12 refs., 8 figs.

Kirbie, H.C.

1989-04-14

201

Application Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Application switching is a powerful feature that can extend your image creation and manipulation options. Aviary’s applications\\u000a are designed to be quick and simple to use; thus, many advanced features have been omitted to keep the applications nimble.\\u000a To offset this smaller feature set compared to the more expensive desktop applications, Aviary has added easy application\\u000a switching. For instance, if

Mike Peutz

202

Three evolutionary lineages of tomato wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici , based on sequences of IGS, MAT1 , and pg1 , are each composed of isolates of a single mating type and a single or closely related vegetative compatibility group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three evolutionary lineages of the tomato wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were found among a worldwide sample of isolates based on phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region. Each lineage consisted of isolates mainly belonging to a single or closely related vegetative compatibility group (VCG) and a single mating type (MAT). The first lineage (A1) was

Masato Kawabe; Yumiko Kobayashi; Gen Okada; Isamu Yamaguchi; Tohru Teraoka; Tsutomu Arie

2005-01-01

203

Switching control of resistive switching devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switching current control plays a critical role in the operation of resistive switching devices. Both on-state resistance and maximum reset current show strong dependence on the current limit during set switching. The dependence in unipolar switching devices can be explained by the power-driven nature of reset and dynamic competition between set and reset forces. Effective switching control improves device characteristics

An Chen

2010-01-01

204

Semi-continuous ethanolic fermentation using a novel yeast settling and recycle technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A novel technique for the rapid settling of yeast cells is outlined. An inert, high density powder is added to a yeast suspension and the pH of the suspension is switched rapidly from 4.5 (fermentation pH) to 8.0. Large, rapid settling flocs of yeast are formed immediately. This technique has been applied to the recycling of yeast from an

P. A. Munro; P. L. Spedding

1982-01-01

205

Phenotypic switching in Cryptococcus neoformans.  

PubMed

Phenotypic switching has been described in serotype A and D strains of Cryptococcus neoformans. It occurs in vivo during chronic infection and is associated with differential gene expression and changes in virulence. The switch involves changes in the polysaccharide capsule and cell wall that affect the yeast's ability to resist phagocytosis. In addition, the phenotypic switch variants elicit qualitatively different inflammatory responses in the host. In animal models of chronic cryptococosis, the immune response of the host ultimately determines which of the switch variants are selected and maintained. The importance of phenotypic switching is further underscored by several findings that are relevant in the setting of human disease. These include the ability of the mucoid colony variant of RC-2 (RC-2 MC) but not the smooth variant (RC-2 SM) to promote increased intracerebral pressure in a rat model of cryptococcal meningitis. Furthermore, chemotherapeutic and immunological antifungal interventions can promote the selection of the RC-2 MC variant during chronic murine infection. PMID:16385110

Guerrero, A; Jain, N; Goldman, D L; Fries, B C

2006-01-01

206

Clavispora opuntiae and other yeasts associated with the moth Sigelgaita sp. in the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Clavispora opuntiae was the prevalent yeast associated with the feeding sites of Sigelgaita sp. larvae in the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae. Also associated with this habitat were Candida sonorensis, Pichia cactophila, Pichia barkeri, Candida sp. A, Geotrichum sp., Geotrichum sericeum and the yeast like organisms Prototheca zopfii and Acremonium sp. Atypical yeast biotypes that may represent new species of Pichia, Sporopachydermia and Candida were isolated. Mating types of Clavispora opuntiae were at a ratio 70 h- to 3 h- and reduced levels of sporulation suggested low pressure for sexual reproduction in this habitat. Sigelgaita sp. probably was not an important vector for Clavispora opuntiae because it was not isolated from an adult or eggs of this moth. PMID:1285643

Rosa, C A; Hagler, A N; Mendonça-Hagler, L C; de Morais, P B; Gomes, C M; Monteiro, R F

1992-11-01

207

Switched power workshop. [Switched power electron guns  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design of a switched power electron gun. Particular topics discussed are: vacuum photodiode switch; laser switched solid state diodes; gun performance; charging supply; and laser requirements. (LSP)

Palmer, R.B.

1988-01-01

208

Switching Transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

1981-01-01

209

Optical Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operat...

R. P. Reedy

1985-01-01

210

Optical switching: switch fabrics, techniques, and architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The switching speeds of electronics cannot keep up with the transmission capacity offered by optics. All-optical switch fabrics play a central role in the effort to migrate the switching functions to the optical layer. Optical packet switching provides an almost arbitrary fine granularity but faces significant challenges in the processing and buffering of bits at high speeds. Generalized multiprotocol label

Georgios I. Papadimitriou; Chrisoula Papazoglou; Andreas S. Pomportsis

2003-01-01

211

Molecular cloning and analysis of the CRY1 gene: a yeast ribosomal protein gene.  

PubMed Central

Using cloned DNA from the vicinity of the yeast mating type locus (MAT) as a probe, the wild type allele of the cryptopleurine resistance gene CRY1 has been isolated by the technique of chromosome walking and has been shown to be identical to the gene for ribosomal protein 59. A recessive cryR1 allele has also been cloned, using the integration excision method. The genetic distance from MAT to CRY1 is 2.2 cM, while the physical distance is 21 kb, giving a ratio of about 10 kb/cM for this interval. The phenotypic expression of both plasmid borne alleles of the gene can be detected in vivo. The use of this gene as a hybridization probe to examine RNA processing defects in the rna 2, rna 3, rna 4, rna 8, and rna 11 mutants is also discussed. Images

Larkin, J C; Woolford, J L

1983-01-01

212

Method for generation of in vivo biotinylated recombinant antibodies by yeast mating.  

PubMed

We describe here a novel method for generation of yeast-secreted, in vivo biotinylated recombinant antibodies, or biobodies. Biobodies are secreted by diploid yeast resulting from the fusion of two haploid yeast of opposite mating type. One yeast carries a cDNA encoding an antibody recognition sequence fused to an IgA1 hinge and a biotin acceptor site (BCCP) at the C-terminus; the other carries a cDNA encoding an E. coli biotin ligase (BirA) fused to KEX2 golgi-localization sequences, so that BirA can catalyze the biotin transfer to the recognition sequence-fused BCCP within the yeast secretory compartment. We illustrate this technology with biobodies against HE4, a biomarker for ovarian carcinoma. Anti-HE4 biobodies were derived from clones or pools of anti-HE4-specific yeast-display scFv, constituting respectively monoclonal (mBb) or polyclonal (pBb) biobodies. Anti-HE4 biobodies were secreted directly biotinylated thus bound to labeled-streptavidin and streptavidin-coated surfaces without Ni-purification. Anti-HE4 biobodies demonstrated specificity and sensitivity by ELISA assays, flow cytometry analysis and Western blots prior to any maturation; dissociation equilibrium constants as measured by surface plasmon resonance sensor were of K(d)=4.8 x 10(-9) M and K(d)=5.1 x 10(-9) M before and after Ni-purification respectively. Thus, yeast mating permits cost-effective generation of biotinylated recombinant antibodies of high affinity. PMID:17113097

Scholler, Nathalie; Garvik, Barbara; Quarles, Travis; Jiang, Shaoyi; Urban, Nicole

2006-10-30

213

Yeast-Air Balloons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a yeast-air balloon to get a better idea of what yeast can do. Learners discover that the purpose of leaveners like yeast is to produce the gas that makes bread rise. Learners discover that as yeast feeds on sugar, it produces carbon dioxide which slowly fills the balloon.

Exploratorium, The

2012-03-10

214

A Feast for Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 6 of the PDF, learners investigate yeast. Learners prepare an experiment to observe what yeast cells like to eat. Learners feed the yeast cells various ingredients in plain bread--water, flour, sugar, and salt--to discover yeast's favorite food.

Society, American C.

2000-01-01

215

Evidence for maintenance of sex determinants but not of sexual stages in red yeasts, a group of early diverged basidiomycetes  

PubMed Central

Background The red yeasts are an early diverged group of basidiomycetes comprising sexual and asexual species. Sexuality is based on two compatible mating types and sexual identity is determined by MAT loci that encode homeodomain transcription factors, peptide pheromones and their receptors. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and integrity of MAT genes throughout the phylogenetic diversity of red yeasts belonging to the order Sporidiobolales. Results We surveyed 18 sexual heterothallic and self-fertile species and 16 asexual species. Functional pheromone receptor homologues (STE3.A1 and STE3.A2) were found in multiple isolates of most of the sexual and asexual species. For each of the two mating types, sequence comparisons with whole-genome data indicated that synteny tended to be conserved along the pheromone receptor region. For the homeodomain transcription factor, likelihood methods suggested that diversifying selection acting on the self/non-self recognition region promotes diversity in sexual species, while rapid evolution seems to be due to relaxed selection in asexual strains. Conclusions The majority of both sexual and asexual species of red yeasts have functional pheromone receptors and homeodomain homologues. This and the frequent existence of asexual strains within sexual species, makes the separation between sexual and asexual species imprecise. Events of loss of sexuality seem to be recent and frequent, but not uniformly distributed within the Sporidiobolales. Loss of sex could promote speciation by fostering the emergence of asexual lineages from an ancestral sexual stock, but does not seem to contribute to the generation of exclusively asexual lineages that persist for a long time.

2011-01-01

216

Switching System Simulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Switching System Simulator (SSS) is a CDC 6600 computer program which simulates and evaluates networks of interconnected switching elements. SSS determines all the possible ways in which a given switching system can complete a set of input/output connecti...

C. R. Williams

1976-01-01

217

Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... infection is simple and painless. What Is a Yeast Infection? A yeast infection, also known as candidiasis ( ... you can be treated appropriately. Do Guys Get Yeast Infections? Guys don't get vaginal yeast infections, ...

218

Identification and characterization of genes and mutants for an N-terminal acetyltransferase from yeast.  

PubMed Central

A gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been mapped, cloned, sequenced and shown to encode a catalytic subunit of an N-terminal acetyltransferase. Regions of this gene, NAT1, and the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase genes of bacteria have limited but significant homology. A nat1 null mutant is viable but exhibits a variety of phenotypes, including reduced acetyltransferase activity, derepression of a silent mating type locus (HML) and failure to enter G0. All these phenotypes are identical to those of a previously characterized mutant, ard1. NAT1 and ARD1 are distinct genes that encode proteins with no obvious similarity. Concomitant overexpression of both NAT1 and ARD1 in yeast causes a 20-fold increase in acetyltransferase activity in vitro, whereas overexpression of either NAT1 or ARD1 alone does not raise activity over basal levels. A functional iso-1-cytochrome c protein, which is N-terminally acetylated in a NAT1 strain, is not acetylated in an isogenic nat1 mutant. At least 20 other yeast proteins, including histone H2B, are not N-terminally acetylated in either nat1 or ard1 mutants. These results suggest that NAT1 and ARD1 proteins function together to catalyze the N-terminal acetylation of a subset of yeast proteins. Images

Mullen, J R; Kayne, P S; Moerschell, R P; Tsunasawa, S; Gribskov, M; Colavito-Shepanski, M; Grunstein, M; Sherman, F; Sternglanz, R

1989-01-01

219

Yeast Infection during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Yeast infection during pregnancy: Are over-the-counter treatments ... share your e-mail address Sign up Question Yeast infection during pregnancy: Are over-the-counter treatments ...

220

Yeast Infection (Vaginal)  

MedlinePLUS

... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Yeast infection (vaginal) By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/yeast-infection/DS01182 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Preparing ...

221

Yeast Education Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Yeast Education Network provides a variety of resources to facilitate use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in undergraduate science curricula. Laboratory, classroom, and computer-based activities can be used with college and advanced high school students.

222

Yeast Based Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of yeast based sensors have been developed as analytical tools. Yeasts are known as facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yeast based sensor consisted of a DO electrode and an immobilized omnivorous yeast. In yeast based sensor development, many kinds of yeast have been employed by applying their characteristics to adapt to the analyte. For example, Trichosporon cutaneum was used to estimate organic pollution in industrial wastewater. Yeast based sensors are suitable for online control of biochemical processes and for environmental monitoring. In this review, principles and applications of yeast based sensors are summarized.

Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

223

Takagi-sugeno multiple-model controller for a continuous baking yeast fermentation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to design a fuzzy integral controller to force the switching of a bioprocess between two different metabolic states. A continuous baking yeast culture is divided in two sub-models: a respiro-fermentative with ethanol production and a respirative with ethanol consumption. The switching between both different metabolic states is achieved by means of tracking a reference

Enrique Herrera; Bernardino Castillo; Jesús Ramírez; Eugénio C. Ferreira

2007-01-01

224

Stability, structure and complexity of yeast chromosome III.  

PubMed Central

The complete sequence of yeast chromosome III provides a model for studies relating DNA sequence and structure at different levels of organisation in eukaryotic chromosomes. DNA helical stability, intrinsic curvature and sequence complexity have been calculated for the complete chromosome. These features are compartmentalised at different levels of organisation. Compartmentalisation of thermal stability is observed from the level delineating coding/non-coding sequences, to higher levels of organisation which correspond to regions varying in G + C content. The three-dimensional path reveals a symmetrical structure for the chromosome, with a densely packed central region and more diffuse and linear subtelomeric regions. This interspersion of regions of high and low curvature is reflected at lower levels of organisation. Complexity of n-tuplets (n = 1 to 6) also reveals compartmentalisation of the chromosome at different levels of organisation, in many cases corresponding to the structural features. DNA stability, conformation and complexity delineate telomeres, centromere, autonomous replication sequences (ARS), transposition hotspots, recombination hotspots and the mating-type loci.

King, G J

1993-01-01

225

Lager brewing yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lager brewing yeast is a group of closely related strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus\\/S. carlsbergensis used for lager beer production all over the world, making it one of the most important industrial yeasts. The pure cultivation\\u000a of yeast was established in the early 1880’s with immediate practical success for lager brewing yeast. However, almost a century\\u000a would elapse before its genetics

Yukiko Kodama; Morten C. Kielland-Brandt; Jørgen Hansen

226

[Yeasts contaminating salmon roe].  

PubMed

Quantitative and species compositions of yeast contaminating eggs, fry and fingerlings of Salmo gairdneri Rich under artificial breeding have been studied. Prevalence of species of genera Candida, Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus and Debaryomyces is noted. Yeast isolated from perished eggs and sick fry do not possess pathogenic properties. Certain strains of yeast make stimulating effect on the studied microorganisms. PMID:8983527

Nagornaia, S S; Ignatova, E A; Isaeva, N M; Davydov, O N; Podgorski?, V S

227

Prions in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The concept of a prion as an infectious self-propagating protein isoform was initially proposed to explain certain mammalian diseases. It is now clear that yeast also has heritable elements transmitted via protein. Indeed, the “protein only” model of prion transmission was first proven using a yeast prion. Typically, known prions are ordered cross-? aggregates (amyloids). Recently, there has been an explosion in the number of recognized prions in yeast. Yeast continues to lead the way in understanding cellular control of prion propagation, prion structure, mechanisms of de novo prion formation, specificity of prion transmission, and the biological roles of prions. This review summarizes what has been learned from yeast prions.

Liebman, Susan W.; Chernoff, Yury O.

2012-01-01

228

Population genetics of the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus.  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces paradoxus is the closest known relative of the well-known S. cerevisiae and an attractive model organism for population genetic and genomic studies. Here we characterize a set of 28 wild isolates from a 10-km(2) sampling area in southern England. All 28 isolates are homothallic (capable of mating-type switching) and wild type with respect to nutrient requirements. Nine wild isolates and two lab strains of S. paradoxus were surveyed for sequence variation at six loci totaling 7 kb, and all 28 wild isolates were then genotyped at seven polymorphic loci. These data were used to calculate nucleotide diversity and number of segregating sites in S. paradoxus and to investigate geographic differentiation, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium. Synonymous site diversity is approximately 0.3%. Extensive incompatibilities between gene genealogies indicate frequent recombination between unlinked loci, but there is no evidence of recombination within genes. Some localized clonal growth is apparent. The frequency of outcrossing relative to inbreeding is estimated at 1.1% on the basis of heterozygosity. Thus, all three modes of reproduction known in the lab (clonal replication, inbreeding, and outcrossing) have been important in molding genetic variation in this species.

Johnson, Louise J; Koufopanou, Vassiliki; Goddard, Matthew R; Hetherington, Richard; Schafer, Stefanie M; Burt, Austin

2004-01-01

229

RF MEMS switches and switch circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEMS switches are devices that use mechanical movement to achieve a short circuit or an open circuit in the RF transmission line. RF MEMS switches are the specific micromechanical switches that are designed to operate at RF-to-millimeter-wave frequencies (0.1 to 100 GHz). The forces required for the mechanical movement can be obtained using electrostatic, magnetostatic, piezoelectric, or thermal designs. To

G. M. Rebeiz; J. B. Muldavin

2001-01-01

230

Diploid Hybridization in a Heterothallic Haploid Yeast, Saccharomyces rouxii  

PubMed Central

By crossing of a heterothallic haploid yeast, Saccharomyces rouxii, we have succeeded in obtaining diploid hybrids. This paper shows one possible method of breeding heterothallic haploid yeasts for industrial application. S. rouxii is highly salt-tolerant and plays an important role in shoyu and miso fermentation. Therefore, genetic improvements of the properties are of commercial importance. Since newly isolated S. rouxii could neither conjugate nor sporulate on sporulation media commonly used, a suitable medium for conjugation and sporulation of S. rouxii was firstly investigated. A 5% NaCl Shoyu-koji extract agar was found to be most efficient. Next, we tried to get diploid strains by mass culture of two mating types on the conjugation medium, but several phenomena made this difficult: (i) zygotes quickly sporulated before budding; (ii) several zygotes showed terminal budding, but the buds could not grow into diploid cells, suggesting they would be heterocaryon; and (iii) a few zygotes lost their viability. After trying to isolate and cultivate a large number of zygotes in various combinations of crossing by micromanipulation, we fortunately recognized that large cells arose from some combinations. The analysis of ploidy suggested that the large cells would be diploid. Also, they showed sporulation of typical Saccharomyces, i.e., two to four spores in an unconjugated ascus. The diploid strains thus obtained were highly salt-tolerant and stable in liquid medium. Therefore, the procedure presented here would be effective for breeding salt-tolerant S. rouxii. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Mori, Haruhiko; Onishi, Hiroshi

1967-01-01

231

Nanoelectromechanical contact switches.  

PubMed

Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches are similar to conventional semiconductor switches in that they can be used as relays, transistors, logic devices and sensors. However, the operating principles of NEM switches and semiconductor switches are fundamentally different. These differences give NEM switches an advantage over semiconductor switches in some applications--for example, NEM switches perform much better in extreme environments--but semiconductor switches benefit from a much superior manufacturing infrastructure. Here we review the potential of NEM-switch technologies to complement or selectively replace conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology, and identify the challenges involved in the large-scale manufacture of a representative set of NEM-based devices. PMID:22543427

Loh, Owen Y; Espinosa, Horacio D

2012-04-29

232

Triggered Plasma Opening Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductor...

C. W. Mendel

1986-01-01

233

Plasma Erosion Opening Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Plasma Erosion Opening Switch (PEOS) can conduct high current (approx. MA), open quickly (<10ns), and withstand high voltage (approx. MV). This switching technique has been used in inductive energy storage experiments and can be used with existing gen...

R. J. Commisso G. Cooperstein R. A. Meger J. M. Neri P. F. Ottinger

1985-01-01

234

Remote switch actuator  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

2013-01-29

235

Transformation of Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stable leu2- yeast strain has been transformed to LEU2+ by using a chimeric ColE1 plasmid carrying the yeast leu2 gene. We have used recently developed hybridization and restriction endonuclease mapping techniques to demonstrate directly the presence of the transforming DNA in the yeast genome and also to determine the arrangement of the sequences that were introduced. These studies show

Albert Hinnen; James B. Hicks; Gerald R. Fink

1978-01-01

236

Population Growth in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is the second of two that explore cellular respiration and population growth in yeasts. In the first lesson, students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Based on questions that arose during the first lesson and its associated activity, in this lesson students work in small groups to design experiments that will determine how environmental factors affect yeast population growth.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

237

Latching type optical switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical switch on yttrium orthoferrite crystal is developed. The switch is of latching type and has an operating time of 100 ns. Matrices of switches are feasible due to the dimensions of the optical rotator of less than 2 mm3.

Didosyan, Y. S.; Hauser, H.; Fiala, W.; Nicolics, J.; Toriser, W.

2002-05-01

238

ENERGY LOSSES IN SWITCHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SFâ polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching

T. H. Martin; J. F. Seamen; D. O. Jobe

1993-01-01

239

Integrated reed switch  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to reed switches, and more particularly to micro-miniaturized reed switches and batch microfabrication techniques used to fabricate micro-miniaturized reed switches. The present invention can provide miniaturized reed switches with more consistent operating parameters, and that can be produced more efficiently than conventional reed switches. The present invention can also provide methods of making miniaturized reed switches using microfabrication techniques. The present invention can use lithographic-based fabrication to enable monolithic construction of a reed switch. Microlithography can repeatedly form micrometer dimensions with tight tolerances over large arrays of devices which, if the patterns are translated into materials appropriate for electromechanical devices, can provide for repeatable and consistent electromechanical operation. For example, tight dimensional control of the gap between two reeds in a reed switch or a reed and a fixed contact can provide consistency of performance between reed switches. Thus, the present invention can allow the commonly regarded reed switch specification of sensitivity, or "Ampere-turns" required to close a reed switch, to be tightly controlled with a commensurate reduction in spread in sensitivity across reed switch production lots.

Christenson; Todd R (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-12-11

240

Reusable Fast Opening Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic se...

J. P. Van Devender D. Emin

1983-01-01

241

Triggered plasma opening switch  

DOEpatents

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

242

Terabit burst switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for network bandwidth is growing at unprecedented rates, placing growing demands on switching and transmission technologies. Wavelength division multiplexing will soon make it possible to combine hundreds of gigabit channels on a single fiber. This paper presents an architecture for Burst Switching Systems designed to switch data among WDM links, treating each link as a shared resource rather than

Jonathan S. Turner

1999-01-01

243

Budding Yeast Silencing Complexes and Regulation of Sir2 Activity by Protein-Protein Interactions  

PubMed Central

Gene silencing in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the enzymatic activity of the Sir2 protein, a highly conserved NAD-dependent deacetylase. In order to study the activity of native Sir2, we purified and characterized two budding yeast Sir2 complexes: the Sir2/Sir4 complex, which mediates silencing at mating-type loci and at telomeres, and the RENT complex, which mediates silencing at the ribosomal DNA repeats. Analyses of the protein compositions of these complexes confirmed previously described interactions. We show that the assembly of Sir2 into native silencing complexes does not alter its selectivity for acetylated substrates, nor does it allow the deacetylation of nucleosomal histones. The inability of Sir2 complexes to deacetylate nucleosomes suggests that additional factors influence Sir2 activity in vivo. In contrast, Sir2 complexes show significant enhancement in their affinities for acetylated substrates and their sensitivities to the physiological inhibitor nicotinamide relative to recombinant Sir2. Reconstitution experiments showed that, for the Sir2/Sir4 complex, these differences stem from the physical interaction of Sir2 with Sir4. Finally, we provide evidence that the different nicotinamide sensitivities of Sir2/Sir4 and RENT in vitro could contribute to locus-specific differences in how Sir2 activity is regulated in vivo.

Tanny, Jason C.; Kirkpatrick, Donald S.; Gerber, Scott A.; Gygi, Steven P.; Moazed, Danesh

2004-01-01

244

Nucleic Acid Amplification in Yeast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plasmid DNA from single yeast colonies was efficiently amplified using rolling circle amplification (RCA). The amplified DNA was directly used for restriction digestion, DNA sequencing, and yeast transformation. The RCA of plasmid DNA from single yeast co...

W. Farmerie W. Y. Song X. Ding

2004-01-01

245

Asymmetrical switch costs in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switching between tasks produces decreases in performance as compared to repeating the same task. Asymmetrical switch costs occur when switching between two tasks of unequal difficulty. This asymmetry occurs because the cost is greater when switching to the less difficult task than when switching to the more difficult task. Various theories about the origins of these asymmetrical switch costs have

Michelle R. Ellefson; Laura R. Shapiro; Nick Chater

2006-01-01

246

REMOTE CONTROLLED SWITCHING DEVICE  

DOEpatents

An electrical switching device which can be remotely controlled and in which one or more switches may be accurately operated at predetermined times or with predetermined intervening time intervals is described. The switching device consists essentially of a deck, a post projecting from the deck at right angles thereto, cam means mounted for rotation around said posts and a switch connected to said deck and actuated by said cam means. Means is provided for rotating the cam means at a constant speed and the switching apparatus is enclosed in a sealed container with external adjusting means and electrical connection elements.

Hobbs, J.C.

1959-02-01

247

Switching with photodiodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of optoelectronic switching is outlined, and its physical basis in photodiodes is explored. A model is developed for optoelectronic switching in p-i-n and avalanche photodiodes that agrees well with observed performance. Optoelectronic switches have demonstrated isolation is excess of 80 dB between 2 MHz and 1 GHz. The applications would range from large-scale switching of UHF or VHF signals (for example, in switched television distribution) to advanced signal routing applications in high-rate digital and high-capacity analog channels.

MacDonald, R. I.; Hara, E. H.

1980-03-01

248

Photoconductive power switches  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the advantages and the potential of photoconductive switches applied to high-power systems. The photoconductive effect can be used to switch large amounts of energy by changing the conductivity of a solid-state circuit element many orders of magnitude with a high-power laser. The simplicity of these devices offers many advantages in high-power applications when combined with high-power pulsed lasers. The surge capability, the switched energy gain, and the maximum average power for photoconductive power switches are discussed. In addition, the results of a 100-kV, 100-MW photoconductive switch experiment transferring 20 J in 200 ns are presented.

Nunnally, W.C.; Hammond, R.B.

1983-01-01

249

Moonlighting Proteins in Yeasts  

PubMed Central

Proteins able to participate in unrelated biological processes have been grouped under the generic name of moonlighting proteins. Work with different yeast species has uncovered a great number of moonlighting proteins and shown their importance for adequate functioning of the yeast cell. Moonlighting activities in yeasts include such diverse functions as control of gene expression, organelle assembly, and modification of the activity of metabolic pathways. In this review, we consider several well-studied moonlighting proteins in different yeast species, paying attention to the experimental approaches used to identify them and the evidence that supports their participation in the unexpected function. Usually, moonlighting activities have been uncovered unexpectedly, and up to now, no satisfactory way to predict moonlighting activities has been found. Among the well-characterized moonlighting proteins in yeasts, enzymes from the glycolytic pathway appear to be prominent. For some cases, it is shown that despite close phylogenetic relationships, moonlighting activities are not necessarily conserved among yeast species. Organisms may utilize moonlighting to add a new layer of regulation to conventional regulatory networks. The existence of this type of proteins in yeasts should be taken into account when designing mutant screens or in attempts to model or modify yeast metabolism.

Gancedo, Carlos; Flores, Carmen-Lisset

2008-01-01

250

Aneuploidy underlies a multicellular phenotypic switch  

PubMed Central

Although microorganisms are traditionally used to investigate unicellular processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the ability to form colonies with highly complex, multicellular structures. Colonies with the “fluffy” morphology have properties reminiscent of bacterial biofilms and are easily distinguished from the “smooth” colonies typically formed by laboratory strains. We have identified strains that are able to reversibly toggle between the fluffy and smooth colony-forming states. Using a combination of flow cytometry and high-throughput restriction-site associated DNA tag sequencing, we show that this switch is correlated with a change in chromosomal copy number. Furthermore, the gain of a single chromosome is sufficient to switch a strain from the fluffy to the smooth state, and its subsequent loss to revert the strain back to the fluffy state. Because copy number imbalance of six of the 16 S. cerevisiae chromosomes and even a single gene can modulate the switch, our results support the hypothesis that the state switch is produced by dosage-sensitive genes, rather than a general response to altered DNA content. These findings add a complex, multicellular phenotype to the list of molecular and cellular traits known to be altered by aneuploidy and suggest that chromosome missegregation can provide a quick, heritable, and reversible mechanism by which organisms can toggle between phenotypes.

Tan, Zhihao; Hays, Michelle; Cromie, Gareth A.; Jeffery, Eric W.; Scott, Adrian C.; Ahyong, Vida; Sirr, Amy; Skupin, Alexander; Dudley, Aimee M.

2013-01-01

251

An acoustic switch.  

PubMed

The benefits derived from the development of acoustic transistors which act as switches or amplifiers have been reported in the literature. Here we propose a model of acoustic switch. We theoretically demonstrate that the device works: the input signal is totally restored at the output when the switch is on whereas the output signal nulls when the switch is off. The switch, on or off, depends on a secondary acoustic field capable to manipulate the main acoustic field. The model relies on the attenuation effect of many oscillating bubbles on the main travelling wave in the liquid, as well as on the capacity of the secondary acoustic wave to move the bubbles. This model evidences the concept of acoustic switch (transistor) with 100% efficiency. PMID:23816529

Vanhille, Christian; Campos-Pozuelo, Cleofé

2013-06-15

252

Effects of non-ideal switches in PWM switching converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new models that account for the non-ideal properties of semiconductor BJT switches responsible for the switching action in PWM converters. These models can be used for both the DC and small-signal AC analyses of PWM switching regulators. Terminal voltages and currents of the switching elements of the converter are related using switching functions which account for the

WISAM M. MOUSSA; JAMES E. MORRIS

1992-01-01

253

Solid state switch  

DOEpatents

A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

254

Genetic Improvement of Baker's Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts have been used for many thousands of years to produce leavened bread. Nowadays the production of baker's yeast biomass represents a highly competitive multi-billion dollar global industry. The environmental conditions that prevail during manufacture and application of baker's yeasts, coupled with the sheer variety of bread making processes and recipes used around the world, place considerable demands on yeasts.

Paul V. Attfield; Philip J. L. Bell

2003-01-01

255

TRP channels in yeast.  

PubMed

Microbes have made numerous contributions to the study of biology and medicine. Those contributions also include many original discovery's in the study of ion channels often thought as the province of neuroscientists or cardiophysiologists. Yeast have long been used as a model organism and TRP channel genes and their transmembrane products touted as the "vanguards of the sensory system" can be identified in the genomes of many yeasts. This article aims to review the study of these TRP channels in yeast their discovery, electrophysiological properties and physiological function. PMID:21290303

Kaleta, Marta; Palmer, Christopher

2011-01-01

256

Reusable fast opening switch  

DOEpatents

A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

1983-12-21

257

Ancient Evolutionary Trade-Offs between Yeast Ploidy States  

PubMed Central

The number of chromosome sets contained within the nucleus of eukaryotic organisms is a fundamental yet evolutionarily poorly characterized genetic variable of life. Here, we mapped the impact of ploidy on the mitotic fitness of baker's yeast and its never domesticated relative Saccharomyces paradoxus across wide swaths of their natural genotypic and phenotypic space. Surprisingly, environment-specific influences of ploidy on reproduction were found to be the rule rather than the exception. These ploidy–environment interactions were well conserved across the 2 billion generations separating the two species, suggesting that they are the products of strong selection. Previous hypotheses of generalizable advantages of haploidy or diploidy in ecological contexts imposing nutrient restriction, toxin exposure, and elevated mutational loads were rejected in favor of more fine-grained models of the interplay between ecology and ploidy. On a molecular level, cell size and mating type locus composition had equal, but limited, explanatory power, each explaining 12.5%–17% of ploidy–environment interactions. The mechanism of the cell size–based superior reproductive efficiency of haploids during Li+ exposure was traced to the Li+ exporter ENA. Removal of the Ena transporters, forcing dependence on the Nha1 extrusion system, completely altered the effects of ploidy on Li+ tolerance and evoked a strong diploid superiority, demonstrating how genetic variation at a single locus can completely reverse the relative merits of haploidy and diploidy. Taken together, our findings unmasked a dynamic interplay between ploidy and ecology that was of unpredicted evolutionary importance and had multiple molecular roots.

Zorgo, Eniko; Chwialkowska, Karolina; Gjuvsland, Arne B.; Garre, Elena; Sunnerhagen, Per; Liti, Gianni; Blomberg, Anders; Omholt, Stig W.; Warringer, Jonas

2013-01-01

258

Asymmetrical Switch Costs in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Switching between tasks produces decreases in performance as compared to repeating the same task. Asymmetrical switch costs occur when switching between two tasks of unequal difficulty. This asymmetry occurs because the cost is greater when switching to the less difficult task than when switching to the more difficult task. Various theories about…

Ellefson, Michelle R.; Shapiron, Laura R.; Chater, Nick

2006-01-01

259

Yeast infections (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Yeast infections may follow a course of antibiotics that were prescribed for another purpose. The antibiotics change the normal "balance" between organisms in the vagina by suppressing the growth of protective bacteria that normally have an antifungal effect.

260

Mutant yeast on drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzing drug-treated and mutant yeast cells with the new tools of genomics enables the identification of drug targets and should improve the odds of developing useful therapeutics (pages 1293–1301).

David J. Lockhart

1998-01-01

261

[Aspects of yeast biodiversity].  

PubMed

Yeast biodiversity represents a dynamic scientific domain characterized by permanent emerging theories and accumulation of new data. Identification of genome structure for a number of yeast species and elucidation of regulatory pathways for species-specific metabolic networks, lead to development of numerous applications of yeasts in industry, biotechnology, therapeutics and bioremediation. The studies of the scientific community were long time focused on Saccharomyces cerevisae due mainly to its use in food production. Therefore, the species belonging to Saccharomyces genus became reference points for genomics and biodiversity studies. During last decades there is a growing interest for yeast species able to produce biomass by assimilating or degrading various compounds such as methanol, hydrocarbons, wood hydrolisates and other residues or by-products from different industries. PMID:23745219

Csutak, Ortansa; Vassu, Tatiana

262

[Mitochondria inheritance in yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae].  

PubMed

The review is devoted to the main mechanisms of mitochondria inheritance in yeast Saccharonmyces cerevisiae. The genetic mechanisms of functionally active mitochondria inheritance in eukaryotic cells is one of the most relevant in modem researches. A great number of genetic diseases are associated with mitochondria dysfunction. Plasticity of eukaryotic cell metabolism according to the environmental changes is ensured by adequate mitochondria functioning by means of ATP synthesis coordination, reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis regulation and is an important factor of cell adaptation to stress. Mitochondria participation in important for cell vitality processes masters the presence of accurate mechanisms of mitochondria functions regulation according to environment fluctuations. The mechanisms of mitochondria division and distribution are highly conserved. Baker yeast S. cerevisiae is an ideal model object for mitochondria researches due to energetic metabolism lability, ability to switch over respiration to fermentation, and petite-positive phenotype. Correction of metabolism according to the environmental changes is necessary for cell vitality. The influence of respiratory, carbon, amino acid and phosphate metabolism on mitochondria functions was shown. As far as the mechanisms that stabilize functions of mitochondria and mtDNA are highly conserve, we can project yeast regularities on higher eukaryotes systems. This makes it possible to approximate understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of a great number of human diseases. PMID:21786681

Fizikova, A Iu

2011-01-01

263

Induction and construct UV protective yeast plasmid.  

PubMed

In this study, we apply concepts of synthetic biology in combination with conventional methods to assemble different genetic components to construct yeast resistant to UV radiation, and to induce production of anti-UV proteins. This work combines sequences of different promoters, STRESS-proteins, heat shock protein (HSP), kinase proteins, alcohol dehydrogenase protein (ADH), ribosomal binding sites, fluorescent reporter proteins, terminators, and a synthetic ribosomal switch. The aim of this investigation was to induce an anti-UV proteins, and to construct an anti-UV yeast plasmid to be used for protection of skin cells against UV radiation. This investigation demonstrates induction and construction of anti-UV genes and production of their corresponding proteins. Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC # 66348) were exposed to short-wave UV radiation and were then subjected to time-PCR to assess specific gene expression. Proteins were identified using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) and LC-MS/MS. Different up-regulated and down-regulated proteins were identified. Highly expressed identified proteins were cloned into S. cerevisiae using a synthetic biology approach. Extracts from UV-induced genetically transformed yeasts were used to protect skin cell cultures (ATCC #2522-CRL) in vitro. Both microscopic analysis and an apoptosis assay showed protection of the skin cell cultures against UV radiation. PMID:23665192

Cuero, Raul; McKay, David S

2013-05-09

264

A microfluidic synchronizer for fission yeast cells.  

PubMed

Among all the cell cycle synchronization technologies, the baby machine may be considered as the most artifact-free method. A baby machine incubates "mother cells" under normal conditions and collects their "babies", producing cell cultures that are similar not only in cell cycle phase but also in age. Unlike many other synchronization methods, no cell-cycle-blocking agent or metabolic stress is introduced in this method. Several macroscale and microfluidic baby machines have been developed for producing synchronized cell colonies. However, for rod-shaped cells like fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), it is still a challenge to immobilize only the mother cells in a microfluidic device. Here we presented a new baby machine suitable for fission yeast. The device is fixed one end of the cell and releases the free-end daughter cell every time the cell finishes cytokinesis. A variety of structures for cell immobilization were attempted to find the optimal design. For the convenience of collection and further assay, we integrated into our baby machine chip a cell screener, which exploited the deformation of polymer material to switch between opening and closing states. Synchronous populations of fission yeast cells were produced with this device, its working detail was analyzed and performance was evaluated. The device provides a new on-chip tool for cell biology studies. PMID:23966136

Tian, Yuan; Luo, Chunxiong; Ouyang, Qi

2013-08-21

265

Yeast expression platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms. They combine ease of genetic manipulations and the option for a simple fermentation\\u000a design of a microbial organism with the capabilities of an eukaryotic organism to secrete and to modify a protein according\\u000a to a general eukaryotic scheme. For platform applications, a range of yeast species has been developed during the last decades.\\u000a We present

Erik Böer; Gerhard Steinborn; Gotthard Kunze; Gerd Gellissen

2007-01-01

266

Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

267

Bait and Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sellers sometimes practice a form of false advertising known as bait and switch. A low-priced good is advertised but replaced by a different good at the showroom. The practice is surprising since advertising the wrong good discourages the appropriate buyers from shopping, attracting customers who will be disappointed when they see the good. Firms bait and switch to draw a

Edward P. Lazear

1995-01-01

268

Triggered plasma opening switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open

Mendel

1986-01-01

269

Triggered plasma opening switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open

Mendel; Clifford W

1988-01-01

270

Closing photoconductive semiconductor switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important limitations of Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches (PCSS) for pulsed power applications is the high laser powers required to activate the switches. In this paper, we discuss recent developments on two different aspects of GaAs PCSS that result in reductions in laser power by a factor of nearly 1000. The advantages of using GaAs over Si are

G. M. Loubriel; F. J. Zutavern; H. P. Hjalmarson; M. W. O'Malley

1989-01-01

271

Reflective HTS switch  

DOEpatents

A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

1994-09-27

272

Safety Selector Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A safety selector switch for preventing accidental energization of an electrical circuit is described. A plurality of annular discs, each having a cut-out portion in its periphery, are mounted on a shaft of an electrical component, such as a rotary switch...

J. D. Hansen

1979-01-01

273

Reflective HTS switch  

DOEpatents

A HTS switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time.

Martens, Jon S. (Albuquerque, NM); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Hohenwarter, Gert K. G. (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01

274

Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Switch Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analyzing microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switch behavior is a new field of study, which guides the production of MEMS switches. I analyzed switch behavior using a digital circuit synthesized on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. The chip h...

S. Karter T. Ivanov

2011-01-01

275

Switch-on shocks  

SciTech Connect

The authors argue that parallel propagating Alfven waves steepen to second order in the wave amplitude, rather than first order, as is the case for oblique MHD waves. They derive an analytical solution for the structure of weak switch-on shocks. The Rankine-Hugoniot relations fro finite amplitude switch-on shocks are obtained in a compact form. The differential equation for resistive switch-on shocks is solved, and the resistive critical Mach number is obtained. The differential equation for resistive switch-on shocks with finite ion inertia is identical to the one obtained in the pure resistive case. They argue that efficient electron heat conduction can significantly extend the range of upstream parameters for which switch-on shocks are expected.

Kennel, C.F. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Edmiston, J.P. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States) Univ. of Texas, Richardson (United States))

1988-10-01

276

Switch-on shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued that parallel propagating Alfven waves steepen to second order in the wave amplitude, rather than first order, as is the case for oblique MHD waves. An analytical solution for the structure of weak switch-on shocks is derived. The Rankine-Hugoniot relations for finite amplitude switch-on shocks are obtained in a compact form. The differential equation for resistive switch-on shocks is solved, and the resistive critical Mach number is obtained. The differential equation for resistive switch-on shocks with finite ion inertia is identical to the one obtained in the pure resistive case. It is argued that efficient electron heat conduction can significantly extend the range of upstream parameters for which switch-on shocks are expected.

Kennel, C. F.; Edmiston, J. P.

1988-10-01

277

Protection and replication of telomeres in fission yeast1  

PubMed Central

Telomeres, the natural ends of linear chromosomes, must be protected and completely replicated to guarantee genomic stability in eukaryotic cells. However, the protected state of telomeres is not compatible with recruitment of telomerase, an enzyme responsible for extending telomeric G-rich repeats during S-phase; thus, telomeres must undergo switches from a protected state to an accessible state during the cell cycle. In this minireview, we will summarize recent advances in our understanding of proteins involved in the protection and replication of telomeres, and the way these factors are dynamically recruited to telomeres during the cell cycle. We will focus mainly on recent results from fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and compare them with results from budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cell studies. In addition, a model for the way in which fission yeast cells replicate telomeres will be presented.

Moser, Bettina A.; Nakamura, Toru M.

2010-01-01

278

Oxygen requirements of yeasts.  

PubMed

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. PMID:2082825

Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P

1990-12-01

279

Anomalous resistive switching phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistive switching was observed in Pt/SrTiO3/Pt capacitor devices. The switching depends on both the amplitude and polarity of the applied voltage and cannot be described as either bipolar or unipolar resistive switching. We term this behavior antipolar due to the opposite polarity of the set voltage relative to the previous reset voltage. A model based on electron injection by tunneling at interfaces and a Poole-Frenkel mechanism through the bulk is proposed. This model is quantified by use of a simple mathematical equation to simulate the experimental results.

Mojarad, Shahin A.; Goss, J. P.; Kwa, Kelvin S. K.; Petrov, Peter K.; Zou, Bin; Alford, Neil; O'Neill, Anthony

2012-12-01

280

Gene Switches: A Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how genetic switches function and the role of genetic switches in the process of evolution. To make these concepts less abstract and more understandable, learners first view a series of video clips and animations from the HHMI DVD (or online) "Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads." Then, learners construct a model of a gene switch using craft materials or FridgiGears (magnetic gears). This activity can be done as a demonstration, a student inquiry activity, or a combination of the two.

Colvard, Mary

2010-01-01

281

Sleep State Switching  

PubMed Central

We take for granted the ability to fall asleep or to snap out of sleep into wakefulness, but these changes in behavioral state require specific switching mechanisms in the brain that allow well-defined state transitions. In this review, we examine the basic circuitry underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, and discuss a theoretical framework wherein the interactions between reciprocal neuronal circuits enable relatively rapid and complete state transitions. We also review how homeostatic, circadian, and allostatic drives help regulate sleep state switching, and discuss how breakdown of the switching mechanism may contribute to sleep disorders such as narcolepsy.

Saper, Clifford B.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Lu, Jun; Scammell, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

282

SPARK GAP SWITCH  

DOEpatents

An improved triggered spark gap switch is described, capable of precisely controllable firing time while switching very large amounts of power. The invention in general comprises three electrodes adjustably spaced and adapted to have a large potential impressed between the outer electrodes. The central electrode includes two separate elements electrically connected togetaer and spaced apart to define a pair of spark gaps between the end electrodes. Means are provided to cause the gas flow in the switch to pass towards the central electrode, through a passage in each separate element, and out an exit disposed between the two separate central electrode elements in order to withdraw ions from the spark gap.

Neal, R.B.

1957-12-17

283

Telecommunications: Switches and Hubs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We all know how important computers are in our every day communication, but do you know how the computer in your office transfers information between the others? This online slideshow provided by Wisc-Online and the National Science Foundation explains the difference between a switch and a hub and the reasons to use them. For example, with helpful animations and a personalized speed, one can learn that hubs often cause broadcast collisions and are less efficient than switches when trying to send information quickly among networked computers. This is great for students and teachers introducing switches and hubs to their telecommunications repertoire.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-10-07

284

ISS of Switched Systems and Applications to Switching Adaptive Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we prove that a switched nonlinear system has several useful ISS-type properties under average dwell-time switching signals if each constituent dynamical system is ISS. This extends available results for switched linear systems. We apply our result to stabilization of uncertain nonlinear systems via switching supervisory control, and show that the plant states can be kept bounded in

L. Vu; D. Chatterjee; D. Liberzon

2005-01-01

285

SLOB: a switch with large optical buffers for packet switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, optical packet switch architectures, composed of devices such as optical switches, fiber delay lines, and passive couplers, have been proposed to overcome the electromagnetic interference (EMI), pinout and interconnection problems that would be encountered in future large electronic switch cores. However, attaining the buffer size (buffer depth) in optical packet switches required in practice is a major problem; in

David K. Hunter; W. David Cornwell; Tim H. Gilfedder; A. Franzen; I. Andonovic

1998-01-01

286

49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. 236.6 Section 236...Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to the point,...

2011-10-01

287

Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

288

Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

2008-02-28

289

Yeast killer systems.  

PubMed Central

The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed.

Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

1997-01-01

290

An optical switch  

DOEpatents

The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch having an electron attaching gas wherein electron attachment is brought about by indirect excitation of molecules to long live states by exposure to laser light. 3 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

1987-04-30

291

Plasmonic enhanced ultrafast switch.  

SciTech Connect

Ultrafast electronic switches fabricated from defective material have been used for several decades in order to produce picosecond electrical transients and TeraHertz radiation. Due to the ultrashort recombination time in the photoconductor materials used, these switches are inefficient and are ultimately limited by the amount of optical power that can be applied to the switch before self-destruction. The goal of this work is to create ultrafast (sub-picosecond response) photoconductive switches on GaAs that are enhanced through plasmonic coupling structures. Here, the plasmonic coupler primarily plays the role of being a radiation condenser which will cause carriers to be generated adjacent to metallic electrodes where they can more efficiently be collected.

Subramania,Ganapathi Subramanian; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Harris, Tom.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.

2009-09-01

292

Optical Switch Evaluation Support.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extensive testing has been done on nonlinear interface optical switch (NIOS) devices fabricated from laser deposited nonstoichiometric tungsten oxide films. A Fresnel coefficient formalism for evaluating the indices of refraction of the films has been dev...

J. Chaiken

1993-01-01

293

Microwave Switching Circuits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monograph is concerned with the design, exploitation, and operation of microwave antennas and equipment. It presents in monographic form a number of the most fundamental and frequently used groups of switching systems.

A. Kraszewski

1969-01-01

294

Resonant optoelectronic thyristor switches as elements for optical switching fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical switching fabric based on resonant optoelectronic switches is presented. The elements are comprised of two optoelectronic thyristors which have their own switching characteristic. Simultaneous switching of 40Gbps baseband data along with mm-wave optical signals is shown in a 4x4 fabric. The possible unique capabilities and performance advantages of implementation with thyristor-based switches in the fabric are discussed.

Pile, B. C.; Zhang, Y.; Yao, J.; Taylor, G. W.

2011-09-01

295

Transcriptional silencing functions of the yeast protein Orc1/Sir3 subfunctionalized after gene duplication.  

PubMed

The origin recognition complex (ORC) defines origins of replication and also interacts with heterochromatin proteins in a variety of species, but how ORC functions in heterochromatin assembly remains unclear. The largest subunit of ORC, Orc1, is particularly interesting because it contains a nucleosome-binding BAH domain and because it gave rise to Sir3, a key silencing protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, through gene duplication. We examined whether Orc1 possessed a Sir3-like silencing function before duplication and found that Orc1 from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, which diverged from S. cerevisiae before the duplication, acts in conjunction with the deacetylase Sir2 and the histone-binding protein Sir4 to generate heterochromatin at telomeres and a mating-type locus. Moreover, the ability of KlOrc1 to spread across a silenced locus depends on its nucleosome-binding BAH domain and the deacetylase Sir2. Interestingly, KlOrc1 appears to act independently of the entire ORC, as other subunits of the complex, Orc4 and Orc5, are not strongly associated with silenced domains. These findings demonstrate that Orc1 functioned in silencing before duplication and suggest that Orc1 and Sir2, both of which are broadly conserved among eukaryotes, may have an ancient history of cooperating to generate chromatin structures, with Sir2 deacetylating histones and Orc1 binding to these deacetylated nucleosomes through its BAH domain. PMID:20974972

Hickman, Meleah A; Rusche, Laura N

2010-10-25

296

Transcriptional silencing functions of the yeast protein Orc1/Sir3 subfunctionalized after gene duplication  

PubMed Central

The origin recognition complex (ORC) defines origins of replication and also interacts with heterochromatin proteins in a variety of species, but how ORC functions in heterochromatin assembly remains unclear. The largest subunit of ORC, Orc1, is particularly interesting because it contains a nucleosome-binding BAH domain and because it gave rise to Sir3, a key silencing protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, through gene duplication. We examined whether Orc1 possessed a Sir3-like silencing function before duplication and found that Orc1 from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, which diverged from S. cerevisiae before the duplication, acts in conjunction with the deacetylase Sir2 and the histone-binding protein Sir4 to generate heterochromatin at telomeres and a mating-type locus. Moreover, the ability of KlOrc1 to spread across a silenced locus depends on its nucleosome-binding BAH domain and the deacetylase Sir2. Interestingly, KlOrc1 appears to act independently of the entire ORC, as other subunits of the complex, Orc4 and Orc5, are not strongly associated with silenced domains. These findings demonstrate that Orc1 functioned in silencing before duplication and suggest that Orc1 and Sir2, both of which are broadly conserved among eukaryotes, may have an ancient history of cooperating to generate chromatin structures, with Sir2 deacetylating histones and Orc1 binding to these deacetylated nucleosomes through its BAH domain.

Hickman, Meleah A.; Rusche, Laura N.

2010-01-01

297

Methods for yeast characterization from industrial products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work compared the efficiency of four methods for the identification of industrial yeast strains and the establishment of a pattern for yeast characterization to be used during industrial fermentation processes, allowing the detection of yeast contaminants. Five strains of yeast currently used in the Brazilian fuel alcohol industry (about 99% of the yeast used for this purpose), and yeast

Luiz H Gomes; Keila M. R Duarte; Juan L Argueso; Sergio Echeverrigaray; Flavio C. A Tavares

2000-01-01

298

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains. ##STR00001##

Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Singh, Arjun (Lakewood, CO); Knoshaug, Eric (Golden, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Jarvis, Eric (Boulder, CO); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN)

2010-12-07

299

Conversion of pentoses by yeasts  

SciTech Connect

The utilization and conversion of D-xylose, D-xyulose, L-arabinose, and xylitol by yeast strains have been investigated with the following results: 1) The majority of yeasts tested utilize D-xylose and produce polyols, ethanol, and organic acids. The type and amount of products formed varies with the yeast strains used. The most commonly detected product is xylitol. 2) The majority of yeasts tested utilize D-xylulose aerobically and fermentatively to produce ethanol, xylitol D-arabitol, and organic acids. The type and amount of products varies depending upon the yeast strains used. 3) Xylitol is a poor carbon and energy source for most yeasts tested. Some yeast strains produce small amounts of ethanol from xylitol. 4) Most yeast strains utilize L-arabinose, and L-arabitol is the common product. Small amounts of ethanol are also produced by some yeast strains. 5) Of the four substrates examined, D-xylulose was the preferred substrate, followed by D-xylose, L-arabinose, and xylitol. 6) Mutant yeast strains that exhibit different metabolic product patterns can be induced and isolated from Candida sp. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and other yeasts. These mutant strains can be used for ethanol production from D-xylose as well as for the study of metabolic regulation of pentose utilization in yeasts.

Gong, C.S.; Claypool, T.A.; Maun, C.M.; Mccracken, L.D.; Tsao, G.T.; Ueng, P.P.

1983-01-01

300

Yeasts from the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts were isolated from twelve established sites in the North Sea from 1964 to 1966. A percentage frequency of 99% with populations varying from 3000 viable cells\\/L was observed. This mycota was characterized by considerable spatial and temporal fluctuation, with the dominant yeast present being the ascosporogenous species, Debaryomyces hansenii. This taxon, as well as other common North Sea yeasts,

S. P. Meyers; D. G. Ahearn; W. Gunkel; F. J. Roth

1967-01-01

301

Evaluation of YeastIdent and Uni-Yeast-Tek yeast identification systems.  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of the new API YeastIdent system and the Flow Laboratories Uni-Yeast-Tek identification kit with an expanded data base was evaluated in comparison to the API 20C yeast identification system by three laboratories. A total of 489 test isolates were used, biased toward yeasts commonly encountered in clinical specimens. Isolates not in a system's data base were not counted in the evaluation of that system. For isolates in their data base, YeastIdent was 55% accurate and Uni-Yeast-Tek was 40% accurate. By the manufacturer's criteria of reliable identification without additional tests, both systems failed to identify many common and uncommon species. The limited number of substrates and difficulties in assessing results obtained with 11 of the API YeastIdent substrates and apparent errors in the expanded Uni-Yeast-Tek data base appeared to be major factors limiting the accuracy of these systems.

Salkin, I F; Land, G A; Hurd, N J; Goldson, P R; McGinnis, M R

1987-01-01

302

A radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1988-07-19

303

Teaching Microbial Physiology Using Glucose Repression Phenomenon in Baker's Yeast as an Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" has been used by human beings since ancient times for its ability to convert sugar to alcohol. Continual exposure to glucose in the natural environment for innumerable generations has probably enabled "S. cerevisiae" to grow in fermentative mode on sugars by switching off the genes responsible for respiration…

Raghevendran, Vijayendran; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

2005-01-01

304

Force and kinesin-8-dependent effects in the spatial regulation of fission yeast microtubule dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microtubules (MTs) are central to the organisation of the eukaryotic intracellular space and are involved in the control of cell morphology. For these purposes, MT polymerisation dynamics are tightly regulated. Using automated image analysis software, we investigate the spatial dependence of MT dynamics in interphase fission yeast cells with unprecedented statistical accuracy. We find that MT catastrophe frequencies (switches from

Damian Brunner; Marileen Dogterom; Christian Tischer

2009-01-01

305

Innovative switching technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an all-semiconductor high-power optical switch. Potential uses include both military applications, such as ultra-wide-band impulse radar and high-frequency antenna couplers, and commercial use, such as high-power switching for utility companies. Under this three-year program, we have demonstrated various switching applications from dc to GHz frequencies. The generic switches comprise a 2-D semiconductor laser diode array and Si or GaAs devices. In the Si area (linear switches - no gain) and dc-biased network, a single two-sided PIN device, activated by two 1 kW laser arrays, has yielded a holding voltage of 1.3 kV and conducted 192 A. Similar devices have later yielded a holding voltage of 3.3 kV, demonstrating the capability of switching more than 500 kW with a single two-sided PIN device. The same generic technology was also demonstrated in high-power high-frequency antenna coupler applications as well as in mm-wave (60 GHz) attenuators and phase shifters. PIN devices tested in a RF circuit between 2-30 MHz yielded an isolation value of between 28 and 49 dB in the off-state, and insertion losses as low as 0.1 dB when illuminated with 280 W (peak) optical power at 808 nm. In the area of GaAs, PIN, and bulk devices under this project, we were able to deliver devices for experiments in both opening and closing switches. We have demonstrated a compact, all-semiconductor switch system that has switched up to 8.5 MW into a 38 (omega) load. The system uses a 2-D laser diode array with a peak power of 850 W to rigger a 1.5 cm long GaAs photoconductor into a high-gain combination mode known as 'lock on'. The highest power switch was pulse-charged to 55 kV and delivered 470 A to a 38 (omega) load in 160 ns long pulse. In the area of 2-D laser arrays, a peak power density of 7 kW/cm(exp 2) was achieved.

Rosen, A.; Stabile, P. J.; Gombar, A. M.; Janton, W. M.; Gilbert, D. B.; Herczfeld, P. R.; Bahasadri, A.

1991-03-01

306

Low inductance gas switching.  

SciTech Connect

The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and electrode diameter were conducted.

Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.

2007-10-01

307

Genome evolution in yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity

Bernard Dujon; David Sherman; Gilles Fischer; Pascal Durrens; Serge Casaregola; Ingrid Lafontaine; Jacky de Montigny; Christian Marck; Cécile Neuvéglise; Emmanuel Talla; Nicolas Goffard; Lionel Frangeul; Michel Aigle; Véronique Anthouard; Anna Babour; Valérie Barbe; Stéphanie Barnay; Sylvie Blanchin; Jean-Marie Beckerich; Emmanuelle Beyne; Claudine Bleykasten; Anita Boisramé; Jeanne Boyer; Laurence Cattolico; Fabrice Confanioleri; Antoine de Daruvar; Laurence Despons; Emmanuelle Fabre; Cécile Fairhead; Hélène Ferry-Dumazet; Alexis Groppi; Florence Hantraye; Christophe Hennequin; Nicolas Jauniaux; Philippe Joyet; Rym Kachouri; Alix Kerrest; Romain Koszul; Marc Lemaire; Isabelle Lesur; Laurence Ma; Héloïse Muller; Jean-Marc Nicaud; Macha Nikolski; Sophie Oztas; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Stefan Pellenz; Serge Potier; Guy-Franck Richard; Marie-Laure Straub; Audrey Suleau; Dominique Swennen; Fredj Tekaia; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Eric Westhof; Bénédicte Wirth; Maria Zeniou-Meyer; Ivan Zivanovic; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Agnès Thierry; Christiane Bouchier; Bernard Caudron; Claude Scarpelli; Claude Gaillardin; Jean Weissenbach; Patrick Wincker; Jean-Luc Souciet

2004-01-01

308

Biosynthesis of yeast mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethidium bromide selectively inhibits growth of the petite negative yeast Kluyveromyces fragilis on a non-fermentable carbon source. In short term experiments, when growth in ethidium is continued for about 11 generations, this inhibition is accompanied by a loss of cyanide sensitive respiration and particulate cytochromes, an initial phase of microcolony production, and an inhibition of mitochondrial DNA synthesis. The loss

A. A. Luha; P. A. Whittaker; R. C. Hammond

1974-01-01

309

Yeast DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Hays, Lana

2009-01-01

310

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

2013-02-12

311

Thermionic gas switch  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an improved temperature responsive thermionic gas switch utilizing a hollow cathode and a folded emitter surface area. The folded emitter surface area of the thermionic switch substantially increases the on/off ratio by changing the conduction surface area involved in the two modes thereof. The improved switch of this invention provides an on/off ratio of 450:1 compared to the 10:1 ratio of the prior known thermionic switch, while providing for adjusting the on current. In the improved switch of this invention the conduction area is made small in the off mode, while in the on mode the conduction area is made large. This is achieved by utilizing a folded hollow cathode configuration and utilizing a folded emitter surface area, and by making the dimensions of the folds small enough so that a space charge will develop in the convolutions of the folds and suppress unignited current, thus limiting the current carrying surface in the off mode.

Hatch, G.L.; Brummond, W.A.; Barrus, D.M.

1984-04-05

312

FAST ACTING CURRENT SWITCH  

DOEpatents

A high-current, fast-acting switch is designed for utilization as a crowbar switch in a high-current circuit such as used to generate the magnetic confinement field of a plasma-confining and heat device, e.g., Pyrotron. The device particularly comprises a cylindrical housing containing two stationary, cylindrical contacts between which a movable contact is bridged to close the switch. The movable contact is actuated by a differential-pressure, airdriven piston assembly also within the housing. To absorb the acceleration (and the shock imparted to the device by the rapidly driven, movable contact), an adjustable air buffer assembly is provided, integrally connected to the movable contact and piston assembly. Various safety locks and circuit-synchronizing means are also provided to permit proper cooperation of the invention and the high-current circuit in which it is installed. (AEC)

Batzer, T.H.; Cummings, D.B.; Ryan, J.F.

1962-05-22

313

Magnetic switches and circuits  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines the use of saturable inductors as switches in lumped-element, magnetic-pulse compression circuits is discussed and the characteristic use of each is defined. In addition, the geometric constraints and magnetic pulse compression circuits used in short-pulse, low-inductance systems are considered. The scaling of presaturation leakage currents, magnetic energy losses, and switching times with geometrical and material parameters are developed to aid in evaluating magnetic pulse compression systems in a particular application. Finally, a scheme for increasing the couping coefficient in saturable stripline transformers is proposed to enable their use in the short-pulse, high-voltage regime.

Nunnally, W.C.

1982-05-01

314

SHOCKPROOF MAGNETIC REED SWITCH  

DOEpatents

A shockproof magnetic reed switch is described which comprises essentially a plurality of pairs of reed contacts of magnetic, electrical conducting material which are arranged generally in circumferential spaced relationship. At least two of the pairs are disposed to operate at a predetermined angle with respect to each other, and the contacts are wired in the circuit, so that the continuity, or discontinuity, of the circuit is not affected by a shock imposed on the switch. The contacts are hermetically sealed within an outer tubular jacket. (AEC)

Medal, E.

1962-03-13

315

41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

316

43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

317

36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

318

35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

319

Design of Wavelength Converting Switches for Optical Burst Switching.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is an experimental network technology that enables the construction of very high capacity routers, using optical data paths and electronic control. In this paper, we study two designs for wavelength converting switches that a...

J. Ramamirtham J. Turner

2001-01-01

320

Thiol-based redox switches and gene regulation.  

PubMed

Cysteine is notable among the universal, proteinogenic amino acids for its facile redox chemistry. Cysteine thiolates are readily modified by reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive electrophilic species (RES), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Although thiol switches are commonly triggered by disulfide bond formation, they can also be controlled by S-thiolation, S-alkylation, or modification by RNS. Thiol-based switches are common in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and activate functions that detoxify reactive species and restore thiol homeostasis while repressing functions that would be deleterious if expressed under oxidizing conditions. Here, we provide an overview of the best-understood examples of thiol-based redox switches that affect gene expression. Intra- or intermolecular disulfide bond formation serves as a direct regulatory switch for several bacterial transcription factors (OxyR, OhrR/2-Cys, Spx, YodB, CrtJ, and CprK) and indirectly regulates others (the RsrA anti-? factor and RegB sensory histidine kinase). In eukaryotes, thiol-based switches control the yeast Yap1p transcription factor, the Nrf2/Keap1 electrophile and oxidative stress response, and the Chlamydomonas NAB1 translational repressor. Collectively, these regulators reveal a remarkable range of chemical modifications exploited by Cys residues to effect changes in gene expression. PMID:20626317

Antelmann, Haike; Helmann, John D

2010-10-28

321

Mammalian Homology to Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site allows researchers to retrieve a yeast-against-mammal Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) report by entering a gene or ORF name into a search function. The supporting data were first summarized in a recent Science article which is provided via a link to the journal (Science, 22 July 1997; Issue 277: p.1259). Steve Chervitz of Stanford University maintains this site.

1997-01-01

322

''Is Yeast Alive?''  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry activity students explore the characteristics of living organisms to determine whether yeast meets the criteria of a living thing. This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2006 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Katrenia Hosea-Flanigan (Frank Cody High School)

2006-04-01

323

Chemical transformation of yeast.  

PubMed

Transformation of chemically competent yeast cells is a method for introducing exogenous DNA into living cells. Typically, the DNA is either a plasmid carrying an autonomous replication sequence that allows for propagation or a linear piece of DNA to be integrated into the genome. The DNA usually also carries a marker that allows for selection of successfully transformed cells by plating on the appropriate selective media. PMID:24011057

Bergkessel, Megan; Guthrie, Christine

2013-01-01

324

Glutathione Production in Yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glutathione, ? -glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, is the most abundant non-protein thiol found in almost all eukaryotic cells (and in some prokaryotes). The tripeptide, which is synthesized non-ribosomally by the consecutive action of two soluble enzymes, is needed for carrying out numerous functions in the cell, most important of which is the maintenance of the redox buffer. The cycle of glutathione biosynthesis and degradation forms part of the ? -glutamyl cycle in most organisms although the latter half of the pathway has not been demonstrated in yeasts. Our current understanding of how glutathione levels are controlled at different levels in the cell is described. Several different routes and processes have been attempted to increase commercial production of glutathione using both yeast and bacteria. In this article we discuss the history of glutathione production in yeast. The current bottlenecks for increased glutathione production are presented based on our current understanding of the regulation of glutathione homeostasis, and possible strategies for overcoming these limitations for further enhancing and improving glutathione production are discussed

Bachhawat, Anand K.; Ganguli, Dwaipayan; Kaur, Jaspreet; Kasturia, Neha; Thakur, Anil; Kaur, Hardeep; Kumar, Akhilesh; Yadav, Amit

325

Packet Switching Photonic Network Switch Design and Routing Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maturity of photonic technology makes it possible to construct all optical network switch to avoid optical-to-electrical signal conversion for routing. To realize all optical packet switching, our current network topology and routing algorithms have to be reexamined and modified to satisfy the necessities of all optical network switching such as a fast routing decision, consideration of hardware implementation, buffering etc.

Hyuk-Jun Lee; Martin M. Morf; Michael J. Flynn

326

Nanosecond Spark Gap Switching Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The switching time of gas and oil dielectric spark gaps was measured in the nanosecond and subnanosecond time regime. The observed switching characteristics of the two spark gaps were compared with those predicted by empirical formulas. The formulas used ...

J. W. Ginn D. N. Hendricks M. T. Buttram

1986-01-01

327

Packet Switching with Satellites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The beginning of the 1970's has witnessed the establishment of new forms of computer-communication networks, with clear advantages over the voice oriented point-to-point, channel switched networks of the 1960's. The paper describes some of the most import...

N. Abramson

1973-01-01

328

Capillary micro-switches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A capillary surface is a liquid/liquid or liquid/gas interface whose shape is determined by surface tension. Capillary surfaces occur when the capillary length is large compared to the container scale, as happens for typical liquids against gas on the sub-millimeter scale on Earth and on the meter scale in the micro-gravity environment of space vehicles. Manipulating capillary surfaces has emerged as a leading strategy for moving liquids on the micro-scale [1]. Practitioners have yet to take advantage of capillary instability in their design of devices, though. We illustrate how the response diagram of a single switch (bi-stable device) can be constructed from that of two capillary elements, how that of a system of switches (a pair) can be built from that of a single switch and finally how understanding the response of the system guides us to observations of new behavior in the laboratory. Experiments on capillary surfaces use either a soap-film analog (10 centimeter scale) or a liquid/gas (millimeter scale) apparatus. Progress is reported on the application of an array of micro-switches to make a controllable adhesion device, with the aim of effecting droplet transport. 1. Cho, Fan, Moon and Kim, "Towards digital microfluidic circuits: creating, transporting, cutting and merging liquid droplets by electrowetting-based actuation." Proc. 15th IEEE Int'l Conf. on MEMS, January 2002.

Steen, Paul; Matalanis, Claude; Hirsa, Amir; Cox, Christhopher

2002-11-01

329

Switching with silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a review of a new switching device currently being developed. This device, known as the thyristor controlled series capacitor, promises to provide nearly instantaneous control over the electric transmission and distribution system. It has been installed at Bonneville Power`s Slatt substation, and it is a key element in the Flexible AC Transmission Systems concept current by being

Bruce

1994-01-01

330

Hybrid Power Semiconductor Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The voltage rating of a bipolar transistor may be greatly extended while at the same time reducing its switching time by operating it in conjunction with FETs in a hybrid circuit. One FET is used to drive the bipolar transistor and an inductive load. Both...

D. Y. Chen

1983-01-01

331

Tag switching architecture overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Tag switching is a way to combine the label-swapping forwarding paradigm with network layer routing. This has several advantages. Tags can have a wide spectrum of forwarding granularities, so at one end of the spectrum a tag could be associated with a group of destinations, while at the other a tag could be associated with a single application flow.

B. Davm; D. Katz; G. Swallow; D. Famnacci

1996-01-01

332

Tag switching architecture overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tag switching is a way to combine the label-swapping forwarding paradigm with network-layer routing with particular application to the Internet. This has several advantages. Tags can have a wide spectrum of forwarding granularities, so at one end of the spectrum a tag could be associated with a group of destinations, while at the other end, a tag could be associated

YAKOV REKHTER; BRUCE DAVIE; ERIC ROSEN; GEORGE SWALLOW; DINO FARINACCI; DAVE KATZ

1997-01-01

333

High Speed Packet Switching.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document constitutes the final report prepared by Proteon, Inc. of Westborough, Massachusetts under contract NAS 5-30629 entitled High-Speed Packet Switching (SBIR 87-1, Phase 2) prepared for NASA-Greenbelt, Maryland. The primary goal of this researc...

1991-01-01

334

MPSS: Multiprotocol Stateless Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) architecture has become a true success story in the world of telecommunications. However, MPLS becomes cumbersome if multicast communication is needed, as aggregating of labels is not easy. Because of that, when providing Multicast VPNs, operators need to trade-off bandwidth usage with the amount of multicast state, sacrificing efficiency. Forwarding with Bloom filters in the

P. Jokela; M. Sarela; S. Ruponen; J. Kempf; P. Nikander

2010-01-01

335

Switching light with light  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic characteristics of the light amplifying optical switch (LAOS) are explained. The LAOS, as compared to its electronic counterparts, will substantially reduce the interconnect time between components, chips, PC boards, and machines. The use of the LAOS to implement optical logic circuits with multiple input stages that invert and restore the input signal is discussed. Applications to image and

C. W. Wilmsen; S. A. Feld; X. An

1991-01-01

336

Safe LPV controller switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before switching to a new controller it is crucial to assure that the new closed loop will be stable. In this paper it is demonstrated how stability can be checked with limited measurement data available from the current closed loop. The paper extends an existing method to linear parameter varying plants and controllers. Rather than relying on frequency domain methods

Klaus Trangbaek

2010-01-01

337

Optoelectronic Switch Array.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the second quarter work performed in the development of an optoelectronic switch array. The report is divided into three parts. Part I describes an improved light sensing circuit which has been included in the integrated design and des...

1968-01-01

338

Kiowa Creek Switching Station  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-03-01

339

Optical Switch Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have evaluated nonlinear interface optical switches (NIOS) based on thin films of laser deposited metal oxide clusters. Films having nominal thickness 200nm and ranging in stoichiometry from WO2.6 to WO2.5, were evaluated in at least two configurations...

J. M. Osman

1996-01-01

340

Parrondo's games with chaotic switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the different effects of chaotic switching on Parrondo's games, as compared to random and periodic switching. The rate of winning of Parrondo's games with chaotic switching depends on coefficient(s) defining the chaotic generator, initial conditions of the chaotic sequence and the proportion of Game A played. Maximum rate of winning can be obtained with all the above mentioned factors properly set, and this occurs when chaotic switching approaches periodic behavior.

Tang, Tze Wei; Allison, Andrew G.; Abbott, Derek

2004-05-01

341

Transparent electrode for optical switch  

DOEpatents

The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

1984-10-19

342

Conservation of yeasts by dehydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presented material concerns the theoretical basis for obtaining high-quality active dry biopreparations. It deals with the present understanding of anabiosis, contains data on yeast resistance against dehydration and the limits for preserving the viability of microorganisms in anabiosis. The process of water transport in yeast biomass during dehydration is discussed.\\u000a The changes and transformations in yeast cells occuring after

Martin Beker; Alexander Rapoport

343

Yeast interactions and wine flavour.  

PubMed

Wine is the product of complex interactions between fungi, yeasts and bacteria that commence in the vineyard and continue throughout the fermentation process until packaging. Although grape cultivar and cultivation provide the foundations of wine flavour, microorganisms, especially yeasts, impact on the subtlety and individuality of the flavour response. Consequently, it is important to identify and understand the ecological interactions that occur between the different microbial groups, species and strains. These interactions encompass yeast-yeast, yeast-filamentous fungi and yeast-bacteria responses. The surface of healthy grapes has a predominance of Aureobasidium pullulans, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora (Kloeckera), Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula species depending on stage of maturity. This microflora moderates the growth of spoilage and mycotoxigenic fungi on grapes, the species and strains of yeasts that contribute to alcoholic fermentation, and the bacteria that contribute to malolactic fermentation. Damaged grapes have increased populations of lactic and acetic acid bacteria that impact on yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation is characterised by the successional growth of various yeast species and strains, where yeast-yeast interactions determine the ecology. Through yeast-bacterial interactions, this ecology can determine progression of the malolactic fermentation, and potential growth of spoilage bacteria in the final product. The mechanisms by which one species/strain impacts on another in grape-wine ecosystems include: production of lytic enzymes, ethanol, sulphur dioxide and killer toxin/bacteriocin like peptides; nutrient depletion including removal of oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide; and release of cell autolytic components. Cell-cell communication through quorum sensing molecules needs investigation. PMID:12892919

Fleet, Graham H

2003-09-01

344

Task switching and subjective duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments investigated the effects of switching from a nontiming task (addition of rapidly presented digits) to estimation of the duration of short tones or visual stimuli (Experiments 1 and 2), or the production of time intervals (Experiment 3). In general, compared with trials without a task-switch, trials involving a switch resulted in shorter duration estimates, but longer productions. The

J. H. Wearden; Susan C. ORourke; Claire Matchwick; Zhang Min; Sharon Maeers

2010-01-01

345

Language Switching and Language Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more…

Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

2012-01-01

346

Development of optical multifunctional switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lossless, low-crosstalk and multifunction optical switch is most desirable for large-scale photonic network. To realize such a switch, we have introduced the new architecture of optical switch that embedded many functions on single device. With the use of MEMs technology has minimized the effect of crosstalk and return loss. The multifunctional device means the integration of single functional device

M. S. Ab-Rahman; M. T. M. Yusof

2008-01-01

347

Imaging individual spindle microtubule dynamics in fission yeast.  

PubMed

Microtubules exhibit dynamic instability, stochastically switching between infrequent phases of growth and shrinkage. In the cell, microtubule dynamic instability is further modulated by microtubule-associated proteins and motors, which are specifically tuned to cell cycle stages. For example, mitotic microtubules are more dynamic than interphase microtubules. The different parameters of microtubule dynamics can be measured from length versus time data, which are generally obtained from time-lapse acquisition using the optical microscope. The typical maximum resolution of the optical microscope is ~?/2 or ~300nm. This scale represents a challenge for imaging fission yeast microtubule dynamics specifically during early mitosis, where the bipolar mitotic spindle contains many short dynamic microtubules of ~1-?m scale. Here, we present a novel method to image short fission yeast mitotic microtubules. The method uses the thermosensitive reversible kinesin-5 cut7.24(ts) to create monopolar spindles, where asters of individual mitotic microtubules are presented for imaging and subsequent analysis. PMID:23973085

Costa, Judite; Fu, Chuanhai; Syrovatkina, Viktoriya; Tran, Phong T

2013-01-01

348

High gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches: Switch longevity  

SciTech Connect

Optically activated, high gain GaAs switches are being tested for many different pulsed power applications that require long lifetime (longevity). The switches have p and n contact metallization (with intentional or unintentional dopants) configured in such a way as to produce p-i-n or n-i-n switches. The longevity of the switches is determined by circuit parameters and by the ability of the contacts to resist erosion. This paper will describe how the switches performed in test-beds designed to measure switch longevity. The best longevity was achieved with switches made with diffused contacts, achieving over 50 million pulses at 10 A and over 2 million pulses at 80 A.

Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Mar, A. [and others

1998-07-01

349

Ciliate Mating Types and Their Specific Protein Pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The determination of a number of pheromone structures from species of Euplotes provided direct evidence that these cell type- specific signals are represented by families of homologous proteins, consistently with their genetic control through series of single-locus multiple alleles. Due to their structural homology, unequivocally manifested by the organization of similar three-dimensional t opologies, pheromones can thus compete with

Pierangelo LUPORINI; Claudio ALIMENTI; Claudio ORTENZI; Adriana VALLESI

2005-01-01

350

Mating-type heterokaryosis and population shifts in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, NC. This field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of...

351

Micromachined low-loss microwave switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and fabrication of a micromechanical capacitive membrane microwave switching device is described. The switching element consists of a thin metallic membrane, which has two states, actuated or unactuated, depending on the applied bias. A microwave signal is switched on and off when the membrane is switched between the two states. These switches have a switching on speed of

Z. Jamie Yao; Shea Chen; Susan Eshelman; David Denniston; Chuck Goldsmith

1999-01-01

352

Scalable schedulers for high-performance switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheduler and switching fabric are two major hardware components of a cell switch. For a switch using a nonblocking switching fabric, the performance of the switch depends on the performance of its cell scheduler. We introduce the concepts of relative and universal scheduler scalabilities. Informally, a scheduler is relatively scalable with respect to a switching fabric if its structure is

Chuanjun Li; S. Q. Zheng; Mei Yang

2004-01-01

353

Production of food yeast from starchy substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen yeast strains were selected for the production of food yeast from starchy substrates. From comparison with the amylolytic yeasts, a strain of Schwanniomyces castellii was selected and its characteristics are described.

A. Touzi; J. P. Prebois; G. Moulin; F. Deschamps; P. Galzy

1982-01-01

354

21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

2009-04-01

355

21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

2010-01-01

356

21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food provided the...

2013-04-01

357

21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. (2) Phaffia...

2013-04-01

358

21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. (2) Phaffia...

2010-04-01

359

21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. (2) Phaffia...

2009-04-01

360

Future switching system requirements  

SciTech Connect

What network construction and operations should a network provider expect in the future To answer this question, the author first discusses the new environment surrounding the network from two aspects: the business administration aspect, which involves the issues of competition and cooperation, reduction in labor, and new services; and the technological aspect, which involves the issues of open and global networks and the fusion of telecommunications and information processing technologies. Then, on that basis, there is clarification of what is required of the switching system in terms of architecture, connectivity, reliability, and security. Finally, there is a description of the form of the expected switching system in terms of architecture, and the enhancement of call control, operations, and the user-network interface. 3 refs., 2 figs.

Aoki, Toshiharu (NTT, Tokyo (Japan))

1993-01-01

361

MULTIPLE SPARK GAP SWITCH  

DOEpatents

A multiple spark gap switch of unique construction is described which will permit controlled, simultaneous discharge of several capacitors into a load. The switch construction includes a disc electrode with a plurality of protuberances of generally convex shape on one surface. A firing electrode is insulatingly supponted In each of the electrode protuberances and extends substantially to the apex thereof. Individual electrodes are disposed on an insulating plate parallel with the disc electrode to form a number of spark gaps with the protuberances. These electrodes are each connected to a separate charged capacitor and when a voltage ls applied simultaneously between the trigger electrodes and the dlsc electrode, each spark gap fires to connect its capacitor to the disc electrode and a subsequent load.

Schofield, A.E.

1958-07-22

362

Switching with silicon  

SciTech Connect

This article is a review of a new switching device currently being developed. This device, known as the thyristor controlled series capacitor, promises to provide nearly instantaneous control over the electric transmission and distribution system. It has been installed at Bonneville Power`s Slatt substation, and it is a key element in the Flexible AC Transmission Systems concept current by being developed by EPRI.

Bruce, B.

1994-07-01

363

A CMOS SPDT switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a novel architecture with stacked-type CMOS device is presented. The reformed CMOS switch was implemented by the TSMC 0.18 um 1P6M standard CMOS process. In order to improve power handling capability and strengthen the isolation, the proposed circuit is inserted with an excess transistor adjacent to the receiver side. The insertion loss of the designed CMOS T\\/R

Jheng-Da Wu; Janne-Wha Wu; Chih-Ho Tu; Ching-Wen Tang; Chien-You Lai; Bing-Jiun Lai; Wei-Ju Lai; Liang-Yeh Chi; Ying-Zong Juang

2008-01-01

364

Composite Material Switches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

Javadi, Hamid

2002-09-01

365

Optical switch fabric design for gigabit switching router  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key issues of high performance IP Gigabit Switching Router (GSR) design is about switching fabrics. In the traditional bus-based router architectures, the data transfer rate of copper backplanes will soon reach the speed limit because of connector reflections and crosstalk. An alternative optical switching fabric technology is necessary in order to satisfy the demand for high switching bandwidth. In this paper we firstly present a novel all-optical broadcasting switch fabric design scheme based on broadcasting bus architecture. In this section we also illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of this kind of architecture and demonstrate that this kind of switching fabric architecture have no interior block as well as none I/O block. Second, we discuss such implementation scheme of all-optical broadcasting switch fabric architecture as queuing, scheduling and multicasting. Finally, we get a conclusion that all-optical broadcasting switch fabric is one of the cost-effective solutions to design high-speed, scalable and simple switch fabrics compared with those complicated electric crossbar switch fabrics in GSR design.

Wei, Wei; Zeng, Qingji

2001-10-01

366

Ultrafast gas switching experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less are described. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes less than 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. Pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to 1 kHz were produced and accurately measured. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than 1 nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and waveforms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and pressure. This technology was applied to practical systems driving ultrawideband radiating antennas and bounded wave simulators. A thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch was developed. This pulser driving a Sandia-designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with less than 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF greater than 1 kHz at grater tha n 100 kV/m E field.

Frost, C. A.; Martin, T. H.; Patterson, P. E.; Rinehart, L. F.; Rohwein, G. J.; Roose, L. D.; Aurand, J. F.; Buttram, M. T.

1993-06-01

367

Cygnus Diverter Switch Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 50-ns x-ray sources fielded in an underground laboratory at the Nevada Test Site. The tests performed in this laboratory involve study of the dynamic properties of plutonium and are called subcritical experiments. From end-to-end, the Cygnus machines utilize the following components: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), waterfilled coaxial transmission line (WTL), 3-cell inductive voltage adder (IVA), and rod-pinch diode. The upstream WTL interface to the PFL is via a radial insulator with coaxial geometry. The downstream WTL terminates in a manifold where the center conductor splits into three lines which individually connect to each of the IVA cell inputs. There is an impedance mismatch at this juncture. It is a concern that a reflected pulse due to anomalous behavior in the IVA or diode might initiate breakdown upon arrival at the upstream PFL/WTL insulator. Therefore near the beginning of the WTL a radial diverter switch is installed to protect the insulator from over voltage and breakdown. The diverter has adjustable gap spacing, and an in-line aqueous-solution (sodium thiosulfate) resistor array for energy dissipation. There are capacitive voltage probes at both ends of the WTL and on the diverter switch. These voltage signals will be analyzed to determine diverter performance. Using this analysis the usefulness of the diverter switch will be evaluated.

G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton et al.

2008-02-01

368

Organic optical bistable switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate an organic optical bistable switch by integrating an efficient organic photodetector on top of a transparent electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (TOLED). The bistability is achieved with an external field-effect transistor providing positive feedback. In the ``LOW'' state, the TOLED is off and the current in the photodetector is solely its dark current. In the ``HIGH'' state, the TOLED emits light that is directly coupled into the integrated photodetector through the transparent cathode. The photocurrent then is fed back to the TOLED, maintaining it in the HIGH state. The green electrophosphorescent material, fac tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium [Ir(ppy)3] doped into a 4,4'-N,N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl host was used as the luminescent material in the TOLED, while alternating thin layers of copper phthalocyanine and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic bis-benzimidazole were used as the active region of the organic photodetector. The circuit has a 3 dB bandwidth of 25 kHz, and can be switched between HIGH and LOW using pulses as narrow as 60 ns. The bistable switch can be both electrically and optically reset, making it a candidate for image-retaining displays (e.g., electronic paper) and other photonic logic applications. The integrated organic device also has broad use as a linear circuit element in applications such as automatic brightness control.

Xue, Jiangeng; Forrest, Stephen R.

2003-01-01

369

Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in

S. Russo; G. Poli; R. B. Siman-Tov

1995-01-01

370

A numericlature of the Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numericlature, based on a descriptive numerical code has been compiled for the yeasts. A total of 429 yeast species are represented by 388 unique four-, six- or seven-digit numbers and of these 364 correspond to single species. It is suggested that the coding method is a valid alternative to binomial nomenclature based on a conventional hierarchical classification. It can

A. J. Griffiths

1981-01-01

371

Growth of Solar Radiated Yeast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddar...

T. Kraft

1995-01-01

372

The intronome of budding yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whatever their abundance in genomes, spliceosomal introns are the signature of eukaryotic genes. The sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, achieved fifteen years ago, revealed that this yeast has very few introns, but conserved intron boundaries typical for an intron definition mechanism. With the improvement and the development of new sequencing technologies, yeast genomes have been extensively sequenced during the last decade. We

Cécile Neuvéglise; Christian Marck; Claude Gaillardin

2011-01-01

373

Apoptotic death of ageing yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast has been a valuable model to study replicative and chronological ageing processes. Replicative ageing is defined by the number of daughter cells a mother can give birth to and hence reflects the ageing situation in proliferating cells, whereas chronological ageing is widely accepted as a model for postmitotic tissue ageing. Since both ageing forms end in yeast programmed death

Patrick Rockenfeller; Frank Madeo

2008-01-01

374

Multiple genes coding for precursors of rhodotorucine A, a farnesyl peptide mating pheromone of the basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides.  

PubMed

Haploid cells of mating type A of the basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides secrete a mating pheromone, rhodotorucine A, which is an undecapeptide containing S-farnesyl cysteine at its carboxy terminus. To analyze the processing and secretion pathway of rhodotorucine A, we isolated both genomic and complementary DNAs encoding the peptide moiety. We identified three distinct genes, RHA1, RHA2, and RHA3, encoding four, five, and three copies of the pheromone peptide, respectively. Complementary DNA clones were classified into two types. One type was homologous to RHA1, and the other type was homologous to RHA2. Transcription start sites were identified by primer extension and S1 nuclease protection, from which the site of the initiator methionine was verified. A primary precursor of rhodotorucine A was detected as a 7-kilodalton protein by immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products. On the basis of these results, we propose similar three-precursor structures of rhodotorucine A, each containing the amino-terminal peptide sequence Met-Val-Ala. The precursors contain three, four, or five tandem repeats of the pheromone peptide, each separated by a spacer peptide, Thr-Val-Ser(Ala)-Lys, and each precursor has the carboxy-terminal sequence Thr-Val-Ala. This structure suggests that primary precursors of rhodotorucine A do not contain canonical signal sequences. PMID:2571924

Akada, R; Minomi, K; Kai, J; Yamashita, I; Miyakawa, T; Fukui, S

1989-08-01

375

The Budding Yeast Nucleus  

PubMed Central

The budding yeast nucleus, like those of other eukaryotic species, is highly organized with respect to both chromosomal sequences and enzymatic activities. At the nuclear periphery interactions of nuclear pores with chromatin, mRNA, and transport factors promote efficient gene expression, whereas centromeres, telomeres, and silent chromatin are clustered and anchored away from pores. Internal nuclear organization appears to be function-dependent, reflecting localized sites for tRNA transcription, rDNA transcription, ribosome assembly, and DNA repair. Recent advances have identified new proteins involved in the positioning of chromatin and have allowed testing of the functional role of higher-order chromatin organization. The unequal distribution of silent information regulatory factors and histone modifying enzymes, which arises in part from the juxtaposition of telomeric repeats, has been shown to influence chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. Other localization events suppress unwanted recombination. These findings highlight the contribution budding yeast genetics and cytology have made to dissecting the functional role of nuclear structure.

Taddei, Angela; Schober, Heiko; Gasser, Susan M.

2010-01-01

376

Stress signaling in yeast.  

PubMed

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae three positive transcriptional control elements are activated by stress conditions: heat shock elements (HSEs), stress response elements (STREs) and AP-1 responsive elements (AREs). HSEs bind heat shock transcription factor (HSF), which is activated by stress conditions causing accumulation of abnormal proteins. STREs mediate transcriptional activation by multiple stress conditions. They are controlled by high osmolarity via the HOG signal pathway, which comprises a MAP kinase module and a two-component system homologous to prokaryotic signal transducers. AREs bind the transcription factor Yap1p. The three types of control elements seem to have overlapping, but distinct functions. Some stress proteins encoded by HSE-regulated genes are necessary for growth of yeast under moderate stress, products of STRE-activated genes appear to be important for survival under severe stress and ARE-controlled genes may mainly function during oxidative stress and in the response to toxic conditions, such as caused by heavy metal ions. PMID:8526890

Ruis, H; Schüller, C

1995-11-01

377

Photoconductive semiconductor switches: Laser Q-switch trigger and switch-trigger laser integration  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of the Pulser In a Chip 9000-Discretionary LDRD. The program began in January of 1997 and concluded in September of 1997. The over-arching goal of this LDRD is to study whether laser diode triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) can be used to activate electro-optic devices such as Q-switches and Pockels cells and to study possible laser diode/switch integration. The PCSS switches we used were high gain GaAs switches because they can be triggered with small amounts of laser light. The specific goals of the LDRD were to demonstrate: (1) that small laser diode arrays that are potential candidates for laser-switch integration will indeed trigger the PCSS switch, and (2) that high gain GaAs switches can be used to trigger optical Q-switches in lasers such as the lasers to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and the laser used for direct optical initiation (DOI) of explosives. The technology developed with this LDRD is now the prime candidate for triggering the Q switch in the multiple lasers in the laser trigger system of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and may be utilized in other accelerators. As part of the LDRD we developed a commercial supplier. To study laser/switch integration we tested triggering the high gain GaAs switches with: edge emitting laser diodes, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and transverse junction stripe (TJS) lasers. The first two types of lasers (edge emitting and VCSELs) did activate the PCSS but are harder to integrate with the PCSS for a compact package. The US lasers, while easier to integrate with the switch, did not trigger the PCSS at the US laser power levels we used. The PCSS was used to activate the Q-switch of the compact laser to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source.

Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; Hamil, R.A.; Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.

1997-12-01

378

Atm switch for multi-media switching system  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advance of the information-oriented society, research has been carried out on Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) to enable flexible communication of various types of information, inclwiing voice, data and video. ATM is receiving much attention as a means of implementing B-ISDh? ATM is actualized by developing the self-routing switch for ATMswitching. The self-routing switch enables high-speed, highquality switching by hardware

Nobuya ARAKAWA; A. Noiri; H. Inoue

1990-01-01

379

Daughter-specific repression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae HO: Ash1 is the commander  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GATA-1-like factor Ash1 is a repressor of the HO gene, which encodes an endonuclease that is responsible for mating-type switching in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A multi-step programme, which involves a macromolecular protein complex, the secondary structure of ASH1 mRNA and the cell cytoskeleton, enables Ash1 to asymmetrically localize to the daughter cell nucleus in late anaphase and to

Maria Pia Cosma

2004-01-01

380

Task switching and the measurement of "switch costs".  

PubMed

The measurement of "switch costs" is held to be of interest because, as is widely believed, they may reflect the control processes that are engaged when subjects switch between two (or more) competing tasks. [In task-switching experiments, the reaction time (RT) switch cost is typically measured as the difference in RT between switch and non-switch (repeat) trials.] In this report we focus on the RT switch costs that remain even after the subject has had some time to prepare for the shift of task, when the switch cost may be approximately asymptotic (so-called residual switch costs). Three experiments are presented. All three experiments used Stroop colour/word, and neutral stimuli. Participants performed the two tasks of word-reading and colour-naming in a regular, double alternation, using the "alternating runs" paradigm (R. D. Rogers & S. Monsell, 1995). The experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that RT switch costs depend on a form of proactive interference (PI) arising from the performance of a prior, competing task. A. Allport, E. A. Styles and S. Hsieh (1994) suggested that these PI effects resulted from "task-set inertia", that is, the persisting activation-suppression of competing task-sets, or competing task-processing pathways. The results confirmed the existence of long-lasting PI from the competing task as a major contributor to switch costs. Non-switch trials, used as the baseline in the measurement of switch costs, were also shown to be strongly affected by similar PI effects. However, task-set inertia was not sufficient to account for these results. The results appeared inconsistent also with all other previous models of task switching. A new hypothesis to explain these between-task interference effects was developed, based on the stimulus-triggered retrieval of competing stimulus-response (S-R) associations, acquired (or strengthened) in earlier trials. Consistent with this retrieval hypothesis, switch costs were shown to depend primarily on the S-R characteristics of the preceding task (the task that was switched from) rather than the upcoming task. Further, the effects of the other, competing task were found to persist over many successive switching trials, affecting switch costs long after the stimulus overlap (and hence the principal S-R competition) between the current tasks had been removed. Switch costs were also found to be affected by recent, item-specific experience with a given stimulus, in either the same or the competing task. Finally, the results showed that switch costs were massively affected by the ratio of the number of prior trials, in response to the same stimuli, that had implemented either the currently intended or the competing S-R mappings. None of these effects are predicted by current models of residual switch costs, which appeal to the differences in control processes assumed to be engaged in switch versus non-switch trials. PMID:11004877

Wylie, G; Allport, A

2000-01-01

381

Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

1995-12-31

382

DNA-Controlled Excitonic Switches  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a promising means of enabling information processing in nanoscale devices, but dynamic control over exciton pathways is required. Here, we demonstrate the operation of two complementary switches consisting of diffusive FRET transmission lines in which exciton flow is controlled by DNA. Repeatable switching is accomplished by the removal or addition of fluorophores through toehold-mediated strand invasion. In principle, these switches can be networked to implement any Boolean function.

2012-01-01

383

Dilated Networks for Photonic Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present some novel architectures for rearrangeably nonblocking multistage photonic space switches implemented using arrays ofTi:LiNbO_{3}directional couplers. Multistage networks, studied mostly in the electronic domain, are obtained by minimizing the number of 2 × 2 elements needed to implement a switch. Unfortunately, straightforward extensions of these networks to the photonic domain show that the switch size has to be severely

K. Padmanabhan; A. Netravali

1987-01-01

384

Switching for electric rail guns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The switching requirements of single-stage electric railguns powered by inductive energy stores are analyzed, and the design of a 500-kA commutation switch is shown. The closed, commutation, and off states of the switch and the reclosure function at the end of the projectile acceleration are discussed in general terms, and the specific requirements of the railgun facility at Australian National

J. P. Barber; D. P. Bauer

1984-01-01

385

Virtual service switch  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Virtual service switching includes contracting to provide a requestor with a unit of computing capacity to a service within a specific time period, creating one or more plans based at least in part on the contracting, scheduling execution of the one or more plans using the computing capacity, and if a bid for at least part of the unit of computing capacity is received prior to the end of the specific time period, allocating at least part of the computing capacity based at least in part on the bid. Each of the one or more plans comprises software code and associated data.

Cohen; David (Ridgewood, NJ); Younan; James (Warwick, NY)

2013-10-22

386

Controlled access ATM switch  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switch in which access to a switchcore matrix is monitored and controlled through the logic and buffering functions of switchports connected thereto. The switchcore is greatly simplified by moving the logic and buffering functions to the switchports. The switchcore matrix comprises a plurality of rows, columns, and crosspoints thereof, providing routing paths for the routing of information cells from input points to output points on the matrix. Single-cell buffers in the switchcore matrix enable temporary storage and hand-off of individual information cells as they pass through the matrix. The simplicity of the switchcore matrix enables it to be constructed on a single integrated circuit.

Petersen; Lars-Goran (Tumba, SE)

1995-11-14

387

Neutron activated switch  

DOEpatents

A switch for reacting quickly to a neutron emission. A rod consisting of fissionable material is located inside a vacuum tight body. An adjustable contact is located coaxially at an adjustable distance from one end of the rod. Electrical leads are connected to the rod and to the adjustable contact. With a vacuum drawn inside the body, a neutron bombardment striking the rod causes it to heat and expand longitudinally until it comes into contact with the adjustable contact. This circuit closing occurs within a period of a few microseconds.

Barton, David M. (Espanola, NM)

1991-01-01

388

Neutron activated switch  

DOEpatents

A switch for reacting quickly to a neutron emission in which a rod consisting of a rod of fissionable material inside a vacuum tight body. An adjustable contact is located coaxially an adjustable distance from one end of the rod. Electrical leads are connected to the rod and to the adjustable contact. With a vacuum drawn inside the body, a neutron bombardment striking the rod will cause it to heat and expand longitudinally until it comes into contact with the adjustable contact. This closing occurs within a period of a few microseconds. 2 figs.

Barton, D.M.

1989-10-30

389

Yeasts from the leaves of pasture plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast population upon the leaves of pasture plants in New Zealand has been investigated in relation to season, soil yeast flora, and incidence of facial eczema toxin in autumn pasture. Leaf yeasts were shown to be taxonomically distinct from soil yeasts and to vary with season but not to vary with the localities sampled. During most of the year

M. E. di Menna

1959-01-01

390

Effects of Yeast Freezing in Frozen Dough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 80(4):454-458 The effects of freezing and frozen storage of bread dough and com- pressed yeast on bread quality were studied. Besides, the effects of compressed yeast freezing on cell viability, gas production and release of substances by the yeast cells were examined. Freezing and frozen storage of dough made with fresh yeast had more negative effects on baking

Pablo D. Ribotta; Alberto E. León; María Cristina Añón

2003-01-01

391

Yeasts in an industrial malting ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malting ecosystem consists of two components: the germinating cereal grains and the complex microbial community. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi are an important part of this ecosystem, but the composition and the effects of this microbial group have been largely unknown. In this study we surveyed the development of yeasts and yeast-like fungi in four industrial scale malting processes. A

A. Laitila; A. Wilhelmson; E. Kotaviita; J. Olkku; S. Home; R. Juvonen

2006-01-01

392

Optical switch based on thermocapillarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space-division optical switches are essential for the protection, optical cross-connects (OXCs), and optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs) needed in future fiber-optic communication networks. For applications in these areas, we proposed a thermocapillarity switch called oil-latching interfacial-tension variation effect (OLIVE) switch. An OLIVE switch is a micro-mechanical optical switch fabricated on planar lightwave circuits (PLC) using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It consists of a crossing waveguide that has a groove at each crossing point and a pair of microheaters. The groove is partially filled with the refractive-index-matching liquid, and optical signals are switched according to the liquid's position in the groove, i.e., whether it is passing straight through the groove or reflecting at the sidewall of the groove. The liquid is driven by thermocapillarity and latched by capillarity. Using the total internal reflection to switch the optical path, the OLIVE switch exhibits excellent optical characteristics, such as high transparency (insertion loss: < 2 dB), high extinction ratio (> 50 dB), and low crosstalk (< -50 dB). Moreover, since this switch has a simple structure and bi-stability, it has wide variety of applications in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks.

Sakata, Tomomi; Makihara, Mitsuhiro; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Shimokawa, Fusao; Kaneko, Kazumasa

2001-11-01

393

Modeling of rf MEMS switches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switch offers many benefits in radio frequency (RF) applications. These benefits include low insertion loss, high quality factor (Q), low power, RF isolation, and low cost. The ability to manufacture mechanical switches on a chip with electronics can lead to higher functionality, such as single-chip arrays, and smart switches. The MEMS switch is also used as a building block in devices such as phase shifters, filters, and switchable antenna elements. The MEMS designer needs models of these basic elements in order to incorporate them into their applications. The objective of this effort is to develop lumped element models for MEMS RF switches, which are incorporated into a CAD software. Tanner Research Inc.'s Electronic Design Automation (EDA) software is being used to develop a suite of mixed-signal RF switch models. The suite will include switches made from cantilever beams and fixed-fixed beams. The switches may be actuated by electrostatic, piezoelectric or electromagnetic forces. The effort presented in this paper concentrates on switches actuated by electrostatic forces. The lumped element models use a current-force electrical-mechanical analogy. Finite element modeling and device testing will be used to verify the Tanner models. The effects of materials, geometries, temperature, fringing fields, and mounting geometries are considered.

Robertson, Barbara; Ho, Fat D.; Hudson, Tracy D.

2001-10-01

394

A numericlature of the yeasts.  

PubMed

A numericlature, based on a descriptive numerical code has been compiled for the yeasts. A total of 429 yeast species are represented by 389 unique four-, six- or seven-digit numbers and of these 364 correspond to single species. It is suggested that the coding method is a valid alternative to binomial nomenclature based on a conventional hierarchical classification. It can serve as a simple reference system and can be used practically as a means of differentiating between large numbers of new isolates of yeasts. PMID:7337435

Griffiths, A J

1981-01-01

395

Development of baking yeast from Nigerian palm-wine yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two local strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Nk, and Nk2, showed leavening activities of 103% and 102% of that of a commercial yeast strain on wheat flour and of 114% and 113% on composite dough with 40% (w\\/v) maize substitution. Yeast fusion products Nk\\/Ng, Nk\\/Nk1 and Nk\\/Nk2 showed activities of 104% to 113% on wheat flour and 111% to 131% on

A. O. Ejiofor; N. Okafor; E. N. Ugwueze

1994-01-01

396

Thermostability of yeast hexokinase and yeast glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic study of the mechanism of the temperature-induced loss of the catalytic activity by yeast hexokinase (HK) and yeast\\u000a glucose-6phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDG) has shown the dissociative nature of the processes. In the temperature range 40–47°C,\\u000a they are satisfactorily described in terms of consecutive reactions in which steps of irreversible denaturation of the monomeric\\u000a units follow the reversible dissociation of inactive

E. A. Zaitzeva; E. S. Chukria; O. M. Poltorak

1996-01-01

397

Characteristics of micromachined switches at microwave frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the fundamental characteristics of micromechanical membrane switches operating at microwave frequencies. The construction and theory of operation of capacitive membrane switches is reviewed. Measurement and modeling of the electromechanical and microwave properties of these switches are presented. The inherent advantages of these switches relative to semiconductor switches is discussed

C. Goldsmith; J. Randall; S. Eshelman; T. H. Lin; D. Denniston; S. Chen; B. Norvell

1996-01-01

398

Switching Systems: Controllability and Control Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We consider two classes of switches: switches-on-time and switches- on-state. Switching-on-time is the simplest of the two and it can be considered as an intrinsic (or endogenous) switching scheme in the sense that it involves only changes in the tangent ...

J. Bokor P. Gaspar Z. Szabo

2009-01-01

399

Optical switch evaluation support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive testing has been done on nonlinear interface optical switch (NIOS) devices fabricated from laser deposited nonstoichiometric tungsten oxide films. A Fresnel coefficient formalism for evaluating the indices of refraction of the films has been developed. Three cycles of testing involving changing the tungsten-oxygen stoichiometry have not produced extremely large photorefractive effects. It was decided, after using a mathematical model to determine the required incident and reflection angles, to make the next set of NIOS devices from a film deposited on ZnS prisms. ZnS more closely matches the low light intensity index of the films. Preliminary studies of further changes to produce stronger nonlinearity have been performed. Raman spectroscopy showed that these films heated in oxygen organize themselves into octohedra, which are thought to be necessary for the photorefractive effects observed in titanates and niobates. Heating the films in vacuum produces blue films which ESCA shows contain tungsten in the +4 oxidation state. Such electron rich species might be able to provide highly polarizable charge carriers. In addition to use as optical switches, use of these films to make reconfigurable Dammann gratings has been studied. These gratings would allow optical addressing of large size S-SEED arrays.

Chaiken, Joseph

1993-07-01

400

Optimal control of switching times in switched dynamical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers an optimal control problem for switched dynamical systems, where the objective is to minimize a cost functional defined on the state, and where the control variable consists of the switching times. The gradient of the cost functional is derived on an especially simple form, which lends itself to be directly used in gradient-descent algorithms. This special structure

M. Egerstedt; Y. Wardi; F. Delmotte

2003-01-01

401

Tuning the temperature dependence for switching in dithienylethene photochromic switches.  

PubMed

Diarylethene photochromic switches use light to drive structural changes through reversible electrocyclization reactions. High efficiency in dynamic photoswitching is a prerequisite for applications, as is thermal stability and the selective addressability of both isomers ring-opened and -closed diarylethenes. These properties can be optimized readily through rational variation in molecular structure. The efficiency with regard to switching as a function of structural variation is much less understood, with the exception of geometric requirements placed on the reacting atoms. Ultimately, increasing the quantum efficiency of photochemical switching in diarylethenes requires a detailed understanding of the excited-state potential energy surface(s) and the mechanisms involved in switching. Through studies of the temperature dependence, photoswitching and theoretical studies demonstrate the occurrence or absence of thermal activation barriers in three constitutional isomers that bear distinct ?-conjugated systems. We found that a decrease in the thermal barriers correlates with an increase in switching efficiency. The origin of the barriers is assigned to the decrease in ?-conjugation that is concomitant with the progress of the photoreaction. Furthermore, we show that balanced molecular design can minimize the change in the extent of ?-conjugation during switching and lead to optimal bidirectional switching efficiencies. Our findings hold implications for future structural design of diarylethene photochromic switches. PMID:23889496

Kudernac, Tibor; Kobayashi, Takao; Uyama, Ayaka; Uchida, Kingo; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Feringa, Ben L

2013-08-16

402

Switching behavior of a magnetically controlled superconducting switch  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes experimental and theoretical considerations of the switching behavior of a magnetically controlled superconducting switch. The experimental superconducting switch used in the experiments is composed of a superconducting gate wire (NbZr/CuNi) and a superconducting field coil (NbTi/CuNi). The experimental circuit is that the switch is connected to a load resistor and a constant current source in parallel. The experimental results show: During the switching process, where the field current increases and decreases, the gate wire has two resistive states. In one state, the gate current is determined by the field current. In the other state, the gate wire may be in the flux-flow state.

Nitta, T.; Nakata, M.; Okada, T. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Yoshida-Honmachi, Kyoto 606 (JP))

1992-01-01

403

Switching languages, switching palabras (words): an electrophysiological study of code switching.  

PubMed

Switching languages has often been associated with a processing cost. In this study, the authors used event-related potentials to compare switches between two languages with within-language lexical switches as bilinguals read for comprehension. Stimuli included English sentences and idioms ending either with the expected English words, their Spanish translations (code switches), or English synonyms (lexical switches). As expected, lexical switches specifically enhanced the N400 response in both context types. Code switches, by contrast, elicited an increased negativity over left fronto-central sites in the regular nonidiomatic sentences (250-450 ms) and a large posterior positivity (450-850 ms) in both context types. In addition, both lexical and code switches elicited a late frontal positivity (650-850 ms) relative to expected completions, especially in idioms. Analysis of the individual response patterns showed correlations with vocabulary skills in English and in Spanish. Overall, the electrophysiological data suggest that for some speakers in some contexts, the processing of a code switch may actually be less costly than the processing of an unexpected within-language item. PMID:11827443

Moreno, Eva M; Federmeier, Kara D; Kutas, Marta

2002-02-01

404

Yeast rises to the occasion  

PubMed Central

Genetic analyses of 15 species of yeast have shed new light on the divergence of gene regulation during evolution, with significant changes occurring after an event in which a whole genome was duplicated.

2013-01-01

405

Yeast and cancer cells - common principles in lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

One of the paradigms in cancer pathogenesis is the requirement of a cell to undergo transformation from respiration to aerobic glycolysis - the Warburg effect - to become malignant. The demands of a rapidly proliferating cell for carbon metabolites for the synthesis of biomass, energy and redox equivalents, are fundamentally different from the requirements of a differentiated, quiescent cell, but it remains open whether this metabolic switch is a cause or a consequence of malignant transformation. One of the major requirements is the synthesis of lipids for membrane formation to allow for cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. Enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were indeed found to play a major role in cancer cell proliferation, and most of these enzymes are conserved in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most notably, cancer cell physiology and metabolic fluxes are very similar to those in the fermenting and rapidly proliferating yeast. Both types of cells display highly active pathways for the synthesis of fatty acids and their incorporation into complex lipids, and imbalances in synthesis or turnover of lipids affect growth and viability of both yeast and cancer cells. Thus, understanding lipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae during cell cycle progression and cell proliferation may complement recent efforts to understand the importance and fundamental regulatory mechanisms of these pathways in cancer. PMID:22989772

Natter, Klaus; Kohlwein, Sepp D

2012-09-16

406

Boolean Network Model Predicts Knockout Mutant Phenotypes of Fission Yeast  

PubMed Central

Boolean networks (or: networks of switches) are extremely simple mathematical models of biochemical signaling networks. Under certain circumstances, Boolean networks, despite their simplicity, are capable of predicting dynamical activation patterns of gene regulatory networks in living cells. For example, the temporal sequence of cell cycle activation patterns in yeasts S. pombe and S. cerevisiae are faithfully reproduced by Boolean network models. An interesting question is whether this simple model class could also predict a more complex cellular phenomenology as, for example, the cell cycle dynamics under various knockout mutants instead of the wild type dynamics, only. Here we show that a Boolean network model for the cell cycle control network of yeast S. pombe correctly predicts viability of a large number of known mutants. So far this had been left to the more detailed differential equation models of the biochemical kinetics of the yeast cell cycle network and was commonly thought to be out of reach for models as simplistic as Boolean networks. The new results support our vision that Boolean networks may complement other mathematical models in systems biology to a larger extent than expected so far, and may fill a gap where simplicity of the model and a preference for an overall dynamical blueprint of cellular regulation, instead of biochemical details, are in the focus.

Davidich, Maria I.; Bornholdt, Stefan

2013-01-01

407

Yeast and cancer cells - common principles in lipid metabolism  

PubMed Central

One of the paradigms in cancer pathogenesis is the requirement of a cell to undergo transformation from respiration to aerobic glycolysis – the Warburg effect – to become malignant. The demands of a rapidly proliferating cell for carbon metabolites for the synthesis of biomass, energy and redox equivalents, are fundamentally different from the requirements of a differentiated, quiescent cell, but it remains open whether this metabolic switch is a cause or a consequence of malignant transformation. One of the major requirements is the synthesis of lipids for membrane formation to allow for cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. Enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were indeed found to play a major role in cancer cell proliferation, and most of these enzymes are conserved in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most notably, cancer cell physiology and metabolic fluxes are very similar to those in the fermenting and rapidly proliferating yeast. Both types of cells display highly active pathways for the synthesis of fatty acids and their incorporation into complex lipids, and imbalances in synthesis or turnover of lipids affect growth and viability of both yeast and cancer cells. Thus, understanding lipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae during cell cycle progression and cell proliferation may complement recent efforts to understand the importance and fundamental regulatory mechanisms of these pathways in cancer.

Natter, Klaus; Kohlwein, Sepp D.

2013-01-01

408

Molecular Genetic Analysis in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The four exercises presented here use basic and advanced procedures of recombinant DNA technology to perform molecular genetic analysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Their fulluse is intended for a senior-level molecular genetics (or similar) course; however, Experiments 1, 2, and 4 are appropriate for lower-level courses. It is expected that the instructor will have some familiarity with the concepts and terminology of recombinant DNA technology and with yeast genetics.

Daniel D. Burke (Seton Hall University;)

1989-06-06

409

Yeast Pathogens of Domestic Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mycoses of domestic animals caused by yeasts have been recorded for approximately 150 years. The majority of these infections\\u000a are cutaneous and superficial and are of minor clinical significance but fatal systemic infections are also reported. Currently,\\u000a most common pathogenic yeasts of domestic animals are included in the genera Candida, Cryptococcus and Malassezia and they are reviewed in depth in

F. J. Cabanes

410

Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation)\\u000a which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts\\u000a as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly\\u000a evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens,

N. Doiphode; C. Joshi; V. Ghormade; M. V. Deshpande

2009-01-01

411

Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6 months storage at 4 and 25 °C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6 months of storage at 4 °C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25 °C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4 months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4 °C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications. PMID:22806747

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2012-07-07

412

Study of amyloids using yeast  

PubMed Central

Summary Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism in such fields as the cell cycle, regulation of transcription, protein trafficking and cell biology, primarily because of its ease of genetic manipulation. This is no less so in the area of amyloid studies. The endogenous yeast amyloids described to date include prions, infectious proteins (Table 1), and some cell wall proteins (1). and amyloids of humans and a fungal prion have also been studied using the yeast system. Accordingly, the emphasis of this chapter will be on genetic, biochemical, cell biological and physical methods particularly useful in the study of yeast prions and other amyloids studied in yeast. We limit our description of these methods to those aspects which have been most useful in studying yeast prions, citing more detailed expositions in the literature. Volumes on yeast genetics methods (2–4), and on amyloids and prions (5, 6) are useful, and Masison has edited a volume of Methods on “Identification, analysis and characterization of fungal prions” which covers some of this territory (7). We also outline some useful physical methods, pointing the reader to more extensive and authoratative descriptions.

Wickner, Reed B.; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Shewmaker, Frank; McGlinchey, Ryan; Edskes, Herman K.

2012-01-01

413

Magnetically insulated opening switch research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the feasibility of an opening switch concept based on magnetic insulation in a coaxial thermionic diode. It is found that the impedance ratio between closed and open states of the diode is marginal for efficient energy transfer via this type of switch. The open, or insulated state of the diode is characterized by current leakage across the magnetic

M. W. McGeoch; R. Kraft

1987-01-01

414

SwitchEnsemble [music program  

Microsoft Academic Search

SwitchEnsemble is a music performance program written for the Apple IIGS. It provides a large variety of age-appropriate activities for students with a broad range of physical and cognitive abilities. SwitchEnsemble makes full use of the exceptional graphics and sound capabilities of the IIGS and it supports a wide variety of input devices

J. Adams

1992-01-01

415

Nonpreemptive Scheduling of Optical Switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many high-speed routers today use Input-Queued (IQ) architectures with a crossbar switching fabric based on op- tical technology. Packets in the input queues are divided into cells of unit length and the goal is to find a schedule of minimum makespan that forwards all packets to the output ports. The prob- lem is complicated since in optical switches so called

Alexander Kesselman; Kirill Kogan

2007-01-01

416

Task switching and multitask performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Research on task ,switching and dual-task performance ,has spawned ,two lit- eratures that have, to a surprising extent, developed independently. This tutorial reviews the principal findings of each ,tradition and considers how ,these phenomena ,may ,be related. Beginning with Jersild 1927, task-switching studies reveal that when people perform two tasks in succession, with each task requiring different responses to

H. Pashler

2000-01-01

417

Lattice-switch Monte Carlo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a Monte Carlo method for the direct evaluation of the differ- ence between the free energies of two crystal structures. The method is built on a lattice-switch transformation that maps a configuration of one structure onto a candidate configuration of the other by 'switching' one set of lattice vectors for the other, while keeping the displacements with respect

A. D. Bruce; A. N. Jackson; G. J. Ackland; N. B. Wilding

418

Globalization Drives Strategic Product Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using firm-level data for Estonia for the years 1997-2005, we analyze the impact of international competition on firm dynamics, considering both firm closedown and product switching. We contribute to the literature in two important ways: (1) this is the first paper to study the determinants of exit and product switching in an emerging market; and (2) we consider explicitly the

Marialuz Moreno Badia; Veerle Slootmaekers; Ilke Van Beveren

2008-01-01

419

Battery switch for downhole tools  

DOEpatents

An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

Boling, Brian E. (Sugar Land, TX)

2010-02-23

420

Breathalyzer enabled ignition switch system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breath alcohol detector or better known as breathalyzer plays a vital role in monitoring alcohol concentration in a person's bloodstream. This project involves the design and development of breathalyzer device which controls ignition switch. The hardware modules include the PIC16F877A microcontroller, alcohol sensor, LCD panel and ignition switch circuitry. The software component includes the programming and source code which is

H. Abdul Rahim; S. D. S. Hassan

2010-01-01

421

Satellite Up Link Diversity Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a satellite up link diversity switch system. A beacon or reference signal is received from the satellite at two locations separated in an east-west direction. Diversity logic compares the two signals received and switches...

P. W. Baver

1976-01-01

422

Phenotypic switching in bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial genetic networks that would implement a more general theoretical model of phenotypic switching. We will use a new cloning strategy in order to systematically assemble a large number of genetic features, such as site-specific recombination components from the R64 plasmid, which invert several coexisting DNA segments. The inversion of these segments would lead to discrete phenotypic transitions inside a living cell. These artificial phenotypic switches can be controlled precisely in experiments and may serve as a benchmark for their natural counterparts.

Merrin, Jack

423

Systematic Definition of Protein Constituents along the Major Polarization Axis Reveals an Adaptive Reuse of the Polarization Machinery in Pheromone-Treated Budding Yeast  

PubMed Central

Polarizing cells extensively restructure cellular components in a spatially and temporally coupled manner along the major axis of cellular extension. Budding yeast are a useful model of polarized growth, helping to define many molecular components of this conserved process. Besides budding, yeast cells also differentiate upon treatment with pheromone from the opposite mating type, forming a mating projection (the ‘shmoo’) by directional restructuring of the cytoskeleton, localized vesicular transport and overall reorganization of the cytosol. To characterize the proteomic localization changes accompanying polarized growth, we developed and implemented a novel cell microarray-based imaging assay for measuring the spatial redistribution of a large fraction of the yeast proteome, and applied this assay to identify proteins localized along the mating projection following pheromone treatment. We further trained a machine learning algorithm to refine the cell imaging screen, identifying additional shmoo-localized proteins. In all, we identified 74 proteins that specifically localize to the mating projection, including previously uncharacterized proteins (Ycr043c, Ydr348c, Yer071c, Ymr295c, and Yor304c-a) and known polarization complexes such as the exocyst. Functional analysis of these proteins, coupled with quantitative analysis of individual organelle movements during shmoo formation, suggests a model in which the basic machinery for cell polarization is generally conserved between processes forming the bud and the shmoo, with a distinct subset of proteins used only for shmoo formation. The net effect is a defined ordering of major organelles along the polarization axis, with specific proteins implicated at the proximal growth tip.

2008-01-01

424

Fault Protection Circuit for Power Switching Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fault protection circuit for a power switching device. The circuit comprises a driver circuit electrically connected to the power switching device, a saturation comparator electrically connected to the collector of the switching device to determine if t...

J. R. Raposa

1994-01-01

425

Switching Inverter with Sine-Wave Output.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A relatively simple method of obtaining a multiple-stepped sine-wave output using semiconductor devices as switches was developed. This circuit employs Triacs as power switches, requiring approximately one-fourth the number of switches normally required b...

J. M. Marzolf

1970-01-01

426

49 CFR 236.820 - Switch, interlocked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch, interlocked. 236.820 Section 236.820...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.820 Switch, interlocked. A switch within the interlocking limits the control of...

2011-10-01

427

49 CFR 236.820 - Switch, interlocked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch, interlocked. 236.820 Section 236.820...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.820 Switch, interlocked. A switch within the interlocking limits the control of...

2012-10-01

428

14 CFR 23.1145 - Ignition switches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ignition switches. 23.1145 Section 23.1145 Aeronautics...Controls and Accessories § 23.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control and shut off each ignition...

2013-01-01

429

30 CFR 77.1800 - Cutout switches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Cutout switches. 77.1800 Section 77.1800...Feeder Wires § 77.1800 Cutout switches. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be provided with cutout switches at intervals of not more than...

2013-07-01

430

14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ignition switches. 25.1145 Section 25.1145 Aeronautics...Controls and Accessories § 25.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on...

2013-01-01

431

14 CFR 29.1145 - Ignition switches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ignition switches. 29.1145 Section 29.1145 Aeronautics...Controls and Accessories § 29.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each ignition circuit on each...

2013-01-01

432

46 CFR 111.105-19 - Switches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switches. 111.105-19 Section 111.105-19 Shipping...REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-19 Switches. A switch that is explosionproof or flameproof, or...

2012-10-01

433

Chemical Structure and Molecular Switches.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future of molecular electronics depends on designing molecules to exhibit specific nonlinear properties such as rectification or bistable switching. In pursuit of this goal, two distinct types of switching were observed in matrix isolated and complete monolayers of bipyridyl-dinitro-oligophenylene-ethynylene (BPDN). Several groups have observed conductance state switching in this molecule. However, the mechanism of switching between the two conductance states is still not understood. Using BPDN as a starting point, chemically related structures such as bipyridyl- oligophenylene-ethynylene, dinitro-oligophenylene-ethynylene, and biphenyl- oligophenylene-ethynylene were measured in matrix isolated monolayers. By means of such comparisons to related molecules, we determine the key functional groups leading to switching in BPDN.

Blum, Amy; Long, David; Moore, Martin; Kushmerick, James; Tour, James; Ratna, Banahalli

2008-03-01

434

Optimized scalable network switch  

DOEpatents

In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

2007-12-04

435

A Reversibly Switching Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the design of surfaces that exhibit dynamic changes in interfacial properties, such as wettability, in response to an electrical potential. The change in wetting behavior was caused by surface-confined, single-layered molecules undergoing conformational transitions between a hydrophilic and a moderately hydrophobic state. Reversible conformational transitions were confirmed at a molecular level with the use of sum-frequency generation spectroscopy and at a macroscopic level with the use of contact angle measurements. This type of surface design enables amplification of molecular-level conformational transitions to macroscopic changes in surface properties without altering the chemical identity of the surface. Such reversibly switching surfaces may open previously unknown opportunities in interfacial engineering.

Lahann, Joerg; Mitragotri, Samir; Tran, Thanh-Nga; Kaido, Hiroki; Sundaram, Jagannathan; Choi, Insung S.; Hoffer, Saskia; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Langer, Robert

2003-01-01

436

Experiments in magnetic switching  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic switching offers an alternative to overcoming the rep-rate and life limitations of the spark gaps in the ETA/ATA induction accelerators. The principle has been applied for many years to radar modulators but at much lower power levels and longer pulse lengths. Comparatively recent developments in magnetic materials together with some optimal circuits have made it possible to go well beyond the state of the art. A magnetic modulator has been built which steps up and compresses a 25 kV, 5 ..mu..s pulse into a 250 kV, 50 ns pulse. A second magnetic modulator has been built and installed to replace four Blumleins and spark gaps in order to provide triggers for the complete ETA injector and accelerator. The paper outlines some practical and theoretical considerations affecting the design of the magnetic pulse generator.

Birx, D.L.; Lauer, E.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers, D. Jr.; Smith, M.W.; Zimmerman, T.

1981-05-29

437

Optimized scalable network switch  

SciTech Connect

In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

2010-02-23

438

Riboneogenesis in yeast  

PubMed Central

Summary Gluconeogenesis converts three carbon units into glucose. Here we identify an analogous pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for converting three carbon units into ribose, a component of nucleic acids and nucleotides. This riboneogenic pathway involves the enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SHB17), whose activity was identified based on accumulation of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate in the corresponding knockout strain. We determined the crystal structure of Shb17 in complex with sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate, and found that the sugar is bound in the closed furan form in the active site. Like fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate is produced by aldolase, in this case from erythrose 4-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Hydrolysis of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate by SHB17 provides an energetically favorable input to the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway to drive ribose production. Flux through SHB17 is enhanced under conditions when ribose demand is high relative to demand for NADPH, including during ribosome biogenesis in metabolically synchronized yeast cells. Thus, riboneogenesis provides a thermodynamically-driven route of ribose production uncoupled from formation of NADPH.

Clasquin, Michelle F.; Melamud, Eugene; Singer, Alexander; Gooding, Jessica R.; Xu, Xiaohui; Dong, Aiping; Cui, Hong; Campagna, Shawn R.; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Caudy, Amy A.

2011-01-01

439

Radically enhanced molecular switches.  

PubMed

The mechanism governing the redox-stimulated switching behavior of a tristable [2]rotaxane consisting of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)) ring encircling a dumbbell, containing tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and 1,5-dioxynaphthalene (DNP) recognition units which are separated from each other along a polyether chain carrying 2,6-diisopropylphenyl stoppers by a 4,4'-bipyridinium (BIPY(2+)) unit, is described. The BIPY(2+) unit acts to increase the lifetime of the metastable state coconformation (MSCC) significantly by restricting the shuttling motion of the CBPQT(4+) ring to such an extent that the MSCC can be isolated in the solid state and is stable for weeks on end. As controls, the redox-induced mechanism of switching of two bistable [2]rotaxanes and one bistable [2]catenane composed of CBPQT(4+) rings encircling dumbbells or macrocyclic polyethers, respectively, that contain a BIPY(2+) unit with either a TTF or DNP unit, is investigated. Variable scan-rate cyclic voltammetry and digital simulations of the tristable and bistable [2]rotaxanes and [2]catenane reveal a mechanism which involves a bisradical state coconformation (BRCC) in which only one of the BIPY(•+) units in the CBPQT(2(•+)) ring is oxidized to the BIPY(2+) dication. This observation of the BRCC was further confirmed by theoretical calculations as well as by X-ray crystallography of the [2]catenane in its bisradical tetracationic redox state. It is evident that the incorporation of a kinetic barrier between the donor recognition units in the tristable [2]rotaxane can prolong the lifetime and stability of the MSCC, an observation which augurs well for the development of nonvolatile molecular flash memory devices. PMID:23002805

Fahrenbach, Albert C; Zhu, Zhixue; Cao, Dennis; Liu, Wei-Guang; Li, Hao; Dey, Sanjeev K; Basu, Subhadeep; Trabolsi, Ali; Botros, Youssry Y; Goddard, William A; Stoddart, J Fraser

2012-09-24

440

Interferometric activated X switch: IAX  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-speed phase-linear switching with low crosstalk is accomplished by using balanced bridge interferometric switches with electrooptic tunable X couplers. The devices are fabricated by titanium indiffusion into X-cut, Y-propagating LiNbO3. Lumped-element and traveling-wave electrodes of aluminum, gold, and indium-tin oxide are investigated. Devices with a 3-dB bandwidth of 6.5 GHz using coplanar traveling-wave electrodes with a switching voltage of 7.0

Thomas Pohlmann; Andreas Neyer; Edgar Voges

1989-01-01

441

Nonlinear interface optical switch structure for dual mode switching revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for devices which will allow integration of photonic\\/optical computing subsystems into electronic computing architectures. This presentation reviews the nonlinear interface optical switch (NIOS) concept and then describes a new effect, the erasable optical memory (EOM) effect. We evaluate an extension of the NIOS device to allow simultaneous optical\\/electronic, i.e. dual mode, switching of light utilizing the

Rebecca J. Bussjager; Joseph M. Osman; Joseph Chaiken

1998-01-01

442

Shutter-based switching core for an optical packet switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive optical interconnection is being used in large packet switches to allow size scale up and more efficient heat dissipation from the electronic processors. The line card is the electronic island whose size is determined by thermal dissipation technology. We have selected an optical interconnection technology that is low cost, fiber ribbon, and we are working on the shutter arrays, which allow active routing. This will reduce the demands on the electronic processors. Progress on a 180 Gbps switch will be reported.

Collings, Neil; Zhang, Fan; Fan, Mark; Scarr, Robin W. A.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.; Crossland, William A.

2004-11-01

443

Genomic organization of multiple genes coding for rhodotorucine A , a lipopeptide mating pheromone of the basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodotorucine A, a lipopeptide mating pheromone, is secreted from mating type A cells of Rhodosporidium toruloides and induces sexual differentiation of the opposite mating type a cells. Genome of A-type cells contains three homologous genes (RHA1, RHA2, and RHA3) encoding rhodotorucine A. Genomic Southern blot analysis using RHA1 DNA as a probe showed that RHA1 strongly hybridize with A-type genomic

R. Akada; J. Kai; I. Yamashita; T. Miyakawa; S. Fukui

1989-01-01

444

Dichotomously switched phase flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general formalism for periodic dichotomous noise on nonpotential flows is considered. This uncorrelated noise process switches suddenly at integer values of period ?. The effect of additive noise of this kind on the planar FitzHugh-Nagumo ordinary differential equations [R. FitzHugh, Biophys. J. 1, 445 (1961); J. Nagumo, S. Arimoto, and Y. Yoshikawa, Proc. IRE 50, 2061 (1962)] is examined. For large ?, quasifractal attractors are observed, whereas for the white-noise limit, where ? is small, a Fokker-Planck equation describes the evolution. The magnitude of ? determines the smoothness of the transient evolution and equilibrium density of the system. Typically the stochastic equations give rise to two regions of high density near the stable fixed points of the underlying autonomous system. The stiffness parameter ? in the differential equations determines the fast variable, its associated nullcline, and the resulting flow structure. For small ? the cubic nullcline controls the motion and transitions between the high-density peaks occur along segments of a noisy limit cycle. For large ? the linear nullcline governs the transitions and the peaks are joined by a single band. The statistical behavior of the oscillatory and direct transitions is examined.

Fraser, Simon J.; Kapral, Raymond

1997-09-01

445

Cdc42 Oscillations in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A fundamental problem in cell biology is how cells define one or several discrete sites of polarity. Through mechanisms involving positive and negative feedback, the small Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase Cdc42 breaks symmetry in round budding yeast cells to define a single site of polarized cell growth. However, it is not clear how cells can define multiple sites of polarization concurrently. We discuss a study in which rod-shaped fission yeast cells, which naturally polarize growth at their two cell ends, exhibited oscillations of Cdc42 activity between these sites. We compare these findings with similar oscillatory behavior of Cdc42 detected in budding yeast cells and discuss the possible mechanism and functional outputs of these oscillations.

Felipe O. Bendezu (Switzerland;University of Lausanne REV); Sophie G. Martin (Switzerland;University of Lausanne REV)

2012-12-04

446

Candida zeylanoides: another opportunistic yeast.  

PubMed

A patient with a long history of scleroderma and gastrointestinal malabsorption requiring total parenteral nutrition was admitted with Candida zeylanoides fungemia. The yeast responded to therapy, but on two subsequent admissions for episodes of fever the blood cultures yielded the same yeast. The identity of the Candida species was established biochemically by both the API (Analytab) and Vitek system approaches. C. zeylanoides ATCC 20356 and ATCC 7351 served as controls for these analyses and for antifungal susceptibility studies and restriction endonuclease analyses of chromosomal DNA. These investigations indicated that representative isolates of the yeasts from the three episodes were identical and differed in several respects from the ATCC strains, which did not share many of the characteristics bands with the DNA restriction fragment analysis. C. zeylanoides variants capable of tolerating 35 degrees C can complicate the recovery of patients, especially individuals compromised by their underlying disease. PMID:1684799

Levenson, D; Pfaller, M A; Smith, M A; Hollis, R; Gerarden, T; Tucci, C B; Isenberg, H D

1991-08-01

447

Candida zeylanoides: another opportunistic yeast.  

PubMed Central

A patient with a long history of scleroderma and gastrointestinal malabsorption requiring total parenteral nutrition was admitted with Candida zeylanoides fungemia. The yeast responded to therapy, but on two subsequent admissions for episodes of fever the blood cultures yielded the same yeast. The identity of the Candida species was established biochemically by both the API (Analytab) and Vitek system approaches. C. zeylanoides ATCC 20356 and ATCC 7351 served as controls for these analyses and for antifungal susceptibility studies and restriction endonuclease analyses of chromosomal DNA. These investigations indicated that representative isolates of the yeasts from the three episodes were identical and differed in several respects from the ATCC strains, which did not share many of the characteristics bands with the DNA restriction fragment analysis. C. zeylanoides variants capable of tolerating 35 degrees C can complicate the recovery of patients, especially individuals compromised by their underlying disease. Images

Levenson, D; Pfaller, M A; Smith, M A; Hollis, R; Gerarden, T; Tucci, C B; Isenberg, H D

1991-01-01

448

Systematic screens of a Candida albicans homozygous deletion library decouple morphogenetic switching and pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans is the most common cause of serious fungal disease in humans. Creation of isogenic null mutants of this diploid organism, which requires sequential gene targeting, allows dissection of virulence mechanisms. Published analyses of such mutants show a near-perfect correlation between C. albicans pathogenicity and the ability to undergo a yeast-to-hypha morphological switch in vitro. However, most studies used mutants constructed with a marker that is itself a virulence determinant and therefore complicates their interpretation. Using alternative markers, we created ~3000 homozygous deletion strains affecting 674 genes or roughly 11% of the C. albicans genome. Screening for infectivity in a mouse model and for morphological switching and cell proliferation in vitro, we identified 115 infectivity-attenuated mutants, of which nearly half demonstrated normal morphological switching and proliferation. Analysis of such mutants identified the glycolipid, glucosylceramide, as the first small molecule synthesized by this pathogen to be required specifically for virulence.

Noble, Suzanne M.; French, Sarah; Kohn, Lisa A.; Chen, Victoria; Johnson, Alexander D.

2010-01-01

449

Electron collisions in gas switches  

SciTech Connect

Many technologies rely on the conduction/insulation properties of gaseous matter for their successful operation. Many others (e.g., pulsed power technologies) rely on the rapid change (switching or modulation) of the properties of gaseous matter from an insulator to a conductor and vice versa. Studies of electron collision processes in gases aided the development of pulsed power gas switches, and in this paper we shall briefly illustrate the kind of knowledge on electron collision processes which is needed to optimize the performance of such switching devices. To this end, we shall refer to three types of gas switches: spark gap closing, self-sustained diffuse discharge closing, and externally-sustained diffuse discharge opening. 24 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

Christophorou, L.G.

1989-01-01

450

Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches  

SciTech Connect

Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

Sullivan, J S

2012-01-17

451

Electromagnetic Activation of Capillary Switches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By designing coupled droplet pairs with the appropriate length scale to promote surface tension as the dominant force, one can create bi-stable capillary switches. This bi-stability can be triggered by pressure pulses, surface chemistry, electroosmosis, or body forces. To exploit the latter, we designed a capillary switch with electromagnetic activation. The resulting setup consists of a sub-millimeter tube, overfilled with a ferrofluid, surrounded by a wire coil to generate a magnetic field. Evidence of this capillary switching will be presented along with some theoretical basis in fluid- and electro-dynamics. The approach may also be used to investigate other transport phenomena in electromagnetically-coupled microfluidic systems, including the relative effects of translational motion of the ferrofluid (both particles and solvent molecules) versus the rotational effects of the individual magnetic grains. These individually addressable capillary switches offer intriguing applications including high-speed adaptive optics, actuators at the microscale, and possible PCB integration.

Malouin, Bernie; Dayal, Rohan; Parsa, Leila; Hirsa, Amir

2008-11-01

452

Theory of molecular hysteresis switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular hysteresis switching has been recently observed in a series of experiments that measured the I-V spectrum of bipyridyl-dinitro oligophenylene-ethylene dithiol (BPDN) based molecular devices [1]. The experimental observations clearly show the presence of Coulomb blockade in single organic molecules that is responsible for the voltage-induced switching. We present the theory of the hysteresis switch which explains the non-linear hysteresis I-V characteristics based on the mechanisms of Coulomb blockade and the existence of two different molecular conformations of neutral and charged states of the molecule. [1] A.S. Blum, J.G. Kushmerick, D.P. Long, C.H. Patterson, J.C. Yang, J.C. Henderson, Y.X. Yao, J.M. Tour, R. Shashidhar, and B.R. Ratna, ``Molecularly inherent voltage-controlled conductance switching'' , Nature Materials 4, 167 (2005).

Kozhushner, Mortko; Oleynik, Ivan

2006-03-01

453

Qpsk Switching Modulator, Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A breadboard QPSK modulator based on a series connected, dual gate FET switching approach was developed to meet a specification provided by ESA. Direct high level modulation immediatly prior to the downlink output on a satellite repeater avoids amplitude ...

W. Konu R. Bouchard

1983-01-01

454

High Power Mercury Switch Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effort was both a theoretical and experimental program leading to the development of high voltage, high power switching devices which utilize a liquid metal cathode. A series of mercury tubes with plasma injection triggering were built and tested culm...

R. W. Waniek

1967-01-01

455

Task switching: a PDP model.  

PubMed

When subjects switch between a pair of stimulus-response tasks, reaction time is slower on trial N if a different task was performed on trial N - 1. We present a parallel distributed processing (PDP) model that simulates this effect when subjects switch between word reading and color naming in response to Stroop stimuli. Reaction time on "switch trials" can be slowed by an extended response selection process which results from (a) persisting, inappropriate states of activation and inhibition of task-controlling representations; and (b) associative learning, which allows stimuli to evoke tasks sets with which they have recently been associated (as proposed by Allport & Wylie, 2000). The model provides a good fit to a large body of empirical data, including findings which have been seen as problematic for this explanation of switch costs, and shows similar behavior when the parameters are set to random values, supporting Allport and Wylie's proposal. PMID:11971634

Gilbert, Sam J; Shallice, Tim

2002-05-01

456

Composite Transistor in Switching Regime.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operating conditions of a composite semiconductor triode (ST) in the switching mode are analyzed. The saturation state in both triode components are achieved only when the collectors are separated by an appropriate resistor. Statistical characteristics of...

E. E. Yudin

1968-01-01

457

IGBT: a solid state switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isol