Sample records for yeast phaffia rhodozyma

  1. Astaxanthinogenesis in the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma - optimization of low-cost culture media and yeast cell-wall lysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Baron, M.; Guimaraes, M.F. [LQBB-Biomass Chemo Biotechnology Lab., Curitiba (Brazil)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Astaxanthin is a diketo-dihydroxy-carotenoid produced by Phaffia rhodozyma, a basidiomicetous yeast. A low-cost fermentation medium consisting of raw sugarcane juice and urea was developed to exploit the active sucrolytic/urelolytic enzyme apparatus inherent to the yeast. As compared to the beneficial effect of 0.1 g% urea, a ready nitrogen source, mild phosphoric pre inversion of juice sucrose to glucose and fructose, promptly fermentable carbon sources, resulted in smaller benefits. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was found to be a valuable supplement for both yeast biomass yield (9.2 g dry cells/L) and astaxanthin production (1.3 mg/g cells). Distillery effluent (vinace), despite only a slightly positive effect on yeast growth, allowed for the highest pigment productivity (1.9 mg/g cells). Trace amounts of Ni{sup 2} (1 mg/L, as a cofactor for urease) resulted in controversial effects, namely, biomass decrease and astaxanthin increase, with no effect on the release (and uptake) of ammonium ion from urea. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Topology of microtubules and actin in the life cycle of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iva Slaninová; Judit Kucsera; Augustin Svoboda

    1999-01-01

    The morphology of budding and conjugating cells and associated changes in microtubules and actin distribution were studied in the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) by phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy. The non-budding interphase cell showed a nucleus situated in the central position and bundles of cytoplasmic microtubules either stretching parallel to the longitudinal cell axis or randomly distributed in the cell;

  3. Production and extraction of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma and its biological effect on alcohol-induced renal hypoxia in Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Alesci, Alessio; Salvo, Andrea; Lauriano, Eugenia Rita; Gervasi, Teresa; Palombieri, Deborah; Bruno, Maurizio; Pergolizzi, Simona; Cicero, Nicola

    2014-12-10

    The effect of astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-s-carotene-4,4'-dione) on alcohol-induced morphological changes in Carassius auratus, as an experimental model, was determined. The yeast Phaffia rhodozyma was used as a source of astaxanthin. The animals were divided into three groups for 30 days: one group was treated with ethanol at a dose of 1.5% mixed in water, the second one with EtOH 1.5% and food enriched with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma, and the third was a control group. After a sufficient experimental period, the samples were processed using light microscopy and evaluated by histomorphological and histochemical staining, and the data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis, using a wide range of antibodies, such as calbindin, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. The results show that the alcoholic damage in the kidney led to hypoxia. In contrast, the group fed with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma showed a normal morphological picture, with better glomeruli organisation and the presence of the area of filtration. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry has confirmed these results. PMID:25492637

  4. Fiber reduction and lipid enrichment in carotenoid-enriched distillers dried grain with solubles produced by secondary fermentation of Phaffia rhodozyma and Sporobolomyces roseus.

    PubMed

    Ananda, Nanjundaswamy; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2010-12-22

    Carotenoid-enriched distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) developed as a value-added animal feed to provide carotenoids from mono and mixed culture (Mx) fermentation of red yeasts Phaffia rhodozyma (PR) and Sporobolomyces roseus (SR) were evaluated for their nutritional composition and compared to the control (C) DDGS. Apart from providing carotenoids, all three fermentation treatments reduced fiber with best reduction of 77% in PR, enhanced crude fat with highest of 81% in Mx, and reduced protein, amino acids and nitrogen by 50% in PR. DDGS fiber reduction by 77% was achieved by P. rhodozyma in the absence of any pretreatment. Qualitative and quantitative differences in fatty acid profiles were seen among the treatments. Vaccenic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid produced in SR and Mx fermentation, was absent in C and PR. All these nutritional modifications are highly desirable in different DDGS-based animal feeds and can be explored to obtain tailor-made feeds/feed blends for specific animal diets. PMID:21082765

  5. Genotoxicity and subacute toxicity studies of a new astaxanthin-containing Phaffia rhodozyma extract.

    PubMed

    Tago, Yoshiyuki; Fujii, Toshihide; Wada, Jutaro; Kato, Masanori; Wei, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Kitano, Mitsuaki

    2014-06-01

    Experimental and clinical studies demonstrate that astaxanthin (AXN), a xanthophyll carotenoid, has protective effects against oxidative damage. Because most of these studies assessed AXN derived from Haematococcus pluvialis that were cultivated at industrial scales, few studies have examined the toxicity of AXN derived from Phaffia rhodozyma. To evaluate the safety of astaxanthin-containing P. rhodozymaextract (AXN-PRE), genotoxicity was assessed in bacterial reverse mutation test and mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, and general toxicity was assessed in 4-week repeated oral toxicity study in rats. AXN-PRE did not induce reverse mutations in the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 or TA100 at concentrations of 5,000 µg/plate with or without S9 mix, and no chromosome damage was observed at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg in mouse micronucleus test. In the subacute toxicity study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given AXN-PRE at doses of 0, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg by gavage for 4 weeks. Body weights, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weights, or histopathological lesions indicated no distinct toxicity. In conclusion, AXN-PRE had no effect in bacterial reverse mutation test and mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for AXN-PRE in 4-week repeated oral toxicity study in rats was determined to be greater than 1,000 mg/kg (corresponding to dose of 50 mg/kg AXN) regardless of gender. PMID:24849672

  6. Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) on stromata of Cyttaria hariotii in northwestern Patagonian Nothofagus forests.

    PubMed

    Libkind, Diego; Tognetti, Celia; Ruffini, Alejandra; Sampaio, José Paulo; Van Broock, María

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous associated with Cyttaria hariotii parasitizing three Nothofagus species (N. dombeyi, N. antarctica and N. pumilio) in northwestern Patagonia (Argentina), as well as the factors that may affect this distribution were herein studied. Between 2000 and 2007, samples were obtained from 18 different locations. Based on physiological tests and morphological characteristics of sexual structures, 72 isolates were identified as X. dendrorhous. Representative strains were studied by MSP-PCR fingerprinting and sequence analysis of the ITS region. MSP-PCR fingerprints were similar for the newly isolated strains, and were also identical to the profiles of the strains previously found in this region. Patagonian strains appear to be a genetically uniform and distinct population, supporting the hypothesis that the association with different host species has determined genetically distinct X. dendrorhous populations worldwide. X. dendrorhous was recovered from N. dombeyi and N. antarctica. Approximately half the sampling sites and samples were positive for X. dendrorhous, but the isolation recovery rate was low. X. dendrorhous was absent in the early stages of ascostromata maturation, becoming more abundant in later stages. The present work represents a step forward in the understanding of the natural distribution and ecology of this biotechnologically relevant yeast. PMID:22430994

  7. Integrating an algal ?-carotene hydroxylase gene into a designed carotenoid-biosynthesis pathway increases carotenoid production in yeast.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jui-Jen; Thia, Caroline; Lin, Hao-Yeh; Liu, Hsien-Lin; Ho, Feng-Ju; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong; Shih, Ming-Che; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2015-05-01

    The algal ?-carotene hydroxylase gene Crchyb from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Czchyb from Chlorella zofingiensis, or Hpchyb from Haematococcus pluvialis and six other carotenoid-synthesis pathway genes were co-integrated into the genome of a yeast host. Each of these three algal genes showed a higher efficiency to convert ?-carotene to downstream carotenoids than the fungal genes from Phaffia rhodozyma. Furthermore, the strain with Hpchyb displayed a higher carotenoid productivity than the strains integrated with Crchyb or Czchyb, indicating that Hpchyb is more efficient than Crchyb and Czchyb. These results suggest that ?-carotene hydroxylase plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of carotenoids. PMID:25537137

  8. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...parts per million. Arsenic, not more than 2 parts per million. Mercury, not more than 1 part per million. Heavy metals (as Pb), not more than 10 parts per million. Astaxanthin, not less than 0.4 percent. (c) Uses and...

  9. Muscle Pigmentation of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed on Oil-Extracted Pigment from Langostilla (Pleuroncodes planipes) Compared with Two Commercial Sources of Astaxanthin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gladis Coral; Alberto Huberman; Guadalupew de la Lanza; Jose Monroy-Ruiz

    1998-01-01

    A comparative study of flesh pigmentation efficiency of oil-extracted astaxanthin from langostilla (Pleumncodes planipes) a red yeast (Phaffia rhodozyma) and synthetic astaxanthin (Caro-phyll pink) on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was conducted. Fish (218 ± 7 g) were allocated into three experimental groups (fed diets with 75 mg of carotenoid per kg of feed) and one control group. Weights, flesh carotenoid

  10. Cloning of the astaxanthin synthase gene from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) and its assignment as a beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase\\/4ketolase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ojima; J. Breitenbach; J. H. Visser; Y. Setoguchi; K. Tabata; T. Hoshino; Berg van den J. A; G. Sandmann

    2006-01-01

    A gene has been cloned from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous by complementation of astaxanthin formation in a ß-carotene accumulating mutant. It consists of 3,166 bp and contains 17 introns. For the ß-carotene mutant ATCC 96815, a single point mutation in the splicing sequence of intron 8 was found. The resulting improper splicing of the mRNA results in an inactive protein. The cDNA

  11. Cloning of the astaxanthin synthase gene from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous ( Phaffia rhodozyma ) and its assignment as a ?-carotene 3-hydroxylase\\/4ketolase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuyuki Ojima; Jürgen Breitenbach; Hans Visser; Yutaka Setoguchi; Kazuyuki Tabata; Tatsuo Hoshino; Johan van den Berg; Gerhard Sandmann

    2006-01-01

    A gene has been cloned from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous by complementation of astaxanthin formation in a ?-carotene accumulating mutant. It consists of 3,166 bp and contains 17\\u000a introns. For the ?-carotene mutant ATCC 96815, a single point mutation in the splicing sequence of intron 8 was found. The\\u000a resulting improper splicing of the mRNA results in an inactive protein. The cDNA of

  12. Global distribution, diversity hot spots and niche transitions of an astaxanthin-producing eukaryotic microbe.

    PubMed

    David-Palma, Márcia; Libkind, Diego; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2014-02-01

    Microbes establish very diverse but still poorly understood associations with other microscopic or macroscopic organisms that do not follow the more conventional modes of competition or mutualism. Phaffia rhodozyma, an orange-coloured yeast that produces the biotechnologically relevant carotenoid astaxanthin, exhibits a Holarctic association with birch trees in temperate forests that contrasts with the more recent finding of a South American population associated with Nothofagus (southern beech) and with stromata of its biotrophic fungal parasite Cyttaria spp. We investigated whether the association of Phaffia with Nothofagus-Cyttaria could be expanded to Australasia, the other region of the world where Nothofagus are endemic, studied the genetic structure of populations representing the known worldwide distribution of Phaffia and analysed the evolution of the association with tree hosts. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that Phaffia diversity in Australasia is much higher than in other regions of the globe and that two endemic and markedly divergent lineages seem to represent new species. The observed genetic diversity correlates with host tree genera rather than with geography, which suggests that adaptation to the different niches is driving population structure in this yeast. The high genetic diversity and endemism in Australasia indicate that the genus evolved in this region and that the association with Nothofagus is the ancestral tree association. Estimates of the divergence times of Phaffia lineages point to splits that are much more recent than the break-up of Gondwana, supporting that long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance is responsible for observed distribution of P. rhodozyma. PMID:24372735

  13. Spoilage yeasts.

    PubMed

    Fleet, G

    1992-01-01

    Yeasts are best known for their beneficial contributions to society, and the literature abounds with discussions of their role in the fermentation of alcoholic beverages, bread, and other products. Yeasts also cause spoilage, but, with a few exceptions, this unwanted activity often goes unrecognized and underestimated as a major problem in the food and beverage industries. In some cases, there is only a fine line between what is perceived as either a spoilage or beneficial activity. This review examines the occurrence and growth of yeasts in foods and beverages with respect to their spoilage activities, the biochemistry of this spoilage, and technologies for the enumeration and identification of spoilage yeasts. PMID:1733519

  14. Potential health-promoting effects of astaxanthin: a high-value carotenoid mostly from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Ping; Peng, Juan; Yin, Kai; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2011-01-01

    The ketocarotenoid astaxanthin can be found in the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, and Chlorococcum sp., and the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. The microalga H. pluvialis has the highest capacity to accumulate astaxanthin up to 4-5% of cell dry weight. Astaxanthin has been attributed with extraordinary potential for protecting the organism against a wide range of diseases, and has considerable potential and promising applications in human health. Numerous studies have shown that astaxanthin has potential health-promoting effects in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, skin diseases, exercise-induced fatigue, male infertility, and HgCl?-induced acute renal failure. In this article, the currently available scientific literature regarding the most significant activities of astaxanthin is reviewed. PMID:21207519

  15. The inter-generic fungicidal activity of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Baeza; Oriana Flores; Mario Carrasco; Juan Manuel Rozas; Vicente Oviedo; Salvador Barahona; Víctor Cifuentes

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the existence of intra-specific and inter-generic fungicidal activity in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous and Phaffia rhodozyma strains isolated from different regions of the earth was examined. Assays were performed under several culture conditions,\\u000a showing that all the analyzed X. dendrorhous and P. rhodozyma strains have killing activity against Kloeckera apiculata, Rhodotorula sloffiae, and R. minuta. This activity was greater

  16. Red yeast

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problems. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of red yeast for these uses. ... can affect the muscles. Red yeast can also affect the muscles. Taking niacin along with ... cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

  17. Dry yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ranveig Thattai (None; )

    2005-09-27

    Yeast is a type of eukaryotic organism that can live in a dormant state. It can be activated from its dormant state by water and sugar. The yeast uses the sugar to grow and produces carbon dioxide gas as a byproduct.

  18. Pentose fermentation by yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-L. Suihko; M. Dra?i?

    1983-01-01

    66 different yeast strains were screened for glucose, xylose and xylulose fermentation in shake flask cultures. None of the tested yeasts was able to grow or produce significant amounts of ethanol on xylose anaerobically. The best ethanol yields from xylulose were obtained with a wine yeast, two distillery yeasts, and a strain of Saccharomyces uvarum. The best conversion of xylulose

  19. Yeast-Air Balloons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2012-03-10

    In this activity, learners make a yeast-air balloon to get a better idea of what yeast can do. Learners discover that the purpose of leaveners like yeast is to produce the gas that makes bread rise. Learners discover that as yeast feeds on sugar, it produces carbon dioxide which slowly fills the balloon.

  20. A Feast for Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-08

    In this activity on page 6 of the PDF, learners investigate yeast. Learners prepare an experiment to observe what yeast cells like to eat. Learners feed the yeast cells various ingredients in plain bread--water, flour, sugar, and salt--to discover yeast's favorite food.

  1. Non-conventional yeasts.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J F T; Ragout de Spencer, A L; Laluce, C

    2002-02-01

    In the beginning there was yeast, and it raised bread, brewed beer, and made wine. After many not days but centuries and even millenia later, it was named Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After more years and centuries there was another yeast, and it was named Schizosaccharomyces pombe; now there were two stars in the yeast heaven. In only a few more years there were other yeasts, and then more, and more, and more. The era of the non-conventional yeasts had begun. PMID:11878307

  2. Yeast Education Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Yeast Education Network provides a variety of resources to facilitate use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in undergraduate science curricula. Laboratory, classroom, and computer-based activities can be used with college and advanced high school students.

  3. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infection from your sexual partner. Condoms and dental dams may help prevent getting or passing yeast infections ... infection from your sexual partner. Condoms and dental dams may help prevent getting or passing yeast infections ...

  4. Yeast Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

    Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of yeast based sensors have been developed as analytical tools. Yeasts are known as facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yeast based sensor consisted of a DO electrode and an immobilized omnivorous yeast. In yeast based sensor development, many kinds of yeast have been employed by applying their characteristics to adapt to the analyte. For example, Trichosporon cutaneum was used to estimate organic pollution in industrial wastewater. Yeast based sensors are suitable for online control of biochemical processes and for environmental monitoring. In this review, principles and applications of yeast based sensors are summarized.

  5. Xylose fermentation by yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Dellweg; M. Rizzi; H. Methner; D. Debus

    1984-01-01

    Utilization and fermentation of xylose by the yeasts Pachysolen tannophilus I fGB 0101 and Pichia stipitis 5773 to 5776 under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are investigated. Pa. tannophilus requires biotin and thiamine for growth, whereas Pi. stipitis does not, and growth of both yeasts is stimulated by yeast extract. Pi. stipitis converts xylose (30 g\\/l) to ethanol under anaerobic conditions

  6. Population Growth in Yeasts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Engineering K-PhD Program,

    This lesson is the second of two that explore cellular respiration and population growth in yeasts. In the first lesson, students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Based on questions that arose during the first lesson and its associated activity, students in this lesson work in small groups to design experiments that determine how environmental factors affect yeast population growth.

  7. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction On this page: Key ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Red Yeast Rice Red yeast rice is made by ...

  8. Xylose fermentation by yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Weigert; C. Klein; M. Rizzi; C. Lauterbach; H. Dellweg

    1988-01-01

    Summary Furfural as a product from thermic wood hydrolysis processes may be inhibitory to growth and fermentation of yeast cells. In order to determine the influence on the aerobic growth of the yeastPichiastipitis, expermiments were conducted in stirred reactors with the addition of furfural.

  9. Yeasts: Neglected Pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Poulain; Boualem Sendid; Annie Standaert-Vitse; Chantal Fradin; Thierry Jouault; Samir Jawhara; Jean-Frederic Colombel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Current research on Crohn’s disease (CD) concerns molecular events related to loss of tolerance to microbes that could trigger or maintain inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. CD is also associated with antimicrobial antibodies, including the antibodies we described against yeast oligomannosides (ASCA). This prompted us to investigate a role for another yeast, Candida albicans, a very common commensal of

  10. Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

  11. Yeast expression platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Böer; Gerhard Steinborn; Gotthard Kunze; Gerd Gellissen

    2007-01-01

    Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms. They combine ease of genetic manipulations and the option for a simple fermentation\\u000a design of a microbial organism with the capabilities of an eukaryotic organism to secrete and to modify a protein according\\u000a to a general eukaryotic scheme. For platform applications, a range of yeast species has been developed during the last decades.\\u000a We present

  12. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

  13. Forces in yeast flocculation.

    PubMed

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2015-02-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion ("flocculation") is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding. PMID:25515338

  14. Forces in yeast flocculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  15. Yeast killer toxins and dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Polonelli, L; Conti, S; Campani, L; Morace, G; Fanti, F

    1989-06-01

    The differential action of four selected yeast killer toxins on the mycelial and yeast forms of four isolates of the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii was comparatively evaluated. The results confirmed that the yeast killer phenomenon is present among hyphomycetes and yeasts and that both morphological forms of S. schenckii are susceptible to the action of the same yeast killer toxin. Quantitative differences in the response to the killer action of the mycelial and yeast forms in individual strains were also observed. To avoid retroconversion of the dimorphic forms, we used a modification of the conventional killer system. PMID:2754015

  16. Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Timothy R.; de Boer, Carl G.

    2013-01-01

    The term “transcriptional network” refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24018767

  17. Evolutionary history of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 20 ascomyceteous yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comp...

  18. Yeast killer systems.

    PubMed Central

    Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

    1997-01-01

    The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

  19. Virtual Yeast Cell

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

  20. Cryopreservation of yeast cultures.

    PubMed

    Bond, Chris

    2007-01-01

    A method is described that allows a wide range of yeast species to be stored in liquid nitrogen while maintaining a high level of viability. Yeast cultures are sealed in commercially available polypropylene straws after having been mixed with a glycerol-based cryoprotectant. Once placed in a secondary cryotube the temperature of the sealed straws is reduced slowly to -30 degrees C in a methanol bath over a period of up to 3 h. The straws are then transferred directly to the liquid nitrogen and placed in a racking system for long-term storage. PMID:18080465

  1. Genetics of Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

    The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

  2. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

    2014-09-23

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  3. Genome evolution in yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Dujon; David Sherman; Gilles Fischer; Pascal Durrens; Serge Casaregola; Ingrid Lafontaine; Jacky de Montigny; Christian Marck; Cécile Neuvéglise; Emmanuel Talla; Nicolas Goffard; Lionel Frangeul; Michel Aigle; Véronique Anthouard; Anna Babour; Valérie Barbe; Stéphanie Barnay; Sylvie Blanchin; Jean-Marie Beckerich; Emmanuelle Beyne; Claudine Bleykasten; Anita Boisramé; Jeanne Boyer; Laurence Cattolico; Fabrice Confanioleri; Antoine de Daruvar; Laurence Despons; Emmanuelle Fabre; Cécile Fairhead; Hélène Ferry-Dumazet; Alexis Groppi; Florence Hantraye; Christophe Hennequin; Nicolas Jauniaux; Philippe Joyet; Rym Kachouri; Alix Kerrest; Romain Koszul; Marc Lemaire; Isabelle Lesur; Laurence Ma; Héloïse Muller; Jean-Marc Nicaud; Macha Nikolski; Sophie Oztas; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Stefan Pellenz; Serge Potier; Guy-Franck Richard; Marie-Laure Straub; Audrey Suleau; Dominique Swennen; Fredj Tekaia; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Eric Westhof; Bénédicte Wirth; Maria Zeniou-Meyer; Ivan Zivanovic; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Agnès Thierry; Christiane Bouchier; Bernard Caudron; Claude Scarpelli; Claude Gaillardin; Jean Weissenbach; Patrick Wincker; Jean-Luc Souciet

    2004-01-01

    Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity

  4. Chemical genomics in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Many drugs have unknown, controversial or multiple mechanisms of action. Four recent 'chemical genomic' studies, using genome-scale collections of yeast gene deletions that were either arrayed or barcoded, have presented complementary approaches to identifying gene-drug and pathway-drug interactions. PMID:15345040

  5. Yeast DNA Extraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lana Hays

    2009-01-01

    This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

  6. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

  7. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and YeastLike Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inge N. A. Bogaert; Sofie L. Maeseneire; Erick J. Vandamme

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either\\u000a alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast\\u000a species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans,\\u000a glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and

  8. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and YeastLike Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inge N. A. van Bogaert; Sofie L. de Maeseneire; Erick J. Vandamme

    2009-01-01

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and

  9. Xylose fermentation by yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Rizzi; Petra Erlemann; Ngoc-Anh Bui-Thanh; Hanswerner Dellweg

    1988-01-01

    Xylose reductase from the xylose-fermenting yeastPichia stipitis was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity via ion-exchange, gel and affinity chromatography. At physiological pH values the thermodynamic equilibrium constant was determined to be 0.575x1010 (l·mol-1). Product inhibiton studies are reported which clearly show that the kinetic mechanism of the xylose reductase is ordered-bi-bi with isomerisation of a stable enzyme form.

  10. Mammalian Homology to Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    This site allows researchers to retrieve a yeast-against-mammal Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) report by entering a gene or ORF name into a search function. The supporting data were first summarized in a recent Science article which is provided via a link to the journal (Science, 22 July 1997; Issue 277: p.1259). Steve Chervitz of Stanford University maintains this site.

  11. Glutathione Production in Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachhawat, Anand K.; Ganguli, Dwaipayan; Kaur, Jaspreet; Kasturia, Neha; Thakur, Anil; Kaur, Hardeep; Kumar, Akhilesh; Yadav, Amit

    Glutathione, ? -glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, is the most abundant non-protein thiol found in almost all eukaryotic cells (and in some prokaryotes). The tripeptide, which is synthesized non-ribosomally by the consecutive action of two soluble enzymes, is needed for carrying out numerous functions in the cell, most important of which is the maintenance of the redox buffer. The cycle of glutathione biosynthesis and degradation forms part of the ? -glutamyl cycle in most organisms although the latter half of the pathway has not been demonstrated in yeasts. Our current understanding of how glutathione levels are controlled at different levels in the cell is described. Several different routes and processes have been attempted to increase commercial production of glutathione using both yeast and bacteria. In this article we discuss the history of glutathione production in yeast. The current bottlenecks for increased glutathione production are presented based on our current understanding of the regulation of glutathione homeostasis, and possible strategies for overcoming these limitations for further enhancing and improving glutathione production are discussed

  12. Determination of astaxanthin stereoisomers and colour attributes in flesh of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as a tool to distinguish the dietary pigmentation source.

    PubMed

    Moretti, V M; Mentasti, T; Bellagamba, F; Luzzana, U; Caprino, F; Turchini, G M; Giani, I; Valfrè, F

    2006-11-01

    The presence of carotenoids in animal tissue reflects their sources along the food chain. Astaxanthin, the main carotenoid used for salmonid pigmentation, is usually included in the feed as a synthetic product. However, other dietary sources of astaxanthin such as shrimp or krill wastes, algae meal or yeasts are also available on the market. Astaxanthin possesses two identical asymmetric atoms at C-3 and C-3' making possible three optical isomers with all-trans configuration of the chain: 3S,3'S, 3R,3'S, and 3R,3'R. The distribution of the isomers in natural astaxanthin differs from that of the synthetic product. This latter is a racemic mixture, with a typical ratio of 1:2:1 (3S,3'S:3R,3'S:3R,3'R), while astaxanthin from natural sources has a variable distribution of the isomers deriving from the different biological organism that synthesized it. The high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of all-trans isomers of astaxanthin was performed in different pigment sources, such as red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, alga meal Haematococcus pluvialis, krill meal and oil, and shrimp meal. With the aim to investigate astaxanthin isomer ratios in flesh of fish fed different carotenoid sources, three groups of rainbow trout were fed for 60 days diets containing astaxanthin from synthetic source, H. pluvialis algae meal and P. rhodozyma red yeast. Moreover, the distribution of optical isomers of astaxanthin in trout purchased on the Italian market was investigated. A characteristic distribution of astaxanthin stereoisomers was detected for each pigment sources and such distribution was reproduced in the flesh of trout fed with that source. Colour values measured in different sites of fillet of rainbow trout fed with different pigment sources showed no significant differences. Similarly, different sources of pigment (natural or synthetic) produced colour values of fresh fillet with no relevant or significant differences. The coefficient of distance computed amongst the feed ingredient and the trout fillet astaxanthin stereoisomers was a useful tool to identify the origin of the pigment used on farm. PMID:17071507

  13. Thirteen-week oral toxicity study of carotenoid pigment from Rhodotorula glutinis DFR-PDY in rats.

    PubMed

    Latha, B V; Jeevaratanm, K

    2012-09-01

    Carotenoids from some of the coloured yeasts like Rhodotorula, Phaffia rhodozyma have attracted commercial interest as a natural pigment for foods. Red yeast isolated from contaminated Potato dextrose agar plate (PDA), designated as Rhodotorula glutinis DFR-PDY has been found to produce carotenoids. In the present study toxicological evaluation of carotenoid pigment has been reported. Experiment was conducted on 3 groups of albino rats. One group with vehicle control (palm oil) and 2 groups with two different doses of red yeast pigment (lower and higher dose) were fed to rats (both male and female) by gavages for 13 weeks. Gain in body weight of rats and food consumption were monitored at regular intervals. Hematological studies revealed that there is no much difference in erythrocytes, packed cell volume, Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelets and differential counts. Total leucocyte count (TLC) is less in case of higher dose group than the lower and control groups. Whereas, hemoglobin is more in case of higher dose than the lower dose group and least in control group. Even clinico-chemical parameters and urine analysis of vehicle control group and pigment fed rats revealed that there were no major differences between them as well as between two different genders of rats and also interaction between different doses and the genders. Histopathology of these experimental animals revealed that there are no major histological changes found between the groups. It may be concluded that the whole pigment extract from R. glutinis DFR-PDY may be used safely in food preparations as food colourant with an added benefit of antioxidant activity. PMID:23140023

  14. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food...

  15. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food...

  16. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food...

  17. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food...

  18. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food...

  19. BIOSYNTHESIS OF YEAST CAROTENOIDS

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Kenneth L.; Nakayama, T. O. M.; Chichester, C. O.

    1964-01-01

    Simpson, Kenneth L. (University of California, Davis), T. O. M. Nakayama, and C. O. Chichester. Biosynthesis of yeast carotenoids. J. Bacteriol. 88:1688–1694. 1964.—The biosynthesis of carotenoids was followed in Rhodotorula glutinis and in a new strain, 62-506. The treatment of the growing cultures by methylheptenone, or ionone, vapors permitted observations of the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway. On the basis of concentration changes and accumulation in blocked pathways, the sequence of carotenoid formation is postulated as phytoene, phytofluene, ?-carotene, neurosporene, ?-zeacarotene, ?-carotene, torulin, a C40 aldehyde, and torularhodin. Torulin and torularhodin were established as the main carotenoids of 62-506. PMID:14240958

  20. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Athanasios A. Koutinas

    2006-01-01

    Summary Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the

  1. Yeasts from ips sexdentatus (scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Claire Pignal; C. Chararas; Michèle Bourgeay-Causse

    1988-01-01

    Yeasts from the digestive tract of Ips sexdentatus were isolated. Four strains, representing the different identified yeast species, were chosen. Their enzymatic activity on oligosaccharides, heterosides and polysaccharides was measured. Moreover, we showed that they excrete some B group vitamins which are necessary for the insect, unable to synthesize them.

  2. New and emerging yeast pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, K C

    1995-01-01

    The most common yeast species that act as agents of human disease are Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The incidence of infections by other yeasts has increased during the past decade. The most evident emerging pathogens are Malassezia furfur, Trichosporon beigelii, Rhodotorula species, Hansenula anomala, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida krusei. Organisms once considered environmental contaminants or only industrially important, such as Candida utilis and Candida lipolytica, have now been implicated as agents of fungemia, onychomycosis, and systemic disease. The unusual yeasts primarily infect immunocompromised patients, newborns, and the elderly. The role of central venous catheter removal and antifungal therapy in patient management is controversial. The antibiograms of the unusual yeasts range from resistant to the most recent azoles and amphotericin B to highly susceptible to all antifungal agents. Current routine methods for yeast identification may be insufficient to identify the unusual yeasts within 2 days after isolation. The recognition of unusual yeasts as agents of sometimes life-threatening infection and their unpredictable antifungal susceptibilities increase the burden on the clinical mycology laboratory to pursue complete species identification and MIC determinations. Given the current and evolving medical practices for management of seriously ill patients, further evaluations of the clinically important data about these yeasts are needed. PMID:8665465

  3. Modelling the Yeast Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Janji?, Vuk; Sharan, Roded; Pržulj, Nataša

    2014-01-01

    The topology behind biological interaction networks has been studied for over a decade. Yet, there is no definite agreement on the theoretical models which best describe protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Such models are critical to quantifying the significance of any empirical observation regarding those networks. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of yeast PPI networks in order to gain insights into their topology and its dependency on interaction-screening technology. We find that: (1) interaction-detection technology has little effect on the topology of PPI networks; (2) topology of these interaction networks differs in organisms with different cellular complexity (human and yeast); (3) clear topological difference is present between PPI networks, their functional sub-modules, and their inter-functional “linkers”; (4) high confidence PPI networks have more “geometrical” topology compared to predicted, incomplete, or noisy PPI networks; and (5) inter-functional “linker” proteins serve as mediators in signal transduction, transport, regulation and organisational cellular processes. PMID:24589662

  4. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  5. Lager Yeast Comes of Age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This “web of life” recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

  6. Lager yeast comes of age.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This "web of life" recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

  7. Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    1995-12-31

    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Marine yeast isolation and industrial application

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

  9. Molecular Genetic Analysis in Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daniel D. Burke (Seton Hall University; )

    1989-06-06

    The four exercises presented here use basic and advanced procedures of recombinant DNA technology to perform molecular genetic analysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Their fulluse is intended for a senior-level molecular genetics (or similar) course; however, Experiments 1, 2, and 4 are appropriate for lower-level courses. It is expected that the instructor will have some familiarity with the concepts and terminology of recombinant DNA technology and with yeast genetics.

  10. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  11. Study of amyloids using yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Shewmaker, Frank; McGlinchey, Ryan; Edskes, Herman K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism in such fields as the cell cycle, regulation of transcription, protein trafficking and cell biology, primarily because of its ease of genetic manipulation. This is no less so in the area of amyloid studies. The endogenous yeast amyloids described to date include prions, infectious proteins (Table 1), and some cell wall proteins (1). and amyloids of humans and a fungal prion have also been studied using the yeast system. Accordingly, the emphasis of this chapter will be on genetic, biochemical, cell biological and physical methods particularly useful in the study of yeast prions and other amyloids studied in yeast. We limit our description of these methods to those aspects which have been most useful in studying yeast prions, citing more detailed expositions in the literature. Volumes on yeast genetics methods (2–4), and on amyloids and prions (5, 6) are useful, and Masison has edited a volume of Methods on “Identification, analysis and characterization of fungal prions” which covers some of this territory (7). We also outline some useful physical methods, pointing the reader to more extensive and authoratative descriptions. PMID:22528100

  12. Metabolic regulation of yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiechter, A.

    1982-12-01

    Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

  13. Riboneogenesis in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Clasquin, Michelle F.; Melamud, Eugene; Singer, Alexander; Gooding, Jessica R.; Xu, Xiaohui; Dong, Aiping; Cui, Hong; Campagna, Shawn R.; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Caudy, Amy A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Gluconeogenesis converts three carbon units into glucose. Here we identify an analogous pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for converting three carbon units into ribose, a component of nucleic acids and nucleotides. This riboneogenic pathway involves the enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SHB17), whose activity was identified based on accumulation of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate in the corresponding knockout strain. We determined the crystal structure of Shb17 in complex with sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate, and found that the sugar is bound in the closed furan form in the active site. Like fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate is produced by aldolase, in this case from erythrose 4-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Hydrolysis of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate by SHB17 provides an energetically favorable input to the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway to drive ribose production. Flux through SHB17 is enhanced under conditions when ribose demand is high relative to demand for NADPH, including during ribosome biogenesis in metabolically synchronized yeast cells. Thus, riboneogenesis provides a thermodynamically-driven route of ribose production uncoupled from formation of NADPH. PMID:21663798

  14. Yeast Genetics and Biotechnological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Saroj; Baranwal, Richa

    Yeast can be recognized as one of the very important groups of microorganisms on account of its extensive use in the fermentation industry and as a basic eukaryotic model cellular system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used to elucidate the genetics and regulation of several key functions in the cell such as cell mating, electron transport chain, protein trafficking, cell cycle events and others. Even before the genome sequence of the yeast was out, the structural organization and function of several of its genes was known. With the availability of the origin of replication from the 2 ?m plasmid and the development of transformation system, it became the host of choice for expression of a number of important proteins. A large number of episomal and integrative shuttle vectors are available for expression of mammalian proteins. The latest developments in genomics and micro-array technology have allowed investigations of individual gene function by site-specific deletion method. The application of metabolic profiling has also assisted in understanding the cellular network operating in this yeast. This chapter is aimed at reviewing the use of this system as an experimental tool for conducting classical genetics. Various vector systems available, foreign genes expressed and the limitations as a host will be discussed. Finally, the use of various yeast enzymes in biotechnology sector will be reviewed.

  15. Nuclear Transport of Yeast Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Enenkel, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    Proteasomes are conserved protease complexes enriched in the nuclei of dividing yeast cells, a major site for protein degradation. If yeast cells do not proliferate and transit to quiescence, metabolic changes result in the dissociation of proteasomes into proteolytic core and regulatory complexes and their sequestration into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli. These granuli rapidly clear with the resumption of growth, releasing the stored proteasomes, which relocalize back to the nucleus to promote cell cycle progression. Here, I report on three models of how proteasomes are transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus of yeast cells. The first model applies for dividing yeast and is based on the canonical pathway using classical nuclear localization sequences of proteasomal subcomplexes and the classical import receptor importin/karyopherin ??. The second model applies for quiescent yeast cells, which resume growth and use Blm10, a HEAT-like repeat protein structurally related to karyopherin ?, for nuclear import of proteasome core particles. In the third model, the fully-assembled proteasome is imported into the nucleus. Our still marginal knowledge about proteasome dynamics will inspire the discussion on how protein degradation by proteasomes may be regulated in different cellular compartments of dividing and quiescent eukaryotic cells. PMID:25333764

  16. ORIGINAL PAPER Evolutionarily engineered ethanologenic yeast detoxifies

    E-print Network

    Song, Joe

    ORIGINAL PAPER Evolutionarily engineered ethanologenic yeast detoxifies lignocellulosic biomass with subsequent fermentation of ethanol, posing significant challenges for a sustainable cellulosic ethanol conversion industry. Numerous yeast genes were found to be associated with the inhibitor tolerance. However

  17. PHYLOGENETICS OF SACCHAROMYCETALES, THE ASCOMYCETE YEASTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycete yeasts (Phylum Ascomycota: Subphylum Saccharomycotina: Class Saccharomycetes: Order Saccharomycetales) comprise a monophyletic lineage with a single order of about 1000 known species. These yeasts live as saprobes, often in association with plants, animals, and their interfaces. A few s...

  18. Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin HealthDay April ... the distribution and quantity of metabolites, peptides, lipids, bacteria, yeast, proteins, chemicals and more. As expected, many ...

  19. Cdc42 Oscillations in Yeasts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Felipe O. Bendezu (Switzerland; University of Lausanne REV)

    2012-12-04

    A fundamental problem in cell biology is how cells define one or several discrete sites of polarity. Through mechanisms involving positive and negative feedback, the small Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase Cdc42 breaks symmetry in round budding yeast cells to define a single site of polarized cell growth. However, it is not clear how cells can define multiple sites of polarization concurrently. We discuss a study in which rod-shaped fission yeast cells, which naturally polarize growth at their two cell ends, exhibited oscillations of Cdc42 activity between these sites. We compare these findings with similar oscillatory behavior of Cdc42 detected in budding yeast cells and discuss the possible mechanism and functional outputs of these oscillations.

  20. Sorption of grape proanthocyanidins and wine polyphenols by yeasts, inactivated yeasts, and yeast cell walls.

    PubMed

    Mekoue Nguela, J; Sieczkowski, N; Roi, S; Vernhet, A

    2015-01-21

    Inactivated yeast fractions (IYFs) can be used in enology to improve the stability and mouthfeel of red wines. However, information concerning the mechanisms involved and the impact of the IYF characteristics is scarce. Adsorption isotherms were used to investigate interactions between grape proanthocyanidin fractions (PAs) or wine polyphenols (WP) and a commercial yeast strain (Y), the inactivated yeast (IY), the yeast submitted to autolyzis and inactivation (A-IY), and the cell walls obtained by mechanical disruption (CW). High affinity isotherms and high adsorption capacities were observed for grape PAs and whole cells (Y, IY, and A-IY). Affinity and adsorbed amount were lower with wine PAs, due to chemical changes occurring during winemaking. By contrast to whole cells, grape PAs and WP adsorption on CW remained very low. This raises the issue of the part played by cell walls in the interactions between yeast and proanthocyanidins and suggests the passage of the latter through the wall pores and their interaction with the plasma membrane. PMID:25575250

  1. Yeast: A Research Organism for Teaching Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manney, Thomas R.; Manney, Monta L.

    1992-01-01

    Explains why laboratory strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are particularly suited for classroom science activities. Describes the sexual life cycle of yeast and the genetic system with visible mutations. Presents an overview of activities that can be done with yeast and gives a source for teachers to obtain more information. (PR)

  2. Characterization of an encapsulation device for the production of monodisperse alginate beads for cell immobilization.

    PubMed

    Serp, D; Cantana, E; Heinzen, C; Von Stockar, U; Marison, I W

    2000-10-01

    An encapsulation device, designed on the basis of the laminar jet break-up technique, is characterized for cell immobilization with different types of alginate. The principle of operation of the completely sterilizable encapsulator, together with techniques for the continuous production of beads from 250 microm to 1 mm in diameter, with a size distribution below 5%, at a flow rate of 1-15 mL/min, is described. A modification of the device, to incorporate an electrostatic potential between the alginate droplets and an internal electrode, results in enhanced monodispersity with no adverse effects on cell viability. The maximum cell loading capacity of the beads strongly depends on the nozzle diameter as well as the cells used. For the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, it is possible to generate 700 microm alginate beads with an initial cell concentration of 1 x 10(8) cells/mL of alginate whereas only 1 x 10(6) cells/ml could be entrapped within 400 microm beads. The alginate beads have been characterized with respect to mechanical resistance and size distribution immediately after production and as a function of storage conditions. The beads remain stable in the presence of acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, water, basic water, and sodium ions. The latter stability applies when the ratio of sodium: calcium ions is less than 1/5. Complexing agents such as sodium citrate result in the rapid solubilization of the beads due to calcium removal. The presence of cells does not affect the mechanical resistance of the beads. Finally, the mechanical resistance of alginate beads can be doubled by treatment with 5-10 kDa chitosan, resulting in reduced leaching of cells. PMID:10940862

  3. Overexpression of multisubunit replication factors in yeast.

    PubMed

    Burgers, P M

    1999-07-01

    Facile genetic and biochemical manipulation coupled with rapid cell growth and low cost of growth media has established the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a versatile workhorse. This article describes the use of yeast expression systems for the overproduction of complex multipolypeptide replication factors. The regulated overexpression of these factors in yeast provides for a readily accessible and inexpensive source of these factors in large quantities. The methodology is illustrated with the five-subunit replication factor C. Whole-cell extracts are prepared by blending yeast cells with glass beads or frozen yeast with dry ice. Procedures are described that maximize the yield of these factors while minimizing proteolytic degradation. PMID:10454996

  4. Molecular Genetic Analysis in Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daniel D. Burke (Seton Hall University; )

    1990-01-01

    This resource provides techniques and protocols used in basic and advanced procedures of recombinant DNA technology to perform molecular genetic analysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Students will be exposed to techniques such as transformation, restriction endonuclease digestion, electrophoresis and Southern blot analysis.

  5. Barcoding the Yeasts – Which Genes?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Old style yeast identification, as many know, is an onerous process requiring determination of growth reactions on 60-100 different media. Once completed, there is still a high degree of uncertainty about species identity. With the determination of sequences for domains 1 and 2 (D1/D2) of the nucl...

  6. Yeast Proteomics and Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Snyder, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of biological processes as well as human diseases has improved greatly thanks to studies on model organisms such as yeast. The power of scientific approaches with yeast lies in its relatively simple genome, its facile classical and molecular genetics, as well as the evolutionary conservation of many basic biological mechanisms. However, even in this simple model organism, systems biology studies, especially proteomic studies had been an intimidating task. During the past decade, powerful high-throughput technologies in proteomic research have been developed for yeast including protein microarray technology. The protein microarray technology allows the interrogation of protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-small molecule interaction networks as well as post-translational modification networks in a large-scale, high-throughput manner. With this technology, many groundbreaking findings have been established in studies with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most of which could have been unachievable with traditional approaches. Discovery of these networks has profound impact on explicating biological processes with a proteomic point of view, which may lead to a better understanding of normal biological phenomena as well as various human diseases. PMID:20728591

  7. [Heterologous interferons synthesis in yeast Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Padkina, M V; Parfenova, L V; Gradoboeva, A E; Sambuk, E V

    2010-01-01

    The HuIFNA16, HuIFNB, and BoIFNG genes encoding human [alpha]16, beta-interferons and bovine gamma-interferon were cloned under the control of the yeast Pichia pastoris AOX1 gene promoter. The yeast strains producing heterologous interferons intracellularly and extracellularly were constructed. There was no effect of high level of heterologous protein synthesis on the yeast P. pastoris cell growth, unlike yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The considerable part of the heterologous interferons was detected in the yeast P. pastoris soluble protein fraction but not in the "inclusion bodies." The treatment of human beta-interferon with endoglycosidase H showed that protein was expressed in glycosilated and unglycosilated forms. On the strength of these data, the hypothesis was suggested that the more effective heterologous gene expression in yeast P. pastoris and enhanced resistance of the methylotrophic yeast to negative effects of recombinant proteins was due to the special features of its metabolism. PMID:20873170

  8. Pheromone Signaling Pathways in Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Henrik G. Dohlman (University of North Carolina; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV)

    2006-12-05

    The actions of many extracellular stimuli are elicited by complexes of cell surface receptors, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding proteins (G proteins), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) complexes. Analysis of haploid yeast cells and their response to peptide mating pheromones has produced important advances in the understanding of G protein and MAPK signaling mechanisms. Many of the components, their interrelationships, and their regulators were first identified in yeast. Examples include definitive demonstration of a positive signaling role for G protein ?? subunits, the discovery of a three-tiered structure of the MAPK module, development of the concept of a kinase-scaffold protein, and the discovery of the first regulator of G protein signaling protein. New and powerful genomic, proteomic, and computational approaches available in yeast are beginning to uncover new pathway components and interactions and have revealed their presence in unexpected locations within the cell. This updated Connections Map in the Database of Cell Signaling includes several major revisions to this prototypical signal response pathway.

  9. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  10. Biopharmaceutical discovery and production in yeast.

    PubMed

    Meehl, Michael A; Stadheim, Terrance A

    2014-12-01

    The selection of an expression platform for recombinant biopharmaceuticals is often centered upon suitable product titers and critical quality attributes, including post-translational modifications. Although notable differences between microbial, yeast, plant, and mammalian host systems exist, recent advances have greatly mitigated any inherent liabilities of yeasts. Yeast expression platforms are important to both the supply of marketed biopharmaceuticals and the pipelines of novel therapeutics. In this review, recent advances in yeast-based expression of biopharmaceuticals will be discussed. The advantages of using glycoengineered yeast as a production host and in the discovery space will be illustrated. These advancements, in turn, are transforming yeast platforms from simple production systems to key technological assets in the discovery and selection of biopharmaceutical lead candidates. PMID:25014890

  11. Metabolic engineering of malolactic wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Husnik, John I; Volschenk, Heinrich; Bauer, Jurgen; Colavizza, Didier; Luo, Zongli; van Vuuren, Hennie J J

    2006-07-01

    Malolactic fermentation is essential for the deacidification of high acid grape must. We have constructed a genetically stable industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by integrating a linear cassette containing the Schizosaccharomyces pombe malate permease gene (mae1) and the Oenococcus oeni malolactic gene (mleA) under control of the S. cerevisiae PGK1 promoter and terminator sequences into the URA3 locus of an industrial wine yeast. The malolactic yeast strain, ML01, fully decarboxylated 5.5 g/l of malate in Chardonnay grape must during the alcoholic fermentation. Analysis of the phenotype, genotype, transcriptome, and proteome revealed that the ML01 yeast is substantially equivalent to the parental industrial wine yeast. The ML01 yeast enjoys 'Generally Regarded As Safe' status from the FDA and is the first genetically enhanced yeast that has been commercialized. Its application will prevent the formation of noxious biogenic amines produced by lactic acid bacteria in wine. PMID:16621641

  12. Physiological properties of some yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Oprean, Letitia; Gaspar, Enikö; Lengyel, Ecaterina; Cristea, V

    2006-06-01

    Twenty yeast strains have recently been isolated in pure cultures from natural and industrial sources and identified based mainly on physiological properties. The majority of the strains (15) are alcohologenic belonging to the genus Saccharomyces and comprise two brewer's (beer) yeast strains (S. carlsbergensis= S. uvarum A and B), two baker's yeast strains (S. cerevisiae CA and CP), one spirit yeast strain (S. cerevisiae CF) and ten wine yeast strains (S. cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus = S. ellipsoideus 1, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 9; S. oviformis 2, 5 and 7; and S. uvarum 10). The other 5 yeast strains belong to different species: Kloeckera apiculate, Candida mycoderma (Mycoderma vini), Pichia membranaefaciens, Rhodotorula glutinis and Torulopsis holmii, respectively. PMID:16841476

  13. Screening for l -arabinose fermenting yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce S. Dien; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Badal C. Saha; Rodney J. Bothast

    1996-01-01

    Utilization of pentose sugars (d-xylose andl-arabinose) derived from hemi-cellulose is essential for the economic conversion of biomass to ethanol. Xylose-fermenting\\u000a yeasts were discovered in the 1980s, but to date, no yeasts have been found that fermentl-arabinose to ethanol in significant quantities. We have screened 116 different yeasts for the ability to fermentl-arabinose and have found the following species able to

  14. Characterisation of yeast microbial fuel cell with the yeast Arxula adeninivorans as the biocatalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas D. Haslett; Frankie J. Rawson; Frèdèric Barriëre; Gotthard Kunze; Neil Pasco; Ravi Gooneratne; Keith H. R. Baronian

    2011-01-01

    Yeast microbial fuel cells have received little attention to date. Yeast should be ideal MFC catalyst because they are robust, easily handled, mostly non-pathogenic organisms with high catabolic rates and in some cases a broad substrate spectrum. Here we show that the non-conventional yeast Arxula adeninvorans transfers electrons to an electrode through the secretion of a reduced molecule that is

  15. Presence of glucosylceramide in yeast and its relation to alkali tolerance of yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuichi Saito; Naoya Takakuwa; Masao Ohnishi; Yuji Oda

    2006-01-01

    Glycosylceramide is a membrane lipid that has physiological functions in eukaryotic organisms. The presence of glucosylceramide has been confirmed in some yeast; however, the extent of the role of glucosylceramide in yeast is unknown. Thus, the extent of presence of glucosylceramide in yeast was surveyed using 90 strains of 24 genera. The strains were divided into two groups according to

  16. APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA

    E-print Network

    Winston, Fred

    no nutritional require- ments. However, it is used most often as a basal medium to which other supplementsAPPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA Like Escherichia coli, yeast can be grown in either liquid media or on the surface of (or embedded in) solid agar plates

  17. Evaluation of Automated Yeast Identification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and nine teleomorphic and anamorphic yeast isolates representing approximately 30 taxa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the Biolog yeast identification system. Isolates derived from nomenclatural types, environmental, and clinica isolates of known identity were tested in the Biolog system. Of the isolates tested, 81 were in the Biolog database. The system correctly identified 40, incorrectly identified 29, and was unable to identify 12. Of the 28 isolates not in the database, 18 were given names, whereas 10 were not. The Biolog yeast identification system is inadequate for the identification of yeasts originating from the environment during space program activities.

  18. Role of glucose signaling in yeast metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, K. van [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). E.C. Slater Inst.

    1996-10-05

    The conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast was the first biochemical pathway to be studied in detail. The initial observation that this process is catalyzed by an extract of yeast led to the discovery of enzymes and coenzymes and laid the foundation for modern biochemistry. In this article, knowledge concerning the relation between uptake of and signaling by glucose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed and compared to the analogous process in prokaryotes. It is concluded that (much) more fundamental knowledge concerning these processes is required before rational redesign of metabolic fluxes from glucose in yeast can be achieved.

  19. Drosophila Regulate Yeast Density and Increase Yeast Community Similarity in a Natural Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Judy A.; Yang, Louie H.; Morales, Vanessa M.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster adults and larvae, but especially larvae, had profound effects on the densities and community structure of yeasts that developed in banana fruits. Pieces of fruit exposed to adult female flies previously fed fly-conditioned bananas developed higher yeast densities than pieces of the same fruits that were not exposed to flies, supporting previous suggestions that adult Drosophila vector yeasts to new substrates. However, larvae alone had dramatic effects on yeast density and species composition. When yeast densities were compared in pieces of the same fruits assigned to different treatments, fruits that developed low yeast densities in the absence of flies developed significantly higher yeast densities when exposed to larvae. Across all of the fruits, larvae regulated yeast densities within narrow limits, as compared to a much wider range of yeast densities that developed in pieces of the same fruits not exposed to flies. Larvae also affected yeast species composition, dramatically reducing species diversity across fruits, reducing variation in yeast communities from one fruit to the next (beta diversity), and encouraging the consistent development of a yeast community composed of three species of yeast (Candida californica, C. zemplinina, and Pichia kluvyeri), all of which were palatable to larvae. Larvae excreted viable cells of these three yeast species in their fecal pools, and discouraged the growth of filamentous fungi, processes which may have contributed to their effects on the yeast communities in banana fruits. These and other findings suggest that D. melanogaster adults and their larval offspring together engage in ‘niche construction’, facilitating a predictable microbial environment in the fruit substrates in which the larvae live and develop. PMID:22860093

  20. YMDB: the Yeast Metabolome Database.

    PubMed

    Jewison, Timothy; Knox, Craig; Neveu, Vanessa; Djoumbou, Yannick; Guo, An Chi; Lee, Jacqueline; Liu, Philip; Mandal, Rupasri; Krishnamurthy, Ram; Sinelnikov, Igor; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S

    2012-01-01

    The Yeast Metabolome Database (YMDB, http://www.ymdb.ca) is a richly annotated 'metabolomic' database containing detailed information about the metabolome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Modeled closely after the Human Metabolome Database, the YMDB contains >2000 metabolites with links to 995 different genes/proteins, including enzymes and transporters. The information in YMDB has been gathered from hundreds of books, journal articles and electronic databases. In addition to its comprehensive literature-derived data, the YMDB also contains an extensive collection of experimental intracellular and extracellular metabolite concentration data compiled from detailed Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomic analyses performed in our lab. This is further supplemented with thousands of NMR and MS spectra collected on pure, reference yeast metabolites. Each metabolite entry in the YMDB contains an average of 80 separate data fields including comprehensive compound description, names and synonyms, structural information, physico-chemical data, reference NMR and MS spectra, intracellular/extracellular concentrations, growth conditions and substrates, pathway information, enzyme data, gene/protein sequence data, as well as numerous hyperlinks to images, references and other public databases. Extensive searching, relational querying and data browsing tools are also provided that support text, chemical structure, spectral, molecular weight and gene/protein sequence queries. Because of S. cervesiae's importance as a model organism for biologists and as a biofactory for industry, we believe this kind of database could have considerable appeal not only to metabolomics researchers, but also to yeast biologists, systems biologists, the industrial fermentation industry, as well as the beer, wine and spirit industry. PMID:22064855

  1. Experimental evolution in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss our progress in analyzing evolution in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We take two basic approaches. The first is to try and examine quantitative aspects of evolution, for example by determining how the rate of evolution depends on the mutation rate and the population size or asking whether the rate of mutation is uniform throughout the genome. The second is to try to evolve qualitatively novel, cell biologically interesting phenotypes and track the mutations that are responsible for the phenotype. Our efforts include trying to alter cell morphology, evolve multicellularity, and produce a biological oscillator.

  2. Yeast flora of grape berries during ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianfranco Rosini; Federico Federici; Alessandro Martini

    1982-01-01

    The yeast flora associated with the surface of grapes during ripening was studied with regard to different sectors of the grape skin and the position in the bunch by means of traditional as well as more vigorous preisolation and precounting treatments. The yeast number per square centimeter of skin increases with ripening and is highest in the area immediately surrounding

  3. Chronological aging leads to apoptosis in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Herker; Helmut Jungwirth; Katharina A. Lehmann; Corinna Maldener; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich; Silke Wissing; Sabrina Büttner; Markus Fehr; Stephan Sigrist; Frank Madeo

    2004-01-01

    uring the past years, yeast has been successfully established as a model to study mechanisms of apoptotic regulation. However, the beneficial effects of such a cell suicide program for a unicellular organism remained obscure. Here, we demonstrate that chronologi- cally aged yeast cultures die exhibiting typical markers of apoptosis, accumulate oxygen radicals, and show caspase activation. Age-induced cell death is

  4. Production of recombinant proteins by yeast cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eda Çelik; P?nar Çal?k

    Yeasts are widely used in production of recombinant proteins of medical or industrial interest. For each individual product, the most suitable expression system has to be identified and optimized, both on the genetic and fermentative level, by taking into account the properties of the product, the organism and the expression cassette. There is a wide range of important yeast expression

  5. Growth of yeasts during wine fermentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham H. Fleet

    1990-01-01

    This article emphasises the importance of making quantitative measurements of the growth of yeast species during wine fermentations. Although such studies confirm Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the principal wine yeast, they show that indigenous species of Kloeckera and Candida make a more significant contribution to the fermentation than previously thought. Inoculation of grape juice with S. cerevisiae does not necessarily suppress

  6. Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains

    SciTech Connect

    Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

  7. Rapid and reliable protein extraction from yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitaly V. Kushnirov

    2000-01-01

    The methods currently used for protein extraction from yeast are either laborious or insufficiently reliable. Here I report a method for protein extraction for electrophoretic analysis that is both easy and reliable. In this method, yeast cells are subjected to mild alkali treatment and then boiled in a standard electrophoresis loading buffer. The method was tested for different strains of

  8. YEAST MEIOSIS Sister kinetochores are mechanically

    E-print Network

    Asbury, Chip

    YEAST MEIOSIS Sister kinetochores are mechanically fused during meiosis I in yeast Krishna K Production of healthy gametes requires a reductional meiosis I division in which replicated sister chromatids comigrate, rather than separate as in mitosis or meiosis II. Fusion of sister kinetochores during meiosis I

  9. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis

    PubMed Central

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24932634

  10. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. PMID:24462702

  11. Yeast: An Experimental Organism for Modern Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botstein, David; Fink, Gerald R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the applicability and advantages of using yeasts as popular and ideal model systems for studying and understanding eukaryotic biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Cites experimental tractability and the cooperative tradition of the research community of yeast biologists as reasons for this success. (RT)

  12. Yeasts that utilize lactose in sweet whey

    SciTech Connect

    Gholson, J.H.; Gough, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Since processing costs are usually higher for whey than for other available food or feed nutrients, only about one-third of whey produced in the US is used by food and feed industries. As a result whey disposal costs are a problem. Further; when whey is disposed of through municipal sewerage systems, the lactose present is changed by bacteria to lactic acid which tends to act as a preservative and retards further oxidation of whey constituents. This article describes a method of utilizing lactose-fermenting yeasts to produce large quantities of yeast cells, single-cell protein. Kluveromyces fragilis was found to be the most effective yeast species and the yeast cells produced could be used as a natural food or feed additive. Results of this study determined that certain methods and yeast strains could reduce whey-related pollution and thus help reduce costs of whey disposal.

  13. Production of ethanol by immobilized yeast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.; Munnecke, D.M.

    1981-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in calcium alginate beads for use in the continuous production of ethanol. Yeasts were grown in medium supplemented with ethanol to selectively screen for a culture which showed the greatest tolerance to ethanol inhibition. Yeast beads were produced from a yeast slurry containing 1.5% alginate (w/v) which was added as drops to a 0.05M CaCl2 solution. To determine their optimum fermentation parameters, ethanol production using glucose as a substrate was monitored in batch systems at varying physiological conditions (temperature,pH, ethanol concentration), cell densities, and gel concentrations. The data obtained were compared to optimum free cell ethanol fermentation parameters. The immobilized yeast cells were examined in a packed-bed reactor system operated under optimized parameters derived from batch-immobilized yeast cell experiments. Ethanol production rates, as well as residual sugar concentrations were monitored at different feedstock flow rates. (Refs. 13).

  14. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast.

    PubMed

    Prakash, S; Prakash, L

    2000-06-30

    In nucleotide excision repair (NER) in eukaryotes, DNA is incised on both sides of the lesion, resulting in the removal of a fragment approximately 25-30 nucleotides long. This is followed by repair synthesis and ligation. The proteins encoded by the various yeast NER genes have been purified, and the incision reaction reconstituted in vitro. This reaction requires the damage binding factors Rad14, RPA, and the Rad4-Rad23 complex, the transcription factor TFIIH which contains the two DNA helicases Rad3 and Rad25, essential for creating a bubble structure, and the two endonucleases, the Rad1-Rad10 complex and Rad2, which incise the damaged DNA strand on the 5'- and 3'-side of the lesion, respectively. Addition of the Rad7-Rad16 complex to this reconstituted system stimulates the incision reaction many fold. The various NER proteins exist in vivo as part of multiprotein subassemblies which have been named NEFs (nucleotide excision repair factors). Rad14 and Rad1-Rad10 form one subassembly called NEF1, the Rad4-Rad23 complex is named NEF2, Rad2 and TFIIH constitute NEF3, and the Rad7-Rad16 complex is called NEF4. Although much has been learned from yeast about the function of NER genes and proteins in eukaryotes, the underlying mechanisms by which damage is recognized, NEFs are assembled at the damage site, and the DNA is unwound and incised, remain to be elucidated. PMID:10915862

  15. Regulation of yeast oscillatory dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Douglas B.; Beckmann, Manfred; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    When yeast cells are grown continuously at high cell density, a respiratory oscillation percolates throughout the population. Many essential cellular functions have been shown to be separated temporally during each cycle; however, the regulatory mechanisms involved in oscillatory dynamics remain to be elucidated. Through GC-MS analysis we found that the majority of metabolites show oscillatory dynamics, with 70% of the identified metabolite concentrations peaking in conjunction with NAD(P)H. Through statistical analyses of microarray data, we identified that biosynthetic events have a defined order, and this program is initiated when respiration rates are increasing. We then combined metabolic, transcriptional data and statistical analyses of transcription factor activity, identified the top oscillatory parameters, and filtered a large-scale yeast interaction network according to these parameters. The analyses and controlled experimental perturbation provided evidence that a transcriptional complex formed part of the timing circuit for biosynthetic, reductive, and cell cycle programs in the cell. This circuitry does not act in isolation because both have strong translational, proteomic, and metabolic regulatory mechanisms. Our data lead us to conclude that the regulation of the respiratory oscillation revolves around coupled subgraphs containing large numbers of proteins and metabolites, with a potential to oscillate, and no definable hierarchy, i.e., heterarchical control. PMID:17284613

  16. A Caspase-Related Protease Regulates Apoptosis in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Madeo; Eva Herker; Corinna Maldener; Silke Wissing; Stephan Lächelt; Mark Herlan; Markus Fehr; Kirsten Lauber; Stephan J Sigrist; Sebastian Wesselborg; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich

    2002-01-01

    Yeast can undergo cell death accompanied by cellular markers of apoptosis. However, orthologs of classical mammalian apoptosis regulators appeared to be missing from the yeast genome, challenging a common mechanism of yeast and mammalian apoptosis. Here we investigate Yor197w, a yeast protein with structural homology to mammalian caspases, and demonstrate caspase-like processing of the protein. Hydrogen peroxide treatment induces apoptosis

  17. Original article Effect of a viable yeast culture on digestibility

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Effect of a viable yeast culture on digestibility and rumen fermentation in sheep that the effect of yeast culture on ru- men fermentation may depend on the nature of.the diet. Living yeast cell survived the passage through the digestive tract. yeast I rumen fermentation I volatile fatty acids I sheep

  18. The genetics of aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Michal Jazwinski

    1993-01-01

    The yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae possesses a finite life span similar in many attributes and implications to that of higher eukaryotes. Here, the measure of the life span is the number of generations or divisions the yeast cell has undergone. The yeast cell is the organism, simplifying many aspects of aging research. Most importantly, the genetics of yeast is highly-developed and readily

  19. [Effects of nitrogen on performance and yeast morphology of yeast-SBR system].

    PubMed

    Lü, Wen-Zhou; Liu, Ying; Chen, He-Ping; Zhu, Jian-Lin

    2008-05-01

    Effects of nitrogen on yeast cell morphology, settleability and performance of wastewater treatment were investigated in treating oil-containing wastewater by yeast-SBR system. The results show that: nitrogen supply affects directly yeast biomass, settleability, pH and treatment efficiency of system; the absence of nitrogen induces the transformation of certain yeast cells from single cell to hypha morphology. Based on an overall consideration of efficiency and stability of yeast-SBR system, the optimum BOD/N ratio of influent is 20/1. The optimum nitrogen supply can improve wastewater treatment efficiency of systems with different degrees of nitrogen absence and make yeast morphology become the predominant morphology for slightly mycelial system over a short time, but for severe mycelial system, the hypha morphology still keeps dominant. PMID:18624205

  20. MAP kinase dynamics in yeast.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, F; Peter, M

    2001-09-01

    MAP kinase pathways play key roles in cellular responses towards extracellular signals. In several cases, the three core kinases interact with a scaffold molecule, but the function of these scaffolds is poorly understood. They have been proposed to contribute to signal specificity, signal amplification, or subcellular localization of MAP kinases. Several MAP kinases translocate to the nucleus in response to their activation, suggesting that nuclear transport may provide a regulatory mechanism. Here we describe new applications for Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Loss In Photobleaching (FLIP), to study dynamic translocations of MAPKs between different subcellular compartments. We have used these methods to measure the nuclear/cytoplasmic dynamics of several yeast MAP kinases, and in particular to address the role of scaffold proteins for MAP-kinase signaling. PMID:11730324

  1. Corning and Kroger turn whey to yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-16

    It is reported that Corning and Kroger intend to build a 35,000 sq. ft. plant in Winchester, Ky., that will turn whey into bakers' yeast. The plant will convert whey from Kroger's dairies into bakers' yeast, supplying about 60% of the yeast needed for nine Kroger bakeries. It will also produce syrups and whey protein concentrate for use in other food processing activities. In addition to making useful products, the project will convert the whey to glucose and galactose. The protein component of the whey will be concentrated and used in various foods and feeds.

  2. Yeast molecular biology recombinant DNA. Recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Insights into recombinant DNA technology, as applied to yeast research, are described in this volume based on the First Berkeley Workshop on Recent Advances in Yeast Molecular Biology. The results of various genetic engineering techniques in recombinant DNA studies in yeast are detailed and discussed. The papers describe experimental approaches using the newest technologies of DNA transformations, molecular cloning, and DNA sequence analysis. These techniques are employed to gain new information regarding chromosomal structure, gene regulation, DNA recombination and repair, and cell type control.

  3. Yeast culture volatiles as attractants for Rhodnius prolixus: electroantennogram responses and captures in yeast-baited traps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Lorenzo; G. Manrique; H. H. R. Pires; M. G. de Brito Sánchez; L. Diotaiuti; C. R. Lazzari

    1999-01-01

    Responses to air currents carrying volatiles from yeast cultures were measured by means of electroantennograms (EAGs) in the haematophagous bug Rhodnius prolixus and we tested yeast-baited traps in the laboratory. The volatiles liberated by yeast cultures generated a clear electrophysiological response, much higher than that obtained during stimulation with clean air. The addition of yeast cultures to the traps dramatically

  4. YeastWeb: a workset-centric web resource for gene family analysis in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, a number of yeast genomes with different physiological features have been sequenced and annotated, which provides invaluable information to investigate yeast genetics, evolutionary mechanism, structure and function of gene families. Description YeastWeb is a novel database created to provide access to gene families derived from the available yeast genomes by assigning the genes into putative families. It has many useful features that complement existing databases, such as SGD, CYGD and Génolevures: 1) Detailed computational annotation was conducted with each entry with InterProScan, EMBOSS and functional/pathway databases, such as GO, COG and KEGG; 2) A well established user-friendly environment was created to allow users to retrieve the annotated genes and gene families using functional classification browser, keyword search or similarity-based search; 3) Workset offers users many powerful functions to manage the retrieved data efficiently, associate the individual items easily and save the intermediate results conveniently; 4) A series of comparative genomics and molecular evolution analysis tools are neatly implemented to allow users to view multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic tree of gene families. At present, YeastWeb holds the gene families clustered from various MCL inflation values from a total of 13 available yeast genomes. Conclusions Given the great interest in yeast research, YeastWeb has the potential to become a useful resource for the scientific community of yeast biologists and related researchers investigating the evolutionary relationship of yeast gene families. YeastWeb is available at http://centre.bioinformatics.zj.cn/Yeast/. PMID:20624324

  5. Prion formation by a yeast GLFG nucleoporin

    E-print Network

    Halfmann, Randal

    The self-assembly of proteins into higher order structures is both central to normal biology and a dominant force in disease. Certain glutamine/asparagine (Q/N)-rich proteins in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...

  6. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  7. Yeast Genomic DNA Prep Sterile distilled water

    E-print Network

    Auble, David

    Auble Lab Yeast Genomic DNA Prep Reagents: Sterile distilled water -mercaptoethanol Sorbitol Buffer conical tube at 3,000 rpms for 5 minutes. 3. Resuspend in 10 ml of sterile distilled (SD) water, then spin

  8. Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts

    E-print Network

    Regev, Aviv

    The fission yeast clade—comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus—occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative ...

  9. Protection from nitrosative stress by yeast flavohemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Limin; Zeng, Ming; Hausladen, Alfred; Heitman, Joseph; Stamler, Jonathan S.

    2000-01-01

    Yeast hemoglobin was discovered close to half a century ago, but its function has remained unknown. Herein, we report that this flavohemoglobin protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae from nitrosative stress. Deletion of the flavohemoglobin gene (YHB1) abolished the nitric oxide (NO)-consuming activity of yeast cells. Levels of protein nitrosylation were more than 10-fold higher in yhb1 mutant yeast than in isogenic wild-type cells after incubation with NO donors. Growth of mutant cells was inhibited by a nitrosative challenge that had little effect on wild-type cells, whereas the resistance of mutant cells to oxidative stress was unimpaired. Protection conferred by yeast flavohemoglobin against NO and S-nitrosothiols was seen under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, consistent with a primary function in NO detoxification. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that protection from nitrosative stress is likely to be a conserved function among microorganismal flavohemoglobins. Flavohemoglobin is therefore a potential target for antimicrobial therapy. PMID:10758168

  10. Macromolecular synthesis by yeasts under frozen conditions

    E-print Network

    Christner, Brent C.

    by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Experi- ments at -5°C under frozen and liquid conditionsMacromolecular synthesis by yeasts under frozen conditions Pierre Amato,* Shawn Doyle and Brent C

  11. Featured Organism: Schizosaccharomyces pombe, The Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the fission yeast, has long been a crucial model for the study of the eukaryote cell cycle. We take a look at this important yeast, whose genome has recently been completed, featuring comments from Valerie Wood, Jürg Bähler, Ramsay McFarlane, Susan Forsburg, Iain Hagan and Paul Nurse on the implications of having the complete sequence and future prospects for pombe genomics. PMID:18628834

  12. Whey Alcohol Fermentation with Mixed Yeast Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Jianming; Guo Linhai; Zhao Guoren

    2009-01-01

    This paper study the process of whey alcohol fermentation with mixed yeasts cultures. After the experiments of strains combination, the yeast strains of Saccharomyces uvarum TY-3, Saccharomyces uvarum TY-1 and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis AY-5 were selected and mixed at the ratio of 5.0:2.5:2.5. The optimized fermenting condition was obtained through orthogonal experiments with the result as follows: the initial pH value

  13. Mitochondria, metabolism, and aging in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Michal Jazwinski

    \\u000a Quantitative and qualitative changes in metabolism take place when the lifespan is extended in yeast either by genetic or\\u000a nutritional manipulation. In particular, remodeling of mitochondrial function occurs, and the relationship between this organelle\\u000a and other cellular compartments moves to the fore. Two separate pathways, the retrograde response and calorie restriction,\\u000a operate as metabolic mechanisms for life extension in yeast.

  14. How to Make Yeast Cells Thrive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students set up and run the experiments they designed in the Population Growth in Yeasts associated lesson, using simple yeast-molasses cultures in test tubes. Population growth is indicated by the amount of respiration occurring in the cultures, which in turn is indicated by the growth of carbon dioxide bubbles trapped within the culture tubes. Using this method, students test for a variety of environmental influences, such as temperature, food supply and pH.

  15. Yeast communities in a natural tequila fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lachance, M A

    1995-08-01

    Fresh and cooked agave, Drosophila spp., processing equipment, agave molasses, agave extract, and fermenting must at a traditional tequila distillery (Herradura, Amatitan, Jalisco, México) were studied to gain insight on the origin of yeasts involved in a natural tequila fermentations. Five yeast communities were identified. (1) Fresh agave contained a diverse mycobiota dominated by Clavispora lusitaniae and an endemic species, Metschnikowia agaveae. (2) Drosophila spp. from around or inside the distillery yielded typical fruit yeasts, in particular Hanseniaspora spp., Pichia kluyveri, and Candida krusei. (3) Schizosaccharomyces pombe prevailed in molasses. (4) Cooked agave and extract had a considerable diversity of species, but included Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5) Fermenting juice underwent a gradual reduction in yeast heterogeneity. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Hanseniaspora spp. progressively ceded the way to S. cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Candida milleri, and Brettanomyces spp. With the exception of Pichia membranaefaciens, which was shared by all communities, little overlap existed. That separation was even more manifest when species were divided into distinguishable biotypes based on morphology or physiology. It is concluded that crushing equipment and must holding tanks are the main source of significant inoculum for the fermentation process. Drosophila species appear to serve as internal vectors. Proximity to fruit trees probably contributes to maintaining a substantial Drosophila community, but the yeasts found in the distillery exhibit very little similarity to those found in adjacent vegetation. Interactions involving killer toxins had no apparent direct effects on the yeast community structure. PMID:8546452

  16. The growth of solar radiated yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, T.

    1995-09-01

    This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland; and (2) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The procedure used was based on the fact that yeast is most often used in consumable baked goods. Therefore, the yeast was incorporated into a basic Betty Crocker bread recipe. Data was collected by placing measured amounts of dough into sample containers with fifteen minute growth in height measurements collected and recorded. This researcher assumed the viability of yeast to be relative to its ability to produce carbon dioxide gas and cause the dough to rise. As all ingredients and surroundings were equal, this researcher assumed the yeast will produce the only significant difference in data collected. This researcher noted the approximate use date on all sample packages to be prior to arrival and experiment date. All dates equal, it was then assumed each would act in a similar manner of response. This assumption will allow for equally correct data collection.

  17. The growth of solar radiated yeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Tyrone

    1995-01-01

    This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland; and (2) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The procedure used was based on the fact that yeast is most often used in consumable baked goods. Therefore, the yeast was incorporated into a basic Betty Crocker bread recipe. Data was collected by placing measured amounts of dough into sample containers with fifteen minute growth in height measurements collected and recorded. This researcher assumed the viability of yeast to be relative to its ability to produce carbon dioxide gas and cause the dough to rise. As all ingredients and surroundings were equal, this researcher assumed the yeast will produce the only significant difference in data collected. This researcher noted the approximate use date on all sample packages to be prior to arrival and experiment date. All dates equal, it was then assumed each would act in a similar manner of response. This assumption will allow for equally correct data collection.

  18. Glutaraldehyde enhanced dielectrophoretic yeast cell separation

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Zachary; Mazur, Jill; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a method for improved dielectrophoretic (DEP) discrimination and separation of viable and nonviable yeast cells. Due to the higher cell wall permeability of nonviable yeast cells compared with their viable counterpart, the cross-linking agent glutaraldehyde (GLT) is shown to selectively cross-link nonviable cells to a much greater extent than viable yeast. The DEP crossover frequency (cof) of both viable and nonviable yeast cells was measured over a large range of buffer conductivities (22 ?S?cm–400 ?S?cm) in order to study this effect. The results indicate that due to selective nonviable cell cross-linking, GLT modifies the DEP cof of nonviable cells, while viable cell cof remains relatively unaffected. To investigate this in more detail, a dual-shelled oblate spheroid model was evoked and fitted to the cof data to study cell electrical properties. GLT treatment is shown to minimize ion leakage out of the nonviable yeast cells by minimizing changes in cytoplasm conductivity over a large range of ionic concentrations. This effect is only observable in nonviable cells where GLT treatment serves to stabilize the cell cytoplasm conductivity over a large range of buffer conductivity and allow for much greater differences between viable and nonviable cell cofs. As such, by taking advantage of differences in cell wall permeability GLT magnifies the effect DEP has on the field induced separation of viable and nonviable yeasts. PMID:20216970

  19. Physiological and environmental control of yeast prions

    PubMed Central

    Chernova, Tatiana A.; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2014-01-01

    Prions are self-perpetuating protein isoforms that cause fatal and incurable neurodegenerative disease in mammals. Recent evidence indicates that a majority of human proteins involved in amyloid and neural inclusion disorders possess at least some prion properties. In lower eukaryotes, such as yeast, prions act as epigenetic elements, which increase phenotypic diversity by altering a range of cellular processes. While some yeast prions are clearly pathogenic, it is also postulated that prion formation could be beneficial in variable environmental conditions. Yeast and mammalian prions have similar molecular properties. Crucial cellular factors and conditions influencing prion formation and propagation were uncovered in the yeast models. Stress-related chaperones, protein quality control deposits, degradation pathways and cytoskeletal networks control prion formation and propagation in yeast. Environmental stresses trigger prion formation and loss, supposedly acting via influencing intracellular concentrations of the prion-inducing proteins, and/or by localizing prionogenic proteins to the prion induction sites via heterologous ancillary helpers. Physiological and environmental modulation of yeast prions points to new opportunities for pharmacological intervention and/or prophylactic measures targeting general cellular systems rather than the properties of individual amyloids and prions. PMID:24236638

  20. Discussion of teleomorphic and anamorphic Ascomycetous yeasts and yeast-like taxa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship of ascomycetous yeasts with other members of the ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) has been controversial for over 100 years. Because yeasts are morphologically simple, it was proposed that they represent primitive forms of ascomycetes (e.g., Guilliermond 1912). Alternatively, the ide...

  1. Yeast Transformation Inoculate 100 ml YPD with 1 single (reasonably fat) yeast colony at about 5

    E-print Network

    Auble, David

    . Heat shock 15 minutes at 42 C. Pellet cells 5 seconds in microfuge, discard supernatant. ResuspendAuble Lab Yeast Transformation Inoculate 100 ml YPD with 1 single (reasonably fat) yeast colony cells in 0.2 ml TE. Plate 200 µl of each transformation. Wrap plates and incubate at 30 C. #12;Auble Lab

  2. Yeast and human mitochondrial helicases.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Roman J; Wojcik, Magdalena A; Borowski, Lukasz S; Szewczyk, Maciej J; Skrok, Magda M; Golik, Pawel; Stepien, Piotr P

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondria are semiautonomous organelles which contain their own genome. Both maintenance and expression of mitochondrial DNA require activity of RNA and DNA helicases. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the nuclear genome encodes four DExH/D superfamily members (MSS116, SUV3, MRH4, IRC3) that act as helicases and/or RNA chaperones. Their activity is necessary for mitochondrial RNA splicing, degradation, translation and genome maintenance. In humans the ortholog of SUV3 (hSUV3, SUPV3L1) so far is the best described mitochondrial RNA helicase. The enzyme, together with the matrix-localized pool of PNPase (PNPT1), forms an RNA-degrading complex called the mitochondrial degradosome, which localizes to distinct structures (D-foci). Global regulation of mitochondrially encoded genes can be achieved by changing mitochondrial DNA copy number. This way the proteins involved in its replication, like the Twinkle helicase (c10orf2), can indirectly regulate gene expression. Here, we describe yeast and human mitochondrial helicases that are directly involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism, and present other helicases that participate in mitochondrial DNA replication and maintenance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Biology of RNA helicases - Modulation for life. PMID:23454114

  3. The One Hour Yeast Proteome*

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Alexander S.; Richards, Alicia L.; Bailey, Derek J.; Ulbrich, Arne; Coughlin, Emma E.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the comprehensive analysis of the yeast proteome in just over one hour of optimized analysis. We achieve this expedited proteome characterization with improved sample preparation, chromatographic separations, and by using a new Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer equipped with a mass filter, a collision cell, a high-field Orbitrap analyzer, and, finally, a dual cell linear ion trap analyzer (Q-OT-qIT, Orbitrap Fusion). This system offers high MS2 acquisition speed of 20 Hz and detects up to 19 peptide sequences within a single second of operation. Over a 1.3 h chromatographic method, the Q-OT-qIT hybrid collected an average of 13,447 MS1 and 80,460 MS2 scans (per run) to produce 43,400 (x?) peptide spectral matches and 34,255 (x?) peptides with unique amino acid sequences (1% false discovery rate (FDR)). On average, each one hour analysis achieved detection of 3,977 proteins (1% FDR). We conclude that further improvements in mass spectrometer scan rate could render comprehensive analysis of the human proteome within a few hours. PMID:24143002

  4. The ecological role of killer yeasts in natural communities of yeasts.

    PubMed

    Starmer, W T; Ganter, P F; Aberdeen, V; Lachance, M A; Phaff, H J

    1987-09-01

    The killer phenomenon of yeasts was investigated in naturally occurring yeast communities. Yeast species from communities associated with the decaying stems and fruits of cactus and the slime fluxes of trees were studied for production of killer toxins and sensitivity to killer toxins produced by other yeasts. Yeasts found in decaying fruits showed the highest incidence of killing activity (30/112), while yeasts isolated from cactus necroses and tree fluxes showed lower activity (70/699 and 11/140, respectively). Cross-reaction studies indicated that few killer-sensitive interactions occur within the same habitat at a particular time and locality, but that killer-sensitive reactions occur more frequently among yeasts from different localities and habitats. The conditions that should be optimal for killer activity were found in fruits and young rots of Opuntia cladodes where the pH is low. The fruit habitat appears to favor the establishment of killer species. Killer toxin may affect the natural distribution of the killer yeast Pichia kluyveri and the sensitive yeast Cryptococcus cereanus. Their distributions indicate that the toxin produced by P. kluyveri limits the occurrence of Cr. cereanus in fruit and Opuntia pads. In general most communities have only one killer species. Sensitive strains are more widespread than killer strains and few species appear to be immune to all toxins. Genetic study of the killer yeast P. kluyveri indicates that the mode of inheritance of killer toxin production is nuclear and not cytoplasmic as is found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis. PMID:3690423

  5. Mitochondrial membrane lipidome defines yeast longevity

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Michelle T.; Bourque, Simon D.; Koupaki, Olivia; Juneau, Mylène; Feldman, Rachel; Iouk, Tatiana; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2013-01-01

    Our studies revealed that lithocholic acid (LCA), a bile acid, is a potent anti-aging natural compound that in yeast cultured under longevity-extending caloric restriction (CR) conditions acts in synergy with CR to enable a significant further increase in chronological lifespan. Here, we investigate a mechanism underlying this robust longevity-extending effect of LCA under CR. We found that exogenously added LCA enters yeast cells, is sorted to mitochondria, resides mainly in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and also associates with the outer mitochondrial membrane. LCA elicits an age-related remodeling of glycerophospholipid synthesis and movement within both mitochondrial membranes, thereby causing substantial changes in mitochondrial membrane lipidome and triggering major changes in mitochondrial size, number and morphology. In synergy, these changes in the membrane lipidome and morphology of mitochondria alter the age-related chronology of mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential, ATP synthesis and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. The LCA-driven alterations in the age-related dynamics of these vital mitochondrial processes extend yeast longevity. In sum, our findings suggest a mechanism underlying the ability of LCA to delay chronological aging in yeast by accumulating in both mitochondrial membranes and altering their glycerophospholipid compositions. We concluded that mitochondrial membrane lipidome plays an essential role in defining yeast longevity. PMID:23924582

  6. Yeasts associated with Sardinian ewe's dairy products.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, S; Fadda, M E; Deplano, M; Mulargia, A F; Palmas, F

    2001-09-19

    In the present work, the occurrence of yeasts in different types of typical Sardinian ewe's cheeses (32 samples of pecorino, 32 of caciotta, 40 of feta, 56 of ricotta) was determined. For the strains isolated the following properties were studied: proteolytic and lipolytic activities, the ability to grow at different temperatures, different concentrations of salt, and to assimilate and/or ferment compounds like lactate, citrate, lactose, glucose, galactose, lactic acid. Of 160 samples analysed, 76.2% yielded growth of yeasts. Yeast counts showed a certain variability among the samples. The highest levels were observed in caciotta and feta cheeses. A total of 281 strains belonging to 16 genera and 25 species were identified. In general, Debaryomyces hansenii was the dominant species, representing 28.8% of the total isolates. Other frequently appearing species were Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces lactis and K. marxianus. Other genera encountered were Pichia, Candida, Dekkera, Yarrowia and Rhodotorula. With regard to the biochemical and technological properties of the yeasts, only K. lactis, K. marxianus and Dek. anomala assimilated and fermented lactose, whereas the majority of the species assimilated lactic acid. The assimilation of citrate was a characteristic of D. hansenii, R. rubra and Y. lipolytica. On the whole, the yeasts were weakly proteolytic while lipolytic activity was present in several species. A high percentage of strains showed a certain tolerance to low temperatures while only some strains of D. hansenii and K. lactis were able to grow at a 10% NaCl concentration. PMID:11589560

  7. Sequencing and comparison of yeast species to identify genes

    E-print Network

    Batzoglou, Serafim

    of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on high-quality draft sequences of three related species (S. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for example, has enjoyed a complete genome sequence since 1996 (ref. 1

  8. Discriminative Clustering of Yeast Stress Samuel Kaski1,2

    E-print Network

    Kaski, Samuel

    received much at- tention. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae several hundred genes out of about stress response. 1 Introduction The ability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome to respond to en

  9. YEASTS FROM THE NORTH SEA AND AMOCO CADIZ OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The species and densities of yeasts isolated from North Sea waters before and after the production of oil were compared. Debaryomyces hansenii was the predominant species, but after oil production, Candida guillieromondii, a hydrocarbonoclastic yeast, was more commonly isolated a...

  10. `Injecting' yeast Daniel Riveline1,2 & Paul Nurse1

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we sheared local regions of individual cells with a piezoelectric. The fission yeast cell is a rod, 15 mm in length and 4 mm in diameter, with a rigid carbohydrate cell wall

  11. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Histone modification pattern evolution after yeast

    E-print Network

    Gu, Xun

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Histone modification pattern evolution after yeast gene duplication for evolutionary innovations. Many studies evidenced that genetic regulatory network evolved rapidly shortly after gene duplication. In this study, we conducted detailed analyses on yeast histone modification (HM

  12. Original article Chromium yeast affects growth performance but not

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Chromium yeast affects growth performance but not whole carcass composition the effects of supplemented trivalent chromium (Cr) from chromium yeast on growth performance, carcass vs. ad libitum in other reported experiments). (© Elsevier / Inra) chromium / pig / carcass

  13. Yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with fruits and blossoms of different fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Vránová, Dana; Sláviková, Elena

    2012-12-01

    Yeasts are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere, but our knowledge of their diversity in various plant organs is still limited. This study focused on the diversity of yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with matured fruits and fully open blossoms of apple, plum, and pear trees, during 2 consecutive years at 3 localities in southwest Slovakia. The occurrence of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in fruit samples was 2½ times higher and the yeast community more diverse than that in blossom samples. Only 2 species (Aureobasidium pullulans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) occurred regularly in the blossom samples, whereas Galactomyces candidus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, M. pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most frequently isolated species from the fruit samples. The ratio of the number of samples where only individual species were present to the number of samples where 2 or more species were found (consortium) was counted. The occurrence of individual species in comparison with consortia was much higher in blossom samples than in fruit samples. In the latter, consortia predominated. Aureobasidium pullulans, M. pulcherrima, and S. cerevisiae, isolated from both the fruits and blossoms, can be considered as resident yeast species of various fruit tree species cultivated in southwest Slovakia localities. PMID:23210991

  14. Cytotoxic Mechanism of Selenomethionine in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Toshihiko; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Chiba, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    Although selenium is an essential element, its excessive uptake is detrimental to living organisms. The significance of selenium for living organisms has been exploited for various purposes. However, the molecular basis of selenium toxicity is not completely understood. Here, we applied a capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach to analysis of yeast cells treated with selenomethionine. The data indicated that intracellular thiol compounds are significantly decreased, and diselenide and selenosulfide compounds are increased in selenomethionine-treated cells. The growth defect induced by selenomethionine was recovered by extracellular addition of cysteine and by genetic modification of yeast cells that have an additional de novo synthetic pathway for cysteine. Because cysteine is an intermediate of thiol compounds, these results suggested that the loss of a reduced form of thiol compounds due to selenomethionine causes a growth defect of yeast cells. PMID:22311978

  15. Yeast oligo-mediated genome engineering (YOGE).

    PubMed

    DiCarlo, James E; Conley, Andrew J; Penttilä, Merja; Jäntti, Jussi; Wang, Harris H; Church, George M

    2013-12-20

    High-frequency oligonucleotide-directed recombination engineering (recombineering) has enabled rapid modification of several prokaryotic genomes to date. Here, we present a method for oligonucleotide-mediated recombineering in the model eukaryote and industrial production host Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which we call yeast oligo-mediated genome engineering (YOGE). Through a combination of overexpression and knockouts of relevant genes and optimization of transformation and oligonucleotide designs, we achieve high gene-modification frequencies at levels that only require screening of dozens of cells. We demonstrate the robustness of our approach in three divergent yeast strains, including those involved in industrial production of biobased chemicals. Furthermore, YOGE can be iteratively executed via cycling to generate genomic libraries up to 10 (5) individuals at each round for diversity generation. YOGE cycling alone or in combination with phenotypic selections or endonuclease-based negative genotypic selections can be used to generate modified alleles easily in yeast populations with high frequencies. PMID:24160921

  16. Yeast Oligo-mediated Genome Engineering (YOGE)

    PubMed Central

    DiCarlo, JE; Conley, AJ; Penttilä, M; Jäntti, J; Wang, HH; Church, GM

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency oligonucleotide-directed recombination engineering (recombineering) has enabled rapid modification of several prokaryotic genomes to date. Here, we present a method for oligonucleotide-mediated recombineering in the model eukaryote and industrial production host S. cerevisiae, which we call Yeast Oligo-mediated Genome Engineering (YOGE). Through a combination of overexpression and knockouts of relevant genes and optimization of transformation and oligonucleotide designs, we achieve high gene modification frequencies at levels that only require screening of dozens of cells. We demonstrate the robustness of our approach in three divergent yeast strains, including those involved in industrial production of bio-based chemicals. Furthermore, YOGE can be iteratively executed via cycling to generate genomic libraries up to 105 individuals at each round for diversity generation. YOGE cycling alone, or in combination with phenotypic selections or endonuclease-based negative genotypic selections, can be used to easily generate modified alleles in yeast populations with high frequencies. PMID:24160921

  17. Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Rhind, Nicholas; Chen, Zehua; Yassour, Moran; Thompson, Dawn A; Haas, Brian J; Habib, Naomi; Wapinski, Ilan; Roy, Sushmita; Lin, Michael F.; Heiman, David I; Young, Sarah K; Furuya, Kanji; Guo, Yabin; Pidoux, Alison; Chen, Huei Mei; Robbertse, Barbara; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Aoki, Keita; Bayne, Elizabeth H.; Berlin, Aaron M; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Dobbs, Edward; Dukaj, Livio; Fan, Lin; FitzGerald, Michael G; French, Courtney; Gujja, Sharvari; Hansen, Klavs; Keifenheim, Dan; Levin, Joshua Z.; Mosher, Rebecca A.; Müller, Carolin A.; Pfiffner, Jenna; Priest, Margaret; Russ, Carsten; Smialowska, Agata; Swoboda, Peter; Sykes, Sean M; Vaughn, Matthew; Vengrova, Sonya; Yoder, Ryan; Zeng, Qiandong; Allshire, Robin; Baulcombe, David; Birren, Bruce W.; Brown, William; Ekwall, Karl; Kellis, Manolis; Leatherwood, Janet; Levin, Henry; Margalit, Hanah; Martienssen, Rob; Nieduszynski, Conrad A.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Friedman, Nir; Dalgaard, Jacob Z.; Baumann, Peter; Niki, Hironori; Regev, Aviv; Nusbaum, Chad

    2011-01-01

    The fission yeast clade, comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus and S. japonicus, occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative annotation of these genomes identified a near extinction of transposons and the associated innovation of transposon-free centromeres. Expression analysis established that meiotic genes are subject to antisense transcription during vegetative growth, suggesting a mechanism for their tight regulation. In addition, trans-acting regulators control new genes within the context of expanded functional modules for meiosis and stress response. Differences in gene content and regulation also explain why, unlike the Saccharomycotina, fission yeasts cannot use ethanol as a primary carbon source. These analyses elucidate the genome structure and gene regulation of fission yeast and provide tools for investigation across the Schizosaccharomyces clade. PMID:21511999

  18. Production of ethanol by immobilized yeast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.; Munnecke, D.M.

    1981-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in calcium alginate beads for use in the continuous production of ethanol. Yeasts were grown in medium supplemented with ethanol to selectively screen for a culture which showed the greatest tolerance to ethanol inhibition. The immobilized yeast cells were examined in a packed-bed reactor system operated under optimized parameters. Ethanol production rates, as well as residual sugar concentrations were monitored at different feedstock flow rates. The results show that the higher cell densities obtained with the immobilized system assured higher rates of ethanol production than the nonimmobilized system. 13 refs.

  19. Production of lipid compounds in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Veen; C. Lang

    2004-01-01

    This review describes progress using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism for the fast and efficient analysis of genes and enzyme activities involved in the lipid biosynthetic pathways of several donor organisms. Furthermore, we assess the impact of baker's yeast on the production of novel, high-value lipid compounds. Yeast can be genetically modified to produce selected substances in

  20. Glucose and sucrose: hazardous fast-food for industrial yeast?

    E-print Network

    , such as slow or incom- plete fermentation, `off flavors' and poor maintenance of yeast vitality. Recent studies applications of yeast biotechnology, including alcoholic fermentation, bread pro- duction and the fabricationGlucose and sucrose: hazardous fast-food for industrial yeast? Kevin J. Verstrepen1,2 , Dirk

  1. Gene Expression in Yeast. Helsinki 1983, ed. by M.

    E-print Network

    of the Alko Yeast Symposium Korhola & E. Viiisiinen, Foundation for Fermentation Research I (1983): 19Gene Expression in Yeast. Helsinki 1983, ed. by M. Biotechnical and Industrial Proceedings-29. A RELATIONSHIP BETI^IEENCHROMATIN STRUCTUREAND GENETIC ELEMENTS AT THE YEAST HIS3 LOCUS Department of Biological

  2. 21 CFR 172.381 - Vitamin D2 bakers yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...bakers yeast. (c) The additive may be used in yeast-leavened baked goods and baking mixes and yeast-leavened baked snack foods at levels not to exceed 400 International Units of vitamin D2 per 100 grams in the finished food. (d) To...

  3. 21 CFR 172.381 - Vitamin D2 bakers yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...bakers yeast. (c) The additive may be used in yeast-leavened baked goods and baking mixes and yeast-leavened baked snack foods at levels not to exceed 400 International Units of vitamin D2 per 100 grams in the finished food. (d) To...

  4. GENE ENGINEERING OF YEASTS FOR THE DEGRADATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research examined the structure and function of cytochrome P-450 genes in yeast as a model for gene engineering such as eukaryotic P-450 enzymes for biodegradation of hazardous waste by yeasts. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis are two yeasts known to produce ma...

  5. Fission Yeast Tel1ATM and Rad3ATR

    E-print Network

    Nakamura, Toru M.

    Fission Yeast Tel1ATM and Rad3ATR Promote Telomere Protection and Telomerase Recruitment Bettina A organisms, including budding and fission yeasts, Arabidopsis, Drosophila, and mammals. However, such as fission yeast and humans. Here, we demonstrate by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays

  6. Fermenting debate: do yeast undergo apoptosis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Fraser; Claerwen James

    1998-01-01

    Apoptosis is a common feature of multicellular organisms. However, the recent observations of non-metazoan cell deaths displaying morphology reminiscent of apoptosis has suggested the existence of an ancestral cell death machinery. We discuss this possibility and its implications for the use of yeast in the dissection of the metazoan apoptotic process.

  7. D-xylulose fermentation in yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pear P. Ueng; Cecilie A. Hunter; Cheng-shung Gong; George T. Tsao

    1981-01-01

    With pure D-xylulose as substrate, Schizosaccharomyces pombe produced ethanol in good yield with low quantities of polyols as by-products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be a good alcohol producer in glucose but not as good in D-xylulose. Other yeast cultures converted D-xylulose to xylitol, or D-arabitol or both, with lower ethanol yield.

  8. An Engineered Yeast Efficiently Secreting Penicillin

    PubMed Central

    Gidijala, Loknath; Kiel, Jan A. K. W.; Douma, Rutger D.; Seifar, Reza M.; van Gulik, Walter M.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at developing an alternative host for the production of penicillin (PEN). As yet, the industrial production of this ?-lactam antibiotic is confined to the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. As such, the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, a recognized producer of pharmaceuticals, represents an attractive alternative. Introduction of the P. chrysogenum gene encoding the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) ?-(L-?-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) in H. polymorpha, resulted in the production of active ACVS enzyme, when co-expressed with the Bacillus subtilis sfp gene encoding a phosphopantetheinyl transferase that activated ACVS. This represents the first example of the functional expression of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase in yeast. Co-expression with the P. chrysogenum genes encoding the cytosolic enzyme isopenicillin N synthase as well as the two peroxisomal enzymes isopenicillin N acyl transferase (IAT) and phenylacetyl CoA ligase (PCL) resulted in production of biologically active PEN, which was efficiently secreted. The amount of secreted PEN was similar to that produced by the original P. chrysogenum NRRL1951 strain (approx. 1 mg/L). PEN production was decreased over two-fold in a yeast strain lacking peroxisomes, indicating that the peroxisomal localization of IAT and PCL is important for efficient PEN production. The breakthroughs of this work enable exploration of new yeast-based cell factories for the production of (novel) ?-lactam antibiotics as well as other natural and semi-synthetic peptides (e.g. immunosuppressive and cytostatic agents), whose production involves NRPS's. PMID:20016817

  9. Carbon source dependent promoters in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Budding yeasts are important expression hosts for the production of recombinant proteins. The choice of the right promoter is a crucial point for efficient gene expression, as most regulations take place at the transcriptional level. A wide and constantly increasing range of inducible, derepressed and constitutive promoters have been applied for gene expression in yeasts in the past; their different behaviours were a reflection of the different needs of individual processes. Within this review we summarize the majority of the large available set of carbon source dependent promoters for protein expression in yeasts, either induced or derepressed by the particular carbon source provided. We examined the most common derepressed promoters for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts, and described carbon source inducible promoters and promoters induced by non-sugar carbon sources. A special focus is given to promoters that are activated as soon as glucose is depleted, since such promoters can be very effective and offer an uncomplicated and scalable cultivation procedure. PMID:24401081

  10. Heavy metal transporters in Hemiascomycete yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Diffels; M.-L. Seret; A. Goffeau; P. V. Baret

    2006-01-01

    We have compiled all known heavy metal transporters of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified their orthologs in four other species spanning the entire Hemiascomycete phylum. The 213 transporters belong to 27 distinct phylogenetic families distributed within the three classes: channels, secondary porters (permeases) and transport ATPases. They are present in all cellular membranes: plasma membranes, vacuoles, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum,

  11. Population genomics of domestic and wild yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianni Liti; David M. Carter; Alan M. Moses; Jonas Warringer; Leopold Parts; Stephen A. James; Robert P. Davey; Ian N. Roberts; Austin Burt; Vassiliki Koufopanou; Isheng J. Tsai; Douda Bensasson; Michael J. T. O'Kelly; Alexander van Oudenaarden; David B. H. Barton; Elizabeth Bailes; Alex N. Nguyen; Matthew Jones; Michael A. Quail; Ian Goodhead; Sarah Sims; Frances Smith; Anders Blomberg; Richard Durbin; Edward J. Louis

    2009-01-01

    Since the completion of the genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in 1996 (refs 1, 2), there has been a large increase in complete genome sequences, accompanied by great advances in our understanding of genome evolution. Although little is known about the natural and life histories of yeasts in the wild, there are an increasing number of studies looking at ecological

  12. Movement of cortical actin patches in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Waddle; Tatiana S. Karpova; Robert H. Waterston; John A. Cooper

    1996-01-01

    In yeast, actin forms patches associated with the plasma membrane. Patch distribution correlates with polarized growth during the cell cycle and in re- sponse to external stimuli. Using green fluorescent pro- tein fused to capping protein to image actin patches in living cells, we find that patches move rapidly and over long distances. Even patches in clusters, such as at

  13. YEASTBOOK PERSPECTIVES Yeast: An Experimental Organism

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    for biology. We first summarize important contributions of yeast to eukaryotic biology that we anticipated in 1988 in our first article on the subject. We then describe transformative developments that we did Remains To Be Learned 701 Conclusion 702 Copyright © 2011 by the Genetics Society of America doi: 10

  14. Microfermentation Test For Identification Of Yeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Molina, Thomas C.

    1995-01-01

    Microfermentation test developed as supplementary method for use in identifying yeasts, especially in clinical and environmental studies. In comparison with traditional fermentation tests, simpler and easier, and requiries less equipment, material, and laboratory space. Results obtained in days instead of weeks.

  15. Mechanism of Diacetyl Formation in Yeast Fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heikki Suomalainen; Pentti Ronkainen

    1968-01-01

    DIACETYL is an important component in the flavour of food and it is known to be the chief component of the aroma of butter. We have shown that it is also found in distilled alcoholic beverages, such as whisky and cognac. The formation of diacetyl in yeast fermentation has long been known1 and extensive studies have been made of its

  16. Actin and Endocytosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Bruce L.; Eskin, Julian A.; Wendland, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis, the process whereby the plasma membrane invaginates to form vesicles, is essential for bringing many substances into the cell and for membrane turnover. The mechanism driving clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves > 50 different protein components assembling at a single location on the plasma membrane in a temporally ordered and hierarchal pathway. These proteins perform precisely choreographed steps that promote receptor recognition and clustering, membrane remodeling, and force-generating actin-filament assembly and turnover to drive membrane invagination and vesicle scission. Many critical aspects of the CME mechanism are conserved from yeast to mammals and were first elucidated in yeast, demonstrating that it is a powerful system for studying endocytosis. In this review, we describe our current mechanistic understanding of each step in the process of yeast CME, and the essential roles played by actin polymerization at these sites, while providing a historical perspective of how the landscape has changed since the preceding version of the YeastBook was published 17 years ago (1997). Finally, we discuss the key unresolved issues and where future studies might be headed. PMID:25657349

  17. Microbodies in methanol-assimilating yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. van Dijken; M. Veenhuis; N. J. W. Kreger-Van Rij; W. Harder

    1975-01-01

    Cells of 3 yeast species capable of assimilating methanol have been examined by electron microscopy. When grown on methanol as the sole source of carbon and energy they contained many microbodies. Cells grown on glucose or ethanol either did not contain such bodies at all, or only to a limited extent.

  18. Genetics of a primaquin-resistant yeast.

    PubMed

    Rotman, A

    1975-07-01

    Primaquin specifically inhibits mitochondrial function in yeast. Mutants resistant to primaquin have been isolated. Genetic analysis revealed that the expression of resistance in one of them was under the control of both a nuclear gene and a cytoplasmic factor (possibly a mitochondrial gene). PMID:1097590

  19. Molecular Complementarity of Yeast Glycoprotein Mating Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjorie Crandall; Lawrence M. Lawrence; Robert M. Saunders

    1974-01-01

    Cell fusion between opposite mating types 5 and 21 of the yeast Hansenula wingei is initiated by a strong sexual agglutination reaction. The mating factors responsible for the specificity of cellular recognition are complementary glycoproteins which form a physical complex in vitro. The complex is assayed by recovery of agglutination activity of the multivalent 5-factor after the univalent 21-factor has

  20. Antarctic Yeasts: Biodiversity and Potential Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaji, S.; Prasad, G. S.

    This review is an attempt in cataloguing the diversity of yeasts in Antarctica, highlight their biotechnological potential and understand the basis of adaptation to low temperature. As of now several psychrophilic and psychrotolerant yeasts from Antarctic soils and marine waters have been characterized with respect to their growth characteristics, ecological distribution and taxonomic significance. Interestingly most of these species belonged to basidiomycetous yeasts which as a group are known for their ability to circumvent and survive under stress conditions. Simultaneously their possible role as work horses in the biotechnological industry was recognized due to their ability to produce novel enzymes and biomolecules such as agents for the breakdown of xenobiotics, and novel pharmaceutical chemi cals. The high activity of psychrophilic enzymes at low and moderate temperatures offers potential economic benefits. As of now lipases from Pseudozyma antarctica have been extensively studied to understand their unique thermal stability at 90°C and also because of its use in the pharmaceutical, agriculture, food, cosmetics and chemical industry. A few of the other enzymes which have been studied include extracellular alpha-amylase and glucoamylase from the yeast Pseudozyma antarctica (Candida antarctica), an extra-cellular protease from Cryptococcus humicola, an aspartyl proteinase from Cryptococcus humicola, a novel extracellular subtilase from Leucosporidium antarcticum, and a xylanase from Cryptococcus adeliensis

  1. Copper transport in non-growing yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Turos, S.; Donahue, T.; Trent, C.; Connelly, J.L.

    1986-05-01

    The mandatory role of copper (Cu) proteins in cell metabolism and the speculation that Cu influences the production of porphyrins and hemoproteins prompted an examination of the regulatory features of, and the process by which Cu is taken up by yeast. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae was grown on glucose minimal media in the absence of added Cu at 29/sup 0/C, 200 rpm for 48-72 hrs. Cells were harvested and washed by centrifugation and resuspended at standardized mg dry weight/ml. The yeast was exposed to Cu under a variety of experimental conditions in 10 ml volume containing approximately 5 mg (dry wt.) yeast and Cu (0-10/sup -4/M). Reactions were stopped by microcentrifugation and Cu was determined, by difference, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The time course of Cu uptake reflected two phases; a rapid rate followed by a slow rate which varied according to conditions. Direct determination of Cu using washing (chelators) and ashing of washed yeast showed that the initial phase was indeed adsorption of Cu to cell exterior. While the relationship of adsorbed Cu to Cu uptake has not been evaluated the system nevertheless is being used for the determination of the effects of environmental factors (pH, (Cu), temperature, etc.) on the uptake process. Furthermore, this system provides a convenient method for characterizing the Cu-transport machinery in a static (non-growth) mode.

  2. Phosphorylation site on yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlinger, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified to homogeneity from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Yeast cells were disrupted in a Manton-Gaulin laboratory homogenizer. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified by fractionation with polyethylene glycol, isoelectric precipitation, ultracentrifugation and chromatography on hydroxylapatite. Final purification of the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was achieved by cation-exchange high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). No endogenous pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity was detected during the purification. However, the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was phosphorylated and inactivated with purified pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase from bovine kidney. Tryptic digestion of the /sup 32/P-labeled complex yielded a single phosphopeptide which was purified to homogeniety. The tryptic digest was subjected to chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. Radioactive fractions were pooled, concentrated, and subjected to anion-exchange HPLC. The column was developed with a linear gradient of ammonium acetate. Final purification of the phosphopeptide was achieved by chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column developed with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. The amino acid sequence of the homogeneous peptide was determined by manual modified Edman degradation.

  3. Evolution of moonlighting proteins: insight from yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gancedo, Carlos; Flores, Carmen-Lisset; Gancedo, Juana M

    2014-12-01

    The present article addresses the possibilities offered by yeasts to study the problem of the evolution of moonlighting proteins. It focuses on data available on hexokinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that moonlights in catabolite repression and on galactokinase from Kluyveromyces lactis that moonlights controlling the induction of the GAL genes. Possible experimental approaches to studying the evolution of moonlighting hexose kinases are suggested. PMID:25399595

  4. Molecular Evolution of Minisatellites in Hemiascomycetous Yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy-Franck Richard; Bernard Dujon

    2005-01-01

    Minisatellites are DNA tandem repeats exhibiting size polymorphism among individuals of a population. This polymor- phism is generated by two different mechanisms, both in human and yeast cells, ''replication slippage'' during S-phase DNA synthesis and ''repair slippage'' associated to meiotic gene conversion. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome con- tains numerous natural minisatellites. They are located on all chromosomes without any obvious

  5. Commitment to meiosis in fission yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Egel

    1973-01-01

    Mutants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe blocked during meiosis were analysed with respect to the induction of diploid mitotic division. Wild type zygotes of this yeast can form diploid colonies with a low probability (ca. 1%) when they are transferred to fresh growth medium. Mutants of three genes affecting meiosis responded to the shift by forming diploid colonies with high yield (ca.

  6. Replicon size of yeast ribosomal DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Walmsley; Leland H. Johnston; Donald H. Williamson; Stephen G. Oliver

    1984-01-01

    The ribosomal RNAs of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are transcribed from a 9Kbp stretch of DNA which is reiterated about 120-fold in a continuous array, about 360 µm long, on chromosome XII. Although ARS activity has been detected in the repeat unit, the size and disposition of replicons along this array of identical genes has not hitherto been determined. We

  7. Glucose-Induced Acidification in Yeast Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Alan; Bourn, Julia; Pool, Brynne

    2005-01-01

    We present an investigation (for A-level biology students and equivalent) into the mechanism of glucose-induced extracellular acidification in unbuffered yeast suspensions. The investigation is designed to enhance understanding of aspects of the A-level curriculum that relate to the phenomenon (notably glucose catabolism) and to develop key skills…

  8. Yeast and Egg Contamination of Shell Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry and eggs are often contaminated with microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds. Bacteria such as Salmonella cause illness in human who eat eggs contaminated with them, particularly if the eggs are pooled, improperly refrigerated, and eaten raw or undercooked. Other bacteria such a...

  9. Global analysis of protein phosphorylation in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Ptacek; Geeta Devgan; Gregory Michaud; Heng Zhu; Xiaowei Zhu; Joseph Fasolo; Hong Guo; Ghil Jona; Ashton Breitkreutz; Richelle Sopko; Rhonda R. McCartney; Martin C. Schmidt; Najma Rachidi; Soo-Jung Lee; Angie S. Mah; Lihao Meng; Michael J. R. Stark; David F. Stern; Claudio de Virgilio; Mike Tyers; Brenda Andrews; Mark Gerstein; Barry Schweitzer; Paul F. Predki; Michael Snyder

    2005-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is estimated to affect 30% of the proteome and is a major regulatory mechanism that controls many basic cellular processes. Until recently, our biochemical understanding of protein phosphorylation on a global scale has been extremely limited; only one half of the yeast kinases have known in vivo substrates and the phosphorylating kinase is known for less than 160

  10. Cloning whole bacterial genomes in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Benders, Gwynedd A.; Noskov, Vladimir N.; Denisova, Evgeniya A.; Lartigue, Carole; Gibson, Daniel G.; Assad-Garcia, Nacyra; Chuang, Ray-Yuan; Carrera, William; Moodie, Monzia; Algire, Mikkel A.; Phan, Quang; Alperovich, Nina; Vashee, Sanjay; Merryman, Chuck; Venter, J. Craig; Smith, Hamilton O.; Glass, John I.; Hutchison, Clyde A.

    2010-01-01

    Most microbes have not been cultured, and many of those that are cultivatable are difficult, dangerous or expensive to propagate or are genetically intractable. Routine cloning of large genome fractions or whole genomes from these organisms would significantly enhance their discovery and genetic and functional characterization. Here we report the cloning of whole bacterial genomes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as single-DNA molecules. We cloned the genomes of Mycoplasma genitalium (0.6 Mb), M. pneumoniae (0.8 Mb) and M. mycoides subspecies capri (1.1 Mb) as yeast circular centromeric plasmids. These genomes appear to be stably maintained in a host that has efficient, well-established methods for DNA manipulation. PMID:20211840

  11. Aneuploidy causes proteotoxic stress in yeast.

    PubMed

    Oromendia, Ana B; Dodgson, Stacie E; Amon, Angelika

    2012-12-15

    Gains or losses of entire chromosomes lead to aneuploidy, a condition tolerated poorly in all eukaryotes analyzed to date. How aneuploidy affects organismal and cellular physiology is poorly understood. We found that aneuploid budding yeast cells are under proteotoxic stress. Aneuploid strains are prone to aggregation of endogenous proteins as well as of ectopically expressed hard-to-fold proteins such as those containing polyglutamine (polyQ) stretches. Protein aggregate formation in aneuploid yeast strains is likely due to limiting protein quality-control systems, since the proteasome and at least one chaperone family, Hsp90, are compromised in many aneuploid strains. The link between aneuploidy and the formation and persistence of protein aggregates could have important implications for diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration. PMID:23222101

  12. Mapping the functional yeast ABC transporter interactome

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jamie; Hanif, Asad; Lee, Mid Eum; Jin, Ke; Yu, Analyn R.; Graham, Chris; Chuk, Matthew; Damjanovic, Dunja; Wierzbicka, Marta; Tang, Priscilla; Balderes, Dina; Wong, Victoria; Jessulat, Matthew; Darowski, Katelyn D.; Luis, Bryan-Joseph San; Shevelev, Igor; Sturley, Stephen L; Boone, Charles; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Zhang, Zhaolei; Paumi, Christian M.; Babu, Mohan; Park, Hay-Oak; Michaelis, Susan; Stagljar, Igor

    2013-01-01

    ABC transporters are a ubiquitous class of integral membrane proteins of immense clinical interest because of their strong association with human disease and pharmacology. To improve our understanding of these proteins, we used Membrane Yeast Two-Hybrid (MYTH) technology to map the protein interactome of all non-mitochondrial ABC transporters in the model organism Saccharomy cescerevisiae, and combined this data with previously reported yeast ABC transporter interactions in the BioGRID database to generate a comprehensive, integrated interactome. We show that ABC transporters physically associate with proteins involved in a surprisingly diverse range of functions. We specifically examine the importance of the physical interactions of ABC transporters in both the regulation of one another and in the modulation of proteins involved in zinc homeostasis. The interaction network presented here will be a powerful resource for increasing our fundamental understanding of the cellular role and regulation of ABC transporters. PMID:23831759

  13. Uncommon opportunistic yeast bloodstream infections from Qatar.

    PubMed

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; AbdulWahab, Atqah; Kolecka, Anna; Deshmukh, Anand; Meis, Jacques F; Boekhout, Teun

    2014-07-01

    Eleven uncommon yeast species that are associated with high mortality rates irrespective of antifungal therapy were isolated from 17/187 (201 episodes) pediatric and elderly patients with fungemia from Qatar. The samples were taken over a 6-year period (January 2004-December 2010). Isolated species included Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Lindnera fabianii, Candida dubliniensis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Candida intermedia, Pichia kudriavzevii, Yarrowia lipolytica, Clavispora lusitaniae, Candida pararugosa, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry provided correct identifications compared with molecular analysis testing of the same isolates. Low minimal inhibitory concentrations were found when isavuconazole and voriconazole were used for all uncommon yeast species evaluated in this study. Resistance to antifungal drugs was low and remained restricted to a few species. PMID:24934803

  14. Aneuploidy causes proteotoxic stress in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Oromendia, Ana B.; Dodgson, Stacie E.; Amon, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    Gains or losses of entire chromosomes lead to aneuploidy, a condition tolerated poorly in all eukaryotes analyzed to date. How aneuploidy affects organismal and cellular physiology is poorly understood. We found that aneuploid budding yeast cells are under proteotoxic stress. Aneuploid strains are prone to aggregation of endogenous proteins as well as of ectopically expressed hard-to-fold proteins such as those containing polyglutamine (polyQ) stretches. Protein aggregate formation in aneuploid yeast strains is likely due to limiting protein quality-control systems, since the proteasome and at least one chaperone family, Hsp90, are compromised in many aneuploid strains. The link between aneuploidy and the formation and persistence of protein aggregates could have important implications for diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration. PMID:23222101

  15. Stochasticity in the yeast mating pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Li; Fu, Zheng-Ping; Xu, Xin-Hang; Ouyang, Qi

    2009-05-01

    We report stochastic simulations of the yeast mating signal transduction pathway. The effects of intrinsic and external noise, the influence of cell-to-cell difference in the pathway capacity, and noise propagation in the pathway have been examined. The stochastic temporal behaviour of the pathway is found to be robust to the influence of inherent fluctuations, and intrinsic noise propagates in the pathway in a uniform pattern when the yeasts are treated with pheromones of different stimulus strengths and of varied fluctuations. In agreement with recent experimental findings, extrinsic noise is found to play a more prominent role than intrinsic noise in the variability of proteins. The occurrence frequency for the reactions in the pathway are also examined and a more compact network is obtained by dropping most of the reactions of least occurrence.

  16. Towards industrial pentose-fermenting yeast strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal; Kaisa Karhumaa; César Fonseca; Isabel Spencer-Martins; Marie F. Gorwa-Grauslund

    2007-01-01

    Production of bioethanol from forest and agricultural products requires a fermenting organism that converts all types of sugars\\u000a in the raw material to ethanol in high yield and with a high rate. This review summarizes recent research aiming at developing\\u000a industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the ability to ferment all lignocellulose-derived sugars. The properties required from the industrial yeast

  17. Phytase of the yeast Arxula adeninivorans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konosuke Sano; Hiroshi Fukuhara; Yoshihiro Nakamura

    1999-01-01

    Of a number of yeasts screened for growth on phytic acid (inositol phosphates) as a sole source of carbon and phosphate, Arxula adeninivorans showed a particularly vigorous growth. This capacity was correlated with the presence of a high activity of secreted phytase. The crude enzyme showed an optimal temperature of at least 75?°C and an optimal pH of 4.5. The

  18. Dehydrogenase activity measurement in yeast fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Ghaly; R. M. Ben-Hassan

    1993-01-01

    The dehydrogenase activity was used as a measure of active biomass in preference to other biochemical parameters because of\\u000a the simple, but accurate nature of the dehydrogenase test. After a consierable amount of experimental work on the dehydrogenase\\u000a activity measurement technique and the consideration of utilization of the technique as a measure of the active biomass in\\u000a yeast fermentation systems,

  19. Diversity of salt response among yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Corte; Paolo Rellini; Monia Lattanzi; Cristina Picchetta; Fabrizio Fatichenti; Gianluigi Cardinali

    2006-01-01

    Forty-two yeast strains from 27 species belonging to seven genera, selected for their ability to grow in 10% NaCl, have been\\u000a analysed for their resistance to salt concentrations up to 5 M, by calculating the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC).\\u000a Using eight different NaCl concentrations from 0 to 5M, results show that halotolerance (MIC) ranges from 1.7 to 3.8 M NaCl,

  20. An Engineered Yeast Efficiently Secreting Penicillin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loknath Gidijala; Jan A. K. W. Kiel; Rutger D. Douma; Reza M. Seifar; Walter M. van Gulik; Roel A. L. Bovenberg; Marten Veenhuis; Ida J. van der Klei; Paulo Lee Ho

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at developing an alternative host for the production of penicillin (PEN). As yet, the industrial production of this ?-lactam antibiotic is confined to the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. As such, the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, a recognized producer of pharmaceuticals, represents an attractive alternative. Introduction of the P. chrysogenum gene encoding the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) ?-(L-?-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase

  1. Complete DNA sequence of yeast chromosome XI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Dujon; D. Alexandraki; B. André; W. Ansorge; V. Baladron; J. P. G. Ballesta; A. Banrevi; P. A. Bolle; M. Bolotin-Fukuhara; P. Bossier; G. Bou; J. Boyer; M. J. Buitrago; G. Cherét; L. Colleaux; B. Dalgnan-Fornier; F. Del Rey; C. Dion; H. Domdey; A. Düsterhöft; S. Düsterhus; K.-D. Entian; H. Erfle; P. F. Esteban; H. Feldmann; L. Fernandes; G. M. Fobo; C. Fritz; H. Fukuhara; C. Gabel; L. Gaillon; J. M. Carcia-Cantalejo; J. J. Garcia-Ramirez; M. E. Gent; M. Ghazvini; A. Goffeau; A. Gonzaléz; D. Grothues; P. Guerreiro; J. Hegemann; N. Hewitt; F. Hilger; C. P. Hollenberg; O. Horaitis; K. J. Indge; A. Jacquier; C. M. James; J. C. Jauniaux; A. Jimenez; H. Keuchel; L. Kirchrath; K. Kleine; P. Kötter; P. Legrain; S. Liebl; E. J. Louis; A. Maia E Silva; C. Marck; A.-L. Monnier; D. Möstl; S. Müller; B. Obermaier; S. G. Oliver; C. Pallier; S. Pascolo; F. Pfeiffer; P. Philippsen; R. J. Planta; F. M. Pohl; T. M. Pohl; R. Pöhlmann; D. Portetelle; B. Purnelle; V. Puzos; M. Ramezani Rad; S. W. Rasmussen; M. Remacha; J. L. Revuelta; G.-F. Richard; M. Rieger; C. Rodrigues-Pousada; M. Rose; T. Rupp; M. A. Santos; C. Schwager; C. Sensen; J. Skala; H. Soares; F. Sor; J. Stegemann; H. Tettelin; A. Thierry; M. Tzermia; L. A. Urrestarazu; L. van Dyck; J. C. van Vliet-Reedijk; M. Valens; M. Vandenbo; C. Vilela; S. Vissers; D. von Wettstein; H. Voss; S. Wiemann; G. Xu; J. Zimmermann; M. Haasemann; I. Becker; H. W. Mewes

    1994-01-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XI has been determined. In addition to a compact arrangement of potential protein coding sequences, the 666,448-base-pair sequence has revealed general chromosome patterns; in particular, alternating regional variations in average base composition correlate with variations in local gene density along the chromosome. Significant discrepancies with the previously published genetic map

  2. A Sampling of the Yeast Proteome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. FUTCHER; G. I. LATTER; P. MONARDO; C. S. MCLAUGHLIN; J. I. GARRELS

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we examined yeast proteins by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and gathered quan- titative information from about 1,400 spots. We found that there is an enormous range of protein abundance and, for identified spots, a good correlation between protein abundance, mRNA abundance, and codon bias. For each molecule of well-translated mRNA, there were about 4,000 molecules of protein.

  3. Production of recombinant proteins by yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Celik, Eda; Cal?k, P?nar

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts are widely used in production of recombinant proteins of medical or industrial interest. For each individual product, the most suitable expression system has to be identified and optimized, both on the genetic and fermentative level, by taking into account the properties of the product, the organism and the expression cassette. There is a wide range of important yeast expression hosts including the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Yarrowia lipolytica and Arxula adeninivorans, with various characteristics such as being thermo-tolerant or halo-tolerant, rapidly reaching high cell densities or utilizing unusual carbon sources. Several strains were also engineered to have further advantages, such as humanized glycosylation pathways or lack of proteases. Additionally, with a large variety of vectors, promoters and selection markers to choose from, combined with the accumulated knowledge on industrial-scale fermentation techniques and the current advances in the post-genomic technology, it is possible to design more cost-effective expression systems in order to meet the increasing demand for recombinant proteins and glycoproteins. In this review, the present status of the main and most promising yeast expression systems is discussed. PMID:21964262

  4. Screening of yeast strains for phytase activity.

    PubMed

    Olstorpe, Matilda; Schnürer, Johan; Passoth, Volkmar

    2009-05-01

    A screening method was developed to elucidate the ability of different yeast strains to utilize phytic acid as sole phosphorus source. The growth test in liquid culture in a microtiter plate with phytic acid as sole phosphorus source was shown to be a reliable, fast and easy-to-use screening method. We tested 122 strains from 61 species with our method and observed growth differences among species and strains that were not detectable on solid medium. Specific phytase activities were measured for 10 yeasts strains, selected due to their strong growth in the liquid medium. Strains of Arxula adeninivorans and Pichia anomala reached the highest volumetric phytase activities. Arxula adeninivorans also displayed the highest intra- and extracellular specific activities. There were large differences in both extra- and intracellular phytase activities among species. Strain-specific extracellular phytase activities were detected in P. anomala. The presence of free phosphate in the media completely suppressed the extracellular phytase activity and also reduced intracellular phytase activity for all tested yeast strains. PMID:19416106

  5. Wood impregnation of yeast lees for winemaking.

    PubMed

    Palomero, Felipe; Bertani, Paolo; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Benito, Santiago; Morata, Antonio; Suárez-Lepe, José A

    2015-03-15

    This study develops a new method to produce more complex wines by means of an indirect diffusion of wood aromas from yeast cell-walls. An exogenous lyophilized biomass was macerated with an ethanol wood extract solution and subsequently dried. Different times were used for the adsorption of polyphenols and volatile compounds to the yeast cell-walls. The analysis of polyphenols and volatile compounds (by HPLC/DAD and GC-MS, respectively) demonstrate that the adsorption/diffusion of these compounds from the wood to the yeast takes place. Red wines were also aged with Saccharomyces cerevisiae lees that had been impregnated with wood aromas and subsequently dried. Four different types of wood were used: chestnut, cherry, acacia and oak. Large differences were observed between the woods studied with regards to their volatile and polyphenolic profiles. Sensory evaluations confirmed large differences even with short-term contact between the wines and the lees, showing that the method could be of interest for red wine making. In addition, the results demonstrate the potential of using woods other than oak in cooperage. PMID:25308662

  6. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

  7. Dicarbanonaborates in yeast respiration and membrane transport.

    PubMed

    Kotyk, A; Lapathitis, G

    1997-04-01

    Two derivatives of carborates, sodium 5,6-dichloro-7,8-dicarbanonaborate (CB-Cl) and sodium 5-mercapto-7,8-dicarbanonaborate (CB-SH) were found to inhibit endogenous as well as glucose-induced respiration of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both substances slightly increased endogenous acid production, were neutral toward H(+)-ATPase-associated acidification but pronouncedly inhibited the K(+)-stimulated acidification. The same effects were observed also with an ATPase-deficient mutant of the yeast. The ATP-hydrolyzing activity of yeast plasma membranes in vitro was severely reduced. The membrane potential was substantially increased toward more negative values. The H(+)-symporting uptake of glutamic acid was considerably decreased, that of adenine was diminished much less. The effects of the dicarbanonaborates are obviously pleiotropic but their inhibition of ATP hydrolysis and of uptake of H(+)-symported substances, on the one hand, and absolute lack of effect on ATPase-catalyzed acidification, on the other, pose an unresolved problem. PMID:9137824

  8. How to build a yeast nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hua; Arbona, Jean-Michel; Zimmer, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Biological functions including gene expression and DNA repair are affected by the 3D architecture of the genome, but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Notably, it remains unclear to what extent nuclear architecture is driven by generic physical properties of polymers or by specific factors such as proteins binding particular DNA sequences. The budding yeast nucleus has been intensely studied by imaging and biochemical techniques, resulting in a large quantitative data set on locus positions and DNA contact frequencies. We recently described a quantitative model of the interphase yeast nucleus in which chromosomes are represented as passively moving polymer chains. This model ignores the DNA sequence information except for specific constraints at the centromeres, telomeres, and the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Despite its simplicity, the model accounts for a large majority of experimental data, including absolute and relative locus positions and contact frequency patterns at chromosomal and subchromosomal scales. Here, we also illustrate the model's ability to reproduce observed features of chromatin movements. Our results strongly suggest that the dynamic large-scale architecture of the yeast nucleus is dominated by statistical properties of randomly moving polymers with a few sequence-specific constraints, rather than by a large number of DNA-specific factors or epigenetic modifications. In addition, we show that our model accounts for recently measured variations in homologous recombination efficiency, illustrating its potential for quantitatively understanding functional consequences of nuclear architecture. PMID:23974728

  9. Induction and construct UV protective yeast plasmid.

    PubMed

    Cuero, Raul; McKay, David S

    2013-07-10

    In this study, we apply concepts of synthetic biology in combination with conventional methods to assemble different genetic components to construct yeast resistant to UV radiation, and to induce production of anti-UV proteins. This work combines sequences of different promoters, STRESS-proteins, heat shock protein (HSP), kinase proteins, alcohol dehydrogenase protein (ADH), ribosomal binding sites, fluorescent reporter proteins, terminators, and a synthetic ribosomal switch. The aim of this investigation was to induce an anti-UV proteins, and to construct an anti-UV yeast plasmid to be used for protection of skin cells against UV radiation. This investigation demonstrates induction and construction of anti-UV genes and production of their corresponding proteins. Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC # 66348) were exposed to short-wave UV radiation and were then subjected to time-PCR to assess specific gene expression. Proteins were identified using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) and LC-MS/MS. Different up-regulated and down-regulated proteins were identified. Highly expressed identified proteins were cloned into S. cerevisiae using a synthetic biology approach. Extracts from UV-induced genetically transformed yeasts were used to protect skin cell cultures (ATCC #2522-CRL) in vitro. Both microscopic analysis and an apoptosis assay showed protection of the skin cell cultures against UV radiation. PMID:23665192

  10. Engineered yeast for enhanced CO2 mineralization†

    PubMed Central

    Barbero, Roberto; Carnelli, Lino; Simon, Anna; Kao, Albert; Monforte, Alessandra d’Arminio; Riccò, Moreno; Bianchi, Daniele; Belcher, Angela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a biologically catalyzed CO2 mineralization process for the capture of CO2 from point sources was designed, constructed at a laboratory scale, and, using standard chemical process scale-up protocols, was modeled and evaluated at an industrial scale. A yeast display system in Saccharomyces cerevisae was used to screen several carbonic anhydrase isoforms and mineralization peptides for their impact on CO2 hydration, CaCO3 mineralization, and particle settling rate. Enhanced rates for each of these steps in the CaCO3 mineralization process were confirmed using quantitative techniques in lab-scale measurements. The effect of these enhanced rates on the CO2 capture cost in an industrial scale CO2 mineralization process using coal fly ash as the CaO source was evaluated. The model predicts a process using bCA2- yeast and fly ash is ~10% more cost effective per ton of CO2 captured than a process with no biological molecules, a savings not realized by wild-type yeast and high-temperature stable recombinant CA2 alone or in combination. The levelized cost of electricity for a power plant using this process was calculated and scenarios in which this process compares favorably to CO2 capture by MEA absorption process are presented. PMID:25289021

  11. Growth characteristics of bakers' yeast in ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Wasungu, K.M.; Simard, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    The influence of temperature (15 - 40 degrees C) and pH (2.5 - 6.0) on the continuous growth of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at steady state in 1% ethanol was investigated. Optimal temperature and pH were 30 degrees C and 4.5, respectively. The short-term effect of ethanol concentration (0.1 - 10.0%) on the yeast growth was assessed in batch culture. Up to 1% of ethanol, the yeast growth increased in function of the ethanol concentration in the medium. The biomass reached a maximum within the interval of 1-4% of ethanol (7.9 and 31.6 g/L, respectively) and decreased at higher concentrations. The residual ethanol concentration in the medium increased rapidly when the initial ethanol concentration exceeded 4%. The best-fit model obtained for growth inhibition as a function of ethanol concentrations was that of Tseng and Wayman: mu m S/(K+S) - i (S-S0). With this model, the specific growth rate (mu) decreased linearly as the ethanol concentration increased between the threshold value (S0) of 11.26 g/L to be fully inhibited at 70.00 g/L (S); an inhibition constant (i) of 0.0048 g/L/hour, a maximum specific growth rate (mu m) of 0.284/hour, and a saturation constant (K) of 0.611 g/L were obtained. (Refs. 17).

  12. Ribosome biogenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Woolford, John L; Baserga, Susan J

    2013-11-01

    Ribosomes are highly conserved ribonucleoprotein nanomachines that translate information in the genome to create the proteome in all cells. In yeast these complex particles contain four RNAs (>5400 nucleotides) and 79 different proteins. During the past 25 years, studies in yeast have led the way to understanding how these molecules are assembled into ribosomes in vivo. Assembly begins with transcription of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus, where the RNA then undergoes complex pathways of folding, coupled with nucleotide modification, removal of spacer sequences, and binding to ribosomal proteins. More than 200 assembly factors and 76 small nucleolar RNAs transiently associate with assembling ribosomes, to enable their accurate and efficient construction. Following export of preribosomes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, they undergo final stages of maturation before entering the pool of functioning ribosomes. Elaborate mechanisms exist to monitor the formation of correct structural and functional neighborhoods within ribosomes and to destroy preribosomes that fail to assemble properly. Studies of yeast ribosome biogenesis provide useful models for ribosomopathies, diseases in humans that result from failure to properly assemble ribosomes. PMID:24190922

  13. Ribosome Biogenesis in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Woolford, John L.; Baserga, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes are highly conserved ribonucleoprotein nanomachines that translate information in the genome to create the proteome in all cells. In yeast these complex particles contain four RNAs (>5400 nucleotides) and 79 different proteins. During the past 25 years, studies in yeast have led the way to understanding how these molecules are assembled into ribosomes in vivo. Assembly begins with transcription of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus, where the RNA then undergoes complex pathways of folding, coupled with nucleotide modification, removal of spacer sequences, and binding to ribosomal proteins. More than 200 assembly factors and 76 small nucleolar RNAs transiently associate with assembling ribosomes, to enable their accurate and efficient construction. Following export of preribosomes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, they undergo final stages of maturation before entering the pool of functioning ribosomes. Elaborate mechanisms exist to monitor the formation of correct structural and functional neighborhoods within ribosomes and to destroy preribosomes that fail to assemble properly. Studies of yeast ribosome biogenesis provide useful models for ribosomopathies, diseases in humans that result from failure to properly assemble ribosomes. PMID:24190922

  14. Lipids and cell death in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Büttner, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Understanding lipid-induced malfunction represents a major challenge of today's biomedical research. The connection of lipids to cellular and organ dysfunction, cell death, and disease (often referred to as lipotoxicity) is more complex than the sole lipotoxic effects of excess free fatty acids and requires genetically tractable model systems for mechanistic investigation. We herein summarize recent advances in the field of lipid-induced toxicity that employ the established model system for cell death and aging research of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Studies in yeast have shed light on various aspects of lipotoxicity, including free fatty acid toxicity, sphingolipid-modulated cell death as well as the involvement of cardiolipin and lipid peroxidation in the mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis. Regimens used range from exogenously applied lipids, genetic modulation of lipolysis and triacylglyceride synthesis, variations in sphingolipid/ceramide metabolism as well as changes in peroxisome function by either genetic or pharmacological means. In future, the yeast model of programmed cell death will further contribute to the clarification of crucial questions of lipid-associated malfunction. PMID:24119111

  15. Ecology and Biodiversity of Yeasts with Potential Value in Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deak, T.

    In the latest edition of the standard treatise of yeasts, in 1998, 700 species were described. Since then, the number of recognized yeast species has doubled, with a steep increase particularly in the number of the basidiomycetous yeasts. Of all these yeast species, only about a dozen is used at industrial scale, and some 70 - 80 species have been shown at laboratory scale to possess potential value in biotechnology; their ratio is, in the best case, 5 - 10 %. If it is accepted, that according to a modest estimate, the known yeast species represent only 5 % of the total number which may inhabit the Earth, then there is ample room to search for new species with novel potential to exploit. Where could these yeasts be discovered?

  16. Yeast Genomics for Bread, Beer, Biology, Bucks and Breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakharkar, Kishore R.; Sakharkar, Meena K.

    The rapid advances and scale up of projects in DNA sequencing dur ing the past two decades have produced complete genome sequences of several eukaryotic species. The versatile genetic malleability of the yeast, and the high degree of conservation between its cellular processes and those of human cells have made it a model of choice for pioneering research in molecular and cell biology. The complete sequence of yeast genome has proven to be extremely useful as a reference towards the sequences of human and for providing systems to explore key gene functions. Yeast has been a ‘legendary model’ for new technologies and gaining new biological insights into basic biological sciences and biotechnology. This chapter describes the awesome power of yeast genetics, genomics and proteomics in understanding of biological function. The applications of yeast as a screening tool to the field of drug discovery and development are highlighted and the traditional importance of yeast for bakers and brewers is discussed.

  17. Biosynthesis of the Torpedo californica Acetylcholine Receptor ? Subunit in Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Norihisa; Nelson, Nathan; Fox, Thomas D.; Claudio, Toni; Lindstrom, Jon; Riezman, Howard; Hess, George P.

    1986-03-01

    Yeast cells were transformed with a plasmid containing complementary DNA encoding the ? subunit of the Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor. These cells synthesized a protein that had the expected molecular weight, antigenic specificity, and ligand-binding properties of the ? subunit. The subunit was inserted into the yeast plasma membrane, demonstrating that yeast has the apparatus to express a membrane-bound receptor protein and to insert such a foreign protein into its plasma membrane. The ? subunit constituted approximately 1 percent of the total yeast membrane proteins, and its density was about the same in the plasma membrane of yeast and in the receptor-rich electric organ of Electrophorus electricus. In view of the available technology for obtaining large quantities of yeast proteins, it may now be possible to obtain amplified amounts of interesting membrane-bound proteins for physical and biochemical studies.

  18. Isolation and characterization of ethanol tolerant yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    Tikka, Chiranjeevi; Osuru, Hari Prasad; Atluri, Navya; Raghavulu, Praveen Chakravarthi Veera; yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Mannur, Ismail Shaik; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Aluru, Sudheer; K, Narasimha Varma; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2013-01-01

    Yeast strains are commonly associated with sugar rich environments. Various fruit samples were selected as source for isolating yeast cells. The isolated cultures were identified at Genus level by colony morphology, biochemical characteristics and cell morphological characters. An attempt has been made to check the viability of yeast cells under different concentrations of ethanol. Ethanol tolerance of each strain was studied by allowing the yeast to grow in liquid YEPD (Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose) medium having different concentrations of ethanol. A total of fifteen yeast strains isolated from different samples were used for the study. Seven strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from different fruit sources were screened for ethanol tolerance. The results obtained in this study show a range of tolerance levels between 7%-12% in all the stains. Further, the cluster analysis based on 22 RAPD (Random Amplified polymorphic DNA) bands revealed polymorphisms in these seven Saccharomyces strains. PMID:23750092

  19. Taming wild yeast: potential of conventional and nonconventional yeasts in industrial fermentations.

    PubMed

    Steensels, Jan; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are the main driving force behind several industrial food fermentation processes, including the production of beer, wine, sake, bread, and chocolate. Historically, these processes developed from uncontrolled, spontaneous fermentation reactions that rely on a complex mixture of microbes present in the environment. Because such spontaneous processes are generally inconsistent and inefficient and often lead to the formation of off-flavors, most of today's industrial production utilizes defined starter cultures, often consisting of a specific domesticated strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, or S. pastorianus. Although this practice greatly improved process consistency, efficiency, and overall quality, it also limited the sensorial complexity of the end product. In this review, we discuss how Saccharomyces yeasts were domesticated to become the main workhorse of food fermentations, and we investigate the potential and selection of nonconventional yeasts that are often found in spontaneous fermentations, such as Brettanomyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia spp. PMID:24773331

  20. Prevalence of Candida dubliniensis Isolates in a Yeast Stock Collection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANK C. ODDS; LUC VAN NUFFEL; GERY DAMS

    1998-01-01

    To establish the historical prevalence of the novel yeast species Candida dubliniensis, a survey of 2,589 yeasts originally identified as Candida albicans and maintained in a stock collection dating back to the early 1970s was undertaken. A total of 590 yeasts, including 93 (18.5%) b-glucosidase-negative isolates among 502 isolates that showed abnormal colony colors on a differential chromogenic agar and

  1. Genetic transformation and biotechnological application of the yeast Arxula adeninivorans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Wartmann; G. Kunze

    2000-01-01

    The relatively unknown, non-pathogenic, dimorphic, haploid, ascomycetous yeast Arxula adeninivorans exhibits some unusual properties which are of biotechnological interest. The yeast is able to assimilate and ferment many\\u000a compounds as sole source of carbon and\\/or nitrogen, it utilises n-alkanes and degrades starch efficiently. A. adeninivorans features such as thermo- and haloresistance as well as the yeast's uncommon growth and secretion

  2. Surface properties of yeast cells during heavy metal biosorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edyta Kordialik-Bogacka

    2011-01-01

    Properties of metal solution, environmental conditions and the type of biomaterials (microorganism genus, species or even\\u000a strain) influence the mechanism of metal biosorption and consequently metal adsorption capacity, affinity and specificity.\\u000a Cell surface properties determine the metal-microorganism interactions to a large extent. In this work the relationship between\\u000a yeast surface properties and yeast’s ability to bind cadmium, lead and copper

  3. Relative Incidence of Ascomycetous Yeasts in Arctic Coastal Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorena Butinar; Tadeja Strmole; Nina Gunde-Cimerman

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of fungi in polar environments have revealed a prevalence of basidiomycetous yeasts in soil and in subglacial\\u000a environments of polythermal glaciers. Ascomycetous yeasts have rarely been reported from extremely cold natural environments,\\u000a even though they are known contaminants of frozen foods. Using media with low water activity, we have isolated various yeast\\u000a species from the subglacial ice of

  4. Influence of organic viticulture on non- Saccharomyces wine yeast populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosanna Tofalo; Maria Schirone; Gianluca Ciro Telera; Anna Chiara Manetta; Aldo Corsetti; Giovanna Suzzi

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the population dynamics of non-Saccharomyces biota during spontaneous fermentation of organic musts. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts were found to be present at high levels during all fermentations. A total of 543 yeast colonies were isolated, 190\\u000a from Lysine-Medium (LM) agar, 254 from Wallerstein Laboratory Nutrient (WLN) agar and 99 from YPD agar. To estimate yeast\\u000a population dynamics during spontaneous

  5. Not your ordinary yeast: non-Saccharomyces yeasts in wine production uncovered.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Neil P; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S

    2014-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and grape juice are 'natural companions' and make a happy wine marriage. However, this relationship can be enriched by allowing 'wild' non-Saccharomyces yeast to participate in a sequential manner in the early phases of grape must fermentation. However, such a triangular relationship is complex and can only be taken to 'the next level' if there are no spoilage yeast present and if the 'wine yeast' - S. cerevisiae - is able to exert its dominance in time to successfully complete the alcoholic fermentation. Winemakers apply various 'matchmaking' strategies (e.g. cellar hygiene, pH, SO2 , temperature and nutrient management) to keep 'spoilers' (e.g. Dekkera bruxellensis) at bay, and allow 'compatible' wild yeast (e.g. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Pichia kluyveri, Lachancea thermotolerans and Candida/Metschnikowia pulcherrima) to harmonize with potent S. cerevisiae wine yeast and bring the best out in wine. Mismatching can lead to a 'two is company, three is a crowd' scenario. More than 40 of the 1500 known yeast species have been isolated from grape must. In this article, we review the specific flavour-active characteristics of those non-Saccharomyces species that might play a positive role in both spontaneous and inoculated wine ferments. We seek to present 'single-species' and 'multi-species' ferments in a new light and a new context, and we raise important questions about the direction of mixed-fermentation research to address market trends regarding so-called 'natural' wines. This review also highlights that, despite the fact that most frontier research and technological developments are often focussed primarily on S. cerevisiae, non-Saccharomyces research can benefit from the techniques and knowledge developed by research on the former. PMID:24164726

  6. Yeast Methylotrophy: Metabolism, Gene Regulation and Peroxisome Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Yurimoto, Hiroya; Oku, Masahide; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic methylotrophs, which are able to obtain all the carbon and energy needed for growth from methanol, are restricted to a limited number of yeast species. When these yeasts are grown on methanol as the sole carbon and energy source, the enzymes involved in methanol metabolism are strongly induced, and the membrane-bound organelles, peroxisomes, which contain key enzymes of methanol metabolism, proliferate massively. These features have made methylotrophic yeasts attractive hosts for the production of heterologous proteins and useful model organisms for the study of peroxisome biogenesis and degradation. In this paper, we describe recent insights into the molecular basis of yeast methylotrophy. PMID:21754936

  7. GENOME-SCALE PROTEIN FUNCTION PREDICTION IN YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE THROUGH

    E-print Network

    GENOME-SCALE PROTEIN FUNCTION PREDICTION IN YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE THROUGH INTEGRATING Saccharomyces cerevisiae through integrating various high-throughput biological data, including protein binary predicted genes in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) were functionally characterized when

  8. Artificial Cellulosomes and Arsenic Cleanup: From Single Cell Programming to Synthetic Yeast Consortium

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Shen-Long

    2011-01-01

    al. , 2009). Yeast cells in fermentation media were countedthe bottle stopper. Yeast cells in fermentation media wereYeast surface display of trifunctional minicellulosomes for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

  9. Heavy metal removal by caustic-treated yeast immobilized in alginate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongming Lu; Ebtisam Wilkins

    1996-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast biomass was heated in 0.75 M NaOH at 70–90°C for 10–15 min to increase its biosorption for heavy metals, and then immobilized in alginate gel. Biosorption for Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ on alginate gel, native yeast, native yeast immobilized in alginate gel, and caustic-treated yeast immobilized in alginate gel, were all compared. Immobilized yeasts (native yeast and

  10. Characterisation of yeast microbial fuel cell with the yeast Arxula adeninivorans as the biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Haslett, Nicholas D; Rawson, Frankie J; Barriëre, Frèdèric; Kunze, Gotthard; Pasco, Neil; Gooneratne, Ravi; Baronian, Keith H R

    2011-05-15

    Yeast microbial fuel cells have received little attention to date. Yeast should be ideal MFC catalyst because they are robust, easily handled, mostly non-pathogenic organisms with high catabolic rates and in some cases a broad substrate spectrum. Here we show that the non-conventional yeast Arxula adeninvorans transfers electrons to an electrode through the secretion of a reduced molecule that is not detectable when washed cells are first resuspended but which accumulates rapidly in the extracellular environment. It is a single molecule that accumulates to a significant concentration. The occurrence of mediatorless electron transfer was first established in a conventional microbial fuel cell and that phenomenon was further investigated by a number of techniques. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) on a yeast pellet shows a single peak at 450mV, a scan rate study showed that the peak was due to a solution species. CVs of the supernatant confirmed a solution species. It appears that, given its other attributes, A. adeninivorans is a good candidate for further investigation as a MFC catalyst. PMID:21493057

  11. Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Vineet (Kingsport, TN); Koivuranta, Kari (Helsinki, FI); Penttila, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Miller, Christopher Kenneth (Cottage Grove, MN); Olson, Stacey (St. Bonifacius, MN); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI)

    2011-05-17

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  12. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    DOEpatents

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-05-14

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  13. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

    2014-01-07

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  14. Studying Functions of All Yeast Genes Simultaneously

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor; Eason, Robert G.; Poumand, Nader; Herman, Zelek S.; Davis, Ronald W.; Anthony Kevin; Jejelowo, Olufisayo

    2006-01-01

    A method of studying the functions of all the genes of a given species of microorganism simultaneously has been developed in experiments on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commonly known as baker's or brewer's yeast). It is already known that many yeast genes perform functions similar to those of corresponding human genes; therefore, by facilitating understanding of yeast genes, the method may ultimately also contribute to the knowledge needed to treat some diseases in humans. Because of the complexity of the method and the highly specialized nature of the underlying knowledge, it is possible to give only a brief and sketchy summary here. The method involves the use of unique synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences that are denoted as DNA bar codes because of their utility as molecular labels. The method also involves the disruption of gene functions through deletion of genes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly powerful experimental system in that multiple deletion strains easily can be pooled for parallel growth assays. Individual deletion strains recently have been created for 5,918 open reading frames, representing nearly all of the estimated 6,000 genetic loci of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tagging of each deletion strain with one or two unique 20-nucleotide sequences enables identification of genes affected by specific growth conditions, without prior knowledge of gene functions. Hybridization of bar-code DNA to oligonucleotide arrays can be used to measure the growth rate of each strain over several cell-division generations. The growth rate thus measured serves as an index of the fitness of the strain.

  15. Molecular evolution of minisatellites in hemiascomycetous yeasts.

    PubMed

    Richard, Guy-Franck; Dujon, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Minisatellites are DNA tandem repeats exhibiting size polymorphism among individuals of a population. This polymorphism is generated by two different mechanisms, both in human and yeast cells, "replication slippage" during S-phase DNA synthesis and "repair slippage" associated to meiotic gene conversion. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome contains numerous natural minisatellites. They are located on all chromosomes without any obvious distribution bias. Minisatellites found in protein-coding genes have longer repeat units and on the average more repeat units than minisatellites in noncoding regions. They show an excess of cytosines on the coding strand, as compared to guanines (negative GC skew). They are always multiples of three, encode serine- and threonine-rich amino acid repeats, and are found preferably within genes encoding cell wall proteins, suggesting that they are positively selected in this particular class of genes. Genome-wide, there is no statistically significant association between minisatellites and meiotic recombination hot spots. In addition, minisatellites that are located in the vicinity of a meiotic hot spot are not more polymorphic than minisatellites located far from any hot spot. This suggests that minisatellites, in S. cerevisiae, evolve probably by strand slippage during replication or mitotic recombination. Finally, evolution of minisatellites among hemiascomycetous yeasts shows that even though many minisatellite-containing genes are conserved, most of the time the minisatellite itself is not conserved. The diversity of minisatellite sequences found in orthologous genes of different species suggests that minisatellites are differentially acquired and lost during evolution of hemiascomycetous yeasts at a pace faster than the genes containing them. PMID:16177231

  16. Genetic Influences on Translation in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Frank W.; Muzzey, Dale; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Heritable differences in gene expression between individuals are an important source of phenotypic variation. The question of how closely the effects of genetic variation on protein levels mirror those on mRNA levels remains open. Here, we addressed this question by using ribosome profiling to examine how genetic differences between two strains of the yeast S. cerevisiae affect translation. Strain differences in translation were observed for hundreds of genes. Allele specific measurements in the diploid hybrid between the two strains revealed roughly half as many cis-acting effects on translation as were observed for mRNA levels. In both the parents and the hybrid, most effects on translation were of small magnitude, such that the direction of an mRNA difference was typically reflected in a concordant footprint difference. The relative importance of cis and trans acting variation on footprint levels was similar to that for mRNA levels. There was a tendency for translation to cause larger footprint differences than expected given the respective mRNA differences. This is in contrast to translational differences between yeast species that have been reported to more often oppose than reinforce mRNA differences. Finally, we catalogued instances of premature translation termination in the two yeast strains and also found several instances where erroneous reference gene annotations lead to apparent nonsense mutations that in fact reside outside of the translated gene body. Overall, genetic influences on translation subtly modulate gene expression differences, and translation does not create strong discrepancies between genetic influences on mRNA and protein levels. PMID:25340754

  17. Crystal structure of yeast Sco1

    SciTech Connect

    Abajian, Carnie; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    The Sco family of proteins are involved in the assembly of the dinuclear CuA site in cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme in aerobic respiration. These proteins, which are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, are characterized by a conserved CXXXC sequence motif that binds copper ions and that has also been proposed to perform a thiol:disulfide oxidoreductase function. The crystal structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae apo Sco1 (apo-ySco1) and Sco1 in the presence of copper ions (Cu-ySco1) were determined to 1.8- and 2.3-{angstrom} resolutions, respectively. Yeast Sco1 exhibits a thioredoxin-like fold, similar to that observed for human Sco1 and a homolog from Bacillus subtilis. The Cu-ySco1 structure, obtained by soaking apo-ySco1 crystals in copper ions, reveals an unexpected copper-binding site involving Cys181 and Cys216, cysteine residues present in ySco1 but not in other homologs. The conserved CXXXC cysteines, Cys148 and Cys152, can undergo redox chemistry in the crystal. An essential histidine residue, His239, is located on a highly flexible loop, denoted the Sco loop, and can adopt positions proximal to both pairs of cysteines. Interactions between ySco1 and its partner proteins yeast Cox17 and yeast COX2 are likely to occur via complementary electrostatic surfaces. This high-resolution model of a eukaryotic Sco protein provides new insight into Sco copper binding and function.

  18. Dynamic modeling of yeast meiotic initiation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meiosis is the sexual reproduction process common to eukaryotes. The diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes meiosis in sporulation medium to form four haploid spores. Initiation of the process is tightly controlled by intricate networks of positive and negative feedback loops. Intriguingly, expression of early meiotic proteins occurs within a narrow time window. Further, sporulation efficiency is strikingly different for yeast strains with distinct mutations or genetic backgrounds. To investigate signal transduction pathways that regulate transient protein expression and sporulation efficiency, we develop a mathematical model using ordinary differential equations. The model describes early meiotic events, particularly feedback mechanisms at the system level and phosphorylation of signaling molecules for regulating protein activities. Results The mathematical model is capable of simulating the orderly and transient dynamics of meiotic proteins including Ime1, the master regulator of meiotic initiation, and Ime2, a kinase encoded by an early gene. The model is validated by quantitative sporulation phenotypes of single-gene knockouts. Thus, we can use the model to make novel predictions on the cooperation between proteins in the signaling pathway. Virtual perturbations on feedback loops suggest that both positive and negative feedback loops are required to terminate expression of early meiotic proteins. Bifurcation analyses on feedback loops indicate that multiple feedback loops are coordinated to modulate sporulation efficiency. In particular, positive auto-regulation of Ime2 produces a bistable system with a normal meiotic state and a more efficient meiotic state. Conclusions By systematically scanning through feedback loops in the mathematical model, we demonstrate that, in yeast, the decisions to terminate protein expression and to sporulate at different efficiencies stem from feedback signals toward the master regulator Ime1 and the early meiotic protein Ime2. We argue that the architecture of meiotic initiation pathway generates a robust mechanism that assures a rapid and complete transition into meiosis. This type of systems-level regulation is a commonly used mechanism controlling developmental programs in yeast and other organisms. Our mathematical model uncovers key regulations that can be manipulated to enhance sporulation efficiency, an important first step in the development of new strategies for producing gametes with high quality and quantity. PMID:23631506

  19. Automated tracking of yeast cell lineages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungnam; Rowat, Amy C.; Carpenter, Anne E.

    2010-08-01

    We propose a cell progeny tracking method that sequentially employs image alignment, chamber cropping, cell segmentation, per-cell feature measurement, and progeny (lineage) tracking modules. It enables biologists to keep track of phenotypic patterns not only over time but also over multiple generations. Yeast cells encapsulated in chambers of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device were imaged over time to monitor changes in fluorescence levels. We implemented our method in an automated cell image analysis tool, CellProfiler, and performed initial testing. Once refined and validated, the approach could be adapted/used in other cell segmentation and progeny tracking experiments.

  20. Cell Polarization and Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Erfei; Park, Hay-Oak

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division, which includes cell polarization and cytokinesis, is essential for generating cell diversity during development. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduces by asymmetric cell division, and has thus served as an attractive model for unraveling the general principles of eukaryotic cell polarization and cytokinesis. Polarity development requires G-protein signaling, cytoskeletal polarization, and exocytosis, whereas cytokinesis requires concerted actions of a contractile actomyosin ring and targeted membrane deposition. In this chapter, we discuss the mechanics and spatial control of polarity development and cytokinesis, emphasizing the key concepts, mechanisms, and emerging questions in the field. PMID:22701052

  1. New yeast study finds strength in numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, J.

    1996-06-07

    This article reports on the debate about whether the modern industrial society is producing hormonelike pollutants that can interfere with human reproductions, including pesticides, the plastic ingredient bisphenol-A and some polychlorinated biphenyls. A recent article has added fuel to the debate by presenting results that indicate a mixture of two weakly estrogenic chemicals can be far more potent than individual compounds, using a screening system based on genetically engineered yeast cells. The debate may need to be taken into account by a USEPA advisory panel now being formed to come up with in vitro tests to screen for environmental estrogens.

  2. Fatty acid synthesis and elongation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Tehlivets, Oksana; Scheuringer, Kim; Kohlwein, Sepp D

    2007-03-01

    Fatty acids are essential compounds in the cell. Since the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not feed typically on fatty acids, cellular function and growth relies on endogenous synthesis. Since all cellular organelles are involved in--or dependent on--fatty acid synthesis, multiple levels of control may exist to ensure proper fatty acid composition and homeostasis. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about enzymes involved in cellular fatty acid synthesis and elongation, and discuss potential links between fatty acid metabolism, physiology and cellular regulation. PMID:16950653

  3. Inheritance of the fittest mitochondria in yeast.

    PubMed

    Vevea, Jason D; Swayne, Theresa C; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells compartmentalize their biochemical processes within organelles, which have specific functions that must be maintained for overall cellular health. As the site of aerobic energy mobilization and essential biosynthetic activities, mitochondria are critical for cell survival and proliferation. Here, we describe mechanisms to control the quality and quantity of mitochondria within cells with an emphasis on findings from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We also describe how mitochondrial quality and quantity control systems that operate during cell division affect lifespan and cell cycle progression. PMID:23932848

  4. Arxula adeninivorans , a yeast assimilating many nitrogenous and aromatic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wouter J. Middelhoven; Ilona M. de Jong; Marleen de Winter

    1991-01-01

    A detailed description of the yeast species Arxula adeninivorans (syn. Trichosporon adeninovorans) was given. The yeast assimilated all the suggars, polyalcohols and organic acids used in the conventional carbon compound assimilation test rapidly, except for L-rhamnose, inulin, lactose, lactate and methanol. As nitrogen sources served all conventionally used compounds except creatine and creatinine. Several nitrogenous compounds, e.g. amino acids, purine

  5. Yeast activator proteins and stress response: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudina Amélia Rodrigues-Pousada; Tracy Nevitt; Regina Menezes; Dulce Azevedo; Jorge Pereira; Catarina Amaral

    2004-01-01

    Yeast, and especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are continuously exposed to rapid and drastic changes in their external milieu. Therefore, cells must maintain their homeostasis, which is achieved through a highly coordinated gene expression involving a plethora of transcription factors, each of them performing specific functions. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the function of the yeast activator protein

  6. Inactivation Kinetics of Yeast Cells during Infrared Drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Huang; Marianne Su-Ling Brooks; Hua-Jiang Huang; Xiao Dong Chen

    2009-01-01

    In this study, aqueous yeast suspensions were used to investigate the effects of drying (in an infrared heating environment) on the survival of yeast. The processes were modeled mathematically using a range of kinetics rate equations. The model parameters for each kinetic rate expression were obtained using a Matlab optimization procedure and the more suitable models describing the inactivation processes

  7. Genomic adaptation of ethanologenic yeast to biomass conversion inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Lewis Liu

    2006-01-01

    One major barrier to the economic conversion of biomass to ethanol is inhibitory compounds generated during biomass pretreatment using dilute acid hydrolysis. Major inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) inhibit yeast growth and subsequent fermentation. The ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrated a dose-dependant inhibition by the inhibitors and has the potential to transform furfural and HMF into less toxic

  8. Oxygen Stress: A Regulator of Apoptosis in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Madeo; Eleonore Fröhlich; Martin Ligr; Martin Grey; Stephan J. Sigrist; Dieter H. Wolf; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich

    1999-01-01

    Oxygen radicals are important components of metazoan apoptosis. We have found that apoptosis can be induced in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by depletion of glutathione or by low external doses of H 2 O 2 . Cycloheximide prevents apoptotic death reveal- ing active participation of the cell. Yeast can also be triggered into apoptosis by a mutation in CDC48 or

  9. High ethanol tolerance yeast for production of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, M.S.; Tsao, G.T.; Kasthurikrishnan, N. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The subject of ethanol tolerance in yeasts has been receiving considerable attention as result of renewed interest in ethanol as a fuel source. Fermentation of sugars to ethanol is being studied in our laboratory using a genetically engineered yeast strain 1400. Results are described.

  10. Beginnings of microbiology and biochemistry: the contribution of yeast research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Barnett

    2003-01-01

    With improvements in microscopes early in the nineteenth century, yeasts were seen to be living organisms, although some famous scientists ridiculed the idea and their influence held back the development of microbiology. In the 1850s and 1860s, yeasts were established as microbes and responsible for alcoholic fermentation, and this led to the study of the role of bacteria in lactic

  11. Recognition of Yeast Species from Gene Sequence Comparisons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review discusses recognition of yeast species from gene sequence comparisons, which have been responsible for doubling the number of known yeasts over the past decade. The resolution provided by various single gene sequences is examined for both ascomycetous and basidiomycetous species, and th...

  12. ASCOMYCETOUS MITOSIS IN BASIDIOMYCETOUS YEASTS: ITS EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In budding cells of ascomycetous yeasts, mitosis occurs in the parent, while in basidiomyceteous yeasts it occurs in the bud. However, in the basidiomycete Agaricostilbum pulcherrimum mitosis occurs in the parent and parent-bud junction. To test whether A. pulcherrimum has a novel mitotic pattern, i...

  13. Robust Spatial Sensing of Mating Pheromone Gradients by Yeast Cells

    E-print Network

    Nie, Qing

    Robust Spatial Sensing of Mating Pheromone Gradients by Yeast Cells Travis I. Moore1,2 , Ching of the mating pheromone a-factor produced in a microfluidics chamber; the focus was on bar1D strains, which do not degrade the pheromone input. The yeast cells exhibited good accuracy with the mating projection typically

  14. Different sets of QTLs influence fitness variation in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gal Hagit Romano; Yonat Gurvich; Ofer Lavi; Igor Ulitsky; Ron Shamir; Martin Kupiec

    2010-01-01

    Most of the phenotypes in nature are complex and are determined by many quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In this study we identify gene sets that contribute to one important complex trait: the ability of yeast cells to survive under alkali stress. We carried out an in-lab evolution (ILE) experiment, in which we grew yeast populations under increasing alkali stress to

  15. Molecular analysis of inorganic nitrogen assimilation in yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabhakara V. Choudary; G. Ramananda Rao

    1984-01-01

    Assimilation of nitrate and various other inorganic nitrogen compounds by different yeasts was investigated. Nitrate, nitrite, hydroxylamine, hydrazine, ammonium sulphate, urea and L-asparagine were tested as sole sources of nitrogen for the growth of Candida albicans, C. pelliculosa, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, C. tropicalis, and C. utilis. Ammonium sulphate and L-asparagine supported the growth of all the yeasts tested except

  16. New insights into treating Parkinson's from yeast, stem cell experiments

    E-print Network

    Sabatini, David M.

    New insights into treating Parkinson's from yeast, stem cell experiments By Carolyn Y. Johnson cells created from Parkinson's disease patients' stem cells. The work, described in a pair of studies problems of Parkinson's disease may seem tenuous at best, the researchers engineered the yeast

  17. Exploring the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Protein Degradation Pathway in Yeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Tamara J.; McWatters, Melissa K.; McQuade, Kristi L.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory investigating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in yeast. In this exercise, the enzyme beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) is expressed in yeast under the control of a stress response promoter. Following exposure to heat stress to induce beta-gal expression, cycloheximide is added to halt…

  18. Controlling cell division in yeast and animals: does size matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Savraj S Grewal; Bruce A Edgar

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In yeast, cell-size checkpoints coordinate cellular growth with cell-cycle progression. Now, evidence has been provided that such checkpoints probably do not exist in mammalian cells. These findings highlight an important difference between how yeast and animal cells proliferate in response to extracellular cues.

  19. Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

  20. Improving industrial yeast strains: exploiting natural and artificial diversity

    PubMed Central

    Steensels, Jan; Snoek, Tim; Meersman, Esther; Nicolino, Martina Picca; Voordeckers, Karin; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts have been used for thousands of years to make fermented foods and beverages, such as beer, wine, sake, and bread. However, the choice for a particular yeast strain or species for a specific industrial application is often based on historical, rather than scientific grounds. Moreover, new biotechnological yeast applications, such as the production of second-generation biofuels, confront yeast with environments and challenges that differ from those encountered in traditional food fermentations. Together, this implies that there are interesting opportunities to isolate or generate yeast variants that perform better than the currently used strains. Here, we discuss the different strategies of strain selection and improvement available for both conventional and nonconventional yeasts. Exploiting the existing natural diversity and using techniques such as mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, breeding, genome shuffling and directed evolution to generate artificial diversity, or the use of genetic modification strategies to alter traits in a more targeted way, have led to the selection of superior industrial yeasts. Furthermore, recent technological advances allowed the development of high-throughput techniques, such as ‘global transcription machinery engineering’ (gTME), to induce genetic variation, providing a new source of yeast genetic diversity. PMID:24724938

  1. Optimisation of methodology for enumeration of xerophilic yeasts from foods.

    PubMed

    Andrews, S; de Graaf, H; Stamation, H

    1997-04-01

    Xerophilic yeasts grow in intermediate moisture foods (aw, 0.65-0.85) such as sugar syrups, fruit concentrates, jams and brines. Non-osmophilic yeasts are enumerated by diluting in 0.1% peptone and then plated onto media such as malt extract or glucose yeast extract agar. In the presence of moulds the yeasts are enumerated in dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC). These procedures were demonstrated to be unsatisfactory for the enumeration of xerophilic yeasts in low aw foods. Investigations using pure cultures of xerophilic yeasts as well as naturally contaminated apple juice concentrates and glacé cherries have shown that a reduced aw diluent, in particular 30% w/w glycerol in combination with tryptone 10% glucose yeast extract agar (TGY) optimises the recovery of the yeasts, especially sublethally injured cells. The inclusion of sodium chloride in either the diluents or the culture media was not necessary to optimise the recovery of D. hansenii growing in 20% sodium chloride broths. PMID:9105918

  2. Improving industrial yeast strains: exploiting natural and artificial diversity.

    PubMed

    Steensels, Jan; Snoek, Tim; Meersman, Esther; Nicolino, Martina Picca; Voordeckers, Karin; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-09-01

    Yeasts have been used for thousands of years to make fermented foods and beverages, such as beer, wine, sake, and bread. However, the choice for a particular yeast strain or species for a specific industrial application is often based on historical, rather than scientific grounds. Moreover, new biotechnological yeast applications, such as the production of second-generation biofuels, confront yeast with environments and challenges that differ from those encountered in traditional food fermentations. Together, this implies that there are interesting opportunities to isolate or generate yeast variants that perform better than the currently used strains. Here, we discuss the different strategies of strain selection and improvement available for both conventional and nonconventional yeasts. Exploiting the existing natural diversity and using techniques such as mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, breeding, genome shuffling and directed evolution to generate artificial diversity, or the use of genetic modification strategies to alter traits in a more targeted way, have led to the selection of superior industrial yeasts. Furthermore, recent technological advances allowed the development of high-throughput techniques, such as 'global transcription machinery engineering' (gTME), to induce genetic variation, providing a new source of yeast genetic diversity. PMID:24724938

  3. Cultivable psychrotolerant yeasts associated with Antarctic marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Inmaculada; Faúndez, Carolina; Maza, Felipe; Paillavil, Braulio; Hernández, Valentina; Acosta, Fermín; Levicán, Gloria; Martínez, Claudio; Chávez, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Unlike filamentous fungi and bacteria, very little is known about cultivable yeasts associated with marine sponges, especially those from Antarctic seas. During an expedition to King George Island, in the Antarctica, samples of 11 marine sponges were collected by scuba-diving. From these sponges, 20 psychrotolerant yeast isolates were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses of D1/D2 and ITS rRNA gene sequences revealed that the marine ascomycetous yeast Metschnikowia australis is the predominant organism associated with these invertebrates. Other species found belonged to the Basidiomycota phylum: Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum, Rhodotorula pinicola, Leucosporidiella creatinivora and a new yeast from the Leucosporidiella genus. None of these yeasts have been previously associated with marine sponges. A screening to estimate the ability of these yeasts as producers of extracellular enzymatic activities at several pH and temperature conditions was performed. Several yeast isolates demonstrated amylolytic, proteolytic, lipolytic or cellulolytic activity, but none of them showed xylanolytic activity under the conditions assayed. To our knowledge, this work is the first description of cultivable yeasts associated with marine sponges from the Antarctic sea. PMID:22927015

  4. High-frequency transformation of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Beach; Paul Nurse

    1981-01-01

    The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, has been used extensively for genetic studies but until now it has not been utilized as a host organism for DNA cloning. Here we describe a method for high-frequency transformation of a leu 1- strain of this yeast with hybrid plasmids containing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LEU 2+ gene, a bacterial plasmid and either the S.

  5. Ultradian rhythms and clocks in plants and yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Lloyd

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ultradian rhythms (<1 day) in plants and in yeasts provide insights into the temporal hierarchy of living organisms. Primarily a reflection of intracellular control circuits, special rhythms are temperature-compensated that have evolved as timekeepers. The best understood ultradian clock is that in yeast; it provides a timeframe for the coherent behaviour of biochemical activities from metabolic and membrane-associated

  6. Dual fluorochrome flow cytometric assessment of yeast viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel staining protocol is reported for the assessment of viability in yeast, specifically the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala. Employing both the red fluorescent membrane potential sensitive oxonol stain DiBAC4(5) (Bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)pentamethine oxonol), a structural analog of the ...

  7. Yeast Genes That Enhance the Toxicity of a Mutant Huntingtin

    E-print Network

    Lindquist, Susan

    Yeast Genes That Enhance the Toxicity of a Mutant Huntingtin Fragment or -Synuclein Stephen-wide screens were performed in yeast to identify genes that enhance the toxicity of a mutant huntingtin fragment or of -synuclein. Of 4850 haploid mutants containing deletions of nonessential genes, 52 were

  8. Yeast diversity and native vigor for flavor phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Carrau, Francisco; Gaggero, Carina; Aguilar, Pablo S

    2015-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the yeast used widely for beer, bread, cider, and wine production, is the most resourceful eukaryotic model used for genetic engineering. A typical concern about using engineered yeasts for food production might be negative consumer perception of genetically modified organisms. However, we believe the true pitfall of using genetically modified yeasts is their limited capacity to either refine or improve the sensory properties of fermented foods under real production conditions. Alternatively, yeast diversity screening to improve the aroma and flavors could offer groundbreaking opportunities in food biotechnology. We propose a 'Yeast Flavor Diversity Screening' strategy which integrates knowledge from sensory analysis and natural whole-genome evolution with information about flavor metabolic networks and their regulation. PMID:25630239

  9. Yeast cell factories for fine chemical and API production

    PubMed Central

    Pscheidt, Beate; Glieder, Anton

    2008-01-01

    This review gives an overview of different yeast strains and enzyme classes involved in yeast whole-cell biotransformations. A focus was put on the synthesis of compounds for fine chemical and API (= active pharmaceutical ingredient) production employing single or only few-step enzymatic reactions. Accounting for recent success stories in metabolic engineering, the construction and use of synthetic pathways was also highlighted. Examples from academia and industry and advances in the field of designed yeast strain construction demonstrate the broad significance of yeast whole-cell applications. In addition to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alternative yeast whole-cell biocatalysts are discussed such as Candida sp., Cryptococcus sp., Geotrichum sp., Issatchenkia sp., Kloeckera sp., Kluyveromyces sp., Pichia sp. (including Hansenula polymorpha = P. angusta), Rhodotorula sp., Rhodosporidium sp., alternative Saccharomyces sp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulopsis sp., Trichosporon sp., Trigonopsis variabilis, Yarrowia lipolytica and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. PMID:18684335

  10. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  11. New lager yeast strains generated by interspecific hybridization.

    PubMed

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2015-05-01

    The interspecific hybrid Saccharomyces pastorianus is the most commonly used yeast in brewery fermentations worldwide. Here, we generated de novo lager yeast hybrids by mating a domesticated and strongly flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale strain with the Saccharomyces eubayanus type strain. The hybrids were characterized with respect to the parent strains in a wort fermentation performed at temperatures typical for lager brewing (12 °C). The resulting beers were analysed for sugar and aroma compounds, while the yeasts were tested for their flocculation ability and ?-glucoside transport capability. These hybrids inherited beneficial properties from both parent strains (cryotolerance, maltotriose utilization and strong flocculation) and showed apparent hybrid vigour, fermenting faster and producing beer with higher alcohol content (5.6 vs 4.5 % ABV) than the parents. Results suggest that interspecific hybridization is suitable for production of novel non-GM lager yeast strains with unique properties and will help in elucidating the evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast. PMID:25682107

  12. Peroxisome biogenesis in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Titorenko, V I; Smith, J J; Szilard, R K; Rachubinski, R A

    2000-01-01

    Extensive peroxisome proliferation during growth on oleic acid, combined with the availability of excellent genetic tools, makes the dimorphic yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, a powerful model system to study the molecular mechanisms involved in peroxisome biogenesis. A combined genetic, biochemical, and morphological approach has revealed that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an essential role in the assembly of functional peroxisomes in this yeast. The trafficking of some membrane proteins to the peroxisomes occurs via the ER, results in their glycosylation in the ER lumen, does not involve transit through the Golgi, and requires the products of the SEC238, SRP54, PEX1, and PEX6 genes. The authors' data suggest a model for protein import into peroxisomes via two subpopulations of ER-derived vesicles that are distinct from secretory vesicles. A kinetic analysis of the trafficking of peroxisomal proteins in vivo has demonstrated that membrane and matrix proteins are initially targeted to multiple vesicular precursors that represent intermediates in the assembly pathway of peroxisomes. The authors have also recently identified a novel cytosolic chaperone, Pex20p, that assists in the oligomerization of thiolase in the cytosol and promotes its targeting to the peroxisome. These data provide the first evidence that a chaperone-assisted folding and oligomerization of thiolase in the cytosol is required for the import of this protein into the peroxisomal matrix. PMID:11330048

  13. Heavy metal transporters in Hemiascomycete yeasts.

    PubMed

    Diffels, J F; Seret, M-L; Goffeau, A; Baret, P V

    2006-11-01

    We have compiled all known heavy metal transporters of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified their orthologs in four other species spanning the entire Hemiascomycete phylum. The 213 transporters belong to 27 distinct phylogenetic families distributed within the three classes: channels, secondary porters (permeases) and transport ATPases. They are present in all cellular membranes: plasma membranes, vacuoles, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, Golgi and various cytoplasmic vesicles. The major physiological heavy metals transported are: iron, manganese, zinc, copper, arsenite and cadmium. The major subfamilies that comprise the highest number of transporters are Siderophore-Iron Transporters (SIT) and CT2 (conjugated ABC transporters). They transport heavy metals (iron or cadmium, respectively) conjugated to organic chelators such as siderophores or glutathione. Both subfamilies are considerably amplified in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The pattern of expansion and restriction of the subfamilies during the evolution of the different species is highly variable. The phylogenetic trees of the major transporters subfamilies distinguish homogenous clusters of transporters suggesting that possible different physiological or mechanistic functions evolved independently. We also validated the use of the Hemiascomycetes heavy metal transporters for identification of orthologs transporters in the pathogenic Basidiomycetes Cryptococcus neoformans. PMID:17011109

  14. Production of baker's yeast using date juice.

    PubMed

    Beiroti, A; Hosseini, S N

    2007-07-01

    Baker's yeast is an important additive among the products which improves bread quality and for present time is being produced in different countries by batch, fed batch or continuous cultures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in fermentation of starch in dough, giving a favourable taste and produces a variety of vitamins and proteins. The main ingredient in yeast production is carbon source such as beet molasses, cane molasses, and so on. Since beet molasses has other major function as in high yield alcohol production and also due to the bioenvironmental issues and related wastewater treatment, the use of other carbohydrate sources may be considered. One of these carbohydrate sources is date which is wasted a great deal annually in this country (Iran) . In this study, the capability of date to act as a suitable carbon sources was investigated. The waste date turned into juice and consequently production and growth rate of Sacchromyces cervisiae were studied with this juice. A maximum possible yield of 50% was obtained by the optimum medium (P3), at pH 3.4, 30 degrees C, 1.4 vvm aeration rate and agitation of 500 r/min. PMID:17822056

  15. Preparation of yeast whole cell splicing extract.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Elizabeth A; Rader, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing, the removal of introns from pre-messenger RNA, is an essential step in eukaryotic gene expression. In humans, it has been estimated that 60 % of noninfectious diseases are caused by errors in splicing, making the study of pre-mRNA splicing a high priority from a health perspective. Pre-mRNA splicing is also complicated: the molecular machine that catalyzes the reaction, the spliceosome, is composed of five small nuclear RNAs, and over 100 proteins, making splicing one of the most complex processes in the cell.An important tool for studying pre-mRNA splicing is the in vitro splicing assay. With an in vitro assay, it is possible to test the function of each splicing component by removing the endogenous version and replacing it (or reconstituting it) with a modified one. This assay relies on the ability to produce an extract-either whole cell or nuclear-that contains all of the activities required to convert pre-mRNA to mRNA. To date, splicing extracts have only been produced from human and S. cerevisiae (yeast) cells. We describe a method to produce whole cell extracts from yeast that support splicing with efficiencies up to 90 %. These extracts have been used to reconstitute snRNAs, screen small molecule libraries for splicing inhibitors, and purify a variety of splicing complexes. PMID:24549660

  16. Nanomechanics of Yeast Surfaces Revealed by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dague, Etienne; Beaussart, Audrey; Alsteens, David

    Despite the large and well-documented characterization of the microbial cell wall in terms of chemical composition, the determination of the mechanical properties of surface molecules in relation to their function remains a key challenge in cell biology.The emergence of powerful tools allowing molecular manipulations has already revolutionized our understanding of the surface properties of fungal cells. At the frontier between nanophysics and molecular biology, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and more specifically single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS), has strongly contributed to our current knowledge of the cell wall organization and nanomechanical properties. However, due to the complexity of the technique, measurements on live cells are still at their infancy.In this chapter, we describe the cell wall composition and recapitulate the principles of AFM as well as the main current methodologies used to perform AFM measurements on live cells, including sample immobilization and tip functionalization.The current status of the progress in probing nanomechanics of the yeast surface is illustrated through three recent breakthrough studies. Determination of the cell wall nanostructure and elasticity is presented through two examples: the mechanical response of mannoproteins from brewing yeasts and elasticity measurements on lacking polysaccharide mutant strains. Additionally, an elegant study on force-induced unfolding and clustering of adhesion proteins located at the cell surface is also presented.

  17. Copper transport in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, L.D.; Connelly, J.L.

    1987-05-01

    Biochemical processes involved in the movement of copper (Cu) into and out of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae have been investigated. Overall uptake of Cu was measured by disappearance of Cu from the reaction mixture by atomic absorption sensitive to 10/sup -10/M. The process of Cu influx is composed of a prerequisite binding and subsequent transport. The binding is non-energetic but is competitively inhibited by zinc(Zn). Transport is energetic as shown by an increased influx in the presence of added glucose. This process is prevented by 2,4-dinitrophenol(DNP). Cu influx is accompanied by an exchange for potassium(K) in a ratio of K:Cu=2:1. The process of Cu efflux involves a second type of binding site, probably of low affinity but large capacity. The presence of glucose causes the binding of extracellular Cu to these sites in a non-energy-dependent mechanism which prevents Cu efflux. Zn does not compete. DNP has no effect. The K:Cu ratio of 4:1 observed in the absence of glucose suggests a lowered net Cu uptake as a result of concomitant efflux activity. Finally, in the absence but not the presence of glucose, the pH of the extracellular solution increases. These observations are consistent with the idea that (a) yeast membrane has two Cu-binding sites, one of which participates in influx and one in efflux; (b) Cu exchanges with K during influx and with protons during efflux.

  18. Nucleotide degradation and ribose salvage in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi-Fan; Létisse, Fabien; Absalan, Farnaz; Lu, Wenyun; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Brown, Greg; Caudy, Amy A; Yakunin, Alexander F; Broach, James R; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2013-01-01

    Nucleotide degradation is a universal metabolic capability. Here we combine metabolomics, genetics and biochemistry to characterize the yeast pathway. Nutrient starvation, via PKA, AMPK/SNF1, and TOR, triggers autophagic breakdown of ribosomes into nucleotides. A protein not previously associated with nucleotide degradation, Phm8, converts nucleotide monophosphates into nucleosides. Downstream steps, which involve the purine nucleoside phosphorylase, Pnp1, and pyrimidine nucleoside hydrolase, Urh1, funnel ribose into the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway. During carbon starvation, the ribose-derived carbon accumulates as sedoheptulose-7-phosphate, whose consumption by transaldolase is impaired due to depletion of transaldolase's other substrate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Oxidative stress increases glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, resulting in rapid consumption of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate to make NADPH for antioxidant defense. Ablation of Phm8 or double deletion of Pnp1 and Urh1 prevent effective nucleotide salvage, resulting in metabolite depletion and impaired survival of starving yeast. Thus, ribose salvage provides means of surviving nutrient starvation and oxidative stress. PMID:23670538

  19. Selective types of autophagy in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Claudine; Reggiori, Fulvio; Peter, Matthias

    2009-09-01

    Autophagy is the process through which cytosol and organelles are sequestered into a double-membrane vesicle called an autophagosome and delivered to the vacuole/lysosome for breakdown and recycling. One of its primary roles in unicellular organisms is to regulate intracellular homeostasis and to adjust organelle numbers in response to stress such as changes in nutrient availability. In higher eukaryotes, autophagy plays also an important role in stress-response, development, cell differentiation, immunity and tumor suppression. Importantly, a misregulation in this catabolic pathway is associated with diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration and myopathies. For a long time, starvation-induced autophagy has been considered a non-selective pathway, however, numerous recent observations revealed that autophagy can also selectively eliminate specific proteins, protein complexes and organelles. Most of these studies used yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. In this compendium, we will review what is known about the mechanisms and roles of selective types of autophagy in yeast and highlight possible connections of these pathways with human diseases. In addition, we will discuss some selective types of autophagy, which have so far only been described in higher eukaryotes. PMID:19264099

  20. Origins of multicellular evolvability in snowflake yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, William C.; Fankhauser, Johnathon D.; Rogers, David W.; Greig, Duncan; Travisano, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Complex life has arisen through a series of ‘major transitions’ in which collectives of formerly autonomous individuals evolve into a single, integrated organism. A key step in this process is the origin of higher-level evolvability, but little is known about how higher-level entities originate and gain the capacity to evolve as an individual. Here we report a single mutation that not only creates a new level of biological organization, but also potentiates higher-level evolvability. Disrupting the transcription factor ACE2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae prevents mother–daughter cell separation, generating multicellular ‘snowflake’ yeast. Snowflake yeast develop through deterministic rules that produce geometrically defined clusters that preclude genetic conflict and display a high broad-sense heritability for multicellular traits; as a result they are preadapted to multicellular adaptation. This work demonstrates that simple microevolutionary changes can have profound macroevolutionary consequences, and suggests that the formation of clonally developing clusters may often be the first step to multicellularity. PMID:25600558

  1. Carrier DNA For Yeast Transformation Preparation of high molecular weight single stranded carrier DNA for yeast transformations.

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    as possible. · For highest transformation efficiency, heat denature and snap-cool DNA prior to use. #12;Carrier DNA For Yeast Transformation Preparation of high molecular weight single stranded carrier DNA for yeast transformations. 1. Dissolve 100 mg DNA in 10 ml TE, pH 8 in a sterile 50 ml plastic

  2. Introducing a New Breed of Wine Yeast: Interspecific Hybridisation between a Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae

    PubMed Central

    Bellon, Jennifer R.; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L.; Dunn, Barbara L.; Chambers, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment. PMID:23614011

  3. Factors Influencing Yeast Fermentation and the Effect of LMW Sugars and Yeast Fermentation on Hearth Bread Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Sahlström; David R. Shelton

    2004-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 81(3):328-335 The purpose of this study was to investigate how wheat cultivar, growth location, type of mill, LMW sugar composition of wheat flours, mixing time, and type of mixer affected yeast fermentation. Also studied was the effect of yeast fermentation and LMW sugar composition on hearth bread quality. To achieve this, 36 different flours were produced from two

  4. Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.

    PubMed

    Bellon, Jennifer R; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L; Dunn, Barbara L; Chambers, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment. PMID:23614011

  5. Tailoring wine yeast for the new millennium: novel approaches to the ancient art of winemaking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isak S. Pretorius

    2000-01-01

    Yeasts are predominant in the ancient and complex process of winemaking. In spontaneous fermentations, there is a progressive growth pattern of indigenous yeasts, with the final stages invariably being dominated by the alcohol-tolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This species is universally known as the 'wine yeast' and is widely preferred for initiating wine fermentations. The primary role of wine yeast

  6. High-Frequency Transformation of Yeast: Autonomous Replication of Hybrid DNA Molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Struhl; Dan T. Stinchcomb; Stewart Scherer; Ronald W. Davis

    1979-01-01

    A set of vector DNAs (Y vectors) useful for the cloning of DNA fragments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and in Escherichia coli are characterized. With these vectors, three modes of yeast transformation are defined. (i) Vectors containing yeast chromosomal DNA sequences (YIp1, YIp5) transform yeast cells at low frequency (1-10 colonies per mu g) and integrate into the genome by

  7. The beetle gut: a hyperdiverse source of novel yeasts

    PubMed Central

    SUH, Sung-Oui; McHUGH, Joseph V.; POLLOCK, David D.; BLACKWELL, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    We isolated over 650 yeasts over a three year period from the gut of a variety of beetles and characterized them on the basis of LSU rDNA sequences and morphological and metabolic traits. Of these, at least 200 were undescribed taxa, a number equivalent to almost 30% of all currently recognized yeast species. A Bayesian analysis of species discovery rates predicts further sampling of previously sampled habitats could easily produce another 100 species. The sampled habitat is, thereby, estimated to contain well over half as many more species as are currently known worldwide. The beetle gut yeasts occur in 45 independent lineages scattered across the yeast phylogenetic tree, often in clusters. The distribution suggests that the some of the yeasts diversified by a process of horizontal transmission in the habitats and subsequent specialization in association with insect hosts. Evidence of specialization comes from consistent associations over time and broad geographical ranges of certain yeast and beetle species. The discovery of high yeast diversity in a previously unexplored habitat is a first step toward investigating the basis of the interactions and their impact in relation to ecology and evolution. PMID:15912941

  8. Advances in Gene Expression in Non-Conventional Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nel, Sanet; Labuschagne, Michel; Albertyn, Jacobus

    Yeast has been a favoured lower eukaryotic system for the expression and production of recombinant proteins for both basic research and practical applications, and the demand for foreign-gene expression systems is increasing rapidly. Despite the vast amount of information on the molecular biology and physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has consequently been the first choice as host system for recombinant protein production in the past, several limitations have been identified in this expression system. These limitations have recently been relieved by the development of expression systems in other yeast species known as ‘ non-conventional yeasts’ or ‘non-Saccharomyces ’ yeasts. With the increasing interest in the biotechnological applications of these yeasts in applied and fundamental studies and processes, the term ‘ non-conventional ’ yeast may well soon become redundant. As there is no universal expression system for heterologous protein production, it is necessary to recognize the merits and demerits of each system in order to make a right choice. This chapter will evaluate the competitive environment of non-conventional expression platforms represented by some of the best-known alternative yeasts systems including Kluyveromyces lactis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia pastoris and more recently, Arxula adeninivorans.

  9. Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

    Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

  10. [Interrelationships between yeast fungi and collembolans in soil].

    PubMed

    Men'ko, E V; Chernov, I Iu; Byzov, B A

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of feeding on green and newly fallen leaves of the small-leaved lime Tilia cordata was studied for the collembolans Protaphorura armata and Vertagopus pseudocinereus. Young leaves grown under sterile conditions and almost free of yeast fungi were established to be toxic to the collembolan V. pseudocinereus: feeding on them led to the death of the animals. Leaves grown under natural conditions were nontoxic: when used by the collembolans as feed, they provided for collembolan growth and fecundity. Feeding preferences of the collembolans in relation to the yeasts attributed to different ecomorphs-epiphytes, litter saprophytes, pedobionts, and saccharobionts-were studied. Of the 24 yeast strains isolated from plant green parts, litter, and soil and assigned to eight species, no strain was revealed that was not used by the collembolans. However, certain yeast strains were preferable for the collembolans. The population of the V. pseudocinereus collembolans feeding on the yeast Rhodotorula glutinis (nss 31-4) exceeded that grown on Cryptococcus terricola (2044) 1.5-fold. Thus, the collembolans have feeding preferences in relation to yeast fungi, as was shown earlier for mycelial micromycetes. The possible mechanisms of the feeding preferences of the collembolans in relation to yeasts are discussed. PMID:17205807

  11. Biosynthesis of Crystalline Silver and Gold Nanoparticles by Extremophilic Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Mourato, Ana; Gadanho, Mário; Lino, Ana R.; Tenreiro, Rogério

    2011-01-01

    The biosynthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated using an extremophilic yeast strain isolated from acid mine drainage in Portugal. Three distinct studies were performed, namely, the growth of yeast strain in presence of metal ions, the use of yeast biomass for the metal nanoparticles synthesis, and of the supernatant obtained after 24-hour incubation of yeast biomass in water. The extremophilic strain under study was able to grow up to an Ag ion concentration of 1.5?mM whereas an increase of Au ion concentration over 0.09?mM caused a strong inhibitory effect. A successful route for the metal NPs synthesis was obtained using the yeast biomass. When the washed yeast cells were in contact with Ag or Au solutions, AgNPs smaller than 20?nm were produced, as for the AuNPs diameter ranged from 30 to 100?nm, as determined through transmission electron microscopy and confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectra. The supernatant-based strategy provided evidence that proteins were released to the medium by the yeasts, which could be responsible for the formation and stabilisation of the Ag NPs, although the involvement of the cell wall seems fundamental for AuNPs synthesis. PMID:21912532

  12. Creation of a novel peptide endowing yeasts with acid tolerance using yeast cell-surface engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Matsui; Kouichi Kuroda; Mitsuyoshi Ueda

    2009-01-01

    The cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an essential role in the biophysical characteristics of the cell surface. The modification of the cell wall property\\u000a is an important factor for cellular adaptation to a stressful environment. In this study, we randomly modified the cell wall\\u000a by displaying combinatorial random peptides on the yeast cell surface, and by screening, we successfully

  13. Characterisation of commercial and natural Torulaspora delbrueckii wine yeast strains.

    PubMed

    van Breda, Valmary; Jolly, Neil; van Wyk, Jessy

    2013-05-15

    Forty-three South African Torulaspora delbrueckii yeast isolates from the ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij yeast culture collection, the T. delbrueckii type strain (CBS 1146), one reference T. delbrueckii strain (CBS 4663), two T. delbrueckii strains isolated from commercial yeast blends (Viniflora® Harmony.nsac and Viniflora® Melody.nsac), and a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (VIN 13) had their identities confirmed and were characterised using conventional and molecular microbiological techniques. These included a selection of growth media as well as CHEF electrophoretic karyotyping and PCR-RFLP analyses. Based on the biochemical and physiological results the strains were divided into 13 groups. The performances of the yeasts were also monitored by means of laboratory-scale fermentations in grape must at 15 °C and 22 °C. The fermentation kinetic data showed that at 22 °C, the yeasts were divided into two distinct groups, a faster and a slower fermenting group. The fermentation curves of the laboratory-scale study at 15 °C showed that, at this lower temperature, the yeasts also fermented at different speeds, but the fermentation curves showed greater separation. The biochemical and physiological grouping did not coincide with the fermentation abilities and good fermenters could be found in more than one group. Chemical analyses of the resultant wines (alcohol, volatile acidity, glycerol, total SO2, residual sugar) were used in Principle Component Analyses. The yeasts that grouped close to the S. cerevisiae reference strain (VIN 13) showed more acceptable wine chemical profiles, while those further away displayed less acceptable profiles. Three locally isolated strains and one commercial T. delbrueckii yeast strain, Viniflora® Harmony.nsac. produced wines with acceptable chemical profiles at both temperatures. These strains also had comparable fermentation kinetics to the S. cerevisiae reference. Therefore, depending on the fermentation temperature, different T. delbrueckii strains will be suitable for specific wine styles and some may even be considered for single inoculations without S. cerevisiae in industrial fermentations. PMID:23558190

  14. Differential Interaction of Cardiac, Skeletal Muscle, and Yeast Tropomyosins with Fluorescent (Pyrene235) Yeast Actin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weizu; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; Sens, Ashley E.; Rubenstein, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    To monitor binding of tropomyosin to yeast actin, we mutated S235 to C and labeled the actin with pyrene maleimide at both C235 and the normally reactive C374. Saturating cardiac tropomyosin (cTM) caused about a 20% increase in pyrene fluorescence of the doubly labeled F-actin but no change in WT actin C374 probe fluorescence. Skeletal muscle tropomyosin caused only a 7% fluorescence increase, suggesting differential binding modes for the two tropomyosins. The increased cTM-induced fluorescence was proportional to the extent of tropomyosin binding. Yeast tropomyosin (TPM1) produced less increase in fluorescence than did cTM, whereas that caused by yeast TPM2 was greater than either TPM1 or cTM. Cardiac troponin largely reversed the cTM-induced fluorescence increase, and subsequent addition of calcium resulted in a small fluorescence recovery. An A230Y mutation, which causes a Ca+2-dependent hypercontractile response of regulated thin filaments, did not change probe235 fluorescence of actin alone or with tropomyosin ± troponin. However, addition of calcium resulted in twice the fluorescence recovery observed with WT actin. Our results demonstrate isoform-specific binding of different tropomyosins to actin and suggest allosteric regulation of the tropomyosin/actin interaction across the actin interdomain cleft. PMID:16326906

  15. Debaryomyces hansenii: An Osmotolerant and Halotolerant Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Monika; Mondal, Alok K.

    The yeast Debaryomyces hansenii which was isolated from saline environments such as sea water, concentrated brines, salty food, is one of the most halotolerant species. It can grow in media containing as high as 4 M NaCl, while the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is limited in media with more than 1.7 M NaCl. This species is very important for food industry as it is used for surface ripening of cheese and meat products. In the recent past, there is growing interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms of high halotolerance exhibited by D. hansenii. Availability of genome sequence of D. hansenii has opened up new vistas in this direction

  16. Interspecies transplacement of mitochondria in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Osuský, M; Kissová, J; Kovác, L

    1997-07-01

    Protoplasts of a respiration-deficient rho(0)strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were incubated with mitochondria isolated from various respiration-competent yeast species under conditions enabling transplacement of mitochondria. Respiration-competent cybrids were selected by plating the protoplasts on agar media containing a non-fermentable energy source. The resulting cybrids contained nuclear DNA of the acceptor S. cerevisiae and mitochondrial DNA of the donor species, as detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomes and restriction analysis of mitochondrial DNA, respectively. Successful restoration of respiration in the S. cerevisiae mutant was achieved by transplacement of mitochondria isolated from the following Saccharomyces species: S. bayanus, S. capensis, S. delbrueckii, S. exiguus, S. italicus and S. oviformis. PMID:9309166

  17. Chromatographic Purification of Highly Active Yeast Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Meskauskas, Arturas; Leshin, Jonathan A.; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosomes are much more labile as compared to their eubacterial and archael counterparts, thus posing a significant challenge to researchers. Particularly troublesome is the fact that lysis of cells releases a large number of proteases and nucleases which can degrade ribosomes. Thus, it is important to separate ribosomes from these enzymes as quickly as possible. Unfortunately, conventional differential ultracentrifugation methods leaves ribosomes exposed to these enzymes for unacceptably long periods of time, impacting their structural integrity and functionality. To address this problem, we utilize a chromatographic method using a cysteine charged Sulfolink resin. This simple and rapid application significantly reduces co-purifying proteolytic and nucleolytic activities, producing high yields of intact, highly biochemically active yeast ribosomes. We suggest that this method should also be applicable to mammalian ribosomes. The simplicity of the method, and the enhanced purity and activity of chromatographically purified ribosome represents a significant technical advancement for the study of eukaryotic ribosomes. PMID:22042245

  18. Chemical genetic and chemogenomic analysis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Namal V C; Sampson, Liam D P; Barber, Jacqueline M; Bellows, David S

    2014-01-01

    Chemogenomics is the systematic genome-wide study of the cellular response to small molecule agents. Modern high-throughput genetic techniques allow massively parallel examination of the genetic effects of such biologically active small molecules (BASM). Here we present methodology for the identification and characterization of potentially bioactive compounds using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. First, we present a method for screening libraries of compounds for growth inhibition in solid or liquid phase, followed by techniques for potency determination using a half-log dose response. Then the Deletion Mutant Array (DMA), a genome-wide library of single gene deletion strains, is used to probe the chemical genetic interactions of individual BASMs on genetic networks-a process that can be achieved with a solid phase pinning assay or a pooled liquid assay utilizing barcode microarray techniques. Finally, we offer some considerations for optimizing these protocols. PMID:25213245

  19. Phyllosphere yeasts rapidly break down biodegradable plastics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily isolated from plant surfaces, displayed strong degradation activity on films made from poly-butylene succinate or poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate. Strains of P. antarctica isolated from leaves and husks of paddy rice displayed strong degradation activity on these films at 30°C. The type strain, P. antarctica JCM 10317, and Pseudozyma spp. strains from phyllosphere secreted a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme with a molecular mass of about 22 kDa. Reliable source of biodegradable plastic-degrading microorganisms are now in our hands. PMID:22126328

  20. Combinatorial Regulation in Yeast Transcription Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao

    2006-03-01

    Yeast has evolved a complex network to regulate its transcriptional program in response to changes in environment. It is quite common that in response to an external stimulus, several transcription factors will be activated and they work in combinations to control different subsets of genes in the genome. We are interested in how the promoters of genes are designed to integrate signals from multiple transcription factors and what are the functional and evolutionary constraints. To answer how, we have developed a number of computational algorithms to systematically map the binding sites and target genes of transcription factors using sequence and gene expression data. To analyze the functional constraints, we have employed mechanistic models to study the dynamic behavior of genes regulated by multiple factors. We have also developed methods to trace the evolution of transcriptional networks via comparative analysis of multiple species.

  1. Biofuels. Engineering alcohol tolerance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Lam, Felix H; Ghaderi, Adel; Fink, Gerald R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2014-10-01

    Ethanol toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae limits titer and productivity in the industrial production of transportation bioethanol. We show that strengthening the opposing potassium and proton electrochemical membrane gradients is a mechanism that enhances general resistance to multiple alcohols. The elevation of extracellular potassium and pH physically bolsters these gradients, increasing tolerance to higher alcohols and ethanol fermentation in commercial and laboratory strains (including a xylose-fermenting strain) under industrial-like conditions. Production per cell remains largely unchanged, with improvements deriving from heightened population viability. Likewise, up-regulation of the potassium and proton pumps in the laboratory strain enhances performance to levels exceeding those of industrial strains. Although genetically complex, alcohol tolerance can thus be dominated by a single cellular process, one controlled by a major physicochemical component but amenable to biological augmentation. PMID:25278607

  2. Sporulation in the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Neiman, Aaron M.

    2011-01-01

    In response to nitrogen starvation in the presence of a poor carbon source, diploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo meiosis and package the haploid nuclei produced in meiosis into spores. The formation of spores requires an unusual cell division event in which daughter cells are formed within the cytoplasm of the mother cell. This process involves the de novo generation of two different cellular structures: novel membrane compartments within the cell cytoplasm that give rise to the spore plasma membrane and an extensive spore wall that protects the spore from environmental insults. This article summarizes what is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling spore assembly with particular attention to how constitutive cellular functions are modified to create novel behaviors during this developmental process. Key regulatory points on the sporulation pathway are also discussed as well as the possible role of sporulation in the natural ecology of S. cerevisiae. PMID:22084423

  3. Movement of cortical actin patches in yeast

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In yeast, actin forms patches associated with the plasma membrane. Patch distribution correlates with polarized growth during the cell cycle and in response to external stimuli. Using green fluorescent protein fused to capping protein to image actin patches in living cells, we find that patches move rapidly and over long distances. Even patches in clusters, such as at the incipient bud site, show movement. Patches move independently of one another and generally over small distances in a local area, but they can also move larger distances, including through the mother-bud neck. Changes in patch polarization occur quickly through the cell cycle. These observations provide important new parameters for a molecular analysis of the regulation and function of actin. PMID:8603918

  4. Fermentation of cellulose and hemicellulose carbohydrates by thermotolerant yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, L.D.; Gong, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Thermotolerant yeast, HT4, grows extensively in the temperature range of 30 to 45/sup 0/C. This yeast also ferments glucose at a high rate in the termperature range of 30 to 50/sup 0/C. When incubated in combination with Trichoderma cellulase to convert cellulose to ethanol, HT4 displays a higher rate of ethanol production at 45/sup 0/C than at lower temperatures. One of the benefits of using thermotolerant yeasts, such as HT4, is that cooling problems can be simplified during large-scale fermentations. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Regulation of yeast replicative life span by thiol oxidoreductases

    PubMed Central

    Hacioglu, Elise; Esmer, Isil; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Thiol-based redox reactions are involved in the regulation of a variety of biological functions, such as protection against oxidative stress, signal transduction and protein folding. Some proteins involved in redox regulation have been shown to modulate life span in organisms from yeast to mammals. To assess the role of thiol oxidoreductases in aging on a genome-wide scale, we analyzed the replicative life span of yeast cells lacking known and candidate thiol oxidoreductases. The data suggest the role of several pathways in regulation of yeast aging, including thioredoxin reduction, protein folding and degradation, peroxide reduction, PIP3 signaling, and ATP synthesis. PMID:20934449

  6. Yeast biotechnology: teaching the old dog new tricks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are regarded as the first microorganisms used by humans to process food and alcoholic beverages. The technology developed out of these ancient processes has been the basis for modern industrial biotechnology. Yeast biotechnology has gained great interest again in the last decades. Joining the potentials of genomics, metabolic engineering, systems and synthetic biology enables the production of numerous valuable products of primary and secondary metabolism, technical enzymes and biopharmaceutical proteins. An overview of emerging and established substrates and products of yeast biotechnology is provided and discussed in the light of the recent literature. PMID:24602262

  7. [Isolation and characterization of lactose-fermenting yeasts Candida kefyr].

    PubMed

    Ianieva, O D; Voronina, H O; Pidhors'ky?, V S

    2013-01-01

    The search for lactose-fermenting yeast strains has been conducted among 162 strains isolated from various plants and 28 yeast strains isolated from cheese. Four yeast strains have been shown to ferment lactose. They have been identified as Candida kefyr. Specific beta-galactosidase activity of the studied strains grown on lactose-containing medium was 1501-2113 U/g cell. The ethanol production by strains C. kefyr C24 and C30 was significantly inhibited by the increase in substrate concentration (100 g/l). PMID:24437197

  8. Yeast Cells Respire, Too (But Not Like Me and You)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Each student adds a small amount of baking yeast to a test tube filled with diluted molasses. Then a second, smaller test tube is placed upside-down inside the solution. As the yeast cells respire, the carbon dioxide they produce is trapped inside the inverted test tube, producing a growing bubble of gas that is easily observed and measured. Students are presented with the procedure for designing an effective experiment; they learn to think critically about experimental results and indirect observations of experimental events.

  9. Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

    1979-01-01

    Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

  10. Unsuspected pyocyanin effect in yeast under anaerobiosis

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Rana; Goubet, Isabelle; Manon, Stephen; Berges, Thierry; Rosenfeld, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The blue–green phenazine, Pyocyanin (PYO), is a well-known virulence factor produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, notably during cystic fibrosis lung infections. It is toxic to both eukaryotic and bacterial cells and several mechanisms, including the induction of oxidative stress, have been postulated. However, the mechanism of PYO toxicity under the physiological conditions of oxygen limitation that are encountered by P. aeruginosa and by target organisms in vivo remains unclear. In this study, wild-type and mutant strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as an effective eukaryotic model to determine the toxicity of PYO (100–500??mol/L) under key growth conditions. Under respiro-fermentative conditions (with glucose as substrate), WT strains and certain H2O2-hypersensitive strains showed a low-toxic response to PYO. Under respiratory conditions (with glycerol as substrate) all the strains tested were significantly more sensitive to PYO. Four antioxidants were tested but only N-acetylcysteine was capable of partially counteracting PYO toxicity. PYO did not appear to affect short-term respiratory O2 uptake, but it did seem to interfere with cyanide-poisoned mitochondria through a complex III-dependent mechanism. Therefore, a combination of oxidative stress and respiration disturbance could partly explain aerobic PYO toxicity. Surprisingly, the toxic effects of PYO were more significant under anaerobic conditions. More pronounced effects were observed in several strains including a ‘petite’ strain lacking mitochondrial DNA, strains with increased or decreased levels of ABC transporters, and strains deficient in DNA damage repair. Therefore, even though PYO is toxic for actively respiring cells, O2 may indirectly protect the cells from the higher anaerobic-linked toxicity of PYO. The increased sensitivity to PYO under anaerobic conditions is not unique to S. cerevisiae and was also observed in another yeast, Candida albicans. PMID:24307284

  11. Measuring mitotic spindle dynamics in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, Kemp

    In order to carry out its life cycle and produce viable progeny through cell division, a cell must successfully coordinate and execute a number of complex processes with high fidelity, in an environment dominated by thermal noise. One important example of such a process is the assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle prior to chromosome segregation. The mitotic spindle is a modular structure composed of two spindle pole bodies, separated in space and spanned by filamentous proteins called microtubules, along which the genetic material of the cell is held. The spindle is responsible for alignment and subsequent segregation of chromosomes into two equal parts; proper spindle positioning and timing ensure that genetic material is appropriately divided amongst mother and daughter cells. In this thesis, I describe fluorescence confocal microscopy and automated image analysis algorithms, which I have used to observe and analyze the real space dynamics of the mitotic spindle in budding yeast. The software can locate structures in three spatial dimensions and track their movement in time. By selecting fluorescent proteins which specifically label the spindle poles and cell periphery, mitotic spindle dynamics have been measured in a coordinate system relevant to the cell division. I describe how I have characterised the accuracy and precision of the algorithms by simulating fluorescence data for both spindle poles and the budding yeast cell surface. In this thesis I also describe the construction of a microfluidic apparatus that allows for the measurement of long time-scale dynamics of individual cells and the development of a cell population. The tools developed in this thesis work will facilitate in-depth quantitative analysis of the non-equilibrium processes in living cells.

  12. Mechanisms of Fatty Acid Toxicity for Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Neal, A. L.; Weinstock, Joan O.; Lampen, J. Oliver

    1965-01-01

    Neal, A. L. (Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N.J.), Joan O. Weinstock, and J. Oliver Lampen. Mechanisms of fatty acid toxicity for yeast. J. Bacteriol. 90:126–131. 1965.—The internal pH of stationary- and log-phase yeast cells dropped quite rapidly when the cells were exposed to acetate buffers at pH 4 and 3, whereas no, or much less, acidification occurred with pyruvate or phosphate. Although inhibition of respiration and glycolysis was almost instantaneous when the cells were exposed to 0.2 m acetate at pH 4, the effect was not permanent and could be reversed by washing them with water or phosphate buffer. Irreversible inhibition did occur, however, at 0.5 m acetate under the same conditions; there was a marked decrease in several glycolytic enzyme systems, which undoubtedly contributed to the irreversible nature of the inhibition. In cell-free homogenates, various low-molecular-weight monocarboxylic acids exhibited about the same inhibitory effect on glycolysis; structural differences such as branching or unsaturation did not cause a marked change in their inhibitory effect. Also, glycolysis was much more sensitive to dicarboxylic acids such as succinate and phthalate than to acetate; phthalate was more inhibitory than succinate. This is in contrast with the noninhibitory nature of succinate and phthalate to whole cells, even at pH 4. Pyruvic acid decarboxylation was inhibited by phthalate but not by succinate. The greater toxic effect of phthalic acid may be due to the fixed steric configuration of its carboxyl groups, as compared with those of succinic acid. PMID:16562006

  13. Genomic adaptation of ethanologenic yeast to biomass conversion inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One major barrier to the economic conversion of biomass to ethanol is inhibitory compounds generated during biomass pretreatment using dilute acid hydrolysis. Major inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) inhibit yeast growth and subsequent fermentation. The ethanologenic yea...

  14. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Comparative gene expression between two yeast

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Maitreya

    . These species include Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Neurospora crassa, Candida albicans, and SchizosaccharomycesRESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Comparative gene expression between two yeast species Yuanfang Guan1 species. To address these challenges, we previously systematically generated expression profiles

  15. Dual fluorochrome flow cytometric assessment of yeast viability.

    PubMed

    Hernlem, Bradley; Hua, Sui-Sheng

    2010-07-01

    A novel staining protocol is reported for the assessment of viability in yeast, specifically the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala. Employing both the red fluorescent membrane potential sensitive oxonol stain DiBAC(4)(5) (Bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)pentamethine oxonol), a structural analog of the commonly used DiBAC(4)(3) (Bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol), with one of the esterase dependent green fluorogenic probes such as CFDA-AM (5-Carboxyfluorescein diacetate, acetoxymethyl ester) or Calcein-AM (Calcein acetoxymethyl ester), a two-color flow cytometric method was developed, which yields rapid quantitative information on the vitality and vigor of yeast cell cultures. The method was validated by cell sorting and analysis of live, heat killed, and UV-treated yeast. PMID:20049598

  16. Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas.

    PubMed

    Park, S J; Son, B H; Choi, S J; Kim, H S; Ahn, Y H

    2014-12-15

    We demonstrated sensitive detection of individual yeast cells and yeast films by using slot antenna arrays operating in the terahertz frequency range. Microorganisms located at the slot area cause a shift in the resonant frequency of the THz transmission. The shift was investigated as a function of the surface number density for a set of devices fabricated on different substrates. In particular, sensors fabricated on a substrate with relatively low permittivity demonstrate higher sensitivity. The frequency shift decreases with increasing slot antenna width for a fixed coverage of yeast film, indicating a field enhancement effect. Furthermore, the vertical range of the effective sensing volume has been studied by varying the thickness of the yeast film. The resonant frequency shift saturates at 3.5 ?m for a slot width of 2 ?m. In addition, the results of finite-difference time-domain simulations are in good agreement with our experimental data. PMID:25606992

  17. Dissecting the spatial structure of overlapping transcription in budding yeast

    E-print Network

    Danford, Timothy W. (Timothy William), 1979-

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents a computational and algorithmic method for the analysis of high-resolution transcription data in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We begin by describing a computational system for storing ...

  18. Baker's yeast assay procedure for testing heavy metal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bitton, G.; Koopman, B.; Wang, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is microorganism which is commercially available and sold as packaged dry pellets in any food store at low cost. Studies have been undertaken on the effects of organic xenobiotics as well as heavy metals on yeast metabolism. This type of study has been generally useful in examining the mechanism(s) of chemical toxicity. However, a rapid and quantitative toxicity test using S. cerevisiae as the test organism has not been developed. The purpose of this study was to develop a toxicity assay for heavy metals, using commercial dry yeast as the test microorganism. This rapid and simple procedure is based on the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) to INT-formazan by the yeast electron transport system. The scoring of active cells following exposure to heavy metals was undertaken according to the MINT (malachite green-INT) method developed by Bitton and Koopman.

  19. Architecture and evolutionary stability of yeast signaling pathways

    E-print Network

    Gritton, Jeffrey S

    2006-01-01

    I have researched the effect that selection for the function of the High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) pathway has on the evolutionary stability of the pheromone response pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I first ...

  20. Reprogrammed glucose metabolic pathways of inhibitor-tolerant yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Representative inhibitory compounds such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural generated from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment inhibit yeast growth and interfere with the subsequent ethanol fermentation. Evolutionary engineering under laboratory settings is a powerful tool that can be used to...

  1. Physical Properties of Polymorphic Yeast Prion Amyloid Fibers

    E-print Network

    Castro, Carlos E.

    Amyloid fibers play important roles in many human diseases and natural biological processes and have immense potential as novel nanomaterials. We explore the physical properties of polymorphic amyloid fibers formed by yeast ...

  2. Variable flocculation profiles of yeast strains isolated from cachaça distilleries.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Florencia; Correa, Lygia Fátima da Mata; Araújo, Thalita Macedo; Mota, Bruno Eduardo Fernandes; da Conceição, Luís Eduardo F Ribeiro; Castro, Ieso de Miranda; Brandão, Rogelio Lopes

    2014-11-01

    In cachaça production, the use of yeast cells as starters with predictable flocculation behavior facilitates the cell recovery at the end of each fermentation cycle. Therefore, the aim of this work was to explain the behavior of cachaça yeast strains in fermentation vats containing sugarcane through the determination of biochemical and molecular parameters associated with flocculation phenotypes. By analyzing thirteen cachaça yeast strains isolated from different distilleries, our results demonstrated that neither classic biochemical measurements (e.g., percentage of flocculation, EDTA sensitivity, cell surface hydrophobicity, and sugar residues on the cell wall) nor modern molecular approaches, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR (q-PCR), were sufficient to distinctly classify the cachaça yeast strains according to their flocculation behavior. It seems that flocculation is indeed a strain-specific phenomenon that is difficult to explain and/or categorize by the available methodologies. PMID:25209588

  3. Biodiversity of brewery yeast strains and their fermentative activities.

    PubMed

    Berlowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Dorota; Rajkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the genetic, biochemical, fermentative and physiological characteristics of brewery yeast strains and performed a hierarchical cluster analysis to evaluate their similarity. We used five different ale and lager yeast strains, originating from different European breweries and deposited at the National Collection of Yeast Cultures (UK). Ale and lager strains exhibited different genomic properties, but their assimilation profiles and pyruvate decarboxylase activities corresponded to their species classifications. The activity of another enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase, varied between different brewing strains. Our results confirmed that ATP and glycogen content, and the activity of the key metabolic enzymes succinate dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase, may be good general indicators of cell viability. However, the genetic properties, physiology and fermentation capacity of different brewery yeasts are unique to individual strains. PMID:25267007

  4. THE UPTAKE OF AROMATIC AND BRANCHED CHAIN HYDROCARBONS BY YEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of the hydrocarbon utilizing yeasts, Candida maltosa and C. lipolytica, have shown that both were capable of reducing recoverable amounts of branched chain and aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture of naphthalene, tetradecane, hexadecane, pristane (tetra-methylpentadecane). ...

  5. The yeast vacuolar membrane proteome Elena Wiederhold1

    E-print Network

    Breitling, Rainer

    1 The yeast vacuolar membrane proteome Elena Wiederhold1 , Tejas Gandhi1 , Hjalmar P. Permentier1.mcponline.orgDownloadedfrom #12;4 Summary Transport of solutes between the cytosol and the vacuolar lumen is of crucial importance

  6. The translational landscape of fission yeast meiosis and sporulation

    E-print Network

    Duncan, Caia D. S.; Mata, Juan

    2014-06-15

    Sexual development in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe culminates in meiosis and sporulation. We used ribosome profiling to investigate the translational landscape of this process. We show that the translation efficiency of hundreds...

  7. Transcriptional regulatory network for sexual differentiation in fission yeast

    E-print Network

    Mata, Juan; Wilbrey, Anna; Bahler, Jurg

    2007-10-10

    Abstract Background Changes in gene expression are hallmarks of cellular differentiation. Sexual differentiation in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) provides a model system for gene expression programs accompanying and driving cellular...

  8. Oxidative Stress and Programmed Cell Death in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Farrugia, Gianluca; Balzan, Rena

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have long served as useful models for the study of oxidative stress, an event associated with cell death and severe human pathologies. This review will discuss oxidative stress in yeast, in terms of sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their molecular targets, and the metabolic responses elicited by cellular ROS accumulation. Responses of yeast to accumulated ROS include upregulation of antioxidants mediated by complex transcriptional changes, activation of pro-survival pathways such as mitophagy, and programmed cell death (PCD) which, apart from apoptosis, includes pathways such as autophagy and necrosis, a form of cell death long considered accidental and uncoordinated. The role of ROS in yeast aging will also be discussed. PMID:22737670

  9. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  10. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  12. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  13. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  14. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  15. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  16. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  19. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  1. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  3. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  4. Reprogrammed Glucose Metabolic Pathways of Inhibitor-Tolerant Yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Representative inhibitory compounds such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural generated from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment inhibit yeast growth and interfere with the subsequent ethanol fermentation. Evolutionary engineering under laboratory settings is a powerful tool that can be used to ...

  5. Arabinose utilization by xylose-fermenting yeasts and fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. McMillan; Brian L. Boynton

    1994-01-01

    Various wild-type yeasts and fungi were screened to evaluate their ability to fermentl-arabinose under oxygen-limited conditions when grown in defined minimal media containing mixtures ofl-ara-binose,d-xylose, andd-glucose. Although all of the yeasts and some of the fungi consumed arabinose, arabinose was not fermented to ethanol by any\\u000a of the strains tested. Arabitol was the only major product other than cell mass

  6. A quantitative screening of some xylose-fermenting yeast isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. du Preez; B. A. Prior

    1985-01-01

    Summary A quantitative screening procedure for xylose fermentation was conducted on 56 yeast isolates. Several of the isolates were found to be markedly superior toC. shehatae CSIR-Y492, one of the better xylose-fermenting yeasts identified thus far. The outstanding isolate was a strain ofPichia stipitis which had an ethanol yield coefficient of 0.45 from xylose and which produced no detectable amounts

  7. Relation between phylogeny and physiology in some ascomycetous yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wouter J. Middelhoven; Cletus P. Kurtzman

    2003-01-01

    The question of whether yeasts with similar physiological properties are closely related has been examined using recently\\u000a published phylogenetic analyses of 26S domain D1\\/D2 rDNA nucleotide sequences from all currently recognized ascomycetous yeasts.\\u000a When apparently unique metabolic pathways are examined, some relationships between physiology and rDNA phylogeny are evident.\\u000a Most Candida and Pichia species that are able to assimilate methanol

  8. Dynamics of Nuclear Pore Distribution in Nucleoporin Mutant Yeast Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naïma Belgareh; Valérie Doye

    1997-01-01

    To follow the dynamics of nuclear pore dis- tribution in living yeast cells, we have generated fusion proteins between the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the yeast nucleoporins Nup49p and Nup133p. In nup133 2 dividing cells that display a constitutive nu- clear pore clustering, in vivo analysis of GFP-Nup49p localization revealed changes in the distribution of nu- clear pore complex

  9. Enrichment of phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity of Rhodotorula yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godwin B. D’Cunha

    2005-01-01

    An improved method for the enrichment of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (E.C.4.3.1.5-PAL) activity of Rhodotorula yeast is described. Whole cells of various Rhodotorula yeast strains showed low levels of PAL activity on account of membrane permeability barriers for the substrate, l-phenylalanine. Different methods of enriching PAL activity including ultra-sonication, detergent and enzyme solubilization were investigated in this study in an effort

  10. Determination of Glucose Concentration in Yeast Culture Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Seiichi; Kishimoto, Tomokazu; Muraji, Masafumi; Tsujimoto, Hiroaki; Azuma, Masayuki; Ooshima, Hiroshi

    The present paper describes a sensor for measuring the glucose concentration of yeast culture medium. The sensor determines glucose concentration by measuring the yield of hydrogen peroxide produced by glucose oxidase, which is monitored as luminescence using photomultiplier. The present sensor is able to measure low glucose concentration in media in which yeast cells keep respiration state. We herein describe the system and the characteristics of the glucose sensor.

  11. Formation of Complex and Unstable Chromosomal Translocations in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina H. Schmidt; Emilie Viebranz; Lillian Doerfler; Christina Lester; Aaron Rubenstein; Anja-Katrin Bielinsky

    2010-01-01

    Genome instability, associated with chromosome breakage syndromes and most human cancers, is still poorly understood. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, numerous genes with roles in the preservation of genome integrity have been identified. DNA-damage-checkpoint-deficient yeast cells that lack Sgs1, a RecQ-like DNA helicase related to the human Bloom's-syndrome-associated helicase BLM, show an increased rate of genome instability, and we have

  12. Occurrence and diversity of marine yeasts in Antarctica environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue; Hua, Mingxia; Song, Chunli; Chi, Zhenming

    2012-03-01

    A total of 28 yeast strains were obtained from the sea sediment of Antarctica. According to the results of routine identification and molecular characterization, the strains belonged to species of Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula slooffiae, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mrakia frigida and Guehomyces pullulans, respectively. The Antarctica yeasts have wide potential applications in biotechnology, for some of them can produce ?-galactosidase and killer toxins.

  13. An Unidentified Ubichromenol-like Lipid Constituent of Bakers' Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Edwin; J. Green; A. T. Diplock; J. Bunyan

    1961-01-01

    DURING investigations of the unsaponifiable fraction of bakers' yeast (Distillers Co., Ltd.) by two-dimensional chromatography1, a heavy spot was observed on the papers in a position very close to that expected for ubichromenol-30, which substance is present only in very small amounts in this yeast (preceding communication). The new substance was-like ubichromenol-30-slowly reducing to ferric chloride-dipyridyl but, on papers pretreated

  14. Magnetically responsive yeast cells: methods of preparation and applications.

    PubMed

    Safarik, Ivo; Maderova, Zdenka; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Baldikova, Eva; Horska, Katerina; Safarikova, Mirka

    2015-01-01

    Magnetically modified yeast cells represent an interesting type of biocomposite material, applicable in various areas of bioanalysis, biotechnology and environmental technology. In this review, typical examples of magnetic modifications of yeast cells of the genera Saccharomyces, Kluyveromyces, Rhodotorula and Yarrowia are presented, as well as their possible applications as biocatalysts, active part of biosensors and biosorbents for the separation of organic xenobiotics, heavy metal ions and radionuclides. PMID:25284221

  15. Exploration of sulfur metabolism in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnès Hébert; Marie-Pierre Forquin-Gomez; Aurélie Roux; Julie Aubert; Christophe Junot; Valentin Loux; Jean-François Heilier; Pascal Bonnarme; Jean-Marie Beckerich; Sophie Landaud

    Hemiascomycetes are separated by considerable evolutionary distances and, as a consequence, the mechanisms involved in sulfur\\u000a metabolism in the extensively studied yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, could be different from those of other species of the phylum. This is the first time that a global view of sulfur metabolism\\u000a is reported in the biotechnological yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. We used combined approaches based

  16. The Fermentative and Aromatic Ability of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Montaño, Dulce M.; de Jesús Ramírez Córdova, J.

    Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation from grape, agave and others musts into an alcoholic beverage is usually characterized by the presence of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These genera yeasts are dominant in the early stages of the alcoholic fermentation. However the genera Hanseniaspora and Kloeckera may survive at a significant level during fermentation and can influence the chemical composition of the beverage. Several strains belonging to the species Kloeckera api-culata and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii have been extensively studied in relation to the formation of some metabolic compounds affecting the bouquet of the final product. Indeed some apiculate yeast showed positive oenological properties and their use in the alcoholic fermentations has been suggested to enhance the aroma and flavor profiles. The non- Saccharomyces yeasts have the capability to produce and secrete enzymes in the medium, such as ? -glucosidases, which release monoterpenes derived from their glycosylated form. These compounds contribute to the higher fruit-like characteristic of final product. This chapter reviews metabolic activity of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora yeasts in several aspects: fermentative capability, aromatic compounds production and transformation of aromatic precursor present in the must, also covers the molecular methods for identifying of the yeast

  17. Electric field-induced effects on yeast cell wall permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Stirke, Arunas; Zimkus, Aurelijus; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Balevicius, Saulius; Zurauskiene, Nerija; Saulis, Gintautas; Chaustova, Larisa; Stankevic, Voitech; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2014-02-01

    The permeability of the yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to lipophilic tetraphenylphosphonium cations (TPP(+) ) after their treatment with single square-shaped strong electric field pulses was analyzed. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) with durations from 5 to 150?µs and strengths from 0 to 10?kV/cm were applied to a standard electroporation cuvette filled with the appropriate buffer. The TPP(+) absorption process was analyzed using an ion selective microelectrode (ISE) and the plasma membrane permeability was determined by measurements obtained using a calcein blue dye release assay. The viability of the yeast and the inactivation of the cells were determined using the optical absorbance method. The experimental data taken after yeasts were treated with PEF and incubated for 3?min showed an increased uptake of TPP(+) by the yeast. This process can be controlled by setting the amplitude and pulse duration of the applied PEF. The kinetics of the TPP(+) absorption process is described using the second order absolute rate equation. It was concluded that the changes of the charge on the yeast cell wall, which is the main barrier for TPP(+) , is due to the poration of the plasma membrane. The applicability of the TPP(+) absorption measurements for the analysis of yeast cells electroporation process is also discussed. PMID:24203648

  18. Yeasts from glacial ice of Patagonian Andes, Argentina.

    PubMed

    de Garcia, Virginia; Brizzio, Silvia; van Broock, María Rosa

    2012-11-01

    Glacial ice and snow are known habitats for cold-adapted microorganisms. Research on cold-adapted yeast biodiversity from Perito Moreno and Mount Tronador glaciers (Patagonia, Argentina), and production of extracellular enzymatic activity at low temperatures (5 and 18 °C), was performed and described in this study. Ninety percent (90%) of the isolates were basidiomycetous; 16 genera and 29 species were identified. Twenty-five percent (25%) of total isolates corresponded to psychrophilic yeasts, whereas 75% were psychrotolerant yeasts. Eighty-five percent (85%) of all isolates had at least one enzymatic activity. Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster classification revealed a relationship between certain genera and some enzymatic activities. Cold-adapted yeast isolates were able to hydrolyze natural compounds (casein, lipids, starch, pectin, and carboxymethylcellulose) at low temperatures, suggesting a significant ecological role of these organisms as organic matter decomposers and nutrient cyclers. These yeasts are especially relevant for metabolic and ecological studies, as well as for yeast-based biotechnological process at low temperatures. PMID:22882330

  19. Automated Yeast Mating Protocol Using Open Reading Frames from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genome to Improve Yeast Strains for Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Engineering the industrial ethanologen Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize pentose sugars from lignocellulosic biomass is critical for commercializing cellulosic fuel ethanol production. Approaches to engineer pentose-fermenting yeasts have required expression of additional genes. We implemented a...

  20. X-ray irradiation of yeast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Alessandra; Batani, Dimitri; Previdi, Fabio; Conti, Aldo; Pisani, Francesca; Botto, Cesare; Bortolotto, Fulvia; Torsiello, Flavia; Turcu, I. C. Edmond; Allott, Ric M.; Lisi, Nicola; Milani, Marziale; Costato, Michele; Pozzi, Achille; Koenig, Michel

    1997-10-01

    Saccharomyces Cerevisiae yeast cells were irradiated using the soft X-ray laser-plasma source at Rutherford Laboratory. The aim was to produce a selective damage of enzyme metabolic activity at the wall and membrane level (responsible for fermentation) without interfering with respiration (taking place in mitochondria) and with nuclear and DNA activity. The source was calibrated by PIN diodes and X-ray spectrometers. Teflon stripes were chosen as targets for the UV laser, emitting X-rays at about 0.9 keV, characterized by a very large decay exponent in biological matter. X-ray doses to the different cell compartments were calculated following a Lambert-Bouguet-Beer law. After irradiation, the selective damage to metabolic activity at the membrane level was measured by monitoring CO2 production with pressure silicon detectors. Preliminary results gave evidence of pressure reduction for irradiated samples and non-linear response to doses. Also metabolic oscillations were evidenced in cell suspensions and it was shown that X-ray irradiation changed the oscillation frequency.

  1. The Regulation of Filamentous Growth in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul J.; Sprague, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous growth is a nutrient-regulated growth response that occurs in many fungal species. In pathogens, filamentous growth is critical for host–cell attachment, invasion into tissues, and virulence. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes filamentous growth, which provides a genetically tractable system to study the molecular basis of the response. Filamentous growth is regulated by evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways. One of these pathways is a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. A remarkable feature of the filamentous growth MAPK pathway is that it is composed of factors that also function in other pathways. An intriguing challenge therefore has been to understand how pathways that share components establish and maintain their identity. Other canonical signaling pathways—rat sarcoma/protein kinase A (RAS/PKA), sucrose nonfermentable (SNF), and target of rapamycin (TOR)—also regulate filamentous growth, which raises the question of how signals from multiple pathways become integrated into a coordinated response. Together, these pathways regulate cell differentiation to the filamentous type, which is characterized by changes in cell adhesion, cell polarity, and cell shape. How these changes are accomplished is also discussed. High-throughput genomics approaches have recently uncovered new connections to filamentous growth regulation. These connections suggest that filamentous growth is a more complex and globally regulated behavior than is currently appreciated, which may help to pave the way for future investigations into this eukaryotic cell differentiation behavior. PMID:22219507

  2. Yeast Sirtuins and the Regulation of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wierman, Margaret B.; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    The Sirtuins are a phylogenetically conserved family of NAD+ dependent protein deacetylases that consume one molecule of NAD+ for every deacetylated lysine side chain. Their requirement for NAD+ potentially makes them prone to regulation by fluctuations in NAD+ or biosynthesis intermediates, thus linking them to cellular metabolism. The Sir2 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the founding sirtuin family member and has been well characterized as a histone deacetylase that functions in transcriptional silencing of heterochromatin domains and as a pro longevity factor for replicative lifespan, defined as the number of times a mother cells divides (buds) before senescing. Deleting SIR2 shortens replicative lifespan, while increased gene dosage causes extension. Furthermore, Sir2 has been implicated in mediating the beneficial effects of caloric restriction on lifespan, not only in yeast, but also higher eukaryotes. While this paradigm has had its share of disagreements and debate, it has also helped rapidly drive the aging research field forward. S. cerevisiae has four additional sirtuins, Hst1, Hst2, Hst3, and Hst4. This review discusses the function of Sir2 and the Hst homologs in replicative aging and chronological aging, and also addresses how the sirtuins are regulated in response to environmental stresses such as caloric restriction. PMID:24164855

  3. High gas pressure effects on yeast.

    PubMed

    Espinasse, V; Perrier-Cornet, J-M; Marecat, A; Gervais, P

    2008-11-01

    Dried microorganisms are particularly resistant to high hydrostatic pressure effects. However, exposure to high pressures of nitrogen proved to be effective in inactivating dried yeasts. In this study, we tried to elucidate this mechanism on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. High-pressure treatments were performed using different inert gases at 150 MPa and 25 degrees C with holding time values up to 12 months. The influence of cell hydration was also investigated. For fully hydrated cells, pressurized gases had little specific effect: cell inactivation was mainly due to compression effects. However, dried cells were sensitive to high pressure of gases. In this latter case, two inactivation kinetics were observed. For holding time up to 1 h, the inactivation rate increased to 4 log and was linked to a loss of membrane integrity and the presence of damage on the cell wall. In such case cell inactivation would be due to gas sorption and desorption phenomena which would rupture dried cells during a fast pressure release. Gas sorption would occur in cell lipid phases. For longer holding times, the inactivation rate increased more slightly due to compression effects and/or to a slower gas sorption. Water therefore played a key role in cell sensitivity to fast gas pressure release. Two hypotheses were proposed to explain this phenomenon: the rigidity of vitrified dried cells and the presence of glassy solid phases which would favor intracellular gas expansion. Our results showed that dried microorganisms can be ruptured and inactivated by a fast pressure release with gases. PMID:18814287

  4. Ribonucleotide incorporation by yeast DNA polymerase ?.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Alena V; Nick McElhinny, Stephanie A; Watts, Brian E; Kunkel, Thomas A; Burgers, Peter M

    2014-06-01

    During replication in yeast, the three B family DNA replicases frequently incorporate ribonucleotides (rNMPs) into DNA, and their presence in the nuclear genome can affect genome stability. This prompted us to examine ribonucleotide incorporation by the fourth B family member, Pol ?, the enzyme responsible for the majority of damage-induced mutagenesis in eukaryotes. We first show that Pol ? inserts rNMPs into DNA and can extend primer termini containing 3'-ribonucleotides. We then measure rNMP incorporation by Pol ? in the presence of its cofactors, RPA, RFC and PCNA and at normal cellular dNTP and rNTP concentrations that exist under unstressed conditions. Under these conditions, Pol ? stably incorporates one rNMP for every 200-300 dNMPs incorporated, a frequency that is slightly higher than for the high fidelity replicative DNA polymerases. Under damage-induced conditions wherein cellular dNTP concentrations are elevated 5-fold, Pol ? only incorporates one rNMP per 1300 dNMPs. Functional interaction of Pol ? with the mutasome assembly factor Rev1 gives comparable rNMP incorporation frequencies. These results suggest that ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA during Pol ?-mediated mutagenesis in vivo may be rare. PMID:24674899

  5. Modular assembly of yeast cytochrome oxidase

    PubMed Central

    McStay, Gavin P.; Su, Chen Hsien; Tzagoloff, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of yeast cytochrome oxidase (COX) biogenesis identified Cox1p, one of the three mitochondrially encoded core subunits, in two high–molecular weight complexes combined with regulatory/assembly factors essential for expression of this subunit. In the present study we use pulse-chase labeling experiments in conjunction with isolated mitochondria to identify new Cox1p intermediates and place them in an ordered pathway. Our results indicate that before its assimilation into COX, Cox1p transitions through five intermediates that are differentiated by their compositions of accessory factors and of two of the eight imported subunits. We propose a model of COX biogenesis in which Cox1p and the two other mitochondrial gene products, Cox2p and Cox3p, constitute independent assembly modules, each with its own complement of subunits. Unlike their bacterial counterparts, which are composed only of the individual core subunits, the final sequence in which the mitochondrial modules associate to form the holoenzyme may have been conserved during evolution. PMID:23266989

  6. Mechanisms of Chromosome Number Evolution in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Jonathan L.; Byrne, Kevin P.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.

    2011-01-01

    The whole-genome duplication (WGD) that occurred during yeast evolution changed the basal number of chromosomes from 8 to 16. However, the number of chromosomes in post-WGD species now ranges between 10 and 16, and the number in non-WGD species (Zygosaccharomyces, Kluyveromyces, Lachancea, and Ashbya) ranges between 6 and 8. To study the mechanism by which chromosome number changes, we traced the ancestry of centromeres and telomeres in each species. We observe only two mechanisms by which the number of chromosomes has decreased, as indicated by the loss of a centromere. The most frequent mechanism, seen 8 times, is telomere-to-telomere fusion between two chromosomes with the concomitant death of one centromere. The other mechanism, seen once, involves the breakage of a chromosome at its centromere, followed by the fusion of the two arms to the telomeres of two other chromosomes. The only mechanism by which chromosome number has increased in these species is WGD. Translocations and inversions have cycled telomere locations, internalizing some previously telomeric genes and creating novel telomeric locations. Comparison of centromere structures shows that the length of the CDEII region is variable between species but uniform within species. We trace the complete rearrangement history of the Lachancea kluyveri genome since its common ancestor with Saccharomyces and propose that its exceptionally low level of rearrangement is a consequence of the loss of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway in this species. PMID:21811419

  7. Heterochromatin structure: lessons from the budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xin

    2014-10-01

    The eukaryotic genome can be roughly divided into euchromatin and heterochromatin domains that are structurally and functionally distinct. Heterochromatin is characterized by its high compactness and its inhibitory effect on DNA transactions such as gene expression. Formation of heterochromatin involves special histone modifications and the recruitment and spread of silencing complexes and causes changes in the primary and higher order structures of chromatin. The past two decades have seen dramatic advances in dissecting the molecular aspects of heterochromatin because of the identification of the histone code for heterochromatin as well as its writers and erasers (histone-modifying enzymes) and readers (silencing factors recognizing histone modifications). How heterochromatic histone modifications and silencing factors contribute to the special primary and higher order structures of heterochromatin has begun to be understood. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has long been used as a model organism for heterochromatin studies. Results from these studies have contributed significantly to the elucidation of the general principles governing the formation, maintenance, and function of heterochromatin. This review is focused on investigations into the structural aspects of heterochromatin in S. cerevisiae. Current understanding of other aspects of heterochromatin including how it promotes gene silencing and its epigenetic inheritance is briefly summarized. PMID:25355678

  8. Genetic Basis of Metabolome Variation in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Breunig, Jeffrey S.; Hackett, Sean R.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism, the conversion of nutrients into usable energy and biochemical building blocks, is an essential feature of all cells. The genetic factors responsible for inter-individual metabolic variability remain poorly understood. To investigate genetic causes of metabolome variation, we measured the concentrations of 74 metabolites across 100 segregants from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cross by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found 52 quantitative trait loci for 34 metabolites. These included linkages due to overt changes in metabolic genes, e.g., linking pyrimidine intermediates to the deletion of ura3. They also included linkages not directly related to metabolic enzymes, such as those for five central carbon metabolites to ira2, a Ras/PKA pathway regulator, and for the metabolites, S-adenosyl-methionine and S-adenosyl-homocysteine to slt2, a MAP kinase involved in cell wall integrity. The variant of ira2 that elevates metabolite levels also increases glucose uptake and ethanol secretion. These results highlight specific examples of genetic variability, including in genes without prior known metabolic regulatory function, that impact yeast metabolism. PMID:24603560

  9. Electrochemical Regulation of Budding Yeast Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Piel, Matthieu; Chang, Fred; Minc, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Cells are naturally surrounded by organized electrical signals in the form of local ion fluxes, membrane potential, and electric fields (EFs) at their surface. Although the contribution of electrochemical elements to cell polarity and migration is beginning to be appreciated, underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we show that an exogenous EF can orient cell polarization in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, directing the growth of mating projections towards sites of hyperpolarized membrane potential, while directing bud emergence in the opposite direction, towards sites of depolarized potential. Using an optogenetic approach, we demonstrate that a local change in membrane potential triggered by light is sufficient to direct cell polarization. Screens for mutants with altered EF responses identify genes involved in transducing electrochemical signals to the polarity machinery. Membrane potential, which is regulated by the potassium transporter Trk1p, is required for polarity orientation during mating and EF response. Membrane potential may regulate membrane charges through negatively charged phosphatidylserines (PSs), which act to position the Cdc42p-based polarity machinery. These studies thus define an electrochemical pathway that directs the orientation of cell polarization. PMID:25548923

  10. Stochastic exit from mitosis in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ball, David A; Ahn, Tae-Hyuk; Wang, Pengyuan; Chen, Katherine C; Cao, Yang; Tyson, John J; Peccoud, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Unlike many mutants that are completely viable or inviable, the CLB2-db? clb5? mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is inviable in glucose but partially viable on slower growth media such as raffinose. On raffinose, the mutant cells can bud and divide but in each cycle there is a chance that a cell will fail to divide (telophase arrest), causing it to exit the cell cycle. This effect gives rise to a stochastic phenotype that cannot be explained by a deterministic model. We measure the interbud times of wild-type and mutant cells growing on raffinose and compute statistics and distributions to characterize the mutant's behavior. We convert a detailed deterministic model of the budding yeast cell cycle to a stochastic model and determine the extent to which it captures the stochastic phenotype of the mutant strain. Predictions of the mathematical model are in reasonable agreement with our experimental data and suggest directions for improving the model. Ultimately, the ability to accurately model stochastic phenotypes may prove critical to understanding disease and therapeutic interventions in higher eukaryotes. PMID:21350333

  11. Purity Control of the Production of Baker's Yeast Employing a Fluorescent Antiserum

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Ch.; Klaushofer, H.

    1961-01-01

    A simple staining procedure for the rapid detection of wild yeasts contaminating baker's yeast during the course of industrial production is described. Fluorescein-labeled, specific antiserum against Saccharomyces cerevisiae is applied to smears of baker's yeast which are then examined by ultraviolet microscopy. Optimal results are obtained with the combined phase contrast and fluorescence which makes the S. cerevisiae appear green, whereas cells of wild yeasts are visible in bright red counterstain. With this method, wild yeasts could be identified in baker's yeast at a dilution of 1:10,000. Images FIG. 1 PMID:14460617

  12. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Cavalheiro, A.; Monteiro, G.

    2013-01-01

    The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast. PMID:24516432

  13. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Cavalheiro, A; Monteiro, G

    2013-01-01

    The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast. PMID:24516432

  14. Isolating potentiated Hsp104 variants using yeast proteinopathy models.

    PubMed

    Jackrel, Meredith E; Tariq, Amber; Yee, Keolamau; Weitzman, Rachel; Shorter, James

    2014-01-01

    Many protein-misfolding disorders can be modeled in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proteins such as TDP-43 and FUS, implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and ?-synuclein, implicated in Parkinson's disease, are toxic and form cytoplasmic aggregates in yeast. These features recapitulate protein pathologies observed in patients with these disorders. Thus, yeast are an ideal platform for isolating toxicity suppressors from libraries of protein variants. We are interested in applying protein disaggregases to eliminate misfolded toxic protein conformers. Specifically, we are engineering Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ protein from yeast that is uniquely capable of solubilizing both disordered aggregates and amyloid and returning the proteins to their native conformations. While Hsp104 is highly conserved in eukaryotes and eubacteria, it has no known metazoan homologue. Hsp104 has only limited ability to eliminate disordered aggregates and amyloid fibers implicated in human disease. Thus, we aim to engineer Hsp104 variants to reverse the protein misfolding implicated in neurodegenerative disorders. We have developed methods to screen large libraries of Hsp104 variants for suppression of proteotoxicity in yeast. As yeast are prone to spontaneous nonspecific suppression of toxicity, a two-step screening process has been developed to eliminate false positives. Using these methods, we have identified a series of potentiated Hsp104 variants that potently suppress the toxicity and aggregation of TDP-43, FUS, and ?-synuclein. Here, we describe this optimized protocol, which could be adapted to screen libraries constructed using any protein backbone for suppression of toxicity of any protein that is toxic in yeast. PMID:25407485

  15. The promoter of the yeast INO4 regulatory gene: a model of the simplest yeast promoter.

    PubMed

    Robinson, K A; Lopes, J M

    2000-05-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the phospholipid biosynthetic genes are transcriptionally regulated in response to inositol and choline. This regulation requires the transcriptional activator proteins Ino4p and Ino2p, which form a heterodimer that binds to the UAS(INO) element. We have previously shown that the promoters of the INO4 and INO2 genes are among the weakest promoters characterized in yeast. Because little is known about the promoters of weakly expressed yeast genes, we report here the analysis of the constitutive INO4 promoter. Promoter deletion constructs scanning 1,000 bp upstream of the INO4 gene identified a small region (-58 to -46) that is absolutely required for expression. S1 nuclease mapping shows that this region contains the transcription start sites for the INO4 gene. An additional element (-114 to -86) modestly enhances INO4 promoter activity (fivefold). Thus, the region required for INO4 transcription is limited to 68 bp. These studies also found that INO4 gene expression is not autoregulated by Ino2p and Ino4p, despite the presence of a putative UAS(INO) element in the INO4 promoter. We further report that the INO4 steady-state transcript levels and Ino4p levels are regulated twofold in response to inositol and choline, suggesting a posttranscriptional mechanism of regulation. PMID:10781542

  16. Oxygen requirements of yeasts. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida tropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, W.; Scheffers, W.A.; Batenburg-Van Der Vegte, W.H.; Van Dijken, J.P. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

    1990-12-01

    Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly ({mu}{sub max}, 0.03 and 0.05 h{sup {minus}1}, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth.

  17. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

  18. [Molecular identification methods of yeasts of biotechnological interest].

    PubMed

    Orbera-Ratón, Teresa

    2004-03-01

    Yeasts have numerous applications in modern and traditional biotechnology. They take place in production of food, unicellular protein and products with added value, and in the last decades they have been incorporated to the biotechnology industry as host in the production of eukaryotes proteins. Apart from their advantages, some genera are the causes of mycosis on man and in some cases, are opportunistic pathogens associated to diseases such as HIV. They are also agents responsible for the damaging of fresh and elaborated food for human consumption. For these reasons, the quick and accurate identification of industrially, environmentally and clinically significant yeasts is important. Yeast taxonomy has been supported by conventional techniques, based on morphological and physiological descriptions of species and genera, but depend on strain culture conditions, therefore they have introduced errors in yeast taxonomy and originated the duality of their nomenclature. These difficulties have been solved with the application of molecular techniques, based on the sequence analysis of nucleic acid, specially karyotiping electrophoresis, microsatellite analysis, mitochondrial DNA length polymorphism, restriction fragment length polymorphism of ribosomal RNA, ramdom amplified polymorphic DNA and low molecular weight RNA. In this review all those methods are described, which have allowed the development of identification kits for clinical and industrial application for the clearance of phylogenetic relationships among species and genera of yeasts of biotechnological interest. PMID:15458357

  19. The complete amino acid sequence of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, R E; Conroy, S C; Dunbar, B; Fothergill, L A; Tuite, M F; Dobson, M J; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1983-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase, comprising 415 residues, was determined. The sequence of residues 1-173 was deduced mainly from nucleotide sequence analysis of a series of overlapping fragments derived from the relevant portion of a 2.95-kilobase endonuclease-HindIII-digest fragment containing the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase gene. The sequence of residues 174-415 was deduced mainly from amino acid sequence analysis of three CNBr-cleavage fragments, and from peptides derived from these fragments after digestion by a number of proteolytic enzymes. Cleavage at the two tryptophan residues with o-iodosobenzoic acid was also used to isolate fragments suitable for amino acid sequence analysis. Determination of the complete sequence now allows a detailed interpretation of the existing high-resolution X-ray-crystallographic structure. The sequence -Ile-Ile-Gly-Gly-Gly- occurs twice in distant parts of the linear sequence (residues 232-236 and 367-371). Both these regions contribute to the nucleoside phosphate-binding site. A comparison of the sequence of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase reported here with the sequences of phosphoglycerate kinase from horse muscle and human erythrocytes shows that the yeast enzyme is 64% identical with the mammalian enzymes. The yeast has strikingly fewer methionine, cysteine and tryptophan residues. PMID:6347186

  20. [Synthesis of melanin pigments by Antarctic black yeast].

    PubMed

    Tashirev, A B; Romanovskaia, V A; Rokitko, P V; Matveeva, N A; Shilin, S O; Tashireva, A A

    2012-01-01

    Five strains of the black yeast similar to Exophiala nigra (Nadsoniela nigra), which we have isolated from the Antarctic biotopes, are studied. At cultivation in a periodic operation the maximum level of absolutely dry biomass in five tested strains constituted 3.2-7.8 g/l of medium, melanin pigment yield being 6-9% of absolutely dry mass of cells. Two highly productive strains have been selected. Pigments of the studied black yeast are water-insoluble, however dissolve in alkali and concentrated acids. The maximum absorption of the yeast pigments was in the range of 220 nm. The above-stated properties of pigments of the investigated yeast correspond to the description of melanin fractions of Nadsoniela nigra and some microscopic mushrooms. The water-soluble melanin-pigments have been obtained after the dialysis of alkaline solution of the pigment. UV-spectra and visible absorption spectra of water solution of melanin-pigments are almost identical to those of initial alkaline solutions. It is shown that the studied yeast are resistant to high concentrations of toxic metals (Hg2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Cr(VI) and Ni2+), and introduction of Co2+ into the cultivation medium leads to the increase of pigments synthesis. PMID:23120979

  1. Relative incidence of ascomycetous yeasts in arctic coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Butinar, Lorena; Strmole, Tadeja; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies of fungi in polar environments have revealed a prevalence of basidiomycetous yeasts in soil and in subglacial environments of polythermal glaciers. Ascomycetous yeasts have rarely been reported from extremely cold natural environments, even though they are known contaminants of frozen foods. Using media with low water activity, we have isolated various yeast species from the subglacial ice of four glaciers from the coastal Arctic environment of Kongsfjorden, Spitzbergen, including Debaryomyces hansenii and Pichia guillermondii, with counts reaching 10(4) CFU L(-1). Together with the basidiomycetes Cryptococcus liquefaciens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, these yeasts represent the stable core of the subglacial yeast communities. Other glacial ascomycetous species isolated included Candida parapsilosis and a putative new species that resembles Candida pseudorugosa. The archiascomycete Protomyces inouyei has seldom been detected anywhere in the world but was here recovered from ice in a glacier cave. The glacier meltwater contained only D. hansenii, whereas the seawater contained D. hansenii, Debaryomyces maramus, Pichia guilliermondii, what appears to represent a novel species resembling Candida galli and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Only P. guilliermondii was isolated from sea ice, while snow/ice in the fjord tidal zone included C. parapsilosis, D. hansenii, P. guilliermondii and Metschnikowia zobellii. All of these isolated strains were characterized as psychrotolerant and xero/halotolerant, with the exception of P. inouyei. PMID:21221569

  2. Structure of the Yeast Vacuolar ATPase*S?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Zheng, Yesha; Mazon, Hortense; Milgrom, Elena; Kitagawa, Norton; Kish-Trier, Erik; Heck, Albert J. R.; Kane, Patricia M.; Wilkens, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    The subunit architecture of the yeast vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) was analyzed by single particle transmission electron microscopy and electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry. A three-dimensional model of the intact V-ATPase was calculated from two-dimensional projections of the complex at a resolution of 25 Å. Images of yeast V-ATPase decorated with monoclonal antibodies against subunits A, E, and G position subunit A within the pseudo-hexagonal arrangement in the V1, the N terminus of subunit G in the V1-V0 interface, and the C terminus of subunit E at the top of the V1 domain. ESI tandem mass spectrometry of yeast V1-ATPase showed that subunits E and G are most easily lost in collision-induced dissociation, consistent with a peripheral location of the subunits. An atomic model of the yeast V-ATPase was generated by fitting of the available x-ray crystal structures into the electron microscopy-derived electron density map. The resulting atomic model of the yeast vacuolar ATPase serves as a framework to help understand the role the peripheral stalk subunits are playing in the regulation of the ATP hydrolysis driven proton pumping activity of the vacuolar ATPase. PMID:18955482

  3. The yeast copper response is regulated by DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Dong, Kangzhen; Addinall, Stephen G; Lydall, David; Rutherford, Julian C

    2013-10-01

    Copper is an essential but potentially toxic redox-active metal, so the levels and distribution of this metal are carefully regulated to ensure that it binds to the correct proteins. Previous studies of copper-dependent transcription in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have focused on the response of genes to changes in the exogenous levels of copper. We now report that yeast copper genes are regulated in response to the DNA-damaging agents methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and hydroxyurea by a mechanism(s) that requires the copper-responsive transcription factors Mac1 and AceI, copper superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity, and the Rad53 checkpoint kinase. Furthermore, in copper-starved yeast, the response of the Rad53 pathway to MMS is compromised due to a loss of Sod1 activity, consistent with the model that yeast imports copper to ensure Sod1 activity and Rad53 signaling. Crucially, the Mac1 transcription factor undergoes changes in its redox state in response to changing levels of copper or MMS. This study has therefore identified a novel regulatory relationship between cellular redox, copper homeostasis, and the DNA damage response in yeast. PMID:23959798

  4. Ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis in yeast cells expressing neurotoxic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Ralf J.

    2015-01-01

    Critically impaired protein degradation is discussed to contribute to neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's, Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and motor neuron diseases. Misfolded, aggregated, or surplus proteins are efficiently degraded via distinct protein degradation pathways, including the ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy, and vesicular trafficking. These pathways are regulated by covalent modification of target proteins with the small protein ubiquitin and are evolutionary highly conserved from humans to yeast. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established model for deciphering mechanisms of protein degradation, and for the elucidation of pathways underlying programmed cell death. The expression of human neurotoxic proteins triggers cell death in yeast, with neurotoxic protein-specific differences. Therefore, yeast cell death models are suitable for analyzing the role of protein degradation pathways in modulating cell death upon expression of disease-causing proteins. This review summarizes which protein degradation pathways are affected in these yeast models, and how they are involved in the execution of cell death. I will discuss to which extent this mimics the situation in other neurotoxic models, and how this may contribute to a better understanding of human disorders.

  5. Screening Wild Yeast Strains for Alcohol Fermentation from Various Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon-Ju; Choi, Yu-Ri; Lee, So-Young; Park, Jong-Tae; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Wild yeasts on the surface of various fruits including grapes were surveyed to obtain yeast strains suitable for fermenting a novel wine with higher alcohol content and supplemented with rice starch. We considered selected characteristics, such as tolerance to alcohol and osmotic pressure, capability of utilizing maltose, and starch hydrolysis. Among 637 putative yeast isolates, 115 strains exhibiting better growth in yeast-peptone-dextrose broth containing 30% dextrose, 7% alcohol, or 2% maltose were selected, as well as five ?-amylase producers. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA gene classified the strains into 13 species belonging to five genera; Pichia anomala was the most prevalent (41.7%), followed by Wickerhamomyces anomalus (19.2%), P. guilliermondii (15%), Candida spp. (5.8%), Kodamaea ohmeri (2.5%), and Metschnikowia spp. (2.5%). All of the ?-amylase producers were Aureobasidium pullulans. Only one isolate (NK28) was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NK28 had all of the desired properties for the purpose of this study, except ?-amylase production, and fermented alcohol better than commercial wine yeasts. PMID:22783070

  6. Assessing the potential of wild yeasts for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Ruyters, Stefan; Mukherjee, Vaskar; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Thevelein, Johan M; Willems, Kris A; Lievens, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Bioethanol fermentations expose yeasts to a new, complex and challenging fermentation medium with specific inhibitors and sugar mixtures depending on the type of carbon source. It is, therefore, suggested that the natural diversity of yeasts should be further exploited in order to find yeasts with good ethanol yield in stressed fermentation media. In this study, we screened more than 50 yeast isolates of which we selected five isolates with promising features. The species Candida bombi, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Torulaspora delbrueckii showed better osmo- and hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, S. cerevisiae isolates had the highest ethanol yield in fermentation experiments mimicking high gravity fermentations (25 % glucose) and artificial lignocellulose hydrolysates (with a myriad of inhibitors). Interestingly, among two tested S. cerevisiae strains, a wild strain isolated from an oak tree performed better than Ethanol Red, a S. cerevisiae strain which is currently commonly used in industrial bioethanol fermentations. Additionally, a W. anomalus strain isolated from sugar beet thick juice was found to have a comparable ethanol yield, but needed longer fermentation time. Other non-Saccharomyces yeasts yielded lower ethanol amounts. PMID:25413210

  7. Gene-centered yeast one-hybrid assays

    PubMed Central

    Reece-Hoyes, John S.; Walhout, Albertha J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription is regulated by sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs) that bind to short genomic DNA elements that can be located in promoters, enhancers and other cis-regulatory modules. Determining which TFs bind where requires techniques that enable the ab initio identification of TF-DNA interactions. These techniques can either be “TF-centered” (protein-to-DNA), where regions of DNA to which a TF of interest binds are identified, or “gene-centered” (DNA-to-protein), where TFs that bind a DNA sequence of interest are identified. Here we describe gene-centered yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assays. Briefly, in Y1H assays, a DNA fragment is cloned upstream of two different reporters, and these reporter constructs are integrated into the genome of a yeast strain. Next, plasmids expressing TFs as hybrid proteins (hence the name of the assay) fused with the strong transcriptional activation domain (AD) of the yeast TF Gal4 are introduced into the yeast strain. When a TF interacts with the DNA fragment of interest, the AD moiety activates reporter expression in yeast regardless of whether the TF is an activator or repressor in vivo. Sequencing the plasmid in each of these colonies reveals the identity of the TFs that can bind the DNA fragment. We have shown Y1H to be a robust method for detecting interactions between a variety of DNA elements and multiple families of TFs. PMID:22218861

  8. Metabolic-flux and network analysis in fourteen hemiascomycetous yeasts.

    PubMed

    Blank, Lars M; Lehmbeck, Frank; Sauer, Uwe

    2005-04-01

    In a quantitative comparative study, we elucidated the glucose metabolism in fourteen hemiascomycetous yeasts from the Genolevures project. The metabolic networks of these different species were first established by (13)C-labeling data and the inventory of the genomes. This information was subsequently used for metabolic-flux ratio analysis to quantify the intracellular carbon flux distributions in these yeast species. Firstly, we found that compartmentation of amino acid biosynthesis in most species was identical to that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Exceptions were the mitochondrial origin of aspartate biosynthesis in Yarrowia lipolytica and the cytosolic origin of alanine biosynthesis in S. kluyveri. Secondly, the control of flux through the TCA cycle was inversely correlated with the ethanol production rate, with S. cerevisiae being the yeast with the highest ethanol production capacity. The classification between respiratory and respiro-fermentative metabolism, however, was not qualitatively exclusive but quantitatively gradual. Thirdly, the flux through the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway was correlated to the yield of biomass, suggesting a balanced production and consumption of NADPH. Generally, this implies the lack of active transhydrogenase-like activities in hemiascomycetous yeasts under the tested growth condition, with Pichia angusta as the sole exception. In the latter case, about 40% of the NADPH was produced in the PP pathway in excess of the requirements for biomass production, which strongly suggests the operation of a yet unidentified mechanism for NADPH reoxidation in this species. In most yeasts, the PP pathway activity appears to be driven exclusively by the demand for NADPH. PMID:15780654

  9. Diversity of soil yeasts isolated from South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Scorzetti, G.; Iszard, M.; Rodriguez, R.

    2008-01-01

    Unicellular fungi, commonly referred to as yeasts, were found to be components of the culturable soil fungal population in Taylor Valley, Mt. Discovery, Wright Valley, and two mountain peaks of South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Samples were taken from sites spanning a diversity of soil habitats that were not directly associated with vertebrate activity. A large proportion of yeasts isolated in this study were basidiomycetous species (89%), of which 43% may represent undescribed species, demonstrating that culturable yeasts remain incompletely described in these polar desert soils. Cryptococcus species represented the most often isolated genus (33%) followed by Leucosporidium (22%). Principle component analysis and multiple linear regression using stepwise selection was used to model the relation between abiotic variables (principle component 1 and principle component 2 scores) and yeast biodiversity (the number of species present at a given site). These analyses identified soil pH and electrical conductivity as significant predictors of yeast biodiversity. Species-specific PCR primers were designed to rapidly discriminate among the Dioszegia and Leucosporidium species collected in this study. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. Evolutionary Role of Interspecies Hybridization and Genetic Exchanges in Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Dujon, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Forced interspecific hybridization has been used in yeasts for many years to study speciation or to construct artificial strains with novel fermentative and metabolic properties. Recent genome analyses indicate that natural hybrids are also generated spontaneously between yeasts belonging to distinct species, creating lineages with novel phenotypes, varied genetic stability, or altered virulence in the case of pathogens. Large segmental introgressions from evolutionarily distant species are also visible in some yeast genomes, suggesting that interspecific genetic exchanges occur during evolution. The origin of this phenomenon remains unclear, but it is likely based on weak prezygotic barriers, limited Dobzhansky-Muller (DM) incompatibilities, and rapid clonal expansions. Newly formed interspecies hybrids suffer rapid changes in the genetic contribution of each parent, including chromosome loss or aneuploidy, translocations, and loss of heterozygosity, that, except in a few recently studied cases, remain to be characterized more precisely at the genomic level by use of modern technologies. We review here known cases of natural or artificially formed interspecies hybrids between yeasts and discuss their potential importance in terms of genome evolution. Problems of meiotic fertility, ploidy constraint, gene and gene product compatibility, and nucleomitochondrial interactions are discussed and placed in the context of other known mechanisms of yeast genome evolution as a model for eukaryotes. PMID:23204364

  11. Yeast prions: structure, biology, and prion-handling systems.

    PubMed

    Wickner, Reed B; Shewmaker, Frank P; Bateman, David A; Edskes, Herman K; Gorkovskiy, Anton; Dayani, Yaron; Bezsonov, Evgeny E

    2015-03-01

    A prion is an infectious protein horizontally transmitting a disease or trait without a required nucleic acid. Yeast and fungal prions are nonchromosomal genes composed of protein, generally an altered form of a protein that catalyzes the same alteration of the protein. Yeast prions are thus transmitted both vertically (as genes composed of protein) and horizontally (as infectious proteins, or prions). Formation of amyloids (linear ordered ?-sheet-rich protein aggregates with ?-strands perpendicular to the long axis of the filament) underlies most yeast and fungal prions, and a single prion protein can have any of several distinct self-propagating amyloid forms with different biological properties (prion variants). Here we review the mechanism of faithful templating of protein conformation, the biological roles of these prions, and their interactions with cellular chaperones, the Btn2 and Cur1 aggregate-handling systems, and other cellular factors governing prion generation and propagation. Human amyloidoses include the PrP-based prion conditions and many other, more common amyloid-based diseases, several of which show prion-like features. Yeast prions increasingly are serving as models for the understanding and treatment of many mammalian amyloidoses. Patients with different clinical pictures of the same amyloidosis may be the equivalent of yeasts with different prion variants. PMID:25631286

  12. Rapid Evolution of Yeast Centromeres in the Absence of Drive

    PubMed Central

    Bensasson, Douda; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Burt, Austin; Koufopanou, Vassiliki

    2008-01-01

    To find the most rapidly evolving regions in the yeast genome we compared most of chromosome III from three closely related lineages of the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. Unexpectedly, the centromere appears to be the fastest-evolving part of the chromosome, evolving even faster than DNA sequences unlikely to be under selective constraint (i.e., synonymous sites after correcting for codon usage bias and remnant transposable elements). Centromeres on other chromosomes also show an elevated rate of nucleotide substitution. Rapid centromere evolution has also been reported for some plants and animals and has been attributed to selection for inclusion in the egg or the ovule at female meiosis. But Saccharomyces yeasts have symmetrical meioses with all four products surviving, thus providing no opportunity for meiotic drive. In addition, yeast centromeres show the high levels of polymorphism expected under a neutral model of molecular evolution. We suggest that yeast centromeres suffer an elevated rate of mutation relative to other chromosomal regions and they change through a process of “centromere drift,” not drive. PMID:18430941

  13. Characterization of two trehalases in baker's yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Londesborough, J; Varimo, K

    1984-01-01

    Trehalase activities at pH 5 (not inhibited by EDTA) and pH 7 (inhibited by EDTA) were present in the soluble fraction of disintegrated commercial baker's yeast. The pH 5 activity binds strongly to concanavalin A, is only partially salted out by saturated (NH4)2SO4, has an apparent Mr of 215000 (by gel filtration) and is an acidic protein. It has a Km of 1.4 mM, a broad pH optimum (at 40 mM-trehalose) between pH 4 and 5, and is activated by about 30% by 20-300 mM neutral salts such as KCl, NaNO3 and MnCl2. The enzyme is strongly inhibited by acetic acid/acetate buffers, with a Ki of about 15 mM-acetic acid. The pH 7 activity does not bind to concanavalin A, is salted out at 20-32% (w/v) (NH4)2SO4 and has an Mr of 170000 (by gel filtration). It is absolutely dependent on Ca2+ or Mn2+ ions (Mg2+ is ineffective) and strongly inhibited by neutral salts in the 20-100 mM range. It can be activated by treatment with MgATP in the presence of cyclic AMP. Activation decreases, but does not abolish, the Ca2+ requirement, and does not change the Km for trehalose (5.7 mM) or shift the sharp pH optimum at pH 6.7 (at 40 mM-trehalose). PMID:6430270

  14. Posttranscriptional Control of Gene Expression in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, John E. G.

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have greatly advanced our understanding of the posttranscriptional steps of eukaryotic gene expression. Given the wide range of experimental tools applicable to S. cerevisiae and the recent determination of its complete genomic sequence, many of the key challenges of the posttranscriptional control field can be tackled particularly effectively by using this organism. This article reviews the current knowledge of the cellular components and mechanisms related to translation and mRNA decay, with the emphasis on the molecular basis for rate control and gene regulation. Recent progress in characterizing translation factors and their protein-protein and RNA-protein interactions has been rapid. Against the background of a growing body of structural information, the review discusses the thermodynamic and kinetic principles that govern the translation process. As in prokaryotic systems, translational initiation is a key point of control. Modulation of the activities of translational initiation factors imposes global regulation in the cell, while structural features of particular 5? untranslated regions, such as upstream open reading frames and effector binding sites, allow for gene-specific regulation. Recent data have revealed many new details of the molecular mechanisms involved while providing insight into the functional overlaps and molecular networking that are apparently a key feature of evolving cellular systems. An overall picture of the mechanisms governing mRNA decay has only very recently begun to develop. The latest work has revealed new information about the mRNA decay pathways, the components of the mRNA degradation machinery, and the way in which these might relate to the translation apparatus. Overall, major challenges still to be addressed include the task of relating principles of posttranscriptional control to cellular compartmentalization and polysome structure and the role of molecular channelling in these highly complex expression systems. PMID:9841679

  15. Functional domains of yeast hexokinase 2.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Rafael; Herrero, Pilar; Moreno, Fernando

    2010-11-15

    Hkx2 (hexokinase 2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was one of the first metabolic enzymes described as a multifunctional protein. Hxk2 has a double subcellular localization: it functions as a glycolytic enzyme in the cytoplasm and as a regulator of gene transcription of several Mig1-regulated genes in the nucleus. To get more insights into the structure-function relationships of the Hxk2 protein, we followed two different approaches. In the first, we deleted the last eight amino acids of Hxk2 and replaced Ser³?? with phenylalanine to generate Hxk2(wca). Analysis of this mutant demonstrated that these domains play an essential role in the catalytic activity of yeast Hxk2, but has no effect on the regulatory function of this protein. In the second, we analysed whether amino acids from Lys? to Met¹? of Hxk2 (Hxk2(wrf)) are essential for the regulatory role of Hxk2 and whether there is an effect on the hexose kinase activity of this protein. In the present paper, we report that the Hxk2(wca) mutant protein interacts with the Mig1 transcriptional repressor and the Snf1 protein kinase in the nucleus at the level of the SUC2-Mig1 repressor complex. We have demonstrated that Hxk2(wca) maintained full regulatory function because the glucose-repression signalling of the wild-type machinery is maintained. We also report that the Hxk2(wrf) mutant allele is incapable of glucose repression signalling because it does not interact with Mig1 at the level of the SUC2-Mig1 repressor complex. The two mutants, Hxk2(wca) and Hxk2(wrf) retain single functions, as a transcriptional factor or as an enzyme with hexose-phosphorylating activity, but have lost the original bifunctionality of Hxk2. PMID:20815814

  16. Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase structure and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Raj, Savarimuthu Baskar; Ramaswamy, S; Plapp, Bryce V

    2014-09-16

    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) alcohol dehydrogenase I (ADH1) is the constitutive enzyme that reduces acetaldehyde to ethanol during the fermentation of glucose. ADH1 is a homotetramer of subunits with 347 amino acid residues. A structure for ADH1 was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.4 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contains four different subunits, arranged as similar dimers named AB and CD. The unit cell contains two different tetramers made up of "back-to-back" dimers, AB:AB and CD:CD. The A and C subunits in each dimer are structurally similar, with a closed conformation, bound coenzyme, and the oxygen of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol ligated to the catalytic zinc in the classical tetrahedral coordination with Cys-43, Cys-153, and His-66. In contrast, the B and D subunits have an open conformation with no bound coenzyme, and the catalytic zinc has an alternative, inverted coordination with Cys-43, Cys-153, His-66, and the carboxylate of Glu-67. The asymmetry in the dimeric subunits of the tetramer provides two structures that appear to be relevant for the catalytic mechanism. The alternative coordination of the zinc may represent an intermediate in the mechanism of displacement of the zinc-bound water with alcohol or aldehyde substrates. Substitution of Glu-67 with Gln-67 decreases the catalytic efficiency by 100-fold. Previous studies of structural modeling, evolutionary relationships, substrate specificity, chemical modification, and site-directed mutagenesis are interpreted more fully with the three-dimensional structure. PMID:25157460

  17. The Effects of an Increased Amount of Mitochondrial DNA on the Yeast Metabolic Cycle

    E-print Network

    Gajjar, Shefali Rajendra

    2008-05-21

    When prototrophic yeast cells undergo continuous growth in nutrient-limited conditions, they experience robust metabolic oscillations. Additionally, the processes of metabolism in yeast cells have been shown to be coordinated with cell division...

  18. Confinement to Organelle-Associated Inclusion Structures Mediates Asymmetric Inheritance of Aggregated Protein in Budding Yeast

    E-print Network

    Spokoini, Rachel

    The division of the S. cerevisiae budding yeast, which produces one mother cell and one daughter cell, is asymmetric with respect to aging. Remarkably, the asymmetry of yeast aging coincides with asymmetric inheritance of ...

  19. Nonlinear Dielectric Properties of Yeast Cells Cultured in Different Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanishi, Gomon; Fukuda, Naoki; Muraji, Masafumi

    The harmonics of the electric current through yeast suspensions, the nonlinear dielectric properties of yeast cells, have particular patterns according to the biological activity of the cells and the measurement of these patterns is a technique for determining the activity of living cells. The concentration of glucose and oxygen in yeast culture medium influences the manifestation of fermentation or respiration of yeast cells. Measurements were made with yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cultured aerobically and anaerobically in sufficient glucose concentration, aerobic fermentation and anaerobic fermentation, and aerobically in limited glucose concentration, respiration. The results showed that the harmonics were barely apparent for yeast cells in aerobic fermentation and respiratory; however, cells in the anaerobic fermentation displayed substantial third and fifth harmonics. We can say that environmental condition affects the yeast cells' nonlinear properties, from another viewpoint, the measurements of the nonlinear properties are available to determine the activity of yeast cells adjusted to the conditions of their cultivation.

  20. In vivo unnatural amino acid expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    DOEpatents

    Young, Travis [San Diego, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

    2014-02-11

    The invention provides orthogonal translation systems for the production of polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris. Methods for producing polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris are also provided.

  1. RNA Methylation by the MIS Complex Regulates a Cell Fate Decision in Yeast

    E-print Network

    Agarwala, Sundeep

    For the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient limitation is a key developmental signal causing diploid cells to switch from yeast-form budding to either foraging pseudohyphal (PH) growth or meiosis and sporulation. ...

  2. Associations of yeasts with spotted-wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii; Diptera: Drosophilidae) in cherries and raspberries.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Kelly A; Hernández, Alejandro; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Zalom, Frank G

    2012-07-01

    A rich history of investigation documents various Drosophila-yeast mutualisms, suggesting that Drosophila suzukii similarly has an association with a specific yeast species or community. To discover candidate yeast species, yeasts were isolated from larval frass, adult midguts, and fruit hosts of D. suzukii. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) technology and decimal dilution plating were used to identify and determine the relative abundance of yeast species present in fruit juice samples that were either infested with D. suzukii or not infested. Yeasts were less abundant in uninfested than infested samples. A total of 126 independent yeast isolates were cultivated from frass, midguts, and fruit hosts of D. suzukii, representing 28 species of yeasts, with Hanseniaspora uvarum predominating. This suggests an association between D. suzukii and H. uvarum that could be utilized for pest management of the highly pestiferous D. suzukii. PMID:22582060

  3. Evaluation of yeast strains for production of fuel ethanol from biomass hydrolysates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Robust industrial yeast strains are needed for profitable production of fuel ethanol from mixed biomass waste. USDA, ARS, NCAUR, RPT has been evaluating ethanol-producing yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, engineered GMAX Saccharomyces cerevisiae, irradiated Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pi...

  4. Associations of Yeasts with Spotted-Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii; Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Cherries and Raspberries

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Alejandro; Zalom, Frank G.

    2012-01-01

    A rich history of investigation documents various Drosophila-yeast mutualisms, suggesting that Drosophila suzukii similarly has an association with a specific yeast species or community. To discover candidate yeast species, yeasts were isolated from larval frass, adult midguts, and fruit hosts of D. suzukii. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) technology and decimal dilution plating were used to identify and determine the relative abundance of yeast species present in fruit juice samples that were either infested with D. suzukii or not infested. Yeasts were less abundant in uninfested than infested samples. A total of 126 independent yeast isolates were cultivated from frass, midguts, and fruit hosts of D. suzukii, representing 28 species of yeasts, with Hanseniaspora uvarum predominating. This suggests an association between D. suzukii and H. uvarum that could be utilized for pest management of the highly pestiferous D. suzukii. PMID:22582060

  5. Mitotic entry in the presence of DNA damage is a widespread property of aneuploidy in yeast

    E-print Network

    Sheltzer, Jason Meyer

    Genetic instability is a hallmark of aneuploidy in budding and fission yeast. All aneuploid yeast strains analyzed to date harbor elevated levels of Rad52-GFP foci, a sign of DNA damage. Here we investigate how continuously ...

  6. Antifungal chitinase against human pathogenic yeasts from Coprinellus congregatus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeeun; Choi, Hyoung T

    2014-05-01

    The inky cap, Coprinellus congregatus, produces mushrooms which become autolyzed rapidly to generate black liquid droplets, in which no cell wall is detected by microscopy. A chitinase (Chi2) which is synthesized during the autolytic phase of C. congregatus inhibits the growths of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans up to 10% at the concentration of 10 ?g/ml, about 50% at concentration of 20 ?g/ml, and up to 95% at the concentration of 70 ?g/ml. Upon treatment these yeast cells are observed to be severely deformed, with the formation of large holes in the cell wall. The two yeast species show no growth inhibition at the concentration of 5 ?g/ml, which means the minimum inhibitory concentrations for both yeast species are 10 ?g/ml under these experimental conditions. PMID:24535739

  7. Breeding of a new wastewater treatment yeast by genetic engineering

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We previously developed a host vector system for the wastewater treatment yeast Hansenula fabianii J640. The promoter and terminator regions of the gene encoding glucoamylase from H. fabianii J640 were used for a new expression vector, pHFGE-1. The performance of pHFGE-1 was compared with that of the widely used pG-1 transformant vector. H. fabianii J640 (HF-TAMY) cells were transformed with pHFGE-1, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH-499 (SC-TAMY) cells were transformed with pG-1, both of which carried the Taka-amylase. Expression of Taka-amylase by HF-TAMY showed higher than that by SC-TAMY. By using this new system, we bred the new wastewater treatment yeast that shows ?-amylase activity. This yeast appears to grow well under experimental wastewater conditions, and is effective in treating model wastewater containing soluble and insoluble starch. PMID:21906339

  8. Chemogenomic approach identified yeast YLR143W as diphthamide synthetase.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaoyang; Lin, Zhewang; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Sheng; Lin, Hening

    2012-12-01

    Many genes are of unknown functions in any sequenced genome. A combination of chemical and genetic perturbations has been used to investigate gene functions. Here we present a case that such "chemogenomics" information can be effectively used to identify missing genes in a defined biological pathway. In particular, we identified the previously unknown enzyme diphthamide synthetase for the last step of diphthamide biosynthesis. We found that yeast protein YLR143W is the diphthamide synthetase catalyzing the last amidation step using ammonium and ATP. Diphthamide synthetase is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes. The previously uncharacterized human gene ATPBD4 is the ortholog of yeast YLR143W and fully rescues the deletion of YLR143W in yeast. PMID:23169644

  9. Yeast Sensors for Novel Drugs: Chloroquine and Others Revealed

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Chantel; Olivier, Andries; Dithebe, Khumisho; Pohl, Carolina; van Wyk, Pieter; Swart, Hendrik; Coetsee, Elizabeth; Kock, Lodewyk

    2012-01-01

    In this study the mitochondrion is regarded as a target to reveal compounds that may be used to combat various diseases. Consequently, the sexual structures of yeasts (with high mitochondrial activity) were identified as sensors to screen for various anti-mitochondrial drugs that may be toxic to humans and that are directed, amongst others, against fungal diseases and cancer. Strikingly, these sensors indicated that chloroquine is a potent pro-mitochondrial drug which stimulated yeast sexual reproduction. In addition, these sensors also showed that some Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anti-malarial drugs, antifungal and anticancer drugs are anti-mitochondrial. These yeast sensor bio-assays may fast track studies aimed at discovering new drugs as well as their mechanisms and should now be further evaluated for selectivity towards anti-/ pro-mitochondrials, fertility drugs and contraceptives, using in vitro, in vivo, in silico and omics research. PMID:23201985

  10. Triacetic acid lactone production in industrial Saccharomyces yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Lauren P; Bowman, Michael J; Mertens, Jeffrey A; Da Silva, Nancy A; Hector, Ronald E

    2015-05-01

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical that can be produced in yeast. To evaluate the potential for industrial yeast strains to produce TAL, the g2ps1 gene encoding 2-pyrone synthase was transformed into 13 industrial yeast strains of varied genetic background. TAL production varied 63-fold between strains when compared in batch culture with glucose. Ethanol, acetate, and glycerol were also tested as potential carbon sources. Batch cultures with ethanol medium produced the highest titers. Therefore, fed-batch cultivation with ethanol feed was assayed for TAL production in bioreactors, producing our highest TAL titer, 5.2 g/L. Higher feed rates resulted in a loss of TAL and subsequent production of additional TAL side products. Finally, TAL efflux was measured and TAL is actively exported from S. cerevisiae cells. Percent yield for all strains was low, indicating that further metabolic engineering of the strains is required. PMID:25682106

  11. Genetic Analysis of Haploids from Industrial Strains of Baker's Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yuji; Ouchi, Kozo

    1989-01-01

    Strains of baker's yeast conventionally used by the baking industry in Japan were tested for the ability to sporulate and produce viable haploid spores. Three isolates which possessed the properties of baker's yeasts were obtained from single spores. Each strain was a haploid, and one of these strains, YOY34, was characterized. YOY34 fermented maltose and sucrose, but did not utilize galactose, unlike its parental strain. Genetic analysis showed that YOY34 carried two MAL genes, one functional and one cryptic; two SUC genes; and one defective gal gene. The genotype of YOY34 was identified as MAT? MAL1 MAL3g SUC2 SUC4 gall. The MAL1 gene from this haploid was constitutively expressed, was dominant over other wild-type MAL tester genes, and gave a weak sucrose fermentation. YOY34 was suitable for both bakery products, like conventional baker's yeasts, and for genetic analysis, like laboratory strains. PMID:16347967

  12. Yeast-based microporous carbon materials for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wenzhong; He, Yue; Zhang, Shouchun; Li, Junfen; Fan, Weibin

    2012-07-01

    A hierarchical microporous carbon material with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 1348 m(2) g(-1) and a pore volume of 0.67 cm(3) g(-1) was prepared from yeast through chemical activation with potassium hydroxide. This type of material contains large numbers of nitrogen-containing groups (nitrogen content >5.3 wt%), and, consequently, basic sites. As a result, this material shows a faster adsorption rate and a higher adsorption capacity of CO(2) than the material obtained by directly carbonizing yeast under the same conditions. The difference is more pronounced in the presence of N(2) or H(2)O, showing that chemical activation of discarded yeast with potassium hydroxide could afford high-performance microporous carbon materials for the capture of CO(2). PMID:22696279

  13. Yeast: An Experimental Organism for 21st Century Biology

    PubMed Central

    Botstein, David; Fink, Gerald R.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, we revisit the status of yeast as a model system for biology. We first summarize important contributions of yeast to eukaryotic biology that we anticipated in 1988 in our first article on the subject. We then describe transformative developments that we did not anticipate, most of which followed the publication of the complete genomic sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in 1996. In the intervening 23 years it appears to us that yeast has graduated from a position as the premier model for eukaryotic cell biology to become the pioneer organism that has facilitated the establishment of the entirely new fields of study called “functional genomics” and “systems biology.” These new fields look beyond the functions of individual genes and proteins, focusing on how these interact and work together to determine the properties of living cells and organisms. PMID:22084421

  14. Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Nedovi?, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjevi?, V; Kaluševi?, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovi?ová, D; Yilmaztekin, M

    2015-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes. PMID:25267117

  15. Estimation of population effects in synchronized budding yeast experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemistoe, Antti; Aho, Tommi; Thesleff, Henna; Tiainen, Mikko; Marjanen, Kalle; Linne, Marja-Leena; Yli-Harja, Olli P.

    2003-05-01

    An approach for estimating the distribution of a synchronized budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell population is discussed. This involves estimation of the phase of the cell cycle for each cell. The approach is based on counting the number of buds of different sizes in budding yeast images. An image processing procedure is presented for the bud-counting task. The procedure employs clustering of the local mean-variance space for segmentation of the images. The subsequent bud-detection step is based on an object separation method which utilizes the chain code representation of objects as well as labeling of connected components. The procedure is tested with microscopic images that were obtained in a time-series experiment of a synchronized budding yeast cell population. The use of the distribution estimate of the cell population for inverse filtering of signals that are obtained in time-series microarray measurements is discussed as well.

  16. In vitro activity of voriconazole against Mexican oral yeast isolates.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Vargas, Luis Octavio; Eraso, Elena; Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso Javier; Aguirre, José Manuel; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quindós, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent complication in HIV-infected and AIDS patients. Topical antifungal treatment is useful for the initial episodes of oral candidiasis, but most patients suffer more than one episode and fluconazole or itraconazole can help in the management, and voriconazole may represent a useful alternative agent for the treatment of recalcitrant oral and oesophageal candidiasis. The aim of this research was to study the in vitro activity of voriconazole and fluconazole against Mexican oral isolates of clinically relevant yeast. The in vitro susceptibility of 187 oral yeast isolates from HIV-infected and healthy Mexicans was determined for fluconazole and voriconazole by the M44-A disc diffusion method. At 24 h, fluconazole was active against 179 of 187 isolates (95.7 %). Moreover, a 100% susceptibility to voriconazole was observed. Voriconazole and fluconazole are highly active in vitro against oral yeast isolates. This study provides baseline data on susceptibilities to both antifungal agents in Mexico. PMID:19389066

  17. Sexual behavior and its pheromonal regulation in ascosporogenous yeasts.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Hisatomi, T; Yanagishima, N

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed our investigations on sexual behaviors and interactions including sexual cell agglutination and pheromone action mainly in non-conventional yeasts, Hansenula anomala, H. wingei, Pichia amethionina, P. heedi, P. opuntiae, Saccharomyces kluyveri, S. globsus, S. exiguus, Saccharomycodes ludwigii. The techniques and genetic models including the cassette model and alpha 1-alpha 2 hypothesis which had been developed largely in S. cerevisiae were applicable to these yeasts in principle. The sexual agglutination was distinctly species-specific while sex pheromones were cross-reactive beyond species' barriers. The successful induction of heterothallic strains from homothallic strains in S. exiguus by mutagenesis enabled to the subsequent biochemical and genetical analysis of sexual behavior in the yeast. The phylogenetic consideration on sex differentiation is also included. PMID:2651648

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae STR3 and yeast cystathionine ?-lyase enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Sylvester; Cordente, Antonio G.; Curtin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are used for wine fermentation. Based on several criteria, winemakers often use a specific yeast to improve the flavor, mouth feel, decrease the alcohol content and desired phenolic content, just to name a few properties. Scientists at the AWRI previously illustrated the potential for increased flavor release from grape must via overexpression of the Escherichia coli Tryptophanase enzyme in wine yeast. To pursue a self-cloning approach for improving the aroma production, we recently characterized the S. cerevisiae cystathionine ?-lyase STR3, and investigated its flavor releasing capabilities. Here, we continue with a phylogenetic investigation of STR3 homologs from non-Saccharomyces yeasts to map the potential for using natural variation to engineer new strains. PMID:22572787

  19. The plasticity of telomere maintenance mechanisms in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lue, Neal F.

    2009-01-01

    Telomeres, the specialized nucleoprotein structures located at linear eukaryotic chromosomal termini, are essential for chromosome stability and are maintained by the special reverse transcriptase named telomerase. In the Saccharomycotina subphylum of budding yeast, telomere repeat sequences and binding factors as well as telomerase components are exceptionally diverse and distinct from those found in other eukaryotes. In this survey, I report a comparative analysis of the domain structures of telomere and telomerase-related factors, which is made possible by the recent sequencing of multiple yeast genomes. This analysis revealed conserved as well as variable aspects of telomere maintenance. Based on these findings, I propose a plausible series of evolutionary events in budding yeast to account for its exceptional telomere structural divergence. PMID:19846312

  20. Genetic Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids into Proteins in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Unnatural amino acids can be genetically incorporated into proteins in live cells by using an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair. Here we describe a method to efficiently express the orthogonal tRNA and synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which enables unnatural amino acids to be genetically incorporated into target proteins in yeast with high efficiency. We also describe the use of a yeast strain deficient in the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, which further increases the unnatural amino acid incorporation efficiency when a stop codon is used to encode the unnatural amino acid. These strategies will facilitate the investigation of proteins and their related biological processes in yeast by exploiting the novel properties afforded by unnatural amino acids. PMID:21956564

  1. Calcium-independent calmodulin requirement for endocytosis in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Kübler, E; Schimmöller, F; Riezman, H

    1994-01-01

    We have recently shown that actin and fimbrin are required for the internalization step of endocytosis in yeast. Using a yeast strain with a temperature-sensitive allele of CMD1, encoding calmodulin, we demonstrate that this protein is also required for this process. Calmodulin mutants that have lost their high-affinity calcium binding sites are, however, able to carry out endocytosis normally. A mutation in Myo2p, an unconventional myosin that is a possible target of calmodulin, did not inhibit endocytosis. The function of calmodulin in endocytosis seems to be specific among membrane trafficking events, because the calmodulin mutants are not defective for biogenesis of soluble vacuolar hydrolases nor invertase secretion. Calmodulin does not seem to play a major role in the post-internalization steps of the endocytic pathway in yeast. Images PMID:7988551

  2. Regulation of lipid metabolism: a tale of two yeasts.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Sumana; Young, Barry P; Espenshade, Peter J; Loewen, Christopher

    2012-08-01

    Eukaryotic cells synthesize multiple classes of lipids by distinct metabolic pathways in order to generate membranes with optimal physical and chemical properties. As a result, complex regulatory networks are required in all organisms to maintain lipid and membrane homeostasis as well as to rapidly and efficiently respond to cellular stress. The unicellular nature of yeast makes it particularly vulnerable to environmental stress and yeast has evolved elaborate signaling pathways to maintain lipid homeostasis. In this article we highlight the recent advances that have been made using the budding and fission yeasts and we discuss potential roles for the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the SREBP-Scap pathways in coordinate regulation of multiple lipid classes. PMID:22694927

  3. Yeast PPR proteins, watchdogs of mitochondrial gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Christopher J; Golik, Pawel; Bonnefoy, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    PPR proteins are a family of ubiquitous RNA-binding factors, found in all the Eukaryotic lineages, and are particularly numerous in higher plants. According to recent bioinformatic analyses, yeast genomes encode from 10 (in S. pombe) to 15 (in S. cerevisiae) PPR proteins. All of these proteins are mitochondrial and very often interact with the mitochondrial membrane. Apart from the general factors, RNA polymerase and RNase P, most yeast PPR proteins are involved in the stability and/or translation of mitochondrially encoded RNAs. At present, some information concerning the target RNA(s) of most of these proteins is available, the next challenge will be to refine our understanding of the function of the proteins and to resolve the yeast PPR-RNA-binding code, which might differ significantly from the plant PPR code. PMID:24184848

  4. Synthetic Biology for Engineering Acetyl Coenzyme A Metabolism in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used cell factory for the production of fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The use of this cell factory for cost-efficient production of novel fuels and chemicals requires high yields and low by-product production. Many industrially interesting chemicals are biosynthesized from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which serves as a central precursor metabolite in yeast. To ensure high yields in production of these chemicals, it is necessary to engineer the central carbon metabolism so that ethanol production is minimized (or eliminated) and acetyl-CoA can be formed from glucose in high yield. Here the perspective of generating yeast platform strains that have such properties is discussed in the context of a major breakthrough with expression of a functional pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol. PMID:25370498

  5. Temperature-dependent dimorphism of the yeast Arxula adeninivorans Ls3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Wartmann; Annette Kriager; Klaus Adler; Bui Minh Duc; Irene Kunze; Gotthard Kunze

    1995-01-01

    Arxula adeninivorans Ls3 is described as an ascomycetous, arthroconidial, anamorphic, xerotolerant yeast, which was selected from wood hydrolysates in Siberia. By using minimal salt medium or yeast-extract-peptone-medium with glucose or maltose as carbon source it was shown that this yeast is able to grow at up to 48° C. Increasing temperatures induce changes in morphology from the yeast phase to

  6. Marine yeasts as biocontrol agents and producers of bio-products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen-Ming Chi; Guanglei Liu; Shoufeng Zhao; Jing Li; Ying Peng

    2010-01-01

    As some species of marine yeasts can colonize intestine of marine animals, they can be used as probiotics. It has been reported\\u000a that ?-glucans from marine yeast cells can be utilized as immuno-stimulants in marine animals. Some siderophores or killer\\u000a toxins produced by marine yeasts have ability to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria or kill pathogenic yeasts in marine\\u000a animals.

  7. Application of rotary microfiltration in debittering process of spent brewer’s yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artiwan Shotipruk; Pranee Kittianong; Manop Suphantharika; Chirakarn Muangnapoh

    2005-01-01

    This study concerns the production of yeast extract from spent brewer’s yeast using rotary microfiltration as a means to combine debittering and cell debris separation into a single step, without using a toxic alkali wash. The pH of yeast homogenate was found to affect protein yield and bitterness of the product. Rotary filtration of yeast homogenate at various pHs resulted

  8. The importance of aeration strategy in fuel alcohol fermentations contaminated with Dekkera\\/Brettanomyces yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Abbott; W. M. Ingledew

    2005-01-01

    Whole corn mash fermentations infected with industrially-isolated Brettanomyces yeasts were not affected even when viable Brettanomyces yeasts out-numbered Saccharomyces yeasts tenfold at the onset of fermentation. Therefore, aeration, a parameter that is pivotal to the physiology of Dekkera\\/Brettanomyces yeasts, was investigated in mixed culture fermentations. Results suggest that aeration strategy plays a significant role in Dekkera\\/Brettanomyces-mediated inhibition of fuel alcohol

  9. Glycolytic Enzyme Interactions with Yeast and Skeletal Muscle F-Actin

    PubMed Central

    Waingeh, Victor F.; Gustafson, Carol D.; Kozliak, Evguenii I.; Lowe, Stephen L.; Knull, Harvey R.; Thomasson, Kathryn A.

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of glycolytic enzymes with F-actin is suggested to be a mechanism for compartmentation of the glycolytic pathway. Earlier work demonstrates that muscle F-actin strongly binds glycolytic enzymes, allowing for the general conclusion that “actin binds enzymes”, which may be a generalized phenomenon. By taking actin from a lower form, such as yeast, which is more deviant from muscle actin than other higher animal forms, the generality of glycolytic enzyme interactions with actin and the cytoskeleton can be tested and compared with higher eukaryotes, e.g., rabbit muscle. Cosedimentation of rabbit skeletal muscle and yeast F-actin with muscle fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (aldolase) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) followed by Scatchard analysis revealed a biphasic binding, indicating high- and low-affinity domains. Muscle aldolase and GAPDH showed low-affinity for binding yeast F-actin, presumably because of fewer acidic residues at the N-terminus of yeast actin; this difference in affinity is also seen in Brownian dynamics computer simulations. Yeast GAPDH and aldolase showed low-affinity binding to yeast actin, which suggests that actin-glycolytic enzyme interactions may also occur in yeast although with lower affinity than in higher eukaryotes. The cosedimentation results were supported by viscometry results that revealed significant cross-linking at lower concentrations of rabbit muscle enzymes than yeast enzymes. Brownian dynamics simulations of yeast and muscle aldolase and GAPDH with yeast and muscle actin compared the relative association free energy. Yeast aldolase did not specifically bind to either yeast or muscle actin. Yeast GAPDH did bind to yeast actin although with a much lower affinity than when binding muscle actin. The binding of yeast enzymes to yeast actin was much less site specific and showed much lower affinities than in the case with muscle enzymes and muscle actin. PMID:16326908

  10. Removal of lead from solution using non-living residual brewery yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Riordan; A. P. McHale

    1998-01-01

    A number of preparations of residual non-living brewery yeast were examined for their ability to remove lead from solution. Those preparations included washed and un-washed intact yeast and washed and un-washed homogenates of the yeast cells. Using biosorption isotherm analysis it was found that the washed and un-washed preparations of intact, non-living yeast exhibited maximum biosorption capacities for lead of

  11. Genetic transformation and biotechnological application of the yeast Arxula adeninivorans.

    PubMed

    Wartmann, T; Kunze, G

    2000-11-01

    The relatively unknown, non-pathogenic, dimorphic, haploid, ascomycetous yeast Arxula adeninivorans exhibits some unusual properties which are of biotechnological interest. The yeast is able to assimilate and ferment many compounds as sole source of carbon and/or nitrogen, it utilises n-alkanes and degrades starch efficiently. A. adeninivorans features such as thermo- and haloresistance as well as the yeast's uncommon growth and secretion behaviour should be especially emphasised. In media containing up to 20% NaCl, A. adeninivorans is able to grow at cultivation temperatures up to 48 degrees C. Additionally, the dimorphism of the yeast is unusual. Arxula grows at up temperatures of up to 42 degrees C as budding cells, which turn into mycelia at higher temperatures. This environmentally conditioned dimorphism is reversible and budding is reestablished when the cultivation temperature is decreased below 42 degrees C. Alteration of morphology correlates with changes in secretion behaviour. Mycelium cultures accumulate two-fold higher protein concentrations and contain two- to five-fold higher glucoamylase and invertase activities in the medium than budding cells. Based on these unusual properties, Arxula adeninivorans is used for heterologous gene expression and as a gene donor to construct more suitable yeasts for biotechnology. For example the Arxula glucoamylase gene was successfully expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis. Both transformed yeasts are able to assimilate and ferment starch as carbon source. A transformation system is used for heterologous gene expression which is based on integration of linearised DNA fragments in two to ten copies, e.g. into the 25S rDNA of A. adeninivorans by homologous recombination. The obtained transformants are mitotically stable. The expression of the lacZ gene from E. coli as well as the XylE gene from Pseudomonas putida indicates the suitability of A. adeninivorans as host for heterologous gene expression. PMID:11131385

  12. Phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Catarina; Lage, Patrícia; Vilela, Alice; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Currently, pursuing yeast strains that display both a high potential fitness for alcoholic fermentation and a favorable impact on quality is a major goal in the alcoholic beverage industry. This considerable industrial interest has led to many studies characterizing the phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial yeast populations. In this study, 20 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins exhibited high phenotypic diversity when their response to nine biotechnologically relevant conditions was examined. Next, the fermentation fitness and metabolic traits of eight selected strains with a unique phenotypic profile were evaluated in a high-sugar synthetic medium under two nitrogen regimes. Although the strains exhibited significant differences in nitrogen requirements and utilization rates, a direct relationship between nitrogen consumption, specific growth rate, cell biomass, cell viability, acetic acid and glycerol formation was only observed under high-nitrogen conditions. In contrast, the strains produced more succinic acid under the low-nitrogen regime, and a direct relationship with the final cell biomass was established. Glucose and fructose utilization patterns depended on both yeast strain and nitrogen availability. For low-nitrogen fermentation, three strains did not fully degrade the fructose. This study validates phenotypic and metabolic diversity among commercial wine yeasts and contributes new findings on the relationship between nitrogen availability, yeast cell growth and sugar utilization. We suggest that measuring nitrogen during the stationary growth phase is important because yeast cells fermentative activity is not exclusively related to population size, as previously assumed, but it is also related to the quantity of nitrogen consumed during this growth phase. PMID:24949272

  13. Mitochondrial Genome Evolution in a Single Protoploid Yeast Species

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Paul P.; Friedrich, Anne; Reisser, Cyrielle; Hou, Jing; Schacherer, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are organelles, which play a key role in some essential functions, including respiration, metabolite biosynthesis, ion homeostasis, and apoptosis. The vast numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of various yeast species, which have recently been published, have also helped to elucidate the structural diversity of these genomes. Although a large corpus of data are now available on the diversity of yeast species, little is known so far about the mtDNA diversity in single yeast species. To study the genetic variations occurring in the mtDNA of wild yeast isolates, we performed a genome-wide polymorphism survey on the mtDNA of 18 Lachancea kluyveri (formerly Saccharomyces kluyveri) strains. We determined the complete mt genome sequences of strains isolated from various geographical locations (in North America, Asia, and Europe) and ecological niches (Drosophila, tree exudates, soil). The mt genome of the NCYC 543 reference strain is 51,525 bp long. It contains the same core of genes as Lachancea thermotolerans, the nearest relative to L. kluyveri. To explore the mt genome variations in a single yeast species, we compared the mtDNAs of the 18 isolates. The phylogeny and population structure of L. kluyveri provide clear-cut evidence for the existence of well-defined geographically isolated lineages. Although these genomes are completely syntenic, their size and the intron content were found to vary among the isolates studied. These genomes are highly polymorphic, showing an average diversity of 28.5 SNPs/kb and 6.6 indels/kb. Analysis of the SNP and indel patterns showed the existence of a particularly high overall level of polymorphism in the intergenic regions. The dN/dS ratios obtained are consistent with purifying selection in all these genes, with the noteworthy exception of the VAR1 gene, which gave a very high ratio. These data suggest that the intergenic regions have evolved very fast in yeast mitochondrial genomes. PMID:22973548

  14. Fermentative lifestyle in yeasts belonging to the Saccharomyces complex.

    PubMed

    Merico, Annamaria; Sulo, Pavol; Piskur, Jure; Compagno, Concetta

    2007-02-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is characterized by its ability to: (a) degrade glucose or fructose to ethanol, even in the presence of oxygen (Crabtree effect); (b) grow in the absence of oxygen; and (c) generate respiratory-deficient mitochondrial mutants, so-called petites. How unique are these properties among yeasts in the Saccharomyces clade, and what is their origin? Recent progress in genome sequencing has elucidated the phylogenetic relationships among yeasts in the Saccharomyces complex, providing a framework for the understanding of the evolutionary history of several modern traits. In this study, we analyzed over 40 yeasts that reflect over 150 million years of evolutionary history for their ability to ferment, grow in the absence of oxygen, and generate petites. A great majority of isolates exhibited good fermentation ability, suggesting that this trait could already be an intrinsic property of the progenitor yeast. We found that lineages that underwent the whole-genome duplication, in general, exhibit a fermentative lifestyle, the Crabtree effect, and the ability to grow without oxygen, and can generate stable petite mutants. Some of the pre-genome duplication lineages also exhibit some of these traits, but a majority of the tested species are petite-negative, and show a reduced Crabtree effect and a reduced ability to grow in the absence of oxygen. It could be that the ability to accumulate ethanol in the presence of oxygen, a gradual independence from oxygen and/or the ability to generate petites were developed later in several lineages. However, these traits have been combined and developed to perfection only in the lineage that underwent the whole-genome duplication and led to the modern Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. PMID:17239085

  15. [Search for yeast producers of brassylic and sebacic fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Ulezlo, I V; Rogozhin, I S

    2004-01-01

    Yeast cultures belonging to the genera Candida, Torulopsis, Saccharomyces, Debaryomyces, Hansenula, Pichia, and Yarrowia, capable of synthesizing brassylic and sebacic fatty acids, were screened. Overall, about 200 cultures grown in media containing decane or tridecane as a sole source of carbon were tested. On the medium with tridecane, yeasts synthesized insignificant amounts of brassylic acid. Sebacic acid was produced more intensively in the medium with n-decane. The culture Candida tropicalis, displaying the highest ability to synthesize sebacic acid, was selected. PMID:15553784

  16. Fermentation of xylulose to ethanol using xylose isomerase and yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, T.W.

    1981-01-01

    In a survey of 35 organisms, predominantly yeasts, about 40% were capable of fermenting xylulose to ethanol. Two species, Candida tropicalis and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, did so at good rates and without an initial lag. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that fermented glucose rapidly fermented xylulose at a slower rate. Ten yeasts and three strains of the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis were weak or negative for xylulose, even though they fermented glucose under the conditions employed. C. tropicalis was able to form 1.0 M ethanol from 1.0 M xylose if the fermentation broth was recycled over immobilized xylose isomerase.

  17. Teaching nutritional biochemistry: an experimental approach using yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Manuel Alonso (Universidad de Buenos Aires)

    2012-12-01

    In this report, we present a practical approach to teaching several topics in nutrition to science students at the high school and college freshmen levels. This approach uses baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a biological system model. The diameters of yeast colonies, which vary according to the nutrients present in the medium, can be observed, compared, and used to teach metabolic requirements. The experiments described in this report show simple macroscopic evidence of submicroscopic nutritional events. This can serve as a useful base for an analogy of heterotrophic human cell nutrition.

  18. A novel killer yeast effective on Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Kono, I; Himeno, K

    1997-03-01

    To control the extent of deacidification in wine making, we screened Kluyveromyces strains by their activity to kill the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Among Kluyveromyces IFO strains tested, K. waltii IFO 1666T was shown to have the desired activity. The killer spectrum of this strain was different from those of the other known killer yeasts. The activity was found in the culture medium and was lost by protease treatment. The activity was associated with the precipitate obtained by an increase of ammonium sulfate concentration. The toxin was larger than 10,000 daltons as judged by ultrafiltration. PMID:9095562

  19. Effects of Solid-State Yeast Treatment on the Antioxidant Properties and Protein and Fiber

    E-print Network

    Liu, Jian-Guo

    the potential of solid-state yeast fermentation to improve the health beneficial properties of wheat branEffects of Solid-State Yeast Treatment on the Antioxidant Properties and Protein and Fiber. Three commercial food grade yeast preparations were evaluated in the study along with the effects

  20. Yeast three-hybrid screening for identifying anti-tuberculosis drug targets.

    PubMed

    Moser, Simone; Johnsson, Kai

    2013-11-25

    Mycobacterium goes yeast: Target deconvolution of anti-tuberculosis drugs can be a very challenging task. Here we report a yeast 3-hybrid system that allows promising small molecules to be screened for protein targets of a pathogen in nontoxic yeast cells. The system employs libraries of randomly fragmented bacterial DNA and offers a technically simple alternative approach for target identification. PMID:24133019

  1. Oral yeasts in patients with cancer of the mouth, before and during radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudete R. Paula; Maria Carmeli C. Sampaio; Esther G. Birman; Antonio M. Siqueira

    1990-01-01

    The yeasts of patients with oral cancer has been studied before and during Xr-therapy. Gram and PAS smears revealed an increase of yeast-like structures, during treatment, from 56% to 66% of the cases. Before radiotherapy oral yeasts were isolated from 56% of the patients with cancer represented by Candida albicans (30%); C. tropicalis (12%); C. glabrata and C. krusei (4%),

  2. Creating Bacterial Strains from Genomes That Have Been Cloned and Engineered in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carole Lartigue; Sanjay Vashee; Mikkel A. Algire; Ray-Yuan Chuang; Gwynedd A. Benders; Li Ma; Vladimir N. Noskov; Evgeniya A. Denisova; Daniel G. Gibson; Nacyra Assad-Garcia; Nina Alperovich; David W. Thomas; Chuck Merryman; Clyde A. Hutchison; Hamilton O. Smith; J. Craig Venter; John I. Glass

    2009-01-01

    We recently reported the chemical synthesis, assembly, and cloning of a bacterial genome in yeast. To produce a synthetic cell, the genome must be transferred from yeast to a receptive cytoplasm. Here we describe methods to accomplish this. We cloned a Mycoplasma mycoides genome as a yeast centromeric plasmid and then transplanted it into Mycoplasma capricolum to produce a viable

  3. Catabolism of benzene compounds by ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts and yeastlike fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wouter J. Middelhoven; Hesselink van Suchtelenweg

    1993-01-01

    A literature review is given on growth of yeasts on benzene compounds and on the catabolic pathways involved. Additionally, a yeast collection was screened for assimilation of phenol and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid. Fifteen ascomycetous and thirteen basidiomycetous yeast species were selected and were tested for growth on 84 benzene compounds. It appeared that 63 of these compounds supported growth of one

  4. Optimal Operation of Baker's Yeast Fermenta-tion in the Presence of Uncertainty

    E-print Network

    Palanki, Srinivas

    of determining the optimal feeding policy for a fed-batch fermentation for the production of Baker's yeast the simulator as if it were the real process. These two methods are implemented on a Baker's yeast fermentation (palanki@eng.fsu.edu). #12;for a fed-batch fermentation for the production of Baker's yeast in the presence

  5. Analysis of yeast and archaeal population dynamics in kimchi using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    , archaeal and yeast dynamics during various types of kimchi fermentation. The DGGE analysis of archaea was observed in the yeast DGGE banding patterns during kimchi fermentation. No significant difference the most common yeasts. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Fermentation is a well

  6. Crystal structure of the protein kinase domain of yeast AMP-activated protein kinase Snf1

    E-print Network

    Tong, Liang

    Crystal structure of the protein kinase domain of yeast AMP-activated protein kinase Snf1 Michael J of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD by phosphatases. AMPK is found in all eukaryotes. Yeast AMPK is more commonly known as SNF1 [1,6,7]. SNF1 has

  7. Brewers dried yeast as a source of mannan oligosaccharides for weanling pigs1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. White; M. C. Newman; G. L. Cromwell; M. D. Lindemann

    Brewers dried yeast, a source of man- nan oligosaccharides (MOS), was assessed as an alter- native to an antimicrobial agent (carbadox) for young pigs in two experiments. The yeast contained 5.2% MOS. Agglutination tests confirmed adsorption of sev- eral serovars of E. coli and Salmonella spp. onto the yeast product. In Exp. 1, seven replicates (five pigs per pen) of

  8. Stimulation of lactobacilli during alcoholic fermentation: action of sucrose hydrolysis by yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Essia Ngang; E. Wolniewicz; F. Letourneau; P. Villa

    1992-01-01

    Summary Behaviour of lactic acid bacteria especially their stimulation in mixed culture with yeast was studied. In alcoholic fermentation of molasses worts, bacterial growth was stimulated as the yeast inoculum size increase. The consumption of monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) liberated during hydrolysis of sucrose by yeast is proposed as a major factor accounting for this phenomenon.

  9. Early thiamin assimilation by yeasts under enological conditions: Impact on alcoholic fermentation kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Bataillon; Alain Rico; Jean-Marie Sablayrolles; Jean-Michel Salmon; Pierre Barre

    1996-01-01

    The effect of early must thiamin depletion by wild yeast strains (i.e. Kloeckera and Saccharomyces species) on alcoholic fermentation kinetics was studied. Experimental conditions affecting thiamin assimilation by yeasts were first determined, using factorial designs. Then sequential and\\/or mixed cultures simulating wild yeast contamination, as observed during winemaking, were carried out in order to study the influence of early thiamin

  10. Debaryomyces mycophilus sp. nov., a siderophore-dependent yeast isolated from woodliceD

    E-print Network

    determined by DNA sequence data analysis. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Isolation of yeasts Woodlice ADebaryomyces mycophilus sp. nov., a siderophore-dependent yeast isolated from woodliceD Vu Nguyen Four strains of an ascogenous yeast were isolated from the guts of the woodlice species Armadillidium

  11. Synthesis and assembly of hepatitis B virus surface antigen particles in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Valenzuela; Angelica Medina; William J. Rutter; Gustav Ammerer; Benjamin D. Hall

    1982-01-01

    The surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) has been synthesized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using an expression vector that employs the 5'-flanking region of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase I as a promoter to transcribe surface antigen coding sequences. The protein synthesized in yeast is assembled into particles having properties similar to the 22-nm particles secreted by human cells.

  12. Yeast actin-binding proteins: evidence for a role in morphogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Drubin; Kathryn G. Miller; David Botstein

    1988-01-01

    Three yeast actin-binding proteins were identified using yeast actin filaments as an affinity ma- trix. One protein appears to be a yeast myosin heavy chain; it is dissociated from actin filaments by ATP, it is similar in size (200 kD) to other myosins, and anti- bodies directed against Dictyostelium myosin heavy chain bind to it. Immunofluorescence experiments show that a

  13. Involvement of mitochondrial ferredoxin and para-aminobenzoic acid in yeast coenzyme Q biosynthesis

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Involvement of mitochondrial ferredoxin and para-aminobenzoic acid in yeast coenzyme QABA is a precursor of yeast coenzyme Q *Manuscript Click here to view linked References #12;2 Summary Yeast ubiquinone or coenzyme Q6 (Q6) is a redox active lipid with a crucial role in the mitochondrial electron

  14. Status of the yeast propagation process and some aspects of propagation for re-fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olau Nielsens

    2010-01-01

    Yeast propagation is an old and well established process in breweries. Yet, development is constantly going on and some questions still remain unanswered. The demand for good brewers yeast can be summarized in the following words: A non-stressed, highly vital and viable yeast that is free from infecting organisms. The road to this goes over a carefully designed sanitary propagation

  15. Increasing alcohol yield by selected yeast fermentation of sweet sorghum. I. Evaluation of yeast strains for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    de Mancilha, I.M.; Pearson, A.M.; Waller, J.; Hogaboam, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted for the purpose of evaluating and selecting yeast strains for their ability to produce ethanol using sweet sorghum juice as the substrate. Stalks of sweet sorghum were obtained by cutting off the tops and stripping away the leaves. Fermentation media were prepared by diluting or adding dextrose to the sorghum juice to give a sugar concentration of either 10% (w/v) or 20% (w/v). All yeast strains were first tested in 10% (w/v) total sugar medium. Those strains showing more than 90% sugar conversion efficiency were further tested in 20% (w/v) total sugar medium. Active cultures for inoculation were prepared by growing the yeast strains on the fermentation medium (10% (w/v) total sugar) for 24 h. Then the cultures were added to the fermentation media at a rate of 2%.

  16. [Efficiency and yeast community structure of oil-containing treatment system inoculated by different yeast strains complex wastewater].

    PubMed

    Lü, Wen-zhou; Liu, Ying; Zhu, Jian-lin

    2008-09-01

    Ten yeast stains were grouped and applied in pilot-scale sequencing batch reactors to treat oil-containing wastewater. The efficiency and stability of different reactors were discussed and yeast community structure was investigated by PCR-DGGE method. The results show: the group consisting of O2, G1 and W1 is markedly superior to others in efficiency and stability respects; the group absence of these 3 stains fails to form a system with high efficiency and good stability; O4 and G2 strains lead to turbid supernatant fluid and are eliminated from system step by step; the distribution of yeast cells in settlement sludge varies with different stains. When aeration is stopped, G1 deposits into lower layer but O2 or W1 distributes evenly. PMID:19068631

  17. Methods of plate pexophagy monitoring and positive selection for ATG gene cloning in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Stasyk, Oleh V; Nazarko, Taras Y; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2008-01-01

    Methods for colony assay of peroxisomal oxidases in yeasts provide a convenient and fast approach for monitoring peroxisome status. They have been used in several laboratories for the isolation of yeast mutants deficient in selective autophagic peroxisome degradation (pexophagy), catabolite repression of peroxisomal enzymes or mutants deficient in oxidases themselves. In this chapter, protocols for monitoring peroxisomal alcohol oxidase and amine oxidase directly in yeast colonies and examples of their application for mutant isolation are described. These methods were successfully utilized in several methylotrophic yeasts and the alkane-utilizing yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. PMID:19185724

  18. Estimating the effect of fermentation yeast on distillers grains protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the key co-product of bio-ethanol production from grains. Major factors affecting its quality and market values include protein quantity (concentration) and quality (amino acid composition). Yet, the effect of fermentation yeast on DDGS quality has no...

  19. Immunoprecipitation and Characterization of Membrane Protein Complexes from Yeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parra-Belky, Karlett; McCulloch, Kathryn; Wick, Nicole; Shircliff, Rebecca; Croft, Nicolas; Margalef, Katrina; Brown, Jamie; Crabill, Todd; Jankord, Ryan; Waldo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In this undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment, the vacuolar ATPase protein complex is purified from yeast cell extracts by doing immunoprecipitations under nondenaturing conditions. Immunoprecipitations are performed using monoclonal antibodies to facilitate data interpretation, and subunits are separated on the basis of their molecular…

  20. Origin plasticity during budding yeast DNA replication in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Julien; Devbhandari, Sujan; Remus, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The separation of DNA replication origin licensing and activation in the cell cycle is essential for genome stability across generations in eukaryotic cells. Pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) license origins by loading Mcm2-7 complexes in inactive form around DNA. During origin firing in S phase, replisomes assemble around the activated Mcm2-7 DNA helicase. Budding yeast pre-RCs have previously been reconstituted in vitro with purified proteins. Here, we show that reconstituted pre-RCs support replication of plasmid DNA in yeast cell extracts in a reaction that exhibits hallmarks of cellular replication initiation. Plasmid replication in vitro results in the generation of covalently closed circular daughter molecules, indicating that the system recapitulates the initiation, elongation, and termination stages of DNA replication. Unexpectedly, yeast origin DNA is not strictly required for DNA replication in vitro, as heterologous DNA sequences could support replication of plasmid molecules. Our findings support the notion that epigenetic mechanisms are important for determining replication origin sites in budding yeast, highlighting mechanistic principles of replication origin specification that are common among eukaryotes. PMID:24566988

  1. Some Experiments with Respiratory Deficient Mutants of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Methods are described for the induction and identification of respiratory deficient mutants in yeast. Practical schemes are given to enable students to obtain dose-response information for physical and chemical mutagens such as heat, ultraviolet light, or acriflavine. A simple test for environmental mutagens is described. (Author/MA)

  2. Invited Review Functional expression of heterologous proteins in yeast: insights

    E-print Network

    Rao, Rajini

    Physiol 287: C580­C589, 2004; 10.1152/ajpcell.00135.2004.-- The baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae-of-function phenotypes associated with the disease. Saccharomyces cerevisiae; calcium ion; transporters; functional the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), Research Genetics (Invitrogen), or European Saccharomyces

  3. MAP kinase pathways in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustin, M. C.; Albertyn, J.; Alexander, M.; Davenport, K.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A cascade of three protein kinases known as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is commonly found as part of the signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. Almost two decades of genetic and biochemical experimentation plus the recently completed DNA sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome have revealed just five functionally distinct MAPK cascades in this yeast. Sexual conjugation, cell growth, and adaptation to stress, for example, all require MAPK-mediated cellular responses. A primary function of these cascades appears to be the regulation of gene expression in response to extracellular signals or as part of specific developmental processes. In addition, the MAPK cascades often appear to regulate the cell cycle and vice versa. Despite the success of the gene hunter era in revealing these pathways, there are still many significant gaps in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms for activation of these cascades and how the cascades regulate cell function. For example, comparison of different yeast signaling pathways reveals a surprising variety of different types of upstream signaling proteins that function to activate a MAPK cascade, yet how the upstream proteins actually activate the cascade remains unclear. We also know that the yeast MAPK pathways regulate each other and interact with other signaling pathways to produce a coordinated pattern of gene expression, but the molecular mechanisms of this cross talk are poorly understood. This review is therefore an attempt to present the current knowledge of MAPK pathways in yeast and some directions for future research in this area.

  4. RICE BREAD QUALITY AS AFFECTED BY YEAST AND BRAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole rice bread (WRB) has been developed in our laboratory for people suffering from Celiac disease and other food allergies. The WRB has texture and related qualities comparable with white or whole wheat breads. This paper reports the results of three levels of yeast, defatted rice bran on the t...

  5. Reclassification of ascomycetous yeasts from gene sequence analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past decade, identification of yeasts and their classification has been based almost exclusively on gene sequence analysis. Primarily as a result of using diagnostic gene sequences, such as D1/D2 LSU and ITS ribosomal RNAs, the number of known species has doubled. With the faster sequen...

  6. Metabolic Regulation and Anticancer Drug Resistance in the Yeast

    E-print Network

    . It owes its specificity against neoplasms due to the higher rate of nutrient uptake, RNA and DNA synthesis in yeast 14 1.1.1 Haploinsufficiency profiling 15 1.1.2 Homozygous deletion profiling 15 1.1.3 Plasmid arrest and DNA damage 21 3.1 DNA damage and DNA breaks 21 3.2 DNA repair mechanisms and DNA damage

  7. ORIGINAL PAPER Candida gelsemii sp. nov., a yeast

    E-print Network

    Thomson, James D.

    +Business Media B.V. 2006 Abstract A new yeast species, Candida gelsemii, is described to accommodate three of Metschnikowia and Candida species known to occur in association with nectars and bees, as well as marine inverte of Candida rancoensis as well as a new asexual species with metschnikowiaceous affinities, which we now

  8. Global Mapping of the Yeast Genetic Interaction Network

    E-print Network

    Mihail, Milena

    principles of genetic interaction networks, we conducted a large-scale analysis of synthetic geneticGlobal Mapping of the Yeast Genetic Interaction Network Amy Hin Yan Tong,1,2 * Guillaume Lesage,3 P. Roth,7 Grant W. Brown,5 Brenda Andrews,2 Howard Bussey,3 Charles Boone1,2 A genetic

  9. Recent advances in yeast molecular biology: recombinant DNA. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 25 papers presented at a workshop focusing on chromosomal structure, gene regulation, recombination, DNA repair, and cell type control, that have been obtained by experimental approaches incorporating the new technologies of yeast DNA transformation, molecular cloning, and DNA sequence analysis. (KRM)

  10. Yeast Aquaglyceroporins Use the Transmembrane Core to Restrict Glycerol Transport*

    PubMed Central

    Geijer, Cecilia; Ahmadpour, Doryaneh; Palmgren, Madelene; Filipsson, Caroline; Klein, Dagmara Medrala; Tamás, Markus J.; Hohmann, Stefan; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Aquaglyceroporins are transmembrane proteins belonging to the family of aquaporins, which facilitate the passage of specific uncharged solutes across membranes of cells. The yeast aquaglyceroporin Fps1 is important for osmoadaptation by regulating intracellular glycerol levels during changes in external osmolarity. Upon high osmolarity conditions, yeast accumulates glycerol by increased production of the osmolyte and by restricting glycerol efflux through Fps1. The extended cytosolic termini of Fps1 contain short domains that are important for regulating glycerol flux through the channel. Here we show that the transmembrane core of the protein plays an equally important role. The evidence is based on results from an intragenic suppressor mutation screen and domain swapping between the regulated variant of Fps1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the hyperactive Fps1 ortholog from Ashbya gossypii. This suggests a novel mechanism for regulation of glycerol flux in yeast, where the termini alone are not sufficient to restrict Fps1 transport. We propose that glycerol flux through the channel is regulated by interplay between the transmembrane helices and the termini. This mechanism enables yeast cells to fine-tune intracellular glycerol levels at a wide range of extracellular osmolarities. PMID:22593571

  11. Yeast Life Span Extension by Depletion of 60S Ribosomal

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Maitreya

    ), and Sch9 kinases. These kinases coordinately regulate various cellular processes including stress respon et al., 1988). In yeast, DR by a reduction in either glucose or amino acid concentration in the media., 2004; Martin et al., 2004; Powers and Walter, 1999), stress response (Beck and Hall, 1999), autophagy

  12. Selection Conflicts, Gene Expression, and Codon Usage Trends in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Kliman; Naheelah Irving; Maria Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage in yeast appears to be influenced by natural selection on gene expression, as well as regional variation in compositional bias. Because of the large number of potential targets of selection (i.e., most of the codons in the genome) and presumed small selection coefficients, codon usage is an excellent model for studying factors that limit the effectiveness of

  13. Method for using a yeast alpha-amylase promoter

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Johnway (Richland, WA); Skeen, Rodney S. (Pendleton, OR); Hooker, Brian S. (Kennewick, WA); Anderson, Daniel B. (Pasco, WA)

    2003-04-22

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

  14. Studies on marine occurring yeasts: Respiration, fermentation and salt tolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgitta Norkrans

    1968-01-01

    The effect of various NaCl concentrations on respiration and fermentation rates in cells with or without added glucose as exogenous substrate as well as on respiratory quotients was determined for Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida zeylanoides, all yeasts isolated from marine environment. A given strain had about the same respiratory and fermentatory intensity at 0% and 4%

  15. Nutritional and medicinal improvement of black tea by yeast fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chand Pasha; Gopal Reddy

    2005-01-01

    Black tea fermentation with Dabaryomyces hansenii for 10 days resulted in accumulation of major vitamins, such as A, B1, B2, B12 and C in sufficient quantities to fulfil the recommended dietary allowances (RDA). Fermentation of tea by yeast resulted in reduction of caffeine and excess tannins in significant amounts. After fermentation, the amount of theophylline was increased to make fermented

  16. Replicative inactivation and metabolic inhibition in yeast ethanol fermentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney P. Jones; Paul F. Greenfield

    1985-01-01

    Summary The effects of ethanol on the growth rates of twoSaccharomyces yeast strains were measured during normal batch fermentative growth and compared with those measured by initial rate studies. In the light of previous work, which has highlighted the loss of cell replicative ability caused by ethanol, the results imply that the observed reduction in growth rate reflects a mixture

  17. Influence of Zero-Shear on Yeast Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, Michael R.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the research was to begin evaluating the effect of zero-shear on the development of the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae employing the High Aspect Rotating-Wall Vessel (HARV) NASA bioreactor. This particular yeast has enormous potential for research as a model eukaryotic system on the International Space Station, as well as the production of food stuffs' at the future lunar colony. Because the cell wall is the barrier between the cell and the environment, its form and function as influenced by microgravity is of great importance. Morphologic studies revealed that the circularity and total area of the individual yeast cells were essentially the same in both the control and test HARV's. The growth rates were also essentially the same. In zero-shear, the yeast grew in clumps consisting of rudimentary pseudohyphae in contrast to solitary budding cells in the control. Based upon mechanical and sonic shear applied to the yeast cells, those grown in zero-shear had stronger cell walls and septa. This suggests that there are structural differences, most likely related to the chitin skeleton of the cell wall. From this research further NASA support was obtained to continue the work. Investigations will deal with gene expression and ultrastructure. These will lead to a clearer assessment of the value of S. cerevisiae eukaryotic as a model for space station research.

  18. Chitin Synthetase Zymogen is Attached to the Yeast Plasma Membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angel Duran; Blair Bowers; Enrico Cabib

    1975-01-01

    Pretreatment of yeast protoplasts with concanavalin A, according to the method used by G. A. Scarborough for Neurospora (J. Biol. Chem. 250, 1106-1111, 1975), reinforced the plasma membranes, and helped to maintain their integrity during subsequent lysis of the protoplasts. After purification by centrifuging on a Renografin density gradient, practically intact membranes were obtained. Previous labeling of the protoplasts with

  19. Regulation of glycogen metabolism in yeast and bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Wayne A.; Roach, Peter J.; Montero, Manuel; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Muñoz, Francisco José; Eydallin, Gustavo; Viale, Alejandro M.; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms have the capacity to utilize a variety of nutrients and adapt to continuously changing environmental conditions. Many microorganisms, including yeast and bacteria, accumulate carbon and energy reserves to cope with starvation conditions temporarily present in the environment. Glycogen biosynthesis is a main strategy for such metabolic storage and a variety of sensing and signaling mechanisms have evolved in evolutionarily distant species to guarantee the production of this homopolysaccharide. At the most fundamental level, the processes of glycogen synthesis and degradation in yeast and bacteria share certain broad similarities. However, the regulation of these processes is sometimes quite distinct, indicating that they have evolved separately to respond optimally to the habitat conditions of each species. This review aims to highlight the mechanisms, both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, which regulate glycogen metabolism in yeast and bacteria, focusing on selected areas where the greatest increase in knowledge has occurred during the last few years. In the yeast system, we focus particularly on the various signaling pathways that control the activity of the enzymes of glycogen storage. We also discuss our recent understanding of the important role played by the vacuole in glycogen metabolism. In the case of bacterial glycogen, especial emphasis is given to aspects related with genetic regulation of glycogen metabolism and its connection with other biological processes. PMID:20412306

  20. Yeast opsonisation in children with chronic diarrhoeal states

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D C Candy; V F Larcher; J H Tripp; J T Harries; B A Harvey; J F Soothill

    1980-01-01

    Four patients with defective yeast opsonisation and protracted diarrhoea are reported. Plasma infusions improved the opsonising function in all 4 and the diarrhoea in 3. This immunological abnormality was assessed in 100 sequential patients with chronic diarrhoea associated with various gastrointestinal disorders; 52 with protracted diarrhoea and failure to thrive of undetermined cause, 26 with 'toddler diarrhoea', 8 with coeliac

  1. Nickel resistance mechanisms in yeasts and other fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Joho; M. Inouhe; H. Tohoyama; T. Murayama

    1995-01-01

    Summary This review describes nickel toxicity and nickel resistance mechanisms in fungi. Nickel toxicity in fungi is influenced by environmental factors such as pH, temperature and the existence of organic matter and other ions. We describe resistance mechanisms in nickel-resistant mutants of yeasts and filamentous fungi which were obtained by exposure to a mutagen or by successive culture in media

  2. CLUSTER, FUNCTION AND PROMOTER: ANALYSIS OF YEAST EXPRESSION ARRAY

    E-print Network

    CLUSTER, FUNCTION AND PROMOTER: ANALYSIS OF YEAST EXPRESSION ARRAY J. ZHU, M. Q. ZHANG Cold Spring Harbor Lab, P. O. Box 100 Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724 Gene clusters could be derived based on expression temporal expression data: 1) start from clustering on the expression profiles followed by function

  3. The Yeast Nuclear Pore Complex: Composition, Architecture, and Transport Mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Rout; John D. Aitchison; Adisetyantari Suprapto; Kelly Hjertaas; Yingming Zhao; Brian T. Chait

    2000-01-01

    An understanding of how the nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleocytoplasmic exchange requires a comprehensive inventory of the molecular components of the NPC and a knowledge of how each component contributes to the overall structure of this large molecular translocation machine. Therefore, we have taken a comprehensive approach to classify all components of the yeast NPC (nucleoporins). This in- volved

  4. The Treasure of the Humble: Lessons from Baker's Yeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    The study of model organisms is a powerful and proven experimental strategy for understanding biological processes. This paper describes an attempt to utilize advances in yeast molecular biology to enhance student understanding by presenting a more comprehensive view of several interconnected molecular processes in the overall functioning of an…

  5. Yeast stimulation of bone marrow mitosis for cytogenetic investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Lee; F. F. B. Elder

    1980-01-01

    We report a simple, dependable method for stimulating bone marrow mitosis in small mammals. Subcutaneous injections of a suspension of active baker’s yeast may elevate the mitotic index as much as six times or more. Additionally, the metaphases obtained are easily spread when air dried, and the chromosomes are readily banded. This method should prove useful to investigators who wish

  6. Membrane Trafficking in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model

    PubMed Central

    Feyder, Serge; De Craene, Johan-Owen; Bär, Séverine; Bertazzi, Dimitri L.; Friant, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM), or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC), and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway) or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway). Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END) and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway). Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes. PMID:25584613

  7. Genetic control of cell size at cell division in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Nurse; R. K. Mortimer; J. Culotti; M. Culotti

    1975-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutant strain of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been isolated which divides at half the size of the wild type. Study of this strain suggests that there is a cell size control over DNA synthesis and a second control acting on nuclear division.

  8. Reconstitution of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kovács-Bogdán, Erika; Sancak, Yasemin; Kamer, Kimberli J; Plovanich, Molly; Jambhekar, Ashwini; Huber, Robert J; Myre, Michael A; Blower, Michael D; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2014-06-17

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter is a highly selective calcium channel distributed broadly across eukaryotes but absent in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The molecular components of the human uniporter holocomplex (uniplex) have been identified recently. The uniplex consists of three membrane-spanning subunits--mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), its paralog MCUb, and essential MCU regulator (EMRE)--and two soluble regulatory components--MICU1 and its paralog MICU2. The minimal components sufficient for in vivo uniporter activity are unknown. Here we consider Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd), a member of the Amoebazoa outgroup of Metazoa and Fungi, and show that it has a highly simplified uniporter machinery. We show that D. discoideum mitochondria exhibit membrane potential-dependent calcium uptake compatible with uniporter activity, and also that expression of DdMCU complements the mitochondrial calcium uptake defect in human cells lacking MCU or EMRE. Moreover, expression of DdMCU in yeast alone is sufficient to reconstitute mitochondrial calcium uniporter activity. Having established yeast as an in vivo reconstitution system, we then reconstituted the human uniporter. We show that coexpression of MCU and EMRE is sufficient for uniporter activity, whereas expression of MCU alone is insufficient. Our work establishes yeast as a powerful in vivo reconstitution system for the uniporter. Using this system, we confirm that MCU is the pore-forming subunit, define the minimal genetic elements sufficient for metazoan and nonmetazoan uniporter activity, and provide valuable insight into the evolution of the uniporter machinery. PMID:24889638

  9. The Yeast Exosome Functions as a Macromolecular Cage to Channel

    E-print Network

    Bedwell, David M.

    The Yeast Exosome Functions as a Macromolecular Cage to Channel RNA Substrates for Degradation.cell.2009.08.042 SUMMARY The exosome is a conserved macromolecular com- plex essential for RNA degradation. The nine-subunit core of the eukaryotic exosome shares a similar barrel-like architecture with prokaryotic

  10. Yeast Genomic Library Genomic DNA Sau3AI partial digestion

    E-print Network

    Odorizzi, Greg

    Yeast Genomic Library Concept: Genomic DNA ­ Sau3AI partial digestion Vector DNA ­ BamHI full digestion partial Ligate and transform above products Vector Information: · use centromeric plasmid to avoid of the mcs Preparing Vector: 1) digest 3-4ug of library vector with BamHI for 2-4hrs in a total volume of 20

  11. Crystal Structure of the Yeast Nicotinamidase Pnc1p

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Gang; Taylor, Alexander B.; McAlister-Henn, Lee; Hart, P. John

    2007-01-01

    The yeast nicotinamidase Pnc1p acts in transcriptional silencing by reducing levels of nicotinamide, an inhibitor of the histone deacetylase Sir2p. The Pnc1p structure was determined at 2.9 Å resolution using MAD and MIRAS phasing methods after inadvertent crystallization during the pursuit of the structure of histidine-tagged yeast isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). Pnc1p displays a cluster of surface histidine residues likely responsible for its co-fractionation with IDH from Ni2+-coupled chromatography resins. Researchers expressing histidine-tagged proteins in yeast should be aware of the propensity of Pnc1p to crystallize, even when overwhelmed in concentration by the protein of interest. The protein assembles into extended helical arrays interwoven to form an unusually robust, yet porous superstructure. Comparison of the Pnc1p structure with those of three homologous bacterial proteins reveals a common core fold punctuated by amino acid insertions unique to each protein. These insertions mediate the self-interactions that define the distinct higher order oligomeric states attained by these molecules. Pnc1p also acts on pyrazinamide, a substrate analog converted by the nicotinamidase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis into a product toxic to that organism. However, we find no evidence for detrimental effects of the drug on yeast cell growth. PMID:17382284

  12. Occurrence and effect of propanedial on top-fermenting yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antônio F. M. Vaz; Marthyna P. Souza; Romero M. P. B. Costa; Levy S. Guedes

    2011-01-01

    Peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids caused by free radicals compromise the integrity of biological membranes. Propanedial is identified as the main product formed via the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. Propanedial has been inferred to have mutagenic and cytotoxic roles. Top-fermenting yeast is responsible for converting fermentable sugars into alcohol. In the present paper we evaluate the relationship of lipid

  13. Genome Sequence of the Yeast Cyberlindnera fabianii (Hansenula fabianii).

    PubMed

    Freel, Kelle C; Sarilar, Véronique; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Devillers, Hugo; Friedrich, Anne; Schacherer, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Cyberlindnera fabianii is used in wastewater treatment, fermentation of alcoholic beverages, and has caused blood infections. To assist in the accurate identification of this species, and to determine the genetic basis for properties involved in fermentation and water treatment, we sequenced and annotated the genome of C. fabianii (YJS4271). PMID:25103752

  14. Kinetics of alcohol fermentation at high yeast levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Del Rosario; Kye Joon Lee; P. L. Rogers

    1979-01-01

    The fermentation of alcohol from renewable substrates is attracting attention as a promising energy resource. Brazil has started to develop its fermentation industries for producing fuel ethanol from crops such as sugar-cane and cassava. However, before alcohol production costs become competitive, significant improvements in technology will have to be made. This paper evaluates one of the most promising of yeasts

  15. Phosphoglucomutase is an in vivo lithium target in yeast.

    PubMed

    Masuda, C A; Xavier, M A; Mattos, K A; Galina, A; Montero-Lomeli, M

    2001-10-12

    Lithium is a drug frequently used in the treatment of manic depressive disorder. We have observed that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is very sensitive to lithium when growing in galactose medium. In this work we show that lithium inhibits with high affinity yeast (IC50 approximately 0.2 mm) and human (IC50 approximately 1.5 mm) phosphoglucomutase, the enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate. Lithium inhibits the rate of fermentation when yeast are grown in galactose and induces accumulation of glucose 1-phosphate and galactose 1-phosphate. Accumulation of these metabolites was also observed when a strain deleted of the two isoforms of phosphoglucomutase was incubated in galactose medium. In glucose-grown cells lithium reduces the steady state levels of UDP-glucose, resulting in a defect on trehalose and glycogen biosynthesis. Lithium acts as a competitive inhibitor of yeast phosphoglucomutase activity by competing with magnesium, a cofactor of the enzyme. High magnesium concentrations revert lithium inhibition of growth and phosphoglucomutase activity. Lithium stress causes an increase of the phosphoglucomutase activity due to an induction of transcription of the PGM2 gene, and its overexpression confers lithium tolerance in galactose medium. These results show that phosphoglucomutase is an important in vivo lithium target. PMID:11500487

  16. Enhanced Arsenic Accumulation by Engineered Yeast Cells Expressing

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wilfred

    ARTICLE Enhanced Arsenic Accumulation by Engineered Yeast Cells Expressing Arabidopsis thaliana occurring peptides with high-binding capabilities for a wide range of heavy metals including arsenic (As As accumulation as compared to the control strain under a wide range of As concentrations. For the high-arsenic

  17. Global Mapping of the Yeast Genetic Interaction Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Hin Yan Tong; Guillaume Lesage; Gary D. Bader; Huiming Ding; Hong Xu; Xiaofeng Xin; James Young; Gabriel F. Berriz; Renee L. Brost; Michael Chang; YiQun Chen; Xin Cheng; Gordon Chua; Helena Friesen; Debra S. Goldberg; Jennifer Haynes; Christine Humphries; Grace He; Shamiza Hussein; Lizhu Ke; Nevan Krogan; Zhijian Li; Joshua N. Levinson; Hong Lu; Patrice Ménard; Christella Munyana; Ainslie B. Parsons; Owen Ryan; Raffi Tonikian; Tania Roberts; Anne-Marie Sdicu; Jesse Shapiro; Bilal Sheikh; Bernhard Suter; Sharyl L. Wong; Lan V. Zhang; Hongwei Zhu; Christopher G. Burd; Sean Munro; Chris Sander; Jasper Rine; Jack Greenblatt; Matthias Peter; Anthony Bretscher; Graham Bell; Frederick P. Roth; Grant W. Brown; Brenda Andrews; Howard Bussey; Charles Boone

    2004-01-01

    A genetic interaction network containing ~1000 genes and ~4000 interactions was mapped by crossing mutations in 132 different query genes into a set of ~4700 viable gene yeast deletion mutants and scoring the double mutant progeny for fitness defects. Network connectivity was predictive of function because interactions often occurred among functionally related genes, and similar patterns of interactions tended to

  18. Revealing modular organization in the yeast transcriptional network

    E-print Network

    Domany, Eytan

    Revealing modular organization in the yeast transcriptional network Jan Ihmels, Gilgi Friedlander, but have limited use in the analysis of large-scale expression data, mainly owing to their assignment of a gene to a single cluster. Here we propose an alternative method for the global analysis of genome

  19. The uses of genome-wide yeast mutant collections

    PubMed Central

    Scherens, Bart; Goffeau, Andre

    2004-01-01

    We assess five years of usage of the major genome-wide collections of mutants from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: single deletion mutants, double mutants conferring 'synthetic' lethality and the 'TRIPLES' collection of mutants obtained by random transposon insertion. Over 100 experimental conditions have been tested and more than 5,000 novel phenotypic traits have been assigned to yeast genes using these collections. PMID:15239820

  20. Trehalose in yeast, stress protectant rather than reserve carbohydrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andres Wiemken

    1990-01-01

    Trehalose and glycogen are generally regarded as the two main reserve carbohydrates in yeast. However, several lines of evidence suggest that trehalose does not primarily function as a reserve but as a highly efficient protecting agent to maintain strutural integrity of the cytoplasm under environmental stress conditions.