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1

Astaxanthin formation by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma on molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Phaffia rhodozyma grown on 7–10% B or C garde molasses contained 2 to 3 times more astaxanthin than reported earlier for this red yeast. Yield of astaxanthin with 10% molasses as fermentation substrate was 15.3 µg\\/ml which was about 3 times higher than with glucose and 2 times higher than with a sugar blend representative of the molasses.

N. F. Haard

1988-01-01

2

Phaffia rhodozyma : colorful odyssey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phaffia rhodozyma was isolated by Herman Phaff in the 1960s, during his pioneering studies of yeast ecology. Initially, the yeast was isolated from limited geographical regions, but isolates were subsequently obtained from Russia, Chile, Finland, and the United States. The biological diversity of the yeast is more extensive than originally envisioned by Phaff and his collaborators, and at least two

Eric A. Johnson

2003-01-01

3

Phaffia rhodozyma: colorful odyssey.  

PubMed

Phaffia rhodozyma was isolated by Herman Phaff in the 1960s, during his pioneering studies of yeast ecology. Initially, the yeast was isolated from limited geographical regions, but isolates were subsequently obtained from Russia, Chile, Finland, and the United States. The biological diversity of the yeast is more extensive than originally envisioned by Phaff and his collaborators, and at least two species appear to exist, including the anamorph Phaffia rhodozyma and the teleomorph Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. The yeast has attracted considerable biotechnological interest because of its ability to synthesize the economically important carotenoid astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-beta, beta-carotene-4,4'-dione) as its major pigment. This property has stimulated research on the biology of the yeast as well as development of the yeast as an industrial microorganism for astaxanthin production by fermentation. Our laboratory has isolated several mutants of the yeast affected in carotenogenesis, giving colonies a vivid array of pigmentation. We have found that nutritional and environmental conditions regulate astaxanthin biosynthesis in the yeast, and have demonstrated that astaxanthin protects P. rhodozyma from damage by reactive oxygen species. We proposed in the 1970s that P. rhodozyma could serve as an economically important pigment source in animal diets including salmonids, lobsters, and the egg yolks of chickens and quail, in order to impart characteristic and desirable colors. Although P. rhodozyma/Xanthomyces dendrorhous has been studied by various researchers for nearly 30 years, it still attracts interest from yeast biologists and biotechnologists. There is a bright and colorful outlook for P. rhodozyma/X. dendrorhous from fundamental and applied research perspectives. PMID:12898396

Johnson, Eric A

2003-09-01

4

Studies on the growth, modelling and pigment production by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma during fed-batch cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Phaffia rhodozyma is a Crabtree positive yeast, its cell yield and pigment production are reduced at high sugar concentrations. A method for maintaining low growth medium sugar concentrations is fed-batch culture. Using a mass balance approach and Monod growth kinetics a model is presented which describes the fed-batch culture of Phaffia rhodozyma and enables the calculation of a feed

M. B. Reynders; D. E. Rawlings; S. T. L. Harrison

1996-01-01

5

Separation of astaxanthin from red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) behavior was investigated to extract astaxanthin from the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, which was disrupted and dried by bead mill and spray dryer, respectively. The effects of extraction pressure (102–500bar), temperature (40, 60 and 80°C), CO2 flow rate (superficial velocities of 0.27 and 0.54cm\\/min) and the use of ethyl alcohol as a modifier (1, 5,

Gio-Bin Lim; Sang-Yun Lee; Eun-Kyu Lee; Seung-Joo Haam; Woo-Sik Kim

2002-01-01

6

The Colony Color Range of Yeasts Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous and Phaffia rhodozyma and Wild Types and Carotene Mutants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image shows several Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous and Phaffia rhodozyma wild-type and mutant colonies after cells were grown for 120 hours in YM agar at 19°C. It is easy to appreciate how different end products in the yeast carotene pa

American Society For Microbiology;

2004-04-07

7

The kinetic reduction of Cr(VI) by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Phaffia rhodozyma and their protoplasts.  

PubMed

Chromium in the sixth oxidation state may easily penetrate cellular membranes via non-specific sulfate transporters due to its tetrahedral symmetry (high similarity to SO4(2-) and HPO4(2-)). This feature makes chromium a toxic and hazardous pollutant responsible for the deterioration of midland water quality. The aim of the study was to evaluate the capacity of two yeast species - Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Phaffia rhodozyma - and their protoplasts to reduce Cr(VI) to lower oxidation states. The study also deals with the behavior of the yeasts upon the presence of elevated sulfate ions as a competitive inhibitor of chromate transport by the sulfate transporters. The chromate-reducing activities were monitored by determination of Cr(V) free radical form with the use of L-band (1.2 GHz) EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) spectroscopy. It was observed that both of the studied yeast strains exhibited the ability to reduce Cr(VI) applied at 4 mM. The cells of P. rhodozyma showed about 3.5 times higher reduction than S. cerevisiae. The reduction efficiency was significantly improved when the protoplasts of both strains were used and reached 100% in the first 10 minutes of the reduction process which suggests that the cellular wall may have a notable influence on the uptake and/or inhibition of chromium reduction process. The reduction effect of P. rhodozyma cells and protoplasts may be associated with the more sufficient production of metabolites (such as glutathione and cysteine), which may also be responsible for the increased tolerance of the strain towards high concentrations of toxic chromium. PMID:24432341

Chwastowski, Jaros?aw; Ko?oczek, Henryk

2013-01-01

8

Metabolic network analysis on Phaffia rhodozyma yeast using 13C–labeled glucose and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoid production by microorganisms, as opposed to chemical synthesis, could fulfill an ever-increasing demand for ‘all natural’ products. The yeast Phaffia rhodozyma has received considerable attention because it produces the red pigment astaxanthin, commonly used as an animal feed supplement. In order to have a better understanding of its metabolism, labeling experiments with [1-13C]glucose were conducted with the wildtype strain

Christopher Cannizzaro; Bjarke Christensen; Jens Nielsen; Urs von Stockar

2004-01-01

9

Astaxanthinogenesis in the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma - optimization of low-cost culture media and yeast cell-wall lysis  

SciTech Connect

Astaxanthin is a diketo-dihydroxy-carotenoid produced by Phaffia rhodozyma, a basidiomicetous yeast. A low-cost fermentation medium consisting of raw sugarcane juice and urea was developed to exploit the active sucrolytic/urelolytic enzyme apparatus inherent to the yeast. As compared to the beneficial effect of 0.1 g% urea, a ready nitrogen source, mild phosphoric pre inversion of juice sucrose to glucose and fructose, promptly fermentable carbon sources, resulted in smaller benefits. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was found to be a valuable supplement for both yeast biomass yield (9.2 g dry cells/L) and astaxanthin production (1.3 mg/g cells). Distillery effluent (vinace), despite only a slightly positive effect on yeast growth, allowed for the highest pigment productivity (1.9 mg/g cells). Trace amounts of Ni{sup 2} (1 mg/L, as a cofactor for urease) resulted in controversial effects, namely, biomass decrease and astaxanthin increase, with no effect on the release (and uptake) of ammonium ion from urea. 13 refs., 6 figs.

Fontana, J.D.; Baron, M.; Guimaraes, M.F. [LQBB-Biomass Chemo Biotechnology Lab., Curitiba (Brazil)] [and others

1997-12-31

10

Astaxanthinogenesis in the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma : optimization of low-cost culture media and yeast cell-wall lysis.  

PubMed

Astaxanthin is a diketo-dihydroxy-carotenoid produced by Phaffia rhodozyma, a basidiomicetous yeast. A low-cost fermentation medium consisting of raw sugarcane juice and urea was developed to exploit the active sucrolytic/urelolytic enzyme apparatus inherent to the yeast. As compared to the beneficial effect of 0.1 g% urea, a ready nitrogen source, mild phosphoric pre inversion of juice sucrose to glucose and fructose, promptly fermentable carbon sources, resulted in smaller benefits. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was found to be a valuable supplement for both yeast biomass yield (9.2 g dry cells/L) and astaxanthin production (1.3 mg/g cells). Distillery effluent (vinace), despite only a slightly positive effect on yeast growth, allowed for the highest pigment productivity (1.9 mg/g cells). Trace amounts of Ni2 (1 mg/L, as a cofactor for urease) resulted in controversial effects, namely, biomass decrease and astaxanthin increase, with no effect on the release (and uptake) of ammonium ion from urea. Since the synthesized astaxanthin is associated with the yeast cell and the pigment requires facilitated release for aquaculture uses (farmed fish meat staining), an investigation of the yeast cell wall was undertaken using detergent-treated cells. The composition of the rigid yeast envelope was found to be heterogeneous. Its partial acid or enzymatic depolymerization revealed glucose and xylose as common monomeric units of the cell-wall glycopolymers. Yeast cell-wall partial depolymerization with appropriate hydrolases may improve the pigment bioavailability for captive aquatic species and poultry. PMID:18576089

Fontana, J D; Chocial, M B; Baron, M; Guimaraes, M F; Maraschin, M; Ulhoa, C; Florêncio, J A; Bonfim, T M

1997-01-01

11

Metabolic network analysis on Phaffia rhodozyma yeast using 13C-labeled glucose and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Carotenoid production by microorganisms, as opposed to chemical synthesis, could fulfill an ever-increasing demand for 'all natural' products. The yeast Phaffia rhodozyma has received considerable attention because it produces the red pigment astaxanthin, commonly used as an animal feed supplement. In order to have a better understanding of its metabolism, labeling experiments with [1-(13)C]glucose were conducted with the wildtype strain (CBS5905T) and a hyper-producing carotenoid strain (J4-3) in order to determine their metabolic network structure and estimate intracellular fluxes. Amino acid labeling patterns, as determined by GC-MS, were in accordance with a metabolic network consisting of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle. Glucose was mainly consumed along the pentose phosphate pathway ( approximately 65% for wildtype strain), which reflected high NADPH requirements for lipid biosynthesis. Although common to other oleaginous yeast, there was no, or very little, malic enzyme activity for carbon-limited growth. In addition, there was no evidence of phosphoketolase activity. The central carbon metabolism of the mutant strain was similar to that of the wildtype strain, though the relative pentose phosphate flux was lower and the TCA cycle flux in accordance with the biomass yield being lower. PMID:15491863

Cannizzaro, Christopher; Christensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jens; von Stockar, Urs

2004-10-01

12

Biotechnological production of astaxanthin with Phaffia rhodozyma/Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.  

PubMed

The oxygenated ?-carotene derivative astaxanthin exhibits outstanding colouring, antioxidative and health-promoting properties and is mainly found in the marine environment. To satisfy the growing demand for this ketocarotenoid in the feed, food and cosmetics industries, there are strong efforts to develop economically viable bioprocesses alternative to the current chemical synthesis. However, up to now, natural astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis, Phaffia rhodozyma or Paracoccus carotinifaciens has not been cost competitive with chemically synthesized astaxanthin, thus only serving niche applications. This review illuminates recent advances made in elucidating astaxanthin biosynthesis in P. rhodozyma. It intensely focuses on strategies to increase astaxanthin titers in the heterobasidiomycetous yeast by genetic engineering of the astaxanthin pathway, random mutagenesis and optimization of fermentation processes. This review emphasizes the potential of P. rhodozyma for the biotechnological production of astaxanthin in comparison to other natural sources such as the microalga H. pluvialis, other fungi and transgenic plants and to chemical synthesis. PMID:21046372

Schmidt, Isabell; Schewe, Hendrik; Gassel, Sören; Jin, Chao; Buckingham, John; Hümbelin, Markus; Sandmann, Gerhard; Schrader, Jens

2011-02-01

13

Astaxanthin production by a Phaffia rhodozyma mutant on grape juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

During fermenter cultivation of Phaffia rhodozyma on a grape juice medium, the presence of glucose initially delayed fructose utilization, although fructose was consumed before glucose depletion. Total pigment and astaxanthin production were growth associated and reached maximum values of 15.9 µg\\/ml and 9.8 µg\\/ml, respectively, after depletion of the carbon source. The total cellular pigment and astaxanthin content increased during

P. S. Meyer; J. C. Preez

1994-01-01

14

Purification of astaxanthin from mutant of Phaffia rhodozyma JH-82 which isolated from forests trees of Iran.  

PubMed

Astaxanthin have been extracted and purified from mutant isolate of Phaffia rhodozyma JH-82. Purified astaxanthin was identified by spectrophotometric, TLC and HPLC analysis and were compared with synthetic astaxanthin. Results of TLC analysis indicated that isolate of P. rhodozyma JH-82 were able to produce nine different carotenoids and high level of carotenoids was belong to astaxanthin. Results of this study for pure astaxanthin production indicated that mutant of JH-82 of P. rhodozyma (230 microg g(-1)(dried yeast)) produced more astaxanthin than natural isolate JH-80 (140 microg g(-1)(dried yeast)). The HPLC spectrum showed retention time 11 min for both purified and synthetic astaxanthin and solvent was CDCl3. PMID:19069868

Golkhoo, Shokufeh; Barantalab, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Ali Reza; Hassan, Zuhair Muhammad

2007-03-01

15

[Characterization and evaluation of an astaxanthin over-producing Phaffia rhodozyma].  

PubMed

We evaluated an astaxanthin overproducing Phaffia rhodozyma JMU-MVP14, and developed astaxanthin high-yielding fermentation process. We analyzed several fermentation parameters, i.e., biomass, astaxanthin and total carotenoids content to compare the characteristics of P rhodozyma JMU-MVP14 and the original strain through flask fermentation experiments. We conducted batch and fed-batch fermentation experiments in 7 L fermentor to investigate the effects of pH controlling models and feeding medium compositions on the production of astaxanthin. We further evaluated the capability and practical value of P rhodozyma JMU-MVP14 by fed-batch cultivation in the 1 m3 fermentor. Flask fermentation experiments revealed that P. rhodozyma JMU-MVP14 produced high yield of astaxanthin and carotenoids with specific productivity of astaxanthin and specific productivity of total carotenoids of 6.01 mg/g and 10.38 mg/g. Results of batch culture experiments in the 7 L fermentor showed that controlling the pH by ammonia auto-feeding was better than discontinuously adjusting pH value at 6.0 with regard to the high productivities of biomasses and astaxanthin. This P. rhodozyma strain synthesized astaxanthin partially linked to the growth with the Ks and pmax of 0.20 h ' and 21.73 g/L, respectively. Results of batch-fed fermentations in 7 L fermentor indicated that the complex feeding medium consisted of 50% glucose, 0.5% yeast extract and 0.3% corn steep syrup had lower astaxanthin productivity than the simple feeding medium containing only 50% glucose, which produced biomass, volumetric productivity of astaxanthin, volumetric productivity of total carotenoids, specific productivity of astaxanthin and total carotenoids at 32.81 g/L, 155.99 mg/L, 4.94 mg/g, 399.99 mg/L and 12.19 mg/g, respectively. As fed-batch cultured in 1 m3 fermentor, P rhodozyma JMU-MVP14 yielded 85.11 g/L of biomass, 279.96 mg/L of volumetric productivity of astaxanthin, 618.01 mg/L of volumetric productivity of total carotenoids, 3.29 mg/g of specific productivity of astaxanthin and 7.26 mg/g of specific productivity of total carotenoids. Additionally, P rhodozyma JMU-MVP14 cell contained 21.54% of protein, 41.34% of carbohydrate and 34.31% of lipid. These comprehensive results suggest that P. rhodozyma JMU-MVPl14 has great practical prosperity related to its strong ability to produce astaxanthin and good value byproducts. PMID:22016991

Ni, Hui; Hong, Qinglin; Xiao, Anfeng; Li, Lijun; Cai, Huinong; Su, Wenjin

2011-07-01

16

Increased astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma mutants isolated as resistant to diphenylamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma, resistance to a carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor was employed to screen higher astaxanthin producers. The wild type strain generated pinkish salmon-colored colonies due to the intracellular astaxanthin accumulation, but the colonies have turned white when grown in the presence of some of carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitors. Among the compounds tested, diphenylamine (DPA) was selected as

Namthip Chumpolkulwong; Toshihide Kakizono; Shiro Nagai; Naomichi Nishio

1997-01-01

17

Optimization of astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma through factorial design and response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequential methodology based on the application of three types of experimental designs was used to optimize the astaxanthin production of the mutant strain 25-2 of Phaffia rhodozyma in shake flask cultures. The first design employed was a factorial design 25, where the factors studied were: pH, temperature, percent of inoculum, carbon and nitrogen concentrations, each one at two levels. This

Jesús Ram??rez; Humberto Gutierrez; Anne Gschaedler

2001-01-01

18

Selection and evaluation of astaxanthin-overproducing mutants of Phaffia rhodozyma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutagenesis of Phaffia rhodozyma with NTG yielded a mutant with an astaxanthin content of 1688 µg (g dry biomass)-1, a cell yield coefficient of 0.47 on glucose and a maximum specific growth rate of 0.12 h-1. Re-mutation of the mutant decreased the cell yield and maximum specific growth rate but increased the astaxanthin content. The use of mannitol or succinate

P. S. Meyer; J. C. Preez; S. G. Kilian

1993-01-01

19

Astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma and Haematococcus pluvialis : a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phaffia rhodozyma (now Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) and Haematococcus pluvialis are known as the major prominent microorganisms able to synthesize astaxanthin natural pigment. Important research efforts\\u000a have been made to determine optimal conditions for astaxanthin synthesis. When the focus is on astaxanthin production, the\\u000a maximal reported value of 9.2 mg\\/g cell is obtained within H. pluvialis grown on BAR medium, under continuous illumination

A. R. Domínguez-Bocanegra; T. Ponce-Noyola; J. A. Torres-Muñoz

2007-01-01

20

Increased astaxanthin production by a Phaffia rhodozyma mutant grown on date juice from Yucca fillifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The wild strain and the astaxanthin-overproducing mutant strain 25–2 of Phaffia rhodozyma were analyzed in order to assess their ability to grow and synthesize astaxanthin in a minimal medium composed of g L?1: KH2PO4 2.0; MgSO4 0.5; CaCl2 0.1; urea 1.0 and supplemented with date juice of Yucca fillifera as a carbon source (yuca medium). The highest astaxanthin production (6170??g

J Ramírez; M L Nuñez; R Valdivia

2000-01-01

21

[Technological process of cell disruption for extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma by acid method under autoclave conditions].  

PubMed

Phaffia rhodozyma is one of the organisms for production of astaxanthin, and the key process for extracting intracellular astaxanthin is cell disruption. In this work, cell disruption for extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma was studied with autoclave method at low acid concentration. The optimum disrupting conditions were: autoclave pressure 0.1 MPa, 121 degrees C; hydrochloric acid concentration 0.5 mol/L; liquid to material ratio (V/W) 30 mL/g dry cell weight and disruption time 2 min. Under the optimum conditions, medium scale experiment showed that astaxanthin and total carotenoids recovery from Phaffia rhodozyma were (84.8 +/- 3.2)% and (93.3 +/- 2)%, respectively. This new method can lead to no poisonous residues and get high extraction yield, which have good prospects to be put into industrial production. PMID:18837410

Lu, Baoju; Xiao, Anfeng; Lil, Lijun; Ni, Hui; Cai, Huinong; Su, Wenjin

2008-07-01

22

Effect of culture conditions on astaxanthin production by a mutant of Phaffia rhodozyma in batch and chemostat culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature and pH had only a slight effect on the astaxanthin content of a Phaffia rhodozyma mutant, but influenced the maximum specific growth rate and cell yield profoundly. The optimum conditions for astaxanthin production were 22°C at pH 5.0 with a low concentration of carbon source. Astaxanthin production was growth-associated, and the volumetric astaxanthin concentration gradually decreased after depletion of

Petrus S. Meyer; James C. Du Preez

1994-01-01

23

Extraction and quantitation of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid, quantitative release of astaxanthin and other carotenoids from the yeast Phaffiarhodozyma is described. Hashed cells are ruptured with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and carotenoids extracted into an organic solvent. Extraction and spectrophotometric quantitation of total carotenoids is rapid, reproducible and only small volumes (0.1–2 ml) of culture are required. HPLC analysis in normal phase silica gel column indicates that astaxanthin

J. James Sedmak; Deepthi K. Weerasinghe; Setsuko O. Jolly

1990-01-01

24

Production and optimization of carotenoid-enriched dried distiller's grains with solubles by Phaffia rhodozyma and Sporobolomyces roseus fermentation of whole stillage.  

PubMed

Whole stillage--a co-product of grain-based ethanol--is used as an animal feed in the form of dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS). Since animals cannot synthesize carotenoids and animal feed is generally poor in carotenoids, about 30-120 ppm of total carotenoids are added to animal feed to improve animal health, enhance meat color and quality, and increase vitamin A levels in milk and meat. The main objective of this study was to produce carotenoid (astaxanthin and ?-carotene)-enriched DDGS by submerged fermentation of whole stillage. Mono- and mixed cultures of red yeasts, Phaffia rhodozyma (ATCC 24202) and Sporobolomyces roseus (ATCC 28988), were used to produce astaxanthin and ?-carotene. Media optimization was carried out in shake flasks using response surface methodology (RSM). Macro ingredients, namely whole stillage, corn steep liquor and glycerol, were fitted to a second-degree polynomial in RSM. Under optimized conditions, astaxanthin and ?-carotene yields in mixed culture and P. rhodozyma monoculture were 5 and 278, 97, and 275 ?g/g, respectively, while S. roseus produced 278 ?g/g of ?-carotene. Since the carotenoid yields are almost twice the quantity used in animal feed, the carotenoid-enriched DDGS has potential application as "value-added animal feed or feed blends." PMID:20585831

Ananda, Nanjundaswamy; Vadlani, Praveen V

2010-11-01

25

Genotoxicity and subacute toxicity studies of a new astaxanthin-containing Phaffia rhodozyma extract.  

PubMed

Experimental and clinical studies demonstrate that astaxanthin (AXN), a xanthophyll carotenoid, has protective effects against oxidative damage. Because most of these studies assessed AXN derived from Haematococcus pluvialis that were cultivated at industrial scales, few studies have examined the toxicity of AXN derived from Phaffia rhodozyma. To evaluate the safety of astaxanthin-containing P. rhodozymaextract (AXN-PRE), genotoxicity was assessed in bacterial reverse mutation test and mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, and general toxicity was assessed in 4-week repeated oral toxicity study in rats. AXN-PRE did not induce reverse mutations in the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 or TA100 at concentrations of 5,000 µg/plate with or without S9 mix, and no chromosome damage was observed at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg in mouse micronucleus test. In the subacute toxicity study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given AXN-PRE at doses of 0, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg by gavage for 4 weeks. Body weights, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weights, or histopathological lesions indicated no distinct toxicity. In conclusion, AXN-PRE had no effect in bacterial reverse mutation test and mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for AXN-PRE in 4-week repeated oral toxicity study in rats was determined to be greater than 1,000 mg/kg (corresponding to dose of 50 mg/kg AXN) regardless of gender. PMID:24849672

Tago, Yoshiyuki; Fujii, Toshihide; Wada, Jutaro; Kato, Masanori; Wei, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Kitano, Mitsuaki

2014-01-01

26

The effect of gamma irradiation on astaxanthin synthetase encoding gene in two mutant strains of Phaffia rhodozyma  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Astaxanthin, an orange-red carotenoid pigment, acts as a protective agent against oxidative damage to cells in vivo. The astaxanthin synthetase gene (crtS) size consists of 3995 bp. This gene has been suggested to catalyse ?-carotene to astaxanthin in Phaffia rhodozyma. The aim of this research was to find any possible changes in this gene in two mutant strains, Gam1 and Gam2 (with high astaxanthin pigment production), previously created by gamma irradiation. Materials and Methods The astaxanthin synthetase gene sequence of Phaffia rhodozyma in the NCBI Gene bank was used to design primer. In Gam1, this gene was amplified using primers Asta F1, Asta R2, Asta F3, Asta R4. In Gam2, primers asta F1, asta R4 were used to amplify the gene. The amplified fragments were 8 sequenced using primers Asta F1, Asta R1, Asta F2, Asta R2, Asta F3, Asta R3 and Asta F4, Asta R4. Astaxanthin synthetase gene from two mutant strains, Gam1 and Gam2 were amplified using PCR. The amplified products were sequenced and aligned using the ClustalW software. Conclusion The comparison of this gene showed 98% and 99% similarities between the reference sequence and Gam1 and Gam2 mutant strains, respectively, whereas the comparison of this gene in Gam1 and Gam2 mutant strains showed 97% similarity. However, the deduced proteins showed 78% and 83% between the reference protein obtained from the wild type and Gam1 and Gam2, respectively. This similarity was 75% between the mutant strains.

Najafi, Naeimeh; Hosseini, Ramin; Ahmadi, Ali-Reza

2013-01-01

27

Analysis of proteomic changes in colored mutants of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma).  

PubMed

The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous synthesizes astaxanthin as its most prevalent xanthophyll derivative. Comparisons between the protein profiles of mutant lines of this yeast can provide insight into the carotenogenic pathway. Differently colored mutants (red, orange, pink, yellow, and white) were obtained from this yeast species, and their protein profiles were determined using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE). Individual proteins differentially expressed were identified using mass spectrometry. The red mutants hyperproduced total carotenoids (mainly astaxanthin), while in white and orange mutants, mutagenesis affected the phytoene dehydrogenase activity as indicated by the accumulation of phytoene. Inactivation of astaxanthin synthase after the mutagenic treatment was evident in ?-carotene accumulating mutants. Differences in the proteomic profiles of wild-type X. dendrorhous and its colored mutants were demonstrated using 2DE. Of the total number of spots detected in each gel (297-417), 128 proteins were present in all strains. The red mutant showed the greatest number of matches with respect to the wild type (305 spots), while the white and yellow mutants, which had reduced concentrations of total carotenoids, presented the highest correlation coefficient (0.6) between each other. A number of differentially expressed proteins were sequenced, indicating that tricarboxylic acid cycle and stress response proteins are closely related to the carotenogenic process. PMID:24676883

Barbachano-Torres, Alejandra; Castelblanco-Matiz, Lina M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Salgado, Luis M; Flores-Ortiz, César M; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa

2014-06-01

28

Effect of dietary supplementation of astaxanthin by Phaffia rhodozyma on lipid peroxidation, drug metabolism and some immunological variables in male broiler chicks fed on diets with or without oxidised fat.  

PubMed

1. Effects of dietary supplementation of astaxanthin (Ax) provided from Phaffia rhodozyma on lipid peroxidation, hepatic drug metabolism, antibody titres to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and splenocyte proliferation to mitogens were determined in male broiler chicks. 2. Chicks, one week old, were given diets with or without oxidised fat (0 or 3.7 meq of peroxide value (POV)/kg diet) and/or Ax (0 or 100 mg/kg diet) for 14 d, ad libitum. 3. Lipid peroxidation, estimated by 2-thiobarbituric acid reactants values in liver, spleen, heart, plasma and hepatic microsomes, were increased by feeding a diet containing oxidised fat (P<0.05) but were not affected by Ax feeding. 4. Cytochrome P-450 contents in hepatic microsome tended to be increased by feeding Ax. 5. Anti-SRBC titre was not affected by oxidised fat or Ax feeding, while plasma immunogloblin (Ig) G concentration was increased by Ax feeding but was not affected by oxidised fat feeding. 6. When chicks were fed on the diet without oxidised fat, Ax enhanced splenocyte proliferation stimulated by both concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen, while in chicks fed on a diet containing oxidised fat, Ax reduced the proliferation (P<0.01 for Ax and oxidised fat interaction). 7. The results indicated that dietary supplementation of Ax from Phaffia rhodozyma had an impact on T cell proliferation and Ig G production as a part of acquired immunity, but was not effective in preventing lipid peroxidation in male broiler chicks. PMID:17364546

Takimoto, T; Takahashi, K; Akiba, Y

2007-02-01

29

Neche H. I. Ksheminska H. P. Kolisnyk H. V. al. (2009) Reduction chromate carton-synthesizing activity selenide -resistant mutant yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Pavia rhodozyma). people. Cell 25(4):  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean Neche H. I. Ksheminska H. P. Kolisnyk H. V. al. (2009) Reduction chromate carton-synthesizing activity selenide -resistant mutant yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Pavia rhodozyma). people. Cell 25(4): ?

30

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Optimization of astaxanthin production by yeast on defatted rice bran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma TISTR 5730 on defatted-rice bran was studied by using Central Composite Design. The fermentation was carried out on the rice bran containing 70% moisture content and incubated at 20 o C with agitation periodically. The results showed that optimum condition for astaxanthin production was pH 3.4, glucose concentration of 0.7% and incubation time

Pipat Saitong; Worapot Suntornsuk

31

21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...parts per million. Arsenic, not more than 2 parts per million. Mercury, not more than 1 part per million. Heavy metals (as Pb), not more than 10 parts per million. Astaxanthin, not less than 0.4 percent. (c) Uses and...

2009-04-01

32

Utilization of carotenoids from various sources by rainbow trout: muscle colour, carotenoid digestibility and retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with a mean (sd) weight of 120 (2) g were fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin extracted from the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma (OY1 = 50 mg carotenoids kg-1 feed, OY2 = 100 mg carotenoids kg-1 feed), astaxanthin (AX = 100 mg astaxanthin kg-1 feed) and canthaxanthin (CX = 100 mg canthaxanthin kg-1 feed) for 4 weeks. Muscle

Georges Choubert; José-Carlos G. Milicua; Ramon Gomez; Sophie Sancé; Hélène Petit; Geneviève Nègre-Sadargues; René Castillo; Jean-Paul Trilles

1995-01-01

33

Red yeast  

MedlinePLUS

... with this combination.Talk with your health provider.Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune)Red yeast might affect the muscles. Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might also affect the muscles. Taking ...

34

Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

35

Counting Yeast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes changes to a traditional study of population in yeast colonies. Changes to the procedures include: (1) only one culture per student team; (2) cultures are inoculated only once; and (3) the same tube is sampled daily. (DDR)

Bealer, Jonathan; Welton, Briana

1998-01-01

36

Potential health-promoting effects of astaxanthin: a high-value carotenoid mostly from microalgae.  

PubMed

The ketocarotenoid astaxanthin can be found in the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, and Chlorococcum sp., and the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. The microalga H. pluvialis has the highest capacity to accumulate astaxanthin up to 4-5% of cell dry weight. Astaxanthin has been attributed with extraordinary potential for protecting the organism against a wide range of diseases, and has considerable potential and promising applications in human health. Numerous studies have shown that astaxanthin has potential health-promoting effects in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, skin diseases, exercise-induced fatigue, male infertility, and HgCl?-induced acute renal failure. In this article, the currently available scientific literature regarding the most significant activities of astaxanthin is reviewed. PMID:21207519

Yuan, Jian-Ping; Peng, Juan; Yin, Kai; Wang, Jiang-Hai

2011-01-01

37

Production, extraction, and quantification of astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous or Haematococcus pluvialis: standardized techniques.  

PubMed

For many years, benefits and disadvantages of pigments production either by microalgae or yeasts have been under analysis. In this contribution we shall deal with Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (formerly Phaffia rhodozyma) and Haematococcus pluvialis, which are known as major prominent microorganisms able to synthesize astaxanthin pigment. Then, the usual trend is to look for optimal conditions to conduct astaxanthin synthesis. From one side, pigment production by H. pluvialis is promoted under cellular stress conditions like nutrient deprivation, exposition to high light intensity, aeration. On the other side, X. dendrorhous is able to show significant increase in astaxanthin synthesis when grown in natural carbon sources like coconut milk, grape juice. The main aim of this chapter is to describe optimal environmental conditions for astaxanthin production by X. dendrorhous or H. pluvialis. PMID:22711125

Domínguez-Bocanegra, Alma Rosa

2012-01-01

38

Ras Signaling in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Since the study of yeast RAS and adenylate cyclase in the early 1980s, yeasts including budding and fission yeasts contributed significantly to the study of Ras signaling. First, yeast studies provided insights into how Ras activates downstream signaling pathways. Second, yeast studies contributed to the identification and characterization of GAP and GEF proteins, key regulators of Ras. Finally, the study of yeast provided many important insights into the understanding of C-terminal processing and membrane association of Ras proteins.

Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko

2011-01-01

39

Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)  

MedlinePLUS

... for adults A A A This is a candida (yeast) infection of the skin folds of the ... infection with the common yeast (or fungus) organism, Candida albicans, which is commonly found in the environment. ...

40

Phenoptosis in yeasts.  

PubMed

The current view on phenoptosis and apoptosis as genetic programs aimed at eliminating potentially dangerous organisms and cells, respectively, is given. Special emphasis is placed on apoptosis (phenoptosis) in yeasts: intracellular defects and a plethora of external stimuli inducing apoptosis in yeasts; distinctive morphological and biochemical hallmarks accompanying apoptosis in yeasts; pro- and antiapoptotic factors involved in yeast apoptosis signaling; consecutive stages of apoptosis from external stimulus to the cell death; a prominent role of mitochondria and other organelles in yeast apoptosis; possible pathways for release of apoptotic factors from the intermembrane mitochondrial space into the cytosol are described. Using some concrete examples, the obvious physiological importance and expediency of altruistic death of yeast cells is shown. Poorly known aspects of yeast apoptosis and prospects for yeast apoptosis study are defined. PMID:22817540

Sukhanova, E I; Rogov, A G; Severin, F F; Zvyagilskaya, R A

2012-07-01

41

Yeast Based Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of yeast based sensors have been developed as analytical tools. Yeasts are known as facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yeast based sensor consisted of a DO electrode and an immobilized omnivorous yeast. In yeast based sensor development, many kinds of yeast have been employed by applying their characteristics to adapt to the analyte. For example, Trichosporon cutaneum was used to estimate organic pollution in industrial wastewater. Yeast based sensors are suitable for online control of biochemical processes and for environmental monitoring. In this review, principles and applications of yeast based sensors are summarized.

Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

42

Lager brewing yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lager brewing yeast is a group of closely related strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus\\/S. carlsbergensis used for lager beer production all over the world, making it one of the most important industrial yeasts. The pure cultivation\\u000a of yeast was established in the early 1880’s with immediate practical success for lager brewing yeast. However, almost a century\\u000a would elapse before its genetics

Yukiko Kodama; Morten C. Kielland-Brandt; Jørgen Hansen

43

Xylose fermentation by yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization and fermentation of xylose by the yeasts Pachysolen tannophilus I fGB 0101 and Pichia stipitis 5773 to 5776 under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are investigated. Pa. tannophilus requires biotin and thiamine for growth, whereas Pi. stipitis does not, and growth of both yeasts is stimulated by yeast extract. Pi. stipitis converts xylose (30 g\\/l) to ethanol under anaerobic conditions

H. Dellweg; M. Rizzi; H. Methner; D. Debus

1984-01-01

44

Heterologous Protein Secretion from Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretion of calf prochymosin from yeast yields fully activable zymogen while production in the yeast cytoplasm yields insoluble, unactivable enzyme with aberrant disulfide bonding. Factors that increase the efficiency of secretion of prochymosin from yeast are use of a yeast secretion signal sequence, integration of the transcriptional unit into the yeast genome, and specific mutations in a number of host

Robert A. Smith; Margaret J. Duncan; Donald T. Moir

1985-01-01

45

Population Growth in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is the second of two that explore cellular respiration and population growth in yeasts. In the first lesson, students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Based on questions that arose during the first lesson and its associated activity, in this lesson students work in small groups to design experiments that will determine how environmental factors affect yeast population growth.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

46

Moonlighting Proteins in Yeasts  

PubMed Central

Proteins able to participate in unrelated biological processes have been grouped under the generic name of moonlighting proteins. Work with different yeast species has uncovered a great number of moonlighting proteins and shown their importance for adequate functioning of the yeast cell. Moonlighting activities in yeasts include such diverse functions as control of gene expression, organelle assembly, and modification of the activity of metabolic pathways. In this review, we consider several well-studied moonlighting proteins in different yeast species, paying attention to the experimental approaches used to identify them and the evidence that supports their participation in the unexpected function. Usually, moonlighting activities have been uncovered unexpectedly, and up to now, no satisfactory way to predict moonlighting activities has been found. Among the well-characterized moonlighting proteins in yeasts, enzymes from the glycolytic pathway appear to be prominent. For some cases, it is shown that despite close phylogenetic relationships, moonlighting activities are not necessarily conserved among yeast species. Organisms may utilize moonlighting to add a new layer of regulation to conventional regulatory networks. The existence of this type of proteins in yeasts should be taken into account when designing mutant screens or in attempts to model or modify yeast metabolism.

Gancedo, Carlos; Flores, Carmen-Lisset

2008-01-01

47

RNAi in budding yeast  

PubMed Central

RNAi, a gene-silencing pathway triggered by double-stranded RNA, is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species but has been lost in the model budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that RNAi is present in other budding-yeast species, including Saccharomyces castellii and Candida albicans. These species use noncanonical Dicer proteins to generate siRNAs, which mostly correspond to transposable elements and Y’ subtelomeric repeats. In S. castellii, RNAi mutants are viable but have excess Y’ mRNA levels. In S. cerevisiae, introducing Dicer and Argonaute of S. castellii restores RNAi, and the reconstituted pathway silences endogenous retrotransposons. These results identify a novel class of Dicer proteins, bring the tool of RNAi to the study of budding yeasts, and bring the tools of budding yeast to the study of RNAi.

Mower, Jeffrey P.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Fink, Gerald R.; Bartel, David P.

2013-01-01

48

Yeast expression platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms. They combine ease of genetic manipulations and the option for a simple fermentation\\u000a design of a microbial organism with the capabilities of an eukaryotic organism to secrete and to modify a protein according\\u000a to a general eukaryotic scheme. For platform applications, a range of yeast species has been developed during the last decades.\\u000a We present

Erik Böer; Gerhard Steinborn; Gotthard Kunze; Gerd Gellissen

2007-01-01

49

Viral induced yeast apoptosis.  

PubMed

In an analogous system to mammals, induction of an apoptotic cell death programme (PCD) in yeast is not only restricted to various exogenous factors and stimuli, but can also be triggered by viral killer toxins and viral pathogens. In yeast, toxin secreting killer strains are frequently infected with double-stranded (ds)RNA viruses that are responsible for killer phenotype expression and toxin secretion in the infected host. In most cases, the viral toxins are either pore-forming proteins (such as K1, K2, and zygocin) that kill non-infected and sensitive yeast cells by disrupting cytoplasmic membrane function, or protein toxins (such as K28) that act in the nucleus by blocking DNA synthesis and subsequently causing a G1/S cell cycle arrest. Interestingly, while all these virus toxins cause necrotic cell death at high concentration, they trigger caspase- and ROS-mediated apoptosis at low-to-moderate concentration, indicating that even low toxin doses are deadly by triggering PCD in enemy cells. Remarkably, viral toxins are not solely responsible for cell death induction in vivo, as killer viruses themselves were shown to trigger apoptosis in non-infected yeast. Thus, as killer virus-infected and toxin secreting yeasts are effectively protected and immune to their own toxin, killer yeasts bear the intrinsic potential to dominate over time in their natural habitat. PMID:18291112

Schmitt, Manfred J; Reiter, Jochen

2008-07-01

50

Screening of a soil metatranscriptomic library by functional complementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants.  

PubMed

Metatranscriptomics applied to environmental transcripts provides unique opportunities to reveal microbial activity in the environment and to discover novel enzymes of potential use in biotechnological applications. Here, by functional complementation of a pho5(-) mutation (affecting a repressible acid phosphatase) and a his3(-) mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identified fungal genes encoding an acid phosphatase and an imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase in a metatranscriptomic library, which was obtained by reverse-transcribed polyA fraction of total RNA extracted from the organic layer of a sugar maple forest soil, constructed in the modified yeast secretion vector pTEF-MF-SfiI A/B. Yeast transformants exhibiting phosphatase activity were identified in a colony-staining assay and transformants with his3(-)-complementing genes were detected by plating on histidine-deficient medium. In each screen one DNA insert was found and sequenced. The sequenced his3(-)-complementing gene showed strong similarity to a basidiomycete imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase (76% identity to a Phaffia rhodozyma enzyme). The candidate showing phosphatase activity was found to produce phosphatase extracellularly, the enzyme showing highest activity at pH 4 and between 40 and 50°C when 4-nitrophenyl phosphate was used as substrate. The sequenced insert showed strong similarity to a basidiomycete acid phosphatase (60% identity to Postia placenta). PMID:20869217

Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Portetelle, Daniel; Vandenbol, Micheline

2011-07-20

51

Oxygen requirements of yeasts.  

PubMed Central

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. Images

Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P

1990-01-01

52

Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks  

PubMed Central

The term “transcriptional network” refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms.

Hughes, Timothy R.; de Boer, Carl G.

2013-01-01

53

21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid content of the yeast does not exceed 0.04 milligram...

2013-04-01

54

Yeast killer systems.  

PubMed Central

The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed.

Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

1997-01-01

55

Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

2008-02-28

56

Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

57

Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... a common infection caused by a yeast called candida albicans (a type of fungus). Yeast infections usually ... the vagina, it is known as vulvovaginal candidiasis . Candida can overgrow for many reasons. Stress, pregnancy, and ...

58

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains. ##STR00001##

Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Singh, Arjun (Lakewood, CO); Knoshaug, Eric (Golden, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Jarvis, Eric (Boulder, CO); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN)

2010-12-07

59

Evaluation of YeastIdent and Uni-Yeast-Tek yeast identification systems.  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of the new API YeastIdent system and the Flow Laboratories Uni-Yeast-Tek identification kit with an expanded data base was evaluated in comparison to the API 20C yeast identification system by three laboratories. A total of 489 test isolates were used, biased toward yeasts commonly encountered in clinical specimens. Isolates not in a system's data base were not counted in the evaluation of that system. For isolates in their data base, YeastIdent was 55% accurate and Uni-Yeast-Tek was 40% accurate. By the manufacturer's criteria of reliable identification without additional tests, both systems failed to identify many common and uncommon species. The limited number of substrates and difficulties in assessing results obtained with 11 of the API YeastIdent substrates and apparent errors in the expanded Uni-Yeast-Tek data base appeared to be major factors limiting the accuracy of these systems.

Salkin, I F; Land, G A; Hurd, N J; Goldson, P R; McGinnis, M R

1987-01-01

60

Mutagen testing with yeast.  

PubMed

This article deals primarily with the practical aspects of mutagen testing with yeast. Equipment necessary for a laboratory where mutagen testing with yeast is performed, and the most commonly used media, are listed. Some general procedures are described and, finally, for those who have little experience with work of this kind, a precise protocol is given for an experiment with stationary phase cells of the strain D7 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the heteroallelic ade2 system as the genetic endpoint. Some experimental data were obtained by students following this protocol using the direct-acting mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS); these data are discussed and analyzed. More details on the various genetic endpoints available in numerous yeast strains and on the interpretation of dose-dependence data, as well as an extended list of yeast literature, can be found in an article by Eckardt and von Borstel in this volume. Further technical advice is provided in our references to Zimmermann (1975), von Borstel (1981), and Zimmermann et al. (1984). PMID:3904715

Eckardt, F; Siede, W

1985-01-01

61

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

2013-02-12

62

Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

63

Yeast-Hyphal Dimorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

All fungi have some capacity to grow in two basic morphological forms — spheres and tubes — therefore it could be argued that\\u000a they are all, to some extent, dimorphic. For many filamentous fungi spherical growth may only be expressed during the formation\\u000a of spores and many yeast-like fungi have only the remnants of a true filamentous growth habit. However,

N. A. R. Gow

64

Yeast Colony Embedding Method  

PubMed Central

Patterning of different cell types in embryos is a key mechanism in metazoan development. Communities of microorganisms, such as colonies and biofilms also display patterns of cell types. For example, in the yeast S. cerevisiae, sporulated cells and pseudohyphal cells are not uniformly distributed in colonies. The functional importance of patterning and the molecular mechanisms that underlie these patterns are still poorly understood. One challenge with respect to investigating patterns of cell types in fungal colonies is that unlike metazoan tissue, cells in colonies are relatively weakly attached to one another. In particular, fungal colonies do not contain the same extensive level of extracellular matrix found in most tissues . Here we report on a method for embedding and sectioning yeast colonies that reveals the interior patterns of cell types in these colonies. The method can be used to prepare thick sections (0.5 ?) useful for light microscopy and thin sections (0.1 ?) suitable for transmission electron microscopy. Asci and pseudohyphal cells can easily be distinguished from ovoid yeast cells by light microscopy , while the interior structure of these cells can be visualized by EM. The method is based on surrounding colonies with agar, infiltrating them with Spurr's medium, and then sectioning. Colonies with a diameter in the range of 1-2 mm are suitable for this protocol. In addition to visualizing the interior of colonies, the method allows visualization of the region of the colony that invades the underlying agar.

Piccirillo, Sarah; Honigberg, Saul M.

2011-01-01

65

[Kinetic model for optimal feeding strategy in astaxanthin production by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous].  

PubMed

Astaxanthin is a useful pigmentation source in fish aquaculture. It has strong antioxidative activity and therefore has potential application in delaying aging and degenerative diseases in human and animals. In recent years, there is a growing demand for astaxanthin. The red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (called Phaffia rhodozyma before) is one of the most promising microorganisms for the commercial production of astaxanthin. During fermentation, X. dendrorhous shows the Crabtree effect. Higher glucose concentration will cause significant reductions in biomass and astaxanthin production. Therefore, fed-batch processes are particularly useful. In this paper, effects of glucose-feeding strategies on astaxanthin production by X. dendrorhous were studied. Based on the substrate inhibition model, an optimized two-stage feeding strategy for astaxanthin production of high-cell-density fermentation was proposed. Glucose concentration was first controlled at about 25 g/L during the lag phase and the early exponential phase. In such case, biomass could reach its maximum value in relatively short time. Then the glucose concentration was controlled at about 5 g/L in the later exponential phase and stationary phase. The synthesis of astaxanthin could be effectively prolonged. The results showed that the optimized two-stage feeding strategy was the best among all the feeding strategies, and could obtain the highest biomass (23.8 g/L) and astaxanthin production (29.05 mg/L), which was a significant increase (52.8% and 109% respectively) compared with a batch process. PMID:19256342

Lu, Mingbo; Ji, Lei; Liu, Yongsheng; Zhou, Pengpeng; Yu, Longjiang

2008-11-01

66

Yeast interactions and wine flavour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wine is the product of complex interactions between fungi, yeasts and bacteria that commence in the vineyard and continue throughout the fermentation process until packaging. Although grape cultivar and cultivation provide the foundations of wine flavour, microorganisms, especially yeasts, impact on the subtlety and individuality of the flavour response. Consequently, it is important to identify and understand the ecological interactions

Graham H. Fleet

2003-01-01

67

Yeast as a screening tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The versatile genetic malleability of yeast, and the high degree of conservation between its cellular processes and those of human cells, have made it the model of choice for pioneering research in molecular and cell biology over the past four decades. These character- istics of yeast, taken together with technical advan- tages such as simple growth conditions, rapid cell division

Alcide Barberis; Tea Gunde; Catherine Berset; Stephan Audetat; Urs Lüthi

2005-01-01

68

Monitoring polyglutamine toxicity in yeast.  

PubMed

Experiments in yeast have significantly contributed to our understanding of general aspects of biochemistry, genetics, and cell biology. Yeast models have also delivered deep insights in to the molecular mechanism underpinning human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. Many neurodegenerative diseases are associated with the conversion of a protein from a normal and benign conformation into a disease-associated and toxic conformation - a process called protein misfolding. The misfolding of proteins with abnormally expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) regions causes several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease and the Spinocerebellar Ataxias. Yeast cells expressing polyQ expansion proteins recapitulate polyQ length-dependent aggregation and toxicity, which are hallmarks of all polyQ-expansion diseases. The identification of modifiers of polyQ toxicity in yeast revealed molecular mechanisms and cellular pathways that contribute to polyQ toxicity. Notably, several of these findings in yeast were reproduced in other model organisms and in human patients, indicating the validity of the yeast polyQ model. Here, we describe different expression systems for polyQ-expansion proteins in yeast and we outline experimental protocols to reliably and quantitatively monitor polyQ toxicity in yeast. PMID:21144902

Duennwald, Martin L

2011-03-01

69

Modelling the yeast interactome.  

PubMed

The topology behind biological interaction networks has been studied for over a decade. Yet, there is no definite agreement on the theoretical models which best describe protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Such models are critical to quantifying the significance of any empirical observation regarding those networks. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of yeast PPI networks in order to gain insights into their topology and its dependency on interaction-screening technology. We find that: (1) interaction-detection technology has little effect on the topology of PPI networks; (2) topology of these interaction networks differs in organisms with different cellular complexity (human and yeast); (3) clear topological difference is present between PPI networks, their functional sub-modules, and their inter-functional "linkers"; (4) high confidence PPI networks have more "geometrical" topology compared to predicted, incomplete, or noisy PPI networks; and (5) inter-functional "linker" proteins serve as mediators in signal transduction, transport, regulation and organisational cellular processes. PMID:24589662

Janji?, Vuk; Sharan, Roded; Pržulj, Nataša

2014-01-01

70

Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.  

PubMed

Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production. PMID:24003656

Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

2013-01-01

71

Programmed nuclear destruction in yeast  

PubMed Central

Studies of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided many of the most important insights into the mechanisms of autophagy, which are common to all eukaryotes. However, investigation of yeast self-destruction pathways, including autophagy and programmed cell death, has been almost exclusively restricted to cells undergoing vegetative growth, leaving very little exploration of their functions during developmental transitions in the yeast life cycle. We have recently discovered that whole nuclei are subject to programmed destruction during yeast gametogenesis. Programmed nuclear destruction (PND) possesses characteristics of apoptosis in the form of DNA cleavage by endonuclease G, and involves bulk protein turnover through an unusual autophagic pathway involving lysis of the vacuole rather than delivery of components to it through macroautophagy. We thus illuminate an example of developmentally programmed cellular “self-eating” in yeast, which is associated with the rupture of a lytic organelle, reminiscent of programmed cell death mechanisms in plants and animals.

Eastwood, Michael D.; Cheung, Sally W.T.; Meneghini, Marc D.

2013-01-01

72

Polyglutamine misfolding in yeast  

PubMed Central

Protein misfolding is associated with many human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and Huntington disease. Protein misfolding often results in the formation of intracellular or extracellular inclusions or aggregates. Even though deciphering the role of these aggregates has been the object of intense research activity, their role in protein misfolding diseases is unclear. Here, I discuss the implications of studies on polyglutamine aggregation and toxicity in yeast and other model organisms. These studies provide an excellent experimental and conceptual paradigm that contributes to understanding the differences between toxic and protective trajectories of protein misfolding. Future studies like the ones discussed here have the potential to transform basic concepts of protein misfolding in human diseases and may thus help to identify new therapeutic strategies for their treatment.

2011-01-01

73

Expanding Yeast Knowledge Online  

PubMed Central

The completion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome sequencing project11 and the continued development of improved technology for large-scale genome analysis have led to tremendous growth in the amount of new yeast genetics and molecular biology data. Efficient organization, presentation, and dissemination of this information are essential if researchers are to exploit this knowledge. In addition, the development of tools that provide efficient analysis of this information and link it with pertinent information from other systems is becoming increasingly important at a time when the complete genome sequences of other organisms are becoming available. The aim of this review is to familiarize biologists with the type of data resources currently available on the World Wide Web (WWW).

DOLINSKI, KARA; BALL, CATHERINE A.; CHERVITZ, STEPHEN A.; DWIGHT, SELINA S.; HARRIS, MIDORI A.; ROBERTS, SHANNON; ROE, TAIYUN; CHERRY, J. MICHAEL; BOTSTEIN, DAVID

2011-01-01

74

Engineering antibodies by yeast display.  

PubMed

Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering. PMID:22450168

Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

2012-10-15

75

Triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

All eukaryotes including the yeast contain a lipid storage compartment which is named lipid particle, lipid droplet or oil\\u000a body. Lipids accumulating in this subcellular fraction serve as a depot of energy and building blocks for membrane lipid synthesis.\\u000a In the yeast, the major storage lipids are triacylglycerols (TGs) and steryl esters (SEs). An important step in the life cycle

Karlheinz Grillitsch; Günther Daum

2011-01-01

76

Sociobiology of the budding yeast.  

PubMed

Social theory has provided a useful framework for research with microorganisms. Here I describe the advantages and possible risks of using a well-known model organism, the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for sociobiological research. I discuss the problems connected with clear classification of yeast behaviour based on the fitnessbased Hamilton paradigm. Relevant traits include different types of communities, production of flocculins, invertase and toxins, and the presence of apoptosis. PMID:24736156

Wloch-Salamon, Dominika M

2014-04-01

77

Modeling Huntington disease in yeast  

PubMed Central

Yeast have been extensively used to model aspects of protein folding diseases, yielding novel mechanistic insights and identifying promising candidate therapeutic targets. In particular, the neurodegenerative disorder Huntington disease (HD), which is caused by the abnormal expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin (htt) protein, has been widely studied in yeast. This work has led to the identification of several promising therapeutic targets and compounds that have been validated in mammalian cells, Drosophila and rodent models of HD. Here we discuss the development of yeast models of mutant htt toxicity and misfolding, as well as the mechanistic insights gleaned from this simple model. The role of yeast prions in the toxicity/misfolding of mutant htt is also highlighted. Furthermore, we provide an overview of the application of HD yeast models in both genetic and chemical screens, and the fruitful results obtained from these approaches. Finally, we discuss the future of yeast in neurodegenerative research, in the context of HD and other diseases.

Mason, Robert P

2011-01-01

78

Determination of astaxanthin stereoisomers and colour attributes in flesh of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as a tool to distinguish the dietary pigmentation source.  

PubMed

The presence of carotenoids in animal tissue reflects their sources along the food chain. Astaxanthin, the main carotenoid used for salmonid pigmentation, is usually included in the feed as a synthetic product. However, other dietary sources of astaxanthin such as shrimp or krill wastes, algae meal or yeasts are also available on the market. Astaxanthin possesses two identical asymmetric atoms at C-3 and C-3' making possible three optical isomers with all-trans configuration of the chain: 3S,3'S, 3R,3'S, and 3R,3'R. The distribution of the isomers in natural astaxanthin differs from that of the synthetic product. This latter is a racemic mixture, with a typical ratio of 1:2:1 (3S,3'S:3R,3'S:3R,3'R), while astaxanthin from natural sources has a variable distribution of the isomers deriving from the different biological organism that synthesized it. The high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of all-trans isomers of astaxanthin was performed in different pigment sources, such as red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, alga meal Haematococcus pluvialis, krill meal and oil, and shrimp meal. With the aim to investigate astaxanthin isomer ratios in flesh of fish fed different carotenoid sources, three groups of rainbow trout were fed for 60 days diets containing astaxanthin from synthetic source, H. pluvialis algae meal and P. rhodozyma red yeast. Moreover, the distribution of optical isomers of astaxanthin in trout purchased on the Italian market was investigated. A characteristic distribution of astaxanthin stereoisomers was detected for each pigment sources and such distribution was reproduced in the flesh of trout fed with that source. Colour values measured in different sites of fillet of rainbow trout fed with different pigment sources showed no significant differences. Similarly, different sources of pigment (natural or synthetic) produced colour values of fresh fillet with no relevant or significant differences. The coefficient of distance computed amongst the feed ingredient and the trout fillet astaxanthin stereoisomers was a useful tool to identify the origin of the pigment used on farm. PMID:17071507

Moretti, V M; Mentasti, T; Bellagamba, F; Luzzana, U; Caprino, F; Turchini, G M; Giani, I; Valfrè, F

2006-11-01

79

Metabolic regulation of yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

Fiechter, A.

1982-12-01

80

Candida zeylanoides: another opportunistic yeast.  

PubMed Central

A patient with a long history of scleroderma and gastrointestinal malabsorption requiring total parenteral nutrition was admitted with Candida zeylanoides fungemia. The yeast responded to therapy, but on two subsequent admissions for episodes of fever the blood cultures yielded the same yeast. The identity of the Candida species was established biochemically by both the API (Analytab) and Vitek system approaches. C. zeylanoides ATCC 20356 and ATCC 7351 served as controls for these analyses and for antifungal susceptibility studies and restriction endonuclease analyses of chromosomal DNA. These investigations indicated that representative isolates of the yeasts from the three episodes were identical and differed in several respects from the ATCC strains, which did not share many of the characteristics bands with the DNA restriction fragment analysis. C. zeylanoides variants capable of tolerating 35 degrees C can complicate the recovery of patients, especially individuals compromised by their underlying disease. Images

Levenson, D; Pfaller, M A; Smith, M A; Hollis, R; Gerarden, T; Tucci, C B; Isenberg, H D

1991-01-01

81

Cdc42 Oscillations in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A fundamental problem in cell biology is how cells define one or several discrete sites of polarity. Through mechanisms involving positive and negative feedback, the small Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase Cdc42 breaks symmetry in round budding yeast cells to define a single site of polarized cell growth. However, it is not clear how cells can define multiple sites of polarization concurrently. We discuss a study in which rod-shaped fission yeast cells, which naturally polarize growth at their two cell ends, exhibited oscillations of Cdc42 activity between these sites. We compare these findings with similar oscillatory behavior of Cdc42 detected in budding yeast cells and discuss the possible mechanism and functional outputs of these oscillations.

Felipe O. Bendezu (Switzerland;University of Lausanne REV); Sophie G. Martin (Switzerland;University of Lausanne REV)

2012-12-04

82

Transient Responses of Yeasts to Glucose Excess.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis describes the physiological responses of yeasts when they are transferred from glucose limitation to glucose excess. In certain organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bakers' yeast, this change in environmental conditions results in an imm...

H. van Urk

1989-01-01

83

Disruption of Yeast Membranes by Methylphenidate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methylphenidate blocked sorbose uptake and loss by yeast spheroplasts and, at higher concentrations, disrupted spheroplasts. At high concentrations methylphenidate also ruptured the membranes of whole yeast cells; sorbose and 280 nm-absorbing materials we...

E. Spoerl

1970-01-01

84

Pentose utilization in yeasts: Physiology and biochemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fermentive performance of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi was investigated in a pentose (xylose)-rich lignocellulosic hydrolyzate. The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum and the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis were found to be very ...

H. Jeppson

1996-01-01

85

Yeast Can Affect Behavior and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pediatrician recounts his experiences in diagnosing and treating allergies to common yeast germs that may result in behavior and learning problems. He lists characteristics that may predispose children to yeast-connected health problems. (CL)

Crook, William G.

1984-01-01

86

The Yeast Nuclear Pore Complex  

PubMed Central

An understanding of how the nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleocytoplasmic exchange requires a comprehensive inventory of the molecular components of the NPC and a knowledge of how each component contributes to the overall structure of this large molecular translocation machine. Therefore, we have taken a comprehensive approach to classify all components of the yeast NPC (nucleoporins). This involved identifying all the proteins present in a highly enriched NPC fraction, determining which of these proteins were nucleoporins, and localizing each nucleoporin within the NPC. Using these data, we present a map of the molecular architecture of the yeast NPC and provide evidence for a Brownian affinity gating mechanism for nucleocytoplasmic transport.

Rout, Michael P.; Aitchison, John D.; Suprapto, Adisetyantari; Hjertaas, Kelly; Zhao, Yingming; Chait, Brian T.

2000-01-01

87

Selection and improvement of wine yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of wine yeasts is usually carried out within the species Saccha- romyces cerevisiae. It aims at identifying the yeast strains that, besides fermenting grape juice vigorously and producing high ethanol yield, can also positively influence the com- position and the sensorial characteristics of wine. The natural availability of yeast strains possessing an ideal combination of oenological characteristics is

S. RAINIERI; I. S. PRETORIUS

88

Continuous ethanol production using induced yeast aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of yeast cell aggregates in a column reactor was initiated by packing yeast cell paste of Saccharomyces uvarum into the column, and then YMP broth was fed into the column from the bottom at a linear flow rate of 2.5 cm\\/h. Thereafter, yeast cells aggregated in the column within 48 h without a supply of oxygen. When this

LiFu Chen; Cheng-Shung Gong

1986-01-01

89

Yeast: A Research Organism for Teaching Genetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why laboratory strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are particularly suited for classroom science activities. Describes the sexual life cycle of yeast and the genetic system with visible mutations. Presents an overview of activities that can be done with yeast and gives a source for teachers to obtain more information. (PR)

Manney, Thomas R.; Manney, Monta L.

1992-01-01

90

Enological functions of parietal yeast mannoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parietal yeast mannoproteins play a very important role in the overall vinification process. Their production and release, both during winemaking and aging on lees, depends on the specific yeast strain and the nutritional conditions. The following enological functions of parietal yeast mannoproteins have been described: (a) adsorption of ochratoxin A; (b) combination with phenolic compounds; (c) increased growth of malolactic

Andrea Caridi

2006-01-01

91

Phylogenetics of Saccharomycetales, the ascomycete yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascomycete yeasts (phylum Ascomycota: subphylum Saccharomycotina: class Saccharomycetes: order Saccharomycetales) comprise a monophyletic lineage with a single order of about 1000 known species. These yeasts live as saprobes, often in association with plants, animals and their interfaces. A few species account for most human mycotic infections, and fewer than 10 species are plant pathogens. Yeasts are responsible for important industrial

Sung-Oui Suh; Meredith Blackwell; Cletus P. Kurtzman; M.-A. Lachance

2006-01-01

92

Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast and a brewer's yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast (a lysine auxotrophic mutant of sake yeast K-14) and a brewer's yeast (a respiratory-deficient mutant of the top fermentation yeast NCYC1333) was performed to take advantage of the beneficial characteristics of sake yeasts, i.e., the high productivity of esters, high tolerance to ethanol, and high osmotolerance. The fusant (F-32) obtained was

Nobuhiko Mukai; Chiharu Nishimori; Ikuko Wilson Fujishige; Akihiro Mizuno; Toshiro Takahashi; Kazuo Sato

2001-01-01

93

TDP-43 toxicity in yeast.  

PubMed

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an emerging tool for investigating the molecular pathways that underpin several human neurodegenerative disorders associated with protein misfolding. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating adult onset neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting motor neurons. The protein TDP-43 has recently been demonstrated to play an important role in the disease, however, the mechanisms by which TDP-43 contributes to pathogenesis are unclear. To explore the mechanistic details that result in aberrant accumulation of TDP-43 and to discover potential strategies for therapeutic intervention, we employed a yeast TDP-43 proteinopathy model system. These studies allowed us to determine the regions of TDP-43 required for aggregation and toxicity and to define the effects of ALS-linked mutant forms of TDP-43. We have also been able to harness the power of yeast genetics to identify potent modifiers of TDP-43 toxicity using high-throughput yeast genetic screens. Here, we describe the methods and approaches that we have used in order to gain insight into TDP-43 biology and its role in disease. These approaches are readily adaptable to other neurodegenerative disease proteins. PMID:21115123

Armakola, Maria; Hart, Michael P; Gitler, Aaron D

2011-03-01

94

Yeast Proteomics and Protein Microarrays  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of biological processes as well as human diseases has improved greatly thanks to studies on model organisms such as yeast. The power of scientific approaches with yeast lies in its relatively simple genome, its facile classical and molecular genetics, as well as the evolutionary conservation of many basic biological mechanisms. However, even in this simple model organism, systems biology studies, especially proteomic studies had been an intimidating task. During the past decade, powerful high-throughput technologies in proteomic research have been developed for yeast including protein microarray technology. The protein microarray technology allows the interrogation of protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-small molecule interaction networks as well as post-translational modification networks in a large-scale, high-throughput manner. With this technology, many groundbreaking findings have been established in studies with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most of which could have been unachievable with traditional approaches. Discovery of these networks has profound impact on explicating biological processes with a proteomic point of view, which may lead to a better understanding of normal biological phenomena as well as various human diseases.

Chen, Rui; Snyder, Michael

2010-01-01

95

Maximising the yeast chronological lifespan.  

PubMed

When investigating aging it is important to focus on the factors that are needed to attain, and which can be manipulated to extend, the longest lifespans. This has long been appreciated by those workers who use Drosophila or Caenorhabditis elegans as model experimental systems to study aging. Often though it seems it is not a consideration in many studies of yeast chronological aging. In this chapter I summarise how recent work has revealed the preconditioning that is needed for yeast to survive for long periods in stationary phase, therefore for it to exhibit a long chronological life span (CLS). Of critical importance in this regard is the nature of the nutrient limitation that, during the earlier growth phase, had forced the cells to undergo growth arrest. I have attempted to highlight those studies that have focussed on the longest CLSs, as this helps to identify investigations that may be addressing - not just factors that can influence chronological longevity - but those factors that are correlated with the authentic processes of chronological aging. Attempting to maximize long-term stationary survival in yeast should also enhance the potential relevance of this organism as an aging model to those who wrestle with the problems of aging in more complex systems. Finally I also give a personal perspective of how studies on the yeast CLS may still yet provide some important new insights into events that are correlated with aging. PMID:22094421

Piper, Peter W

2012-01-01

96

Toxicogenomics using yeast DNA microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of genomics and bioinformatics enable us to analyze the global gene expression profiles of cells by DNA microarray. Changes in gene expression patterns indicate changes in its physiological conditions. Following the exposure of an organism or cell to toxic chemicals or other environmental stresses, the global genetic responses can be expeditiously and easily analyzed. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is

Daisuke Yasokawa; Hitoshi Iwahashi

2010-01-01

97

Dielectric properties of yeast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Dielectric measurements were made on suspensions of intact yeast cells over a frequency range of 10 kHz to 100 MHz. The suspensions showed typical dielectric dispersions, which are considered to be caused by the presence of cytoplasmic membranes with sufficiently low conductivity. Since the conductivity of the cell wall was found to be of nearly the same value as

Koji Asami; Tetsuya Hanai; Naokazu Koizumi

1976-01-01

98

Emerging technologies in yeast genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomic revolution is undeniable: in the past year alone, the term 'genomics' was found in nearly 500 research articles, and at least 6 journals are devoted solely to genomic biology. More than just a buzzword, molecular biology has genuinely embraced genomics (the systematic, large-scale study of genomes and their functions). With its facile genetics, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Anuj Kumar; Michael Snyder

2001-01-01

99

Yeasts in an industrial malting ecosystem.  

PubMed

The malting ecosystem consists of two components: the germinating cereal grains and the complex microbial community. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi are an important part of this ecosystem, but the composition and the effects of this microbial group have been largely unknown. In this study we surveyed the development of yeasts and yeast-like fungi in four industrial scale malting processes. A total of 136 malting process samples were collected and examined for the presence of yeasts growing at 15, 25 and 37 degrees C. More than 700 colonies were isolated and characterized. The isolates were discriminated by PCR-fingerprinting with microsatellite primer (M13). Yeasts representing different fingerprint types were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. Furthermore, identified yeasts were screened for the production of alpha-amylase, beta-glucanase, cellulase and xylanase. A numerous and diverse yeast community consisting of both ascomycetous (25) and basidiomycetous (18) species was detected in the various stages of the malting process. The most frequently isolated ascomycetous yeasts belonged to the genera Candida, Clavispora, Galactomyces, Hanseniaspora, Issatchenkia, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Williopsis and the basidiomycetous yeasts to Bulleromyces, Filobasidium, Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces and Trichosporon. In addition, two ascomycetous yeast-like fungi (black yeasts) belonging to the genera Aureobasidium and Exophiala were commonly detected. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes with a potentially positive contribution to the malt enzyme spectrum. Knowledge of the microbial diversity provides a basis for microflora management and understanding of the role of microbes in the cereal germination process. PMID:16758169

Laitila, A; Wilhelmson, A; Kotaviita, E; Olkku, J; Home, S; Juvonen, R

2006-11-01

100

When yeast cells meet, karyogamy!  

PubMed Central

Cytoskeleton-mediated transport processes are central to the subcellular organization of cells. The nucleus constitutes the largest organelle of a cell, and studying how it is positioned and moved around during various types of cell morphogenetic processes has puzzled researchers for a long time. Now, the molecular architectures of the underlying dynamic processes start to reveal their secrets.   In yeast, karyogamy denotes the migration of two nuclei toward each other—termed nuclear congression—upon partner cell mating and the subsequent fusion of these nuclei to form a diploid nucleus. It constitutes a well-studied case. Recent insights completed the picture about the molecular processes involved and provided us with a comprehensive model amenable to quantitative computational simulation of the process. This review discusses our understanding of yeast nuclear congression and karyogamy and seeks to explain how a detailed, quantitative and systemic understanding has emerged from this knowledge.

Gibeaux, Romain; Knop, Michael

2013-01-01

101

Preparation of extracts from yeast.  

PubMed

Because yeast is exceptionally well suited to genetic analysis, both classical and molecular, it is an attractive system for expressing recombinant animal proteins for purification purposes. Methods available for lysing yeast cells include autolysis, pressure cells (e.g., French press), abrasives (glass bead vortexing), and enzymatic lysis (e.g., zymolase). One of the simplest methods, discussed in this protocol, involves the abrasive action of well-agitated glass beads. This is a very effective method for both low volumes (e.g., <1 mL using a microcentrifuge tube) and many liters using a specialized DynoMill apparatus. Cell breakage is typically >95%, as assessed by phase-contrast microscopy. PMID:21205845

Simpson, Richard J

2011-01-01

102

Okazaki Fragment Maturation in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, yeast DNA polymerase (Pol ) replicated DNA at a rate of 40 - 60 nt\\/s. When downstream double-stranded DNA was encountered, Pol paused, but most replication complexes proceeded to carry out strand-displacement synthesis at a rate of 1.5 nt\\/s. In the presence of the flap endonuclease FEN1 (Rad27), the complex carried out

Rao Ayyagari; Xavier V. Gomes; Dmitry A. Gordenin; Peter M. J. Burgers

2003-01-01

103

Zero background yeast reporter plasmids.  

PubMed

UAS-less reporter plasmids are widespread and powerful tools for the identification and analysis of binding sites for transcriptional activators. The common reporter plasmids for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are multicopy (2mu) vectors with the CYC1 core promoter upstream of the lacZ gene. Insertion of putative or known activator binding sites upstream of the core promoter puts lacZ (beta-galactosidase) expression under the control of the corresponding activator. Although these constructs have proved to work well for most purposes, they have certain limitations: (1) they give significant and carbon-source-dependent lacZ background expression; (2) unlike most other yeast promoters, the CYC1 upstream region has a partially open chromatin structure with an accessible TATA box; (3) they use only a single, moderately sensitive reporter; and (4) the use of multicopy vectors can result in activator titration. Here, we introduce novel reporter plasmids based on the yeast MEL1 (alpha-galactosidase) gene that can overcome all of these limitations. It is also shown that background expression is due to fortuitous activator binding sites within the plasmid backbones that are insufficiently shielded from the core promoters in the common CYC1 reporter plasmids. PMID:10773444

Melcher, K; Sharma, B; Ding, W V; Nolden, M

2000-04-18

104

Pheromone Signaling Pathways in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The actions of many extracellular stimuli are elicited by complexes of cell surface receptors, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding proteins (G proteins), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) complexes. Analysis of haploid yeast cells and their response to peptide mating pheromones has produced important advances in the understanding of G protein and MAPK signaling mechanisms. Many of the components, their interrelationships, and their regulators were first identified in yeast. Examples include definitive demonstration of a positive signaling role for G protein βγ subunits, the discovery of a three-tiered structure of the MAPK module, development of the concept of a kinase-scaffold protein, and the discovery of the first regulator of G protein signaling protein. New and powerful genomic, proteomic, and computational approaches available in yeast are beginning to uncover new pathway components and interactions and have revealed their presence in unexpected locations within the cell. This updated Connections Map in the Database of Cell Signaling includes several major revisions to this prototypical signal response pathway.

Henrik G. Dohlman (University of North Carolina;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV); Janna E. Slessareva (University of North Carolina;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV)

2006-12-05

105

Physiological properties of some yeast strains.  

PubMed

Twenty yeast strains have recently been isolated in pure cultures from natural and industrial sources and identified based mainly on physiological properties. The majority of the strains (15) are alcohologenic belonging to the genus Saccharomyces and comprise two brewer's (beer) yeast strains (S. carlsbergensis= S. uvarum A and B), two baker's yeast strains (S. cerevisiae CA and CP), one spirit yeast strain (S. cerevisiae CF) and ten wine yeast strains (S. cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus = S. ellipsoideus 1, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 9; S. oviformis 2, 5 and 7; and S. uvarum 10). The other 5 yeast strains belong to different species: Kloeckera apiculate, Candida mycoderma (Mycoderma vini), Pichia membranaefaciens, Rhodotorula glutinis and Torulopsis holmii, respectively. PMID:16841476

Oprean, Letitia; Gaspar, Enikö; Lengyel, Ecaterina; Cristea, V

2006-06-01

106

Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

107

Metabolic engineering of malolactic wine yeast.  

PubMed

Malolactic fermentation is essential for the deacidification of high acid grape must. We have constructed a genetically stable industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by integrating a linear cassette containing the Schizosaccharomyces pombe malate permease gene (mae1) and the Oenococcus oeni malolactic gene (mleA) under control of the S. cerevisiae PGK1 promoter and terminator sequences into the URA3 locus of an industrial wine yeast. The malolactic yeast strain, ML01, fully decarboxylated 5.5 g/l of malate in Chardonnay grape must during the alcoholic fermentation. Analysis of the phenotype, genotype, transcriptome, and proteome revealed that the ML01 yeast is substantially equivalent to the parental industrial wine yeast. The ML01 yeast enjoys 'Generally Regarded As Safe' status from the FDA and is the first genetically enhanced yeast that has been commercialized. Its application will prevent the formation of noxious biogenic amines produced by lactic acid bacteria in wine. PMID:16621641

Husnik, John I; Volschenk, Heinrich; Bauer, Jurgen; Colavizza, Didier; Luo, Zongli; van Vuuren, Hennie J J

2006-07-01

108

Method for Fingerprinting Yeast Cell Wall Mannans  

PubMed Central

Controlled acetolysis of yeast mannans yields mixtures of oligosaccharides with (1?2) and (1?3) linkages between the mannose units, whereas the less stable (1?6) linkages of the polysaccharide backbone are cleaved. The “fingerprints,” obtained by gel filtration of the oligosaccharide mixtures, can be used to distinguish between the different yeast mannans. The general method may be useful for determining the taxonomy of yeasts and for making correlations between immunochemical reactivity and mannan structure.

Kocourek, Jan; Ballou, Clinton E.

1969-01-01

109

Production of ethanol by immobilized yeast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in calcium alginate beads for use in the continuous production of ethanol. Yeasts were grown in medium supplemented with ethanol to selectively screen for a culture which showed the greatest tolerance to ethanol inhibition. Yeast beads were produced from a yeast slurry containing 1.5% alginate (w\\/v) which was added as drops to a 0.05M CaCl2

David Williams; Douglas M. Munnecke

1981-01-01

110

The yeast Golgi apparatus: insights and mysteries  

PubMed Central

The Golgi apparatus is known to modify and sort newly synthesized secretory proteins. However, fundamental mysteries remain about the structure, operation, and dynamics of this organelle. Important insights have emerged from studying the Golgi in yeasts. For example, yeasts have provided direct evidence for Golgi cisternal maturation, a mechanism that is likely to be broadly conserved. Here, we highlight features of the yeast Golgi as well as challenges that lie ahead.

Papanikou, Effrosyni; Glick, Benjamin S.

2009-01-01

111

Assembly of eukaryotic algal chromosomes in yeast  

PubMed Central

Background Synthetic genomic approaches offer unique opportunities to use powerful yeast and Escherichia coli genetic systems to assemble and modify chromosome-sized molecules before returning the modified DNA to the target host. For example, the entire 1 Mb Mycoplasma mycoides chromosome can be stably maintained and manipulated in yeast before being transplanted back into recipient cells. We have previously demonstrated that cloning in yeast of large (>?~?150 kb), high G?+?C (55%) prokaryotic DNA fragments was improved by addition of yeast replication origins every ~100 kb. Conversely, low G?+?C DNA is stable (up to at least 1.8 Mb) without adding supplemental yeast origins. It has not been previously tested whether addition of yeast replication origins similarly improves the yeast-based cloning of large (>150 kb) eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content. The model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has an average G?+?C content of 48% and a 27.4 Mb genome sequence that has been assembled into chromosome-sized scaffolds making it an ideal test case for assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic chromosomes in yeast. Results We present a modified chromosome assembly technique in which eukaryotic chromosomes as large as ~500 kb can be assembled from cloned ~100 kb fragments. We used this technique to clone fragments spanning P. tricornutum chromosomes 25 and 26 and to assemble these fragments into single, chromosome-sized molecules. We found that addition of yeast replication origins improved the cloning, assembly, and maintenance of the large chromosomes in yeast. Furthermore, purification of the fragments to be assembled by electroelution greatly increased assembly efficiency. Conclusions Entire eukaryotic chromosomes can be successfully cloned, maintained, and manipulated in yeast. These results highlight the improvement in assembly and maintenance afforded by including yeast replication origins in eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content (48%). They also highlight the increased efficiency of assembly that can be achieved by purifying fragments before assembly.

2013-01-01

112

6-azauracil sensitivity assay for yeast.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTIONTreatment of yeast with 6-Azauracil (6AU) leads to a reduction of intracellular GTP levels. The reduction in GTP levels is not itself lethal, but can block yeast growth when combined with mutations that affect transcriptional elongation. 6AU sensitivity thus can be used as a crude assay to test for mutations that affect transcriptional elongation. The assay described here requires growing saturated cultures of yeast, counting, and spotting serial dilutions of yeast on both CSM and CSM + 6AU plates. PMID:22484669

Tansey, William P

2006-01-01

113

Simplified techniques for identifying foodborne yeasts.  

PubMed

Four problematic areas associated with the identification of foodborne yeasts are discussed. These consist of (1) the inability of conventional identification tests to recognize some common and important foodborne yeasts characterized by genomic differences (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus and S. pastorianus); (2) the delay in application of non-traditional identification methods such as DNA fingerprinting, chromosome karyotyping, protein electrophoretic patterns and fatty acid profiles for routine identification purposes; (3) the lack of commercially available manual or automated identification systems dedicated to the diagnosis of foodborne yeasts; and (4) the disregard for considering ecological frequency of yeasts in computerized probabilistic identification systems. PMID:8357753

Deák, T

1993-06-25

114

Role of glucose signaling in yeast metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast was the first biochemical pathway to be studied in detail. The initial observation that this process is catalyzed by an extract of yeast led to the discovery of enzymes and coenzymes and laid the foundation for modern biochemistry. In this article, knowledge concerning the relation between uptake of and signaling by glucose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed and compared to the analogous process in prokaryotes. It is concluded that (much) more fundamental knowledge concerning these processes is required before rational redesign of metabolic fluxes from glucose in yeast can be achieved.

Dam, K. van [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). E.C. Slater Inst.

1996-10-05

115

Evaluation of Automated Yeast Identification System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One hundred and nine teleomorphic and anamorphic yeast isolates representing approximately 30 taxa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the Biolog yeast identification system. Isolates derived from nomenclatural types, environmental, and clinica isolates of known identity were tested in the Biolog system. Of the isolates tested, 81 were in the Biolog database. The system correctly identified 40, incorrectly identified 29, and was unable to identify 12. Of the 28 isolates not in the database, 18 were given names, whereas 10 were not. The Biolog yeast identification system is inadequate for the identification of yeasts originating from the environment during space program activities.

McGinnis, M. R.

1996-01-01

116

Drosophila Regulate Yeast Density and Increase Yeast Community Similarity in a Natural Substrate  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogaster adults and larvae, but especially larvae, had profound effects on the densities and community structure of yeasts that developed in banana fruits. Pieces of fruit exposed to adult female flies previously fed fly-conditioned bananas developed higher yeast densities than pieces of the same fruits that were not exposed to flies, supporting previous suggestions that adult Drosophila vector yeasts to new substrates. However, larvae alone had dramatic effects on yeast density and species composition. When yeast densities were compared in pieces of the same fruits assigned to different treatments, fruits that developed low yeast densities in the absence of flies developed significantly higher yeast densities when exposed to larvae. Across all of the fruits, larvae regulated yeast densities within narrow limits, as compared to a much wider range of yeast densities that developed in pieces of the same fruits not exposed to flies. Larvae also affected yeast species composition, dramatically reducing species diversity across fruits, reducing variation in yeast communities from one fruit to the next (beta diversity), and encouraging the consistent development of a yeast community composed of three species of yeast (Candida californica, C. zemplinina, and Pichia kluvyeri), all of which were palatable to larvae. Larvae excreted viable cells of these three yeast species in their fecal pools, and discouraged the growth of filamentous fungi, processes which may have contributed to their effects on the yeast communities in banana fruits. These and other findings suggest that D. melanogaster adults and their larval offspring together engage in ‘niche construction’, facilitating a predictable microbial environment in the fruit substrates in which the larvae live and develop.

Stamps, Judy A.; Yang, Louie H.; Morales, Vanessa M.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

2012-01-01

117

YMDB: the Yeast Metabolome Database.  

PubMed

The Yeast Metabolome Database (YMDB, http://www.ymdb.ca) is a richly annotated 'metabolomic' database containing detailed information about the metabolome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Modeled closely after the Human Metabolome Database, the YMDB contains >2000 metabolites with links to 995 different genes/proteins, including enzymes and transporters. The information in YMDB has been gathered from hundreds of books, journal articles and electronic databases. In addition to its comprehensive literature-derived data, the YMDB also contains an extensive collection of experimental intracellular and extracellular metabolite concentration data compiled from detailed Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomic analyses performed in our lab. This is further supplemented with thousands of NMR and MS spectra collected on pure, reference yeast metabolites. Each metabolite entry in the YMDB contains an average of 80 separate data fields including comprehensive compound description, names and synonyms, structural information, physico-chemical data, reference NMR and MS spectra, intracellular/extracellular concentrations, growth conditions and substrates, pathway information, enzyme data, gene/protein sequence data, as well as numerous hyperlinks to images, references and other public databases. Extensive searching, relational querying and data browsing tools are also provided that support text, chemical structure, spectral, molecular weight and gene/protein sequence queries. Because of S. cervesiae's importance as a model organism for biologists and as a biofactory for industry, we believe this kind of database could have considerable appeal not only to metabolomics researchers, but also to yeast biologists, systems biologists, the industrial fermentation industry, as well as the beer, wine and spirit industry. PMID:22064855

Jewison, Timothy; Knox, Craig; Neveu, Vanessa; Djoumbou, Yannick; Guo, An Chi; Lee, Jacqueline; Liu, Philip; Mandal, Rupasri; Krishnamurthy, Ram; Sinelnikov, Igor; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S

2012-01-01

118

Cell size control in yeast  

PubMed Central

Cell size is an important adaptive trait that influences nearly all aspects of cellular physiology. Despite extensive characterization of the cell cycle regulatory network, the molecular mechanismscoupling growth to division, and thereby controlling cell size, have remained elusive. Recent workin yeast has reinvigorated the size control field and suggested provocative mechanisms forthe distinct functions of setting and sensing cell size. Further examination of size sensing models based on spatial gradients and molecular titration, coupled with elucidation of the pathways responsible for nutrient-modulated target size, may reveal the fundamental principles of eukaryotic cell size control.

Turner, Jonathan J.; Ewald, Jennifer C.; Skotheim, Jan M.

2012-01-01

119

Prevention of Yeast Spoilage in Feed and Food by the Yeast Mycocin HMK  

PubMed Central

The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe construction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier, which resulted in secretion of biologically active mycocin into the culture media. A partial purification protocol was developed, and a comparison with native W. mrakii mycocin showed that the heterologously expressed mycocin had similar physiological properties and an almost identical spectrum of biological activity against a number of yeasts isolated from silage and yoghurt. Two food and feed production systems prone to yeast spoilage were used as models to assess the ability of mycocin HMK to act as a biocontrol agent. The onset of aerobic spoilage in mature maize silage was delayed by application of A. niger mycocin HMK on opening because the toxin inhibited growth of the indigenous spoilage yeasts. This helped maintain both higher lactic acid levels and a lower pH. In yoghurt spiked with dairy spoilage yeasts, A. niger mycocin HMK was active at all of the storage temperatures tested at which yeast growth occurred, and there was no resurgence of resistant yeasts. The higher the yeast growth rate, the more effective the killing action of the mycocin. Thus, mycocin HMK has potential applications in controlling both silage spoilage and yoghurt spoilage caused by yeasts.

Lowes, K. F.; Shearman, C. A.; Payne, J.; MacKenzie, D.; Archer, D. B.; Merry, R. J.; Gasson, M. J.

2000-01-01

120

Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains  

SciTech Connect

The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

1981-01-01

121

Characterization of wine yeasts for ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected wine yeasts were tested for their ethanol and sugar tolerance, and for their fermentative capacity. Growth (µ) and fermentation rates (?) were increasingly inhibited by increasing ethanol and glucose concentrations, “flor” yeasts being the least inhibited. Except in the latter strains, the ethanol production rate was accelerated by adding the glucose stepwise. The best fermenting strains selected in laboratory

Juan Jiménez; Tahía Benítez

1986-01-01

122

Characterization of wine yeasts for ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Selected wine yeasts were tested for their ethanol and sugar tolerance, and for their fermentative capacity. Growth (µ) and fermentation rates (?) were increasingly inhibited by increasing ethanol and glucose concentrations, “flor” yeasts being the least inhibited. Except in the latter strains, the ethanol production rate was accelerated by adding the glucose stepwise. The best fermenting strains selected in

Juan Jiménez; Tahía Benítez

1986-01-01

123

Yeast Sporulation on Two Commonly Available Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In attempting to produce sporulation in some yeast strains, it was found that Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB; BBL) plus agar (1.5%) and Nutrient Agar (NA; BBL) induced fair to good sporulation of commercial bakers' yeast in 3 days, after two or three necessary...

W. P. Iverson

1967-01-01

124

On the origins of wine yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is still a lack of agreement concerning the relative contribution of wine yeast that may originate in the vineyard compared to that which may originate in the cellar. Part of this controversy is due to the extreme difficulty of finding Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the grapes. We estimate that only about one in one-thousand grape berries carries wine yeast. However,

Robert Mortimer; Mario Polsinelli

1999-01-01

125

Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.  

PubMed

Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. PMID:24462702

Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

2014-03-17

126

Oily yeasts as oleaginous cell factories.  

PubMed

Oily yeasts have been described to be able to accumulate lipids up to 20% of their cellular dry weight. These yeasts represent a minor proportion of the total yeast population, and only 5% of them have been reported as able to accumulate more than 25% of lipids. The oily yeast genera include Yarrowia, Candida, Rhodotorula, Rhodosporidium, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Lipomyces. More specifically, examples of oleaginous yeasts include the species: Lipomyces starkeyi, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Rhodotorula glutinis, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Yeast do exhibit advantages for lipid production over other microbial sources, namely, their duplication times are usually lower than 1 h, are much less affected than plants by season or climate conditions, and their cultures are more easily scaled up than those of microalgae. Additionally, some oily yeasts have been reported to accumulate oil up to 80% of their dry weight and can indeed generate different lipids from different carbon sources or from lipids present in the culture media. Thus, they can vary their lipid composition by replacing the fatty acids present in their triglycerides. Due to the diversity of microorganisms and growth conditions, oily yeasts can be useful for the production of triglycerides, surfactants, or polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:21465305

Ageitos, Jose Manuel; Vallejo, Juan Andres; Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Villa, Tomas G

2011-05-01

127

Can yeast transcriptomics help improve wine fermentation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wine fermentation is a dynamic and complex process in which the yeast cell is subjected to multiple stress conditions. A successful adaptation involves changes in gene expression profiles where a large number of genes are up- or down-regulated. Functional genomic approaches are com- monly used to obtain global gene expression profiles, providing a comprehensive view of yeast physiology. We used

C. Varela; J. Cárdenas; E. Agosin

128

Production of food and fodder yeasts.  

PubMed

A decade or so ago, there was considerable interest in developing single cell protein production from raw materials. Many factors have influenced the development of fodder yeast technology, notably the biochemistry and physiology of the yeast. It is shown that those considerations have led to the choice of a continuous fermentation technology. PMID:1733522

Boze, H; Moulin, G; Galzy, P

1992-01-01

129

CYGD: the Comprehensive Yeast Genome Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Yeast Genome Database (CYGD) compiles a comprehensive data resource for information on the cellular functions of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species, cho- sen as the best understood model organism for eukar- yotes. The database serves as a common resource generated by a European consortium, going beyond the provision of sequence information and functional annotations on individual

Ulrich Güldener; Martin Münsterkötter; Gabi Kastenmüller; Normann Strack; Jacques Van Helden; Christian Lemer; J. Richelles; Shoshana J. Wodak; J. García-martínez; J. E. Pérez-ortín; Holger Michael; Andreas Kaps; E. Talla; Bernard Dujon; B. André; J. L. Souciet; J. De Montigny; E. Bon; C. Gaillardin; Hans-werner Mewes

2005-01-01

130

Yeast: An Experimental Organism for Modern Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the applicability and advantages of using yeasts as popular and ideal model systems for studying and understanding eukaryotic biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Cites experimental tractability and the cooperative tradition of the research community of yeast biologists as reasons for this success. (RT)

Botstein, David; Fink, Gerald R.

1988-01-01

131

New search for pectolytic yeasts.  

PubMed

A new screening method for pectin-depolymerizing microorganisms is described. The method is based on precipitation of non-hydrolyzed citrus pectin with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide in a medium solidified with a bacterial gelling gum. A substrate depolymerized by the secreted enzymes does not precipitate, and the positive strains thus show transparent areas around the colonies. The method was used to screen 300 yeast and yeast-like microorganisms belonging to 52 different genera. The secretion of pectin-depolymerizing enzymes occurred with different frequencies in 13 genera (69 positive strains of 207 tested), the lowest frequency being found in the genus Candida (13 positive out of 125 strains tested) and the highest frequency in the genera Aureobasidium (4 of 6) Cryptococcus (29 of 38), Geotrichum (4 of 9), Kluyveromyces (5 of 5), Rhodosporidium (2 of 2), Leucosporidium (2 of 2), Trichosporon (3 of 6) and Ustilago (2 of 2). Strains giving the highest number of harvested cells after growth on pectin in a liquid medium have been identified. PMID:8549997

Biely, P; Sláviková, E

1994-01-01

132

Growing yeast into cylindrical colonies.  

PubMed

Microorganisms often form complex multicellular assemblies such as biofilms and colonies. Understanding the interplay between assembly expansion, metabolic yield, and nutrient diffusion within a freely growing colony remains a challenge. Most available data on microorganisms are from planktonic cultures, due to the lack of experimental tools to control the growth of multicellular assemblies. Here, we propose a method to constrain the growth of yeast colonies into simple geometric shapes such as cylinders. To this end, we designed a simple, versatile culture system to control the location of nutrient delivery below a growing colony. Under such culture conditions, yeast colonies grow vertically and only at the locations where nutrients are delivered. Colonies increase in height at a steady growth rate that is inversely proportional to the cylinder radius. We show that the vertical growth rate of cylindrical colonies is not defined by the single-cell division rate, but rather by the colony metabolic yield. This contrasts with cells in liquid culture, in which the single-cell division rate is the only parameter that defines the population growth rate. This method also provides a direct, simple method to estimate the metabolic yield of a colony. Our study further demonstrates the importance of the shape of colonies on setting their expansion. We anticipate that our approach will be a starting point for elaborate studies of the population dynamics, evolution, and ecology of microbial colonies in complex landscapes. PMID:24853750

Vulin, Clément; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Lindner, Ariel B; Daerr, Adrian; Murray, Andrew; Hersen, Pascal

2014-05-20

133

Antifungal resistance in yeast vaginitis.  

PubMed Central

The increased number of vaginal yeast infections in the past few years has been a disturbing trend, and the scientific community has been searching for its etiology. Several theories have been put forth to explain the apparent increase. First, the recent widespread availability of low-dosage, azole-based over-the-counter antifungal medications for vaginal yeast infections encourages women to self-diagnose and treat, and women may be misdiagnosing themselves. Their vaginitis may be caused by bacteria, parasites or may be a symptom of another underlying health condition. As a result, they may be unnecessarily and chronically expose themselves to antifungal medications and encourage fungal resistance. Second, medical technology has increased the life span of seriously immune compromised individuals, yet these individuals are frequently plagued by opportunistic fungal infections. Long-term and intense azole-based antifungal treatment has been linked to an increase in resistant Candida and non-Candida species. Thus, the future of limiting antifungal resistance lies in identifying the factors promoting resistance and implementing policies to prevent it.

Dun, E.

1999-01-01

134

Production of ethanol by immobilized yeast cells  

SciTech Connect

Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in calcium alginate beads for use in the continuous production of ethanol. Yeasts were grown in medium supplemented with ethanol to selectively screen for a culture which showed the greatest tolerance to ethanol inhibition. Yeast beads were produced from a yeast slurry containing 1.5% alginate (w/v) which was added as drops to a 0.05M CaCl2 solution. To determine their optimum fermentation parameters, ethanol production using glucose as a substrate was monitored in batch systems at varying physiological conditions (temperature,pH, ethanol concentration), cell densities, and gel concentrations. The data obtained were compared to optimum free cell ethanol fermentation parameters. The immobilized yeast cells were examined in a packed-bed reactor system operated under optimized parameters derived from batch-immobilized yeast cell experiments. Ethanol production rates, as well as residual sugar concentrations were monitored at different feedstock flow rates. (Refs. 13).

Williams, D.; Munnecke, D.M.

1981-08-01

135

Chromosomal structures of bottom fermenting yeasts.  

PubMed

A genomic comparison of bottom fermenting yeasts was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern blot analysis with some S. cerevisiae gene probes. We confirmed that strains of bottom fermenting yeast have four chromosomes originating from S. bayanus. Since the structures of these chromosomes were recombined with S. cerevisiae chromosomes, these S. bayanus chromosomes could be differentiated from S. cerevisiae chromosomes using Southern hybridization. Our Southern hybridization results indicate that bottom fermenting yeasts have both chromosomes originating from both S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. It was reconfirmed that top fermenting yeast should be classified as S. cerevisiae, based on the chromosomal structure. The chromosomal structure of S. pastorianus CBS1538, the type stain of S. pastorianus, was also investigated. This strain has chromosomes originating only from S. bayanus. S. carlsbergensis CBS1513 has chromosomes originating from both S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. From these results, we contend that bottom fermenting yeasts should be classified as S. carlsbergensis. PMID:10553286

Yamagishi, H; Ogata, T

1999-09-01

136

Selection of antibody fragments by yeast display.  

PubMed

The critical need for renewable, high-quality affinity reagents in biological research, as well as for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, has required the development of new platforms of discovery. Yeast display is one of the main methods of in vitro display technology with phage display. Yeast display has been chosen by numerous groups to refine both affinity and specificity of antibodies because it enables fine discrimination between mutant clones of similar affinity. In addition, the construction of display libraries of antibody fragments in yeast permit to sample the immune antibody repertoire more fully than using phage. This chapter gives an updated overview of the available systems of yeast display platforms and libraries, followed up by technical descriptions of selection methods of antibody fragments by yeast display. PMID:22907357

Scholler, Nathalie

2012-01-01

137

Accelerating Yeast Prion Biology using Droplet Microfluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prions are infectious proteins in a misfolded form, that can induce normal proteins to take the misfolded state. Yeast prions are relevant, as a model of human prion diseases, and interesting from an evolutionary standpoint. Prions may also be a form of epigenetic inheritance, which allow yeast to adapt to stressful conditions at rates exceeding those of random mutations and propagate that adaptation to their offspring. Encapsulation of yeast in droplet microfluidic devices enables high-throughput measurements with single cell resolution, which would not be feasible using bulk methods. Millions of populations of yeast can be screened to obtain reliable measurements of prion induction and loss rates. The population dynamics of clonal yeast, when a fraction of the cells are prion expressing, can be elucidated. Furthermore, the mechanism by which certain strains of bacteria induce yeast to express prions in the wild can be deduced. Integrating the disparate fields of prion biology and droplet microfluidics reveals a more complete picture of how prions may be more than just diseases and play a functional role in yeast.

Ung, Lloyd; Rotem, Assaf; Jarosz, Daniel; Datta, Manoshi; Lindquist, Susan; Weitz, David

2012-02-01

138

Extracellular Deoxyribonuclease Production by Yeasts  

PubMed Central

A total of 20 genera of yeasts and yeastlike organisms were tested for their ability to produce an extracellular deoxyribonuclease. Results indicate that ability to produce the enzyme appears to be a specific characteristic of the three genera Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, and Tremella. A single strain of Endomycopsis fibuligera was also shown to be positive for the enzyme. In comparing the ability of the organisms to excrete extracellular deoxyribonuclease with their ability to produce urease, a surprisingly close correlation was found. With the exception of Lipomyces starkeyi, all the organisms which were deoxyribonuclease-negative were also urease-negative. Of those organisms which were deoxyribonuclease-positive, only E. fibuligera was urease-negative. The ability of cryptococci to produce extracellular deoxyribonuclease is discussed in relation to the implication which this finding may have for the taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus.

Cazin, John; Kozel, Thomas R.; Lupan, David M.; Burt, Wayne R.

1969-01-01

139

Extracellular deoxyribonuclease production by yeasts.  

PubMed

A total of 20 genera of yeasts and yeastlike organisms were tested for their ability to produce an extracellular deoxyribonuclease. Results indicate that ability to produce the enzyme appears to be a specific characteristic of the three genera Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, and Tremella. A single strain of Endomycopsis fibuligera was also shown to be positive for the enzyme. In comparing the ability of the organisms to excrete extracellular deoxyribonuclease with their ability to produce urease, a surprisingly close correlation was found. With the exception of Lipomyces starkeyi, all the organisms which were deoxyribonuclease-negative were also urease-negative. Of those organisms which were deoxyribonuclease-positive, only E. fibuligera was urease-negative. The ability of cryptococci to produce extracellular deoxyribonuclease is discussed in relation to the implication which this finding may have for the taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus. PMID:5354946

Cazin, J; Kozel, T R; Lupan, D M; Burt, W R

1969-11-01

140

Rheologically interesting polysaccharides from yeasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have examined the relationships between primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of polysaccharides exhibiting the rheological property of friction (drag) reduction in turbulent flows. We found an example of an exopolysaccharide from the yeast Cryptococcus laurentii that possessed high molecular weight but exhibited lower than expected drag reducing activity. Earlier correlations by Hoyt showing that beta 1 --> 3, beta 2 --> 4, and alpha 1 --> 3 linkages in polysaccharides favored drag reduction were expanded to include correlations to secondary structure. The effect of sidechains in a series of gellan gums was shown to be related to sidechain length and position. Disruption of secondary structure in drag reducing polysaccharides reduced drag reducing activity for some but not all exopolysaccharides. The polymer from C. laurentii was shown to be more stable than xanthan gum and other exopolysaccharides under the most vigorous of denaturing conditions. We also showed a direct relationship between extensional viscosity measurements and the drag reducing coefficient for four exopolysaccharides.

Petersen, G. R.; Nelson, G. A.; Cathey, C. A.; Fuller, G. G.

1989-01-01

141

Hydrogen Peroxide Metabolism in Yeasts  

PubMed Central

A catalase-negative mutant of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha consumed methanol in the presence of glucose when the organism was grown in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. The organism was apparently able to decompose the H2O2 generated in the oxidation of methanol by alcohol oxidase. Not only H2O2 generated intracellularly but also H2O2 added extracellularly was effectively destroyed by the catalase-negative mutant. From the rate of H2O2 consumption during growth in chemostat cultures on mixtures of glucose and H2O2, it appeared that the mutant was capable of decomposing H2O2 at a rate as high as 8 mmol · g of cells?1 · h?1. Glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) was absent under all growth conditions. However, cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP; EC 1.11.1.5) increased to very high levels in cells which decomposed H2O2. When wild-type H. polymorpha was grown on mixtures of glucose and methanol, the CCP level was independent of the rate of methanol utilization, whereas the level of catalase increased with increasing amounts of methanol in the substrate feed. Also, the wild type decomposed H2O2 at a high rate when cells were grown on mixtures of glucose and H2O2. In this case, an increase of both CCP and catalase was observed. When Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown on mixtures of glucose and H2O2, the level of catalase remained low, but CCP increased with increasing rates of H2O2 utilization. From these observations and an analysis of cell yields under the various conditions, two conclusions can be drawn. (i) CCP is a key enzyme of H2O2 detoxification in yeasts. (ii) Catalase can effectively compete with mitochondrial CCP for hydrogen peroxide only if hydrogen peroxide is generated at the site where catalase is located, namely in the peroxisomes.

Verduyn, Cornelis; Giuseppin, Marco L. F.; Scheffers, W. Alexander; van Dijken, Johannes P.

1988-01-01

142

Pseudoporphyria associated with consumption of brewers' yeast.  

PubMed Central

A case of pseudoporphyria associated with excessive consumption of brewers ' yeast was studied. Detailed analysis of the yeast tablets by high performance liquid chromatography showed the presence of dicarboxylic deuteroporphyrin , mesoporphyrin, and protoporphyrin; coproporphyrin I and III isomers; and uroporphyrin I and III isomers. The faecal porphyrin concentration of the patient taking yeast tablets was significantly increased, resembling the excretion pattern in variegate porphyria. Any patient showing an unusual porphyrin excretion pattern on high performance liquid chromatography should be investigated for a possible dietary cause.

Lim, C K; Rideout, J M; Peters, T J

1984-01-01

143

Marine killer yeasts active against a yeast strain pathogenic to crab Portunus trituberculatus.  

PubMed

Some marine yeasts have recently been recognised as pathogenic agents in crab mariculture, but may be inhibited or killed by 'killer' yeast strains. We screened multiple yeast strains from seawater, sediments, mud of salterns, guts of marine fish, and marine algae for killer activity against the yeast Metchnikowia bicuspidata WCY (pathogenic to crab Portunus trituberculatus), and found 17 strains which could secrete toxin onto the medium and kill the pathogenic yeast. Of these, 5 strains had significantly higher killing activity than the others; routine identification and molecular methods showed that these were Williopsis saturnus WC91-2, Pichia guilliermondii GZ1, Pichia anomala YF07b, Debaryomyces hansenii hcx-1 and Aureobasidium pullulans HN2.3. We found that the optimal conditions for killer toxin production and action of killer toxin produced by the marine killer yeasts were not all in agreement with those of marine environments and for crab cultivation. We found that the killer toxins produced by the killer yeast strains could kill other yeasts in addition to the pathogenic yeast, and NaCl concentration in the medium could change killing activity spectra. All the crude killer toxins produced could hydrolyze laminarin and the hydrolysis end products were monosaccharides. PMID:18814546

Wang, Lin; Yue, Lixi; Chi, Zhenming; Wang, Xianghong

2008-08-01

144

ENGINEERING THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF STYRENE IN YEAST  

EPA Science Inventory

The strategy pursued was to insert genes for phenylalanine ammonia lysase (pal) and phenolic acid decarboxylase (pad) into the yeast that would convert phenylalanine to styrene through a cinnamic acid intermediate. ...

145

Developmentally programmed nuclear destruction during yeast gametogenesis.  

PubMed

Autophagy controls cellular catabolism in diverse eukaryotes and modulates programmed cell death in plants and animals. While studies of the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided fundamental insights into the mechanisms of autophagy, the roles of cell death pathways in yeast are less well understood. Here, we describe widespread developmentally programmed nuclear destruction (PND) events that occur during yeast gametogenesis. PND is executed through apoptotic-like DNA fragmentation in coordination with an unusual form of autophagy that is most similar to mammalian lysosomal membrane permeabilization and mega-autophagy, a form of plant autophagic cell death. Undomesticated strains execute gametogenic PND broadly in maturing colonies to the apparent benefit of sibling cells, confirming its prominence during the yeast life cycle. Our results reveal that diverse cell-death-related processes converge during gametogenesis in a microbe distantly related to plants or animals, highlighting gametogenesis as a process during which programmed cell death mechanisms may have evolved. PMID:22727375

Eastwood, Michael D; Cheung, Sally W T; Lee, Kwan Yin; Moffat, Jason; Meneghini, Marc D

2012-07-17

146

Yeast survive by hedging their bets.  

PubMed

A new experimental approach reveals a bet hedging strategy in unstressed, clonal yeast cells, whereby they adopt a range of growth states that correlate with expression of a trehalose-synthesis regulator and predict resistance to future stress. PMID:22589702

Meadows, Robin

2012-01-01

147

Protection from nitrosative stress by yeast flavohemoglobin  

PubMed Central

Yeast hemoglobin was discovered close to half a century ago, but its function has remained unknown. Herein, we report that this flavohemoglobin protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae from nitrosative stress. Deletion of the flavohemoglobin gene (YHB1) abolished the nitric oxide (NO)-consuming activity of yeast cells. Levels of protein nitrosylation were more than 10-fold higher in yhb1 mutant yeast than in isogenic wild-type cells after incubation with NO donors. Growth of mutant cells was inhibited by a nitrosative challenge that had little effect on wild-type cells, whereas the resistance of mutant cells to oxidative stress was unimpaired. Protection conferred by yeast flavohemoglobin against NO and S-nitrosothiols was seen under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, consistent with a primary function in NO detoxification. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that protection from nitrosative stress is likely to be a conserved function among microorganismal flavohemoglobins. Flavohemoglobin is therefore a potential target for antimicrobial therapy.

Liu, Limin; Zeng, Ming; Hausladen, Alfred; Heitman, Joseph; Stamler, Jonathan S.

2000-01-01

148

Production of biopharmaceutical proteins by yeast  

PubMed Central

Production of recombinant proteins for use as pharmaceuticals, so-called biopharmaceuticals, is a multi-billion dollar industry. Many different cell factories are used for the production of biopharmaceuticals, but the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important cell factory as it is used for production of several large volume products. Insulin and insulin analogs are by far the dominating biopharmaceuticals produced by yeast, and this will increase as the global insulin market is expected to grow from USD12B in 2011 to more than USD32B by 2018. Other important biopharmaceuticals produced by yeast are human serum albumin, hepatitis vaccines and virus like particles used for vaccination against human papillomavirus. Here is given a brief overview of biopharmaceutical production by yeast and it is discussed how the secretory pathway can be engineered to ensure more efficient protein production. The involvement of directed metabolic engineering through the integration of tools from genetic engineering, systems biology and mathematical modeling, is also discussed.

Nielsen, Jens

2013-01-01

149

Arachidonic acid metabolites in pathogenic yeasts  

PubMed Central

Although most of what is known about the biology and function of arachidonic acid metabolites comes from the study of mammalian biology, these compounds can also be produced by lower eukaryotes, including yeasts and other fungi. It is also in this group of organisms that the least is known about the metabolic pathways leading to the production of these compounds as well as the functions of these compounds in the biology of fungi and yeasts. This review will deal with the discovery of oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids, and more specifically the arachidonic acid derived eicosanoids, such as 3-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid, prostaglandin F2? and prostaglandin E2, in yeasts starting in the early 1990s. This review will also focus on what is known about the metabolic pathways and/or proteins involved in the production of these compounds in pathogenic yeasts. The possible roles of these compounds in the biology, including the pathology, of these organisms will be discussed.

2012-01-01

150

Yeast Screens for Treatment of Human Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Screening methods for identifying substances that provide therapeutic value for various diseases associated with protein misfolding are provided. Genetic and chemical screening methods are provided using a yeast system. The methods of the invention provid...

S. Krobitsch S. Lindquist T. F. Outeiro

2006-01-01

151

Carbon source dependent promoters in yeasts  

PubMed Central

Budding yeasts are important expression hosts for the production of recombinant proteins. The choice of the right promoter is a crucial point for efficient gene expression, as most regulations take place at the transcriptional level. A wide and constantly increasing range of inducible, derepressed and constitutive promoters have been applied for gene expression in yeasts in the past; their different behaviours were a reflection of the different needs of individual processes. Within this review we summarize the majority of the large available set of carbon source dependent promoters for protein expression in yeasts, either induced or derepressed by the particular carbon source provided. We examined the most common derepressed promoters for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts, and described carbon source inducible promoters and promoters induced by non-sugar carbon sources. A special focus is given to promoters that are activated as soon as glucose is depleted, since such promoters can be very effective and offer an uncomplicated and scalable cultivation procedure.

2014-01-01

152

Identification of Protein Components of Yeast Telomerase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Telomere length is tightly regulated in Saccharomycetes. This lengthening is dependent on TLC1, which encodes the RNA component of telomerase but independent of RAD52, which encodes a protein required for most recombination events in mitotic yeast cells. ...

S. Teng

1999-01-01

153

Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

1985-01-01

154

Intracellular production of recombinant serpins in yeast.  

PubMed

Yeast are a valuable system for recombinant serpin production due to their ability to synthesize large amounts of heterologous gene products as well as their expression of folding chaperones and lack of endogenous serpin genes. In this chapter, we describe a method for intracellular expression of cytoplasmic serpins in the yeast Pichia pastoris. We also give details on how this system can be exploited to produce polymer-forming mutants of secretory serpins. PMID:22078527

Kaiserman, Dion; Hitchen, Corinne; Levina, Vita; Bottomley, Stephen P; Bird, Phillip I

2011-01-01

155

Yeast Killer Toxins: Fundamentals and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Killer phenomena in yeast are due to the secretion of polypeptides with a lethal or growth-inhibitory effect on competing\\u000a strains. Yeast killer toxins display structural heterogeneity, ranging in size from small peptides to large protein complexes.\\u000a Accordingly, they attack various constituents of sensitive cells, including the cell wall and plasma membrane, but also intracellular\\u000a targets such as the replication machinery

Friedhelm Meinhardt; Roland Klassen

156

How To Make Yeast Cells Thrive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students set up and run the experiments they designed in the lesson Population Growth in Yeasts, using simple yeast-molasses cultures in test tubes. Population growth is indicated by the amount of respiration occurring in the cultures, which in turn is indicated by the growth of carbon dioxide bubbles trapped within the culture tubes. Using this method, students can test for a variety of environmental influences, such as temperature, food supply, and pH.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

157

Analysis of recombinant yeast decapping enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical step in the turnover of yeast mRNAs is decapping. Two yeast proteins, Dcp1p and Dcp2p, are absolutely required for decapping, although their precise roles in the decapping reaction have not been established. To determine the function of both Dcp1p and Dcp2p in decapping, we purified recombinant versions of these proteins from Escherichia coli and examined their properties. These

MICHELLE STEIGER; ANNE CARR-SCHMID; DAVID C. SCHWARTZ; MEGERDITCH KILEDJIAN; ROY PARKER

2003-01-01

158

Phylogenetics of Saccharomycetales, the ascomycete yeasts.  

PubMed

Ascomycete yeasts (phylum Ascomycota: subphylum Saccharomycotina: class Saccharomycetes: order Saccharomycetales) comprise a monophyletic lineage with a single order of about 1000 known species. These yeasts live as saprobes, often in association with plants, animals and their interfaces. A few species account for most human mycotic infections, and fewer than 10 species are plant pathogens. Yeasts are responsible for important industrial and biotechnological processes, including baking, brewing and synthesis of recombinant proteins. Species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae are model organisms in research, some of which led to a Nobel Prize. Yeasts usually reproduce asexually by budding, and their sexual states are not enclosed in a fruiting body. The group also is well defined by synapomorphies visible at the ultrastructural level. Yeast identification and classification changed dramatically with the availability of DNA sequencing. Species identification now benefits from a constantly updated sequence database and no longer relies on ambiguous growth tests. A phylogeny based on single gene analyses has shown the order to be remarkably divergent despite morphological similarities among members. The limits of many previously described genera are not supported by sequence comparisons, and multigene phylogenetic studies are under way to provide a stable circumscription of genera, families and orders. One recent multigene study has resolved species of the Saccharomycetaceae into genera that differ markedly from those defined by analysis of morphology and growth responses, and similar changes are likely to occur in other branches of the yeast tree as additional sequences become available. PMID:17486976

Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Lachance, Marc-André

2006-01-01

159

Yeast as a model for Ras signalling.  

PubMed

For centuries yeast species have been popular hosts for classical biotechnology processes, such as baking, brewing, and wine making, and more recently for recombinant proteins production, thanks to the advantages of unicellular organisms (i.e., ease of genetic manipulation and rapid growth) together with the ability to perform eukaryotic posttranslational modifications. Moreover, yeast cells have been used for few decades as a tool for identifying the genes and pathways involved in basic cellular processes such as the cell cycle, aging, and stress response. In the budding yeast S. cerevisiae the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway is directly involved in the regulation of metabolism, cell growth, stress resistance, and proliferation in response to the availability of nutrients and in the adaptation to glucose, controlling cytosolic cAMP levels and consequently the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity. Moreover, Ras signalling has been identified in several pathogenic yeasts as a key controller for virulence, due to its involvement in yeast morphogenesis. Nowadays, yeasts are still useful for Ras-like proteins investigation, both as model organisms and as a test tube to study variants of heterologous Ras-like proteins. PMID:24470037

Tisi, Renata; Belotti, Fiorella; Martegani, Enzo

2014-01-01

160

Yeast communities in a natural tequila fermentation.  

PubMed

Fresh and cooked agave, Drosophila spp., processing equipment, agave molasses, agave extract, and fermenting must at a traditional tequila distillery (Herradura, Amatitan, Jalisco, México) were studied to gain insight on the origin of yeasts involved in a natural tequila fermentations. Five yeast communities were identified. (1) Fresh agave contained a diverse mycobiota dominated by Clavispora lusitaniae and an endemic species, Metschnikowia agaveae. (2) Drosophila spp. from around or inside the distillery yielded typical fruit yeasts, in particular Hanseniaspora spp., Pichia kluyveri, and Candida krusei. (3) Schizosaccharomyces pombe prevailed in molasses. (4) Cooked agave and extract had a considerable diversity of species, but included Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5) Fermenting juice underwent a gradual reduction in yeast heterogeneity. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Hanseniaspora spp. progressively ceded the way to S. cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Candida milleri, and Brettanomyces spp. With the exception of Pichia membranaefaciens, which was shared by all communities, little overlap existed. That separation was even more manifest when species were divided into distinguishable biotypes based on morphology or physiology. It is concluded that crushing equipment and must holding tanks are the main source of significant inoculum for the fermentation process. Drosophila species appear to serve as internal vectors. Proximity to fruit trees probably contributes to maintaining a substantial Drosophila community, but the yeasts found in the distillery exhibit very little similarity to those found in adjacent vegetation. Interactions involving killer toxins had no apparent direct effects on the yeast community structure. PMID:8546452

Lachance, M A

1995-08-01

161

Interactions between yeast TFIIIB components.  

PubMed Central

Yeast transcription factor TFIIIB is a multicomponent factor comprised of the TATA-binding protein TBP and of associated factors TFIIIB70 and B". Epitope-tagged or histidine-tagged TFIIIB70 could be quantitatively removed from TFIIIB by affinity chromatography. TBP and B" (apparent mass 160-200 kDa) could be easily separated by gel filtration or ion-exchange chromatography. While only weak interactions were detected between TBP and B", direct binding of [35S]-labeled TBP to membrane-bound TFIIIB70 could be demonstrated in absence of DNA. On tRNA genes, there was no basal level of transcription in the complete absence of TBP. The two characterized TFIIIB components (recombinant rTFIIIB70 and rTBP) and a fraction cochromatographing with B" activity were found to be required for TFIIIC-independent transcription of the TATA-containing U6 RNA gene in vitro. Therefore, beside the TFIIIC-dependent assembly process, each TFIIIB component must have an essential role in DNA binding or RNA polymerase recruitment. Images

Huet, J; Conesa, C; Manaud, N; Chaussivert, N; Sentenac, A

1994-01-01

162

Yeast prions assembly and propagation  

PubMed Central

Yeast prions are self-perpetuating protein aggregates that are at the origin of heritable and transmissible non-Mendelian phenotypic traits. Among these, [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] are the most well documented prions and arise from the assembly of Sup35p, Ure2p and Rnq1p, respectively, into insoluble fibrillar assemblies. Fibril assembly depends on the presence of N- or C-terminal prion domains (PrDs) which are not homologous in sequence but share unusual amino-acid compositions, such as enrichment in polar residues (glutamines and asparagines) or the presence of oligopeptide repeats. Purified PrDs form amyloid fibrils that can convert prion-free cells to the prion state upon transformation. Nonetheless, isolated PrDs and full-length prion proteins have different aggregation, structural and infectious properties. In addition, mutations in the “non-prion” domains (non-PrDs) of Sup35p, Ure2p and Rnq1p were shown to affect their prion properties in vitro and in vivo. Despite these evidences, the implication of the functional non-PrDs in fibril assembly and prion propagation has been mostly overlooked. In this review, we discuss the contribution of non-PrDs to prion assemblies, and the structure-function relationship in prion infectivity in the light of recent findings on Sup35p and Ure2p assembly into infectious fibrils from our laboratory and others.

2011-01-01

163

Glycogenolytic enzymes in sporulating yeast.  

PubMed Central

During meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the polysaccharide glycogen is first synthesized and then degraded during the period of spore maturation. We have detected, in sporulating yeast strains, an enzyme activity which is responsible for the glycogen catabolism. The activity was absent in vegetative cells, appeared coincidently with the beginning of glycogenolysis and the appearance of mature ascospores, and increased progressively until spourlation was complete. The specific activity of glycogenolytic enzymes in the intact ascus was about threefold higher than in isolated spores. The glycogenolysis was not due to combinations of phosphorylase plus phosphatase or amylase plus maltase. Nonsporulating cells exhibited litle or no glycogen catabolism and contained only traces of glycogenolytic enzyme, suggesting that the activity is sporulation specific. The partially purified enzyme preparation degraded amylose and glycogen, releasing glucose as the only low-molecular-weight product. Maltotriose was rapidly hydrolyzed; maltose was less susceptible. Alpha-methyl-D-glucoside, isomaltose, and linear alpha-1,6-linked dextran were not attacked. However, the enzyme hydrolyzed alpha-1,6-glucosyl-Schardinger dextrin and increased the beta-amylolysis of beta-amylase-limit dextrin. Thus, the preparation contains alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-glucosidase activities. Sephadex G-150 chromatography partially resolved the enzyme into two activities, one of which may be a glucamylase and the other a debranching enzyme. Images

Colonna, W J; Magee, P T

1978-01-01

164

The One Hour Yeast Proteome*  

PubMed Central

We describe the comprehensive analysis of the yeast proteome in just over one hour of optimized analysis. We achieve this expedited proteome characterization with improved sample preparation, chromatographic separations, and by using a new Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer equipped with a mass filter, a collision cell, a high-field Orbitrap analyzer, and, finally, a dual cell linear ion trap analyzer (Q-OT-qIT, Orbitrap Fusion). This system offers high MS2 acquisition speed of 20 Hz and detects up to 19 peptide sequences within a single second of operation. Over a 1.3 h chromatographic method, the Q-OT-qIT hybrid collected an average of 13,447 MS1 and 80,460 MS2 scans (per run) to produce 43,400 (x?) peptide spectral matches and 34,255 (x?) peptides with unique amino acid sequences (1% false discovery rate (FDR)). On average, each one hour analysis achieved detection of 3,977 proteins (1% FDR). We conclude that further improvements in mass spectrometer scan rate could render comprehensive analysis of the human proteome within a few hours.

Hebert, Alexander S.; Richards, Alicia L.; Bailey, Derek J.; Ulbrich, Arne; Coughlin, Emma E.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.

2014-01-01

165

Yeast and human mitochondrial helicases.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are semiautonomous organelles which contain their own genome. Both maintenance and expression of mitochondrial DNA require activity of RNA and DNA helicases. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the nuclear genome encodes four DExH/D superfamily members (MSS116, SUV3, MRH4, IRC3) that act as helicases and/or RNA chaperones. Their activity is necessary for mitochondrial RNA splicing, degradation, translation and genome maintenance. In humans the ortholog of SUV3 (hSUV3, SUPV3L1) so far is the best described mitochondrial RNA helicase. The enzyme, together with the matrix-localized pool of PNPase (PNPT1), forms an RNA-degrading complex called the mitochondrial degradosome, which localizes to distinct structures (D-foci). Global regulation of mitochondrially encoded genes can be achieved by changing mitochondrial DNA copy number. This way the proteins involved in its replication, like the Twinkle helicase (c10orf2), can indirectly regulate gene expression. Here, we describe yeast and human mitochondrial helicases that are directly involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism, and present other helicases that participate in mitochondrial DNA replication and maintenance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Biology of RNA helicases - Modulation for life. PMID:23454114

Szczesny, Roman J; Wojcik, Magdalena A; Borowski, Lukasz S; Szewczyk, Maciej J; Skrok, Magda M; Golik, Pawel; Stepien, Piotr P

2013-08-01

166

Inhibition of spoilage yeasts in cheese by killer yeast Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus.  

PubMed

Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus is a known killer toxin-producing yeast. The effects of this yeast as a biopreservative against spoilage yeasts (galactose fermenting) were investigated in cheeses made under laboratory conditions. At an inoculation level of approximately 10(6) CFU/g of cheese, this killer yeast inhibited growth of lactose non-fermenting but galactose-fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae VL1 inoculated at approximately 10(3) CFU/g; it also inhibited growth of lactose-fermenting and galactose-fermenting yeast Kluvyveromyces marxianus ATCC8640 inoculated at approximately 10(3)-10(4) CFU/g in the cheeses manufactured with galactose-producing starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus. In contrast, the two spoilage yeasts grew to approximately 10(6) CFU/g from the initial cell count of approximately 10(3) CFU/g without the killer yeast. This study indicated that W. saturnus var. saturnus could be an effective biopreservative for cheese spoilage control. PMID:19349088

Liu, Shao-Quan; Tsao, Marlene

2009-05-31

167

Boolean Model of Yeast Apoptosis as a Tool to Study Yeast and Human Apoptotic Regulations  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) is an essential cellular mechanism that is evolutionary conserved, mediated through various pathways and acts by integrating different stimuli. Many diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancers are found to be caused by, or associated with, regulations in the cell death pathways. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a unicellular eukaryotic organism that shares with human cells components and pathways of the PCD and is therefore used as a model organism. Boolean modeling is becoming promising approach to capture qualitative behavior and describe essential properties of such complex networks. Here we present large literature-based and to our knowledge first Boolean model that combines pathways leading to apoptosis (a type of PCD) in yeast. Analysis of the yeast model confirmed experimental findings of anti-apoptotic role of Bir1p and pro-apoptotic role of Stm1p and revealed activation of the stress protein kinase Hog proposing the maximal level of activation upon heat stress. In addition we extended the yeast model and created an in silico humanized yeast in which human pro- and anti-apoptotic regulators Bcl-2 family and Valosin-contain protein (VCP) are included in the model. We showed that accumulation of Bax in silico humanized yeast shows apoptotic markers and that VCP is essential target of Akt Signaling. The presented Boolean model provides comprehensive description of yeast apoptosis network behavior. Extended model of humanized yeast gives new insights of how complex human disease like neurodegeneration can initially be tested.

Kazemzadeh, Laleh; Cvijovic, Marija; Petranovic, Dina

2012-01-01

168

Modeling diauxic glycolytic oscillations in yeast.  

PubMed

Glycolytic oscillations in a stirred suspension of starved yeast cells is an excellent model system for studying the dynamics of metabolic switching in living systems. In an open-flow system the oscillations can be maintained indefinitely at a constant operating point where they can be characterized quantitatively by experimental quenching and bifurcation analysis. In this article, we use these methods to show that the dynamics of oscillations in a closed system is a simple transient version of the open-system dynamics. Thus, easy-setup closed-system experiments are also useful for investigations of central metabolism dynamics of yeast cells. We have previously proposed a model for the open system comprised of the primary fermentative reactions in yeast that quantitatively describes the oscillatory dynamics. However, this model fails to describe the transient behavior of metabolic switching in a closed-system experiment by feeding the yeast suspension with a glucose pulse-notably the initial NADH spike and final NADH rise. Another object of this study is to gain insight into the secondary low-flux metabolic pathways by feeding starved yeast cells with various metabolites. Experimental and computational results strongly suggest that regulation of acetaldehyde explains the observed behavior. We have extended the original model with regulation of pyruvate decarboxylase, a reversible alcohol dehydrogenase, and drainage of pyruvate. Using the method of time rescaling in the extended model, the description of the transient closed-system experiments is significantly improved. PMID:21081066

Hald, Bjørn Olav; Sørensen, Preben G

2010-11-17

169

Ecology of pathogenic yeasts in Amazonian soil.  

PubMed Central

In an investigation of Amazonian soil as a natural reservoir for pathogenic fungi, 1,949 soil samples collected from diverse geographical and ecological settings of the Brazilian Amazon Basin were analyzed for the presence of non-keratinophilic fungi by the indirect mouse inoculation procedure and for the presence of keratinophilic fungi by the hair bait technique. All soil samples were acidic with low pH values. From 12% of the soil samples, 241 yeast and yeastlike isolates pertaining to six genera and 82 species were recovered, of which 63% were Torulopsis and 26% were Candida species. Nine fungi with known pathogenic potentials were encountered among 43% (104) of the isolates: T. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. albicans, C. pseudotropicalis, C. stellatoidea, C. tropicalis, Rhodotorula rubra, and Wangiella dermatitidis. The yeast flora was marked by species diversity, low frequency of each species, random geographical distribution, and an apparent lack of species clustering. The composition and distribution of the yeast flora in soil differed from those of the yeast flora harbored by bats, suggesting that the Amazonian external environment and internal bat organs act as independent natural habitats for yeasts.

Mok, W Y; Luizao, R C; do Socorro Barreto da Silva, M; Teixeira, M F; Muniz, E G

1984-01-01

170

Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.  

PubMed

The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

2011-01-01

171

Simple assay of trehalose in industrial yeast.  

PubMed

Trehalose is an essential chemical marker to control a quality of the industrial yeast strains and to assess a tolerance of the yeasts products to different physical stresses. A high-performance liquid chromatography analysis with charged aerosol detection (HPLC-CAD) was developed for trehalose determination in industrial yeasts. The method offers a linearity in the range of 5.0-15 mM with linear regression coefficient R(2)=0.9995, a good reproducibility and relatively short analysis time (7 min). Trehalose can be detected at concentrations as low as 0.07 mM, and limit of precise quantification is 0.2 mM. The coefficient of variation (CV%) is 0.3%. The developed method is more sensitive compared with conventional chromatography procedure with UV absorbance detection. It was shown that the proposed method can be used in baker's industry to control a quality of the yeast products and to assess biotechnological significance of the yeast strains. PMID:24731351

Kus-Li?kiewicz, Ma?gorzata; Górka, Anna; Gonchar, Mykhailo

2014-09-01

172

Modeling Diauxic Glycolytic Oscillations in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Glycolytic oscillations in a stirred suspension of starved yeast cells is an excellent model system for studying the dynamics of metabolic switching in living systems. In an open-flow system the oscillations can be maintained indefinitely at a constant operating point where they can be characterized quantitatively by experimental quenching and bifurcation analysis. In this article, we use these methods to show that the dynamics of oscillations in a closed system is a simple transient version of the open-system dynamics. Thus, easy-setup closed-system experiments are also useful for investigations of central metabolism dynamics of yeast cells. We have previously proposed a model for the open system comprised of the primary fermentative reactions in yeast that quantitatively describes the oscillatory dynamics. However, this model fails to describe the transient behavior of metabolic switching in a closed-system experiment by feeding the yeast suspension with a glucose pulse—notably the initial NADH spike and final NADH rise. Another object of this study is to gain insight into the secondary low-flux metabolic pathways by feeding starved yeast cells with various metabolites. Experimental and computational results strongly suggest that regulation of acetaldehyde explains the observed behavior. We have extended the original model with regulation of pyruvate decarboxylase, a reversible alcohol dehydrogenase, and drainage of pyruvate. Using the method of time rescaling in the extended model, the description of the transient closed-system experiments is significantly improved.

Hald, Bj?rn Olav; S?rensen, Preben G.

2010-01-01

173

Mitochondrial membrane lipidome defines yeast longevity  

PubMed Central

Our studies revealed that lithocholic acid (LCA), a bile acid, is a potent anti-aging natural compound that in yeast cultured under longevity-extending caloric restriction (CR) conditions acts in synergy with CR to enable a significant further increase in chronological lifespan. Here, we investigate a mechanism underlying this robust longevity-extending effect of LCA under CR. We found that exogenously added LCA enters yeast cells, is sorted to mitochondria, resides mainly in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and also associates with the outer mitochondrial membrane. LCA elicits an age-related remodeling of glycerophospholipid synthesis and movement within both mitochondrial membranes, thereby causing substantial changes in mitochondrial membrane lipidome and triggering major changes in mitochondrial size, number and morphology. In synergy, these changes in the membrane lipidome and morphology of mitochondria alter the age-related chronology of mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential, ATP synthesis and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. The LCA-driven alterations in the age-related dynamics of these vital mitochondrial processes extend yeast longevity. In sum, our findings suggest a mechanism underlying the ability of LCA to delay chronological aging in yeast by accumulating in both mitochondrial membranes and altering their glycerophospholipid compositions. We concluded that mitochondrial membrane lipidome plays an essential role in defining yeast longevity.

Burstein, Michelle T.; Bourque, Simon D.; Koupaki, Olivia; Juneau, Mylene; Feldman, Rachel; Iouk, Tatiana; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

2013-01-01

174

Extension of Yeast Chronological Lifespan by Methylamine  

PubMed Central

Background Chronological aging of yeast cells is commonly used as a model for aging of human post-mitotic cells. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose in the presence of ammonium sulphate is mainly used in yeast aging research. We have analyzed chronological aging of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha grown at conditions that require primary peroxisome metabolism for growth. Methodology/Principal Findings The chronological lifespan of H. polymorpha is strongly enhanced when cells are grown on methanol or ethanol, metabolized by peroxisome enzymes, relative to growth on glucose that does not require peroxisomes. The short lifespan of H. polymorpha on glucose is mainly due to medium acidification, whereas most likely ROS do not play an important role. Growth of cells on methanol/methylamine instead of methanol/ammonium sulphate resulted in further lifespan enhancement. This was unrelated to medium acidification. We show that oxidation of methylamine by peroxisomal amine oxidase at carbon starvation conditions is responsible for lifespan extension. The methylamine oxidation product formaldehyde is further oxidized resulting in NADH generation, which contributes to increased ATP generation and reduction of ROS levels in the stationary phase. Conclusion/Significance We conclude that primary peroxisome metabolism enhanced chronological lifespan of H. polymorpha. Moreover, the possibility to generate NADH at carbon starvation conditions by an organic nitrogen source supports further extension of the lifespan of the cell. Consequently, the interpretation of CLS analyses in yeast should include possible effects on the energy status of the cell.

Kumar, Sanjeev; Lefevre, Sophie D.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

2012-01-01

175

Yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with fruits and blossoms of different fruit trees.  

PubMed

Yeasts are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere, but our knowledge of their diversity in various plant organs is still limited. This study focused on the diversity of yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with matured fruits and fully open blossoms of apple, plum, and pear trees, during 2 consecutive years at 3 localities in southwest Slovakia. The occurrence of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in fruit samples was 2½ times higher and the yeast community more diverse than that in blossom samples. Only 2 species (Aureobasidium pullulans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) occurred regularly in the blossom samples, whereas Galactomyces candidus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, M. pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most frequently isolated species from the fruit samples. The ratio of the number of samples where only individual species were present to the number of samples where 2 or more species were found (consortium) was counted. The occurrence of individual species in comparison with consortia was much higher in blossom samples than in fruit samples. In the latter, consortia predominated. Aureobasidium pullulans, M. pulcherrima, and S. cerevisiae, isolated from both the fruits and blossoms, can be considered as resident yeast species of various fruit tree species cultivated in southwest Slovakia localities. PMID:23210991

Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Vránová, Dana; Sláviková, Elena

2012-12-01

176

Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts  

PubMed Central

The fission yeast clade, comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus and S. japonicus, occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative annotation of these genomes identified a near extinction of transposons and the associated innovation of transposon-free centromeres. Expression analysis established that meiotic genes are subject to antisense transcription during vegetative growth, suggesting a mechanism for their tight regulation. In addition, trans-acting regulators control new genes within the context of expanded functional modules for meiosis and stress response. Differences in gene content and regulation also explain why, unlike the Saccharomycotina, fission yeasts cannot use ethanol as a primary carbon source. These analyses elucidate the genome structure and gene regulation of fission yeast and provide tools for investigation across the Schizosaccharomyces clade.

Rhind, Nicholas; Chen, Zehua; Yassour, Moran; Thompson, Dawn A; Haas, Brian J; Habib, Naomi; Wapinski, Ilan; Roy, Sushmita; Lin, Michael F.; Heiman, David I; Young, Sarah K; Furuya, Kanji; Guo, Yabin; Pidoux, Alison; Chen, Huei Mei; Robbertse, Barbara; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Aoki, Keita; Bayne, Elizabeth H.; Berlin, Aaron M; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Dobbs, Edward; Dukaj, Livio; Fan, Lin; FitzGerald, Michael G; French, Courtney; Gujja, Sharvari; Hansen, Klavs; Keifenheim, Dan; Levin, Joshua Z.; Mosher, Rebecca A.; Muller, Carolin A.; Pfiffner, Jenna; Priest, Margaret; Russ, Carsten; Smialowska, Agata; Swoboda, Peter; Sykes, Sean M; Vaughn, Matthew; Vengrova, Sonya; Yoder, Ryan; Zeng, Qiandong; Allshire, Robin; Baulcombe, David; Birren, Bruce W.; Brown, William; Ekwall, Karl; Kellis, Manolis; Leatherwood, Janet; Levin, Henry; Margalit, Hanah; Martienssen, Rob; Nieduszynski, Conrad A.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Friedman, Nir; Dalgaard, Jacob Z.; Baumann, Peter; Niki, Hironori; Regev, Aviv; Nusbaum, Chad

2011-01-01

177

Detection of Yeast Cells; Microfluidic Impedance Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based biosensor was proposed for the rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria and contaminants that pose a threat to public health. In this study, experimental tests followed by finite element computer simulations were performed to selectively detect the quantity of yeast cells in a sample solution then was compared to a solution with no yeast cells. The impedance based biosensor detects the change in impedance caused by the presence of yeast cells between the electrodes integrated into microchannel walls that contain the target cells in a suspension medium. Microfluidic devices were fabricated by using two methods: traditional micromachining and photolithography for experimental purposes. An impedance analyzer was experimentally used for the measurement of the electrical impedance signals. Computer models based in COMSOL Multiphysics consisted of a long microchannel with two electrodes placed on opposite sides of the channel. Experimental data, simulation results and published data were compared and similar trends were found.

Hulea, Kelsey; Matune, Nicholas; Mabbott, Benjamin; Panta, Yogendra

2010-11-01

178

Yeast oligo-mediated genome engineering (YOGE).  

PubMed

High-frequency oligonucleotide-directed recombination engineering (recombineering) has enabled rapid modification of several prokaryotic genomes to date. Here, we present a method for oligonucleotide-mediated recombineering in the model eukaryote and industrial production host Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which we call yeast oligo-mediated genome engineering (YOGE). Through a combination of overexpression and knockouts of relevant genes and optimization of transformation and oligonucleotide designs, we achieve high gene-modification frequencies at levels that only require screening of dozens of cells. We demonstrate the robustness of our approach in three divergent yeast strains, including those involved in industrial production of biobased chemicals. Furthermore, YOGE can be iteratively executed via cycling to generate genomic libraries up to 10 (5) individuals at each round for diversity generation. YOGE cycling alone or in combination with phenotypic selections or endonuclease-based negative genotypic selections can be used to generate modified alleles easily in yeast populations with high frequencies. PMID:24160921

DiCarlo, James E; Conley, Andrew J; Penttilä, Merja; Jäntti, Jussi; Wang, Harris H; Church, George M

2013-12-20

179

Kinetochore asymmetry defines a single yeast lineage  

PubMed Central

Asymmetric cell division is of fundamental importance in biology as it allows for the establishment of separate cell lineages during the development of multicellular organisms. Although microbial systems, including the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are excellent models of asymmetric cell division, this phenotype occurs in all cell divisions; consequently, models of lineage-specific segregation patterns in these systems do not exist. Here, we report the first example of lineage-specific asymmetric division in yeast. We used fluorescent tags to show that components of the yeast kinetochore, the protein complex that anchors chromosomes to the mitotic spindle, divide asymmetrically in a single postmeiotic lineage. This phenotype is not seen in vegetatively dividing haploid or diploid cells. This kinetochore asymmetry suggests a mechanism for the selective segregation of sister centromeres to daughter cells to establish different cell lineages or fates. These results provide a mechanistic link between lineage-defining asymmetry of metazoa with unicellular eukaryotes.

Thorpe, Peter H.; Bruno, Joanne; Rothstein, Rodney

2009-01-01

180

YEASTS FROM THE NORTH SEA AND AMOCO CADIZ OIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The species and densities of yeasts isolated from North Sea waters before and after the production of oil were compared. Debaryomyces hansenii was the predominant species, but after oil production, Candida guillieromondii, a hydrocarbonoclastic yeast, was more commonly isolated a...

181

Factors Determining Translational Efficiency of mRNA in Yeast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Killer virus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a cytoplasmically-inherited virus that confers on persistently-infected yeast cells the ability to secrete a protein toxin which kills uninfected yeast cells but to which infected cells, denoted killers, are res...

M. J. Leibowitz F. P. Barbone D. E. Georgopoulos

1991-01-01

182

[The yeast biofilm in human medicine].  

PubMed

In recent years, the role of Candida yeasts as causative agents of nosocomial infections has increased. One of the important virulence factors contributing to the development of such infections is biofilm production. This virulence factor enables yeast to colonize both native surfaces and artificial implants. The most common sources of infection are patients themselves, in particular the gastrointestinal tract and skin. The vectors of exogenous yeast infections are predominantly the hands of the health personnel and contaminated medical instruments. The adhesion of yeasts to the implant surfaces is determined both by implant surface and yeast characteristics. This is followed by proliferation and production of microcolonies and extracellular matrix. The final biofilm structure is also influenced by the production of hyphae and pseudohyphae. The entire process of biofilm production is controlled by numerous regulatory systems, with the key role being played by the quorum sensing system. Like the adhered bacterial cultures, candidas growing in the form of a biofilm are highly resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Resistance of yeast biofilms to antifungals is a complex process with multiple contributing factors. These are especially increased gene expression (e.g. genes encoding the so called multidrug efflux pumps), limited penetration of substances through the extracellular matrix, inhibited cell growth and altered microenvironment in deeper biofilm layers. The concentrations of antifungals able to effectively affect the biofilm cells exceed, by several orders of magnitude, the values of conventionally determined MICs. High biofilm resistance results in ineffective antifungal therapy of biofilm infections. Therefore, if possible, the colonized implant should be removed. Conservative therapy should involve antifungals with a proven effect on the biofilm (e.g. caspofungin). The most effective measure in fighting biofilm infections is prevention, especially adhering to aseptic techniques when manipulating with implants and their correct maintenance. PMID:17929219

R?zicka, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav

2007-08-01

183

Altered transcription in yeast expressing expanded polyglutamine  

PubMed Central

Expanded polyglutamine tracts are responsible for at least eight fatal neurodegenerative diseases. In mouse models, proteins with expanded polyglutamine cause transcriptional dysregulation before onset of symptoms, suggesting that this dysregulation may be an early event in polyglutamine pathogenesis. Transcriptional dysregulation and cellular toxicity may be due to interaction between expanded polyglutamine and the histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein. To determine whether polyglutamine-mediated transcriptional dysregulation occurs in yeast, we expressed polyglutamine tracts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene expression profiles were determined for strains expressing either a cytoplasmic or nuclear protein with 23 or 75 glutamines, and these profiles were compared to existing profiles of mutant yeast strains. Transcriptional induction of genes encoding chaperones and heat-shock factors was caused by expression of expanded polyglutamine in either the nucleus or cytoplasm. Transcriptional repression was most prominent in yeast expressing nuclear expanded polyglutamine and was similar to profiles of yeast strains deleted for components of the histone acetyltransferase complex Spt/Ada/Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA). The promoter from one affected gene (PHO84) was repressed by expanded polyglutamine in a reporter gene assay, and this effect was mitigated by the histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A. Consistent with an effect on SAGA, nuclear expanded polyglutamine enhanced the toxicity of a deletion in the SAGA component SPT3. Thus, an early component of polyglutamine toxicity, transcriptional dysregulation, is conserved in yeast and is pharmacologically antagonized by a histone deacetylase inhibitor. These results suggest a therapeutic approach for treatment of polyglutamine diseases and provide the potential for yeast-based screens for agents that reverse polyglutamine toxicity.

Hughes, Robert E.; Lo, Russell S.; Davis, Colleen; Strand, Andrew D.; Neal, Cassandra L.; Olson, James M.; Fields, Stanley

2001-01-01

184

Principles of chromosomal organization: lessons from yeast  

PubMed Central

The spatial organization of genes and chromosomes plays an important role in the regulation of several DNA processes. However, the principles and forces underlying this nonrandom organization are mostly unknown. Despite its small dimension, and thanks to new imaging and biochemical techniques, studies of the budding yeast nucleus have led to significant insights into chromosome arrangement and dynamics. The dynamic organization of the yeast genome during interphase argues for both the physical properties of the chromatin fiber and specific molecular interactions as drivers of nuclear order.

Zimmer, Christophe

2011-01-01

185

Three's company: The fission yeast actin cytoskeleton  

PubMed Central

How the actin cytoskeleton assembles into different structures to drive diverse cellular processes is a fundamental cell biological question. In addition to orchestrating the appropriate combination of regulators and actin-binding proteins, different actin-based structures must insulate themselves from one another to maintain specificity within a crowded cytoplasm. Actin specification is particularly vexing in complex eukaryotes where a multitude of protein isoforms and actin structures operate within the same cell. Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe possesses a single actin isoform that functions in three distinct structures throughout the cell cycle. In this review, we explore recent studies in fission yeast that help unravel how different actin structures operate in cells.

Kovar, David R.; Sirotkin, Vladimir; Lord, Matthew

2010-01-01

186

Understanding cytokinesis: lessons from fission yeast  

PubMed Central

For decades after the discovery that a contractile ring made of actin filaments and myosin II produces the force to constrict the cleavage furrow of animal cells, the complexity of cytokinesis has slowed progress in understanding the mechanism. Mechanistic insights, however, have been obtained by genetic, biochemical, microscopic and mathematical modelling approaches in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Many features that have been identified in fission yeast are probably shared with animal cells, as both inherited many cytokinesis genes from their common ancestor about one billion years ago.

Pollard, Thomas D.; Wu, Jian-Qiu

2010-01-01

187

Mitochondrial Network Size Scaling in Budding Yeast**  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria must grow with the growing cell to ensure proper cellular physiology and inheritance upon division. We measured the physical size of mitochondrial networks in budding yeast and found that mitochondrial network size increased with increasing cell size and that this scaling relation occurred primarily in the bud. The mitochondria to cell size ratio continually decreased in aging mothers over successive generations. However, regardless of mother age or mitochondrial content, all buds attained the same average ratio. Thus, yeast populations achieve a stable scaling relation between mitochondrial content and cell size despite asymmetry in inheritance.

Rafelski, Susanne M.; Viana, Matheus P.; Zhang, Yi; Chan, Yee-Hung M.; Thorn, Kurt S.; Yam, Phoebe; Fung, Jennifer C.; Li, Hao; Costa, Luciano da F.; Marshall, Wallace F.

2013-01-01

188

Modeling ALS and FTLD proteinopathies in yeast  

PubMed Central

In recent years there have been several reports of human neurodegenerative diseases that involve protein misfolding being modeled in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the specific mechanisms underlying intracellular neuronal pathology during Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD), including SOD1, TDP-43 and FUS protein inclusions and the potential of these proteins to be involved in pathogenic prion-like mechanisms. More specifically, we focus on findings from yeast systems that offer tremendous possibilities for screening for genetic and chemical modifiers of disease-related proteotoxicity.

2011-01-01

189

Insights into molecular evolution from yeast genomics.  

PubMed

Enabled by comparative genomics, yeasts have increasingly developed into a powerful model system for molecular evolution. Here we survey several areas in which yeast studies have made important contributions, including regulatory evolution, gene duplication and divergence, evolution of gene order and evolution of complexity. In each area we highlight key studies and findings based on techniques ranging from statistical analysis of large datasets to direct laboratory measurements of fitness. Future work will combine traditional evolutionary genetics analysis and experimental evolution with tools from systems biology to yield mechanistic insight into complex phenotypes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24760744

Zarin, Taraneh; Moses, Alan M

2014-07-01

190

Buckling of yeast modeled as viscoelastic shells with transverse shearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast cells can be regarded as micron-sized and liquid-filled cylindrical shells. Owing to the rigid cell walls, yeast cells\\u000a can bear compressive forces produced during the biotechnological process chain. However, when the compressive forces applied\\u000a on the yeast go beyond a critical value, mechanical buckling will occur. Since the buckling of the yeast can change the networks\\u000a in its cellular

Yiming Fu; Jin Zhang

191

Biochemical characteristics of osmophilic yeasts isolated from pollens and honey.  

PubMed

A total of 1752 strains of osmophilic yeasts were isolated from honey and pollens. Forty-three strains of osmophilic yeasts produced polyols, among which 6 strains produced erythritol in good yields. On the other hand, 52 osmophilic yeasts converted sucrose to fructooligosaccharides, among which 8 strains produced both extra and intracellular beta-fructofuranosidase, which converted sucrose to fructooligosaccharides. This investigation concluded that osmophilic yeasts converted sucrose not only to polyols, but also to fructooligosaccharides in good yields. PMID:8987865

Park, Y K; Koo, M H; Oliveira, I M

1996-11-01

192

[Effect of stress on the composition of yeast lipids].  

PubMed

Pigmented (Rhodotorula glutinis) and nonpigmented (Lipomyces starkeyi) yeasts were studied. Exogenous stressors (UV irradiation and methylene blue) were shown to change the composition of yeast lipids (especially the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids) and to increase the content of lipid peroxidation products formed (particularly in nonpigmented yeasts). In carotene-synthesizing yeasts, these stressors decreased the amount of carotenoids produced and did not affect the ratio between carotenoid pigments (beta-carotene, torulene, and torularhodin). PMID:10752082

Zalashko, M V; Salokhina, G A; Koroleva, I F

2000-01-01

193

[Growth of epiphytic and soil yeasts on wheat seedlings].  

PubMed

Colonization of wheat seedlings by epiphytic (Rhodotorula glutinis) and soil (Lipomyces starkeyi) yeasts was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Epiphytic yeast cells dominated on the plant surface. Soil yeast cells were randomly distributed among both the zones of a seedling and the particles of an inorganic substrate. It has been found that epiphytic yeast strains can readily grow on the surface of a plant. PMID:561879

Guzeva, I S; Guzev, V S; Bab'eva, I P; Zviagintsev, D G

1977-01-01

194

Global Gene Expression Analysis of Yeast Cells during Sake Brewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the process of brewing Japanese sake, rice starch is saccharified by enzymes produced by koji (Aspergillus oryzae), and the resultant glucose is fermented to ethanol by sake yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). This process allows a highly con- densed mash to be made without accumulation of high levels of sugars, which inhibit yeast cell growth and ethanol fermenta- tion. Thus, yeast

Hong Wu; Xiaohong Zheng; Yoshio Araki; Hiroshi Sahara; Hiroshi Takagi; Hitoshi Shimoi

2006-01-01

195

Growth and survival of a probiotic yeast in dairy products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor survival of probiotic bacteria in yogurt has been recorded. Growth of a probiotic yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, in association with the bio-yogurt microflora, by incorporating the yeast into commercial bio-yogurt, has been suggested to stimulate the growth of the probiotic organisms and to assure their survival during shelflife. Therefore, the ability of growth and survival of the probiotic yeast itself

A Lourens-Hattingh; B. C Viljoen

2001-01-01

196

Enhanced CO2 Production by Yeast Exposed to Elevated Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY After starvation, yeast exposed to elevated temperatures produced CO, twice as fast as unexposed organisms. The lag which preceded linear CO, pro- duction by starved yeast was essentially eliminated by heat treatment. Uptake and retention of sorbose was greater in heated yeast. Heating was accomplished by brief immersion of the organisms in heated solutions and by growth for 2

E. Spoerl

1970-01-01

197

Acetic acid production by Dekkera\\/Brettanomyces yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast belonging to the genera Brettanomyces and Dekkera are noted for spoiling cellar and bottled wine through the production of haze, turbidity and acetic acid. However, I was unable to find information on the use of these yeasts for the expressed purpose of acetic acid production. Sixty yeast strains belonging to these, and several other genera, from the ARS Culture

S. N. Freer

2002-01-01

198

GENE ENGINEERING OF YEASTS FOR THE DEGRADATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The research examined the structure and function of cytochrome P-450 genes in yeast as a model for gene engineering such as eukaryotic P-450 enzymes for biodegradation of hazardous waste by yeasts. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis are two yeasts known to produce ma...

199

21 CFR 172.381 - Vitamin D2 bakers yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...bakers yeast. (c) The additive may be used in yeast-leavened baked goods and baking mixes and yeast-leavened baked snack foods at levels not to exceed 400 International Units of vitamin D2 per 100 grams in the finished food. (d) To...

2013-04-01

200

Yeast identification in floral nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nectar is such a sugar-rich resource that serves as a natural habitat in which microbes thrive. As a result, yeasts arrive to nectar on the bodies of pollinators such as hummingbirds and bees. Yeasts use the sugar in nectar for their own needs when introduced. This research focuses on the identification of different types of yeast that are found in

C. Kyauk; M. Belisle; T. Fukami

2009-01-01

201

Production of lipid compounds in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes progress using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism for the fast and efficient analysis of genes and enzyme activities involved in the lipid biosynthetic pathways of several donor organisms. Furthermore, we assess the impact of baker's yeast on the production of novel, high-value lipid compounds. Yeast can be genetically modified to produce selected substances in

M. Veen; C. Lang

2004-01-01

202

5 Brewer's yeast: genetic structure and targets for improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The art of beer brewing is ancient, and Saccharomyces yeast probably played a pivotal role from the beginning. Production of beer from the barley grain consists of multiple Steps, of which only the last few involve the yeast. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the yeast is highly decisive for both Speed and outcome of the whole process, and to a large

Jørgen Hansen; Morten C. Kielland-Brandt

203

Industrial yeast strain engineered to ferment ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain capable of fermenting ethanol from pretreated lignocellulosic material was engineered. Genes encoding cellulases (endoglucanase, exoglucanase and ?-glucosidase) were integrated into the chromosomal ribosomal DNA and delta regions of a derivative of the K1-V1116 wine yeast strain. The engineered cellulolytic yeast produces ethanol in one step through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of

Nikolai Khramtsov; Luise McDade; Alexander Amerik; Esther Yu; Kunjan Divatia; Alexander Tikhonov; Michael Minto; Georges Kabongo-Mubalamate; Zdenek Markovic; Marie Ruiz-Martinez; Steven Henck

2011-01-01

204

Downstream process for the production of yeast extract using brewer's yeast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A downstream process was developed for the production of yeast extract from brewer's yeast cells. Various downstream processing\\u000a conditions including clarification, debittering, and the Maillard reaction were considered in the development of the process.\\u000a This simple and economic clarification process used flocculating agents, specifically calcium chloride (1%). After the clarification\\u000a step, a Maillard reaction is initiated as a flavor-enhancing step.

Man-Jin In; Dong Chung Kim; Hee Jeong Chae

2005-01-01

205

Mutator alleles of yeast DNA polymerase ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast REV3 gene encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase zeta (pol ?), a B family polymerase that performs mutagenic DNA synthesis in cells. To probe pol ? mutagenic functions, we generated six mutator alleles of REV3 with amino acid replacements for Leu979, a highly conserved residue inferred to be at the pol ? active site. Replacing Leu979 with

Ayako N. Sakamoto; Jana E. Stone; Grace E. Kissling; Scott D. McCulloch; Youri I. Pavlov; Thomas A. Kunkel

2007-01-01

206

Heavy metal transporters in Hemiascomycete yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compiled all known heavy metal transporters of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified their orthologs in four other species spanning the entire Hemiascomycete phylum. The 213 transporters belong to 27 distinct phylogenetic families distributed within the three classes: channels, secondary porters (permeases) and transport ATPases. They are present in all cellular membranes: plasma membranes, vacuoles, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum,

J. F. Diffels; M.-L. Seret; A. Goffeau; P. V. Baret

2006-01-01

207

Copper transport in non-growing yeast  

SciTech Connect

The mandatory role of copper (Cu) proteins in cell metabolism and the speculation that Cu influences the production of porphyrins and hemoproteins prompted an examination of the regulatory features of, and the process by which Cu is taken up by yeast. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae was grown on glucose minimal media in the absence of added Cu at 29/sup 0/C, 200 rpm for 48-72 hrs. Cells were harvested and washed by centrifugation and resuspended at standardized mg dry weight/ml. The yeast was exposed to Cu under a variety of experimental conditions in 10 ml volume containing approximately 5 mg (dry wt.) yeast and Cu (0-10/sup -4/M). Reactions were stopped by microcentrifugation and Cu was determined, by difference, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The time course of Cu uptake reflected two phases; a rapid rate followed by a slow rate which varied according to conditions. Direct determination of Cu using washing (chelators) and ashing of washed yeast showed that the initial phase was indeed adsorption of Cu to cell exterior. While the relationship of adsorbed Cu to Cu uptake has not been evaluated the system nevertheless is being used for the determination of the effects of environmental factors (pH, (Cu), temperature, etc.) on the uptake process. Furthermore, this system provides a convenient method for characterizing the Cu-transport machinery in a static (non-growth) mode.

Turos, S.; Donahue, T.; Trent, C.; Connelly, J.L.

1986-05-01

208

Continuous ethanol production by immobilized yeast reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast immobilized in calcium alginate gel beads was employed in packed-bed column reactors for continuous ethanol production from glucose or cane molasses, and for beer fermentation from barley malt wort. With properly balanced nutrient content or periodical regeneration of cells by nutrient addition and aeration, ethanol production could be maintained for several months. About 7 percent (w\\/v) ethanol

Yu-Yen Linko; P. Linko

1981-01-01

209

Conflict between Noise and Plasticity in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene expression responds to changes in conditions but also stochastically among individuals. In budding yeast, both expression responsiveness across conditions (“plasticity”) and cell-to-cell variation (“noise”) have been quantified for thousands of genes and found to correlate across genes. It has been argued therefore that noise and plasticity may be strongly coupled and mechanistically linked. This is consistent with some theoretical

Ben Lehner

2010-01-01

210

Potential therapeutic effect of yeast killer toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental infections were produced in guinea pigs, rabbits and dogs with lesions similar to those seen in human seborrheic dermatitis and otitis externa by cutaneous application of cultures of Malassezia furfur and M. pachydermatis. Infected animals were treated by topical application of a concentrated yeast killer toxin (Hansenula anomala UCSC 25F). Clinical recovery as well as negative mycological test cultures

Luciano Polonelli; Rodolfo Lorenzini; Flavia De Bernardis; Giulia Morace

1986-01-01

211

Modeling the synchronization of yeast respiratory oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits autonomous oscillations when grown aerobically in continuous culture with ethanol as the primary carbon source. A single cell model that includes the sulfate assimilation and ethanol degradation pathways recently has been developed to study these respiratory oscillations. We utilize an extended version of this single cell model to construct large cell ensembles for investigation

Michael A. Henson

2004-01-01

212

Structure-Function Analysis of Yeast Tubulin  

PubMed Central

Microtubules play essential roles in a wide variety of cellular processes including cell division, motility, and vesicular transport. Microtubule function depends on the polymerization dynamics of tubulin, and specific interactions between tubulin and diverse microtubule-associated proteins. To date, investigation of the structural and functional properties of tubulin and tubulin mutants has been limited by the inability to obtain functional protein from overexpression systems, and by the heterogeneous mixture of tubulin isotypes typically isolated from higher eukaryotes. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has emerged as a leading system for tubulin structure-function analysis. Yeast cells encode a single beta-tubulin gene and can be engineered to express just one, of two, alpha isotypes. Moreover, yeast allows site-directed modification of tubulin genes at the endogenous loci expressed under the native promoter and regulatory elements. These advantageous features provide a homogeneous and controlled environment for analysis of the functional consequences of specific mutations. Here we present techniques to generate site-specific tubulin mutations in diploid and haploid cells, assess the ability of the mutated protein to support cell viability, measure overall microtubule stability, and define changes in the specific parameters of microtubule dynamic instability. We also outline strategies to determine whether mutations disrupt interactions with microtubule-associated proteins. Microtubule-based functions in yeast are well defined, which allows the observed changes in microtubule properties to be related to the role of microtubules in specific cellular processes.

Luchniak, Anna; Fukuda, Yusuke; Gupta, Mohan L.

2014-01-01

213

Carbon source dependent promoters in yeasts.  

PubMed

Budding yeasts are important expression hosts for the production of recombinant proteins.The choice of the right promoter is a crucial point for efficient gene expression, as most regulations take place at the transcriptional level. A wide and constantly increasing range of inducible, derepressed and constitutive promoters have been applied for gene expression in yeasts in the past; their different behaviours were a reflection of the different needs of individual processes.Within this review we summarize the majority of the large available set of carbon source dependent promoters for protein expression in yeasts, either induced or derepressed by the particular carbon source provided. We examined the most common derepressed promoters for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts, and described carbon source inducible promoters and promoters induced by non-sugar carbon sources. A special focus is given to promoters that are activated as soon as glucose is depleted, since such promoters can be very effective and offer an uncomplicated and scalable cultivation procedure. PMID:24401081

Weinhandl, Katrin; Winkler, Margit; Glieder, Anton; Camattari, Andrea

2014-01-01

214

Understanding cytokinesis: lessons from fission yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades after the discovery that a contractile ring made of actin filaments and myosin II produces the force to constrict the cleavage furrow of animal cells, the complexity of cytokinesis has slowed progress in understanding the mechanism. Mechanistic insights, however, have been obtained by genetic, biochemical, microscopic and mathematical modelling approaches in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Many features

Jian-Qiu Wu; Thomas D. Pollard

2010-01-01

215

Microbodies in methanol-assimilating yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells of 3 yeast species capable of assimilating methanol have been examined by electron microscopy. When grown on methanol as the sole source of carbon and energy they contained many microbodies. Cells grown on glucose or ethanol either did not contain such bodies at all, or only to a limited extent.

J. P. van Dijken; M. Veenhuis; N. J. W. Kreger-Van Rij; W. Harder

1975-01-01

216

Newly identified prions in budding yeast, and their possible functions.  

PubMed

Yeast prions are atypical genetic elements that are transmitted as heritable protein conformations. [PSI+], [URE3], and [PIN+] are three well-studied prions in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the last three years, several additional prions have been reported in yeast, including [SWI+], [OCT+], [MCA], [GAR+], [MOT3+], [ISP+], and [NSI+]. The growing number of yeast prions suggests that protein-based inheritance might be a widespread biological phenomenon. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of each prion element, and discuss their potential functional roles in yeast biology. PMID:21397710

Crow, Emily T; Li, Liming

2011-07-01

217

Evolutionary constraints on yeast protein size  

PubMed Central

Background Despite a strong evolutionary pressure to reduce genome size, proteins vary in length over a surprisingly wide range also in very compact genomes. Here we investigated the evolutionary forces that act on protein size in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing a system-wide bioinformatics approach. Data on yeast protein size was compared to global experimental data on protein expression, phenotypic pleiotropy, protein-protein interactions, protein evolutionary rate and biochemical classification. Results Comparing the experimentally determined abundance of individual proteins, highly expressed proteins were found to be consistently smaller than lowly expressed proteins, in accordance with the biosynthetic cost minimization hypothesis. Yeast proteins able to maintain a high expression level despite a large size tended to belong to a very distinct set of protein families, notably nuclear transport and translation initiation/elongation. Large proteins have significantly more protein-protein interactions than small proteins, suggesting that a requirement for multiple interaction domains may constitute a positive selective pressure for large protein size in yeast. The higher frequency of protein-protein interactions in large proteins was not accompanied by a higher phenotypic pleiotropy. Hence, the increase in interactions may not reflect an increase in function differentiation. Proteins of different sizes also evolved at similar rates. Finally, whereas the biological process involved was found to have little influence on protein size the biochemical activity exerted by the protein represented a dominant factor. More than one third of all biochemical activity classes were enriched in one or more size intervals. Conclusion In yeast, there is an inverse relationship between protein size and protein expression such that highly expressed proteins tend to be of smaller size. Also, protein size is moderately affected by protein connectivity and strongly affected by biochemical activity. Phenotypic pleiotropy does not seem to affect protein size.

Warringer, Jonas; Blomberg, Anders

2006-01-01

218

International Specialised Symposium on Yeasts: ISSY25. Systems Biology of Yeasts from Models to Applications. Held in Hanasaari, Espoo, Finland on June 18-21, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 25th International Specialized Symposium on Yeasts, ISSY25, dedicated to 'Yeast systems biology - from models to applications' is a symposium in a series organized by the members of the International Commission on Yeasts (ICY), an IUMS organization. T...

A. Kuokka M. Penttila

2006-01-01

219

Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts-the basidiomycetes.  

PubMed

Yeasts are the major producer of biotechnology products worldwide, exceeding production in capacity and economic revenues of other groups of industrial microorganisms. Yeasts have wide-ranging fundamental and industrial importance in scientific, food, medical, and agricultural disciplines (Fig. 1). Saccharomyces is the most important genus of yeast from fundamental and applied perspectives and has been expansively studied. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts (non-conventional yeasts) including members of the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes also have substantial current utility and potential applicability in biotechnology. In an earlier mini-review, "Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts-the ascomycetes" (Johnson Appl Microb Biotechnol 97: 503-517, 2013), the extensive biotechnological utility and potential of ascomycetous yeasts are described. Ascomycetous yeasts are particularly important in food and ethanol formation, production of single-cell protein, feeds and fodder, heterologous production of proteins and enzymes, and as model and fundamental organisms for the delineation of genes and their function in mammalian and human metabolism and disease processes. In contrast, the roles of basidiomycetous yeasts in biotechnology have mainly been evaluated only in the past few decades and compared to the ascomycetous yeasts and currently have limited industrial utility. From a biotechnology perspective, the basidiomycetous yeasts are known mainly for the production of enzymes used in pharmaceutical and chemical synthesis, for production of certain classes of primary and secondary metabolites such as terpenoids and carotenoids, for aerobic catabolism of complex carbon sources, and for bioremediation of environmental pollutants and xenotoxicants. Notwithstanding, the basidiomycetous yeasts appear to have considerable potential in biotechnology owing to their catabolic utilities, formation of enzymes acting on recalcitrant substrates, and through the production of unique primary and secondary metabolites. This and the earlier mini-review (Johnson Appl Microb Biotechnol 97:503-517, 2013) were motivated during the preparation and publication of the landmark three-volume set of "The yeasts: a taxonomic study, 5th edition" (Kurtzman et al. 2011a, b). PMID:23893324

Johnson, Eric A

2013-09-01

220

Uncommon opportunistic yeast bloodstream infections from Qatar.  

PubMed

Eleven uncommon yeast species that are associated with high mortality rates irrespective of antifungal therapy were isolated from 17/187 (201 episodes) pediatric and elderly patients with fungemia from Qatar. The samples were taken over a 6-year period (January 2004-December 2010). Isolated species included Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Lindnera fabianii, Candida dubliniensis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Candida intermedia, Pichia kudriavzevii, Yarrowia lipolytica, Clavispora lusitaniae, Candida pararugosa, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry provided correct identifications compared with molecular analysis testing of the same isolates. Low minimal inhibitory concentrations were found when isavuconazole and voriconazole were used for all uncommon yeast species evaluated in this study. Resistance to antifungal drugs was low and remained restricted to a few species. PMID:24934803

Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; AbdulWahab, Atqah; Kolecka, Anna; Deshmukh, Anand; Meis, Jacques F; Boekhout, Teun

2014-07-01

221

A bipolar personality of yeast prion proteins  

PubMed Central

Prions are infectious, self-propagating protein conformations. [PSI+], [RNQ+] and [URE3] are well characterized prions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and represent the aggregated states of the translation termination factor Sup35, a functionally unknown protein Rnq1 and a regulator of nitrogen metabolism Ure2, respectively. Overproduction of Sup35 induces the de novo appearance of the [PSI+] prion in [RNQ+] or [URE3] strain, but not in non-prion strain. However, [RNQ+] and [URE3] prions themselves, as well as overexpression of a mutant Rnq1 protein, Rnq1?100 and Lsm4, hamper the maintenance of [PSI+]. These findings point to a bipolar activity of [RNQ+], [URE3], Rnq1?100 and Lsm4, and probably other yeast prion proteins as well, for the fate of [PSI+] prion. Possible mechanisms underlying the apparent bipolar activity of yeast prions will be discussed.

Kurahashi, Hiroshi; Oishi, Keita

2011-01-01

222

Aquaporins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast.  

PubMed

AQY1 and AQY2 were sequenced from five commercial and five native wine yeasts. Of these, two AQY1 alleles from UCD 522 and UCD 932 were identified that encoded three or four amino-acid changes, respectively, compared with the Sigma1278b sequence. Oocytes expressing these AQY1 alleles individually exhibited increased water permeability vs. water-injected oocytes, whereas oocytes expressing the AQY2 allele from UCD 932 did not show an increase, as expected, owing to an 11 bp deletion. Wine strains lacking Aqy1p did not show a decrease in spore fitness or enological aptitude under stressful conditions, limited nitrogen, or increased temperature. The exact role of aquaporins in wine yeasts remains unclear. PMID:16553841

Karpel, Jonathan E; Bisson, Linda F

2006-04-01

223

Nucleotide degradation and ribose salvage in yeast  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide degradation is a universal metabolic capability. Here we combine metabolomics, genetics and biochemistry to characterize the yeast pathway. Nutrient starvation, via PKA, AMPK/SNF1, and TOR, triggers autophagic breakdown of ribosomes into nucleotides. A protein not previously associated with nucleotide degradation, Phm8, converts nucleotide monophosphates into nucleosides. Downstream steps, which involve the purine nucleoside phosphorylase, Pnp1, and pyrimidine nucleoside hydrolase, Urh1, funnel ribose into the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway. During carbon starvation, the ribose-derived carbon accumulates as sedoheptulose-7-phosphate, whose consumption by transaldolase is impaired due to depletion of transaldolase's other substrate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Oxidative stress increases glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, resulting in rapid consumption of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate to make NADPH for antioxidant defense. Ablation of Phm8 or double deletion of Pnp1 and Urh1 prevent effective nucleotide salvage, resulting in metabolite depletion and impaired survival of starving yeast. Thus, ribose salvage provides means of surviving nutrient starvation and oxidative stress.

Xu, Yi-Fan; Letisse, Fabien; Absalan, Farnaz; Lu, Wenyun; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Brown, Greg; Caudy, Amy A; Yakunin, Alexander F; Broach, James R; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

2013-01-01

224

Microcompartments within the yeast plasma membrane.  

PubMed

Recent research in cell biology makes it increasingly clear that the classical concept of compartmentation of eukaryotic cells into different organelles performing distinct functions has to be extended by microcompartmentation, i.e., the dynamic interaction of proteins, sugars, and lipids at a suborganellar level, which contributes significantly to a proper physiology. As different membrane compartments (MCs) have been described in the yeast plasma membrane, such as those defined by Can1 and Pma1 (MCCs and MCPs), Saccharomyces cerevisiae can serve as a model organism, which is amenable to genetic, biochemical, and microscopic studies. In this review, we compare the specialized microcompartment of the yeast bud neck with other plasma membrane substructures, focusing on eisosomes, cell wall integrity-sensing units, and chitin-synthesizing complexes. Together, they ensure a proper cell division at the end of mitosis, an intricately regulated process, which is essential for the survival and proliferation not only of fungal, but of all eukaryotic cells. PMID:23096568

Merzendorfer, Hans; Heinisch, Jürgen J

2013-02-01

225

Cloning whole bacterial genomes in yeast  

PubMed Central

Most microbes have not been cultured, and many of those that are cultivatable are difficult, dangerous or expensive to propagate or are genetically intractable. Routine cloning of large genome fractions or whole genomes from these organisms would significantly enhance their discovery and genetic and functional characterization. Here we report the cloning of whole bacterial genomes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as single-DNA molecules. We cloned the genomes of Mycoplasma genitalium (0.6 Mb), M. pneumoniae (0.8 Mb) and M. mycoides subspecies capri (1.1 Mb) as yeast circular centromeric plasmids. These genomes appear to be stably maintained in a host that has efficient, well-established methods for DNA manipulation.

Benders, Gwynedd A.; Noskov, Vladimir N.; Denisova, Evgeniya A.; Lartigue, Carole; Gibson, Daniel G.; Assad-Garcia, Nacyra; Chuang, Ray-Yuan; Carrera, William; Moodie, Monzia; Algire, Mikkel A.; Phan, Quang; Alperovich, Nina; Vashee, Sanjay; Merryman, Chuck; Venter, J. Craig; Smith, Hamilton O.; Glass, John I.; Hutchison, Clyde A.

2010-01-01

226

Mapping the functional yeast ABC transporter interactome  

PubMed Central

ABC transporters are a ubiquitous class of integral membrane proteins of immense clinical interest because of their strong association with human disease and pharmacology. To improve our understanding of these proteins, we used Membrane Yeast Two-Hybrid (MYTH) technology to map the protein interactome of all non-mitochondrial ABC transporters in the model organism Saccharomy cescerevisiae, and combined this data with previously reported yeast ABC transporter interactions in the BioGRID database to generate a comprehensive, integrated interactome. We show that ABC transporters physically associate with proteins involved in a surprisingly diverse range of functions. We specifically examine the importance of the physical interactions of ABC transporters in both the regulation of one another and in the modulation of proteins involved in zinc homeostasis. The interaction network presented here will be a powerful resource for increasing our fundamental understanding of the cellular role and regulation of ABC transporters.

Snider, Jamie; Hanif, Asad; Lee, Mid Eum; Jin, Ke; Yu, Analyn R.; Graham, Chris; Chuk, Matthew; Damjanovic, Dunja; Wierzbicka, Marta; Tang, Priscilla; Balderes, Dina; Wong, Victoria; Jessulat, Matthew; Darowski, Katelyn D.; Luis, Bryan-Joseph San; Shevelev, Igor; Sturley, Stephen L; Boone, Charles; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Zhang, Zhaolei; Paumi, Christian M.; Babu, Mohan; Park, Hay-Oak; Michaelis, Susan; Stagljar, Igor

2013-01-01

227

De Novo Biosynthesis of Vanillin in Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ?  

PubMed Central

Vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor compounds, with a global market of 180 million dollars. Natural vanillin is derived from the cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid (Vanilla planifolia), but most of the world's vanillin is synthesized from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. We have established a true de novo biosynthetic pathway for vanillin production from glucose in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also known as fission yeast or African beer yeast, as well as in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Productivities were 65 and 45 mg/liter, after introduction of three and four heterologous genes, respectively. The engineered pathways involve incorporation of 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase from the dung mold Podospora pauciseta, an aromatic carboxylic acid reductase (ACAR) from a bacterium of the Nocardia genus, and an O-methyltransferase from Homo sapiens. In S. cerevisiae, the ACAR enzyme required activation by phosphopantetheinylation, and this was achieved by coexpression of a Corynebacterium glutamicum phosphopantetheinyl transferase. Prevention of reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol was achieved by knockout of the host alcohol dehydrogenase ADH6. In S. pombe, the biosynthesis was further improved by introduction of an Arabidopsis thaliana family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferase, converting vanillin into vanillin ?-d-glucoside, which is not toxic to the yeast cells and thus may be accumulated in larger amounts. These de novo pathways represent the first examples of one-cell microbial generation of these valuable compounds from glucose. S. pombe yeast has not previously been metabolically engineered to produce any valuable, industrially scalable, white biotech commodity.

Hansen, Esben H.; M?ller, Birger Lindberg; Kock, Gertrud R.; Bunner, Camilla M.; Kristensen, Charlotte; Jensen, Ole R.; Okkels, Finn T.; Olsen, Carl E.; Motawia, Mohammed S.; Hansen, J?rgen

2009-01-01

228

Occurrence of killer yeast strains in industrial and clinical yeast isolates.  

PubMed

The secretion of proteinaceous toxins is a widespread characteristic in environmental and laboratory yeast isolates, a phenomenon called "killer system". The killer phenotype (K+) can be encoded by extrachromosomal genetic elements (EGEs) as double stranded DNA or RNA molecules (dsDNA, dsRNA) or in nuclear genes. The spectrum of action and the activity of killer toxins are influenced by temperature, salinity and pH of media. In the present work we determined the existence of K+ in a collection of S. cerevisiae and P. anomala yeasts isolated from environmental, industrial and clinical sources. The assays were performed in strains belonging to three yeast genera used as sensitive cells and under a wide range of pH and temperatures. Approximately 51 % of isolates tested showed toxicity against at least one sensitive yeast strain under the conditions tested. The K+ P. anomala isolates showed a wide spectrum of action and two of them had toxic activity against strains of the three yeast genera assayed, including C. albicans strains. In all S. cerevisiae K+ isolates an extrachromosomal dsRNA molecule (4.2 Kb) was observed, contrary to P. anomala K+ isolates, which do not possess any EGEs. The K+ phenotype is produced by an exported protein factor and the kinetics of killer activity production was similar in all isolates with high activity in the log phase of growth, decaying in the stationary phase. PMID:18949135

Baeza, Marcelo E; Sanhueza, Mario A; Cifuentes, Víctor H

2008-01-01

229

Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fission yeast clade---comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus---occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative annotation of these genomes identified a near extinction of transposons and the associated innovation of transposon-free centromeres. Expression analysis established that meiotic genes are subject to antisense transcription during vegetative growth,

Nicholas Rhind; Zehua Chen; Moran Yassour; Dawn A. Thompson; Brian J. Haas; Naomi Habib; Ilan Wapinski; Sushmita Roy; Michael F. Lin; David I. Heiman; Sarah K. Young; Kanji Furuya; Yabin Guo; Alison Pidoux; Huei Mei Chen; Barbara Robbertse; Jonathan M. Goldberg; Keita Aoki; Elizabeth H. Bayne; Aaron M. Berlin; Christopher A. Desjardins; Edward Dobbs; Livio Dukaj; Lin Fan; Michael G. FitzGerald; Courtney French; Sharvari Gujja; Klavs Hansen; Dan Keifenheim; Joshua Z. Levin; Rebecca A. Mosher; Carolin A. Müller; Jenna Pfiffner; Margaret Priest; Carsten Russ; Agata Smialowska; Peter Swoboda; Sean M. Sykes; Matthew Vaughn; Sonya Vengrova; Ryan Yoder; Qiandong Zeng; Robin Allshire; David Baulcombe; Bruce W. Birren; William Brown; Karl Ekwall; Manolis Kellis; Janet Leatherwood; Henry Levin; Hanah Margalit; Rob Martienssen; Conrad A. Nieduszynski; Joseph W. Spatafora; Nir Friedman; Jacob Z. Dalgaard; Peter Baumann; Hironori Niki; Aviv Regev; Chad Nusbaum

2011-01-01

230

Production of pectic enzymes in yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

When grown in the appropriate medium, several yeast species produce pectinases able to degrade pectic substances. It is mainly exocellular endopolygalacturonases that break pectins or pectate down by hydrolysis of ?-1,4-glycosidic linkages in a random way. Biochemical characterisation of these enzymes has shown that they have an optimal pH in the acidic region and an optimal temperature between 40 and

Pilar Blanco; Carmen Sieiro; Tomás G Villa

1999-01-01

231

The flavoproteome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Genome analysis of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified 68 genes encoding flavin-dependent proteins (1.1% of protein encoding genes) to which 47 distinct biochemical functions were assigned. The majority of flavoproteins operate in mitochondria where they participate in redox processes revolving around the transfer of electrons to the electron transport chain. In addition, we found that flavoenzymes play a central role in various aspects of iron metabolism, such as iron uptake, the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters and insertion of the heme cofactor into apocytochromes. Another important group of flavoenzymes is directly (Dus1-4p and Mto1p) or indirectly (Tyw1p) involved in reactions leading to tRNA-modifications. Despite the wealth of genetic information available for S. cerevisiae, we were surprised that many flavoproteins are poorly characterized biochemically. For example, the role of the yeast flavodoxins Pst2p, Rfs1p and Ycp4p with regard to their electron donor and acceptor is presently unknown. Similarly, the function of the heterodimeric Aim45p/Cir1p, which is homologous to the electron-transferring flavoproteins of higher eukaryotes, in electron transfer processes occurring in the mitochondrial matrix remains to be elucidated. This lack of information extends to the five membrane proteins involved in riboflavin or FAD transport as well as FMN and FAD homeostasis within the yeast cell. Nevertheless, several yeast flavoproteins, were identified as convenient model systems both in terms of their mechanism of action as well as structurally to improve our understanding of diseases caused by dysfunctional human flavoprotein orthologs. PMID:24373875

Gudipati, Venugopal; Koch, Karin; Lienhart, Wolf-Dieter; Macheroux, Peter

2014-03-01

232

Natural genetic variation in yeast longevity  

PubMed Central

The genetics of aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has involved the manipulation of individual genes in laboratory strains. We have instituted a quantitative genetic analysis of the yeast replicative lifespan by sampling the natural genetic variation in a wild yeast isolate. Haploid segregants from a cross between a common laboratory strain (S288c) and a clinically derived strain (YJM145) were subjected to quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, using 3048 molecular markers across the genome. Five significant, replicative lifespan QTL were identified. Among them, QTL 1 on chromosome IV has the largest effect and contains SIR2, whose product differs by five amino acids in the parental strains. Reciprocal gene swap experiments showed that this gene is responsible for the majority of the effect of this QTL on lifespan. The QTL with the second-largest effect on longevity was QTL 5 on chromosome XII, and the bulk of the underlying genomic sequence contains multiple copies (100–150) of the rDNA. Substitution of the rDNA clusters of the parental strains indicated that they play a predominant role in the effect of this QTL on longevity. This effect does not appear to simply be a function of extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA circle production. The results support an interaction between SIR2 and the rDNA locus, which does not completely explain the effect of these loci on longevity. This study provides a glimpse of the complex genetic architecture of replicative lifespan in yeast and of the potential role of genetic variation hitherto unsampled in the laboratory.

Stumpferl, Stefan W.; Brand, Sue E.; Jiang, James C.; Korona, Boguslawa; Tiwari, Anurag; Dai, Jianliang; Seo, Jae-Gu; Jazwinski, S. Michal

2012-01-01

233

An obligate osmophilic yeast from honey.  

PubMed

An obligate osmophilic yeast that requires high sugar concentrations (10 to 20% glucose) for growth was identified as Saccharomyces bisporus var. mellis. Optimum growth for this strain was at 60% glucose. Several non-assimilable compounds permitted growth at glucose concentrations below the minimum requirement and stimulated growth at glucose concentrations above the minimum. No correlation existed between growth stimulation and spheroplast stabilization capacities of the compounds examined. PMID:984813

Munitis, M T; Cabrera, E; Rodriguez-Navarro, A

1976-09-01

234

Fermentation of Cellodextrins by Different Yeast Strains  

PubMed Central

The fermentation of cellodextrins by eight yeast species capable of fermenting cellobiose was monitored. Only two of these species, Torulopsis molischiana and T. wickerhamii, were able to ferment ?-glucosides with a degree of polymerization between one and six. These two species showed exocellular ?-glucosidase activity. Four other species were able to ferment cellotriose, and the last two species only fermented cellobiose. These latter six species produced a ?-glucosidase capable of attacking cellodextrins, but this enzyme was endocellular.

Gonde, Pierre; Blondin, Bruno; Leclerc, Marc; Ratomahenina, Robert; Arnaud, Alain; Galzy, Pierre

1984-01-01

235

Design of a growth model for yeast.  

PubMed

The study of the cell cycle of a yeast strain made it possible to define two parameters: T, the time elapsing between the appearance of two consecutive buds on a mother cell, and theta, the time elapsing between the appearance of a bud and the beginning of the first mitotic cycle. The influence of these two parameters on the growth rate of the strain is studied. PMID:7000642

L'Homme, C; Bizeau, C; Arthaud, J F; Galzy, P

1980-01-01

236

Mechanisms of Chromosome Number Evolution in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The whole-genome duplication (WGD) that occurred during yeast evolution changed the basal number of chromosomes from 8 to 16. However, the number of chromosomes in post-WGD species now ranges between 10 and 16, and the number in non-WGD species (Zygosaccharomyces, Kluyveromyces, Lachancea, and Ashbya) ranges between 6 and 8. To study the mechanism by which chromosome number changes, we traced

Jonathan L. Gordon; Kevin P. Byrne; Kenneth H. Wolfe

2011-01-01

237

The flavoproteome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

PubMed Central

Genome analysis of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified 68 genes encoding flavin-dependent proteins (1.1% of protein encoding genes) to which 47 distinct biochemical functions were assigned. The majority of flavoproteins operate in mitochondria where they participate in redox processes revolving around the transfer of electrons to the electron transport chain. In addition, we found that flavoenzymes play a central role in various aspects of iron metabolism, such as iron uptake, the biogenesis of iron–sulfur clusters and insertion of the heme cofactor into apocytochromes. Another important group of flavoenzymes is directly (Dus1-4p and Mto1p) or indirectly (Tyw1p) involved in reactions leading to tRNA-modifications. Despite the wealth of genetic information available for S. cerevisiae, we were surprised that many flavoproteins are poorly characterized biochemically. For example, the role of the yeast flavodoxins Pst2p, Rfs1p and Ycp4p with regard to their electron donor and acceptor is presently unknown. Similarly, the function of the heterodimeric Aim45p/Cir1p, which is homologous to the electron-transferring flavoproteins of higher eukaryotes, in electron transfer processes occurring in the mitochondrial matrix remains to be elucidated. This lack of information extends to the five membrane proteins involved in riboflavin or FAD transport as well as FMN and FAD homeostasis within the yeast cell. Nevertheless, several yeast flavoproteins, were identified as convenient model systems both in terms of their mechanism of action as well as structurally to improve our understanding of diseases caused by dysfunctional human flavoprotein orthologs.

Gudipati, Venugopal; Koch, Karin; Lienhart, Wolf-Dieter; Macheroux, Peter

2014-01-01

238

Cycloheximide resistance as a yeast cloning marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

In CYH2\\/cyh2 heterozygous diploids of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae resistance is dominant over sensitivity at low (0.5–5 µg\\/ml) cycloheximide (cyh) concentrations. The cyh-resistant haploid strain MMY1 confers relatively high (10 µg\\/ml) cyh-resistance to heterozygous diploids constructed by mating this strain with cyh-sensitive haploid strains. We present here a genetic and biochemical study of strain MMY1. Analysis of tetrads obtained from

Lourdes del Pozo; Dolores Abarca; Manuel G. Claros; Antonio Jiménez

1991-01-01

239

DNA damage checkpoint in budding yeast.  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic cells have evolved a network of control mechanisms, known as checkpoints, which coordinate cell-cycle progression in response to internal and external cues. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been invaluable in dissecting genetically the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. Recent results on posttranslational modifications and protein-protein interactions of some key factors provide new insights into the architecture of checkpoint protein complexes and their order of function.

Longhese, M P; Foiani, M; Muzi-Falconi, M; Lucchini, G; Plevani, P

1998-01-01

240

Physiological effects of yeast hydrolysate SCP20  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the yeast hydrolysate SCP-20 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ingested to the rat to identify the effect on anti-stress, SCP-20 have an potent effect on the weight of adrenal, spleen, kidney and thyroid, and the glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GOT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminse (GPT) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity recovered as much as the non-stress level. In addition, the swimming time was

K. W Yu; J. M Kim; S. H Oh; U. J Chang; H. J Suh

2002-01-01

241

Strategies for identifying new prions in yeast  

PubMed Central

The unexpected discovery of two prions, [URE3] and [PSI+], in Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to questions about how many other proteins could undergo similar prion-based structural conversions. However, [URE3] and [PSI+] were discovered by serendipity in genetic screens. Cataloging the full range of prions in yeast or in other organisms will therefore require more systematic search methods. Taking advantage of some of the unique features of prions, various researchers have developed bioinformatic and experimental methods for identifying novel prion proteins. These methods have generated long lists of prion candidates. The systematic testing of some of these prion candidates has led to notable successes; however, even in yeast, where rapid growth rate and ease of genetic manipulation aid in testing for prion activity, such candidate testing is laborious. Development of better methods to winnow the field of prion candidates will greatly aid in the discovery of new prions, both in yeast and in other organisms, and help us to better understand the role of prions in biology.

MacLea, Kyle S

2011-01-01

242

Pleiotropy and GAL pathway degeneration in yeast.  

PubMed

Traits that do not contribute to fitness are expected to be lost during the course of evolution, either as a result of selection or drift. The Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism (GAL) is an extensively studied metabolic pathway that degenerated on at least three independent occasions during the evolutionary diversification of yeasts, suggesting that the pathway is costly to maintain in environments that lack galactose. Here I test this hypothesis by competing GAL pathway deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae against an isogenic strain with an intact GAL pathway under conditions where expression of the pathway is normally induced, repressed, or uninduced. These experiments do not support the hypothesis that pleiotropy drives GAL pathway degeneration, because mutations that knock out individual GAL genes do not tend to increase fitness in the absence of galactose. At a molecular level, this result can be explained by the fact that yeast uses inexpensive regulatory proteins to tightly regulate the expression of structural genes that are costly to express. I argue that these results have general relevance for our understanding of the fitness consequences of gene disruption in yeast. PMID:17584228

MacLean, R C

2007-07-01

243

[Mitochondria inheritance in yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae].  

PubMed

The review is devoted to the main mechanisms of mitochondria inheritance in yeast Saccharonmyces cerevisiae. The genetic mechanisms of functionally active mitochondria inheritance in eukaryotic cells is one of the most relevant in modem researches. A great number of genetic diseases are associated with mitochondria dysfunction. Plasticity of eukaryotic cell metabolism according to the environmental changes is ensured by adequate mitochondria functioning by means of ATP synthesis coordination, reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis regulation and is an important factor of cell adaptation to stress. Mitochondria participation in important for cell vitality processes masters the presence of accurate mechanisms of mitochondria functions regulation according to environment fluctuations. The mechanisms of mitochondria division and distribution are highly conserved. Baker yeast S. cerevisiae is an ideal model object for mitochondria researches due to energetic metabolism lability, ability to switch over respiration to fermentation, and petite-positive phenotype. Correction of metabolism according to the environmental changes is necessary for cell vitality. The influence of respiratory, carbon, amino acid and phosphate metabolism on mitochondria functions was shown. As far as the mechanisms that stabilize functions of mitochondria and mtDNA are highly conserve, we can project yeast regularities on higher eukaryotes systems. This makes it possible to approximate understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of a great number of human diseases. PMID:21786681

Fizikova, A Iu

2011-01-01

244

How to build a yeast nucleus.  

PubMed

Biological functions including gene expression and DNA repair are affected by the 3D architecture of the genome, but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Notably, it remains unclear to what extent nuclear architecture is driven by generic physical properties of polymers or by specific factors such as proteins binding particular DNA sequences. The budding yeast nucleus has been intensely studied by imaging and biochemical techniques, resulting in a large quantitative data set on locus positions and DNA contact frequencies. We recently described a quantitative model of the interphase yeast nucleus in which chromosomes are represented as passively moving polymer chains. This model ignores the DNA sequence information except for specific constraints at the centromeres, telomeres, and the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Despite its simplicity, the model accounts for a large majority of experimental data, including absolute and relative locus positions and contact frequency patterns at chromosomal and subchromosomal scales. Here, we also illustrate the model's ability to reproduce observed features of chromatin movements. Our results strongly suggest that the dynamic large-scale architecture of the yeast nucleus is dominated by statistical properties of randomly moving polymers with a few sequence-specific constraints, rather than by a large number of DNA-specific factors or epigenetic modifications. In addition, we show that our model accounts for recently measured variations in homologous recombination efficiency, illustrating its potential for quantitatively understanding functional consequences of nuclear architecture. PMID:23974728

Wong, Hua; Arbona, Jean-Michel; Zimmer, Christophe

2013-01-01

245

Metabolic Engineering of Sesquiterpene Metabolism in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Terpenes are structurally diverse compounds that are of interest because of their biological activities and industrial value. These compounds consist of chirally rich hydrocarbon backbones derived from terpene synthases, which are subsequently decorated with hydroxyl substituents catalyzed by terpene hydroxylases. Availability of these compounds is, however, limited by intractable synthetic means and because they are produced in low amounts and as complex mixtures by natural sources. We engineered yeast for sesquiterpene accumulation by introducing genetic modifications that enable the yeast to accumulate high levels of the key intermediate farnesyl diphosphate (FPP). Co-expression of terpene synthase genes diverted the enlarged FPP pool to greater than 80 mg/L of sesquiterpene. Efficient coupling of terpene production with hydroxylation was also demonstrated by coordinate expression of terpene hydroxylase activity, yielding 50 mg/L each of hydrocarbon and hydroxylated products. These yeast now provide a convenient format for investigating catalytic coupling between terpene synthases and hydroxylases, as well as a platform for the industrial production of high value, single-entity and stereochemically unique terpenes.

Takahashi, Shunji; Yeo, Yunsoo; Greenhagen, Bryan T.; McMullin, Tom; Song, Linsheng; Maurina-Brunker, Julie; Rosson, Reinhardt; Noel, Joseph P.; Chappell, Joe

2010-01-01

246

ABC proteins in yeast and fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

All fungal genomes harbour numerous ABC (ATP-binding cassette) proteins located in various cellular compartments such as the plasma membrane, vacuoles, peroxisomes and mitochondria. Most of them have initially been discovered through their ability to confer resistance to a multitude of drugs, a phenomenon called PDR (pleiotropic drug resistance) or MDR (multidrug resistance). Studying the mechanisms underlying PDR/MDR in yeast is of importance in two ways: first, ABC proteins can confer drug resistance on pathogenic fungi such as Candida spp., Aspergillus spp. or Cryptococcus neoformans; secondly, the well-established genetic, biochemical and cell biological tractability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae makes it an ideal tool to study basic mechanisms of drug transport by ABC proteins. In the past, knowledge from yeast has complemented work on human ABC transporters involved in anticancer drug resistance or genetic diseases. Interestingly, increasing evidence available from yeast and other organisms suggests that ABC proteins play a physiological role in membrane homoeostasis and lipid distribution, although this is being intensely debated in the literature. PMID:21967054

Klein, Cornelia; Kuchler, Karl; Valachovic, Martin

2011-09-01

247

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.  

PubMed

Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

2013-10-28

248

How to build a yeast nucleus  

PubMed Central

Biological functions including gene expression and DNA repair are affected by the 3D architecture of the genome, but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Notably, it remains unclear to what extent nuclear architecture is driven by generic physical properties of polymers or by specific factors such as proteins binding particular DNA sequences. The budding yeast nucleus has been intensely studied by imaging and biochemical techniques, resulting in a large quantitative data set on locus positions and DNA contact frequencies. We recently described a quantitative model of the interphase yeast nucleus in which chromosomes are represented as passively moving polymer chains. This model ignores the DNA sequence information except for specific constraints at the centromeres, telomeres, and the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Despite its simplicity, the model accounts for a large majority of experimental data, including absolute and relative locus positions and contact frequency patterns at chromosomal and subchromosomal scales. Here, we also illustrate the model's ability to reproduce observed features of chromatin movements. Our results strongly suggest that the dynamic large-scale architecture of the yeast nucleus is dominated by statistical properties of randomly moving polymers with a few sequence-specific constraints, rather than by a large number of DNA-specific factors or epigenetic modifications. In addition, we show that our model accounts for recently measured variations in homologous recombination efficiency, illustrating its potential for quantitatively understanding functional consequences of nuclear architecture.

Wong, Hua; Arbona, Jean-Michel; Zimmer, Christophe

2013-01-01

249

Mitochondrial NAD Dependent Aldehyde Dehydrogenase either from Yeast or Human Replaces Yeast Cytoplasmic NADP Dependent Aldehyde Dehydrogenase for the Aerobic Growth of Yeast on Ethanol  

PubMed Central

Background In a previous study, we deleted three aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes, involved in ethanol metabolism, from yeast S. cerevisiae and found that the triple deleted yeast strain did not grow on ethanol as sole carbon source. The ALDHs were NADP dependent cytosolic ALDH1, NAD dependent mitochondrial ALDH2 and NAD/NADP dependent mitochondrial ALDH5. Double deleted strain ?ALDH2+?ALDH5 or ?ALDH1+?ALDH5 could grow on ethanol. However, the double deleted strain ?ALDH1+?ALDH2 did not grow in ethanol. Methods Triple deleted yeast strain was used. Mitochondrial NAD dependent ALDH from yeast or human was placed in yeast cytosol. Results In the present study we found that a mutant form of cytoplasmic ALDH1 with very low activity barely supported the growth of the triple deleted strain (?ALDH1+?ALDH2+?ALDH5) on ethanol. Finding the importance of NADP dependent ALDH1 on the growth of the strain on ethanol we examined if NAD dependent mitochondrial ALDH2 either from yeast or human would be able to support the growth of the triple deleted strain on ethanol if the mitochondrial form was placed in cytosol. We found that the NAD dependent mitochondrial ALDH2 from yeast or human was active in cytosol and supported the growth of the triple deleted strain on ethanol. Conclusion This study showed that coenzyme preference of ALDH is not critical in cytosol of yeast for the growth on ethanol.

Mukhopadhyay, Abhijit; Wei, Baoxian; Weiner, Henry

2013-01-01

250

Yeast Genomics for Bread, Beer, Biology, Bucks and Breath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid advances and scale up of projects in DNA sequencing dur ing the past two decades have produced complete genome sequences of several eukaryotic species. The versatile genetic malleability of the yeast, and the high degree of conservation between its cellular processes and those of human cells have made it a model of choice for pioneering research in molecular and cell biology. The complete sequence of yeast genome has proven to be extremely useful as a reference towards the sequences of human and for providing systems to explore key gene functions. Yeast has been a ‘legendary model’ for new technologies and gaining new biological insights into basic biological sciences and biotechnology. This chapter describes the awesome power of yeast genetics, genomics and proteomics in understanding of biological function. The applications of yeast as a screening tool to the field of drug discovery and development are highlighted and the traditional importance of yeast for bakers and brewers is discussed.

Sakharkar, Kishore R.; Sakharkar, Meena K.

251

A new methodology to obtain wine yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins.  

PubMed

Yeast mannoproteins are highly glycosylated proteins that are covalently bound to the beta-1,3-glucan present in the yeast cell wall. Among their outstanding enological properties, yeast mannoproteins contribute to several aspects of wine quality by protecting against protein haze, reducing astringency, retaining aroma compounds and stimulating growth of lactic-acid bacteria. The development of a non-recombinant method to obtain enological yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins would therefore be very useful. Our previous experience on the genetic determinants of the release of these molecules by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has allowed us to propose a new methodology to isolate and characterize wine yeast that overproduce mannoproteins. The described methodology is based on the resistance of the killer 9 toxin produced by Williopsis saturnus, a feature linked to an altered biogenesis of the yeast cell wall. PMID:20219260

Quirós, Manuel; Gonzalez-Ramos, Daniel; Tabera, Laura; Gonzalez, Ramon

2010-04-30

252

Biosynthesis of the Torpedo californica Acetylcholine Receptor ? Subunit in Yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yeast cells were transformed with a plasmid containing complementary DNA encoding the ? subunit of the Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor. These cells synthesized a protein that had the expected molecular weight, antigenic specificity, and ligand-binding properties of the ? subunit. The subunit was inserted into the yeast plasma membrane, demonstrating that yeast has the apparatus to express a membrane-bound receptor protein and to insert such a foreign protein into its plasma membrane. The ? subunit constituted approximately 1 percent of the total yeast membrane proteins, and its density was about the same in the plasma membrane of yeast and in the receptor-rich electric organ of Electrophorus electricus. In view of the available technology for obtaining large quantities of yeast proteins, it may now be possible to obtain amplified amounts of interesting membrane-bound proteins for physical and biochemical studies.

Fujita, Norihisa; Nelson, Nathan; Fox, Thomas D.; Claudio, Toni; Lindstrom, Jon; Riezman, Howard; Hess, George P.

1986-03-01

253

The Yeast Deletion Collection: A Decade of Functional Genomics  

PubMed Central

The yeast deletion collections comprise >21,000 mutant strains that carry precise start-to-stop deletions of ?6000 open reading frames. This collection includes heterozygous and homozygous diploids, and haploids of both MATa and MAT? mating types. The yeast deletion collection, or yeast knockout (YKO) set, represents the first and only complete, systematically constructed deletion collection available for any organism. Conceived during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequencing project, work on the project began in 1998 and was completed in 2002. The YKO strains have been used in numerous laboratories in >1000 genome-wide screens. This landmark genome project has inspired development of numerous genome-wide technologies in organisms from yeast to man. Notable spinoff technologies include synthetic genetic array and HIPHOP chemogenomics. In this retrospective, we briefly describe the yeast deletion project and some of its most noteworthy biological contributions and the impact that these collections have had on the yeast research community and on genomics in general.

Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

2014-01-01

254

Cutaneous yeast microflora in patients with atopic dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin of persons with atopic dermatitis (AD) is very susceptible to cutaneous infection, and some yeast species may also\\u000a aggravate AD. The total yeast population of an AD patient’s skin and its relation with individual age and body part remains\\u000a poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in cutaneous yeast flora by age and

Aukse Zinkeviciene; Nemira Vaiciulioniene; Irena Baranauskiene; Violeta Kvedariene; Regina Emuzyte; Donaldas Citavicius

255

Brewer’s yeast: genetic structure and targets for improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The art of beer brewing is ancient, and Saccharomyces yeast probably played a pivotal role from the beginning. Production of beer from the barley grain consists of multiple steps,\\u000a of which only the last few involve the yeast. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the yeast is highly decisive for both speed and\\u000a outcome of the whole process, and to a large

Jørgen Hansen; Morten Kielland-Brandt

256

Construction of proteinase A deficient transformant of industrial brewing yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast proteinase A is detrimental to beer foam. The proteinase A deficient transformant of industrial brewing yeast, WZ65\\/a,\\u000a was constructed using PCR-mediated gene disruption, and the transformant was verified to be genetically stable. The PCR analysis\\u000a showed that PEP4 gene coding for proteinase A in the WZ65\\/a was disrupted. No matter in the yeast cells or in the fermenting liquor

Zhao-Yue Wang; Guo-Qing He; Hui Ruan; Zhong-Shan Liu; Lu-Fang Yang; Bo-Run Zhang

2007-01-01

257

THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF RESIDUE ANTIGEN PREPARED FROM YEAST  

PubMed Central

Residue antigen recognizable by the precipitin test can be prepared from yeast as from bacteria. The active material appears to be identical with a complex carbohydrate, the "yeast gum" of Salkowski. In the purest form of it obtained small amounts of both nitrogen and phosphorus are still present, either as impurities or as part of the molecule. The yeast gum is not antigenic in the sense of producing antibodies.

Mueller, J. Howard; Tomcsik, Joseph

1924-01-01

258

Yeast Methylotrophy: Metabolism, Gene Regulation and Peroxisome Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic methylotrophs, which are able to obtain all the carbon and energy needed for growth from methanol, are restricted to a limited number of yeast species. When these yeasts are grown on methanol as the sole carbon and energy source, the enzymes involved in methanol metabolism are strongly induced, and the membrane-bound organelles, peroxisomes, which contain key enzymes of methanol metabolism, proliferate massively. These features have made methylotrophic yeasts attractive hosts for the production of heterologous proteins and useful model organisms for the study of peroxisome biogenesis and degradation. In this paper, we describe recent insights into the molecular basis of yeast methylotrophy.

Yurimoto, Hiroya; Oku, Masahide; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

2011-01-01

259

Interactions between yeasts, fungicides and apple fruit russeting.  

PubMed

The effect of inoculations with yeasts occurring on apple surfaces and fungicide treatments on the russeting of Elstar apples was studied. Captan, dithianon and a water treatment were implemented to study the interaction between the fungicides, the inoculated yeast species and Aureobasidium pullulans, and the development of russet. All yeast inoculations aggravated russet, but Rhodotorula glutinis, Sporidiobolus pararoseus and A. pullulans did so to a greater extent than the other species. Both captan and dithianon significantly reduced russeting. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that inoculations with R. glutinis and S. pararoseus seemed to suppress other yeast species present on the apple surface. PMID:17156012

Gildemacher, Peter; Heijne, Bart; Silvestri, Massimiliano; Houbraken, Jos; Hoekstra, Ellen; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun

2006-12-01

260

[Immobilized yeast membranes as biocatalysts for sucrose inversion].  

PubMed

Yeast membranes were obtained by autolysis of various strains with relatively high invertase activity. Heterogeneous biocatalysts for sucrose inversion were made of the yeast membranes and granulated carbon-containing supports made of common natural materials: expanded clay aggregate (ECA), sapropel, and lignin. The properties of these biocatalysts were studied. It was shown that the biocatalyst activity and stability of the immobilized yeast membranes increased with reference to the initial ECA, independent of the structure of the carbon layer synthesized on the support surface. Heterogeneous biocatalysts prepared by adsorption of yeast membranes on sapropel had the greatest activity and stability, whereas lignin-based biocatalysts were relatively unstable. PMID:16212044

Kovalenko, G A; Perminova, L V; Plaksin, G V; Komova, O V; Chuenko, T V; Rudina, N A

2005-01-01

261

Ethanol production from xylose by enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Repetitive enzymic isomerization of xylose followed by yeast fermentation of xylulose, and simultaneous enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation were proven to be methods capable of converting xylose to ethanol. The fermentation product, ethanol, xylitol, or glycerol, has little inhibitory or deactivation effect on the activity of isomerase. In a comparison of the ability of yeasts to ferment xylulose to ethanol, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was found to be superior to industrial bakers' yeast. Under optimal conditions (pH 6, temperature 30/sup 0/C), a final ethanol concentration of 6.3 wt.% was obtained from simulated hemicellulose hydrolysate using a simultaneous fermentation process. The ethanol yield was over 80% of the theoretical value.

Chiang, L.C.; Hsiao, H.Y.; Ueng, P.P.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

1981-01-01

262

A Photometer for Measuring Population Growth in Yeast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, portable photometer designed specifically for estimating population sizes in yeast cultures. Suggests activities for use with the photometer. (WRM)

Tatina, Robert; Hartley, Tamela; Thomas, Danita

1999-01-01

263

A novel ascosporogenous yeast species, Zygosaccharomyces siamensis , and the sugar tolerant yeasts associated with raw honey collected in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversity of yeasts in association with bees and their food sources has been explored during the last decade. In Thailand,\\u000a there has been no study of yeast identification in honey and bees. Hence, a total of 186 yeast strains were isolated from\\u000a 37 honey samples of 12 different bee species. On the basis of morphological and physiological characteristics, 55 representative

Sujinan Saksinchai; Motofumi Suzuki; Panuwan Chantawannakul; Moriya Ohkuma; Saisamorn Lumyong

264

Yeast and Mammalian Metallothioneins Functionally Substitute for Yeast Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide and dioxygen and is thought to play an important role in protecting cells from oxygen toxicity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, which is encoded by the SOD1 gene, are sensitive to oxidative stress and exhibit a variety of growth defects including hypersensitivity to dioxygen and to superoxide-generating drugs such as paraquat. We have found that in addition to these known phenotypes, SOD1-deletion strains fail to grow on agar containing the respiratory carbon source lactate. We demonstrate here that expression of the yeast or monkey metallothionein proteins in the presence of copper suppresses the lactate growth defect and some other phenotypes associated with SOD1-deletion strains, indicating that copper metallothioneins substitute for copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in vivo to protect cells from oxygen toxicity. Consistent with these results, we show that yeast metallothionein mRNA levels are dramatically elevated under conditions of oxidative stress. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrate that yeast metallothionein, purified or from whole-cell extracts, exhibits copper-dependent antioxidant activity. Taken together, these data suggest that both yeast and mammalian metallothioneins may play a direct role in the cellular defense against oxidative stress by functioning as antioxidants.

Tamai, Katherine T.; Gralla, Edith B.; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Valentine, Joan S.; Thiele, Dennis J.

1993-09-01

265

Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

SciTech Connect

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

2013-05-14

266

Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

SciTech Connect

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet (Kingsport, TN); Koivuranta, Kari (Helsinki, FI); Penttila, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Miller, Christopher Kenneth (Cottage Grove, MN); Olson, Stacey (St. Bonifacius, MN); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI)

2011-05-17

267

Studying Functions of All Yeast Genes Simultaneously  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of studying the functions of all the genes of a given species of microorganism simultaneously has been developed in experiments on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commonly known as baker's or brewer's yeast). It is already known that many yeast genes perform functions similar to those of corresponding human genes; therefore, by facilitating understanding of yeast genes, the method may ultimately also contribute to the knowledge needed to treat some diseases in humans. Because of the complexity of the method and the highly specialized nature of the underlying knowledge, it is possible to give only a brief and sketchy summary here. The method involves the use of unique synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences that are denoted as DNA bar codes because of their utility as molecular labels. The method also involves the disruption of gene functions through deletion of genes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly powerful experimental system in that multiple deletion strains easily can be pooled for parallel growth assays. Individual deletion strains recently have been created for 5,918 open reading frames, representing nearly all of the estimated 6,000 genetic loci of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tagging of each deletion strain with one or two unique 20-nucleotide sequences enables identification of genes affected by specific growth conditions, without prior knowledge of gene functions. Hybridization of bar-code DNA to oligonucleotide arrays can be used to measure the growth rate of each strain over several cell-division generations. The growth rate thus measured serves as an index of the fitness of the strain.

Stolc, Viktor; Eason, Robert G.; Poumand, Nader; Herman, Zelek S.; Davis, Ronald W.; Anthony Kevin; Jejelowo, Olufisayo

2006-01-01

268

Osmotic Stress Signaling and Osmoadaptation in Yeasts  

PubMed Central

The ability to adapt to altered availability of free water is a fundamental property of living cells. The principles underlying osmoadaptation are well conserved. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model system with which to study the molecular biology and physiology of osmoadaptation. Upon a shift to high osmolarity, yeast cells rapidly stimulate a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, which orchestrates part of the transcriptional response. The dynamic operation of the HOG pathway has been well studied, and similar osmosensing pathways exist in other eukaryotes. Protein kinase A, which seems to mediate a response to diverse stress conditions, is also involved in the transcriptional response program. Expression changes after a shift to high osmolarity aim at adjusting metabolism and the production of cellular protectants. Accumulation of the osmolyte glycerol, which is also controlled by altering transmembrane glycerol transport, is of central importance. Upon a shift from high to low osmolarity, yeast cells stimulate a different MAP kinase cascade, the cell integrity pathway. The transcriptional program upon hypo-osmotic shock seems to aim at adjusting cell surface properties. Rapid export of glycerol is an important event in adaptation to low osmolarity. Osmoadaptation, adjustment of cell surface properties, and the control of cell morphogenesis, growth, and proliferation are highly coordinated processes. The Skn7p response regulator may be involved in coordinating these events. An integrated understanding of osmoadaptation requires not only knowledge of the function of many uncharacterized genes but also further insight into the time line of events, their interdependence, their dynamics, and their spatial organization as well as the importance of subtle effects.

Hohmann, Stefan

2002-01-01

269

Crystal structure of yeast Sco1.  

PubMed

The Sco family of proteins are involved in the assembly of the dinuclear CuA site in cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme in aerobic respiration. These proteins, which are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, are characterized by a conserved CXXXC sequence motif that binds copper ions and that has also been proposed to perform a thiol:disulfide oxidoreductase function. The crystal structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae apo Sco1 (apo-ySco1) and Sco1 in the presence of copper ions (Cu-ySco1) were determined to 1.8- and 2.3-A resolutions, respectively. Yeast Sco1 exhibits a thioredoxin-like fold, similar to that observed for human Sco1 and a homolog from Bacillus subtilis. The Cu-ySco1 structure, obtained by soaking apo-ySco1 crystals in copper ions, reveals an unexpected copper-binding site involving Cys181 and Cys216, cysteine residues present in ySco1 but not in other homologs. The conserved CXXXC cysteines, Cys148 and Cys152, can undergo redox chemistry in the crystal. An essential histidine residue, His239, is located on a highly flexible loop, denoted the Sco loop, and can adopt positions proximal to both pairs of cysteines. Interactions between ySco1 and its partner proteins yeast Cox17 and yeast COX2 are likely to occur via complementary electrostatic surfaces. This high-resolution model of a eukaryotic Sco protein provides new insight into Sco copper binding and function. PMID:16570183

Abajian, Carnie; Rosenzweig, Amy C

2006-06-01

270

Specificity of Transmembrane Protein Palmitoylation in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Many proteins are modified after their synthesis, by the addition of a lipid molecule to one or more cysteine residues, through a thioester bond. This modification is called S-acylation, and more commonly palmitoylation. This reaction is carried out by a family of enzymes, called palmitoyltransferases (PATs), characterized by the presence of a conserved 50- aminoacids domain called “Asp-His-His-Cys- Cysteine Rich Domain” (DHHC-CRD). There are 7 members of this family in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and each of these proteins is thought to be responsible for the palmitoylation of a subset of substrates. Substrate specificity of PATs, however, is not yet fully understood. Several yeast PATs seem to have overlapping specificity, and it has been proposed that the machinery responsible for palmitoylating peripheral membrane proteins in mammalian cells, lacks specificity altogether. Here we investigate the specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in S. cerevisiae, which is carried out predominantly by two PATs, Swf1 and Pfa4. We show that palmitoylation of transmembrane substrates requires dedicated PATs, since other yeast PATs are mostly unable to perform Swf1 or Pfa4 functions, even when overexpressed. Furthermore, we find that Swf1 is highly specific for its substrates, as it is unable to substitute for other PATs. To identify where Swf1 specificity lies, we carried out a bioinformatics survey to identify amino acids responsible for the determination of specificity or Specificity Determination Positions (SDPs) and showed experimentally, that mutation of the two best SDP candidates, A145 and K148, results in complete and partial loss of function, respectively. These residues are located within the conserved catalytic DHHC domain suggesting that it could also be involved in the determination of specificity. Finally, we show that modifying the position of the cysteines in Tlg1, a Swf1 substrate, results in lack of palmitoylation, as expected for a highly specific enzymatic reaction.

Gonzalez Montoro, Ayelen; Chumpen Ramirez, Sabrina; Quiroga, Rodrigo; Valdez Taubas, Javier

2011-01-01

271

Mutator alleles of yeast DNA polymerase ?  

PubMed Central

The yeast REV3 gene encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase zeta (pol ?), a B family polymerase that performs mutagenic DNA synthesis in cells. To probe pol ? mutagenic functions, we generated six mutator alleles of REV3 with amino acid replacements for Leu979, a highly conserved residue inferred to be at the pol ? active site. Replacing Leu979 with Gly, Val, Asn, Lys, Met or Phe resulted in yeast strains with elevated UV-induced mutant frequencies. While four of these strains had reduced survival following UV irradiation, the rev3-L979F and rev3-L979M strains had normal survival, suggesting retention of pol ? catalytic activity. UV mutagenesis in the rev3-L979F background was increased when photoproduct bypass by pol ? was eliminated by deletion of RAD30. The rev3-L979F mutation had little to no effect on mutagenesis in an ogg1? background, which cannot repair 8-oxo-guanine in DNA. UV-induced can1 mutants from rev3-L979F and rad30?rev3-L979F strains primarily contained base substitutions and complex mutations, suggesting error-prone bypass of UV photoproducts by L979F pol ?. Spontaneous mutation rates in rev3-L979F and rev3-L979M strains are elevated by about 2-fold overall and by 2- to 8-fold for C to G transversions and complex mutations, both of which are known to be generated by wild-type pol ? in vitro. These results indicate that Rev3p-Leu979 replacements reduce the fidelity of DNA synthesis by yeast pol ? in vivo. In conjunction with earlier studies, the data establish that the conserved amino acid at the active site location occupied by Leu979 is critical for the fidelity of all four yeast B family polymerases. Reduced fidelity with retention of robust polymerase activity suggests that the homologous rev3-L979F allele may be useful for analyzing pol ? functions in mammals, where REV3 deletion is lethal.

Sakamoto, Ayako N.; Stone, Jana E.; Kissling, Grace E.; McCulloch, Scott D.; Pavlov, Youri I.; Kunkel, Thomas A.

2007-01-01

272

Mutator alleles of yeast DNA polymerase zeta.  

PubMed

The yeast REV3 gene encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase zeta (pol zeta), a B family polymerase that performs mutagenic DNA synthesis in cells. To probe pol zeta mutagenic functions, we generated six mutator alleles of REV3 with amino acid replacements for Leu979, a highly conserved residue inferred to be at the pol zeta active site. Replacing Leu979 with Gly, Val, Asn, Lys, Met or Phe resulted in yeast strains with elevated UV-induced mutant frequencies. While four of these strains had reduced survival following UV irradiation, the rev3-L979F and rev3-L979M strains had normal survival, suggesting retention of pol zeta catalytic activity. UV mutagenesis in the rev3-L979F background was increased when photoproduct bypass by pol eta was eliminated by deletion of RAD30. The rev3-L979F mutation had little to no effect on mutagenesis in an ogg1Delta background, which cannot repair 8-oxo-guanine in DNA. UV-induced can1 mutants from rev3-L979F and rad30Deltarev3-L979F strains primarily contained base substitutions and complex mutations, suggesting error-prone bypass of UV photoproducts by L979F pol zeta. Spontaneous mutation rates in rev3-L979F and rev3-L979M strains are elevated by about two-fold overall and by two- to eight-fold for C to G transversions and complex mutations, both of which are known to be generated by wild-type pol zetain vitro. These results indicate that Rev3p-Leu979 replacements reduce the fidelity of DNA synthesis by yeast pol zetain vivo. In conjunction with earlier studies, the data establish that the conserved amino acid at the active site location occupied by Leu979 is critical for the fidelity of all four yeast B family polymerases. Reduced fidelity with retention of robust polymerase activity suggests that the homologous rev3-L979F allele may be useful for analyzing pol zeta functions in mammals, where REV3 deletion is lethal. PMID:17715002

Sakamoto, Ayako N; Stone, Jana E; Kissling, Grace E; McCulloch, Scott D; Pavlov, Youri I; Kunkel, Thomas A

2007-12-01

273

Alcohol from glucose without using yeast  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Oak Ridge, Tenn.) have demonstrated a continuous way to make ethanol by bacterial fermentation of glucose using the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis. The bacterium has several advantages over yeasts and can be maintained at higher cell densities in immobilized-cell reactors. Nevertheless, even the most ethanol-tolerant strains of Zymomonas can't survive a concentration greater than 15%, and further studies are required before the bacterium can be used in large-scale alcohol- from-biomass schemes.

Not Available

1980-12-17

274

[Mechanisms of yeast resistance to environmental stress].  

PubMed

Changes in environmental conditions might be a stress factor for yeast cells. There are several mechanisms of stress tolerance, developed by the cell, which activate when the stress appears. Different transcription factors coordinate the expression of stress response genes. Msn2/4p regulate the expression of the general stress response. Heat shock defense involves heat shock proteins (Hsp), controlled by Hsf1p. Osmotic shock induces the MAP kinase cascade (HOG), whereas the oxidative stress response requires the YAP network. Fungicide resistance is mediated mainly by the activity of membrane transporters and changes in the structure of the plasma membrane.  PMID:23619223

Piecuch, Agata; Ob??k, Ewa

2013-01-01

275

The basidiomycetous yeast Rhodotorula yarrowii comb. nov.  

PubMed

Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rDNA of Cryptococcus yarrowii (CBS 7417) indicates that this species does not belong to the hymenomycetous fungi, but instead is of urediniomycetous affinity. Therefore, the name change Rhodotorula yarrowii comb. nov. is proposed. The cell wall of the species contains xylose, a character considered by most authors to indicate fungi of hymenomycetous affinity. However, our results show that xylose may occur in minor amounts in the cell walls of urediniomycetous fungi. A high mannose content of the cell walls may be a more reliable character for urediniomycetous yeasts. PMID:10959564

Boekhout, T; Fell, J W; Fonseca, A; Prillinger, H J; Lopandic, K; Roeijmans, H

2000-05-01

276

Ascorbic acid specific utilization by some yeasts.  

PubMed

One hundred and eighty strains of yeasts belonging to 17 genus and 53 species were screened for their ability to grow on ascorbic acid and iso-ascorbic acid as the sole carbon source. Most of the tested strains (157) were unable to grow on either compound. Strains of seven species of the genus Cryptococcus, of two Candida species, of Filobasidiella neoformans, Trichosporon cutaneum, Lipomyces starkeyi, Hansenula capsulata, and one strain of Aureobasidium pullulans were able to grow on ascorbic as well as on iso-ascorbic acid. Conversely, four strains of Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida blankii, and Cryptococcus dimennae could use only ascorbic acid for growth. PMID:3779527

Costamagna, L; Rosi, I; Garuccio, I; Arrigoni, O

1986-09-01

277

Fermentation of cellodextrins by different yeast strains.  

PubMed

The fermentation of cellodextrins by eight yeast species capable of fermenting cellobiose was monitored. Only two of these species, Torulopsis molischiana and T. wickerhamii, were able to ferment beta-glucosides with a degree of polymerization between one and six. These two species showed exocellular beta-glucosidase activity. Four other species were able to ferment cellotriose, and the last two species only fermented cellobiose. These latter six species produced a beta-glucosidase capable of attacking cellodextrins, but this enzyme was endocellular. PMID:16346606

Gondé, P; Blondin, B; Leclerc, M; Ratomahenina, R; Arnaud, A; Galzy, P

1984-08-01

278

Automated tracking of yeast cell lineages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a cell progeny tracking method that sequentially employs image alignment, chamber cropping, cell segmentation, per-cell feature measurement, and progeny (lineage) tracking modules. It enables biologists to keep track of phenotypic patterns not only over time but also over multiple generations. Yeast cells encapsulated in chambers of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device were imaged over time to monitor changes in fluorescence levels. We implemented our method in an automated cell image analysis tool, CellProfiler, and performed initial testing. Once refined and validated, the approach could be adapted/used in other cell segmentation and progeny tracking experiments.

Kim, Kyungnam; Rowat, Amy C.; Carpenter, Anne E.

2010-08-01

279

Cell Polarization and Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast  

PubMed Central

Asymmetric cell division, which includes cell polarization and cytokinesis, is essential for generating cell diversity during development. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduces by asymmetric cell division, and has thus served as an attractive model for unraveling the general principles of eukaryotic cell polarization and cytokinesis. Polarity development requires G-protein signaling, cytoskeletal polarization, and exocytosis, whereas cytokinesis requires concerted actions of a contractile actomyosin ring and targeted membrane deposition. In this chapter, we discuss the mechanics and spatial control of polarity development and cytokinesis, emphasizing the key concepts, mechanisms, and emerging questions in the field.

Bi, Erfei; Park, Hay-Oak

2012-01-01

280

New yeast study finds strength in numbers  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the debate about whether the modern industrial society is producing hormonelike pollutants that can interfere with human reproductions, including pesticides, the plastic ingredient bisphenol-A and some polychlorinated biphenyls. A recent article has added fuel to the debate by presenting results that indicate a mixture of two weakly estrogenic chemicals can be far more potent than individual compounds, using a screening system based on genetically engineered yeast cells. The debate may need to be taken into account by a USEPA advisory panel now being formed to come up with in vitro tests to screen for environmental estrogens.

Kaiser, J.

1996-06-07

281

Light-regulated gene expression in yeast.  

PubMed

An important basic requirement of synthetic genetic networks is the option of external control of gene expression. Although several chemically inducible systems are available, all of these suffer from the common problem: the chemical inducers are difficult to remove so that to terminate the response. We have described a regulatory expression system for yeast, which employs light as inducer. This light switch translates light-controlled protein-protein interactions into the transcription of selected genes in a dose-dependent and reversible manner. PMID:22083743

Kozma-Bognar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Anita; Nagy, Ferenc

2012-01-01

282

De novo biosynthesis of vanillin in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).  

PubMed

Vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor compounds, with a global market of 180 million dollars. Natural vanillin is derived from the cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid (Vanilla planifolia), but most of the world's vanillin is synthesized from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. We have established a true de novo biosynthetic pathway for vanillin production from glucose in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also known as fission yeast or African beer yeast, as well as in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Productivities were 65 and 45 mg/liter, after introduction of three and four heterologous genes, respectively. The engineered pathways involve incorporation of 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase from the dung mold Podospora pauciseta, an aromatic carboxylic acid reductase (ACAR) from a bacterium of the Nocardia genus, and an O-methyltransferase from Homo sapiens. In S. cerevisiae, the ACAR enzyme required activation by phosphopantetheinylation, and this was achieved by coexpression of a Corynebacterium glutamicum phosphopantetheinyl transferase. Prevention of reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol was achieved by knockout of the host alcohol dehydrogenase ADH6. In S. pombe, the biosynthesis was further improved by introduction of an Arabidopsis thaliana family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferase, converting vanillin into vanillin beta-D-glucoside, which is not toxic to the yeast cells and thus may be accumulated in larger amounts. These de novo pathways represent the first examples of one-cell microbial generation of these valuable compounds from glucose. S. pombe yeast has not previously been metabolically engineered to produce any valuable, industrially scalable, white biotech commodity. PMID:19286778

Hansen, Esben H; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Kock, Gertrud R; Bünner, Camilla M; Kristensen, Charlotte; Jensen, Ole R; Okkels, Finn T; Olsen, Carl E; Motawia, Mohammed S; Hansen, Jørgen

2009-05-01

283

Telomere regulation during the cell cycle in fission yeast.  

PubMed

The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has emerged as a useful model organism to study telomere maintenance mechanisms. In this chapter, we provide detailed protocols for quantitative ChIP and BrdU incorporation analyses to investigate how fission yeast telomeres are regulated during the cell cycle by utilizing cdc25-22 synchronized cell cultures. PMID:24906327

Moser, Bettina A; Chang, Ya-Ting; Nakamura, Toru M

2014-01-01

284

Construction of yeast surface-displayed cDNA libraries  

PubMed Central

Using yeast display, heterologous protein fragments can be efficiently displayed at high copy levels on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall. Yeast display can be used to screen large expressed protein libraries for proteins or protein fragments with specific binding properties. Recently, yeast surface displayed cDNA libraries have been constructed and used to identify proteins that bind to various target molecules such as peptides, small molecules, and antibodies. Because yeast protein expression pathways are similar to those found in mammalian cells, human protein fragments displayed on the yeast cell wall are likely to be properly folded and functional. Coupled with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), yeast surface-displayed cDNA libraries potentially allow the selection of protein fragments or domains with affinity for any soluble molecule that can be fluorescently detected. In this report, we describe protocols for the construction and validation of yeast surface displayed cDNA libraries using pre-existing yeast two-hybrid cDNA libraries as a starting point.

Bidlingmaier, Scott; Liu, Bin

2011-01-01

285

Modelling of the alcohol dehydrogenase production in baker's yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model was formulated to simulate cell growth and enzyme production during the aerobic and micro-aerobic culture of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Model development was based on three simplified metabolic events in the yeast: glucose fermentation, glucose oxidation and ethanol oxidation. Cell growth was expressed as a composite of these metabolic events. Their contributions to the total specific growth

A. Vrsalovi? Prese?ki; ?. Vasi?-Ra?ki

2005-01-01

286

Continuous ethanol production by immobilized yeast in a fluidized reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to minimize the adverse effect of CO2 gas in a packed bed immobilized yeast reactor, a fluidized bed reactor was used for the continuous production of ethanol from glucose. Immobilized yeast was prepared by entrapping whole cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae within a Caalginate matrix. It was found that the efficiency of the ethanol production in a fluidized bed

Gyu Heon Cho; Cha Yong Choi; Yang Do Choi; Moon H. Han

1981-01-01

287

A theoretical analysis of NADPH production and consumption in yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical calculations of the NADPH requirement for yeast biomass formation reveal that this parameter is strongly dependent on the carbon and nitrogen source. The data obtained have been used to estimate the carbon flow over the NADPH-producing pathways in these organisms, namely the hexose monophosphate pathway and the NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction. It was calculated that during growth of yeasts

PETER M. BRUINENBERG; J OHANNES P. VAN DIJKEN; W. A. Scheffers

1983-01-01

288

Mathematical model for aerobic culture of a recombinant yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model was formulated to simulate cell growth, plasmid loss and recombinant protein production during the aerobic culture of a recombinant yeast S. cerevisiae. Model development was based on three simplified metabolic events in the yeast: glucose fermentation, glucose oxidation and ethanol oxidation. Cell growth was expressed as a composite of these metabolic events. Their contributions to the total

Z. Zhang; J. M. Scharer; M. Moo-Young

1997-01-01

289

Exploring the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Protein Degradation Pathway in Yeast  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory investigating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in yeast. In this exercise, the enzyme beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) is expressed in yeast under the control of a stress response promoter. Following exposure to heat stress to induce beta-gal expression, cycloheximide is added to halt…

Will, Tamara J.; McWatters, Melissa K.; McQuade, Kristi L.

2006-01-01

290

Function of yeast species and strains in wine flavour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity and the composition of the yeast micropopulation significantly contribute to the sensory characteristics of wine. The growth of each wine yeast species is characterized by a specific metabolic activity, which determines concentrations of flavour compounds in the final wine. However, it must be underlined that, within each species, significant strain variability has been recorded. The wide use of

P. Romano; C. Fiore; M. Paraggio; M. Caruso; A. Capece

2003-01-01

291

Formulation and Cost-Effective Drying of Probiotic Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces boulardii yeast is considered as a probiotic according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Like any other probiotic, Saccharomyces boulardii is available as a freeze-dried formulation. Although freeze drying is the most preferred method of preserving the microorganisms, the process is very expensive. The cost of capsules containing freeze-dried probiotic yeast is certainly out of reach of the underprivileged

Varsha S. Joshi; Bhaskar N. Thorat

2011-01-01

292

Serological study of yeast killer toxins by monoclonal antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast killer toxins coded by determined and undetermined killer plasmids or presumptive nuclear gene(s) in various genera (Saccharomyces, Kluyveromyces, Pichia and Candida) have been serologically investigated by a monoclonal antibody (KT4), produced against the yeast killer toxin of Pichia (Hansenula) anomala UCSC 25F. Double immunodiffusion with the killer toxins as antigens and indirect immunofluorescence on whole cells of the corresponding

Luciano Polonelli; Stefania Manzara; Stefania Conti; Giuseppe Dettori; Giulia Morace; Carlo Chezzi

1989-01-01

293

Heat Resistance of Yeast Cells and Fungal Spores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Good keeping properties for canned products with pH 4.0 or lower can be obtained by pasteurization. This heat treatment is directed towards inactivation of vegetative bacteria, yeasts, mycelium and conidiospores of fungi. Yeast cells and bacteria are most...

W. I. Baggerman

1979-01-01

294

Application of the single cell gel electrophoresis on yeast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we have applied the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay on yeast cells treating Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), two DNA damaging agents. In order to overcome the problem with the yeast cell wall that prevented DNA to be extended by the electric field, we disintegrated the cell wall after embedding

George Miloshev; Ivailo Mihaylov; Boyka Anachkova

2002-01-01

295

Optimisation of methodology for enumeration of xerophilic yeasts from foods.  

PubMed

Xerophilic yeasts grow in intermediate moisture foods (aw, 0.65-0.85) such as sugar syrups, fruit concentrates, jams and brines. Non-osmophilic yeasts are enumerated by diluting in 0.1% peptone and then plated onto media such as malt extract or glucose yeast extract agar. In the presence of moulds the yeasts are enumerated in dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC). These procedures were demonstrated to be unsatisfactory for the enumeration of xerophilic yeasts in low aw foods. Investigations using pure cultures of xerophilic yeasts as well as naturally contaminated apple juice concentrates and glacé cherries have shown that a reduced aw diluent, in particular 30% w/w glycerol in combination with tryptone 10% glucose yeast extract agar (TGY) optimises the recovery of the yeasts, especially sublethally injured cells. The inclusion of sodium chloride in either the diluents or the culture media was not necessary to optimise the recovery of D. hansenii growing in 20% sodium chloride broths. PMID:9105918

Andrews, S; de Graaf, H; Stamation, H

1997-04-01

296

Yeast genome evolution—the origin of the species  

Microsoft Academic Search

With almost 20 genomes sequenced from unicellular ascomycetes (Saccharomycotina), and the prospect of many more in the pipeline, we review the patterns and processes of yeast genome evolution. A central core of about 4000 genes is shared by all the sequenced yeast genomes. Gains of genes by horizontal gene transfer seem to be very rare. Gene losses are more frequent,

Devin R. Scannell; Geraldine Butler; Kenneth H. Wolfe

2007-01-01

297

THE ROLE FUNGI AND YEAST IN MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi and yeast have been characterized as important components in the bioremediation of organic contaminants in soil and water including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); however, research into their ability to metabolize these compounds in extreme environments has been limited. In this work forty-three fungi and yeasts were isolated from a PAH-contaminated sludge waste lagoon in Poland. The lagoon was part of

R. Brigmon; M. Abe; B. Johnson; W. Simpson; P. Mckinsey

2010-01-01

298

The sourdough microflora: Interactions of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sourdough bread is a traditional product with great potential. This can only be achieved if the interactions between the lactic acid bacteria and yeasts that populate the sourdough are understood. The trophic and non-trophic interactions between sourdough lactic acid bacteria and yeasts are reviewed with particular emphasis on the metabolism of the carbohydrates and nitrogen compounds, the production of CO2

M Gobbetti

1998-01-01

299

Gene Engineering of Yeasts for the Degradation of Hazardous Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research examined the structure and function of cytochrome P-450 genes in yeast as a model for gene engineering such as eukaryotic P-450 enzymes for biodegradation of hazardous waste by yeasts. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis are two y...

L. C. Loper

1988-01-01

300

Comparative genomics of yeast species: new insights into their biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomes of two hemiascomycetous yeasts ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans) and one archiascomycete ( Schizosaccharomyces pombe) have been completely sequenced and the genes have been annotated. In addition, the genomes of 13 more Hemiascomycetes have been partially sequenced. The amount of data thus obtained provides information on the evolutionary relationships between yeast species. In addition, the differential genetic

Enrique Herrero; María Angeles de la Torre; Eulogio Valentín

2003-01-01

301

Molecular evolution of eukaryotic genomes: hemiascomycetous yeast spliceosomal introns  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the exploratory sequencing program Genolevures, visual scrutinisation and bioinfor- matic tools were used to detect spliceosomal introns in seven hemiascomycetous yeast species. A total of 153 putative novel introns were identified. Introns are rare in yeast nuclear genes (<5% have an intron), mainly located at the 5¢ end of ORFs, and not highly conserved in sequence. They

Elisabeth Bon; Serge Casaregola; Gaelle Blandin; Bertrand Llorente; Martin Munsterkotter; Ulrich Guldener; Hans-Werner Mewes; Jacques Van Helden; Bernard Dujon; Claude Gaillardin

2003-01-01

302

Regulated overproduction and secretion of yeast carboxypeptidase Y  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is a glycosylated yeast vacuolar protease used commercially for synthesis of peptides. To increase the production of CPY in Saccharomyces cerevisiae we have placed its coding region (PRC1) under control of the strongly regulated yeast GAL1 promoter on multicopy plasmids and introduced the constructs into vpl1 mutant strains. Such mutants are known to secrete CPY. High levels

Trine L. Nielsen; Steen Holmberg; Jens G. L. Petersen

1990-01-01

303

'Pichia spartinae', A Dominant Yeast of the 'Spartina' Salt Marsh.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pichia spartinae, a salt-marsh yeast, occurs in concentrations as great as 9 x 10 to the 7th power cells/g in intraculm cell liquid and viable tissue of the estuarine angiosperm plant, Spartina alterniflora. Highest densities of the yeast occur on the out...

S. P. Meyers D. G. Ahearn S. K. Alexander W. L. Cook

1975-01-01

304

Nucleotide degradation and ribose salvage in yeast.  

PubMed

Nucleotide degradation is a universal metabolic capability. Here we combine metabolomics, genetics and biochemistry to characterize the yeast pathway. Nutrient starvation, via PKA, AMPK/SNF1, and TOR, triggers autophagic breakdown of ribosomes into nucleotides. A protein not previously associated with nucleotide degradation, Phm8, converts nucleotide monophosphates into nucleosides. Downstream steps, which involve the purine nucleoside phosphorylase, Pnp1, and pyrimidine nucleoside hydrolase, Urh1, funnel ribose into the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway. During carbon starvation, the ribose-derived carbon accumulates as sedoheptulose-7-phosphate, whose consumption by transaldolase is impaired due to depletion of transaldolase's other substrate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Oxidative stress increases glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, resulting in rapid consumption of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate to make NADPH for antioxidant defense. Ablation of Phm8 or double deletion of Pnp1 and Urh1 prevent effective nucleotide salvage, resulting in metabolite depletion and impaired survival of starving yeast. Thus, ribose salvage provides means of surviving nutrient starvation and oxidative stress. PMID:23670538

Xu, Yi-Fan; Létisse, Fabien; Absalan, Farnaz; Lu, Wenyun; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Brown, Greg; Caudy, Amy A; Yakunin, Alexander F; Broach, James R; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

2013-01-01

305

Heavy metal transporters in Hemiascomycete yeasts.  

PubMed

We have compiled all known heavy metal transporters of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified their orthologs in four other species spanning the entire Hemiascomycete phylum. The 213 transporters belong to 27 distinct phylogenetic families distributed within the three classes: channels, secondary porters (permeases) and transport ATPases. They are present in all cellular membranes: plasma membranes, vacuoles, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, Golgi and various cytoplasmic vesicles. The major physiological heavy metals transported are: iron, manganese, zinc, copper, arsenite and cadmium. The major subfamilies that comprise the highest number of transporters are Siderophore-Iron Transporters (SIT) and CT2 (conjugated ABC transporters). They transport heavy metals (iron or cadmium, respectively) conjugated to organic chelators such as siderophores or glutathione. Both subfamilies are considerably amplified in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The pattern of expansion and restriction of the subfamilies during the evolution of the different species is highly variable. The phylogenetic trees of the major transporters subfamilies distinguish homogenous clusters of transporters suggesting that possible different physiological or mechanistic functions evolved independently. We also validated the use of the Hemiascomycetes heavy metal transporters for identification of orthologs transporters in the pathogenic Basidiomycetes Cryptococcus neoformans. PMID:17011109

Diffels, J F; Seret, M-L; Goffeau, A; Baret, P V

2006-11-01

306

Advances in Quantitative Trait Analysis in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying complex traits is one of the next frontiers in biology. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become an important model for elucidating the mechanisms that govern natural genetic and phenotypic variation. This success is partially due to its intrinsic biological features, such as the short sexual generation time, high meiotic recombination rate, and small genome size. Precise reverse genetics technologies allow the high throughput manipulation of genetic information with exquisite precision, offering the unique opportunity to experimentally measure the phenotypic effect of genetic variants. Population genomic and phenomic studies have revealed widespread variation between diverged populations, characteristic of man-made environments, as well as geographic clusters of wild strains along with naturally occurring recombinant strains (mosaics). Here, we review these recent studies and provide a perspective on how these previously unappreciated levels of variation can help to bridge our understanding of the genotype-phenotype gap, keeping budding yeast at the forefront of genetic studies. Not only are quantitative trait loci (QTL) being mapped with high resolution down to the nucleotide, for the first time QTLs of modest effect and complex interactions between these QTLs and between QTLs and the environment are being determined experimentally at unprecedented levels using next generation techniques of deep sequencing selected pools of individuals as well as multi-generational crosses.

Liti, Gianni; Louis, Edward J.

2012-01-01

307

Multiple Functions of Sterols in Yeast Endocytosis  

PubMed Central

Sterols are essential factors for endocytosis in animals and yeast. To investigate the sterol structural requirements for yeast endocytosis, we created a variety of erg? mutants, each accumulating a distinct set of sterols different from ergosterol. Mutant erg2?erg6? and erg3?erg6? cells exhibit a strong internalization defect of the ?-factor receptor (Ste2p). Specific sterol structures are necessary for pheromone-dependent receptor hyperphosphorylation, a prerequisite for internalization. The lack of phosphorylation is not due to a defect in Ste2p localization or in ligand–receptor interaction. Contrary to most known endocytic factors, sterols seem to function in internalization independently of actin. Furthermore, sterol structures are required at a postinternalization step of endocytosis. erg? cells were able to take up the membrane marker FM4-64, but exhibited defects in FM4-64 movement through endosomal compartments to the vacuole. Therefore, there are at least two roles for sterols in endocytosis. Based on sterol analysis, the sterol structural requirements for these two processes were different, suggesting that sterols may have distinct functions at different places in the endocytic pathway. Interestingly, sterol structures unable to support endocytosis allowed transport of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein Gas1p from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi compartment.

Heese-Peck, Antje; Pichler, Harald; Zanolari, Bettina; Watanabe, Reika; Daum, Gunther; Riezman, Howard

2002-01-01

308

The architecture of yeast DNA polymerase ?.  

PubMed

DNA polymerase ? (Pol?) is specialized for the extension step of translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). Despite its central role in maintaining genome integrity, little is known about its overall architecture. Initially identified as a heterodimer of the catalytic subunit Rev3 and the accessory subunit Rev7, yeast Pol? has recently been shown to form a stable four-subunit enzyme (Pol?-d) upon the incorporation of Pol31 and Pol32, the accessory subunits of yeast Pol?. To understand the 3D architecture and assembly of Pol? and Pol?-d, we employed electron microscopy. We show here how the catalytic and accessory subunits of Pol? and Pol?-d are organized relative to each other. In particular, we show that Pol?-d has a bilobal architecture resembling the replicative polymerases and that Pol32 lies in proximity to Rev7. Collectively, our study provides views of Pol? and Pol?-d and a structural framework for understanding their roles in DNA damage bypass. PMID:24120860

Gómez-Llorente, Yacob; Malik, Radhika; Jain, Rinku; Choudhury, Jayati Roy; Johnson, Robert E; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban; Aggarwal, Aneel K

2013-10-17

309

[PSI+] Prion Variant Establishment in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Summary Differences in the clinical pathology of mammalian prion diseases reflect distinct heritable conformations of aggregated PrP proteins, called prion strains. Here, using the yeast [PSI+] prion, we examine the de novo establishment of prion strains (called variants in yeast). The [PSI+] prion protein, Sup35, is efficiently induced to take on numerous prion variant conformations following transient overexpression of Sup35 in the presence of another prion, e.g. [PIN+]. One hypothesis is that the first [PSI+] prion seed to arise in a cell causes propagation of only that seed’s variant, but that different variants could be initiated in different cells. However, we now show that even within a single cell, Sup35 retains the potential to fold into more than one variant type. When individual cells segregating different [PSI+] variants were followed in pedigrees, establishment of a single variant phenotype generally occurred in daughters, granddaughters or great granddaughters—but in 5% of the pedigrees cells continued to segregate multiple variants indefinitely. The data is consistent with the idea that many newly formed prions go through a maturation phase before they reach a single specific variant conformation. These findings may be relevant to mammalian PrP prion strain establishment and adaptation.

Sharma, Jaya; Liebman, Susan W.

2012-01-01

310

Yeast lipid metabolism at a glance.  

PubMed

During the last decades, lipids have gained much attention due to their involvement in health and disease. Lipids are required for the formation of membranes and contribute to many different processes such as cell signaling, energy supply, and cell death. Various organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and lipid droplets are involved in lipid metabolism. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a reliable model organism to study biochemistry, molecular biology, and cell biology of lipids. The availability of mutants bearing defects in lipid metabolic pathways and the ease of manipulation by culture conditions facilitated these investigations. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about lipid metabolism in yeast. We grouped this large topic into three sections dealing with (1) fatty acids; (2) membrane lipids; and (3) storage lipids. Fatty acids serve as building blocks for the synthesis of membrane lipids (phospholipids, sphingolipids) and storage lipids (triacylglycerols, steryl esters). Phospholipids, sterols, and sphingolipids are essential components of cellular membranes. Recent investigations addressing lipid synthesis, degradation, and storage as well as regulatory aspects are presented. The role of enzymes governing important steps of the different lipid metabolic pathways is described. Finally, the link between lipid metabolic and dynamic processes is discussed. PMID:24520995

Klug, Lisa; Daum, Günther

2014-05-01

311

Ammonium Toxicity and Potassium Limitation in Yeast  

PubMed Central

DNA microarray analysis of gene expression in steady-state chemostat cultures limited for potassium revealed a surprising connection between potassium and ammonium: potassium limits growth only when ammonium is the nitrogen source. Under potassium limitation, ammonium appears to be toxic for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This ammonium toxicity, which appears to occur by leakage of ammonium through potassium channels, is recapitulated under high-potassium conditions by over-expression of ammonium transporters. Although ammonium toxicity is well established in metazoans, it has never been reported for yeast. To characterize the response to ammonium toxicity, we examined the filtrates of these cultures for compounds whose excretion might serve to detoxify the ammonium (such as urea in mammals). Using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to assay for a wide array of metabolites, we detected excreted amino acids. The amounts of amino acids excreted increased in relation to the severity of growth impairment by ammonium, suggesting that amino acid excretion is used by yeast for ammonium detoxification.

Hess, David C; Lu, Wenyun; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Botstein, David

2006-01-01

312

Using Yeast Genetics to Study Splicing Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Pre-mRNA splicing is a critical step in eukaryotic gene expression, which involves removal of noncoding intron sequences from pre-mRNA and ligation of the remaining exon sequences to make a mature message. Splicing is carried out by a large ribonucleoprotein complex called the spliceosome. Since the first description of the pre-mRNA splicing reaction in the 1970s, elegant genetic and biochemical studies have revealed that the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction, the spliceosome, is an exquisitely dynamic macromolecular machine, and its RNA and protein components undergo highly ordered, tightly coordinated rearrangements in order to carry out intron recognition and splicing catalysis. Studies using the genetically tractable unicellular eukaryote budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) have played an instrumental role in deciphering splicing mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss how yeast genetics has been used to deepen our understanding of the mechanism of splicing and explore the potential for future mechanistic insights using S. cerevisiae as an experimental tool.

Hossain, Munshi Azad; Johnson, Tracy L.

2014-01-01

313

Nanomechanics of Yeast Surfaces Revealed by AFM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the large and well-documented characterization of the microbial cell wall in terms of chemical composition, the determination of the mechanical properties of surface molecules in relation to their function remains a key challenge in cell biology.The emergence of powerful tools allowing molecular manipulations has already revolutionized our understanding of the surface properties of fungal cells. At the frontier between nanophysics and molecular biology, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and more specifically single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS), has strongly contributed to our current knowledge of the cell wall organization and nanomechanical properties. However, due to the complexity of the technique, measurements on live cells are still at their infancy.In this chapter, we describe the cell wall composition and recapitulate the principles of AFM as well as the main current methodologies used to perform AFM measurements on live cells, including sample immobilization and tip functionalization.The current status of the progress in probing nanomechanics of the yeast surface is illustrated through three recent breakthrough studies. Determination of the cell wall nanostructure and elasticity is presented through two examples: the mechanical response of mannoproteins from brewing yeasts and elasticity measurements on lacking polysaccharide mutant strains. Additionally, an elegant study on force-induced unfolding and clustering of adhesion proteins located at the cell surface is also presented.

Dague, Etienne; Beaussart, Audrey; Alsteens, David

314

Quantitative analysis of colony morphology in yeast  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms often form multicellular structures such as biofilms and structured colonies that can influence the organism’s virulence, drug resistance, and adherence to medical devices. Phenotypic classification of these structures has traditionally relied on qualitative scoring systems that limit detailed phenotypic comparisons between strains. Automated imaging and quantitative analysis have the potential to improve the speed and accuracy of experiments designed to study the genetic and molecular networks underlying different morphological traits. For this reason, we have developed a platform that uses automated image analysis and pattern recognition to quantify phenotypic signatures of yeast colonies. Our strategy enables quantitative analysis of individual colonies, measured at a single time point or over a series of time-lapse images, as well as the classification of distinct colony shapes based on image-derived features. Phenotypic changes in colony morphology can be expressed as changes in feature space trajectories over time, thereby enabling the visualization and quantitative analysis of morphological development. To facilitate data exploration, results are plotted dynamically through an interactive Yeast Image Analysis web application (YIMAA; http://yimaa.cs.tut.fi) that integrates the raw and processed images across all time points, allowing exploration of the image-based features and principal components associated with morphological development.

Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Lin, Jake; Scott, Adrian C.; Tan, Zhihao; Sorsa, Saija; Kallio, Aleksi; Nykter, Matti; Yli-Harja, Olli; Shmulevich, Ilya; Dudley, Aimee M.

2014-01-01

315

FYPO: the fission yeast phenotype ontology  

PubMed Central

Motivation: To provide consistent computable descriptions of phenotype data, PomBase is developing a formal ontology of phenotypes observed in fission yeast. Results: The fission yeast phenotype ontology (FYPO) is a modular ontology that uses several existing ontologies from the open biological and biomedical ontologies (OBO) collection as building blocks, including the phenotypic quality ontology PATO, the Gene Ontology and Chemical Entities of Biological Interest. Modular ontology development facilitates partially automated effective organization of detailed phenotype descriptions with complex relationships to each other and to underlying biological phenomena. As a result, FYPO supports sophisticated querying, computational analysis and comparison between different experiments and even between species. Availability: FYPO releases are available from the Subversion repository at the PomBase SourceForge project page (https://sourceforge.net/p/pombase/code/HEAD/tree/phenotype_ontology/). The current version of FYPO is also available on the OBO Foundry Web site (http://obofoundry.org/). Contact: mah79@cam.ac.uk or vw253@cam.ac.uk

Harris, Midori A.; Lock, Antonia; Bahler, Jurg; Oliver, Stephen G.; Wood, Valerie

2013-01-01

316

Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) of yeast.  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) are the counterparts in that organelle of the cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins in the host. Although the MRPs fulfil similar functions in protein biosynthesis, they are distinct in number, features and primary structures from the latter. Most progress in the eludication of the properties of individual MRPs, and in the characterization of the corresponding genes, has been made in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). To date, 50 different MRPs have been determined, although biochemical data and mutational analysis propose a total number which is substantially higher. Surprisingly, only a minority of the MRPs that have been characterized show significant sequence similarities to known ribosomal proteins from other sources, thus limiting the deduction of their functions by simple comparison of amino acid sequences. Further, individual MRPs have been characterized functionally by mutational studies, and the regulation of expression of MRP genes has been described. The interaction of the mitochondrial ribosomes with transcription factors specific for individual mitochondrial mRNAs, and the communication between mitochondria and the nucleus for the co-ordinated expression of ribosomal constituents, are other aspects of current MRP research. Although the mitochondrial translational system is still far from being described completely, the yeast MRP system serves as a model for other organisms, including that of humans.

Graack, H R; Wittmann-Liebold, B

1998-01-01

317

Peroxisome biogenesis in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.  

PubMed

Extensive peroxisome proliferation during growth on oleic acid, combined with the availability of excellent genetic tools, makes the dimorphic yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, a powerful model system to study the molecular mechanisms involved in peroxisome biogenesis. A combined genetic, biochemical, and morphological approach has revealed that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an essential role in the assembly of functional peroxisomes in this yeast. The trafficking of some membrane proteins to the peroxisomes occurs via the ER, results in their glycosylation in the ER lumen, does not involve transit through the Golgi, and requires the products of the SEC238, SRP54, PEX1, and PEX6 genes. The authors' data suggest a model for protein import into peroxisomes via two subpopulations of ER-derived vesicles that are distinct from secretory vesicles. A kinetic analysis of the trafficking of peroxisomal proteins in vivo has demonstrated that membrane and matrix proteins are initially targeted to multiple vesicular precursors that represent intermediates in the assembly pathway of peroxisomes. The authors have also recently identified a novel cytosolic chaperone, Pex20p, that assists in the oligomerization of thiolase in the cytosol and promotes its targeting to the peroxisome. These data provide the first evidence that a chaperone-assisted folding and oligomerization of thiolase in the cytosol is required for the import of this protein into the peroxisomal matrix. PMID:11330048

Titorenko, V I; Smith, J J; Szilard, R K; Rachubinski, R A

2000-01-01

318

Copper transport in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

SciTech Connect

Biochemical processes involved in the movement of copper (Cu) into and out of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae have been investigated. Overall uptake of Cu was measured by disappearance of Cu from the reaction mixture by atomic absorption sensitive to 10/sup -10/M. The process of Cu influx is composed of a prerequisite binding and subsequent transport. The binding is non-energetic but is competitively inhibited by zinc(Zn). Transport is energetic as shown by an increased influx in the presence of added glucose. This process is prevented by 2,4-dinitrophenol(DNP). Cu influx is accompanied by an exchange for potassium(K) in a ratio of K:Cu=2:1. The process of Cu efflux involves a second type of binding site, probably of low affinity but large capacity. The presence of glucose causes the binding of extracellular Cu to these sites in a non-energy-dependent mechanism which prevents Cu efflux. Zn does not compete. DNP has no effect. The K:Cu ratio of 4:1 observed in the absence of glucose suggests a lowered net Cu uptake as a result of concomitant efflux activity. Finally, in the absence but not the presence of glucose, the pH of the extracellular solution increases. These observations are consistent with the idea that (a) yeast membrane has two Cu-binding sites, one of which participates in influx and one in efflux; (b) Cu exchanges with K during influx and with protons during efflux.

Martinez, L.D.; Connelly, J.L.

1987-05-01

319

Analysis of recombinant yeast decapping enzyme  

PubMed Central

A critical step in the turnover of yeast mRNAs is decapping. Two yeast proteins, Dcp1p and Dcp2p, are absolutely required for decapping, although their precise roles in the decapping reaction have not been established. To determine the function of both Dcp1p and Dcp2p in decapping, we purified recombinant versions of these proteins from Escherichia coli and examined their properties. These experiments demonstrate that copurification of Dcp1p and Dcp2p yields active decapping enzyme under a variety of conditions. Moreover, Dcp2p alone can have decapping activity under some biochemical conditions. This suggests that Dcp2p can be a catalytic subunit of the decapping complex, and Dcp1p may function to enhance Dcp2p activity, or as an additional active subunit. In addition, recombinant Dcp1p/Dcp2p prefers long mRNA substrates and is sensitive to inhibition by sequestration of the 5? end but not the 3? end of the substrate. This suggests that Dcp1p/Dcp2p contains an additional RNA-binding site spatially distinct from the active site. Finally, using two RNA-binding proteins that enhance decapping in vivo (Edc1p and Edc2p), we can reconstitute the activation of decapping with recombinant proteins. This indicates that the Edc1 and Edc2 proteins act directly on the decapping enzyme.

STEIGER, MICHELLE; CARR-SCHMID, ANNE; SCHWARTZ, DAVID C.; KILEDJIAN, MEGERDITCH; PARKER, ROY

2003-01-01

320

Yeast two-hybrid liquid screening.  

PubMed

Yeast two-hybrid (YTH) method consists of a genetic trap that selects for "prey" cDNA products within a library that interact with a "bait" protein of interest. Here, we provide a protocol for YTH screening using a liquid medium screening method, which improves the sensitivity of this technique and streamlines the laborious classic screening in solid medium plates. The method uses a simple series of dilutions with established yeast strains transformed with diverse baits and complex cDNA libraries. This allows for prompt detection of positive clones revealed by liquid growth, due to activation of HIS3 reporter gene. Activation of a second reporter gene and reconstruction of the YTH interaction is highly reproducible using this system. This approach can either be performed using culture flasks or deep-well 96-well plates and the number of interactions obtained is similar, when compared to the classic method. In addition, the liquid screening method is faster and more economical for YTH screening and has the added benefit of automation if 96-well plates are used. PMID:24841301

Donnard, Elisa; Queiroz, Erica M; Ortega, J Miguel; Gietz, R Daniel

2014-01-01

321

[Biological value of a yeast isolate].  

PubMed

Subject to determination was the biological value of protein separated from food yeast by using chemical, enzymatic (chargeability with proteolytic enzymes) and biological (growing male rattlings-weanglings with the initial mass of 45 +/- 1.0 g) methods. The protein content (with no account of nucleinic acids) in rations balanced as to all the ingredients and energy amounted to 10 per cent. The experiments lasted for 28 days. In spite of good assailability of the isolate with pepsin and trypsin and a quite satisfactorily balanced of its amino acids the anabolic effect of the compound was found to be rather low, viz. PER--1.8; BV--49.1%; NPU--40.3% and in the control (caseine)--2,1; 79.0; 60.2 per cent, respectively. This is attributed to the deficiency in compound of sulphur-containing amino acids and to a relative excess of lysine. The biological value of the isolate amounted to 71 per cent of that of caseine. The method of separating protein from the yeast biomass does not have any noticeable adverse effect on its biological value. PMID:664548

Petrovski?, K S; Sukhanov, B P; Rogozhin, S V

1978-01-01

322

Yeast cell factories for fine chemical and API production  

PubMed Central

This review gives an overview of different yeast strains and enzyme classes involved in yeast whole-cell biotransformations. A focus was put on the synthesis of compounds for fine chemical and API (= active pharmaceutical ingredient) production employing single or only few-step enzymatic reactions. Accounting for recent success stories in metabolic engineering, the construction and use of synthetic pathways was also highlighted. Examples from academia and industry and advances in the field of designed yeast strain construction demonstrate the broad significance of yeast whole-cell applications. In addition to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alternative yeast whole-cell biocatalysts are discussed such as Candida sp., Cryptococcus sp., Geotrichum sp., Issatchenkia sp., Kloeckera sp., Kluyveromyces sp., Pichia sp. (including Hansenula polymorpha = P. angusta), Rhodotorula sp., Rhodosporidium sp., alternative Saccharomyces sp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulopsis sp., Trichosporon sp., Trigonopsis variabilis, Yarrowia lipolytica and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

Pscheidt, Beate; Glieder, Anton

2008-01-01

323

Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

2014-05-01

324

Lipid raft involvement in yeast cell growth and death  

PubMed Central

The notion that cellular membranes contain distinct microdomains, acting as scaffolds for signal transduction processes, has gained considerable momentum. In particular, a class of such domains that is rich in sphingolipids and cholesterol, termed as lipid rafts, is thought to compartmentalize the plasma membrane, and to have important roles in survival and cell death signaling in mammalian cells. Likewise, yeast lipid rafts are membrane domains enriched in sphingolipids and ergosterol, the yeast counterpart of mammalian cholesterol. Sterol-rich membrane domains have been identified in several fungal species, including the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as well as the pathogens Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Yeast rafts have been mainly involved in membrane trafficking, but increasing evidence implicates rafts in a wide range of additional cellular processes. Yeast lipid rafts house biologically important proteins involved in the proper function of yeast, such as proteins that control Na+, K+, and pH homeostasis, which influence many cellular processes, including cell growth and death. Membrane raft constituents affect drug susceptibility, and drugs interacting with sterols alter raft composition and membrane integrity, leading to yeast cell death. Because of the genetic tractability of yeast, analysis of yeast rafts could be an excellent model to approach unanswered questions of mammalian raft biology, and to understand the role of lipid rafts in the regulation of cell death and survival in human cells. A better insight in raft biology might lead to envisage new raft-mediated approaches to the treatment of human diseases where regulation of cell death and survival is critical, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

Mollinedo, Faustino

2012-01-01

325

Introducing a New Breed of Wine Yeast: Interspecific Hybridisation between a Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae  

PubMed Central

Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

Bellon, Jennifer R.; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L.; Dunn, Barbara L.; Chambers, Paul J.

2013-01-01

326

Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.  

PubMed

Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment. PMID:23614011

Bellon, Jennifer R; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L; Dunn, Barbara L; Chambers, Paul J

2013-01-01

327

Mutations in the SAC1 gene suppress defects in yeast Golgi and yeast actin function  

PubMed Central

The budding mode of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell growth demands that a high degree of secretory polarity be established and directed toward the emerging bud. We report here our demonstration that mutations in SAC1, a gene identified by virtue of its allele-specific genetic interactions with yeast actin defects, were also capable of suppressing sec14 lethalities associated with yeast Golgi defects. Moreover, these sac1 suppressor properties also extended to sec6 and sec9 secretory vesicle defects. The genetic data are consistent with the notion that SAC1p modulates both secretory pathway and actin cytoskeleton function. On this basis, we suggest that SAC1p may represent one aspect of the mechanism whereby secretory and cytoskeletal activities are coordinated, so that proper spatial regulation of secretion might be achieved.

1989-01-01

328

Creation of a novel peptide endowing yeasts with acid tolerance using yeast cell-surface engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an essential role in the biophysical characteristics of the cell surface. The modification of the cell wall property\\u000a is an important factor for cellular adaptation to a stressful environment. In this study, we randomly modified the cell wall\\u000a by displaying combinatorial random peptides on the yeast cell surface, and by screening, we successfully

Ken Matsui; Kouichi Kuroda; Mitsuyoshi Ueda

2009-01-01

329

Yeast K1 Killer Toxin Forms ion Channels in Sensitive Yeast Spheroplasts and in Artificial Liposomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patch-clamp technique was used to examine the plasma membranes of sensitive yeast spheroplasts exposed to partially purified killer toxin preparations. Asolectin liposomes in which the toxin was incorporated were also examined. Excised inside-out patches from these preparations often revealed at 118 pS conductance appearing in pairs. The current through this conductance flickered rapidly among three states: dwelling mostly at

Boris Martinac; Hong Zhu; Andrzej Kubalski; Xinliang Zhou; Michael Culbertson; Howard Bussey; Ching Kung

1990-01-01

330

Mutagenesis in cloned yeast genes. Mutation frequencies in a yeast gene in plasmid and chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast cells were transformed with o-methyl-hydroxylamine-treated plasmid DNA. A collection of mutants possessing a mutated allele of the ADE2 gene in the plasmid was selected. The mutations were subjected to interallelic complementation and suppression-induced interallelic complementation tests. Some of the mutations were imparted to the chromosome via the conversion mechanism. Three pairs of strains, each of which carried an identical

L. M. Gracheva; G. V. Kasinova; V. G. Korolev; I. V. Fedorova

1989-01-01

331

The tomato nia gene promoter functions in fission yeast but not in budding yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fragment comprising 1 kb of the 5' region and the 81 first nucleotides of the coding region of the tomato nitrate reductase nia gene was placed in translational fusion with the lacZ reporter gene. This construct was introduced in budding and in fission yeast using a derivative of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae\\/Schizosaccharomyces pombe autonomously replicating vector pUZL. ß-galactosidase activity was

Hoai-Nam Truong; Michel Caboche; Françoise Daniel-Vedele

1992-01-01

332

[Interrelationships between yeast fungi and collembolans in soil].  

PubMed

The possibility of feeding on green and newly fallen leaves of the small-leaved lime Tilia cordata was studied for the collembolans Protaphorura armata and Vertagopus pseudocinereus. Young leaves grown under sterile conditions and almost free of yeast fungi were established to be toxic to the collembolan V. pseudocinereus: feeding on them led to the death of the animals. Leaves grown under natural conditions were nontoxic: when used by the collembolans as feed, they provided for collembolan growth and fecundity. Feeding preferences of the collembolans in relation to the yeasts attributed to different ecomorphs-epiphytes, litter saprophytes, pedobionts, and saccharobionts-were studied. Of the 24 yeast strains isolated from plant green parts, litter, and soil and assigned to eight species, no strain was revealed that was not used by the collembolans. However, certain yeast strains were preferable for the collembolans. The population of the V. pseudocinereus collembolans feeding on the yeast Rhodotorula glutinis (nss 31-4) exceeded that grown on Cryptococcus terricola (2044) 1.5-fold. Thus, the collembolans have feeding preferences in relation to yeast fungi, as was shown earlier for mycelial micromycetes. The possible mechanisms of the feeding preferences of the collembolans in relation to yeasts are discussed. PMID:17205807

Men'ko, E V; Chernov, I Iu; Byzov, B A

2006-01-01

333

Carboxylase Levels and Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Baker's Yeast  

PubMed Central

Levels of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), phosphopyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), and malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) were compared in wild-type bakers' yeast (I), a cytoplasmic-respiratory mutant (II), a biotin-deficient wild-type yeast (III), and a biotin-deficient respiratory mutant (IV). PC activities were greatly reduced in III and IV, whereas PEPC was reduced in II and IV. Malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) could not be detected in any of the yeasts. With yeast I growing on glucose as the sole carbon source, PEPC decreased to negligible levels during the logarithmic phase of growth (glucose repression effect), whereas PC increased. Both enzymes reverted to their original levels during the stationary phase, when glucose in the medium was exhausted. In agreement with the leading role of PC for CO2 assimilation, the rates of 14CO2 fixation in yeasts I and II were approximately equal and were much higher than that in yeast IV. With I and II, most of the 14C was distributed similarly in oxalacetate derivatives; with yeast IV, most of 14C appeared in a compound apparently unrelated to CO2 fixation via C4-dicarboxylic acids.

Cazzulo, J. J.; Claisse, L. M.; Stoppani, A. O. M.

1968-01-01

334

The beetle gut: a hyperdiverse source of novel yeasts  

PubMed Central

We isolated over 650 yeasts over a three year period from the gut of a variety of beetles and characterized them on the basis of LSU rDNA sequences and morphological and metabolic traits. Of these, at least 200 were undescribed taxa, a number equivalent to almost 30% of all currently recognized yeast species. A Bayesian analysis of species discovery rates predicts further sampling of previously sampled habitats could easily produce another 100 species. The sampled habitat is, thereby, estimated to contain well over half as many more species as are currently known worldwide. The beetle gut yeasts occur in 45 independent lineages scattered across the yeast phylogenetic tree, often in clusters. The distribution suggests that the some of the yeasts diversified by a process of horizontal transmission in the habitats and subsequent specialization in association with insect hosts. Evidence of specialization comes from consistent associations over time and broad geographical ranges of certain yeast and beetle species. The discovery of high yeast diversity in a previously unexplored habitat is a first step toward investigating the basis of the interactions and their impact in relation to ecology and evolution.

SUH, Sung-Oui; McHUGH, Joseph V.; POLLOCK, David D.; BLACKWELL, Meredith

2010-01-01

335

Biosynthesis of Crystalline Silver and Gold Nanoparticles by Extremophilic Yeasts  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated using an extremophilic yeast strain isolated from acid mine drainage in Portugal. Three distinct studies were performed, namely, the growth of yeast strain in presence of metal ions, the use of yeast biomass for the metal nanoparticles synthesis, and of the supernatant obtained after 24-hour incubation of yeast biomass in water. The extremophilic strain under study was able to grow up to an Ag ion concentration of 1.5?mM whereas an increase of Au ion concentration over 0.09?mM caused a strong inhibitory effect. A successful route for the metal NPs synthesis was obtained using the yeast biomass. When the washed yeast cells were in contact with Ag or Au solutions, AgNPs smaller than 20?nm were produced, as for the AuNPs diameter ranged from 30 to 100?nm, as determined through transmission electron microscopy and confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectra. The supernatant-based strategy provided evidence that proteins were released to the medium by the yeasts, which could be responsible for the formation and stabilisation of the Ag NPs, although the involvement of the cell wall seems fundamental for AuNPs synthesis.

Mourato, Ana; Gadanho, Mario; Lino, Ana R.; Tenreiro, Rogerio

2011-01-01

336

Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

337

Biocavity laser spectroscopy of genetically altered yeast cells and isolated yeast mitochondria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an analysis of 2 yeast cell mutants using biocavity laser spectroscopy. The two yeast strains differed only by the presence or absence of mitochondrial DNA. Strain 104 is a wild-type (?+) strain of the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strain 110 was derived from strain 104 by removal of its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Removal of mtDNA causes strain 110 to grow as a "petite" (?-), named because it forms small colonies (of fewer cells because it grows more slowly) on agar plates supplemented with a variety of different carbon sources. The absence of mitochondrial DNA results in the complete loss of all the mtDNA-encoded proteins and RNAs, and loss of the pigmented, heme-containing cytochromes a and b. These cells have mitochondria, but the mitochondria lack the normal respiratory chain complexes I, III, IV, and V. Complex II is preserved because its subunits are encoded by genes located in nuclear DNA. The frequency distributions of the peak shifts produced by wild-type and petite cells and mitochondria show striking differences in the symmetry and patterns of the distributions. Wild-type ?+ cells (104) and mitochondria produced nearly symmetric, Gaussian distributions. The ?- cells (110) and mitochondria showed striking asymmetry and skew that appeared to follow a Poisson distribution.

Gourley, Paul L.; Hendricks, Judy K.; McDonald, Anthony E.; Copeland, R. Guild; Naviaux, Robert K.; Yaffe, Michael P.

2006-03-01

338

Comparative analysis of cytokinesis in budding yeast, fission yeast and animal cells.  

PubMed

Cytokinesis is a temporally and spatially regulated process through which the cellular constituents of the mother cell are partitioned into two daughter cells, permitting an increase in cell number. When cytokinesis occurs in a polarized cell it can create daughters with distinct fates. In eukaryotes, cytokinesis is carried out by the coordinated action of a cortical actomyosin contractile ring and targeted membrane deposition. Recent use of model organisms with facile genetics and improved light-microscopy methods has led to the identification and functional characterization of many proteins involved in cytokinesis. To date, this analysis indicates that some of the basic components involved in cytokinesis are conserved from yeast to humans, although their organization into functional machinery that drives cytokinesis and the associated regulatory mechanisms bear species-specific features. Here, we briefly review the current status of knowledge of cytokinesis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and animal cells, in an attempt to highlight both the common and the unique features. Although these organisms diverged from a common ancestor about a billion years ago, there are eukaryotes that are far more divergent. To evaluate the overall evolutionary conservation of cytokinesis, it will be necessary to include representatives of these divergent branches. Nevertheless, the three species discussed here provide substantial mechanistic diversity. PMID:15380095

Balasubramanian, Mohan K; Bi, Erfei; Glotzer, Michael

2004-09-21

339

Ordering the final events in yeast exocytosis.  

PubMed

In yeast, assembly of exocytic soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes between the secretory vesicle SNARE Sncp and the plasma membrane SNAREs Ssop and Sec9p occurs at a late stage of the exocytic reaction. Mutations that block either secretory vesicle delivery or tethering prevent SNARE complex assembly and the localization of Sec1p, a SNARE complex binding protein, to sites of secretion. By contrast, wild-type levels of SNARE complexes persist in the sec1-1 mutant after a secretory block is imposed, suggesting a role for Sec1p after SNARE complex assembly. In the sec18-1 mutant, cis-SNARE complexes containing surface-accessible Sncp accumulate in the plasma membrane. Thus, one function of Sec18p is to disassemble SNARE complexes on the postfusion membrane. PMID:11038189

Grote, E; Carr, C M; Novick, P J

2000-10-16

340

Dynamics of glucose consumption in yeast.  

PubMed

When a continuously grown yeast culture was allowed to rest at the low dilution rate for an extended time period and was then challenged by increasing the dilution rate, applied as a step function, an overshoot of the concentration of residual glucose occurred reproducibly. A structural extension of the bottleneck model describing another intracellular bottleneck in glucose consumption allowed to predict such overshoots quantitatively. The model assumes that an intracellular enzymatic pool increases in response to a challenge by excess substrate supply, and experimentally, the relaxation time was determined to be on the order of 1 h. When the culture is reset to more limiting conditions, the enzymatic pool shrinks with a relaxation time determined by the reciprocal of the current specific growth rate. Generalized, microbial populations do memorize their (recent) history by adapting their metabolic outfit. PMID:9041706

Sonnleitner, B; Rothen, S A; Kuriyama, H

1997-01-01

341

Cell population modelling of yeast glycolytic oscillations.  

PubMed Central

We investigated a cell-population modelling technique in which the population is constructed from an ensemble of individual cell models. The average value or the number distribution of any intracellular property captured by the individual cell model can be calculated by simulation of a sufficient number of individual cells. The proposed method is applied to a simple model of yeast glycolytic oscillations where synchronization of the cell population is mediated by the action of an excreted metabolite. We show that smooth one-dimensional distributions can be obtained with ensembles comprising 1000 individual cells. Random variations in the state and/or structure of individual cells are shown to produce complex dynamic behaviours which cannot be adequately captured by small ensembles.

Henson, Michael A; Muller, Dirk; Reuss, Matthias

2002-01-01

342

Chromosome Dynamics in the Yeast Interphase Nucleus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the dynamics of chromosomes in interphase nuclei. By tagging four chromosomal regions with a green fluorescent protein fusion to lac repressor, we monitored the movement and subnuclear position of specific sites in the yeast genome, sampling at short time intervals. We found that early and late origins of replication are highly mobile in G1 phase, frequently moving at or faster than 0.5 micrometers/10 seconds, in an energy-dependent fashion. The rapid diffusive movement of chromatin detected in G1 becomes constrained in S phase through a mechanism dependent on active DNA replication. In contrast, telomeres and centromeres provide replication-independent constraint on chromatin movement in both G1 and S phases.

Heun, Patrick; Laroche, Thierry; Shimada, Kenji; Furrer, Patrick; Gasser, Susan M.

2001-12-01

343

Phyllosphere yeasts rapidly break down biodegradable plastics  

PubMed Central

The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily isolated from plant surfaces, displayed strong degradation activity on films made from poly-butylene succinate or poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate. Strains of P. antarctica isolated from leaves and husks of paddy rice displayed strong degradation activity on these films at 30°C. The type strain, P. antarctica JCM 10317, and Pseudozyma spp. strains from phyllosphere secreted a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme with a molecular mass of about 22 kDa. Reliable source of biodegradable plastic-degrading microorganisms are now in our hands.

2011-01-01

344

Phyllosphere yeasts rapidly break down biodegradable plastics.  

PubMed

The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily isolated from plant surfaces, displayed strong degradation activity on films made from poly-butylene succinate or poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate. Strains of P. antarctica isolated from leaves and husks of paddy rice displayed strong degradation activity on these films at 30°C. The type strain, P. antarctica JCM 10317, and Pseudozyma spp. strains from phyllosphere secreted a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme with a molecular mass of about 22 kDa. Reliable source of biodegradable plastic-degrading microorganisms are now in our hands. PMID:22126328

Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Cao, Xiao-Hong; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Tago, Kanako; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Tsushima, Seiya

2011-01-01

345

Sporulation in the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

In response to nitrogen starvation in the presence of a poor carbon source, diploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo meiosis and package the haploid nuclei produced in meiosis into spores. The formation of spores requires an unusual cell division event in which daughter cells are formed within the cytoplasm of the mother cell. This process involves the de novo generation of two different cellular structures: novel membrane compartments within the cell cytoplasm that give rise to the spore plasma membrane and an extensive spore wall that protects the spore from environmental insults. This article summarizes what is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling spore assembly with particular attention to how constitutive cellular functions are modified to create novel behaviors during this developmental process. Key regulatory points on the sporulation pathway are also discussed as well as the possible role of sporulation in the natural ecology of S. cerevisiae.

Neiman, Aaron M.

2011-01-01

346

Transcriptional regulation at the yeast nuclear envelope  

PubMed Central

The spatial organization of the genome inside the nucleus affects many nuclear processes, such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and gene transcription. In metazoans, the nuclear periphery harbors mainly repressed genes that associate with the nuclear lamina. This review discusses how peripheral positioning is connected to transcriptional regulation in yeasts. Tethering of reporter genes to the nuclear envelope was found to result in transcriptional silencing. Similarly, repression of the silent mating type loci and subtelomeric genes is influenced by their position close to the nuclear envelope. In contrast, active genes are bound by nucleoporins and inducible genes associate with the nuclear pore complex upon activation. Taken together, these results portray the nuclear envelope as a platform for transcriptional regulation, both through activation at nuclear pores and silencing at the nuclear envelope.

Steglich, Babett; Sazer, Shelley; Ekwall, Karl

2013-01-01

347

Unsuspected pyocyanin effect in yeast under anaerobiosis  

PubMed Central

The blue–green phenazine, Pyocyanin (PYO), is a well-known virulence factor produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, notably during cystic fibrosis lung infections. It is toxic to both eukaryotic and bacterial cells and several mechanisms, including the induction of oxidative stress, have been postulated. However, the mechanism of PYO toxicity under the physiological conditions of oxygen limitation that are encountered by P. aeruginosa and by target organisms in vivo remains unclear. In this study, wild-type and mutant strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as an effective eukaryotic model to determine the toxicity of PYO (100–500??mol/L) under key growth conditions. Under respiro-fermentative conditions (with glucose as substrate), WT strains and certain H2O2-hypersensitive strains showed a low-toxic response to PYO. Under respiratory conditions (with glycerol as substrate) all the strains tested were significantly more sensitive to PYO. Four antioxidants were tested but only N-acetylcysteine was capable of partially counteracting PYO toxicity. PYO did not appear to affect short-term respiratory O2 uptake, but it did seem to interfere with cyanide-poisoned mitochondria through a complex III-dependent mechanism. Therefore, a combination of oxidative stress and respiration disturbance could partly explain aerobic PYO toxicity. Surprisingly, the toxic effects of PYO were more significant under anaerobic conditions. More pronounced effects were observed in several strains including a ‘petite’ strain lacking mitochondrial DNA, strains with increased or decreased levels of ABC transporters, and strains deficient in DNA damage repair. Therefore, even though PYO is toxic for actively respiring cells, O2 may indirectly protect the cells from the higher anaerobic-linked toxicity of PYO. The increased sensitivity to PYO under anaerobic conditions is not unique to S. cerevisiae and was also observed in another yeast, Candida albicans.

Barakat, Rana; Goubet, Isabelle; Manon, Stephen; Berges, Thierry; Rosenfeld, Eric

2014-01-01

348

High-Frequency Transformation of Yeast: Autonomous Replication of Hybrid DNA Molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of vector DNAs (Y vectors) useful for the cloning of DNA fragments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and in Escherichia coli are characterized. With these vectors, three modes of yeast transformation are defined. (i) Vectors containing yeast chromosomal DNA sequences (YIp1, YIp5) transform yeast cells at low frequency (1-10 colonies per mu g) and integrate into the genome by

Kevin Struhl; Dan T. Stinchcomb; Stewart Scherer; Ronald W. Davis

1979-01-01

349

The costs and benefits of killer toxin production by the yeast Pichia kluyveri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous yeast species in many genera are able to produce and excrete extracellular toxic proteins (mycocins) that can kill other specific sensitive yeasts. Natural distributions of killer yeasts suggest that they may be important in maintaining community composition and provide a benefit to the toxin producing cells. The fact that not all yeasts are killers and that polymorphisms exist within

Jason Pintar; William T. Starmer

2003-01-01

350

Tailoring wine yeast for the new millennium: novel approaches to the ancient art of winemaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts are predominant in the ancient and complex process of winemaking. In spontaneous fermentations, there is a progressive growth pattern of indigenous yeasts, with the final stages invariably being dominated by the alcohol-tolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This species is universally known as the 'wine yeast' and is widely preferred for initiating wine fermentations. The primary role of wine yeast

Isak S. Pretorius

2000-01-01

351

Regulation of yeast replicative life span by thiol oxidoreductases  

PubMed Central

Thiol-based redox reactions are involved in the regulation of a variety of biological functions, such as protection against oxidative stress, signal transduction and protein folding. Some proteins involved in redox regulation have been shown to modulate life span in organisms from yeast to mammals. To assess the role of thiol oxidoreductases in aging on a genome-wide scale, we analyzed the replicative life span of yeast cells lacking known and candidate thiol oxidoreductases. The data suggest the role of several pathways in regulation of yeast aging, including thioredoxin reduction, protein folding and degradation, peroxide reduction, PIP3 signaling, and ATP synthesis.

Hacioglu, Elise; Esmer, Isil; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Koc, Ahmet

2011-01-01

352

The complexity and implications of yeast prion domains  

PubMed Central

Prions are infectious proteins with altered conformations converted from otherwise normal host proteins. While there is only one known mammalian prion protein, PrP, a handful of prion proteins have been identified in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast prion proteins usually have a defined region called prion domain (PrD) essential for prion properties, which are typically rich in glutamine (Q) and asparagine (N). Despite sharing several common features, individual yeast PrDs are generally intricate and divergent in their compositional characteristics, which potentially implicates their prion phenotypes, such as prion-mediated transcriptional regulations.

2011-01-01

353

Yeast Cells Respire, Too (But Not Like Me and You)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Each student adds a small amount of baking yeast to a test tube filled with diluted molasses. A second, smaller test tube is then placed upside-down inside the solution. As the yeast cells respire, the carbon dioxide they produce is trapped inside the inverted test tube, producing a growing bubble of gas that is easily observed and measured. Students are presented with the procedure for designing an effective experiment; they learn to think critically about experimental results and indirect observations of experimental events.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

354

Yeast surface display for protein engineering and characterization  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances Yeast surface display is being employed to engineer desirable properties into proteins for a broad variety of applications. Labeling with soluble ligands enables rapid and quantitative analysis of yeast-displayed libraries by flow cytometry, while libraries with insoluble or even as-yet-uncharacterized binding targets can be screened through cell-surface selections. In parallel, the utilization of yeast surface display for protein characterization, including in particular the mapping of functional epitopes mediating protein-protein interactions, represents a significant recent advance.

Gai, S Annie; Wittrup, K Dane

2014-01-01

355

Organoleptic Analysis of Doughs Fermented with Yeasts From A Nigerian Palm Wine (Elaeis guineensis) and Certain Commercial Yeasts  

PubMed Central

Yeasts isolated from a freshly tapped palm wine obtained from Akure, Nigeria were identified as Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Geotrichum lactis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Each of the isolates was used to ferment wheat flour dough and baked. Sensory analysis of the doughs was carried out on leavening, texture, aroma, taste and appearance. Saccharomyces cerevisiae performed best in leavening the dough while Debaryomyces hansenii produced doughs with the best taste and aroma. Appearances of the doughs made with all the isolated yeasts did not differ significantly (P<0.05) from that of the dough that lacked yeast.

B, Boboye; I, Dayo-Owoyemi; F. A, Akinyosoye

2008-01-01

356

Pichia sporocuriosa sp. nov., a new yeast isolated from rambutan.  

PubMed

A strain of a hitherto undescribed yeast species with a unique ascospore morphology was isolated from rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum). A description of the new species, Pichia sporocuriosa, is given. PMID:10696876

Péter, G; Tornai-Lehoczki, J; Dlauchy, D; Vitányi, G

2000-01-01

357

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis ) using the sprout portion of malt barley as the source of...

2009-04-01

358

The Uptake of Aromatic and Branched Chain Hydrocarbons by Yeast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of the hydrocarbon utilizing yeasts, Candida maltosa and C. lipolytica, have shown that both were capable of reducing recoverable amounts of branched chain and aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture of naphthalene, tetradecane, hexadecane, pristane (t...

S. A. Crow S. L. Bell D. G. Ahearn

1980-01-01

359

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis ) using the sprout portion of malt barley as the source of enzymes. The additive contains a maximum of 6 percent...

2013-04-01

360

Pectinolytic enzymes secreted by yeasts from tropical fruits.  

PubMed

Three hundred yeasts isolated from tropical fruits were screened in relation to secretion of pectinases. Twenty-one isolates were able to produce polygalacturonase and among them seven isolates could secrete pectin lyase. None of the isolates was able to secrete pectin methylesterase. The pectinolytic yeasts identified belonged to six different genera. Kluyveromyces wickerhamii isolated from the fruit mangaba (Hancornia speciosa) secreted the highest amount of polygalacturonase, followed by K. marxianus and Stephanoascus smithiae. The yeast Debaryomyces hansenii produced the greatest decrease in viscosity while only 3% of the glycosidic linkages were hydrolysed, indicating that the enzyme secreted was an endo-polygalacturonase. The hydrolysis of pectin by polygalacturonase secreted by S. smithiae suggested an exo-splitting mechanism. The other yeast species studied showed low polygalacturonase activity. PMID:15925314

da Silva, Evânia Geralda; de Fátima Borges, Maria; Medina, Clara; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2005-06-01

361

Production and Localization of Inulinases in 'Kluyveromyces' Yeasts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the thesis a physiological study on the production and localization of inulinase in Kluyveromyces yeasts, and especially in K. marxianus var. marxianus CBS 6556, is presented. It includes a biochemical study into the nature of the glycoprotein inulinas...

R. J. Rouwenhorst

1990-01-01

362

Baker's yeast assay procedure for testing heavy metal toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is microorganism which is commercially available and sold as packaged dry pellets in any food store at low cost. Studies have been undertaken on the effects of organic xenobiotics as well as heavy metals on yeast metabolism. This type of study has been generally useful in examining the mechanism(s) of chemical toxicity. However, a rapid and quantitative toxicity test using S. cerevisiae as the test organism has not been developed. The purpose of this study was to develop a toxicity assay for heavy metals, using commercial dry yeast as the test microorganism. This rapid and simple procedure is based on the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) to INT-formazan by the yeast electron transport system. The scoring of active cells following exposure to heavy metals was undertaken according to the MINT (malachite green-INT) method developed by Bitton and Koopman.

Bitton, G.; Koopman, B.; Wang, H.D.

1984-01-01

363

THE UPTAKE OF AROMATIC AND BRANCHED CHAIN HYDROCARBONS BY YEAST  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies of the hydrocarbon utilizing yeasts, Candida maltosa and C. lipolytica, have shown that both were capable of reducing recoverable amounts of branched chain and aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture of naphthalene, tetradecane, hexadecane, pristane (tetra-methylpentadecane). ...

364

Evaluation of the updated Vitek yeast identification data base.  

PubMed Central

Using 398 isolates of yeasts and yeastlike fungi comprising 9 genera and 26 species, as well as the hyphomycete Geotrichum candidum and the achlorophyllous alga Prototheca wickerhamii, we compared the API 20C yeast identification system with the modified Vitek yeast identification system with an expanded data base. We found 11 discrepancies between the two systems: five (1.3%) of the isolates (Blastoschizomyces capitatus, 1; Candida albicans, 1; Hansenula anomala, 1; Rhodotorula minuta, 2) had biocodes not included in the expanded Vitek data base, and six (1.5%) of the isolates (Candida lusitaniae, 1; Candida parapsilosis, 1; Cryptococcus uniguttulatus, 1; H. anomala, 1; Torulopsis candida, 2) were misidentified by the Vitek system. Overall, the efficacy of the Vitek system compares favorably with that of the API 20C in the identification of clinically important yeasts.

el-Zaatari, M; Pasarell, L; McGinnis, M R; Buckner, J; Land, G A; Salkin, I F

1990-01-01

365

Respiration in the yeast and mycelial phases of Histoplasma capsulatum.  

PubMed Central

Respiration in the yeast and mycelial phases of Histoplasma capsulatum proceeds via a cytochrome system and an alternate oxidase, both present constitutively. The mycelial cytochrome system is distinguished by an additional partial shunt around the antimycin-sensitive site.

Maresca, B; Lambowitz, A M; Kobayashi, G S; Medoff, G

1979-01-01

366

The Benefits of Humanized Yeast Models to Study Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be a useful model system to investigate fundamental questions concerning the pathogenic role of human proteins in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). These so-called humanized yeast models for PD initially focused on ?-synuclein, which plays a key role in the etiology of PD. Upon expression of this human protein in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the events leading to aggregation and the molecular mechanisms that result in cellular toxicity are faithfully reproduced. More recently, a similar model to study the presumed pathobiology of the ?-synuclein interaction partner synphilin-1 has been established. In this review we will discuss recent advances using these humanized yeast models, pointing to new roles for cell wall integrity signaling, Ca2+ homeostasis, mitophagy, and the cytoskeleton.

Franssens, V.; Bynens, T.; Van den Brande, J.; Vandermeeren, K.; Verduyckt, M.; Winderickx, J.

2013-01-01

367

The role of mitochondria in yeast programmed cell death  

PubMed Central

Mammalian apoptosis and yeast programmed cell death (PCD) share a variety of features including reactive oxygen species production, protease activity and a major role played by mitochondria. In view of this, and of the distinctive characteristics differentiating yeast and multicellular organism PCD, the mitochondrial contribution to cell death in the genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been intensively investigated. In this mini-review we report whether and how yeast mitochondrial function and proteins belonging to oxidative phosphorylation, protein trafficking into and out of mitochondria, and mitochondrial dynamics, play a role in PCD. Since in PCD many processes take place over time, emphasis will be placed on an experimental model based on acetic acid-induced PCD (AA-PCD) which has the unique feature of having been investigated as a function of time. As will be described there are at least two AA-PCD pathways each with a multifaceted role played by mitochondrial components, in particular by cytochrome c.

Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Zdralevic, Masa; Antonacci, Lucia; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia; Giannattasio, Sergio

2012-01-01

368

Fermentation of Soluble Cello-Oligosaccharides by Yeasts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yeast strains that ferment cellobiose were examined with respect to fermentation on soluble cellodextrin preparations. Hydrolysis of the fermentation products was followed using thin layer chromatography. Candida and Brettanomyces sp. hydrolyze cellobiose...

S. M. Lastick D. D. Spindler K. Grohmann

1983-01-01

369

Thymine-Thymine Dimer Bypass by Yeast DNA Polymerase zeta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The REV3 and REV7 genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are required for DNA damage-induced mutagenesis. The Rev3 and Rev7 proteins were shown to form a complex with DNA polymerase activity. This polymerase replicated past a thyminethymine cis-syn cyclobutane dimer, a lesion that normally severely inhibits replication, with an efficiency of ~10 percent. In contrast, bypass replication efficiency with yeast

John R. Nelson; Christopher W. Lawrence; David C. Hinkle

1996-01-01

370

Determination of Glucose Concentration in Yeast Culture Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper describes a sensor for measuring the glucose concentration of yeast culture medium. The sensor determines glucose concentration by measuring the yield of hydrogen peroxide produced by glucose oxidase, which is monitored as luminescence using photomultiplier. The present sensor is able to measure low glucose concentration in media in which yeast cells keep respiration state. We herein describe the system and the characteristics of the glucose sensor.

Hara, Seiichi; Kishimoto, Tomokazu; Muraji, Masafumi; Tsujimoto, Hiroaki; Azuma, Masayuki; Ooshima, Hiroshi

371

Construction of a flocculating yeast for fructose production from inulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction of flocculating yeast lacking for fructose utilisation was realised by integration of the FLO1 flocculation gene in the ribosomal DNA of an hexokinase deficient (hxk1, hxk2) Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (ATCC36859). Simultaneous production of ethanol and fructose was obtained from glucose\\/fructose mixtures or from hydrolysed Jerusalem artichoke extracts using the transformed yeast in batch fermentations and in a continuous reactor

F. Remize; S. Schorr-Galindo; J. P. Giraud; S. Dequin; B. Blondin

1998-01-01

372

Ethanol production at elevated temperatures using encapsulation of yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of macroencapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066 to produce ethanol at elevated temperatures was investigated in consecutive batch and continuous cultures. Prior to cultivation yeast was confined inside alginate–chitosan capsules composed of an outer semi-permeable membrane and an inner liquid core. The encapsulated yeast could successfully ferment 30g\\/L glucose and produce ethanol at a high yield in five consecutive

Päivi Ylitervo; Carl Johan Franzén; Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

2011-01-01

373

Dried yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisae) as a protein source for horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of dried yeast in the diet of foals when replacing soybean meal to provide 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 of the main protein source. Two trials were performed. Trial one was done to evaluate the influence of yeast on the digestibility of the five diets. Ten foals were kept

B. Winkler; H. Tosi; A. J. F. Webster; F. D. Resende; A. A. M. A. Oliveira; L. C. V. Villela

2011-01-01

374

Yeast viral killer toxins: lethality and self-protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of toxin-secreting killer yeasts more than 40 years ago, research into this phenomenon has provided insights into eukaryotic cell biology and virus–host-cell interactions. This review focuses on the most recent advances in our understanding of the basic biology of virus-carrying killer yeasts, in particular the toxin-encoding killer viruses, and the intracellular processing, maturation and toxicity of the

Frank Breinig; Manfred J. Schmitt

2006-01-01

375

Occurrence and diversity of marine yeasts in Antarctica environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 28 yeast strains were obtained from the sea sediment of Antarctica. According to the results of routine identification and molecular characterization, the strains belonged to species of Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula slooffiae, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mrakia frigida and Guehomyces pullulans, respectively. The Antarctica yeasts have wide potential applications in biotechnology, for some of them can produce ?-galactosidase and killer toxins.

Zhang, Xue; Hua, Mingxia; Song, Chunli; Chi, Zhenming

2012-03-01

376

Williopsis saturnus yeast killer toxin does not kill Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human bacterial pathogen, and the increase in antibiotic resistance demands the development of new antimicrobial\\u000a compounds. Several reports have suggested that yeast killer toxins show activity against bacteria and we therefore investigated\\u000a the activity of K9 killer toxin from the yeast Williopsis saturnus var. mrakii NCYC 500 against S. pneumoniae. However, no inhibition of bacterial

Irma Ochigava; Phillip J. Collier; Graeme M. Walker; Regine Hakenbeck

2011-01-01

377

Sterol Esterification in Yeast: A Two-Gene Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unesterified sterol modulates the function of eukaryotic membranes. In human cells, sterol is esterified to a storage form by acyl-coenzyme A (CoA): cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT). Here, two genes are identified, ARE1 and ARE2, that encode ACAT-related enzymes in yeast. The yeast enzymes are 49 percent identical to each other and exhibit 23 percent identity to human ACAT. Deletion of

Hongyuan Yang; Martin Bard; Debora A. Bruner; Anne Gleeson; Richard J. Deckelbaum; Gordana Aljinovic; Thomas M. Pohl; Rodney Rothstein; Stephen L. Sturley

1996-01-01

378

Opportunistic yeast infections: candidiasis, cryptococcosis, trichosporonosis and geotrichosis.  

PubMed

Opportunistic yeast infections are diseases caused by fungi which normally are saprophytic and do not cause disease in humans or animals. The prevalence of these diseases has been increasing due to immunosuppressive, corticosteroid, and long-term antibiotic treatment following organ transplantation or after serious metabolic, hematological, or immunological diseases. We review epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of the four "big" opportunistic yeast infections: candidiasis, cryptococcosis, trichosporonosis, and geotrichosis. PMID:23621330

Vázquez-González, Denisse; Perusquía-Ortiz, Ana María; Hundeiker, Max; Bonifaz, Alexandro

2013-05-01

379

Occurrence of Yeasts in Cloacae of Migratory Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of yeast have been reported as pathogens in humans based on increases in immunodeficiency syndromes and as\\u000a a result of immunosuppressant chemotherapy in cancer treatment. Domestic and wild birds are known to act as carriers of human\\u000a pathogenic fungi. To gain additional information on the yeasts present in the cloacae of some species of migratory birds,\\u000a 421 wild

C. Cafarchia; A. Camarda; D. Romito; M. Campolo; N. C. Quaglia; D. Tullio; D. Otranto

2006-01-01

380

A quantitative screening of some xylose-fermenting yeast isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A quantitative screening procedure for xylose fermentation was conducted on 56 yeast isolates. Several of the isolates were found to be markedly superior toC. shehatae CSIR-Y492, one of the better xylose-fermenting yeasts identified thus far. The outstanding isolate was a strain ofPichia stipitis which had an ethanol yield coefficient of 0.45 from xylose and which produced no detectable amounts

J. C. du Preez; B. A. Prior

1985-01-01

381

Electrostatic generation of alginate microbeads loaded with brewing yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substantial concern with the possible use of immobilized yeast cells for beer production is reduction of internal mass transfer resistance during continuous fermentation. One way to minimise this problem is to use small-diameter beads. The effects of bead diameters in the range 0.3–2.0 mm on yeast cell immobilization and growth over a short-term cultivation were investigated. Bead diameters in

Viktor A Nedovi?; Bojana Obradovi?; Ida Leskošek-?ukalovi?; Olivera Trifunovi?; Radojica Peši?; Branko Bugarski

2001-01-01

382

Hydrolysis of grape glycosides by enological yeast ?-glucosidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three enological yeast strains, belonging to the speciesDebaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, andSaccharomyces cerevisiae, characterized by an exocellular ?-glucosidase activity, were examined for their ability to hydrolize a glycosidic extract from grape juice. The enzymatic preparations (culture supernant fluid) of the different yeasts released different amounts of terpenols such as linalol, ?-terpineol, geraniol, nerol, citronellol and benzyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohol. The

I. Rosi; P. Domizio; M. Vinella; M. Salicone

1995-01-01

383

Gene dosage-dependent secretion of yeast vacuolar carboxypeptidase Y  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural gene for yeast vacuolar car- boxypeptidase Y (PRC1) has been cloned by comple- mentation of the prcl-1 mutation. As much as an eighffold elevation in the level of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) results when a multiple-copy plasmid contain- ing the PRC1 gene is introduced into yeast. Unlike the situation with a single copy of PRC1 in which newly synthesized

Tom H. Stevens; Joel H. Rothman; Gregory S. Payne; Randy Sehekman

1986-01-01

384

Direct transfer of whole genomes from bacteria to yeast  

PubMed Central

Transfer of genomes into yeast facilitates genome engineering for genetically intractable organisms, but this process has been hampered by the need for cumbersome isolation of intact genomes before transfer. Here we demonstrate direct cell-to-cell transfer of bacterial genomes as large as 1.8 megabases (mb) into yeast under conditions that promote cell fusion. Moreover, we discovered that removal of restriction endonucleases from donor bacteria resulted in the enhancement of genome transfer.

Karas, Bogumil J; Jablanovic, Jelena; Sun, Lijie; Ma, Li; Goldgof, Gregory M; Stam, Jason; Ramon, Adi; Manary, Micah J; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Venter, J Craig; Weyman, Philip D; Gibson, Daniel G; Glass, John I; Hutchison, Clyde A; Smith, Hamilton O; Suzuki, Yo

2014-01-01

385

[The homogeneity of a population of yeasts from Camembert cheeses].  

PubMed

Yeasts are found to a large extent in cheeses, more particularly in soft cheeses such as Camembert. The proximity between two species previously identified by standard methods was studied using a factorial discriminant analysis on 326 strains. Twenty-three fermentation and assimilation tests (discriminant variables) gave a fairly good discrimination between species. This treatment has allowed us to confirm the present tendencies noticed in yeast classification and has also enabled us to group some of the species. PMID:6638756

Schmidt, J L; Daudin, J J

1983-01-01

386

Electric field-induced effects on yeast cell wall permeabilization.  

PubMed

The permeability of the yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to lipophilic tetraphenylphosphonium cations (TPP(+) ) after their treatment with single square-shaped strong electric field pulses was analyzed. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) with durations from 5 to 150?µs and strengths from 0 to 10?kV/cm were applied to a standard electroporation cuvette filled with the appropriate buffer. The TPP(+) absorption process was analyzed using an ion selective microelectrode (ISE) and the plasma membrane permeability was determined by measurements obtained using a calcein blue dye release assay. The viability of the yeast and the inactivation of the cells were determined using the optical absorbance method. The experimental data taken after yeasts were treated with PEF and incubated for 3?min showed an increased uptake of TPP(+) by the yeast. This process can be controlled by setting the amplitude and pulse duration of the applied PEF. The kinetics of the TPP(+) absorption process is described using the second order absolute rate equation. It was concluded that the changes of the charge on the yeast cell wall, which is the main barrier for TPP(+) , is due to the poration of the plasma membrane. The applicability of the TPP(+) absorption measurements for the analysis of yeast cells electroporation process is also discussed. PMID:24203648

Stirke, Arunas; Zimkus, Aurelijus; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Balevicius, Saulius; Zurauskiene, Nerija; Saulis, Gintautas; Chaustova, Larisa; Stankevic, Voitech; Ramanavicius, Arunas

2014-02-01

387

Fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel screening methodology based on the combined use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence (CGE-LIF) is developed for the fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine. As model, a recombinant EKD-13 Saccaromyces cerevisiae strain was selected and different wines were prepared using either recombinant or conventional yeasts. Special emphasis is put on the yeast DNA extraction step, exploring different commercial and non-commercial methods, in order to overcome the important difficulty of obtaining amplifiable DNA from wine samples. To unequivocally detect the transgenic yeast, two specific segments of the transgenic construction were amplified. In addition, a third primer pair was used as amplification control to confirm the quality of the yeast DNA obtained from the extraction step. CGE-LIF provides high sensitivity, good analysis speed and impressive resolution of DNA fragments, making this technique very convenient to optimize multiplex PCR parameters and to analyze the amplified DNA fragments. Thus, the CGE-LIF method provided %RSD values for DNA migration times lower than 0.82% (n=10) with the same capillary and lower than 1.92% (n=15) with three different capillaries, allowing the adequate size determination of the PCR products with an error lower than 4% compared to the theoretically expected. The whole method developed in this work requires less than one working day and grants the sensitive detection of transgenic yeasts in wine samples. PMID:21296357

León, Carlos; García-Cañas, Virginia; González, Ramón; Morales, Pilar; Cifuentes, Alejandro

2011-10-21

388

Optimization of killer assays for yeast selection protocols.  

PubMed

A new optimized semiquantitative yeast killer assay is reported for the first time. The killer activity of 36 yeast isolates belonging to three species, namely, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Wickerhamomyces anomala and Torulaspora delbrueckii, was tested with a view to potentially using these yeasts as biocontrol agents against the wine spoilage species Pichia guilliermondii and Pichia membranifaciens. The effectiveness of the classical streak-based (qualitative method) and the new semiquantitative techniques was compared. The percentage of yeasts showing killer activity was found to be higher by the semiquantitative technique (60%) than by the qualitative method (45%). In all cases, the addition of 1% NaCl into the medium allowed a better observation of the killer phenomenon. Important differences were observed in the killer capacity of different isolates belonging to a same killer species. The broadest spectrum of action was detected in isolates of W. anomala NPCC 1023 and 1025, and M. pulcherrima NPCC 1009 and 1013. We also brought experimental evidence supporting the importance of the adequate selection of the sensitive isolate to be used in killer evaluation. The new semiquantitative method proposed in this work enables to visualize the relationship between the number of yeasts tested and the growth of the inhibition halo (specific productivity). Hence, this experimental approach could become an interesting tool to be taken into account for killer yeast selection protocols. PMID:21229201

Lopes, C A; Sangorrín, M P

2010-01-01

389

On the mechanisms of glycolytic oscillations in yeast.  

PubMed

This work concerns the cause of glycolytic oscillations in yeast. We analyse experimental data as well as models in two distinct cases: the relaxation-like oscillations seen in yeast extracts, and the sinusoidal Hopf oscillations seen in intact yeast cells. In the case of yeast extracts, we use flux-change plots and model analyses to establish that the oscillations are driven by on/off switching of phosphofructokinase. In the case of intact yeast cells, we find that the instability leading to the appearance of oscillations is caused by the stoichiometry of the ATP-ADP-AMP system and the allosteric regulation of phosphofructokinase, whereas frequency control is distributed over the reaction network. Notably, the NAD+/NADH ratio modulates the frequency of the oscillations without affecting the instability. This is important for understanding the mutual synchronization of oscillations in the individual yeast cells, as synchronization is believed to occur via acetaldehyde, which in turn affects the frequency of oscillations by changing this ratio. PMID:15943800

Madsen, Mads F; Danø, Sune; Sørensen, Preben G

2005-06-01

390

The Fermentative and Aromatic Ability of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation from grape, agave and others musts into an alcoholic beverage is usually characterized by the presence of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These genera yeasts are dominant in the early stages of the alcoholic fermentation. However the genera Hanseniaspora and Kloeckera may survive at a significant level during fermentation and can influence the chemical composition of the beverage. Several strains belonging to the species Kloeckera api-culata and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii have been extensively studied in relation to the formation of some metabolic compounds affecting the bouquet of the final product. Indeed some apiculate yeast showed positive oenological properties and their use in the alcoholic fermentations has been suggested to enhance the aroma and flavor profiles. The non- Saccharomyces yeasts have the capability to produce and secrete enzymes in the medium, such as ? -glucosidases, which release monoterpenes derived from their glycosylated form. These compounds contribute to the higher fruit-like characteristic of final product. This chapter reviews metabolic activity of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora yeasts in several aspects: fermentative capability, aromatic compounds production and transformation of aromatic precursor present in the must, also covers the molecular methods for identifying of the yeast

Díaz-Montaño, Dulce M.; de Jesús Ramírez Córdova, J.

391

Biochemical characterization and growth patterns of new yeast isolates.  

PubMed

African sorghum opaque beers play a vital role in the diet of millions of consumers. In the current study we investigated the growth profiles of yeast strains isolated from kpete-kpete, a traditional starter used to produce tchoukoutou, an opaque sorghum beer in Benin. 10 yeast strains were isolated from sorghum beer starters and cultivated under both liquid and solid media for phenotypic growth characterization. All yeast isolates were able to grow both on solid and liquid media. Based on their growth profiles, the isolates were clustered into three groups: (i) the aggressive growth pattern (30 %), (ii) the moderate growth pattern (50 %), and (iii) the slow growth pattern (20 %). Based on gene expression pattern, absorbance (A600nm) and diameter of growth in both liquid and solid media respectively, yeast strains YK34, YK15 and YK48 were clustered in the first group, and referred to as the most aggressive growth strains, followed by group 2 (YK24, YK5, YK12, YK20, YK2) and group 3 (YK37, YK41). This growth pattern was confirmed by Invertase gene expression profiling of the yeasts showing group 1 with high level of Invertase gene expression followed by group 2 and group 3 respectively. Our results suggest that YK34, YK15 and YK48 and YK2 yeast strains constitute the best candidates in fermentation of sorghum beer production based on growth rate and assimilation of carbon and nitrogen sources. PMID:24802797

Djegui, Kadjogbé Y; Gachomo, Emma W; Hounhouigan, Djidjoho J; Kayodé, Adéchola P P; Kotchoni, Simeon O

2014-08-01

392

Immobilisation increases yeast cells' resistance to dehydration-rehydration treatment.  

PubMed

This study was performed with the goal of revealing if the dehydration procedure used in our new immobilisation method noticeably decreases the viability of yeast cells in immobilised preparations. Various yeasts were used in this research: Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that were rather sensitive to dehydration and had been aerobically grown in an ethanol-containing medium, a recombinant strain of S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic conditions which were completely non-resistant to dehydration and an anaerobically grown bakers' yeast strain S. cerevisiae, as well as a fairly resistant Pichia pastoris strain. Experiments performed showed that immobilisation of all these strains essentially increased their resistance to a dehydration-rehydration treatment. The increase of cells' viability (compared with control cells dehydrated in similar conditions) was from 30 to 60%. It is concluded that a new immobilisation method, which includes a dehydration stage, does not lead to an essential loss of yeast cell viability. Correspondingly, there is no risk of losing the biotechnological activities of immobilised preparations. The possibility of producing dry, active yeast preparations is shown, for those strains that are very sensitive to dehydration and which can be used in biotechnology in an immobilised form. Finally, the immobilisation approach can be used for the development of efficient methods for the storage of recombinant yeast strains. PMID:24886905

Borovikova, Diana; Rozenfelde, Linda; Pavlovska, Ilona; Rapoport, Alexander

2014-08-20

393

Conservation of the COP9/signalosome in budding yeast  

PubMed Central

Background The COP9/signalosome (CSN), a multiprotein complex consisting of eight subunits, is implicated in a wide variety of regulatory processes including cell cycle control, signal transduction, transcriptional activation, and plant photomorphogenesis. Some of these functions have been linked to CSN-associated enzymes, including kinases and an activity that removes the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8/Rub1p from the cullin subunit of E3 ligases. CSN is highly conserved across species from fission yeast to humans, but sequence comparison has failed to identify the complex in budding yeast, except for a putative CSN5 subunit called Rri1p. Results We show that disruption of four budding yeast genes, PCI8 and three previously uncharacterized ORFs, which encode proteins interacting with Rrr1p/Csn5p, each results in the accumulation of the cullin Cdc53p exclusively in the Rub1p-modified state. This phenotype, which resembles that of fission yeast csn mutants, is due to a biochemical defect in deneddylation that is complemented by wild-type cell lysate and by purified human CSN in vitro. Although three of the four genes encode proteins with PCI domains conserved in metazoan CSN proteins, their disruption does not confer the DNA damage sensitivity described in some fission yeast csn mutants. Conclusions Our studies present unexpected evidence for the conservation of a functional homologue of the metazoan CSN, which mediates control of cullin neddylation in budding yeast.

Wee, Susan; Hetfeld, Bettina; Dubiel, Wolfgang; Wolf, Dieter A

2002-01-01

394

Viricidal Effects of Lactobacillus and Yeast Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The survival of selected viruses in Lactobacillus- and yeast-fermented edible waste material was studied to determine the feasibility of using this material as a livestock feed ingredient. Five viruses, including Newcastle disease virus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, a porcine picornavirus, frog virus 3, and bovine virus diarrhea, were inoculated into a mixture of ground food waste (collected from a school lunch program) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus. Mixtures were incubated at 20, 30, and 40°C for 216 h. In a second trial, four viruses, including Newcastle disease virus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, frog virus 3, and a porcine picornavirus, were inoculated into similar edible waste material containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mixtures were incubated at 20 and 30°C for 216 h. Samples were obtained daily for quantitative (trial 1) and qualitative (trial 2) virus isolation. Temperature, pH, and redox potential were monitored. Controlled pH and temperature studies were also done and compared with the inactivation rates in the fermentation processes. In trial 1 (Lactobacillus fermentation), infectious canine hepatitis virus survived the entire test period in the fermentation process but was inactivated below pH 4.5 in the controlled studies. Newcastle disease virus was inactivated by day 8 in the fermentation process and appeared to be primarily heat sensitive and secondarily pH sensitive in the controlled studies. The porcine picornavirus survived the fermentation process for 8 days at 20°C but was inactivated more rapidly at 30 and 40°C. The controlled studies verified these findings. Frog virus 3 was inactivated by day 3 in the fermentation process and appeared to be sensitive to low pH in the controlled studies. Bovine virus diarrhea was rapidly inactivated in the fermentation process (less than 2 h) and was pH and temperature sensitive. In trial 2 (yeast fermentation), infectious hepatitis virus survived the entire test period in the fermentation process. Newcastle disease virus was inactivated by day 7 at 20°C and day 6 at 30°C. The porcine picornavirus was inactivated by day 7 at 30°C but survived the entire test period at 20°C. Frog virus 3 was inactivated by day 3 at 20°C and day 2 at 30°C.

Gilbert, Jeannine P.; Wooley, Richard E.; Shotts, Emmett B.; Dickens, J. Andra

1983-01-01

395

Genetic Basis of Metabolome Variation in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Metabolism, the conversion of nutrients into usable energy and biochemical building blocks, is an essential feature of all cells. The genetic factors responsible for inter-individual metabolic variability remain poorly understood. To investigate genetic causes of metabolome variation, we measured the concentrations of 74 metabolites across 100 segregants from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cross by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found 52 quantitative trait loci for 34 metabolites. These included linkages due to overt changes in metabolic genes, e.g., linking pyrimidine intermediates to the deletion of ura3. They also included linkages not directly related to metabolic enzymes, such as those for five central carbon metabolites to ira2, a Ras/PKA pathway regulator, and for the metabolites, S-adenosyl-methionine and S-adenosyl-homocysteine to slt2, a MAP kinase involved in cell wall integrity. The variant of ira2 that elevates metabolite levels also increases glucose uptake and ethanol secretion. These results highlight specific examples of genetic variability, including in genes without prior known metabolic regulatory function, that impact yeast metabolism.

Breunig, Jeffrey S.; Hackett, Sean R.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Kruglyak, Leonid

2014-01-01

396

Structure-function relationships in yeast tubulins.  

PubMed

A comprehensive set of clustered charged-to-alanine mutations was generated that systematically alter TUB1, the major alpha-tubulin gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A variety of phenotypes were observed, including supersensitivity and resistance to the microtubule-destabilizing drug benomyl, lethality, and cold- and temperature-sensitive lethality. Many of the most benomyl-sensitive tub1 alleles were synthetically lethal in combination with tub3Delta, supporting the idea that benomyl supersensitivity is a rough measure of microtubule instability and/or insufficiency in the amount of alpha-tubulin. The systematic tub1 mutations were placed, along with the comparable set of tub2 mutations previously described, onto a model of the yeast alpha-beta-tubulin dimer based on the three-dimensional structure of bovine tubulin. The modeling revealed a potential site for binding of benomyl in the core of beta-tubulin. Residues whose mutation causes cold sensitivity were concentrated at the lateral and longitudinal interfaces between adjacent subunits. Residues that affect binding of the microtubule-binding protein Bim1p form a large patch across the exterior-facing surface of alpha-tubulin in the model. Finally, the positions of the mutations suggest that proximity to the alpha-beta interface may account for the finding of synthetic lethality of five viable tub1 alleles with the benomyl-resistant but otherwise entirely viable tub2-201 allele. PMID:10793159

Richards, K L; Anders, K R; Nogales, E; Schwartz, K; Downing, K H; Botstein, D

2000-05-01

397

Yeast cells can access distinct quiescent states  

PubMed Central

We conducted a phenotypic, transcriptional, metabolic, and genetic analysis of quiescence in yeast induced by starvation of prototrophic cells for one of three essential nutrients (glucose, nitrogen, or phosphate) and compared those results with those obtained with cells growing slowly due to nutrient limitation. These studies address two related questions: (1) Is quiescence a state distinct from any attained during mitotic growth, and (2) does the nature of quiescence differ depending on the means by which it is induced? We found that either limitation or starvation for any of the three nutrients elicits all of the physiological properties associated with quiescence, such as enhanced cell wall integrity and resistance to heat shock and oxidative stress. Moreover, the starvations result in a common transcriptional program, which is in large part a direct extrapolation of the changes that occur during slow growth. In contrast, the metabolic changes that occur upon starvation and the genetic requirements for surviving starvation differ significantly depending on the nutrient for which the cell is starved. The genes needed by cells to survive starvation do not overlap the genes that are induced upon starvation. We conclude that cells do not access a unique and discrete G0 state, but rather are programmed, when nutrients are scarce, to prepare for a range of possible future stressors. Moreover, these survival strategies are not unique to quiescence, but are engaged by the cell in proportion to nutrient scarcity.

Klosinska, Maja M.; Crutchfield, Christopher A.; Bradley, Patrick H.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Broach, James R.

2011-01-01

398

Global Analysis of Yeast mRNPs  

PubMed Central

Proteins regulate gene expression by controlling mRNA biogenesis, localization, translation and decay. Identifying the composition, diversity and function of mRNPs (mRNA protein complexes) is essential to understanding these processes. In a global survey of S. cerevisiae mRNA binding proteins we identified 120 proteins that cross-link to mRNA, including 66 new mRNA binding proteins. These include kinases, RNA modification enzymes, metabolic enzymes, and tRNA and rRNA metabolism factors. These proteins show dynamic subcellular localization during stress, including assembly into stress granules and P-bodies (Processing-bodies). CLIP (cross-linking and immunoprecipitation) analyses of the P-body components Pat1, Lsm1, Dhh1 and Sbp1 identified sites of interaction on specific mRNAs revealing positional binding preferences and co-assembly preferences. Taken together, this work defines the major yeast mRNP proteins, reveals widespread changes in their subcellular location during stress, and begins to define assembly rules for P-body mRNPs.

Mitchell, Sarah F.; Jain, Saumya; She, Meipei; Parker, Roy

2012-01-01

399

Repair-induced Changes in Yeast Radiosensitivity  

PubMed Central

Potentially lethal X-ray or ultraviolet damage in the diploid yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, can be reversed if the irradiated cells are incubated in distilled water or buffer for a number of hours prior to plating. This phenomenon is called liquid-holding recovery. We found that the liquid-holding procedure served not only to restore the viability of the irradiated cells, but also to alter their sensitivity to further doses of radiation. Specifically, the ultraviolet sensitivity of cells which had undergone liquid-holding recovery was markedly decreased, whereas their X-ray sensitivity appeared to be slightly increased. These sensitivity changes were qualitatively the same irrespective of whether the initial radiation exposure was to X rays or ultraviolet light. (In contrast, the radiation sensitivity of cells which had undergone maximal photoreactivation was essentially the same as that of untreated controls.) It is suggested that these changes in radiosensitivity are the result of structural alterations induced in the cell's deoxyribonucleic acid by the execution of at least the initial steps of a deoxyribonucleic acid repair process during the liquid-holding period.

Patrick, M. H.; Haynes, R. H.

1968-01-01

400

The Regulation of Filamentous Growth in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Filamentous growth is a nutrient-regulated growth response that occurs in many fungal species. In pathogens, filamentous growth is critical for host–cell attachment, invasion into tissues, and virulence. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes filamentous growth, which provides a genetically tractable system to study the molecular basis of the response. Filamentous growth is regulated by evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways. One of these pathways is a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. A remarkable feature of the filamentous growth MAPK pathway is that it is composed of factors that also function in other pathways. An intriguing challenge therefore has been to understand how pathways that share components establish and maintain their identity. Other canonical signaling pathways—rat sarcoma/protein kinase A (RAS/PKA), sucrose nonfermentable (SNF), and target of rapamycin (TOR)—also regulate filamentous growth, which raises the question of how signals from multiple pathways become integrated into a coordinated response. Together, these pathways regulate cell differentiation to the filamentous type, which is characterized by changes in cell adhesion, cell polarity, and cell shape. How these changes are accomplished is also discussed. High-throughput genomics approaches have recently uncovered new connections to filamentous growth regulation. These connections suggest that filamentous growth is a more complex and globally regulated behavior than is currently appreciated, which may help to pave the way for future investigations into this eukaryotic cell differentiation behavior.

Cullen, Paul J.; Sprague, George F.

2012-01-01

401

Mass spectrometer monitoring of a yeast fermentation  

SciTech Connect

A flow-through membrane based mass spectrometer is employed for the purpose of monitoring and controlling fermentations. A sample stream in either the gaseous or liquid phase can be continuously passed through the interface, with a fraction of the volatile compounds transferred into the spectrometer. For the monitoring of alcohol fermentation employing bakers' yeast, a water-saturated carrier gas (N/sub 2/) is bubbled through the fermentation broth and readings taken at 15 min intervals to measure EtOH and CO/sub 2/ at m (ion peak mass) = 31 and m = 44, respectively. In experiments in which cell growth was followed using both optical density and base addition., essentially all CO/sub 2/ was in the volatile dissolved form at pH=4.5 so that the mass spectometer current at m = 44 provided approximately a measurement of CO/sub 2/ production rate. For the much less volatile dissolved EtOH, only a small fraction of the EtOH was acquired by the carrier gas, with the result that the m = 31 current provided a measurement of dissolved EtOH concentration. The EtOH signal was approximately an integral of the EtOH production rate.

Weaver, J.C.; Perley, C.R.; Cooney, C.L.

1980-01-01

402

Ribonucleotide incorporation by yeast DNA polymerase ?.  

PubMed

During replication in yeast, the three B family DNA replicases frequently incorporate ribonucleotides (rNMPs) into DNA, and their presence in the nuclear genome can affect genome stability. This prompted us to examine ribonucleotide incorporation by the fourth B family member, Pol ?, the enzyme responsible for the majority of damage-induced mutagenesis in eukaryotes. We first show that Pol ? inserts rNMPs into DNA and can extend primer termini containing 3'-ribonucleotides. We then measure rNMP incorporation by Pol ? in the presence of its cofactors, RPA, RFC and PCNA and at normal cellular dNTP and rNTP concentrations that exist under unstressed conditions. Under these conditions, Pol ? stably incorporates one rNMP for every 200-300 dNMPs incorporated, a frequency that is slightly higher than for the high fidelity replicative DNA polymerases. Under damage-induced conditions wherein cellular dNTP concentrations are elevated 5-fold, Pol ? only incorporates one rNMP per 1300 dNMPs. Functional interaction of Pol ? with the mutasome assembly factor Rev1 gives comparable rNMP incorporation frequencies. These results suggest that ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA during Pol ?-mediated mutagenesis in vivo may be rare. PMID:24674899

Makarova, Alena V; Nick McElhinny, Stephanie A; Watts, Brian E; Kunkel, Thomas A; Burgers, Peter M

2014-06-01

403

Stochastic exit from mitosis in budding yeast  

PubMed Central

Unlike many mutants that are completely viable or inviable, the CLB2-db? clb5? mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is inviable in glucose but partially viable on slower growth media such as raffinose. On raffinose, the mutant cells can bud and divide but in each cycle there is a chance that a cell will fail to divide (telophase arrest), causing it to exit the cell cycle. This effect gives rise to a stochastic phenotype that cannot be explained by a deterministic model. We measure the interbud times of wild-type and mutant cells growing on raffinose and compute statistics and distributions to characterize the mutant's behavior. We convert a detailed deterministic model of the budding yeast cell cycle to a stochastic model and determine the extent to which it captures the stochastic phenotype of the mutant strain. Predictions of the mathematical model are in reasonable agreement with our experimental data and suggest directions for improving the model. Ultimately, the ability to accurately model stochastic phenotypes may prove critical to understanding disease and therapeutic interventions in higher eukaryotes.

Ball, David A; Ahn, Tae-Hyuk; Wang, Pengyuan; Chen, Katherine C; Cao, Yang; Tyson, John J; Peccoud, Jean

2011-01-01

404

Mechanisms of Chromosome Number Evolution in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The whole-genome duplication (WGD) that occurred during yeast evolution changed the basal number of chromosomes from 8 to 16. However, the number of chromosomes in post-WGD species now ranges between 10 and 16, and the number in non-WGD species (Zygosaccharomyces, Kluyveromyces, Lachancea, and Ashbya) ranges between 6 and 8. To study the mechanism by which chromosome number changes, we traced the ancestry of centromeres and telomeres in each species. We observe only two mechanisms by which the number of chromosomes has decreased, as indicated by the loss of a centromere. The most frequent mechanism, seen 8 times, is telomere-to-telomere fusion between two chromosomes with the concomitant death of one centromere. The other mechanism, seen once, involves the breakage of a chromosome at its centromere, followed by the fusion of the two arms to the telomeres of two other chromosomes. The only mechanism by which chromosome number has increased in these species is WGD. Translocations and inversions have cycled telomere locations, internalizing some previously telomeric genes and creating novel telomeric locations. Comparison of centromere structures shows that the length of the CDEII region is variable between species but uniform within species. We trace the complete rearrangement history of the Lachancea kluyveri genome since its common ancestor with Saccharomyces and propose that its exceptionally low level of rearrangement is a consequence of the loss of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway in this species.

Gordon, Jonathan L.; Byrne, Kevin P.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.

2011-01-01

405

Modular assembly of yeast cytochrome oxidase  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of yeast cytochrome oxidase (COX) biogenesis identified Cox1p, one of the three mitochondrially encoded core subunits, in two high–molecular weight complexes combined with regulatory/assembly factors essential for expression of this subunit. In the present study we use pulse-chase labeling experiments in conjunction with isolated mitochondria to identify new Cox1p intermediates and place them in an ordered pathway. Our results indicate that before its assimilation into COX, Cox1p transitions through five intermediates that are differentiated by their compositions of accessory factors and of two of the eight imported subunits. We propose a model of COX biogenesis in which Cox1p and the two other mitochondrial gene products, Cox2p and Cox3p, constitute independent assembly modules, each with its own complement of subunits. Unlike their bacterial counterparts, which are composed only of the individual core subunits, the final sequence in which the mitochondrial modules associate to form the holoenzyme may have been conserved during evolution.

McStay, Gavin P.; Su, Chen Hsien; Tzagoloff, Alexander

2013-01-01

406

Multiple dextranases from the yeast Lipomyces starkeyi.  

PubMed

The soil yeast Lipomyces starkeyi (NCYC 1436) secretes dextranase activity into the growth medium. Resolution of a dextranase-active protein fraction by SDS-PAGE produced three protein bands, of 66 kDa, 68 kDa and 78 kDa, and isoelectric focusing of the same fraction resulted in seven protein bands, of pIs 3.50, 3.85, 4.20, 4.80, 4.85, 5.00 and 5.30. Dextranase activity was demonstrated for all the isoelectric forms, and for the 78 kDa species in the presence of SDS. Amino acid compositions of the 66 kDa, 68 kDa and 78 kDa protein bands were determined, and the N-termini of the 66 kDa and 78 kDa protein bands were sequenced: the first two amino acids at the N-terminus of each protein were alanine and valine, respectively; an alanine-valine pair is seen early in the N-terminal coding sequences of the dextranases and the isopullulanase produced by the phylogenetically disparate organisms contributing to glycosyl hydrolase family 49. PMID:17558545

Millson, Stefan H; Evans, Ivor Howell

2007-11-01

407

Mechanisms of uv mutagenesis in yeast and E. coli  

SciTech Connect

Experiments investigating ultraviolet light mutagenesis in either bakers' yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or E. coli have led to the following conclusions. First, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers cause most mutations in both organisms; pyrimidine adducts, such as PyC, can account at best for only a small proportion. 86 percent of forward mutations induced at the E. coli lacI locus can be abolished by photoreactivation under conditions which do not alter the level of recA induction. About 75 percent of the forward mutations induced at the CAN1 locus of yeast could be removed by photoreactivation, a value that lies within the range observed previously for the reversion of CYC1 alleles (60 percent - 97 percent). Second, about 10 percent of the lacI forward mutations are untargeted, a smaller fraction than found previously for cycl-91 reversion in yeast. It is not yet clear whether the two species are really different in this respect, of whether the cycl-91 reversion site is a typical of the yeast genome at large. Third, analysis of reversion frequencies of 20 mutant alleles suggests that about 10 to 25 percent of all replication errors produced by mutagenic mechanisms in uv-irradiated yeast involve additions or deletions of base-pairs, indicating that error-prone repair does not just produce substitutions. Last, the REV1 locus in yeast is concerned with the induction of frameshift mutations at some, but not all, genetic sites, just as found previously for substitution mutations. The function of the REV3 gene is more widely, though not universally, required while the function of the RAD6 gene, like that of the recA locus in E. coli, appears to be necessary for all kinds of uv mutagenesis. E coli genes comparable to REV1 and REV3 have not yet been described; conversely, there does not yet appear to be a yeast equivalent of umuC.

Lawrence, C.; Christensen, R.; Christensen, J.R.; O'Brien, T.

1983-01-01

408

Mycosporines from freshwater yeasts: a trophic cul-de-sac?  

PubMed

Mycosporine-like amino-acids (MAAs) are found in aquatic bacteria, algae, and animals. A related compound, the mycosporine-glutaminol-glucoside (myc-glu-glu), has recently been reported in freshwater yeasts. Although animals depend on other organisms as their source of MAAs, they can efficiently accumulate them in their tissues. In this work we assessed the potential transfer of the yeast mycosporine myc-glu-glu from the diet into the copepod Boeckella antiqua and the ciliate Paramecium bursaria. For this purpose, we performed experiments to study the feeding of B. antiqua and P. bursaria on the yeast Rhodotorula minuta and their ability to bioaccumulate myc-glu-glu. Bioaccumulation of myc-glu-glu in B. antiqua was assessed through long-term factorial experiments manipulating the diet (Chlamydomonas reinhardii and C. reinhardii + yeasts) and radiation exposure (PAR and PAR + UVR). Shorter term experiments were designed in the case of P. bursaria. The composition and concentration of MAAs in the diet and in the consumers were determined by HPLC analyses. Our results showed that even though both consumers ingested yeast cells, they were unable to accumulate myc-glu-glu. Moreover, when exposed to conditions that stimulated the accumulation of photoprotective compounds (i.e. UVR exposure), an increase in MAAs concentration occurred in copepods fed C. reinhardii plus yeasts as well as in those fed only C. reinhardii. This suggests that the copepods were able to modify their tissue concentrations of MAAs in response to environmental clues but also that the contribution of yeast mycosporines to total MAAs concentration was negligible. PMID:16395424

Pérez, Patricia; Libkind, Diego; Diéguez, María Del Carmen; Summerer, Monika; Sonntag, Bettina; Sommaruga, Ruben; van Broock, María; Zagarese, Horacio E

2006-01-01

409

A Functional Genomic Yeast Screen to Identify Pathogenic Bacterial Proteins  

PubMed Central

Many bacterial pathogens promote infection and cause disease by directly injecting into host cells proteins that manipulate eukaryotic cellular processes. Identification of these translocated proteins is essential to understanding pathogenesis. Yet, their identification remains limited. This, in part, is due to their general sequence uniqueness, which confounds homology-based identification by comparative genomic methods. In addition, their absence often does not result in phenotypes in virulence assays limiting functional genetic screens. Translocated proteins have been observed to confer toxic phenotypes when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This observation suggests that yeast growth inhibition can be used as an indicator of protein translocation in functional genomic screens. However, limited information is available regarding the behavior of non-translocated proteins in yeast. We developed a semi-automated quantitative assay to monitor the growth of hundreds of yeast strains in parallel. We observed that expression of half of the 19 Shigella translocated proteins tested but almost none of the 20 non-translocated Shigella proteins nor ?1,000 Francisella tularensis proteins significantly inhibited yeast growth. Not only does this study establish that yeast growth inhibition is a sensitive and specific indicator of translocated proteins, but we also identified a new substrate of the Shigella type III secretion system (TTSS), IpaJ, previously missed by other experimental approaches. In those cases where the mechanisms of action of the translocated proteins are known, significant yeast growth inhibition correlated with the targeting of conserved cellular processes. By providing positive rather than negative indication of activity our assay complements existing approaches for identification of translocated proteins. In addition, because this assay only requires genomic DNA it is particularly valuable for studying pathogens that are difficult to genetically manipulate or dangerous to culture.

Slagowski, Naomi L; Kramer, Roger W; Morrison, Monica F; LaBaer, Joshua; Lesser, Cammie F

2008-01-01

410

Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains.  

PubMed

The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast. PMID:24516432

Abreu-Cavalheiro, A; Monteiro, G

2013-01-01

411

Analysis of Arabidopsis glutathione-transferases in yeast.  

PubMed

The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 54 functional glutathione transferases (GSTs), classified in seven clades. Although plant GSTs have been implicated in the detoxification of xenobiotics, such as herbicides, extensive redundancy within this large gene family impedes a functional analysis in planta. In this study, a GST-deficient yeast strain was established as a system for analyzing plant GSTs that allows screening for GST substrates and identifying substrate preferences within the plant GST family. To this end, five yeast genes encoding GSTs and GST-related proteins were simultaneously disrupted. The resulting yeast quintuple mutant showed a strongly reduced conjugation of the GST substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl). Consistently, the quintuple mutant was hypersensitive to CDNB, and this phenotype was complemented by the inducible expression of Arabidopsis GSTs. The conjugating activity of the plant GSTs was assessed by in vitro enzymatic assays and via analysis of exposed yeast cells. The formation of glutathione adducts with dinitrobenzene was unequivocally verified by stable isotope labeling and subsequent accurate ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (ICR-FTMS). Analysis of Arabidopsis GSTs encompassing six clades and 42 members demonstrated functional expression in yeast by using CDNB and NBD-Cl as model substrates. Subsequently, the established yeast system was explored for its potential to screen the Arabidopsis GST family for conjugation of the fungicide anilazine. Thirty Arabidopsis GSTs were identified that conferred increased levels of glutathionylated anilazine. Efficient anilazine conjugation was observed in the presence of the phi, tau, and theta clade GSTs including AtGSTF2, AtGSTF4, AtGSTF6, AtGSTF8, AtGSTF10, and AtGSTT2, none of which had previously been known to contribute to fungicide detoxification. ICR-FTMS analysis of yeast extracts allowed the simultaneous detection and semiquantification of anilazine conjugates as well as catabolites. PMID:22633844

Krajewski, Matthias P; Kanawati, Basem; Fekete, Agnes; Kowalski, Natalie; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Grill, Erwin

2013-07-01

412

Dynamic Positioning of Mitotic Spindles in Yeast:  

PubMed Central

In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, movement of the mitotic spindle to a predetermined cleavage plane at the bud neck is essential for partitioning chromosomes into the mother and daughter cells. Astral microtubule dynamics are critical to the mechanism that ensures nuclear migration to the bud neck. The nucleus moves in the opposite direction of astral microtubule growth in the mother cell, apparently being “pushed” by microtubule contacts at the cortex. In contrast, microtubules growing toward the neck and within the bud promote nuclear movement in the same direction of microtubule growth, thus “pulling” the nucleus toward the bud neck. Failure of “pulling” is evident in cells lacking Bud6p, Bni1p, Kar9p, or the kinesin homolog, Kip3p. As a consequence, there is a loss of asymmetry in spindle pole body segregation into the bud. The cytoplasmic motor protein, dynein, is not required for nuclear movement to the neck; rather, it has been postulated to contribute to spindle elongation through the neck. In the absence of KAR9, dynein-dependent spindle oscillations are evident before anaphase onset, as are postanaphase dynein-dependent pulling forces that exceed the velocity of wild-type spindle elongation threefold. In addition, dynein-mediated forces on astral microtubules are sufficient to segregate a 2N chromosome set through the neck in the absence of spindle elongation, but cytoplasmic kinesins are not. These observations support a model in which spindle polarity determinants (BUD6, BNI1, KAR9) and cytoplasmic kinesin (KIP3) provide directional cues for spindle orientation to the bud while restraining the spindle to the neck. Cytoplasmic dynein is attenuated by these spindle polarity determinants and kinesin until anaphase onset, when dynein directs spindle elongation to distal points in the mother and bud.

Yeh, Elaine; Yang, Charlie; Chin, Elaine; Maddox, Paul; Salmon, E. D.; Lew, Daniel J.; Bloom, Kerry

2000-01-01

413

Intermembrane Space Proteome of Yeast Mitochondria*  

PubMed Central

The intermembrane space (IMS) represents the smallest subcompartment of mitochondria. Nevertheless, it plays important roles in the transport and modification of proteins, lipids, and metal ions and in the regulation and assembly of the respiratory chain complexes. Moreover, it is involved in many redox processes and coordinates key steps in programmed cell death. A comprehensive profiling of IMS proteins has not been performed so far. We have established a method that uses the proapoptotic protein Bax to release IMS proteins from isolated mitochondria, and we profiled the protein composition of this compartment. Using stable isotope-labeled mitochondria from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we were able to measure specific Bax-dependent protein release and distinguish between quantitatively released IMS proteins and the background efflux of matrix proteins. From the known 31 soluble IMS proteins, 29 proteins were reproducibly identified, corresponding to a coverage of >90%. In addition, we found 20 novel intermembrane space proteins, out of which 10 had not been localized to mitochondria before. Many of these novel IMS proteins have unknown functions or have been reported to play a role in redox regulation. We confirmed IMS localization for 15 proteins using in organello import, protease accessibility upon osmotic swelling, and Bax-release assays. Moreover, we identified two novel mitochondrial proteins, Ymr244c-a (Coa6) and Ybl107c (Mic23), as substrates of the MIA import pathway that have unusual cysteine motifs and found the protein phosphatase Ptc5 to be a novel substrate of the inner membrane protease (IMP). For Coa6 we discovered a role as a novel assembly factor of the cytochrome c oxidase complex. We present here the first and comprehensive proteome of IMS proteins of yeast mitochondria with 51 proteins in total. The IMS proteome will serve as a valuable source for further studies on the role of the IMS in cell life and death.

Vogtle, F.-Nora; Burkhart, Julia M.; Rao, Sanjana; Gerbeth, Carolin; Hinrichs, Jens; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Sickmann, Albert; Zahedi, Rene P.; Meisinger, Chris

2012-01-01

414

Posttranscriptional Control of Gene Expression in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Studies of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have greatly advanced our understanding of the posttranscriptional steps of eukaryotic gene expression. Given the wide range of experimental tools applicable to S. cerevisiae and the recent determination of its complete genomic sequence, many of the key challenges of the posttranscriptional control field can be tackled particularly effectively by using this organism. This article reviews the current knowledge of the cellular components and mechanisms related to translation and mRNA decay, with the emphasis on the molecular basis for rate control and gene regulation. Recent progress in characterizing translation factors and their protein-protein and RNA-protein interactions has been rapid. Against the background of a growing body of structural information, the review discusses the thermodynamic and kinetic principles that govern the translation process. As in prokaryotic systems, translational initiation is a key point of control. Modulation of the activities of translational initiation factors imposes global regulation in the cell, while structural features of particular 5? untranslated regions, such as upstream open reading frames and effector binding sites, allow for gene-specific regulation. Recent data have revealed many new details of the molecular mechanisms involved while providing insight into the functional overlaps and molecular networking that are apparently a key feature of evolving cellular systems. An overall picture of the mechanisms governing mRNA decay has only very recently begun to develop. The latest work has revealed new information about the mRNA decay pathways, the components of the mRNA degradation machinery, and the way in which these might relate to the translation apparatus. Overall, major challenges still to be addressed include the task of relating principles of posttranscriptional control to cellular compartmentalization and polysome structure and the role of molecular channelling in these highly complex expression systems.

McCarthy, John E. G.

1998-01-01

415

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae...Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae...the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...

2013-07-01

416

Occurrence of hydrogen sulfide in wine and in fermentation: influence of yeast strain and supplementation of yeast available nitrogen.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H?S) is a powerful aroma compound largely produced by yeast during fermentation. Its occurrence in wines and other fermented beverages has been associated with off-odors described as rotten egg and/or sewage. While the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H?S) during fermentation has been extensively studied, it is the final H?S content of wine that is actually linked to potential off-odors. Nevertheless, factors determining final H?S content of wine have received little attention, and it is commonly assumed that high H?S-forming fermentations will result in high final concentrations of H?S. However, a clear relationship has never been established. In this report, we investigated the contribution of yeast strain and nitrogen addition to H?S formation during fermentation and its consequent occurrence the resulting wines. Five commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains were used to ferment a Chardonnay juice containing 110 mg/l of YAN (yeast assimilable nitrogen), supplemented with di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) to increase YAN concentration to moderate (260 mg/l) and high (410 mg/l) levels. In contrast to the widely reported decrease in H?S production in response to DAP addition, a non-linear relationship was found such that moderate DAP supplementation resulted in a remarkable increase in H?S formation by each of the five wine yeasts. H?S content of the finished wine was affected by yeast strain, YAN, and fermentation vigor. However, we did not observe a correlation between concentration of H?S in the finished wines and H?S produced during fermentation, with low-forming fermentations often having relatively high final H?S and vice versa. Management of H?S in wine through nitrogen supplementation requires knowledge of initial YAN and yeast H?S characteristics. PMID:20668912

Ugliano, Maurizio; Kolouchova, Radka; Henschke, Paul A

2011-03-01

417

Technological properties of bakers' yeasts in durum wheat semolina dough.  

PubMed

Properties of 13 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different sources (traditional sourdoughs, industrial baking yeasts etc.) were studied in dough produced with durum wheat (Sicilian semolina, variety Mongibello). Durum wheat semolina and durum wheat flour are products prepared from grain of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) by grinding or milling processes in which the bran and germ are essentially removed and the remainder is comminuted to a suitable degree of fineness. Acidification and leavening properties of the dough were evaluated. Strains isolated from traditional sourdoughs (DSM PST18864, DSM PST18865 and DSM PST18866) showed higher leavening power, valuable after the first and second hours of fermentation, than commercial baking yeasts. In particular the strain DSM PST 18865 has also been successfully tested in bakery companies for the improvement of production processes. Baking and staling tests were carried out on five yeast strains to evaluate their fermentation ability directly and their resistance to the staling process. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) was used to investigate genetic variations in the yeast strains. This study showed an appreciable biodiversity in the microbial populations of both wild and commercial yeast strains. PMID:20039189

Giannone, Virgilio; Longo, Chiara; Damigella, Arcangelo; Raspagliesi, Domenico; Spina, Alfio; Palumbo, Massimo

2010-04-01

418

Phylogenetic relationships matter: antifungal susceptibility among clinically relevant yeasts.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was 2-fold: to evaluate whether phylogenetically closely related yeasts share common antifungal susceptibility profiles (ASPs) and whether these ASPs can be predicted from phylogeny. To address this question, 9,627 yeast strains were collected and tested for their antifungal susceptibility. Isolates were reidentified by considering recent changes in taxonomy and nomenclature. A phylogenetic (PHYLO) code based on the results of multilocus sequence analyses (large-subunit rRNA, small-subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor 1?, RNA polymerase II subunits 1 and 2) and the classification of the cellular neutral sugar composition of coenzyme Q and 18S ribosomal DNA was created to group related yeasts into PHYLO groups. The ASPs were determined for fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole in each PHYLO group. The majority (95%) of the yeast strains were Ascomycetes. After reclassification, a total of 23 genera and 54 species were identified, resulting in an increase of 64% of genera and a decrease of 5% of species compared with the initial identification. These taxa were assigned to 17 distinct PHYLO groups (Ascomycota, n=13; Basidiomycota, n=4). ASPs for azoles were similar among members of the same PHYLO group and different between the various PHYLO groups. Yeast phylogeny may be an additional tool to significantly enhance the assessment of MIC values and to predict antifungal susceptibility, thereby more rapidly initiating appropriate patient management. PMID:24366735

Schmalreck, A F; Lackner, M; Becker, K; Fegeler, W; Czaika, V; Ulmer, H; Lass-Flörl, C

2014-03-01

419

On the evolution of fungal and yeast cell walls  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in genomics and proteomics provide evidence that yeast and other fungal cell walls share a common origin. The fibrous component of yeast cell walls usually consists of ?-glucan and/or chitin. N-glycosylated proteins form an amorphous, cross-linking matrix as well as fibres on the outer surfaces of the walls. While the enzymes responsible for cross-linking walls into covalent complexes are conserved, the wall-resident proteins have diversified rapidly. These cell wall proteins are usually members of multi-gene families, and paralogues are often subject to gene silencing through epigenetic mechanisms and environmentally induced expression regulation. Comparative studies of protein sequences reveal that there has been fast sequence divergence of the Saccharomyces sexual agglutinins, potentially serving as a driver for yeast speciation. In addition, cell wall proteins show an unusually high content of tandem and non-tandem repeats, and a high frequency of changes in the number of repeats both among paralogues and among orthologues from conspecific strains. The rapid diversification and regulated expression of yeast cell wall proteins help yeast cells to respond to different stimuli and adapt them to diverse biotic and abiotic environments.

Xie, Xianfa; Lipke, Peter N.

2011-01-01

420

Genome Sequence of the Lager Brewing Yeast, an Interspecies Hybrid  

PubMed Central

This work presents the genome sequencing of the lager brewing yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) Weihenstephan 34/70, a strain widely used in lager beer brewing. The 25 Mb genome comprises two nuclear sub-genomes originating from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus and one circular mitochondrial genome originating from S. bayanus. Thirty-six different types of chromosomes were found including eight chromosomes with translocations between the two sub-genomes, whose breakpoints are within the orthologous open reading frames. Several gene loci responsible for typical lager brewing yeast characteristics such as maltotriose uptake and sulfite production have been increased in number by chromosomal rearrangements. Despite an overall high degree of conservation of the synteny with S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, the syntenies were not well conserved in the sub-telomeric regions that contain lager brewing yeast characteristic and specific genes. Deletion of larger chromosomal regions, a massive unilateral decrease of the ribosomal DNA cluster and bilateral truncations of over 60 genes reflect a post-hybridization evolution process. Truncations and deletions of less efficient maltose and maltotriose uptake genes may indicate the result of adaptation to brewing. The genome sequence of this interspecies hybrid yeast provides a new tool for better understanding of lager brewing yeast behavior in industrial beer production.

Nakao, Yoshihiro; Kanamori, Takeshi; Itoh, Takehiko; Kodama, Yukiko; Rainieri, Sandra; Nakamura, Norihisa; Shimonaga, Tomoko; Hattori, Masahira; Ashikari, Toshihiko

2009-01-01

421

Oxygen requirements of yeasts. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida tropicalis  

SciTech Connect

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly ({mu}{sub max}, 0.03 and 0.05 h{sup {minus}1}, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth.

Visser, W.; Scheffers, W.A.; Batenburg-Van Der Vegte, W.H.; Van Dijken, J.P. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1990-12-01

422

Structure and Function in the Budding Yeast Nucleus  

PubMed Central

Budding yeast, like other eukaryotes, carries its genetic information on chromosomes that are sequestered from other cellular constituents by a double membrane, which forms the nucleus. An elaborate molecular machinery forms large pores that span the double membrane and regulate the traffic of macromolecules into and out of the nucleus. In multicellular eukaryotes, an intermediate filament meshwork formed of lamin proteins bridges from pore to pore and helps the nucleus reform after mitosis. Yeast, however, lacks lamins, and the nuclear envelope is not disrupted during yeast mitosis. The mitotic spindle nucleates from the nucleoplasmic face of the spindle pole body, which is embedded in the nuclear envelope. Surprisingly, the kinetochores remain attached to short microtubules throughout interphase, influencing the position of centromeres in the interphase nucleus, and telomeres are found clustered in foci at the nuclear periphery. In addition to this chromosomal organization, the yeast nucleus is functionally compartmentalized to allow efficient gene expression, repression, RNA processing, genomic replication, and repair. The formation of functional subcompartments is achieved in the nucleus without intranuclear membranes and depends instead on sequence elements, protein–protein interactions, specific anchorage sites at the nuclear envelope or at pores, and long-range contacts between specific chromosomal loci, such as telomeres. Here we review the spatial organization of the budding yeast nucleus, the proteins involved in forming nuclear subcompartments, and evidence suggesting that the spatial organization of the nucleus is important for nuclear function.

Taddei, Angela; Gasser, Susan M.

2012-01-01

423

Secretion of functional antibody and Fab fragment from yeast cells.  

PubMed

We have constructed yeast strains that secrete functional mouse-human chimeric antibody and its Fab fragment into the culture medium. For chimeric whole antibody, cDNA copies of the chimeric light-chain and heavy-chain genes of an anti-tumor antibody were inserted into vectors containing the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase promoter, invertase signal sequence, and phosphoglycerate kinase polyadenylylation signal. Simultaneous expression of these genes in yeast resulted in secretion of properly folded and assembled chimeric antibody that bound to target cancer cells. Yeast chimeric antibody exhibited antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity but not complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity. For production of Fab fragments, a truncated heavy-chain (Fd) gene was created by introducing a stop codon near the codon for the amino acid at which papain digestion occurs. Simultaneous expression of the resulting chimeric Fd and light-chain genes in yeast resulted in secretion of properly folded and assembled Fab fragment that bound to target cancer cells. PMID:3054890

Horwitz, A H; Chang, C P; Better, M; Hellstrom, K E; Robinson, R R

1988-11-01

424

Fermentation and aerobic metabolism of cellodextrins by yeasts.  

PubMed Central

The fermentation and aerobic metabolism of cellodextrins by 14 yeast species or strains was monitored. When grown aerobically, Candida wickerhamii, C. guilliermondii, and C. molischiana metabolized cellodextrins of degree of polymerization 3 to 6. C. wickerhamii and C. molischiana also fermented these substrates, while C. guilliermondii fermented only cellodextrins of degree of polymerization less than or equal to 3. Debaryomyces polymorphus, Pichia guilliermondii, Clavispora lusitaniae, and one of two strains of Kluyveromyces lactis metabolized glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose when grown aerobically. These yeasts also fermented these substrates, except for K. lactis, which fermented only glucose and cellobiose. The remaining species/strains tested, K. lactis, Brettano-myces claussenii, B. anomalus, K. dobzhanskii, Rhodotorula minuta, and Dekkera intermedia, both fermented and aerobically metabolized glucose and cellobiose. Crude enzyme preparations from all 14 yeast species or strains were tested for ability to hydrolyze cellotriose and cellotretose. Most of the yeasts produced an enzyme(s) capable of hydrolyzing cellotriose. However, with two exceptions, R. minuta and P. guilliermondii, only the yeasts that metabolized cellodextrins of degree of polymerization greater than 3 produced an enzyme(s) that hydrolyzed cellotretose.

Freer, S N

1991-01-01

425

Screening Wild Yeast Strains for Alcohol Fermentation from Various Fruits  

PubMed Central

Wild yeasts on the surface of various fruits including grapes were surveyed to obtain yeast strains suitable for fermenting a novel wine with higher alcohol content and supplemented with rice starch. We considered selected characteristics, such as tolerance to alcohol and osmotic pressure, capability of utilizing maltose, and starch hydrolysis. Among 637 putative yeast isolates, 115 strains exhibiting better growth in yeast-peptone-dextrose broth containing 30% dextrose, 7% alcohol, or 2% maltose were selected, as well as five ?-amylase producers. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA gene classified the strains into 13 species belonging to five genera; Pichia anomala was the most prevalent (41.7%), followed by Wickerhamomyces anomalus (19.2%), P. guilliermondii (15%), Candida spp. (5.8%), Kodamaea ohmeri (2.5%), and Metschnikowia spp. (2.5%). All of the ?-amylase producers were Aureobasidium pullulans. Only one isolate (NK28) was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NK28 had all of the desired properties for the purpose of this study, except ?-amylase production, and fermented alcohol better than commercial wine yeasts.

Lee, Yeon-Ju; Choi, Yu-Ri; Lee, So-Young; Park, Jong-Tae; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Park, Kwan-Hwa

2011-01-01

426

The medically important yeasts present in clinical specimens.  

PubMed

In an effort to determine the yeast species present in clinical specimens obtained from patients attending a busy Saudi hospital, the present study was undertaken. More than 1614 yeasts were isolated in culture from pathologic specimens of over 1303 patients with diverse clinical conditions. Organisms identified in 22 species of eight general included: Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lipolytica, C. guilliermondii, C. pseudotropicalis, C. pinotolopesii, C. humicola, C. stellatoidea, C. lusitaniae, Torulopsis glabrata, T. inconspicua, T. candida, Trichosporon beigelii, T. capitatum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cryptococcus neoformans, C. albidus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Hansenula anomala and Prototheca zopfii. The details of specimen types yielding these yeasts in culture are presented in the text. The most frequently isolated yeasts was C. albicans, followed by T. glabrata, C. parapsolosis, C. tropicalis, T. inconspicua, C. krusei, S. cerevisiae, T. candida, and T. beigelii. Twenty isolates of six species were recovered from blood of which C. albicans was also the most common. Crytococcus neoformans was found causing cryptococcal meningitis being isolated from the CSF on an 8-year-old female patient. Future studied assessing the incidence of yeast infections in each homogeneous group of patients are recommended. PMID:17589130

Al-Hedaithy, S S

1992-01-01

427

Gene-centered yeast one-hybrid assays  

PubMed Central

Transcription is regulated by sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs) that bind to short genomic DNA elements that can be located in promoters, enhancers and other cis-regulatory modules. Determining which TFs bind where requires techniques that enable the ab initio identification of TF-DNA interactions. These techniques can either be “TF-centered” (protein-to-DNA), where regions of DNA to which a TF of interest binds are identified, or “gene-centered” (DNA-to-protein), where TFs that bind a DNA sequence of interest are identified. Here we describe gene-centered yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assays. Briefly, in Y1H assays, a DNA fragment is cloned upstream of two different reporters, and these reporter constructs are integrated into the genome of a yeast strain. Next, plasmids expressing TFs as hybrid proteins (hence the name of the assay) fused with the strong transcriptional activation domain (AD) of the yeast TF Gal4 are introduced into the yeast strain. When a TF interacts with the DNA fragment of interest, the AD moiety activates reporter expression in yeast regardless of whether the TF is an activator or repressor in vivo. Sequencing the plasmid in each of these colonies reveals the identity of the TFs that can bind the DNA fragment. We have shown Y1H to be a robust method for detecting interactions between a variety of DNA elements and multiple families of TFs.

Reece-Hoyes, John S.; Walhout, Albertha J.M.

2013-01-01

428

Yeast selection for fuel ethanol production in Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazil is one of the largest ethanol biofuel producers and exporters in the world and its production has increased steadily during the last three decades. The increasing efficiency of Brazilian ethanol plants has been evident due to the many technological contributions. As far as yeast is concerned, few publications are available regarding the industrial fermentation processes in Brazil. The present paper reports on a yeast selection program performed during the last 12 years aimed at selecting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains suitable for fermentation of sugar cane substrates (cane juice and molasses) with cell recycle, as it is conducted in Brazilian bioethanol plants. As a result, some evidence is presented showing the positive impact of selected yeast strains in increasing ethanol yield and reducing production costs, due to their higher fermentation performance (high ethanol yield, reduced glycerol and foam formation, maintenance of high viability during recycling and very high implantation capability into industrial fermenters). Results also suggest that the great yeast biodiversity found in distillery environments could be an important source of strains. This is because during yeast cell recycling, selective pressure (an adaptive evolution) is imposed on cells, leading to strains with higher tolerance to the stressful conditions of the industrial fermentation. PMID:18752628

Basso, Luiz C; de Amorim, Henrique V; de Oliveira, Antonio J; Lopes, Mario L

2008-11-01

429

Screening wild yeast strains for alcohol fermentation from various fruits.  

PubMed

Wild yeasts on the surface of various fruits including grapes were surveyed to obtain yeast strains suitable for fermenting a novel wine with higher alcohol content and supplemented with rice starch. We considered selected characteristics, such as tolerance to alcohol and osmotic pressure, capability of utilizing maltose, and starch hydrolysis. Among 637 putative yeast isolates, 115 strains exhibiting better growth in yeast-peptone-dextrose broth containing 30% dextrose, 7% alcohol, or 2% maltose were selected, as well as five ?-amylase producers. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA gene classified the strains into 13 species belonging to five genera; Pichia anomala was the most prevalent (41.7%), followed by Wickerhamomyces anomalus (19.2%), P. guilliermondii (15%), Candida spp. (5.8%), Kodamaea ohmeri (2.5%), and Metschnikowia spp. (2.5%). All of the ?-amylase producers were Aureobasidium pullulans. Only one isolate (NK28) was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NK28 had all of the desired properties for the purpose of this study, except ?-amylase production, and fermented alcohol better than commercial wine yeasts. PMID:22783070

Lee, Yeon-Ju; Choi, Yu-Ri; Lee, So-Young; Park, Jong-Tae; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Park, Kwan-Hwa; Kim, Jung-Wan

2011-03-01

430

Relative incidence of ascomycetous yeasts in arctic coastal environments.  

PubMed

Previous studies of fungi in polar environments have revealed a prevalence of basidiomycetous yeasts in soil and in subglacial environments of polythermal glaciers. Ascomycetous yeasts have rarely been reported from extremely cold natural environments, even though they are known contaminants of frozen foods. Using media with low water activity, we have isolated various yeast species from the subglacial ice of four glaciers from the coastal Arctic environment of Kongsfjorden, Spitzbergen, including Debaryomyces hansenii and Pichia guillermondii, with counts reaching 10(4) CFU L(-1). Together with the basidiomycetes Cryptococcus liquefaciens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, these yeasts represent the stable core of the subglacial yeast communities. Other glacial ascomycetous species isolated included Candida parapsilosis and a putative new species that resembles Candida pseudorugosa. The archiascomycete Protomyces inouyei has seldom been detected anywhere in the world but was here recovered from ice in a glacier cave. The glacier meltwater contained only D. hansenii, whereas the seawater contained D. hansenii, Debaryomyces maramus, Pichia guilliermondii, what appears to represent a novel species resembling Candida galli and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Only P. guilliermondii was isolated from sea ice, while snow/ice in the fjord tidal zone included C. parapsilosis, D. hansenii, P. guilliermondii and Metschnikowia zobellii. All of these isolated strains were characterized as psychrotolerant and xero/halotolerant, with the exception of P. inouyei. PMID:21221569

Butinar, Lorena; Strmole, Tadeja; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

2011-05-01

431

Grape berry yeast communities: influence of fungicide treatments.  

PubMed

The yeast communities colonising grape berry surfaces were evaluated for the influence of fungicide treatments in an organic vineyard (copper/sulphur-based products) and a conventional vineyard (commonly used fungicides). Analysis of yeast abundance and diversity was carried out on grape berries and juice during fermentation, using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Yeast abundance was as generally reported for mature grapes and it was slight higher from grapes treated with conventional fungicides. Initial grape samples showed less yeast species diversity in the organic vineyard compared with the conventional one. In both vineyards, the dominant yeast were Candida zemplinina and Hanseniaspora uvarum (>50%), respectively, typical species that colonise surfaces of mature grape berries. Metschnikowia pulcherrima was widely found in the conventional samples while it was only occasionally found in organic ones. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated only at the end of natural fermentation (conducted in sterile condition), with lower levels in the organic samples. S. cerevisiae strains showed less intraspecies diversity in the organic samples (two genotypes), in comparison with the conventional samples (six genotypes). PMID:23337124

Milanovi?, Vesna; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

2013-02-15

432

Yeast Sml1, a protein inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase.  

PubMed

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides; this step is rate-limiting in DNA precursor synthesis. A number of regulatory mechanisms ensure optimal deoxyribonucleotide pools, which are essential for cell viability. The best studied mechanisms are transcriptional regulation of the RNR genes during the cell cycle and in the response to DNA damage, and the allosteric regulation of ribonucleotide reductase by nucleoside triphosphates. Recently, another mode of RNR regulation has been hypothesized in yeast. A novel protein, Sml1, was shown to bind to the Rnr1 protein of the yeast ribonucleotide reductase; this interaction was proposed to inhibit ribonucleotide reductase activity when DNA synthesis is not required (Zhao, X., Muller, E.G.D., and Rothstein, R. (1998) Mol. Cell 2, 329-340). Here, we use highly purified recombinant proteins to directly demonstrate that the Sml1 protein is a strong inhibitor of yeast RNR. The Sml1p specifically binds to the yeast Rnr1p in a 1:1 ratio with a dissociation constant of 0.4 microM. Interestingly, Sml1p also specifically binds to the mouse ribonucleotide reductase R1 protein. However, the inhibition observed in an in vitro mouse ribonucleotide reductase assay is less pronounced than the inhibition in yeast and probably occurs via a different mechanism. PMID:10593972

Chabes, A; Domkin, V; Thelander, L

1999-12-17

433

Delimination of brewing yeast strains using different molecular techniques.  

PubMed

In general, the genetic characteristics, the phenotype and the microbial purity of the production brewing yeast strains are among the most important factors in maintaining a consistently good quality of products. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of 18S rRNA-coding DNA was investigated to group ale and lager strains. All production brewing yeast strains showed the same RFLP pattern as the type strain and synonym type strains of S. cerevisiae, and were quite different from the type and synonym type strains of S. pastorianus. Based on these data, all production brewing yeast strains investigated in this study appeared to belong to S. cerevisiae. Electrophoretic karyotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis appeared to be suitable methods for distinguishing not only the type and synonym type strain of S. cerevisiae and S. pastorianus, but also the ale and the lager strains. PMID:11139020

Tornai-Lehoczki, J; Dlauchy, D

2000-12-01

434

The preparation and properties of pyruvate kinase from yeast.  

PubMed

A new method is described for the preparation of pyruvate kinase from yeast. This eliminates proteolysis during the preparation. The molecular weight of yeast pyruvate kinase is 215000, and it is composed of four subunits. Such properties of the enzyme as its extinction coefficient, cold-lability, thiol-group reactivity and binding of Mn(2+) ions are compared with those previously reported for yeast pyruvate kinase prepared by different methods. The specific activity is significantly higher than previously observed, but otherwise the enzyme is similar, apart from its molecular weight and Mn(2+)-binding characteristics, to preparations from Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained in this laboratory (e.g. Fell et al., 1972, and references therein) and that of C. H. Suelter (e.g. Kuczenski & Suelter, 1971, and references therein), and is different from the enzyme isolated from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis by B. Hess and his co-workers (e.g. Wieker & Hess, 1972, and references therein). PMID:4369339

Fell, D A; Liddle, P F; Peacocke, A R; Dwek, R A

1974-06-01

435

Analysis of histones from the yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis.  

PubMed Central

Basic chromosomal proteins were isolated from the chromatin of the yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis by extraction with H2SO4 and were purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Electrophoresis of the purified fraction on acetic acid/urea gels revealed the presence of four main components. These four proteins were identified as histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 on the basis of their amino acid composition, molecular weight and solubility properties, all of which are very similar to the corresponding properties of the various histone proteins from other eukaryotic organisms. A fifth basic protein could be isolated from yeast chromatin by extraction with HClO4. The available evidence indicates this protein to be an H1-type histone. Yeast thus appears to contain a complete set of histone proteins which are strongly homologous to the histones occurring in higher eukaryotes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5.

Pastink, A; Berkhout, T A; Mager, W H; Planta, R J

1979-01-01

436

From yeast killer toxins to antibiobodies and beyond.  

PubMed

Antibiobodies are paradigmatic of yeast killer toxin (KT)-like antibodies (KAbs) mimicking the antimicrobial activity of KTs in the frame of the yeast killer phenomenon. Polyclonal, monoclonal and recombinant anti-idiotypic antibiobodies (anti-idiotypic KAbs), internal images of a wide-spectrum KT produced by the yeast Pichia anomala (PaKT), have been produced by immunization with the idiotype of a PaKT-neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Anti-idiotypic KAbs showed microbicidal activity against eukaryotic and prokaryotic pathogenic agents through the interaction with specific KT receptors (KTRs), putatively constituted by beta-glucans. Natural KAbs have been found in animals and humans experimentally or naturally infected by KTR-bearing microorganisms. Recombinant KAb-derived synthetic killer peptides showed further antiviral and immunomodulatory activities. The perspectives of KAbs and killer peptides as potential sources of novel therapeutic agents, and of KTRs and idiotypes as vaccines against infectious diseases are discussed. PMID:18785931

Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Travassos, Luiz R; Polonelli, Luciano

2008-11-01

437

Over-expression of the yeast multifunctional arom protein.  

PubMed

The pentafunctional arom protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is encoded by the ARO1 gene. Substantial elevation of the levels of the arom protein (25-fold) was achieved in yeast using a vector that exploited the ubiquitin-fusion cleavage system of yeast. However, attempts to express the N-terminal 3-dehydroquinate synthase domain (E1) or the internal 3-dehydroquinase domain (E2) using the same system did not succeed. The yeast arom protein was successfully purified from the over-expressing transformant, and was found to possess all five enzymatic activities in a ratio similar to that observed in crude cell extracts. The purified material consisted mainly of a polypeptide that co-migrated in SDS-PAGE with intact arom proteins from other species. PMID:8268222

Graham, L D; Gillies, F M; Coggins, J R

1993-12-14

438

Antifungal chitinase against human pathogenic yeasts from Coprinellus congregatus.  

PubMed

The inky cap, Coprinellus congregatus, produces mushrooms which become autolyzed rapidly to generate black liquid droplets, in which no cell wall is detected by microscopy. A chitinase (Chi2) which is synthesized during the autolytic phase of C. congregatus inhibits the growths of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans up to 10% at the concentration of 10 ?g/ml, about 50% at concentration of 20 ?g/ml, and up to 95% at the concentration of 70 ?g/ml. Upon treatment these yeast cells are observed to be severely deformed, with the formation of large holes in the cell wall. The two yeast species show no growth inhibition at the concentration of 5 ?g/ml, which means the minimum inhibitory concentrations for both yeast species are 10 ?g/ml under these experimental conditions. PMID:24535739

Yoo, Yeeun; Choi, Hyoung T

2014-05-01

439

Dynamical Analysis of Protein Regulatory Network in Budding Yeast Nucleus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progresses in the protein regulatory network of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided a global picture of its protein network for further dynamical research. We simplify and modularize the protein regulatory networks in yeast nucleus, and study the dynamical properties of the core 37-node network by a Boolean network model, especially the evolution steps and final fixed points. Our simulation results show that the number of fixed points N(k) for a given size of the attraction basin k obeys a power-law distribution N(k)proptok-2.024. The yeast network is more similar to a scale-free network than a random network in the above dynamical properties.

Li, Fang-Ting; Jia, Xun

2006-08-01

440

The preparation and properties of pyruvate kinase from yeast  

PubMed Central

A new method is described for the preparation of pyruvate kinase from yeast. This eliminates proteolysis during the preparation. The molecular weight of yeast pyruvate kinase is 215000, and it is composed of four subunits. Such properties of the enzyme as its extinction coefficient, cold-lability, thiol-group reactivity and binding of Mn2+ ions are compared with those previously reported for yeast pyruvate kinase prepared by different methods. The specific activity is significantly higher than previously observed, but otherwise the enzyme is similar, apart from its molecular weight and Mn2+-binding characteristics, to preparations from Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained in this laboratory (e.g. Fell et al., 1972, and references therein) and that of C. H. Suelter (e.g. Kuczenski & Suelter, 1971, and references therein), and is different from the enzyme isolated from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis by B. Hess and his co-workers (e.g. Wieker & Hess, 1972, and references therein). ImagesFig. 2.

Fell, David A.; Liddle, Peter F.; Peacocke, Arthur R.; Dwek, Raymond A.

1974-01-01

441

Maltotriose transport and utilization in baker's and brewer's yeast.  

PubMed

Maltotriose is metabolized by baker's and brewer's yeast only oxidatively, with a respiratory quotient of 1.0, the QCO2Ar being, depending on the strain used, 0-11, as compared with QCO2air of 6-42 microL CO2 per h per mg dry substance. The transport appeared to proceed by facilitated diffusion (no effects of NaF, iodoacetamide and 3-chlorophenylhydrazonomalononitrile) with a KT of more than 50 mM and was inhibited by maltose greater than maltotriose greater than methyl-alpha-D-glucoside greater than maltotetraose greater than D-fructose greater than D-glucose. The transport was present constitutively in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) and in S. uvarum (brewer's yeast) and it was not significantly stimulated by preincubation with glucose or maltose. The pH optimum was 4.5-5.5, the temperature dependence yielded an activation energy of 26 kJ/mol. PMID:6754547