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1

Effect of dietary astaxanthin rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, on meat quality of broiler chickens.  

PubMed

We evaluated effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin (Ax)-rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous), on broiler chicken meat quality. Fourteen-day-old female Ross broilers were divided into three groups: control group, Ax-free diet; Ax 10 group, 10?mg/kg Ax diet; and Ax 20 group, 20?mg/kg Ax diet for 28 days. At 42 days old, chickens were slaughtered, and then growth performance, meat quality and sensory attributes were analyzed. Compared with the control, a* values increased significantly after slaughter and 48?h postmortem for Ax 20 samples (P<0.05) and for b* values in Ax 20 and Ax 10 groups (P<0.05). Cooking loss decreased in the Ax 20 group (P<0.05). After 120?h aging, contents of several free amino acids and total free amino acid content of Ax 20 group were significantly higher than the control (P<0.05). In sensory evaluation, meat texture attributes improved significantly in the Ax 20 group (P<0.01). No significant changes occurred in flavor attribute scores of meat soup from the Ax 20 group compared with the control even though most assessors preferred meat soup from the Ax 20 group. Overall, Ax-rich yeast in the diet improves broiler chicken meat quality. PMID:24840792

Perenlei, Ganzaya; Tojo, Hitomi; Okada, Toru; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

2014-10-01

2

Carotenoids protect Phaffia rhodozyma against singlet oxygen damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The only known habitat of the astaxanthin-containingPhaffia rhodozyma is in slime fluxes of deciduous trees at high altitudes. In this habitat, the function of carotenoids inP. rhodozyma is probably to provide protection against photogenerated antifungal substances in the tree flux such as singlet oxygen (1O2). To investigate the role of carotenoids inP. rhodozyma, genetic selections were employed to determine

William A. Schroeder; Eric A. Johnson

1995-01-01

3

Isolation of Phaffia rhodozyma Mutants with Increased Astaxanthin Content  

PubMed Central

Plating of the astaxanthin-producing yeast Phaffia rhodozyma onto yeast-malt agar containing 50 ?M antimycin A gave rise to colonies of unusual morphology, characterized by a nonpigmented lower smooth surface that developed highly pigmented vertical papillae after 1 to 2 months. Isolation and purification of the pigmented papillae, followed by testing for pigment production in shake flasks, demonstrated that several antimycin isolates were increased two- to fivefold in astaxanthin content compared with the parental natural isolate (UCD-FST 67-385). One of the antimycin strains (ant-1) and a nitrosoguanidine derivative of ant-1 (ant-1-4) produced considerably more astaxanthin than the parent (ant-1 had 800 to 900 ?g/g; ant-1-4 had 900 to 1,300 ?g/g; and 67-385 had 300 to 450 ?g/g). The mutant strains were compared physiologically with the parent. The antimycin mutants grew slower on ammonia, glutamate, or glutamine as nitrogen sources compared with the natural isolate and also had lower cell yields on several carbon sources. Although isolated on antimycin plates, they were found to be more susceptible to antimycin A, apparently owing to the spatial separation of the papillae from the agar. They were also more susceptible than the parent to the respiratory inhibitor thenoyltrifluoroacetone and were slightly more susceptible to cyanide, but did not differ from the natural isolate in susceptibility to azide. The antimycin-derived strains were also killed faster than the parent by hydrogen peroxide. The carotenoid compositions of the parent and the antimycin-derived strains were similar to those previously determined in the type strain (UCD-FST 67-210) except that two carotenoids not previously found in the type strain were present in increased quantities in the antimycin mutants and phoenicoxanthin was a minor component. The chemical properties of the unknown carotenoids suggested that the strains isolated on antimycin agar tended to oxygenate and desaturate carotene precursors to a greater extent than the parent. The physiology of the antimycin isolates and the known specificity of antimycin for cytochrome b in the respiratory chain suggests that alteration of cytochrome b or cytochrome P-450 components involved in oxygenation and desaturation of carotenes in mitochondria are affected, which results in increased astaxanthin production. These astaxanthin-overproducing mutants and more highly pigmented derivative strains could be useful in providing a natural source of astaxanthin for the pen-reared-salmon industry or for other farmed animals that contain astaxanthin as their principal carotenoid. Images PMID:16347815

An, Gil-Hwan; Schuman, Donald B.; Johnson, Eric A.

1989-01-01

4

ATP-citrate lyase activity and carotenoid production in batch cultures of Phaffia rhodozyma under nitrogen-limited and nonlimited conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) is the key cytoplasmic enzyme which supplies acetyl-CoA for fatty acids in oleaginous yeast. Although\\u000a it has been suggested that fatty acid and carotenoid biosynthesis may have a common source of acetyl-CoA in Phaffia rhodozyma, the source for carotenoids is currently unknown. The purpose of this work was to analyze the development of ACL activity\\u000a during batch

Cipriano Chávez-Cabrera; Zoila R. Flores-Bustamante; Rodolfo Marsch; María del Carmen Montes; Sergio Sánchez; Juan Carlos Cancino-Díaz; Luis Bernardo Flores-Cotera

2010-01-01

5

Effect of Phaffia rhodozyma on performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, and meat quality in finishing pigs.  

PubMed

The red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma (PR), has possible applications as a component of diets for use in the animal industry. Its primary value lies in its content of astaxanthin, which has been shown to be an antioxidant several times more effective than vitamin E. A total of 96 ([Landrace × Yorkshire] × Duroc) crossbred pigs with an initial BW of 58.61 ± 3.05 kg were used in this 10-wk feeding study to determine the effects of PR on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, and meat quality in finishing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0, 0.1, or 0.2% PR. There were 8 replicate pens per treatment with 4 pigs (2 barrows and 2 gilts) per pen. The inclusion of PR linearly improved G:F in the phase 1 (P = 0.02), phase 2 (P = 0.02), and during the overall experimental period (P < 0.01) The DM digestibility was improved in the 0.1% PR treatment in phase 2 (quadratic, P = 0.01). The white blood cell concentration was increased in 0.1% PR group (P < 0.05) during phase 2 (quadratic, P < 0.01) and phase 2 (P = 0.04). The inclusion of graded levels of PR linearly increased (P < 0.01) the pH of LM. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were linearly decreased (P = 0.03) by the supplementation of PR. In conclusion, the inclusion of PR could improve feed efficiency, DM digestibility, and meat quality of the finishing pig. PMID:24352965

Lei, Y; Kim, I H

2014-01-01

6

Effect of astaxanthin produced by Phaffia rhodozyma on growth performance, meat quality, and fecal noxious gas emission in broilers.  

PubMed

A prospective alternative to antibiotics currently being evaluated is yeast and its derivative products. Phaffia rhodozyma is a species of yeast that produces the carotenoid pigment, astaxanthin (AST), which exhibits a wide variety of biological activities, including antioxidation in animals. A total of 432 one-day-old male broilers (Arbor Acres) were used in a 4-wk feeding experiment and each dietary treatment consisted of 9 replicate cages, with 16 broilers per replicate. Birds were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0 mg (CON, basal diet), 1,000 mg (CON + AST production 0.1%), or 2,000 mg (CON + AST production 0.2%) of P. rhodozyma yeast per kg of feed, giving an intake of approximately 0, 2.3, and 4.6 mg of AST/kg of feed, respectively. The inclusion of AST linearly improved weight gain in the finisher period (linear, P = 0.0264) and during the overall experimental period (linear, P = 0.0194) and linearly decreased feed conversion ratio in the finisher period (linear, P = 0.0422) and tended to decrease during the overall experimental period (linear, P = 0.0568). No significant effects were observed with red blood cell, white blood cell, and lymphocyte numbers in response to 2.3 or 4.6 mg of AST/kg of feed (P > 0.05). The ammonia emission from samples treated with 2.3 and 4.6 mg of AST/kg was significantly lower than that of CON (linear, P = 0.0110). Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with AST could improve BW gain and decrease feed conversion ratio and fecal noxious gas emission of ammonia in broilers. PMID:25260529

Jeong, Jin Suk; Kim, In Ho

2014-12-01

7

Production and extraction of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma and its biological effect on alcohol-induced renal hypoxia in Carassius auratus.  

PubMed

The effect of astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-s-carotene-4,4'-dione) on alcohol-induced morphological changes in Carassius auratus, as an experimental model, was determined. The yeast Phaffia rhodozyma was used as a source of astaxanthin. The animals were divided into three groups for 30 days: one group was treated with ethanol at a dose of 1.5% mixed in water, the second one with EtOH 1.5% and food enriched with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma, and the third was a control group. After a sufficient experimental period, the samples were processed using light microscopy and evaluated by histomorphological and histochemical staining, and the data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis, using a wide range of antibodies, such as calbindin, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. The results show that the alcoholic damage in the kidney led to hypoxia. In contrast, the group fed with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma showed a normal morphological picture, with better glomeruli organisation and the presence of the area of filtration. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry has confirmed these results. PMID:25492637

Alesci, Alessio; Salvo, Andrea; Lauriano, Eugenia Rita; Gervasi, Teresa; Palombieri, Deborah; Bruno, Maurizio; Pergolizzi, Simona; Cicero, Nicola

2014-12-10

8

Genotoxicity and subacute toxicity studies of a new astaxanthin-containing Phaffia rhodozyma extract.  

PubMed

Experimental and clinical studies demonstrate that astaxanthin (AXN), a xanthophyll carotenoid, has protective effects against oxidative damage. Because most of these studies assessed AXN derived from Haematococcus pluvialis that were cultivated at industrial scales, few studies have examined the toxicity of AXN derived from Phaffia rhodozyma. To evaluate the safety of astaxanthin-containing P. rhodozymaextract (AXN-PRE), genotoxicity was assessed in bacterial reverse mutation test and mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, and general toxicity was assessed in 4-week repeated oral toxicity study in rats. AXN-PRE did not induce reverse mutations in the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 or TA100 at concentrations of 5,000 µg/plate with or without S9 mix, and no chromosome damage was observed at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg in mouse micronucleus test. In the subacute toxicity study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given AXN-PRE at doses of 0, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg by gavage for 4 weeks. Body weights, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weights, or histopathological lesions indicated no distinct toxicity. In conclusion, AXN-PRE had no effect in bacterial reverse mutation test and mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for AXN-PRE in 4-week repeated oral toxicity study in rats was determined to be greater than 1,000 mg/kg (corresponding to dose of 50 mg/kg AXN) regardless of gender. PMID:24849672

Tago, Yoshiyuki; Fujii, Toshihide; Wada, Jutaro; Kato, Masanori; Wei, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Kitano, Mitsuaki

2014-06-01

9

Analysis of proteomic changes in colored mutants of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma).  

PubMed

The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous synthesizes astaxanthin as its most prevalent xanthophyll derivative. Comparisons between the protein profiles of mutant lines of this yeast can provide insight into the carotenogenic pathway. Differently colored mutants (red, orange, pink, yellow, and white) were obtained from this yeast species, and their protein profiles were determined using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE). Individual proteins differentially expressed were identified using mass spectrometry. The red mutants hyperproduced total carotenoids (mainly astaxanthin), while in white and orange mutants, mutagenesis affected the phytoene dehydrogenase activity as indicated by the accumulation of phytoene. Inactivation of astaxanthin synthase after the mutagenic treatment was evident in ?-carotene accumulating mutants. Differences in the proteomic profiles of wild-type X. dendrorhous and its colored mutants were demonstrated using 2DE. Of the total number of spots detected in each gel (297-417), 128 proteins were present in all strains. The red mutant showed the greatest number of matches with respect to the wild type (305 spots), while the white and yellow mutants, which had reduced concentrations of total carotenoids, presented the highest correlation coefficient (0.6) between each other. A number of differentially expressed proteins were sequenced, indicating that tricarboxylic acid cycle and stress response proteins are closely related to the carotenogenic process. PMID:24676883

Barbachano-Torres, Alejandra; Castelblanco-Matiz, Lina M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Salgado, Luis M; Flores-Ortiz, César M; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa

2014-06-01

10

Phylogenetic analysis of the ballistosporous anamorphic genera Udeniomyces and Bullera, and related basidiomycetous yeasts, based on 18S rDNA sequence.  

PubMed

The small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) sequence was determined for twelve species of basidiomycetous anamorphic yeasts, i.e. three species of Udeniomyces, seven species of Bullera, Cryptococcus albidus and Phaffia rhodozyma. For phylogentic analysis, these sequences were aligned with published sequences for 36 other fungal species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of maximum likelihood and parsimony showed that the 44 species of basidiomycetes analysed were divided into three major lineages. The ballistosporous yeast genera Udeniomyces and Bullera were clearly separated. On the phylogenetic tree, Udeniomyces megalosporus, U. puniceus and U. piricola showed a very close relationship with one another, and composed a lineage with Mrakia frigida, P. rhodozyma and Cystofilobasidium capitatum at high bootstrap confidence level. On the other hand, eight species of Bullera made lineages with selected species of Tremella (Tremellaceae), Filobasidium and Filobasidiella (Filobasidiaceae), Cryptococcus albidus and Trichosporon cutaneum. The molecular phylogeny deduced from the 18S rDNA sequence showed a possibility of heterogeneity among the species of Bullera at the generic level. PMID:7773393

Suh, S O; Nakase, T

1995-04-01

11

21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...parts per million. Arsenic, not more than 2 parts per million. Mercury, not more than 1 part per million. Heavy metals (as Pb), not more than 10 parts per million. Astaxanthin, not less than 0.4 percent. (c) Uses and...

2013-04-01

12

21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...parts per million. Arsenic, not more than 2 parts per million. Mercury, not more than 1 part per million. Heavy metals (as Pb), not more than 10 parts per million. Astaxanthin, not less than 0.4 percent. (c) Uses and...

2011-04-01

13

21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...parts per million. Arsenic, not more than 2 parts per million. Mercury, not more than 1 part per million. Heavy metals (as Pb), not more than 10 parts per million. Astaxanthin, not less than 0.4 percent. (c) Uses and...

2012-04-01

14

21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.  

...parts per million. Arsenic, not more than 2 parts per million. Mercury, not more than 1 part per million. Heavy metals (as Pb), not more than 10 parts per million. Astaxanthin, not less than 0.4 percent. (c) Uses and...

2014-04-01

15

21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...parts per million. Arsenic, not more than 2 parts per million. Mercury, not more than 1 part per million. Heavy metals (as Pb), not more than 10 parts per million. Astaxanthin, not less than 0.4 percent. (c) Uses and...

2010-04-01

16

Production and optimization of carotenoid-enriched dried distiller’s grains with solubles by Phaffia rhodozyma and Sporobolomyces roseus fermentation of whole stillage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole stillage—a co-product of grain-based ethanol—is used as an animal feed in the form of dried distiller’s grain with solubles\\u000a (DDGS). Since animals cannot synthesize carotenoids and animal feed is generally poor in carotenoids, about 30–120 ppm of\\u000a total carotenoids are added to animal feed to improve animal health, enhance meat color and quality, and increase vitamin\\u000a A levels in milk

Nanjundaswamy Ananda; Praveen V. Vadlani

2010-01-01

17

Global distribution, diversity hot spots and niche transitions of an astaxanthin-producing eukaryotic microbe.  

PubMed

Microbes establish very diverse but still poorly understood associations with other microscopic or macroscopic organisms that do not follow the more conventional modes of competition or mutualism. Phaffia rhodozyma, an orange-coloured yeast that produces the biotechnologically relevant carotenoid astaxanthin, exhibits a Holarctic association with birch trees in temperate forests that contrasts with the more recent finding of a South American population associated with Nothofagus (southern beech) and with stromata of its biotrophic fungal parasite Cyttaria spp. We investigated whether the association of Phaffia with Nothofagus-Cyttaria could be expanded to Australasia, the other region of the world where Nothofagus are endemic, studied the genetic structure of populations representing the known worldwide distribution of Phaffia and analysed the evolution of the association with tree hosts. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that Phaffia diversity in Australasia is much higher than in other regions of the globe and that two endemic and markedly divergent lineages seem to represent new species. The observed genetic diversity correlates with host tree genera rather than with geography, which suggests that adaptation to the different niches is driving population structure in this yeast. The high genetic diversity and endemism in Australasia indicate that the genus evolved in this region and that the association with Nothofagus is the ancestral tree association. Estimates of the divergence times of Phaffia lineages point to splits that are much more recent than the break-up of Gondwana, supporting that long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance is responsible for observed distribution of P. rhodozyma. PMID:24372735

David-Palma, Márcia; Libkind, Diego; Sampaio, José Paulo

2014-02-01

18

Enhancement of innate immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) associated with dietary intake of carotenoids from natural products.  

PubMed

The effects of orally administered carotenoids from natural sources on the non-specific defense mechanisms of rainbow trout were evaluated in a nine-week feeding trial. Fish were fed four diets containing either beta-carotene or astaxanthin at 100 and 200 mg kg-1 from the marine algae Dunaliella salina and red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, respectively, and a control diet containing no supplemented carotenoids. Specific growth rate and feed:gain ratio were not affected by dietary carotenoid supplementation. Among the humoral factors, serum alternative complement activity increased significantly in all carotenoid supplemented groups when compared to the control. On the other hand, serum lysozyme activity increased in the Dunaliella group but not in the Phaffia group, whereas plasma total immunoglobulin levels were not altered by the feeding treatments. As for the cellular responses, the superoxide anion production from the head kidney remained unchanged while the phagocytic rate and index in all supplemented groups were significantly higher than those of the control. These findings demonstrate that dietary carotenoids from both D. salina and P. rhodozyma can modulate some of the innate defense mechanisms in rainbow trout. PMID:15123294

Amar, E C; Kiron, V; Satoh, S; Watanabe, T

2004-04-01

19

Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

20

Isolation and functional characterisation of a novel type of carotenoid biosynthetic gene from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.  

PubMed

The red heterobasidiomycetous yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (perfect state of Phaffia rhodozyma) contains a novel type of carotenoid biosynthetic enzyme. Its structural gene, designated crtYB, was isolated by functional complementation in a genetically modified, carotenogenic Escherichia coli strain. Expression studies in different carotenogenic E. coli strains demonstrated that the crt YB gene encodes a bifunctional protein involved both in synthesis of phytoene from geranylgeranyl diphosphate and in cyclisation of lycopene to beta-carotene. By sequence comparison with other phytoene synthases and complementation studies in E. coli with various deletion derivatives of the crtYB gene, the regions responsible for phytoene synthesis and lycopene cyclisation were localised within the protein. PMID:10589832

Verdoes, J C; Krubasik, K P; Sandmann, G; van Ooyen, A J

1999-10-01

21

Herman Jan Phaff: professor, mentor, friend and colleague.  

PubMed

Herman Jan Phaff, the father of yeast ecology, was born in the Netherlands in 1913. In his early years, he spent much time in his family's winery, which sparked his interest in microbes. Trained in the famous Delft tradition, Phaff discovered many unrecognized ecological niches of yeast, such as shellfish, rabbit stomach, frass of bark beetles, tree exudates, cactus roots, Capri figs, sewage, Drosophila flies and shrimp. He is also remembered for his pioneering work on the coevolution of yeasts, insects and plants as well as for his work on yeast beta-glucanase, which resulted in major advances in the understanding of the nature of the yeast cell wall. Phaff's legacy includes research on pectin degradation by fungal enzymes and the application of molecular approaches to yeast systematics. He discovered and described many yeasts, such as the yeast named in his honor, Phaffia rhodozyma, which led to the establishment of a very important industrial fermentation process yielding high concentrations of the pigment astaxanthin, used throughout the world to provide a natural source of this important carotenoid. PMID:12884058

Demain, Arnold L

2003-09-01

22

A Feast for Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 6 of the PDF, learners investigate yeast. Learners prepare an experiment to observe what yeast cells like to eat. Learners feed the yeast cells various ingredients in plain bread--water, flour, sugar, and salt--to discover yeast's favorite food.

Society, American C.

2000-01-01

23

Yeast-Air Balloons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a yeast-air balloon to get a better idea of what yeast can do. Learners discover that the purpose of leaveners like yeast is to produce the gas that makes bread rise. Learners discover that as yeast feeds on sugar, it produces carbon dioxide which slowly fills the balloon.

The Exploratorium

2012-03-10

24

Yeast Education Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Yeast Education Network provides a variety of resources to facilitate use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in undergraduate science curricula. Laboratory, classroom, and computer-based activities can be used with college and advanced high school students.

25

Population Growth in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is the second of two that explore cellular respiration and population growth in yeasts. In the first lesson, students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Based on questions that arose during the first lesson and its associated activity, students in this lesson work in small groups to design experiments that determine how environmental factors affect yeast population growth.

Engineering K-Phd Program

26

Yeasts: Neglected Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current research on Crohn’s disease (CD) concerns molecular events related to loss of tolerance to microbes that could trigger or maintain inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. CD is also associated with antimicrobial antibodies, including the antibodies we described against yeast oligomannosides (ASCA). This prompted us to investigate a role for another yeast, Candida albicans, a very common commensal of

Daniel Poulain; Boualem Sendid; Annie Standaert-Vitse; Chantal Fradin; Thierry Jouault; Samir Jawhara; Jean-Frederic Colombel

2009-01-01

27

Moonlighting Proteins in Yeasts  

PubMed Central

Proteins able to participate in unrelated biological processes have been grouped under the generic name of moonlighting proteins. Work with different yeast species has uncovered a great number of moonlighting proteins and shown their importance for adequate functioning of the yeast cell. Moonlighting activities in yeasts include such diverse functions as control of gene expression, organelle assembly, and modification of the activity of metabolic pathways. In this review, we consider several well-studied moonlighting proteins in different yeast species, paying attention to the experimental approaches used to identify them and the evidence that supports their participation in the unexpected function. Usually, moonlighting activities have been uncovered unexpectedly, and up to now, no satisfactory way to predict moonlighting activities has been found. Among the well-characterized moonlighting proteins in yeasts, enzymes from the glycolytic pathway appear to be prominent. For some cases, it is shown that despite close phylogenetic relationships, moonlighting activities are not necessarily conserved among yeast species. Organisms may utilize moonlighting to add a new layer of regulation to conventional regulatory networks. The existence of this type of proteins in yeasts should be taken into account when designing mutant screens or in attempts to model or modify yeast metabolism. PMID:18322039

Gancedo, Carlos; Flores, Carmen-Lisset

2008-01-01

28

Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

Ingrid Waldron

29

Prions in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The concept of a prion as an infectious self-propagating protein isoform was initially proposed to explain certain mammalian diseases. It is now clear that yeast also has heritable elements transmitted via protein. Indeed, the “protein only” model of prion transmission was first proven using a yeast prion. Typically, known prions are ordered cross-? aggregates (amyloids). Recently, there has been an explosion in the number of recognized prions in yeast. Yeast continues to lead the way in understanding cellular control of prion propagation, prion structure, mechanisms of de novo prion formation, specificity of prion transmission, and the biological roles of prions. This review summarizes what has been learned from yeast prions. PMID:22879407

Liebman, Susan W.; Chernoff, Yury O.

2012-01-01

30

Yeast Alive! Watch Yeast Live and Breathe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson for Grades 6-8 explores the chemical reaction that happens when yeast makes bread rise. The process, called fermentation, occurs when tiny living organisms (yeast) feed on the sugars in flour dough, expelling carbon dioxide as they go. It promotes understanding of how enzymes can cause chemical reactions. This resource combines a 4-minute video of the process plus a hands-on lab that allows students to see the effects of fermentation within a typical 40-45 minute middle school class period.

2011-08-19

31

RNAi in Budding Yeast  

E-print Network

RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing pathway triggered by double-stranded RNA, is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species but has been lost in the model budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that RNAi ...

Drinnenberg, Ines A.

32

Vaginal Yeast Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... caused by an overgrowth of a fungus called Candida albicans in the vagina. Candida is yeast, which is a type of fungus. ... small numbers, and symptoms only appear with overgrowth. Candida can multiply when an imbalance occurs, such as ...

33

Yeast infections (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Yeast infections may follow a course of antibiotics that were prescribed for another purpose. The antibiotics change the normal "balance" between organisms in the vagina by suppressing the growth of protective bacteria that normally have an antifungal effect.

34

Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

35

Yeast expression platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms. They combine ease of genetic manipulations and the option for a simple fermentation\\u000a design of a microbial organism with the capabilities of an eukaryotic organism to secrete and to modify a protein according\\u000a to a general eukaryotic scheme. For platform applications, a range of yeast species has been developed during the last decades.\\u000a We present

Erik Böer; Gerhard Steinborn; Gotthard Kunze; Gerd Gellissen

2007-01-01

36

Forces in yeast flocculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

2015-01-01

37

Forces in yeast flocculation.  

PubMed

In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion ("flocculation") is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding. PMID:25515338

El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N; Dufrêne, Yves F

2015-01-22

38

Yeast killer toxins and dimorphism.  

PubMed Central

The differential action of four selected yeast killer toxins on the mycelial and yeast forms of four isolates of the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii was comparatively evaluated. The results confirmed that the yeast killer phenomenon is present among hyphomycetes and yeasts and that both morphological forms of S. schenckii are susceptible to the action of the same yeast killer toxin. Quantitative differences in the response to the killer action of the mycelial and yeast forms in individual strains were also observed. To avoid retroconversion of the dimorphic forms, we used a modification of the conventional killer system. Images PMID:2754015

Polonelli, L; Conti, S; Campani, L; Morace, G; Fanti, F

1989-01-01

39

21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid content of the yeast does not exceed 0.04 milligram...

2010-04-01

40

Oxygen requirements of yeasts.  

PubMed

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. PMID:2082825

Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P

1990-12-01

41

Oxygen requirements of yeasts.  

PubMed Central

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. Images PMID:2082825

Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P

1990-01-01

42

Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks  

PubMed Central

The term “transcriptional network” refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24018767

Hughes, Timothy R.; de Boer, Carl G.

2013-01-01

43

Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... a common infection caused by a yeast called candida albicans (a type of fungus). Yeast infections usually ... the vagina, it is known as vulvovaginal candidiasis . Candida can overgrow for many reasons. Stress, pregnancy, and ...

44

Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

45

Yeast killer systems.  

PubMed Central

The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

1997-01-01

46

Genetics of Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

47

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

2013-02-12

48

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

2014-09-23

49

Vaginal Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... rash on the penis if they have unprotected sex with an infected woman. If this happens to your partner, he should see a doctor. Men who haven’t been circumcised are at higher risk. Lesbians may be at risk for spreading yeast infections ...

50

Yeast DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

51

Microencapsulation in yeast cells.  

PubMed

A method for encapsulating high concentrations of essential oils into bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is described. The process involves mixing an aqueous suspension of yeast and an essential oil, which allows the oil to pass freely through the cell wall and membrane and remain passively within the cell. Oil droplets sequestered within the cell were clearly visible using confocal microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the cell wall and membrane remain intact during the process. Cells quickly lost viability during the process and it appeared unnecessary for the cells to be viable for the process to occur. Encapsulated oil was recovered from the cells using a water/ethanol extraction procedure and analysed by gas chromatography. No significant differences were noted between encapsulated and unencapsulated oil profiles. The rate of permeation of oil into the yeast cells was found to increase significantly at higher temperatures due to the phase transition of the lipid membrane. The rates at which different essential oils permeated the cell varied considerably due to variations in terpene chemistry. The encapsulation of straight chain hydrocarbons highlighted the effects of molecular size, shape and the presence of hydroxl groups on the process. The process occurs by passive diffusion as a result of hydrophobic flavour components partitioning into the cell membrane and intracellular lipid. This paper briefly reviews the patented literature and reports some of the initial observations of the transport mechanisms involved during the accumulation of essential oils by yeast cells. PMID:9818954

Bishop, J R; Nelson, G; Lamb, J

1998-01-01

52

Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

53

Mammalian Homology to Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site allows researchers to retrieve a yeast-against-mammal Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) report by entering a gene or ORF name into a search function. The supporting data were first summarized in a recent Science article which is provided via a link to the journal (Science, 22 July 1997; Issue 277: p.1259). Steve Chervitz of Stanford University maintains this site.

1997-01-01

54

Yeast Colony Embedding Method  

PubMed Central

Patterning of different cell types in embryos is a key mechanism in metazoan development. Communities of microorganisms, such as colonies and biofilms also display patterns of cell types. For example, in the yeast S. cerevisiae, sporulated cells and pseudohyphal cells are not uniformly distributed in colonies. The functional importance of patterning and the molecular mechanisms that underlie these patterns are still poorly understood. One challenge with respect to investigating patterns of cell types in fungal colonies is that unlike metazoan tissue, cells in colonies are relatively weakly attached to one another. In particular, fungal colonies do not contain the same extensive level of extracellular matrix found in most tissues . Here we report on a method for embedding and sectioning yeast colonies that reveals the interior patterns of cell types in these colonies. The method can be used to prepare thick sections (0.5 ?) useful for light microscopy and thin sections (0.1 ?) suitable for transmission electron microscopy. Asci and pseudohyphal cells can easily be distinguished from ovoid yeast cells by light microscopy , while the interior structure of these cells can be visualized by EM. The method is based on surrounding colonies with agar, infiltrating them with Spurr's medium, and then sectioning. Colonies with a diameter in the range of 1-2 mm are suitable for this protocol. In addition to visualizing the interior of colonies, the method allows visualization of the region of the colony that invades the underlying agar. PMID:21445054

Piccirillo, Sarah; Honigberg, Saul M.

2011-01-01

55

Genome evolution in yeasts.  

PubMed

Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity to explore such mechanisms. We present here the complete, assembled genome sequences of four yeast species, selected to represent a broad evolutionary range within a single eukaryotic phylum, that after analysis proved to be molecularly as diverse as the entire phylum of chordates. A total of approximately 24,200 novel genes were identified, the translation products of which were classified together with Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins into about 4,700 families, forming the basis for interspecific comparisons. Analysis of chromosome maps and genome redundancies reveal that the different yeast lineages have evolved through a marked interplay between several distinct molecular mechanisms, including tandem gene repeat formation, segmental duplication, a massive genome duplication and extensive gene loss. PMID:15229592

Dujon, Bernard; Sherman, David; Fischer, Gilles; Durrens, Pascal; Casaregola, Serge; Lafontaine, Ingrid; De Montigny, Jacky; Marck, Christian; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Talla, Emmanuel; Goffard, Nicolas; Frangeul, Lionel; Aigle, Michel; Anthouard, Véronique; Babour, Anna; Barbe, Valérie; Barnay, Stéphanie; Blanchin, Sylvie; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Beyne, Emmanuelle; Bleykasten, Claudine; Boisramé, Anita; Boyer, Jeanne; Cattolico, Laurence; Confanioleri, Fabrice; De Daruvar, Antoine; Despons, Laurence; Fabre, Emmanuelle; Fairhead, Cécile; Ferry-Dumazet, Hélène; Groppi, Alexis; Hantraye, Florence; Hennequin, Christophe; Jauniaux, Nicolas; Joyet, Philippe; Kachouri, Rym; Kerrest, Alix; Koszul, Romain; Lemaire, Marc; Lesur, Isabelle; Ma, Laurence; Muller, Héloïse; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Nikolski, Macha; Oztas, Sophie; Ozier-Kalogeropoulos, Odile; Pellenz, Stefan; Potier, Serge; Richard, Guy-Franck; Straub, Marie-Laure; Suleau, Audrey; Swennen, Dominique; Tekaia, Fredj; Wésolowski-Louvel, Micheline; Westhof, Eric; Wirth, Bénédicte; Zeniou-Meyer, Maria; Zivanovic, Ivan; Bolotin-Fukuhara, Monique; Thierry, Agnès; Bouchier, Christiane; Caudron, Bernard; Scarpelli, Claude; Gaillardin, Claude; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Souciet, Jean-Luc

2004-07-01

56

Tapping into yeast diversity.  

PubMed

Domesticated organisms demonstrate our capacity to influence wild species but also provide us with the opportunity to understand rapid evolution in the context of substantially altered environments and novel selective pressures. Recent advances in genetics and genomics have brought unprecedented insights into the domestication of many organisms and have opened new avenues for further improvements to be made. Yet, our ability to engineer biological systems is not without limits; genetic manipulation is often quite difficult. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is not only one of the most powerful model organisms, but is also the premier producer of fermented foods and beverages around the globe. As a model system, it entertains a hefty workforce dedicated to deciphering its genome and the function it encodes at a rich mechanistic level. As a producer, it is used to make leavened bread, and dozens of different alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine. Yet, applying the awesome power of yeast genetics to understanding its origins and evolution requires some knowledge of its wild ancestors and the environments from which they were derived. A number of surprisingly diverse lineages of S. cerevisiae from both primeval and secondary forests in China have been discovered by Wang and his colleagues. These lineages substantially expand our knowledge of wild yeast diversity and will be a boon to elucidating the ecology, evolution and domestication of this academic and industrial workhorse. PMID:23281494

Fay, Justin C

2012-11-01

57

Production of Food Grade Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the

Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Athanasios A. Koutinas

2006-01-01

58

Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.  

PubMed

Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production. PMID:24003656

Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

2013-01-01

59

Agriculturally important yeasts: Biological control of field and postharvest diseases using yeast antagonists, and yeasts as pathogens of plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two important agricultural aspects of yeasts, control of plant diseases through application of yeasts as the control agent, and yeasts that are plant pathogens are reviewed. Yeasts as biocontrol organisms are presented first, followed by a discussion of some of the more common plant pathogenic yeas...

60

Yeasts from the leaves of pasture plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast population upon the leaves of pasture plants in New Zealand has been investigated in relation to season, soil yeast flora, and incidence of facial eczema toxin in autumn pasture. Leaf yeasts were shown to be taxonomically distinct from soil yeasts and to vary with season but not to vary with the localities sampled. During most of the year

M. E. di Menna

1959-01-01

61

Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

1995-12-31

62

Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

63

Lager yeast comes of age.  

PubMed

Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This "web of life" recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

Wendland, Jürgen

2014-10-01

64

Marine yeast isolation and industrial application.  

PubMed

Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

2014-09-01

65

Marine yeast isolation and industrial application  

PubMed Central

Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

2014-01-01

66

Medicinal yeast extracts.  

PubMed

Alcoholic extracts of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) have been used for over 60 years in over-the-counter medications for the treatment of hemorrhoids, burns, and wounds. Although previous studies suggested that small peptides were responsible for the medical observations, the peptides were never resolved into separate fractions and identified. In the present report, a protein fraction was prepared by RPC18 chromatography of the extract which enhances wound closure in both diabetic and non-diabetic littermates. The peptides are active in nanomolar amounts and are 600 times more active than the initial extract. SDS-PAGE and N-terminal amino acid sequencing identified 4 polypeptides in the extract. Three of the proteins were small molecular weight stress-associated proteins: copper, zinc superoxide-dismutase, ubiquitin, and glucose lipid regulated protein (HSP 12). The fourth protein, acyl-CoA binding protein II, has not been previously associated with stress proteins. PMID:10547066

Schlemm, D J; Crowe, M J; McNeill, R B; Stanley, A E; Keller, S J

1999-09-01

67

Yeast Breads: Made at Home.  

E-print Network

of ' oven to give crustiness. Makes 2 dozen large rolls. 1 Crusty water rolls. TOMATO CHEESE ROLLS 314 cup lukewarm tomato juice 1 package yeast or 1 .yeast cake 1 tablespoon sugar 1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons .melted butter or margarine 2114 CUPS... flour Add yeast and sugar to lukewarm tomato juice and Irt $tdnd until dissolved. Add salt and fat. Add half the fln~lr and beat until smooth. Add remaining flour Place in greased bowl and brush with melted fat. Cover 2nd let rise until doubled...

Cox, Maeona; Harris, Jimmie Nell; Reasonover, Frances; Mason, Lousie

1957-01-01

68

The Yeast Sphingolipid Signaling Landscape  

PubMed Central

Sphingolipids are recognized as signaling mediators in a growing number of pathways, and represent potential targets to address many diseases. The study of sphingolipid signaling in yeast has created a number of breakthroughs in the field, and has the potential to lead future advances. The aim of this article is to provide an inclusive view of two major frontiers in yeast sphingolipid signaling. In the first section, several key studies in the field of sphingolipidomics are consolidated to create a yeast sphingolipidome that ranks nearly all known sphingolipid species by their level in a resting yeast cell. The second section presents an overview of most known phenotypes identified for sphingolipid gene mutants, presented with the intention of illuminating not yet discovered connections outside and inside of the field. PMID:24220500

Montefusco, David J.; Matmati, Nabil

2014-01-01

69

Yeast Breads: Made at Home.  

E-print Network

/4 cup lukewarm tomato juice I 1 package or cake yeast 1 tablespoon sugar 1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons melted butter or margarine 21/4 CUPS flour Add penst and sugar to lukewarm tomato juice and tomato juice I 1 package or cake yeast 1 tablespoon sugar 1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons melted butter or margarine 21/4 CUPS flour Add penst and sugar to lukewarm tomato juice and

Reasonover, Frances

1971-01-01

70

Molecular Genetic Analysis in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The four exercises presented here use basic and advanced procedures of recombinant DNA technology to perform molecular genetic analysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Their fulluse is intended for a senior-level molecular genetics (or similar) course; however, Experiments 1, 2, and 4 are appropriate for lower-level courses. It is expected that the instructor will have some familiarity with the concepts and terminology of recombinant DNA technology and with yeast genetics.

Daniel D. Burke (Seton Hall University; )

1989-06-06

71

Metabolic regulation of yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

Fiechter, A.

1982-12-01

72

Synthetic Yeast Cooperation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooperation is wide-spread and has been postulated to drive major transitions in evolution. However, Darwinian selection favors ``cheaters'' that consume benefits without paying a fair cost. How did cooperation evolve against the threat of cheaters? To investigate the evolutionary trajectories of cooperation, we created a genetically tractable system that can be observed as it evolves from inception. The system consists of two engineered yeast strains -- a red-fluorescent strain that requires adenine and releases lysine and a yellow-fluorescent strain that requires lysine and releases adenine. Cells that consume but not supply metabolites would be cheaters. From the properties of two cooperating strains, we calculated and experimentally verified the minimal initial cell densities required for the viability of the cooperative system in the absence of exogenously added adenine and lysine. Strikingly, evolved cooperative systems were viable at 100-fold lower initial cell densities than their ancestors. We are investigating the nature and diversity of pro-cooperation changes, the dynamics of cooperator-cheater cocultures, and the effects of spatial environment on cooperation and cheating.

Shou, Wenying; Burton, Justin

2010-03-01

73

Nuclear Transport of Yeast Proteasomes  

PubMed Central

Proteasomes are conserved protease complexes enriched in the nuclei of dividing yeast cells, a major site for protein degradation. If yeast cells do not proliferate and transit to quiescence, metabolic changes result in the dissociation of proteasomes into proteolytic core and regulatory complexes and their sequestration into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli. These granuli rapidly clear with the resumption of growth, releasing the stored proteasomes, which relocalize back to the nucleus to promote cell cycle progression. Here, I report on three models of how proteasomes are transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus of yeast cells. The first model applies for dividing yeast and is based on the canonical pathway using classical nuclear localization sequences of proteasomal subcomplexes and the classical import receptor importin/karyopherin ??. The second model applies for quiescent yeast cells, which resume growth and use Blm10, a HEAT-like repeat protein structurally related to karyopherin ?, for nuclear import of proteasome core particles. In the third model, the fully-assembled proteasome is imported into the nucleus. Our still marginal knowledge about proteasome dynamics will inspire the discussion on how protein degradation by proteasomes may be regulated in different cellular compartments of dividing and quiescent eukaryotic cells. PMID:25333764

Enenkel, Cordula

2014-01-01

74

Development of a multi-gene expression system in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.  

PubMed

BackgroundRed yeast, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) is the only yeast known to produce astaxanthin, an anti-oxidant isoprenoid (carotenoid) that is widely used in the aquaculture, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the potential of this microorganism as a platform cell factory for isoprenoid production has been recognized because of high flux through its native terpene pathway. Addition of mevalonate, the common precursor for isoprenoid biosynthesis, has been shown to be critical to enhance the astaxanthin content in X. dendrorhous. However, addition of mevalonate is unrealistic during industrial isoprenoid production because it is an unstable and costly chemical. Therefore, up-regulating the intracellular mevalonate supply by enhancing the mevalonate synthetic pathway though genetic engineering is a promising strategy to improve isoprenoid production in X. dendrorhous. However, a system to strongly express multiple genes has been poorly developed for X. dendrorhous.ResultsHere, we developed a multiple gene expression system using plasmids containing three strong promoters in X. dendrorhous (actin, alcohol dehydrogenase and triose-phosphate isomerase) and their terminators. Using this system, three mevalonate synthetic pathway genes encoding acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, HMG-CoA synthase and HMG-CoA reductase were overexpressed at the same time. This triple overexpressing strain showed an increase in astaxanthin production compared with each single overexpressing strain. Additionally, this triple overexpression of mevalonate synthetic pathway genes together with genes involved in ß-carotene and astaxanthin synthesis showed a synergetic effect on increasing astaxanthin production. Finally, astaxanthin production was enhanced by 2.1-fold compared with the parental strain without a reduction of cell growth.ConclusionsWe developed a system to strongly overexpress multiple genes in X. dendrorhous. Using this system, the synthetic pathway of mevalonate, a common substrate for isoprenoid biosynthesis, was enhanced, causing an increase in astaxanthin production. Combining this multiple gene overexpression system with a platform strain that overproduces mevalonate has the potential to improve industrial production of various isoprenoids in X. dendrorhous. PMID:25471659

Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Morita, Toshihiko; Mochizuki, Masao; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Ogino, Chiaki; Araki, Michihiro; Kondo, Akihiko

2014-12-01

75

APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA  

E-print Network

APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA Like Escherichia media of consistently high quality is essential for the genetic manipulation of yeast. Autoclaving coli, yeast can be grown in either liquid media or on the surface of (or embedded in) solid agar plates

Winston, Fred

76

The intronome of budding yeasts.  

PubMed

Whatever their abundance in genomes, spliceosomal introns are the signature of eukaryotic genes. The sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, achieved fifteen years ago, revealed that this yeast has very few introns, but conserved intron boundaries typical for an intron definition mechanism. With the improvement and the development of new sequencing technologies, yeast genomes have been extensively sequenced during the last decade. We took advantage of this plethora of data to compile and assess the intron content of the protein-coding genes of 13 genomes representative of the evolution of hemiascomycetous yeasts. We first observed that intron paucity is a general rule and that the fastest evolving genomes tend to lose their introns more rapidly (e.g. S. cerevisiae versus Yarrowia lipolytica). Noticeable differences were also confirmed for 5' splice sites and branch point sites (BP) as well as for the relative position of the BP. These changes seemed to be correlated with the lineage specific evolution of splicing factors. PMID:21819948

Neuvéglise, Cécile; Marck, Christian; Gaillardin, Claude

2011-01-01

77

Cdc42 Oscillations in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A fundamental problem in cell biology is how cells define one or several discrete sites of polarity. Through mechanisms involving positive and negative feedback, the small Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase Cdc42 breaks symmetry in round budding yeast cells to define a single site of polarized cell growth. However, it is not clear how cells can define multiple sites of polarization concurrently. We discuss a study in which rod-shaped fission yeast cells, which naturally polarize growth at their two cell ends, exhibited oscillations of Cdc42 activity between these sites. We compare these findings with similar oscillatory behavior of Cdc42 detected in budding yeast cells and discuss the possible mechanism and functional outputs of these oscillations.

Felipe O. Bendezu (Switzerland;University of Lausanne REV); Sophie G. Martin (Switzerland;University of Lausanne REV)

2012-12-04

78

Oily yeasts as oleaginous cell factories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oily yeasts have been described to be able to accumulate lipids up to 20% of their cellular dry weight. These yeasts represent\\u000a a minor proportion of the total yeast population, and only 5% of them have been reported as able to accumulate more than 25%\\u000a of lipids. The oily yeast genera include Yarrowia, Candida, Rhodotorula, Rhodosporidium, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Lipomyces.

Jose Manuel Ageitos; Juan Andres Vallejo; Patricia Veiga-Crespo; Tomas G. Villa

2011-01-01

79

Chromatin and Transcription in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms by which chromatin structure controls eukaryotic transcription has been an intense area of investigation for the past 25 years. Many of the key discoveries that created the foundation for this field came from studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the discovery of the role of chromatin in transcriptional silencing, as well as the discovery of chromatin-remodeling factors and histone modification activities. Since that time, studies in yeast have continued to contribute in leading ways. This review article summarizes the large body of yeast studies in this field. PMID:22345607

Rando, Oliver J.; Winston, Fred

2012-01-01

80

Yeast: A Research Organism for Teaching Genetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why laboratory strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are particularly suited for classroom science activities. Describes the sexual life cycle of yeast and the genetic system with visible mutations. Presents an overview of activities that can be done with yeast and gives a source for teachers to obtain more information. (PR)

Manney, Thomas R.; Manney, Monta L.

1992-01-01

81

Recombinant protein production in yeasts.  

PubMed

Recombinant protein production is a multibillion-dollar market. The development of a new product begins with the choice of a production host. While one single perfect host for every protein does not exist, several expression systems ranging from bacterial hosts to mammalian cells have been established. Among them, yeast cell factories combine the advantages of being single cells, such as fast growth and easy genetic manipulation, as well as eukaryotic features including a secretory pathway leading to correct protein processing and post-translational modifications. In this respect, especially the engineering of yeast glycosylation to produce glycoproteins of human-like glycan structures is of great interest. Additionally, different attempts of cellular engineering as well as the design of different production processes that are leading to improved productivities are presented. With the advent of cheaper next-generation sequencing techniques, systems biotechnology approaches focusing on genome scale analyses will advance and accelerate yeast cell factories and thus recombinant protein production processes in the near future. In this review we summarize advantages and limitations of the main and most promising yeast hosts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Hansenula polymorpha as those presently used in large scale production of heterologous proteins. PMID:22160907

Mattanovich, Diethard; Branduardi, Paola; Dato, Laura; Gasser, Brigitte; Sauer, Michael; Porro, Danilo

2012-01-01

82

Yeast DEL assay detects clastogens.  

PubMed

Chromosomal rearrangements, including DNA deletions are involved in carcinogenesis. The deletion (DEL) assay scoring for DNA deletions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to detect a wide range of carcinogens. Among approximately 60 compounds of known carcinogenic activity, the DEL assay detected 86% correctly whereas the Ames Salmonella assay detected only 30% correctly [R.J. Brennan, R.H. Schiestl, Detecting carcinogens with the yeast DEL assay, Methods Mol. Biol. 262 (2004) 111-124]. Since the DEL assay is highly inducible by DNA double strand breaks, this study examined the utility of the DEL assay for detecting clastogens. Ten model compounds, with varied mechanisms of genotoxicity, were examined for their effect on the frequency of DNA deletions with the DEL assay. The compounds tested were: actinomycin D, camptothecin, methotrexate and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, which are anticancer agents, noscapine and furosemide are therapeutics, acridine, methyl acrylate and resorcinol are industrial chemicals and diazinon is an insecticide. The in vitro micronucleus assay (IVMN) in CHO cells, a commonly used tool for detection of clastogens, was performed on the same compounds and the results of the two assays were compared. The results of our study show that there is 70% concordance in the presence of metabolic activation (rat liver S9) and 80% concordance in the absence of metabolic activation between the DEL assay and the standard in vitro micronucleus assay. The lack of cytotoxicity observed for four of the ten compounds examined indicates limited diffusion of lipophilic compounds across the yeast cell wall. Thus, the development of a more permeable yeast tester strain is expected to greatly improve concordance of the DEL assay with the IVMN assay. The yeast DEL assay is inexpensive, amenable to automation and requires less expertise to perform than the IVMN. Thus, it has a strong potential as a robust, fast and economical screen for detecting clastogens in vitro. PMID:15781217

Kirpnick, Zhanna; Homiski, Michael; Rubitski, Elizabeth; Repnevskaya, Marina; Howlett, Niall; Aubrecht, Jiri; Schiestl, Robert H

2005-04-01

83

Occurrence and Growth of Yeasts in Yogurts  

PubMed Central

Yogurts purchased from retail outlets were examined for the presence of yeasts by being plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar. Of the 128 samples examined, 45% exhibited yeast counts above 103 cells per g. A total of 73 yeast strains were isolated and identified as belonging to the genera Torulopsis, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Candida, Rhodotorula, Pichia, Debaryomyces, and Sporobolomyces. Torulopsis candida and Kluyveromyces fragilis were the most frequently isolated species, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula rubra, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Torulopsis versatilis. The growth of yeasts in yogurts was related to the ability of the yeasts to grow at refrigeration temperatures, to ferment lactose and sucrose, and to hydrolyze milk casein. Most yeast isolates grew in the presence of 100 ?g of sorbate and benzoate preservatives per ml. Higher yeast counts from yogurts were obtained when the yogurts were plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar than when they were plated onto acidified malt extract agar. PMID:16345853

Suriyarachchi, V. R.; Fleet, G. H.

1981-01-01

84

Original article Effect of a viable yeast culture on digestibility  

E-print Network

with 5 g yeast supplement (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Biosafe) per day in a latin square design. Diets by yeast treatment. Supplementation of yeast in- creased acetate: propionate ratio, butyrate, isoacids, p number in the rumen fluid rapidly declined when dietary yeast was ceased. Further- more, yeast cells

Boyer, Edmond

85

Sterols in yeast subcellular fractions.  

PubMed

Yeast is the most primitive organism synthesizing substantial amounts of sterols. Because of this eucaryotic organism's versatility in growth conditions, ease of culture, well-defined genetic mechanism, and characteristic subcellar architecture, it is readily applied to studies of the role of sterols in the general economy of the cell. Sterols exist in two major forms, as the free sterol, or esterified with long chain fatty acids. The importance of sterols for this organism can be demonstrated using a naturally occurring antimycotic azasterol. This agent inhibits yeast growth. Three effects are seen on sterol synthesis: inhibition of the enzymes delta14-reductase, sterol methyltransferase, and methylene reductase. Cells cultured on respiratory substrates are more sensitive to inhibition than are cells growing on glucose. We have demonstrated a relationship between respiratory competency and sterol biosynthesis in this organism. Many mutants altered in sterol synthesis are respirationally defective and must grow fermentatively. One clone has temperature conditional respiration. Experiments with purified mitochondria, prepared from this mutant and its isogenic wildtype, show that the mutant organism is able to respire at the higher temperature but lacks the ability to couple respiration to phosphorylation. No similar loss is seen in the wild-type clones. Data are given which support the proposal that, for inclusion in mitochondrial structures, yeast cells may discriminate among sterols available from the total sterol pool in favor of ergosterol. PMID:364234

Parks, L W; McLean-Bowen, C; Taylor, F R; Hough, S

1978-10-01

86

Pheromone Signaling Pathways in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The actions of many extracellular stimuli are elicited by complexes of cell surface receptors, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding proteins (G proteins), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) complexes. Analysis of haploid yeast cells and their response to peptide mating pheromones has produced important advances in the understanding of G protein and MAPK signaling mechanisms. Many of the components, their interrelationships, and their regulators were first identified in yeast. Examples include definitive demonstration of a positive signaling role for G protein βγ subunits, the discovery of a three-tiered structure of the MAPK module, development of the concept of a kinase-scaffold protein, and the discovery of the first regulator of G protein signaling protein. New and powerful genomic, proteomic, and computational approaches available in yeast are beginning to uncover new pathway components and interactions and have revealed their presence in unexpected locations within the cell. This updated Connections Map in the Database of Cell Signaling includes several major revisions to this prototypical signal response pathway.

Henrik G. Dohlman (University of North Carolina;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV); Janna E. Slessareva (University of North Carolina;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV)

2006-12-05

87

Biopharmaceutical discovery and production in yeast.  

PubMed

The selection of an expression platform for recombinant biopharmaceuticals is often centered upon suitable product titers and critical quality attributes, including post-translational modifications. Although notable differences between microbial, yeast, plant, and mammalian host systems exist, recent advances have greatly mitigated any inherent liabilities of yeasts. Yeast expression platforms are important to both the supply of marketed biopharmaceuticals and the pipelines of novel therapeutics. In this review, recent advances in yeast-based expression of biopharmaceuticals will be discussed. The advantages of using glycoengineered yeast as a production host and in the discovery space will be illustrated. These advancements, in turn, are transforming yeast platforms from simple production systems to key technological assets in the discovery and selection of biopharmaceutical lead candidates. PMID:25014890

Meehl, Michael A; Stadheim, Terrance A

2014-12-01

88

Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

89

Assembly of eukaryotic algal chromosomes in yeast  

PubMed Central

Background Synthetic genomic approaches offer unique opportunities to use powerful yeast and Escherichia coli genetic systems to assemble and modify chromosome-sized molecules before returning the modified DNA to the target host. For example, the entire 1 Mb Mycoplasma mycoides chromosome can be stably maintained and manipulated in yeast before being transplanted back into recipient cells. We have previously demonstrated that cloning in yeast of large (>?~?150 kb), high G?+?C (55%) prokaryotic DNA fragments was improved by addition of yeast replication origins every ~100 kb. Conversely, low G?+?C DNA is stable (up to at least 1.8 Mb) without adding supplemental yeast origins. It has not been previously tested whether addition of yeast replication origins similarly improves the yeast-based cloning of large (>150 kb) eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content. The model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has an average G?+?C content of 48% and a 27.4 Mb genome sequence that has been assembled into chromosome-sized scaffolds making it an ideal test case for assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic chromosomes in yeast. Results We present a modified chromosome assembly technique in which eukaryotic chromosomes as large as ~500 kb can be assembled from cloned ~100 kb fragments. We used this technique to clone fragments spanning P. tricornutum chromosomes 25 and 26 and to assemble these fragments into single, chromosome-sized molecules. We found that addition of yeast replication origins improved the cloning, assembly, and maintenance of the large chromosomes in yeast. Furthermore, purification of the fragments to be assembled by electroelution greatly increased assembly efficiency. Conclusions Entire eukaryotic chromosomes can be successfully cloned, maintained, and manipulated in yeast. These results highlight the improvement in assembly and maintenance afforded by including yeast replication origins in eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content (48%). They also highlight the increased efficiency of assembly that can be achieved by purifying fragments before assembly. PMID:24325901

2013-01-01

90

Evaluation of Automated Yeast Identification System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One hundred and nine teleomorphic and anamorphic yeast isolates representing approximately 30 taxa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the Biolog yeast identification system. Isolates derived from nomenclatural types, environmental, and clinica isolates of known identity were tested in the Biolog system. Of the isolates tested, 81 were in the Biolog database. The system correctly identified 40, incorrectly identified 29, and was unable to identify 12. Of the 28 isolates not in the database, 18 were given names, whereas 10 were not. The Biolog yeast identification system is inadequate for the identification of yeasts originating from the environment during space program activities.

McGinnis, M. R.

1996-01-01

91

Role of glucose signaling in yeast metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast was the first biochemical pathway to be studied in detail. The initial observation that this process is catalyzed by an extract of yeast led to the discovery of enzymes and coenzymes and laid the foundation for modern biochemistry. In this article, knowledge concerning the relation between uptake of and signaling by glucose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed and compared to the analogous process in prokaryotes. It is concluded that (much) more fundamental knowledge concerning these processes is required before rational redesign of metabolic fluxes from glucose in yeast can be achieved.

Dam, K. van [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). E.C. Slater Inst.

1996-10-05

92

Prevention of Yeast Spoilage in Feed and Food by the Yeast Mycocin HMK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe con- struction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier,

K. F. Lowes; C. A. Shearman; J. Payne; D. MacKenzie; D. B. Archer; R. J. Merry; M. J. Gasson

2000-01-01

93

INDISIM-YEAST, an individual-based model to study yeast population in batch cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

INDISIM-YEAST, an individual-based simulator, models the evolution of a yeast population by setting up rules of behaviour for each individual cell according to their own biological rules and characteristics. It takes into account the uptake, metabolism, budding reproduction and viability of the yeast cells, over a period of time in the bulk of a liquid medium, occupying a three dimensional

Marta Ginovart; Joan Xifré; Daniel López; Moises Silbert

94

Drosophila Regulate Yeast Density and Increase Yeast Community Similarity in a Natural Substrate  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogaster adults and larvae, but especially larvae, had profound effects on the densities and community structure of yeasts that developed in banana fruits. Pieces of fruit exposed to adult female flies previously fed fly-conditioned bananas developed higher yeast densities than pieces of the same fruits that were not exposed to flies, supporting previous suggestions that adult Drosophila vector yeasts to new substrates. However, larvae alone had dramatic effects on yeast density and species composition. When yeast densities were compared in pieces of the same fruits assigned to different treatments, fruits that developed low yeast densities in the absence of flies developed significantly higher yeast densities when exposed to larvae. Across all of the fruits, larvae regulated yeast densities within narrow limits, as compared to a much wider range of yeast densities that developed in pieces of the same fruits not exposed to flies. Larvae also affected yeast species composition, dramatically reducing species diversity across fruits, reducing variation in yeast communities from one fruit to the next (beta diversity), and encouraging the consistent development of a yeast community composed of three species of yeast (Candida californica, C. zemplinina, and Pichia kluvyeri), all of which were palatable to larvae. Larvae excreted viable cells of these three yeast species in their fecal pools, and discouraged the growth of filamentous fungi, processes which may have contributed to their effects on the yeast communities in banana fruits. These and other findings suggest that D. melanogaster adults and their larval offspring together engage in ‘niche construction’, facilitating a predictable microbial environment in the fruit substrates in which the larvae live and develop. PMID:22860093

Stamps, Judy A.; Yang, Louie H.; Morales, Vanessa M.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

2012-01-01

95

YMDB: the Yeast Metabolome Database.  

PubMed

The Yeast Metabolome Database (YMDB, http://www.ymdb.ca) is a richly annotated 'metabolomic' database containing detailed information about the metabolome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Modeled closely after the Human Metabolome Database, the YMDB contains >2000 metabolites with links to 995 different genes/proteins, including enzymes and transporters. The information in YMDB has been gathered from hundreds of books, journal articles and electronic databases. In addition to its comprehensive literature-derived data, the YMDB also contains an extensive collection of experimental intracellular and extracellular metabolite concentration data compiled from detailed Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomic analyses performed in our lab. This is further supplemented with thousands of NMR and MS spectra collected on pure, reference yeast metabolites. Each metabolite entry in the YMDB contains an average of 80 separate data fields including comprehensive compound description, names and synonyms, structural information, physico-chemical data, reference NMR and MS spectra, intracellular/extracellular concentrations, growth conditions and substrates, pathway information, enzyme data, gene/protein sequence data, as well as numerous hyperlinks to images, references and other public databases. Extensive searching, relational querying and data browsing tools are also provided that support text, chemical structure, spectral, molecular weight and gene/protein sequence queries. Because of S. cervesiae's importance as a model organism for biologists and as a biofactory for industry, we believe this kind of database could have considerable appeal not only to metabolomics researchers, but also to yeast biologists, systems biologists, the industrial fermentation industry, as well as the beer, wine and spirit industry. PMID:22064855

Jewison, Timothy; Knox, Craig; Neveu, Vanessa; Djoumbou, Yannick; Guo, An Chi; Lee, Jacqueline; Liu, Philip; Mandal, Rupasri; Krishnamurthy, Ram; Sinelnikov, Igor; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S

2012-01-01

96

Prevention of Yeast Spoilage in Feed and Food by the Yeast Mycocin HMK  

PubMed Central

The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe construction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier, which resulted in secretion of biologically active mycocin into the culture media. A partial purification protocol was developed, and a comparison with native W. mrakii mycocin showed that the heterologously expressed mycocin had similar physiological properties and an almost identical spectrum of biological activity against a number of yeasts isolated from silage and yoghurt. Two food and feed production systems prone to yeast spoilage were used as models to assess the ability of mycocin HMK to act as a biocontrol agent. The onset of aerobic spoilage in mature maize silage was delayed by application of A. niger mycocin HMK on opening because the toxin inhibited growth of the indigenous spoilage yeasts. This helped maintain both higher lactic acid levels and a lower pH. In yoghurt spiked with dairy spoilage yeasts, A. niger mycocin HMK was active at all of the storage temperatures tested at which yeast growth occurred, and there was no resurgence of resistant yeasts. The higher the yeast growth rate, the more effective the killing action of the mycocin. Thus, mycocin HMK has potential applications in controlling both silage spoilage and yoghurt spoilage caused by yeasts. PMID:10698773

Lowes, K. F.; Shearman, C. A.; Payne, J.; MacKenzie, D.; Archer, D. B.; Merry, R. J.; Gasson, M. J.

2000-01-01

97

Growth requirements of san francisco sour dough yeasts and bakers' yeast.  

PubMed

The growth requirements of several yeasts isolated from San Francisco sour dough mother sponges were compared with those of bakers' yeast. The sour dough yeasts studied were one strain of Saccharomyces uvarum, one strain of S. inusitatus, and four strains of S. exiguus. S. inusitatus was the only yeast found to have an amino acid requirement, namely, methionine. All of the yeasts had an absolute requirement for pantothenic acid and a partial requirement for biotin. Inositol was stimulatory to all except bakers' yeast. All strains of S. exiguus required niacin and thiamine. Interestingly, S. inusitatus, the only yeast that required methionine, also needed folic acid. For optimal growth of S. exiguus in a molasses medium, supplementation with thiamine was required. PMID:16345154

Henry, N

1976-03-01

98

Yeast flora of grape berries during ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast flora associated with the surface of grapes during ripening was studied with regard to different sectors of the grape skin and the position in the bunch by means of traditional as well as more vigorous preisolation and precounting treatments. The yeast number per square centimeter of skin increases with ripening and is highest in the area immediately surrounding

Gianfranco Rosini; Federico Federici; Alessandro Martini

1982-01-01

99

Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains  

SciTech Connect

The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

1981-01-01

100

Yeast: An Experimental Organism for Modern Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the applicability and advantages of using yeasts as popular and ideal model systems for studying and understanding eukaryotic biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Cites experimental tractability and the cooperative tradition of the research community of yeast biologists as reasons for this success. (RT)

Botstein, David; Fink, Gerald R.

1988-01-01

101

The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis  

PubMed Central

Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24932634

Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

2014-01-01

102

The yeast expression system for recombinant glycosyltransferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycosyltransferases are increasingly being used for in vitro synthesis of oligosaccharides. Since these enzymes are difficult to purify from natural sources, expression systems for soluble forms of the recombinant enzymes have been developed. This review focuses on the current state of development of yeast expression systems. Two yeast species have mainly been used, i.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris. Safety

Martine Malissard; Steffen Zeng; Eric G. Berger

1999-01-01

103

Production of serpins using yeast expression systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serpins occupy a unique niche in the field of biology. As more of them are discovered, the need to produce sufficient quantities of each to aid experimental and therapeutic research increases. Yeast expression systems are well suited for the production of recombinant serpins. The genetics of many yeast species is well understood and readily manipulated to induce the targeted over-production

Philip A. Pemberton; Phillip I. Bird

2004-01-01

104

YEAST MEIOSIS Sister kinetochores are mechanically  

E-print Network

YEAST MEIOSIS Sister kinetochores are mechanically fused during meiosis I in yeast Krishna K Production of healthy gametes requires a reductional meiosis I division in which replicated sister chromatids comigrate, rather than separate as in mitosis or meiosis II. Fusion of sister kinetochores during meiosis I

Asbury, Chip

105

Chronological aging leads to apoptosis in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

uring the past years, yeast has been successfully established as a model to study mechanisms of apoptotic regulation. However, the beneficial effects of such a cell suicide program for a unicellular organism remained obscure. Here, we demonstrate that chronologi- cally aged yeast cultures die exhibiting typical markers of apoptosis, accumulate oxygen radicals, and show caspase activation. Age-induced cell death is

Eva Herker; Helmut Jungwirth; Katharina A. Lehmann; Corinna Maldener; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich; Silke Wissing; Sabrina Büttner; Markus Fehr; Stephan Sigrist; Frank Madeo

2004-01-01

106

Definition, classification and nomenclature of the yeasts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This submission includes sections for the Preface, Use of this Book, Table of Contents and a chapter entitled Definition, classification and nomenclature of the yeasts, which are to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. This book has been prepared by a team of international ex...

107

Enological functions of parietal yeast mannoproteins.  

PubMed

Parietal yeast mannoproteins play a very important role in the overall vinification process. Their production and release, both during winemaking and aging on lees, depends on the specific yeast strain and the nutritional conditions. The following enological functions of parietal yeast mannoproteins have been described: (a) adsorption of ochratoxin A; (b) combination with phenolic compounds; (c) increased growth of malolactic bacteria; (d) inhibition of tartrate salt crystallization; (e) interaction with flor wines; (f) prevention of haze; (g) reinforcement of aromatic components; (h) wine enrichment during aging on fine lees; (i) yeast flocculation and autolysis in sparkling wines. Further discoveries related to their enological functions are foreseeable. Yeast-derived mannoproteins may well induce chemical, sensorial and health benefits, thus greatly improving wine quality. PMID:16622788

Caridi, Andrea

2006-01-01

108

Growing yeast into cylindrical colonies.  

PubMed

Microorganisms often form complex multicellular assemblies such as biofilms and colonies. Understanding the interplay between assembly expansion, metabolic yield, and nutrient diffusion within a freely growing colony remains a challenge. Most available data on microorganisms are from planktonic cultures, due to the lack of experimental tools to control the growth of multicellular assemblies. Here, we propose a method to constrain the growth of yeast colonies into simple geometric shapes such as cylinders. To this end, we designed a simple, versatile culture system to control the location of nutrient delivery below a growing colony. Under such culture conditions, yeast colonies grow vertically and only at the locations where nutrients are delivered. Colonies increase in height at a steady growth rate that is inversely proportional to the cylinder radius. We show that the vertical growth rate of cylindrical colonies is not defined by the single-cell division rate, but rather by the colony metabolic yield. This contrasts with cells in liquid culture, in which the single-cell division rate is the only parameter that defines the population growth rate. This method also provides a direct, simple method to estimate the metabolic yield of a colony. Our study further demonstrates the importance of the shape of colonies on setting their expansion. We anticipate that our approach will be a starting point for elaborate studies of the population dynamics, evolution, and ecology of microbial colonies in complex landscapes. PMID:24853750

Vulin, Clément; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Lindner, Ariel B; Daerr, Adrian; Murray, Andrew; Hersen, Pascal

2014-05-20

109

Biosorption of mercury on magnetically modified yeast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brewer's yeast (bottom yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum) cells were magnetically modified using water based magnetic fluid stabilized perchloric acid. The magnetically modified yeast cells were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron spin resonance (ESR). Hg2+ biosorption-desorption properties of magnetically modified yeast cells from synthetic solutions were utilized in batch system. The biosorption process was fast; 80% of

Handan Yavuz; Adil Denizli; Hakan Güngüne?; Mirka Safarikova; Ivo Safarik

2006-01-01

110

Copper Biosorption on Magnetically Modified Yeast Cells Under Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brewer's yeast (bottom yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum) cells were magnetically modified using water-based magnetic fluid stabilized perchloric acid. The magnetically modified yeast cells were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cu biosorption properties of magnetically modified yeast cells from synthetic solutions were utilized in a continuous magnetic system. The Cu ion-binding capacity decreased drastically with the increase of the

Lokman Uzun; Necdet Sa?lam; Mirka Safarikova; Ivo Safarik; Adil Denizli

2011-01-01

111

The genetics of aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae possesses a finite life span similar in many attributes and implications to that of higher eukaryotes. Here, the measure of the life span is the number of generations or divisions the yeast cell has undergone. The yeast cell is the organism, simplifying many aspects of aging research. Most importantly, the genetics of yeast is highly-developed and readily

S. Michal Jazwinski

1993-01-01

112

A Caspase-Related Protease Regulates Apoptosis in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast can undergo cell death accompanied by cellular markers of apoptosis. However, orthologs of classical mammalian apoptosis regulators appeared to be missing from the yeast genome, challenging a common mechanism of yeast and mammalian apoptosis. Here we investigate Yor197w, a yeast protein with structural homology to mammalian caspases, and demonstrate caspase-like processing of the protein. Hydrogen peroxide treatment induces apoptosis

Frank Madeo; Eva Herker; Corinna Maldener; Silke Wissing; Stephan Lächelt; Mark Herlan; Markus Fehr; Kirsten Lauber; Stephan J Sigrist; Sebastian Wesselborg; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich

2002-01-01

113

The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.  

PubMed

Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. PMID:24932634

Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

2014-09-01

114

Accelerating Yeast Prion Biology using Droplet Microfluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prions are infectious proteins in a misfolded form, that can induce normal proteins to take the misfolded state. Yeast prions are relevant, as a model of human prion diseases, and interesting from an evolutionary standpoint. Prions may also be a form of epigenetic inheritance, which allow yeast to adapt to stressful conditions at rates exceeding those of random mutations and propagate that adaptation to their offspring. Encapsulation of yeast in droplet microfluidic devices enables high-throughput measurements with single cell resolution, which would not be feasible using bulk methods. Millions of populations of yeast can be screened to obtain reliable measurements of prion induction and loss rates. The population dynamics of clonal yeast, when a fraction of the cells are prion expressing, can be elucidated. Furthermore, the mechanism by which certain strains of bacteria induce yeast to express prions in the wild can be deduced. Integrating the disparate fields of prion biology and droplet microfluidics reveals a more complete picture of how prions may be more than just diseases and play a functional role in yeast.

Ung, Lloyd; Rotem, Assaf; Jarosz, Daniel; Datta, Manoshi; Lindquist, Susan; Weitz, David

2012-02-01

115

Optical Tweezing of Yeast Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical Tweezers is a powerful technique that aids in understanding and applying the unique principles of photonics, optical physics, and basic cell biology. The experiments presented involve using HeNe lasers (632.8 nm) to trap spherical and ovular shaped objects in a solution. Polystyrene spheres, six micrometers in diameter, were trapped and moved with the laser to calibrate our system. The spheres were submerged in a Sodium Phosphate buffer solution to prevent sticking. Saccharomyces cerevisae, better known as yeast, was grown in a glucose rich environment to reach sizes of four to nine micrometers. Our optical tweezers captured and moved these cells under the operators command. A two laser system was utilized to control two cells simultaneously and attempt the splitting of cells. )

Gilroy, Kyle; Ochoa, Romulo

2010-02-01

116

Yeast and yeast-like diversity in the southernmost glacier of Europe (Calderone Glacier, Apennines, Italy).  

PubMed

The present study reports the characterization of psychrophilic yeast and yeast-like diversity in cold habitats (superficial and deep sediments, ice cores and meltwaters) of the Calderone Glacier (Italy), which is the southernmost glacier in Europe. After incubation at 4 and 20 degrees C, sediments contained about 10(2)-10(3) CFU of yeasts g(-1). The number of viable yeast cells in ice and meltwaters was several orders of magnitude lower. The concomitant presence of viable bacteria and filamentous fungi has also been observed. In all, 257 yeast strains were isolated and identified by 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 and internal transcribed spacers (1 and 2) sequencing as belonging to 28 ascomycetous and basidiomycetous species of 11 genera (Candida, Cystofilobasidium, Cryptococcus, Dioszegia, Erythrobasidium, Guehomyces, Mastigobasidium, Mrakia, Mrakiella, Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces). Among them, the species Cryptococcus gastricus accounted for almost 40% of the total isolates. In addition, 12 strains were identified as belonging to the yeast-like species Aureobasidium pullulans and Exophiala dermatitidis, whereas 15 strains, presumably belonging to new species, yet to be described, were also isolated. Results herein reported indicate that the Calderone Glacier, although currently considered a vanishing ice body due to the ongoing global-warming phenomenon, still harbors viable psychrophilic yeast populations. Differences of yeast and yeast-like diversity between the glacier under study and other worldwide cold habitats are also discussed. PMID:20402775

Branda, Eva; Turchetti, Benedetta; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Pecci, Massimo; Smiraglia, Claudio; Buzzini, Pietro

2010-06-01

117

[Regulation of gene expression in methylotrophic yeasts].  

PubMed

Methylotrophic yeasts are unique eukaryotic organisms, that can metabolize toxic one-carbon substrate, methyl alcohol or methanol. About 50 species of methylotrophic yeasts is known, among them 4 species are the best studied: Pichia methanolica, Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia pastoris i Candida boidinii. These organisms, especially P. pastoris i H. polymorpha appeared to be very perspective overproducers of heterologous proteins and nowadays are used for industrial production of some of them. In this review, we provide information on the organization of the genome, mechanisms of regulation of gene expression and the use of strong promoters of these yeast species to construct the producers of heterologous proteins. In more details, we analyze genetic control of carbon and nitrogen catabolic repression in H. polymorpha and also the identification of metabolites inducing catabolite repression or peroxisome selective autophagy in the medium with ethanol in the Pichia methanolica yeast. PMID:23821948

Grabek-Lejko, Dorota; Sibirny, Vladimir; Sibirny, Andriy

2013-01-01

118

Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts  

E-print Network

The fission yeast clade—comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus—occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative ...

Regev, Aviv

119

Yeasts in ensiled high-moisture corn.  

PubMed

A total of 1,365 yeasts were selected from ensiled high-moisture corn at various stages in the ensiling process to determine the sequence and relative numbers of yeast species. The yeast species most frequently isolated from freshly harvested corn were Candida parapsilosis and C. intermedia; these two species were isolated infrequently after the third week of storage. Species of yeasts that predominate after the 12th day of storage were Hansenula anomala (66% of the isolates studied) and C. krusei (26% of the isolates studied). The preponderance of H. anomala and C. krusei in ensiled corn is believed to be associated with the ability of these two species to assimilate lactic acid. PMID:5914494

Burmeister, H R; Hartman, P A

1966-01-01

120

Functional analysis of the yeast genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Just as Saccharomyces cerevisiae itself provides a model for so many processes essential to eukaryotic life, we anticipate that the methods and the mindset\\u000a that have moved yeast biological research \\

Petra Ross-Macdonald

2000-01-01

121

ENGINEERING THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF STYRENE IN YEAST  

EPA Science Inventory

The strategy pursued was to insert genes for phenylalanine ammonia lysase (pal) and phenolic acid decarboxylase (pad) into the yeast that would convert phenylalanine to styrene through a cinnamic acid intermediate. ...

122

Kinetochore Structure: Pulling Answers from Yeast  

E-print Network

Despite the identification of multiple kinetochore proteins, their structure and organization has remained unclear. New work uses electron microscopy to visualize isolated budding yeast kinetochore particles and reveal the ...

Cheeseman, Iain M.

123

Comparative functional genomics of the fission yeasts.  

PubMed

The fission yeast clade--comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus--occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative annotation of these genomes identified a near extinction of transposons and the associated innovation of transposon-free centromeres. Expression analysis established that meiotic genes are subject to antisense transcription during vegetative growth, which suggests a mechanism for their tight regulation. In addition, trans-acting regulators control new genes within the context of expanded functional modules for meiosis and stress response. Differences in gene content and regulation also explain why, unlike the budding yeast of Saccharomycotina, fission yeasts cannot use ethanol as a primary carbon source. These analyses elucidate the genome structure and gene regulation of fission yeast and provide tools for investigation across the Schizosaccharomyces clade. PMID:21511999

Rhind, Nicholas; Chen, Zehua; Yassour, Moran; Thompson, Dawn A; Haas, Brian J; Habib, Naomi; Wapinski, Ilan; Roy, Sushmita; Lin, Michael F; Heiman, David I; Young, Sarah K; Furuya, Kanji; Guo, Yabin; Pidoux, Alison; Chen, Huei Mei; Robbertse, Barbara; Goldberg, Jonathan M; Aoki, Keita; Bayne, Elizabeth H; Berlin, Aaron M; Desjardins, Christopher A; Dobbs, Edward; Dukaj, Livio; Fan, Lin; FitzGerald, Michael G; French, Courtney; Gujja, Sharvari; Hansen, Klavs; Keifenheim, Dan; Levin, Joshua Z; Mosher, Rebecca A; Müller, Carolin A; Pfiffner, Jenna; Priest, Margaret; Russ, Carsten; Smialowska, Agata; Swoboda, Peter; Sykes, Sean M; Vaughn, Matthew; Vengrova, Sonya; Yoder, Ryan; Zeng, Qiandong; Allshire, Robin; Baulcombe, David; Birren, Bruce W; Brown, William; Ekwall, Karl; Kellis, Manolis; Leatherwood, Janet; Levin, Henry; Margalit, Hanah; Martienssen, Rob; Nieduszynski, Conrad A; Spatafora, Joseph W; Friedman, Nir; Dalgaard, Jacob Z; Baumann, Peter; Niki, Hironori; Regev, Aviv; Nusbaum, Chad

2011-05-20

124

Prion formation by a yeast GLFG nucleoporin  

E-print Network

The self-assembly of proteins into higher order structures is both central to normal biology and a dominant force in disease. Certain glutamine/asparagine (Q/N)-rich proteins in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...

Halfmann, Randal

125

Macromolecular synthesis by yeasts under frozen conditions  

E-print Network

by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Experi- ments at -5°C under frozen and liquid conditionsMacromolecular synthesis by yeasts under frozen conditions Pierre Amato,* Shawn Doyle and Brent C

Christner, Brent C.

126

Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

1985-01-01

127

Multidrug resistant yeasts in synanthropic wild birds  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of multidrug resistant yeasts in the faeces of synanthropic wild birds from the Bangsar suburb of Kuala Lumpur. Methods Species characterisations of yeast isolates and determinations of antimycotic susceptibility profiles were undertaken using the commercial characterization kit, Integral System Yeasts Plus (Liofilchem, Italy). Results Fourteen species of yeasts were detected in the bird faecal samples.Candida albicans was present in 28.89% of bird faecal samples, Candida krusei (13.33%), Candida tropicalis (4.44%), Candida glabrata (4.44%), Candida parapsilosis (2.22%), Candida lambica (2.22%), Candida stellatoidea (2.22%), Candida rugosa (2.22%) and Candida lusitaniae (2.22%). Amongst the non-candidal yeast isolates, Cryptococcus laurentii was present in 6.67% of bird faecal samples, Cryptococcus uniguttulatus (4.44%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (4.44%), Trichosporon pullulans (2.22%), Trichosporon pullulans/Cryptococcus albidus (8.89%) and Rhodotorula rubra/Rhodotorula glutinis (4.44%). Of the isolated yeasts, 18.1% (or 26/144) were found to be resistant to all 11 antimycotic agents they were tested against i.e. Nystatin, Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, Econazole, Ketoconazole, Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Fluconazole 16 and Fluconazole 64. 45.8% (or 66/144) of the bird faecal yeast isolates were resistant to four or more of the 11 antimycotic agents they were tested against. Conclusions This finding is of public health significance as these synanthropic wild birds may be reservoirs for transmission of drug resistant yeast infections to humans. PMID:20307325

2010-01-01

128

How to Make Yeast Cells Thrive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students set up and run the experiments they designed in the Population Growth in Yeasts associated lesson, using simple yeast-molasses cultures in test tubes. Population growth is indicated by the amount of respiration occurring in the cultures, which in turn is indicated by the growth of carbon dioxide bubbles trapped within the culture tubes. Using this method, students test for a variety of environmental influences, such as temperature, food supply and pH.

Engineering K-Phd Program

129

The secretory pathway: exploring yeast diversity.  

PubMed

Protein secretion is an essential process for living organisms. In eukaryotes, this encompasses numerous steps mediated by several hundred cellular proteins. The core functions of translocation through the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, primary glycosylation, folding and quality control, and vesicle-mediated secretion are similar from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. However, recent research has revealed significant functional differences between yeasts and mammalian cells, and even among diverse yeast species. This review provides a current overview of the canonical protein secretion pathway in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, highlighting differences to mammalian cells as well as currently unresolved questions, and provides a genomic comparison of the S. cerevisiae pathway to seven other yeast species where secretion has been investigated due to their attraction as protein production platforms, or for their relevance as pathogens. The analysis of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, Hansenula polymorpha, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe reveals that many - but not all - secretion steps are more redundant in S. cerevisiae due to duplicated genes, while some processes are even absent in this model yeast. Recent research obviates that even where homologous genes are present, small differences in protein sequence and/or differences in the regulation of gene expression may lead to quite different protein secretion phenotypes. PMID:23480475

Delic, Marizela; Valli, Minoska; Graf, Alexandra B; Pfeffer, Martin; Mattanovich, Diethard; Gasser, Brigitte

2013-11-01

130

Attempts to detect lycopersene formation in yeast  

PubMed Central

1. ?-Ionone vapour has been shown to cause an increase in the more saturated carotenes and a decrease in the less saturated carotenes of Rhodotorula glutinis. Lycopersene (dihydrophytoene) has been proposed as a precursor to phytoene. Attempts were made to isolate lycopersene from ?-ionone-treated cultures of R. glutinis. 2. Large samples of ?-ionone-treated cultures were examined for the presence of lycopersene. Spots were detected on silicic acid plates that could not be differentiated from synthetic lycopersene on the basis of column and thin-layer chromatographic separations and staining techniques. The lycopersene-like substance could be obtained from non-treated pigmented yeast as well as baker's yeast. 3. An extraction of bacterial-grade yeast extract also yielded a lycopersene-like substance. The extracts of R. glutinis cells cultured on media not containing yeast extract did not contain the lycopersene-like compound. 4. No significant carbon was incorporated into the lycopersene zone from 14C-labelled mevalonate, acetate and glucose by R. glutinis and baker's yeast. 5. These results indicate that compounds may exist with chromatographic properties similar to lycopersene, but that lycopersene could not be detected in either a pigmented or a non-pigmented yeast. PMID:5753091

Scharf, S. S.; Simpson, K. L.

1968-01-01

131

The growth of solar radiated yeast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland; and (2) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The procedure used was based on the fact that yeast is most often used in consumable baked goods. Therefore, the yeast was incorporated into a basic Betty Crocker bread recipe. Data was collected by placing measured amounts of dough into sample containers with fifteen minute growth in height measurements collected and recorded. This researcher assumed the viability of yeast to be relative to its ability to produce carbon dioxide gas and cause the dough to rise. As all ingredients and surroundings were equal, this researcher assumed the yeast will produce the only significant difference in data collected. This researcher noted the approximate use date on all sample packages to be prior to arrival and experiment date. All dates equal, it was then assumed each would act in a similar manner of response. This assumption will allow for equally correct data collection.

Kraft, Tyrone

1995-01-01

132

The growth of solar radiated yeast  

SciTech Connect

This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland; and (2) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The procedure used was based on the fact that yeast is most often used in consumable baked goods. Therefore, the yeast was incorporated into a basic Betty Crocker bread recipe. Data was collected by placing measured amounts of dough into sample containers with fifteen minute growth in height measurements collected and recorded. This researcher assumed the viability of yeast to be relative to its ability to produce carbon dioxide gas and cause the dough to rise. As all ingredients and surroundings were equal, this researcher assumed the yeast will produce the only significant difference in data collected. This researcher noted the approximate use date on all sample packages to be prior to arrival and experiment date. All dates equal, it was then assumed each would act in a similar manner of response. This assumption will allow for equally correct data collection.

Kraft, T.

1995-09-01

133

Yeast through the ages: A statistical analysis of genetic changes in aging yeast  

E-print Network

Yeast through the ages: A statistical analysis of genetic changes in aging yeast A. Wise J. Hardin into the roles of specific genes and the associated changes across experimental conditions (e.g., aging, mutation sense of the experiment and thereby advance genetic, biological, and medical research. Likewise

Hardin, Jo

134

Yeast cell-wall synthesis  

PubMed Central

1. A study of wall synthesis has been made by following the incorporation of radioactive glucose and threonine into the cytoplasm and wall of yeast. 2. Both glucose and threonine are incorporated into a mannan glycopeptide. The glucose is also synthesized into a structural glucan of the wall. 3. The mannan glycopeptide contains high-molecular-weight mannan and low-molecular-weight mannose and oligosaccharide units composed of mannose. Both types of carbohydrate are attached to the peptide. The extent of radioactive incorporation into these different carbohydrate constituents of the glycopeptide remained constant during a pulse-chase experiment. No evidence of a sequential synthesis of oligosaccharides and high-molecular-weight mannan was obtained. 4. Cycloheximide inhibits the incorporation of threonine into the wall but only partially inhibits the incorporation of glucose. Thus not all the polysaccharide deposited into the wall is dependent on a simultaneous peptide synthesis and incorporation. 5. Protoplasts grown in an iso-osmotic medium secreted a mannan polymer that was probably a glycopeptide. PMID:5378380

Sentandreu, R.; Northcote, D. H.

1969-01-01

135

Evidence for yeast autophagy during simulation of sparkling wine aging: a reappraisal of the mechanism of yeast autolysis in wine.  

PubMed

Yeast autolysis is the source of several molecules responsible for the quality of wines aged in contact with yeast cells. However, the mechanisms of yeast autolysis during wine aging are not completely understood. All descriptions of yeast autolysis in enological conditions emphasize the disturbance of cell organization as the starting event in the internal digestion of the cell, while no reference to autophagy is found in wine-related literature. By using yeast mutants defective in the autophagic or the Cvt pathways we have demonstrated that autophagy does take place in wine production conditions. This finding has implications for the genetic improvement of yeasts for accelerated autolysis. PMID:15801807

Cebollero, Eduardo; Carrascosa, Alfonso V; Gonzalez, Ramon

2005-01-01

136

Chapter 6: The genomes of lager yeasts.  

PubMed

Yeasts used in the production of lagers belong to the genus Saccharomyces pastorianus. Species within this genus arose from a natural hybridization event between two yeast species that appear to be closely related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus. The resultant hybrids contain complex allopolyploid genomes and retain genetic characteristics of both parental species. Recent genome analysis using both whole genome sequencing and competitive genomic hybridization techniques has revealed the underlying composition of lager yeasts genomes. There appear to be at least 36 unique chromosomes, many of which are lager specific, resulting from recombination events between the homeologous parental chromosomes. The recombination events are limited to a defined set of genetic loci, which are highly conserved within strains of lager yeasts. In addition to the hybrid chromosomes, several non-reciprocal chromosomal translocations and inversions are also observed. Remarkably, in response to exposure to environmental stresses such as high temperatures and high osmotic pressure, the genomes appear to be highly dynamic and undergo recombination events at defined loci and alterations in the telomeric regions. The ability of environmental stress to alter the structure and composition of the genomes of lager yeasts may point to mechanisms of adaptive evolution in these species. PMID:19729094

Bond, Ursula

2009-01-01

137

Yeasts associated with Sardinian ewe's dairy products.  

PubMed

In the present work, the occurrence of yeasts in different types of typical Sardinian ewe's cheeses (32 samples of pecorino, 32 of caciotta, 40 of feta, 56 of ricotta) was determined. For the strains isolated the following properties were studied: proteolytic and lipolytic activities, the ability to grow at different temperatures, different concentrations of salt, and to assimilate and/or ferment compounds like lactate, citrate, lactose, glucose, galactose, lactic acid. Of 160 samples analysed, 76.2% yielded growth of yeasts. Yeast counts showed a certain variability among the samples. The highest levels were observed in caciotta and feta cheeses. A total of 281 strains belonging to 16 genera and 25 species were identified. In general, Debaryomyces hansenii was the dominant species, representing 28.8% of the total isolates. Other frequently appearing species were Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces lactis and K. marxianus. Other genera encountered were Pichia, Candida, Dekkera, Yarrowia and Rhodotorula. With regard to the biochemical and technological properties of the yeasts, only K. lactis, K. marxianus and Dek. anomala assimilated and fermented lactose, whereas the majority of the species assimilated lactic acid. The assimilation of citrate was a characteristic of D. hansenii, R. rubra and Y. lipolytica. On the whole, the yeasts were weakly proteolytic while lipolytic activity was present in several species. A high percentage of strains showed a certain tolerance to low temperatures while only some strains of D. hansenii and K. lactis were able to grow at a 10% NaCl concentration. PMID:11589560

Cosentino, S; Fadda, M E; Deplano, M; Mulargia, A F; Palmas, F

2001-09-19

138

Ecology of pathogenic yeasts in Amazonian soil.  

PubMed Central

In an investigation of Amazonian soil as a natural reservoir for pathogenic fungi, 1,949 soil samples collected from diverse geographical and ecological settings of the Brazilian Amazon Basin were analyzed for the presence of non-keratinophilic fungi by the indirect mouse inoculation procedure and for the presence of keratinophilic fungi by the hair bait technique. All soil samples were acidic with low pH values. From 12% of the soil samples, 241 yeast and yeastlike isolates pertaining to six genera and 82 species were recovered, of which 63% were Torulopsis and 26% were Candida species. Nine fungi with known pathogenic potentials were encountered among 43% (104) of the isolates: T. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. albicans, C. pseudotropicalis, C. stellatoidea, C. tropicalis, Rhodotorula rubra, and Wangiella dermatitidis. The yeast flora was marked by species diversity, low frequency of each species, random geographical distribution, and an apparent lack of species clustering. The composition and distribution of the yeast flora in soil differed from those of the yeast flora harbored by bats, suggesting that the Amazonian external environment and internal bat organs act as independent natural habitats for yeasts. PMID:6538774

Mok, W Y; Luizão, R C; do Socorro Barreto da Silva, M; Teixeira, M F; Muniz, E G

1984-01-01

139

Cryosectioning Yeast Communities for Examining Fluorescence Patterns  

PubMed Central

Microbes typically live in communities. The spatial organization of cells within a community is believed to impact the survival and function of the community1. Optical sectioning techniques, including confocal and two-photon microscopy, have proven useful for observing spatial organization of bacterial and archaeal communities2,3. A combination of confocal imaging and physical sectioning of yeast colonies has revealed internal organization of cells4. However, direct optical sectioning using confocal or two-photon microscopy has been only able to reach a few cell layers deep into yeast colonies. This limitation is likely because of strong scattering of light from yeast cells4. Here, we present a method based on fixing and cryosectioning to obtain spatial distribution of fluorescent cells within Saccharomyces cerevisiae communities. We use methanol as the fixative agent to preserve the spatial distribution of cells. Fixed communities are infiltrated with OCT compound, frozen, and cryosectioned in a cryostat. Fluorescence imaging of the sections reveals the internal organization of fluorescent cells within the community. Examples of yeast communities consisting of strains expressing red and green fluorescent proteins demonstrate the potentials of the cryosectioning method to reveal the spatial distribution of fluorescent cells as well as that of gene expression within yeast colonies2,3. Even though our focus has been on Saccharomyces cerevisiae communities, the same method can potentially be applied to examine other microbial communities. PMID:23287845

Momeni, Babak; Shou, Wenying

2012-01-01

140

Mitochondrial membrane lipidome defines yeast longevity  

PubMed Central

Our studies revealed that lithocholic acid (LCA), a bile acid, is a potent anti-aging natural compound that in yeast cultured under longevity-extending caloric restriction (CR) conditions acts in synergy with CR to enable a significant further increase in chronological lifespan. Here, we investigate a mechanism underlying this robust longevity-extending effect of LCA under CR. We found that exogenously added LCA enters yeast cells, is sorted to mitochondria, resides mainly in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and also associates with the outer mitochondrial membrane. LCA elicits an age-related remodeling of glycerophospholipid synthesis and movement within both mitochondrial membranes, thereby causing substantial changes in mitochondrial membrane lipidome and triggering major changes in mitochondrial size, number and morphology. In synergy, these changes in the membrane lipidome and morphology of mitochondria alter the age-related chronology of mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential, ATP synthesis and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. The LCA-driven alterations in the age-related dynamics of these vital mitochondrial processes extend yeast longevity. In sum, our findings suggest a mechanism underlying the ability of LCA to delay chronological aging in yeast by accumulating in both mitochondrial membranes and altering their glycerophospholipid compositions. We concluded that mitochondrial membrane lipidome plays an essential role in defining yeast longevity. PMID:23924582

Burstein, Michelle T.; Bourque, Simon D.; Koupaki, Olivia; Juneau, Mylène; Feldman, Rachel; Iouk, Tatiana; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

2013-01-01

141

Production of alpha-amylase by yeast  

SciTech Connect

The enzyme alpha-amylase confers to an organism the enzymatic activity for the degradation of polyglucosides with alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds such as starch and glycogen which are among the major storage compounds in plants and animals. Most alpha-amylases are single polypeptides of molecular weights around 50,000 dalton. They are generally found in the digestive tract of animals and in germinating seeds. Among the products released upon enzymatic degradation of polyglucosides maltose, a sugar that can be utilized as carbon source by yeast, is a major constituent. A cDNA segment complementary to mouse salivary amylase messenger RNA has been inserted into the yeast expression vector pMA56 behind the promoter of the gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase I of yeast. Yeast transformants harboring plasmids with the normal orientation of the promoter and the mouse amylase cDNA gene produce amylase and release the enzyme in free form into the culture medium. Approximately 90% of the amylase activity is found in the medium. Yeast strains carrying MAL allele and transformed with a plasmid which directed the synthesis of mouse alpha-amylase were tested on plates containing starch and in batch fermentations using different high molecular weight sugars and oligosaccharides as carbon source. The results of these experiments will be discussed. (Refs. 21).

Thomse, K.K.

1987-01-01

142

Dissecting the fission yeast regulatory network reveals phase-specific control elements of its cell cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are among the original model organisms in the study of the cell-division cycle. Unlike budding yeast, no large-scale regulatory network has been constructed for fission yeast. It has only been partially characterized. As a result, important regulatory cascades in budding yeast have no known or complete counterpart in fission yeast.

Pierre R Bushel; Nicholas A Heard; Roee Gutman; Liwen Liu; Shyamal D Peddada; Saumyadipta Pyne

2009-01-01

143

Original article Chromium yeast affects growth performance but not  

E-print Network

Original article Chromium yeast affects growth performance but not whole carcass composition the effects of supplemented trivalent chromium (Cr) from chromium yeast on growth performance, carcass vs. ad libitum in other reported experiments). (© Elsevier / Inra) chromium / pig / carcass

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

144

YEASTS FROM THE NORTH SEA AND AMOCO CADIZ OIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The species and densities of yeasts isolated from North Sea waters before and after the production of oil were compared. Debaryomyces hansenii was the predominant species, but after oil production, Candida guillieromondii, a hydrocarbonoclastic yeast, was more commonly isolated a...

145

Contribution of Yeast Models to Neurodegeneration Research  

PubMed Central

As a model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has greatly contributed to our understanding of many fundamental aspects of cellular biology in higher eukaryotes. More recently, engineered yeast models developed to study endogenous or heterologous proteins that lay at the root of a given disease have become powerful tools for unraveling the molecular basis of complex human diseases like neurodegeneration. Additionally, with the possibility of performing target-directed large-scale screenings, yeast models have emerged as promising first-line approaches in the discovery process of novel therapeutic opportunities against these pathologies. In this paper, several yeast models that have contributed to the uncovering of the etiology and pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases are described, including the most common forms of neurodegeneration worldwide, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Moreover, the potential input of these cell systems in the development of more effective therapies in neurodegeneration, through the identification of genetic and chemical suppressors, is also addressed. PMID:22910375

Pereira, Clara; Bessa, Cláudia; Soares, Joana; Leão, Mariana; Saraiva, Lucília

2012-01-01

146

Rapid methods for identification of yeasts.  

PubMed Central

Opportunistic infections by yeasts have been implicated as one of the major causes of complications in the compromised patient. Rapid recognition and identification of these yeasts is essential for patient management, but conventional liquid medium methods for completing identification tests are cumbersome and time consuming. Rapid tests have been devised based on modifications of methods commonly used in bacteriology. These rapid methods included tests for carbohydrate and nitrate assimilation, fermentation, and urease production. These were compared with several current methods for accuracy of results, for time to final identification, and for economy of time and reagents. In addition, the usual tests for pseudogerm tube formation, for production of hyphae or pseudohyphae, and for growth temperatures were included. The rapid tests achieved 96% or better accuracy compared with expected results, and 46 species of yeasts were identified in 1 to 2 days compared with the 10 to 14 days required by conventional liquid culture methods. Images PMID:1241586

Huppert, M; Harper, G; Sun, S H; Delanerolle, V

1975-01-01

147

Alcoholic fermentation by 'non-fermentative' yeasts.  

PubMed

All type strains of 'non-fermentative' yeasts, available in the culture collection of the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, were reinvestigated for their capacity to ferment glucose in the classical Durham tube test. Although visible gas production was absent, nearly all strains produced significant amounts of ethanol under the test conditions. Under conditions of oxygen-limited growth, even strong alcoholic fermentation may occur in a number of yeasts hitherto considered as non-fermentative. Thus, shake-flask cultures of Hansenula nonfermentans and Candida silvae fermented more than half of the available sugar to ethanol. It is concluded that the taxonomic test for fermentation capacity, which relies on detection of gas formation in Durham tubes, is not reliable for a physiological classification of yeasts as fermentative and non-fermentative species. PMID:3333301

van Dijken, J P; van den Bosch, E; Hermans, J J; de Miranda, L R; Scheffers, W A

1986-06-01

148

Yeast Oligo-mediated Genome Engineering (YOGE)  

PubMed Central

High-frequency oligonucleotide-directed recombination engineering (recombineering) has enabled rapid modification of several prokaryotic genomes to date. Here, we present a method for oligonucleotide-mediated recombineering in the model eukaryote and industrial production host S. cerevisiae, which we call Yeast Oligo-mediated Genome Engineering (YOGE). Through a combination of overexpression and knockouts of relevant genes and optimization of transformation and oligonucleotide designs, we achieve high gene modification frequencies at levels that only require screening of dozens of cells. We demonstrate the robustness of our approach in three divergent yeast strains, including those involved in industrial production of bio-based chemicals. Furthermore, YOGE can be iteratively executed via cycling to generate genomic libraries up to 105 individuals at each round for diversity generation. YOGE cycling alone, or in combination with phenotypic selections or endonuclease-based negative genotypic selections, can be used to easily generate modified alleles in yeast populations with high frequencies. PMID:24160921

DiCarlo, JE; Conley, AJ; Penttilä, M; Jäntti, J; Wang, HH; Church, GM

2014-01-01

149

Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts  

PubMed Central

The fission yeast clade, comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus and S. japonicus, occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative annotation of these genomes identified a near extinction of transposons and the associated innovation of transposon-free centromeres. Expression analysis established that meiotic genes are subject to antisense transcription during vegetative growth, suggesting a mechanism for their tight regulation. In addition, trans-acting regulators control new genes within the context of expanded functional modules for meiosis and stress response. Differences in gene content and regulation also explain why, unlike the Saccharomycotina, fission yeasts cannot use ethanol as a primary carbon source. These analyses elucidate the genome structure and gene regulation of fission yeast and provide tools for investigation across the Schizosaccharomyces clade. PMID:21511999

Rhind, Nicholas; Chen, Zehua; Yassour, Moran; Thompson, Dawn A; Haas, Brian J; Habib, Naomi; Wapinski, Ilan; Roy, Sushmita; Lin, Michael F.; Heiman, David I; Young, Sarah K; Furuya, Kanji; Guo, Yabin; Pidoux, Alison; Chen, Huei Mei; Robbertse, Barbara; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Aoki, Keita; Bayne, Elizabeth H.; Berlin, Aaron M; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Dobbs, Edward; Dukaj, Livio; Fan, Lin; FitzGerald, Michael G; French, Courtney; Gujja, Sharvari; Hansen, Klavs; Keifenheim, Dan; Levin, Joshua Z.; Mosher, Rebecca A.; Müller, Carolin A.; Pfiffner, Jenna; Priest, Margaret; Russ, Carsten; Smialowska, Agata; Swoboda, Peter; Sykes, Sean M; Vaughn, Matthew; Vengrova, Sonya; Yoder, Ryan; Zeng, Qiandong; Allshire, Robin; Baulcombe, David; Birren, Bruce W.; Brown, William; Ekwall, Karl; Kellis, Manolis; Leatherwood, Janet; Levin, Henry; Margalit, Hanah; Martienssen, Rob; Nieduszynski, Conrad A.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Friedman, Nir; Dalgaard, Jacob Z.; Baumann, Peter; Niki, Hironori; Regev, Aviv; Nusbaum, Chad

2011-01-01

150

Altered transcription in yeast expressing expanded polyglutamine  

PubMed Central

Expanded polyglutamine tracts are responsible for at least eight fatal neurodegenerative diseases. In mouse models, proteins with expanded polyglutamine cause transcriptional dysregulation before onset of symptoms, suggesting that this dysregulation may be an early event in polyglutamine pathogenesis. Transcriptional dysregulation and cellular toxicity may be due to interaction between expanded polyglutamine and the histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein. To determine whether polyglutamine-mediated transcriptional dysregulation occurs in yeast, we expressed polyglutamine tracts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene expression profiles were determined for strains expressing either a cytoplasmic or nuclear protein with 23 or 75 glutamines, and these profiles were compared to existing profiles of mutant yeast strains. Transcriptional induction of genes encoding chaperones and heat-shock factors was caused by expression of expanded polyglutamine in either the nucleus or cytoplasm. Transcriptional repression was most prominent in yeast expressing nuclear expanded polyglutamine and was similar to profiles of yeast strains deleted for components of the histone acetyltransferase complex Spt/Ada/Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA). The promoter from one affected gene (PHO84) was repressed by expanded polyglutamine in a reporter gene assay, and this effect was mitigated by the histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A. Consistent with an effect on SAGA, nuclear expanded polyglutamine enhanced the toxicity of a deletion in the SAGA component SPT3. Thus, an early component of polyglutamine toxicity, transcriptional dysregulation, is conserved in yeast and is pharmacologically antagonized by a histone deacetylase inhibitor. These results suggest a therapeutic approach for treatment of polyglutamine diseases and provide the potential for yeast-based screens for agents that reverse polyglutamine toxicity. PMID:11687606

Hughes, Robert E.; Lo, Russell S.; Davis, Colleen; Strand, Andrew D.; Neal, Cassandra L.; Olson, James M.; Fields, Stanley

2001-01-01

151

[The yeast biofilm in human medicine].  

PubMed

In recent years, the role of Candida yeasts as causative agents of nosocomial infections has increased. One of the important virulence factors contributing to the development of such infections is biofilm production. This virulence factor enables yeast to colonize both native surfaces and artificial implants. The most common sources of infection are patients themselves, in particular the gastrointestinal tract and skin. The vectors of exogenous yeast infections are predominantly the hands of the health personnel and contaminated medical instruments. The adhesion of yeasts to the implant surfaces is determined both by implant surface and yeast characteristics. This is followed by proliferation and production of microcolonies and extracellular matrix. The final biofilm structure is also influenced by the production of hyphae and pseudohyphae. The entire process of biofilm production is controlled by numerous regulatory systems, with the key role being played by the quorum sensing system. Like the adhered bacterial cultures, candidas growing in the form of a biofilm are highly resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Resistance of yeast biofilms to antifungals is a complex process with multiple contributing factors. These are especially increased gene expression (e.g. genes encoding the so called multidrug efflux pumps), limited penetration of substances through the extracellular matrix, inhibited cell growth and altered microenvironment in deeper biofilm layers. The concentrations of antifungals able to effectively affect the biofilm cells exceed, by several orders of magnitude, the values of conventionally determined MICs. High biofilm resistance results in ineffective antifungal therapy of biofilm infections. Therefore, if possible, the colonized implant should be removed. Conservative therapy should involve antifungals with a proven effect on the biofilm (e.g. caspofungin). The most effective measure in fighting biofilm infections is prevention, especially adhering to aseptic techniques when manipulating with implants and their correct maintenance. PMID:17929219

R?zicka, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav

2007-08-01

152

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590 Food...Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section,...

2014-04-01

153

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590 Food...Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section,...

2011-04-01

154

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590 Food...Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section,...

2012-04-01

155

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590 Food...Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section,...

2013-04-01

156

Production of lipid compounds in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes progress using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism for the fast and efficient analysis of genes and enzyme activities involved in the lipid biosynthetic pathways of several donor organisms. Furthermore, we assess the impact of baker's yeast on the production of novel, high-value lipid compounds. Yeast can be genetically modified to produce selected substances in

M. Veen; C. Lang

2004-01-01

157

Yeast Metabolism Lab Purpose: To determine the effects of different  

E-print Network

O + energy sugar + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy Hypothesis: Make a prediction about which treatment (yeast+water, yeast+glucose, or yeast+sweetener) will produce the most carbon dioxide (CO2) from cellular respiration. Materials: Empty water bottles (3), glucose, artificial sweetener, warm water (~40°C

Rose, Michael R.

158

Media for preservative resistant yeasts: a collaborative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international collaborative study was carried out to determine the most effective medium for selective isolation and enumeration of preservative resistant yeasts. Such a medium should prevent the growth of other yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are tolerant to lower levels of commonly used food preservatives, and sensitive yeasts such as Rhodotomla species. The study compared two non-selective media

Ailsa D. Hocking

1996-01-01

159

DETECTION, IDENTIFICATION AND ENUMERATION METHODS FOR SPOILAGE YEASTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbiological spoilage of foods and beverages is caused by a wide variety of bacteria, molds and yeasts. Yeast growth is favored by low pH, generally 5.5 or lower, and by the presence of sugars, organic acids and other easily metabolized carbon sources. Yeast spoilage is often manifested by grow...

160

Schizosaccharomyces japonicus: the fission yeast is a fusion of yeast and hyphae.  

PubMed

The clade of Schizosaccharomyces includes 4 species: S. pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus. Although all 4 species exhibit unicellular growth with a binary fission mode of cell division, S. japonicus alone is dimorphic yeast, which can transit from unicellular yeast to long filamentous hyphae. Recently it was found that the hyphal cells response to light and then synchronously activate cytokinesis of hyphae. In addition to hyphal growth, S. japonicas has many properties that aren't shared with other fission yeast. Mitosis of S. japonicas is referred to as semi-open mitosis because dynamics of nuclear membrane is an intermediate mode between open mitosis and closed mitosis. Novel genetic tools and the whole genomic sequencing of S. japonicas now provide us with an opportunity for revealing unique characters of the dimorphic yeast. PMID:24375690

Niki, Hironori

2014-03-01

161

Dynamic changes in brewing yeast cells in culture revealed by statistical analyses of yeast morphological data.  

PubMed

The vitality of brewing yeasts has been used to monitor their physiological state during fermentation. To investigate the fermentation process, we used the image processing software, CalMorph, which generates morphological data on yeast mother cells and bud shape, nuclear shape and location, and actin distribution. We found that 248 parameters changed significantly during fermentation. Successive use of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed several important features of yeast, providing insight into the dynamic changes in the yeast population. First, PCA indicated that much of the observed variability in the experiment was summarized in just two components: a change with a peak and a change over time. Second, PCA indicated the independent and important morphological features responsible for dynamic changes: budding ratio, nucleus position, neck position, and actin organization. Thus, the large amount of data provided by imaging analysis can be used to monitor the fermentation processes involved in beer and bioethanol production. PMID:24012106

Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Enomoto, Kenichi; Yoshimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Yoshikazu

2014-03-01

162

Interactions Between Yeasts and Grapevines: Filamentous Growth, Endopolygalacturonase and Phytopathogenicity of Colonizing Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been clearly established that phytopathogenic fungi, bacteria, and viruses exert biotic stresses on plants. Much less\\u000a is known, however, about the interactions between enological species of yeast and their host plants. In a previous study,\\u000a we described how Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the most common enological yeast, can act as a grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) pathogen, causing growth retardation or

Sabine Gognies; Essaïd Ait Barka; Angélique Gainvors-Claisse; Abdel Belarbi

2006-01-01

163

Reaction characteristics of an immobilized yeast producing ethanol.  

PubMed

The reaction behavior of Saccharomyces formaosensis imobilized by polyacrylamide gel is presented. Two types of the immobilized yeast are studied, i. e. the immobilized resting yeast and the immobilized growing yeast. For both of the yeast, reaction retes are expressed by the Michaelis-Menten type equation with a linear ethanol inhibition factor. The Michaelis constants aere close each other, but considerably larger that of native S. cerevisiae. Distribution of the growing yeast cell inside the carrier gel is presented. It is found that the cell density is somewhat higher near the surface of the carrier. PMID:18548627

Furusaki, S; Seki, M; Fukumura, K

1983-12-01

164

Carbon source dependent promoters in yeasts  

PubMed Central

Budding yeasts are important expression hosts for the production of recombinant proteins. The choice of the right promoter is a crucial point for efficient gene expression, as most regulations take place at the transcriptional level. A wide and constantly increasing range of inducible, derepressed and constitutive promoters have been applied for gene expression in yeasts in the past; their different behaviours were a reflection of the different needs of individual processes. Within this review we summarize the majority of the large available set of carbon source dependent promoters for protein expression in yeasts, either induced or derepressed by the particular carbon source provided. We examined the most common derepressed promoters for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts, and described carbon source inducible promoters and promoters induced by non-sugar carbon sources. A special focus is given to promoters that are activated as soon as glucose is depleted, since such promoters can be very effective and offer an uncomplicated and scalable cultivation procedure. PMID:24401081

2014-01-01

165

Morphology of the Yeast Endocytic Pathway  

PubMed Central

Positively charged Nanogold (Nanoprobes, Stony Brook, NY) has been developed as a new marker to follow the endocytic pathway in yeast. Positively charged Nanogold binds extensively to the surface of yeast spheroplasts and is internalized in an energy-dependent manner. Internalization of gold is blocked in the end3 mutant. During a time course of incubation of yeast spheroplasts with positively charged Nanogold at 15°C, the gold was detected sequentially in small vesicles, a peripheral, vesicular/tubular compartment that we designate as an early endosome, a multivesicular body corresponding to the late endosome near the vacuole, and in the vacuole. Experiments examining endocytosis in the sec18 mutant showed an accumulation of positively charged Nanogold in approximately 30–50 nm diameter vesicles. These vesicles most likely represent the primary endocytic vesicles as no other intermediates were detected in the mutant cells, and they correspond in size to the first vesicles detected in wild-type spheroplasts at 15°C. These data lend strong support to the idea that the internalization step of endocytosis in yeast involves formation of small vesicles of uniform size from the plasma membrane. PMID:9436999

Prescianotto-Baschong, Cristina; Riezman, Howard

1998-01-01

166

Histone acetylation and deacetylation in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histone acetylation and deacetylation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae occur by targeting acetyltransferase and deacetylase enzymes to gene promoters and, in an untargeted and global manner, by affecting most nucleosomes. Recently, new roles for histone acetylation have been uncovered, not only in transcription but also in DNA replication, repair and heterochromatin formation. Interestingly, specific acetylatable lysines can function as binding

Siavash K. Kurdistani; Michael Grunstein

2003-01-01

167

The glucose signaling network in yeast  

PubMed Central

Background Most cells possess a sophisticated mechanism for sensing glucose and responsing to it appropriately. Glucose sensing and signaling in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an important paradigm for understanding how extracellular signals lead to changes in the gene expression program in eukaryotes. Scope of review This review focuses on the yeast glucose sensing and signaling pathways that operate in a highly regulated and cooperative manner to bring about glucose-induction of HXT gene expression. Major conclusions The yeast cells possess a family of glucose transporters (HXTs), with different kinetic properties. They employ three major glucose signaling pathways— Rgt2/Snf3, AMPK, and cAMP-PKA—to express only those transporters best suited for the amounts of glucose available. We discuss the current understanding of how these pathways are integrated into a regulatory network to ensure efficient uptake and utilization of glucose. General significance Elucidating the role of multiple glucose signals and pathways involved in glucose uptake and metabolism in yeast may reveal the molecular basis of glucose homeostasis in humans, especially under pathological conditions, such as hyperglycemia in diabetics and the elevated rate of glycolysis observed in many solid tumors. PMID:23911748

Kim, Jeong-Ho; Roy, Adhiraj; Jouandot, David; Cho, Kyu Hong

2013-01-01

168

Glucose-Induced Acidification in Yeast Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an investigation (for A-level biology students and equivalent) into the mechanism of glucose-induced extracellular acidification in unbuffered yeast suspensions. The investigation is designed to enhance understanding of aspects of the A-level curriculum that relate to the phenomenon (notably glucose catabolism) and to develop key skills…

Myers, Alan; Bourn, Julia; Pool, Brynne

2005-01-01

169

Actin and Endocytosis in Budding Yeast  

PubMed Central

Endocytosis, the process whereby the plasma membrane invaginates to form vesicles, is essential for bringing many substances into the cell and for membrane turnover. The mechanism driving clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves > 50 different protein components assembling at a single location on the plasma membrane in a temporally ordered and hierarchal pathway. These proteins perform precisely choreographed steps that promote receptor recognition and clustering, membrane remodeling, and force-generating actin-filament assembly and turnover to drive membrane invagination and vesicle scission. Many critical aspects of the CME mechanism are conserved from yeast to mammals and were first elucidated in yeast, demonstrating that it is a powerful system for studying endocytosis. In this review, we describe our current mechanistic understanding of each step in the process of yeast CME, and the essential roles played by actin polymerization at these sites, while providing a historical perspective of how the landscape has changed since the preceding version of the YeastBook was published 17 years ago (1997). Finally, we discuss the key unresolved issues and where future studies might be headed. PMID:25657349

Goode, Bruce L.; Eskin, Julian A.; Wendland, Beverly

2015-01-01

170

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition in Yeasts  

PubMed Central

The deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of 15 species of yeasts was determined to obtain further clues to or supporting evidence for their taxonomic position. Species examined belonged to the genera Saccharomyces, Debaryomyces, Lodderomyces, Metschnikowia, and Candida. The range of moles per cent guanine plus cytosine (GC content) for all yeasts examined extended from 34.9 to 48.3%. The sporogenous species and the asporogenous yeasts spanned the range with 36.6 to 48.3% GC and 34.9 to 48% GC, respectively. Three Saccharomyces species (S. rosei and related species) exhibited significantly higher GC contents than S. cerevisiae, whereas the fermentative species D. globosus revealed a%GC more aligned to the S. rosei group than to the nonfermentative D. hansenii. Similar GC contents were demonstrated by L. elongasporus and its proposed imperfect form C. parapsilosis. The range of GC contents of various strains of three Metschnikowia species studied was 6.1%, with the type strain of M. pulcherrima having the highest GC content (48.3%) of all of the yeasts examined. PMID:5764346

Meyer, Sally A.; Phaff, H. J.

1969-01-01

171

Coenzyme Q systems in ascomycetous black yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

72 Strains belonging to 44 species of ascomycetous black yeasts were analyzed for their coenzyme Q systems. Prevalent were Q-10 and dihydrogenated Q-10 systems. Members of the Dothidealean suborder Dothideineae have Q-10 (H2), while those belonging to the suborder Pseudosphaeriineae mostly have Q-10. The anamorph genus Exophiala Carmichael and the teleomorph genus Capronia Sacc. seem to be heterogenous.

Y. Yamada; Kazue Sugihara; G. W. Eijk; H. J. Roeijmans; G. S. Hoog

1989-01-01

172

Replication Dynamics of the Yeast Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oligonucleotide microarrays were used to map the detailed topography of chromosome replication in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The times of replication of thousands of sites across the genome were determined by hybridizing replicated and unreplicated DNAs, isolated at different times in S phase, to the microarrays. Origin activations take place continuously throughout S phase but with most firings near

M. K. Raghuraman; Elizabeth A. Winzeler; David Collingwood; Sonia Hunt; Lisa Wodicka; Andrew Conway; David J. Lockhart; Ronald W. Davis; Bonita J. Brewer; Walton L. Fangman

2001-01-01

173

A yeast model of Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery that cellular proliferation was reduced in aneuploid haploid yeast supports a long-standing argument that the developmental neurophenotype of Down syndrome is not uniquely a result of the effects of increased gene dosage. Instead, some phenotypic outcomes appear to resemble those caused by disrupted cellular homeostasis induced by aneuploidy. Decreased cellular proliferation has been identified in the cerebellum

Randal X. Moldrich

2007-01-01

174

Commitment to meiosis in fission yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe blocked during meiosis were analysed with respect to the induction of diploid mitotic division. Wild type zygotes of this yeast can form diploid colonies with a low probability (ca. 1%) when they are transferred to fresh growth medium. Mutants of three genes affecting meiosis responded to the shift by forming diploid colonies with high yield (ca.

Richard Egel

1973-01-01

175

Antarctic Yeasts: Biodiversity and Potential Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review is an attempt in cataloguing the diversity of yeasts in Antarctica, highlight their biotechnological potential and understand the basis of adaptation to low temperature. As of now several psychrophilic and psychrotolerant yeasts from Antarctic soils and marine waters have been characterized with respect to their growth characteristics, ecological distribution and taxonomic significance. Interestingly most of these species belonged to basidiomycetous yeasts which as a group are known for their ability to circumvent and survive under stress conditions. Simultaneously their possible role as work horses in the biotechnological industry was recognized due to their ability to produce novel enzymes and biomolecules such as agents for the breakdown of xenobiotics, and novel pharmaceutical chemi cals. The high activity of psychrophilic enzymes at low and moderate temperatures offers potential economic benefits. As of now lipases from Pseudozyma antarctica have been extensively studied to understand their unique thermal stability at 90°C and also because of its use in the pharmaceutical, agriculture, food, cosmetics and chemical industry. A few of the other enzymes which have been studied include extracellular alpha-amylase and glucoamylase from the yeast Pseudozyma antarctica (Candida antarctica), an extra-cellular protease from Cryptococcus humicola, an aspartyl proteinase from Cryptococcus humicola, a novel extracellular subtilase from Leucosporidium antarcticum, and a xylanase from Cryptococcus adeliensis

Shivaji, S.; Prasad, G. S.

176

Microfermentation Test For Identification Of Yeast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microfermentation test developed as supplementary method for use in identifying yeasts, especially in clinical and environmental studies. In comparison with traditional fermentation tests, simpler and easier, and requiries less equipment, material, and laboratory space. Results obtained in days instead of weeks.

Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Molina, Thomas C.

1995-01-01

177

Inventions on baker's yeast strains and specialty ingredients.  

PubMed

Baker's yeast is one of the oldest food microbial starters. Between 1927 and 2008, 165 inventions on more than 337 baker's yeast strains were patented. The first generation of patented yeast strains claimed improved biomass yield at the yeast plant, higher gassing power in dough or better survival to drying to prepare active dry baker's yeast. Especially between 1980 and 1995, a major interest was given to strains for multiple bakery applications such as dough with variable sugar content and stored at refrigeration (cold) or freezing temperatures. During the same period, genetically engineered yeast strains became very popular but did not find applications in the baking industry. Since year 2000, patented baker's yeast strains claimed aroma, anti-moulding or nutritive properties to better meet the needs of the baking industry. In addition to patents on yeast strains, 47 patents were issued on baker's yeast specialty ingredients for niche markets. This review shows that patents on baker's yeast with improved characteristics such as aromatic or nutritive properties have regularly been issued since the 1920's. Overall, it also confirms recent interest for a very wide range of tailored-made yeast-based ingredients for bakery applications. PMID:20653532

Gélinas, Pierre

2009-06-01

178

Misidentification of clinical yeast isolates by using the updated Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card.  

PubMed Central

The Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card (YBC) is widely used as a rapid identification (RI) (within 48 h) system for clinical yeast isolates. We compared the RI results obtained by the YBC technique with matched results obtained with the API 20C system. The RI of germ tube-negative yeasts isolated from 222 clinical specimens was performed with the YBC system, and the results were compared with those of standard identifications obtained by using the API 20C system and morphology, with additional biochemical reactions performed as required. Commonly isolated yeasts (Candida albicans [n = 29], Candida tropicalis [n = 40], Torulopsis [Candida] glabrata [n = 28], Candida parapsilosis [n = 12], and Cryptococcus neoformans [n = 14]) were generally well identified (115 of 123 [93%] identified correctly, with only C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. neoformans mis- or unidentified more than once). The RI of less commonly isolated yeasts included in the YBC database, however, was less successful (54 of 99 [55%] correct). The YBC card failed to identify 42% (10 of 24) of Candida krusei isolates, 80% (4 of 5) of Candida lambica isolates, 88% (7 of 8) of Trichosporon beigelii isolates, and 83% (10 of 12) of Cryptococcus isolates (non-C. neoformans species). For most identification failures (79%; 42 of 53) there was no identification by the end of 48 h; the other identification failures (21%; 11 of 53) gave definite but incorrect identifications. Of eight rare clinical yeast isolates not included in the Vitek database, six were correctly, not identified, while two (25%) were falsely assigned a definite RI (one Hansenula fabianii isolate was identified as Rhodotorula glutinis, and one Hansenula isolate [non-Hansenula anomala] was identified as Hansenula anomala). While the Vitek YBC rapidly and adequately identifies common yeast isolates, it fails in the RI of more unusual organisms. PMID:7883873

Dooley, D P; Beckius, M L; Jeffrey, B S

1994-01-01

179

Misidentification of clinical yeast isolates by using the updated Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card.  

PubMed

The Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card (YBC) is widely used as a rapid identification (RI) (within 48 h) system for clinical yeast isolates. We compared the RI results obtained by the YBC technique with matched results obtained with the API 20C system. The RI of germ tube-negative yeasts isolated from 222 clinical specimens was performed with the YBC system, and the results were compared with those of standard identifications obtained by using the API 20C system and morphology, with additional biochemical reactions performed as required. Commonly isolated yeasts (Candida albicans [n = 29], Candida tropicalis [n = 40], Torulopsis [Candida] glabrata [n = 28], Candida parapsilosis [n = 12], and Cryptococcus neoformans [n = 14]) were generally well identified (115 of 123 [93%] identified correctly, with only C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. neoformans mis- or unidentified more than once). The RI of less commonly isolated yeasts included in the YBC database, however, was less successful (54 of 99 [55%] correct). The YBC card failed to identify 42% (10 of 24) of Candida krusei isolates, 80% (4 of 5) of Candida lambica isolates, 88% (7 of 8) of Trichosporon beigelii isolates, and 83% (10 of 12) of Cryptococcus isolates (non-C. neoformans species). For most identification failures (79%; 42 of 53) there was no identification by the end of 48 h; the other identification failures (21%; 11 of 53) gave definite but incorrect identifications. Of eight rare clinical yeast isolates not included in the Vitek database, six were correctly, not identified, while two (25%) were falsely assigned a definite RI (one Hansenula fabianii isolate was identified as Rhodotorula glutinis, and one Hansenula isolate [non-Hansenula anomala] was identified as Hansenula anomala). While the Vitek YBC rapidly and adequately identifies common yeast isolates, it fails in the RI of more unusual organisms. PMID:7883873

Dooley, D P; Beckius, M L; Jeffrey, B S

1994-12-01

180

The ubiquitin code of yeast permease trafficking.  

PubMed

Yeast permeases, that act as transporters for nutrients including amino acids, nucleobases and metals, provide a powerful model system for dissecting the physiological control of membrane protein trafficking. Modification of these transporters by ubiquitin is known to target them for degradation in the vacuole, the degradation organelle of fungi. Recent studies have uncovered the role of specific adaptors for recruiting the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase to these proteins. In addition, the role of ubiquitin at different trafficking steps including early endocytosis, sorting into the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway and Golgi-to-endosome transit is now becoming clear. In particular, K63-linked ubiquitin chains now emerge as a specific signal for protein sorting into the MVB pathway. A complete view of the ubiquitin code governing yeast permease trafficking might not be far off. PMID:20138522

Lauwers, Elsa; Erpapazoglou, Zoi; Haguenauer-Tsapis, Rosine; André, Bruno

2010-04-01

181

Kinetic mechanism of yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetic mechanism of yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) was examined by carrying out initial velocity studies. Ca2+ and Rh(HâO)4(methylenediphosphonate) (Rh(HâO)4PCP) were used as dead-end inhibitors to study the order of binding of Cr(HâO)4PP to the substrate site and Mg2+ to the low affinity activator site on the enzyme. Competitive inhibition was observed for Ca2+ vs Mg2+ (Kis = 0.93 +\\/-

R. J. Barry; D. Dunaway-Mariano

1987-01-01

182

The core meiotic transcriptome in budding yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to analyse the genomes and meiotic expression patterns of two yeast strains, SK1 and W303, that display distinct kinetics and efficiencies of sporulation. Hybridization of genomic DNA to arrays revealed numerous gene deletions and polymorphisms in both backgrounds. The expression analysis yielded approximately 1,600 meiotically regulated genes in each strain, with a core set of

Michael Primig; Roy M. Williams; Elizabeth A. Winzeler; Gela G. Tevzadze; Andrew R. Conway; Seung Y. Hwang; Ronald W. Davis; Rochelle Easton Esposito

2000-01-01

183

Isolation of Yeast DNA Prepare in advance  

E-print Network

supernatant. 2. Resuspend cell pellet in 0.5 ml TE buffer. Transfer to 1.5 ml microfuge tube. Spin at top. Transfer supernatant to fresh tube. Do not transfer pellet material (insoluble cell debris and cell wall. · Powdered dry ice (2-4 lbs). 1. Collect 5-10 OD units of yeast cells (e.g., 5 ml saturated SD culture at OD

Aris, John P.

184

The flavoproteome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

PubMed Central

Genome analysis of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified 68 genes encoding flavin-dependent proteins (1.1% of protein encoding genes) to which 47 distinct biochemical functions were assigned. The majority of flavoproteins operate in mitochondria where they participate in redox processes revolving around the transfer of electrons to the electron transport chain. In addition, we found that flavoenzymes play a central role in various aspects of iron metabolism, such as iron uptake, the biogenesis of iron–sulfur clusters and insertion of the heme cofactor into apocytochromes. Another important group of flavoenzymes is directly (Dus1-4p and Mto1p) or indirectly (Tyw1p) involved in reactions leading to tRNA-modifications. Despite the wealth of genetic information available for S. cerevisiae, we were surprised that many flavoproteins are poorly characterized biochemically. For example, the role of the yeast flavodoxins Pst2p, Rfs1p and Ycp4p with regard to their electron donor and acceptor is presently unknown. Similarly, the function of the heterodimeric Aim45p/Cir1p, which is homologous to the electron-transferring flavoproteins of higher eukaryotes, in electron transfer processes occurring in the mitochondrial matrix remains to be elucidated. This lack of information extends to the five membrane proteins involved in riboflavin or FAD transport as well as FMN and FAD homeostasis within the yeast cell. Nevertheless, several yeast flavoproteins, were identified as convenient model systems both in terms of their mechanism of action as well as structurally to improve our understanding of diseases caused by dysfunctional human flavoprotein orthologs. PMID:24373875

Gudipati, Venugopal; Koch, Karin; Lienhart, Wolf-Dieter; Macheroux, Peter

2014-01-01

185

Transfer RNA methylating activity of yeast mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified in Urografin or sucrose gradient contain tRNA methylating activity with specificities different from those of the cytoplasm. The main reaction product, using E.coli tRNA as methyl group acceptor, is N2,-N2-dimethylguanine. The corresponding mitochondrial methylase is coded by nuclear DNA. A DNA methylating activity is also associated with yeast mitochondria. PMID:10793751

Smolar, Nina; Svensson, Ingvar

1974-01-01

186

Complete DNA sequence of yeast chromosome XI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete DNA sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XI has been determined. In addition to a compact arrangement of potential protein coding sequences, the 666,448-base-pair sequence has revealed general chromosome patterns; in particular, alternating regional variations in average base composition correlate with variations in local gene density along the chromosome. Significant discrepancies with the previously published genetic map

B. Dujon; D. Alexandraki; B. André; W. Ansorge; V. Baladron; J. P. G. Ballesta; A. Banrevi; P. A. Bolle; M. Bolotin-Fukuhara; P. Bossier; G. Bou; J. Boyer; M. J. Buitrago; G. Cherét; L. Colleaux; B. Dalgnan-Fornier; F. Del Rey; C. Dion; H. Domdey; A. Düsterhöft; S. Düsterhus; K.-D. Entian; H. Erfle; P. F. Esteban; H. Feldmann; L. Fernandes; G. M. Fobo; C. Fritz; H. Fukuhara; C. Gabel; L. Gaillon; J. M. Carcia-Cantalejo; J. J. Garcia-Ramirez; M. E. Gent; M. Ghazvini; A. Goffeau; A. Gonzaléz; D. Grothues; P. Guerreiro; J. Hegemann; N. Hewitt; F. Hilger; C. P. Hollenberg; O. Horaitis; K. J. Indge; A. Jacquier; C. M. James; J. C. Jauniaux; A. Jimenez; H. Keuchel; L. Kirchrath; K. Kleine; P. Kötter; P. Legrain; S. Liebl; E. J. Louis; A. Maia E Silva; C. Marck; A.-L. Monnier; D. Möstl; S. Müller; B. Obermaier; S. G. Oliver; C. Pallier; S. Pascolo; F. Pfeiffer; P. Philippsen; R. J. Planta; F. M. Pohl; T. M. Pohl; R. Pöhlmann; D. Portetelle; B. Purnelle; V. Puzos; M. Ramezani Rad; S. W. Rasmussen; M. Remacha; J. L. Revuelta; G.-F. Richard; M. Rieger; C. Rodrigues-Pousada; M. Rose; T. Rupp; M. A. Santos; C. Schwager; C. Sensen; J. Skala; H. Soares; F. Sor; J. Stegemann; H. Tettelin; A. Thierry; M. Tzermia; L. A. Urrestarazu; L. van Dyck; J. C. van Vliet-Reedijk; M. Valens; M. Vandenbo; C. Vilela; S. Vissers; D. von Wettstein; H. Voss; S. Wiemann; G. Xu; J. Zimmermann; M. Haasemann; I. Becker; H. W. Mewes

1994-01-01

187

Mitochondrial NAD Dependent Aldehyde Dehydrogenase either from Yeast or Human Replaces Yeast Cytoplasmic NADP Dependent Aldehyde Dehydrogenase for the Aerobic Growth of Yeast on Ethanol  

PubMed Central

Background In a previous study, we deleted three aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes, involved in ethanol metabolism, from yeast S. cerevisiae and found that the triple deleted yeast strain did not grow on ethanol as sole carbon source. The ALDHs were NADP dependent cytosolic ALDH1, NAD dependent mitochondrial ALDH2 and NAD/NADP dependent mitochondrial ALDH5. Double deleted strain ?ALDH2+?ALDH5 or ?ALDH1+?ALDH5 could grow on ethanol. However, the double deleted strain ?ALDH1+?ALDH2 did not grow in ethanol. Methods Triple deleted yeast strain was used. Mitochondrial NAD dependent ALDH from yeast or human was placed in yeast cytosol. Results In the present study we found that a mutant form of cytoplasmic ALDH1 with very low activity barely supported the growth of the triple deleted strain (?ALDH1+?ALDH2+?ALDH5) on ethanol. Finding the importance of NADP dependent ALDH1 on the growth of the strain on ethanol we examined if NAD dependent mitochondrial ALDH2 either from yeast or human would be able to support the growth of the triple deleted strain on ethanol if the mitochondrial form was placed in cytosol. We found that the NAD dependent mitochondrial ALDH2 from yeast or human was active in cytosol and supported the growth of the triple deleted strain on ethanol. Conclusion This study showed that coenzyme preference of ALDH is not critical in cytosol of yeast for the growth on ethanol. PMID:23454351

Mukhopadhyay, Abhijit; Wei, Baoxian; Weiner, Henry

2013-01-01

188

Production of recombinant proteins by yeast cells.  

PubMed

Yeasts are widely used in production of recombinant proteins of medical or industrial interest. For each individual product, the most suitable expression system has to be identified and optimized, both on the genetic and fermentative level, by taking into account the properties of the product, the organism and the expression cassette. There is a wide range of important yeast expression hosts including the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Yarrowia lipolytica and Arxula adeninivorans, with various characteristics such as being thermo-tolerant or halo-tolerant, rapidly reaching high cell densities or utilizing unusual carbon sources. Several strains were also engineered to have further advantages, such as humanized glycosylation pathways or lack of proteases. Additionally, with a large variety of vectors, promoters and selection markers to choose from, combined with the accumulated knowledge on industrial-scale fermentation techniques and the current advances in the post-genomic technology, it is possible to design more cost-effective expression systems in order to meet the increasing demand for recombinant proteins and glycoproteins. In this review, the present status of the main and most promising yeast expression systems is discussed. PMID:21964262

Celik, Eda; Cal?k, P?nar

2012-01-01

189

On the modeling of endocytosis in yeast  

E-print Network

The cell membrane deforms during endocytosis to surround extracellular material and draw it into the cell. Experiments on endocytosis in yeast all agree that (i) actin polymerizes into a network of filaments exerting active forces on the membrane to deform it and (ii) the large scale membrane deformation is tubular in shape. There are three competing proposals, in contrast, for precisely how the actin filament network organizes itself to drive the deformation. We use variational approaches and numerical simulations to address this competition by analyzing a meso-scale model of actin-mediated endocytosis in yeast. The meso-scale model breaks up the invagination process into three stages: (i) initiation, where clathrin interacts with the membrane via adaptor proteins, (ii) elongation, where the membrane is then further deformed by polymerizing actin filaments, followed by (iii) pinch-off. Our results suggest that the pinch-off mechanism may be assisted by a pearling-like instability. We rule out two of the three competing proposals for the organization of the actin filament network during the elongation stage. These two proposals could possibly be important in the pinch-off stage, however, where additional actin polymerization helps break off the vesicle. Implications and comparisons with earlier modeling of endocytosis in yeast are discussed.

T. Zhang; R. Sknepnek; M. J. Bowick; J. M. Schwarz

2013-10-31

190

Wood impregnation of yeast lees for winemaking.  

PubMed

This study develops a new method to produce more complex wines by means of an indirect diffusion of wood aromas from yeast cell-walls. An exogenous lyophilized biomass was macerated with an ethanol wood extract solution and subsequently dried. Different times were used for the adsorption of polyphenols and volatile compounds to the yeast cell-walls. The analysis of polyphenols and volatile compounds (by HPLC/DAD and GC-MS, respectively) demonstrate that the adsorption/diffusion of these compounds from the wood to the yeast takes place. Red wines were also aged with Saccharomyces cerevisiae lees that had been impregnated with wood aromas and subsequently dried. Four different types of wood were used: chestnut, cherry, acacia and oak. Large differences were observed between the woods studied with regards to their volatile and polyphenolic profiles. Sensory evaluations confirmed large differences even with short-term contact between the wines and the lees, showing that the method could be of interest for red wine making. In addition, the results demonstrate the potential of using woods other than oak in cooperage. PMID:25308662

Palomero, Felipe; Bertani, Paolo; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Benito, Santiago; Morata, Antonio; Suárez-Lepe, José A

2015-03-15

191

Ribosome Biogenesis in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Ribosomes are highly conserved ribonucleoprotein nanomachines that translate information in the genome to create the proteome in all cells. In yeast these complex particles contain four RNAs (>5400 nucleotides) and 79 different proteins. During the past 25 years, studies in yeast have led the way to understanding how these molecules are assembled into ribosomes in vivo. Assembly begins with transcription of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus, where the RNA then undergoes complex pathways of folding, coupled with nucleotide modification, removal of spacer sequences, and binding to ribosomal proteins. More than 200 assembly factors and 76 small nucleolar RNAs transiently associate with assembling ribosomes, to enable their accurate and efficient construction. Following export of preribosomes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, they undergo final stages of maturation before entering the pool of functioning ribosomes. Elaborate mechanisms exist to monitor the formation of correct structural and functional neighborhoods within ribosomes and to destroy preribosomes that fail to assemble properly. Studies of yeast ribosome biogenesis provide useful models for ribosomopathies, diseases in humans that result from failure to properly assemble ribosomes. PMID:24190922

Woolford, John L.; Baserga, Susan J.

2013-01-01

192

The Yeast Deletion Collection: A Decade of Functional Genomics  

PubMed Central

The yeast deletion collections comprise >21,000 mutant strains that carry precise start-to-stop deletions of ?6000 open reading frames. This collection includes heterozygous and homozygous diploids, and haploids of both MATa and MAT? mating types. The yeast deletion collection, or yeast knockout (YKO) set, represents the first and only complete, systematically constructed deletion collection available for any organism. Conceived during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequencing project, work on the project began in 1998 and was completed in 2002. The YKO strains have been used in numerous laboratories in >1000 genome-wide screens. This landmark genome project has inspired development of numerous genome-wide technologies in organisms from yeast to man. Notable spinoff technologies include synthetic genetic array and HIPHOP chemogenomics. In this retrospective, we briefly describe the yeast deletion project and some of its most noteworthy biological contributions and the impact that these collections have had on the yeast research community and on genomics in general. PMID:24939991

Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

2014-01-01

193

Isolation and characterization of ethanol tolerant yeast strains  

PubMed Central

Yeast strains are commonly associated with sugar rich environments. Various fruit samples were selected as source for isolating yeast cells. The isolated cultures were identified at Genus level by colony morphology, biochemical characteristics and cell morphological characters. An attempt has been made to check the viability of yeast cells under different concentrations of ethanol. Ethanol tolerance of each strain was studied by allowing the yeast to grow in liquid YEPD (Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose) medium having different concentrations of ethanol. A total of fifteen yeast strains isolated from different samples were used for the study. Seven strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from different fruit sources were screened for ethanol tolerance. The results obtained in this study show a range of tolerance levels between 7%-12% in all the stains. Further, the cluster analysis based on 22 RAPD (Random Amplified polymorphic DNA) bands revealed polymorphisms in these seven Saccharomyces strains. PMID:23750092

Tikka, Chiranjeevi; Osuru, Hari Prasad; Atluri, Navya; Raghavulu, Praveen Chakravarthi Veera; yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Mannur, Ismail Shaik; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Aluru, Sudheer; K, Narasimha Varma; Bhaskar, Matcha

2013-01-01

194

Yeast Genomics for Bread, Beer, Biology, Bucks and Breath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid advances and scale up of projects in DNA sequencing dur ing the past two decades have produced complete genome sequences of several eukaryotic species. The versatile genetic malleability of the yeast, and the high degree of conservation between its cellular processes and those of human cells have made it a model of choice for pioneering research in molecular and cell biology. The complete sequence of yeast genome has proven to be extremely useful as a reference towards the sequences of human and for providing systems to explore key gene functions. Yeast has been a ‘legendary model’ for new technologies and gaining new biological insights into basic biological sciences and biotechnology. This chapter describes the awesome power of yeast genetics, genomics and proteomics in understanding of biological function. The applications of yeast as a screening tool to the field of drug discovery and development are highlighted and the traditional importance of yeast for bakers and brewers is discussed.

Sakharkar, Kishore R.; Sakharkar, Meena K.

195

Taming wild yeast: potential of conventional and nonconventional yeasts in industrial fermentations.  

PubMed

Yeasts are the main driving force behind several industrial food fermentation processes, including the production of beer, wine, sake, bread, and chocolate. Historically, these processes developed from uncontrolled, spontaneous fermentation reactions that rely on a complex mixture of microbes present in the environment. Because such spontaneous processes are generally inconsistent and inefficient and often lead to the formation of off-flavors, most of today's industrial production utilizes defined starter cultures, often consisting of a specific domesticated strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, or S. pastorianus. Although this practice greatly improved process consistency, efficiency, and overall quality, it also limited the sensorial complexity of the end product. In this review, we discuss how Saccharomyces yeasts were domesticated to become the main workhorse of food fermentations, and we investigate the potential and selection of nonconventional yeasts that are often found in spontaneous fermentations, such as Brettanomyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia spp. PMID:24773331

Steensels, Jan; Verstrepen, Kevin J

2014-01-01

196

Ogataea allantospora sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species from phylloplane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a two-step enrichment in methanol containing broth, methylotrophic yeast strains were isolated from about 45% of\\u000a the leaf samples collected from broad leafed deciduous trees and from herbs in Hungary. During the enrichment process protists\\u000a predating the yeasts were observed. Based on standard phenotypical tests and the D1\\/D2 domain sequences of the large subunit\\u000a (26S) rDNA of the yeast

Gábor Péter; Judit Tornai-Lehoczki; Dénes Dlauchy

2007-01-01

197

Prevalence of Candida dubliniensis Isolates in a Yeast Stock Collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish the historical prevalence of the novel yeast species Candida dubliniensis, a survey of 2,589 yeasts originally identified as Candida albicans and maintained in a stock collection dating back to the early 1970s was undertaken. A total of 590 yeasts, including 93 (18.5%) b-glucosidase-negative isolates among 502 isolates that showed abnormal colony colors on a differential chromogenic agar and

FRANK C. ODDS; LUC VAN NUFFEL; GERY DAMS

1998-01-01

198

Gene copy number and polyploidy on products formation in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Kluyveromyces lactis is appropriate strain for ethanol production or some useful compounds production. Cellulases expressing yeast can ferment\\u000a ethanol from cellulosic materials; however, the productivity should be increase more and more. To improve and engineer the\\u000a productivity, the target gene(s) were introduced into yeast genome. Generally, using genetic engineering, increasing integrated\\u000a gene numbers are

Ryosuke Yamada; Tsutomu Tanaka; Chiaki Ogino; Akihiko Kondo

2010-01-01

199

Yeast Methylotrophy: Metabolism, Gene Regulation and Peroxisome Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic methylotrophs, which are able to obtain all the carbon and energy needed for growth from methanol, are restricted to a limited number of yeast species. When these yeasts are grown on methanol as the sole carbon and energy source, the enzymes involved in methanol metabolism are strongly induced, and the membrane-bound organelles, peroxisomes, which contain key enzymes of methanol metabolism, proliferate massively. These features have made methylotrophic yeasts attractive hosts for the production of heterologous proteins and useful model organisms for the study of peroxisome biogenesis and degradation. In this paper, we describe recent insights into the molecular basis of yeast methylotrophy. PMID:21754936

Yurimoto, Hiroya; Oku, Masahide; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

2011-01-01

200

Effect of fungicides on epiphytic yeasts associated with strawberry  

PubMed Central

We studied the effect of two commonly used fungicides on the epiphytic yeast community of strawberry. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted applying Switch (cyprodinil plus fludioxonil) or Signum (boscalid plus pyraclostrobin) to strawberry plants. Yeasts on leaves and fruits were assessed on treated and untreated plants at several time points via plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The yeast counts on plates of the treated plants were similar to the control plants. Unripe fruits had 10 times larger yeast concentrations than ripe fruits or leaves. Some dominant yeast types were isolated and in vitro tests showed that they were at least 10 times less sensitive to Switch and Signum as compared with two important fungal strawberry pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum acutatum, which are the targets for the fungicide control. DGGE analysis showed that the applied fungicides had no effect on the composition of the yeast communities, while the growing system, strawberry tissue, and sampling time did affect the yeast communities. The yeast species most commonly identified were Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, and Sporobolomyces. These results point toward the potential applicability of natural occurring yeast antagonists into an integrated disease control strategy for strawberry diseases.

Debode, Jane; Van Hemelrijck, Wendy; Creemers, Piet; Maes, Martine

2013-01-01

201

Cytokinesis depends on the motor domains of myosin-II in fission yeast but not in budding yeast.  

PubMed

Budding yeast possesses one myosin-II, Myo1p, whereas fission yeast has two, Myo2p and Myp2p, all of which contribute to cytokinesis. We find that chimeras consisting of Myo2p or Myp2p motor domains fused to the tail of Myo1p are fully functional in supporting budding yeast cytokinesis. Remarkably, the tail alone of budding yeast Myo1p localizes to the contractile ring, supporting both its constriction and cytokinesis. In contrast, fission yeast Myo2p and Myp2p require both the catalytic head domain as well as tail domains for function, with the tails providing distinct functions (Bezanilla and Pollard, 2000). Myo1p is the first example of a myosin whose cellular function does not require a catalytic motor domain revealing a novel mechanism of action for budding yeast myosin-II independent of actin binding and ATPase activity. PMID:16148042

Lord, Matthew; Laves, Ellen; Pollard, Thomas D

2005-11-01

202

Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet (Kingsport, TN); Koivuranta, Kari (Helsinki, FI); Penttila, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Miller, Christopher Kenneth (Cottage Grove, MN); Olson, Stacey (St. Bonifacius, MN); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI)

2011-05-17

203

Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

2014-01-07

204

Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast  

DOEpatents

Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

2013-05-14

205

Permeability properties of peroxisomal membranes from yeasts.  

PubMed

We have studied the permeability properties of intact peroxisomes and purified peroxisomal membranes from two methylotrophic yeasts. After incorporation of sucrose and dextran in proteoliposomes composed of asolectin and peroxisomal membranes isolated from the yeasts Hansenula polymorpha and Candida boidinii a selective leakage of sucrose occurred indicating that the peroxisomal membranes were permeable to small molecules. Since the permeability of yeast peroxisomal membranes in vitro may be due to the isolation procedure employed, the osmotic stability of peroxisomes was tested during incubations of intact protoplasts in hypotonic media. Mild osmotic swelling of the protoplasts also resulted in swelling of the peroxisomes present in these cells but not in a release of their matrix proteins. The latter was only observed when the integrity of the cells was disturbed due to disruption of the cell membrane during further lowering of the concentration of the osmotic stabilizer. Stability tests with purified peroxisomes indicated that this leak of matrix proteins was not associated with the permeability to sucrose. Various attempts to mimic the in vivo situation and generate a proton motive force across the peroxisomal membranes in order to influence the permeability properties failed. Two different proton pumps were used for this purpose namely bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and reaction center-light-harvesting complex I (RCLH1 complex). After introduction of BR into the membrane of intact peroxisomes generation of a pH-gradient was not or barely detectable. Since this pump readily generated a pH-gradient in pure liposomes, these results strengthened the initial observations on the leakiness of the peroxisomal membrane fragments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2339956

Douma, A C; Veenhuis, M; Sulter, G J; Waterham, H R; Verheyden, K; Mannaerts, G P; Harder, W

1990-01-01

206

Crystal structure of yeast Sco1  

SciTech Connect

The Sco family of proteins are involved in the assembly of the dinuclear CuA site in cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme in aerobic respiration. These proteins, which are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, are characterized by a conserved CXXXC sequence motif that binds copper ions and that has also been proposed to perform a thiol:disulfide oxidoreductase function. The crystal structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae apo Sco1 (apo-ySco1) and Sco1 in the presence of copper ions (Cu-ySco1) were determined to 1.8- and 2.3-{angstrom} resolutions, respectively. Yeast Sco1 exhibits a thioredoxin-like fold, similar to that observed for human Sco1 and a homolog from Bacillus subtilis. The Cu-ySco1 structure, obtained by soaking apo-ySco1 crystals in copper ions, reveals an unexpected copper-binding site involving Cys181 and Cys216, cysteine residues present in ySco1 but not in other homologs. The conserved CXXXC cysteines, Cys148 and Cys152, can undergo redox chemistry in the crystal. An essential histidine residue, His239, is located on a highly flexible loop, denoted the Sco loop, and can adopt positions proximal to both pairs of cysteines. Interactions between ySco1 and its partner proteins yeast Cox17 and yeast COX2 are likely to occur via complementary electrostatic surfaces. This high-resolution model of a eukaryotic Sco protein provides new insight into Sco copper binding and function.

Abajian, Carnie; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (NWU)

2010-03-05

207

Studying Functions of All Yeast Genes Simultaneously  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of studying the functions of all the genes of a given species of microorganism simultaneously has been developed in experiments on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commonly known as baker's or brewer's yeast). It is already known that many yeast genes perform functions similar to those of corresponding human genes; therefore, by facilitating understanding of yeast genes, the method may ultimately also contribute to the knowledge needed to treat some diseases in humans. Because of the complexity of the method and the highly specialized nature of the underlying knowledge, it is possible to give only a brief and sketchy summary here. The method involves the use of unique synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences that are denoted as DNA bar codes because of their utility as molecular labels. The method also involves the disruption of gene functions through deletion of genes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly powerful experimental system in that multiple deletion strains easily can be pooled for parallel growth assays. Individual deletion strains recently have been created for 5,918 open reading frames, representing nearly all of the estimated 6,000 genetic loci of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tagging of each deletion strain with one or two unique 20-nucleotide sequences enables identification of genes affected by specific growth conditions, without prior knowledge of gene functions. Hybridization of bar-code DNA to oligonucleotide arrays can be used to measure the growth rate of each strain over several cell-division generations. The growth rate thus measured serves as an index of the fitness of the strain.

Stolc, Viktor; Eason, Robert G.; Poumand, Nader; Herman, Zelek S.; Davis, Ronald W.; Anthony Kevin; Jejelowo, Olufisayo

2006-01-01

208

Genetic influences on translation in yeast.  

PubMed

Heritable differences in gene expression between individuals are an important source of phenotypic variation. The question of how closely the effects of genetic variation on protein levels mirror those on mRNA levels remains open. Here, we addressed this question by using ribosome profiling to examine how genetic differences between two strains of the yeast S. cerevisiae affect translation. Strain differences in translation were observed for hundreds of genes. Allele specific measurements in the diploid hybrid between the two strains revealed roughly half as many cis-acting effects on translation as were observed for mRNA levels. In both the parents and the hybrid, most effects on translation were of small magnitude, such that the direction of an mRNA difference was typically reflected in a concordant footprint difference. The relative importance of cis and trans acting variation on footprint levels was similar to that for mRNA levels. There was a tendency for translation to cause larger footprint differences than expected given the respective mRNA differences. This is in contrast to translational differences between yeast species that have been reported to more often oppose than reinforce mRNA differences. Finally, we catalogued instances of premature translation termination in the two yeast strains and also found several instances where erroneous reference gene annotations lead to apparent nonsense mutations that in fact reside outside of the translated gene body. Overall, genetic influences on translation subtly modulate gene expression differences, and translation does not create strong discrepancies between genetic influences on mRNA and protein levels. PMID:25340754

Albert, Frank W; Muzzey, Dale; Weissman, Jonathan S; Kruglyak, Leonid

2014-10-01

209

Genetic Influences on Translation in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Heritable differences in gene expression between individuals are an important source of phenotypic variation. The question of how closely the effects of genetic variation on protein levels mirror those on mRNA levels remains open. Here, we addressed this question by using ribosome profiling to examine how genetic differences between two strains of the yeast S. cerevisiae affect translation. Strain differences in translation were observed for hundreds of genes. Allele specific measurements in the diploid hybrid between the two strains revealed roughly half as many cis-acting effects on translation as were observed for mRNA levels. In both the parents and the hybrid, most effects on translation were of small magnitude, such that the direction of an mRNA difference was typically reflected in a concordant footprint difference. The relative importance of cis and trans acting variation on footprint levels was similar to that for mRNA levels. There was a tendency for translation to cause larger footprint differences than expected given the respective mRNA differences. This is in contrast to translational differences between yeast species that have been reported to more often oppose than reinforce mRNA differences. Finally, we catalogued instances of premature translation termination in the two yeast strains and also found several instances where erroneous reference gene annotations lead to apparent nonsense mutations that in fact reside outside of the translated gene body. Overall, genetic influences on translation subtly modulate gene expression differences, and translation does not create strong discrepancies between genetic influences on mRNA and protein levels. PMID:25340754

Albert, Frank W.; Muzzey, Dale; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Kruglyak, Leonid

2014-01-01

210

Osmotic Stress Signaling and Osmoadaptation in Yeasts  

PubMed Central

The ability to adapt to altered availability of free water is a fundamental property of living cells. The principles underlying osmoadaptation are well conserved. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model system with which to study the molecular biology and physiology of osmoadaptation. Upon a shift to high osmolarity, yeast cells rapidly stimulate a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, which orchestrates part of the transcriptional response. The dynamic operation of the HOG pathway has been well studied, and similar osmosensing pathways exist in other eukaryotes. Protein kinase A, which seems to mediate a response to diverse stress conditions, is also involved in the transcriptional response program. Expression changes after a shift to high osmolarity aim at adjusting metabolism and the production of cellular protectants. Accumulation of the osmolyte glycerol, which is also controlled by altering transmembrane glycerol transport, is of central importance. Upon a shift from high to low osmolarity, yeast cells stimulate a different MAP kinase cascade, the cell integrity pathway. The transcriptional program upon hypo-osmotic shock seems to aim at adjusting cell surface properties. Rapid export of glycerol is an important event in adaptation to low osmolarity. Osmoadaptation, adjustment of cell surface properties, and the control of cell morphogenesis, growth, and proliferation are highly coordinated processes. The Skn7p response regulator may be involved in coordinating these events. An integrated understanding of osmoadaptation requires not only knowledge of the function of many uncharacterized genes but also further insight into the time line of events, their interdependence, their dynamics, and their spatial organization as well as the importance of subtle effects. PMID:12040128

Hohmann, Stefan

2002-01-01

211

Metalloregulation of yeast membrane steroid receptor homologs  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential micronutrient that can also be toxic. An intricate mechanism exists in yeast that maintains cellular zinc within an optimal range. The centerpiece of this mechanism is the Zap1p protein, a transcription factor that senses zinc deficiency and responds by up-regulating genes involved in zinc metabolism. A microarray screen for novel Zap1p target genes suggested a role in zinc homeostasis for four homologous yeast genes. The expression of two of these genes, YDR492w and YOL002c, suggested direct regulation by Zap1p, whereas the expression of YOL002c and a third homologous gene, YOL101c, was induced by high zinc. YDR492w and YOL002c are confirmed to be direct Zap1p target genes. The induction of YOL002c and YOL101c by toxic metal ion exposure is shown to be mediated by the Mga2p hypoxia sensor. Furthermore, YOL101c is induced by deletion of the Aft1p iron-responsive transcription factor. These three genes, along with a fourth yeast homolog, YLR023c, have phenotypic effects on zinc tolerance and Zap1p activity. Because of their metalloregulation, zinc-related phenotypes, and highly conserved motifs containing potential metal-binding residues, this family has been renamed the IZH gene family (Implicated in Zinc Homeostasis). Furthermore, these genes are regulated by exogenous fatty acids, suggesting a dual role in lipid metabolism. The IZH genes encode membrane proteins that belong to a ubiquitous protein family that includes hemolysin III and vertebrate membrane steroid receptors. We propose that the IZH genes affect zinc homeostasis either directly or indirectly by altering sterol metabolism. PMID:15060275

Lyons, Thomas J.; Villa, Nancy Y.; Regalla, Lisa M.; Kupchak, Brian R.; Vagstad, Anna; Eide, David J.

2004-01-01

212

Formulation and evaluation of dried yeast tablets using different techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate dried yeast tablets using both direct compression and dry granulation techniques in comparison with the conventional wet granulation as well as commercial product. Wet granulation technique is not favorable for producing the yeast tablets due to the problems of color darkening and the reduction of the fermentation power of the

Abdullah M. Al-Mohizea; Mahrous O. Ahmed; Fahad I. Al-jenoobi; Gamal M. Mahrous; Aly A. Abdel-Rahman

2007-01-01

213

Organelles on the move: insights from yeast vacuole inheritance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organelle inheritance is one of several processes that occur during cell division. Recent studies on yeast vacuole inheritance have indicated rules that probably apply to most organelle-inheritance pathways. They have uncovered a molecular mechanism for membrane-cargo transport that is partially conserved from yeast to humans. They have also shown that the transport complex, which is composed of a molecular motor

Lois S. Weisman

2003-01-01

214

High-frequency transformation of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, has been used extensively for genetic studies but until now it has not been utilized as a host organism for DNA cloning. Here we describe a method for high-frequency transformation of a leu 1- strain of this yeast with hybrid plasmids containing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LEU 2+ gene, a bacterial plasmid and either the S.

David Beach; Paul Nurse

1981-01-01

215

Ultradian rhythms and clocks in plants and yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of ultradian rhythms (<1 day) in plants and in yeasts provide insights into the temporal hierarchy of living organisms. Primarily a reflection of intracellular control circuits, special rhythms are temperature-compensated that have evolved as timekeepers. The best understood ultradian clock is that in yeast; it provides a timeframe for the coherent behaviour of biochemical activities from metabolic and membrane-associated

David Lloyd

2006-01-01

216

Medical significance of the so-called black yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections caused by the black yeasts (leveduras pretas) are reviewed with respect to their clinical manifestations, classification under the umbrella term, phaeohyphomycosis, and differentiation from chromoblastomycosis. Data on the prevalence of black yeasts submitted to a national reference diagnostic center are provided. Cases of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Aureobasidium pullulans, Exophiala jeanselmei, E. moniliae, E. spinifera, Phaeoannelomyces werneckii, Phaeosclera dematioirles, Sarcinomyces

T. Matsumoto; A. A. Padhye; L. Ajello

1987-01-01

217

Abundant ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA by yeast replicative polymerases  

E-print Network

Abundant ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA by yeast replicative polymerases Stephanie A. Nick that the four rNTPs are in 36- to 190-fold molar excess over their corresponding dNTPs. During DNA synthesis in vitro using the physiological nucleoside triphosphate concentra- tions, yeast DNA polymerase , which

Burgers, Peter M.

218

New insights into treating Parkinson's from yeast, stem cell experiments  

E-print Network

New insights into treating Parkinson's from yeast, stem cell experiments By Carolyn Y. Johnson cells created from Parkinson's disease patients' stem cells. The work, described in a pair of studies problems of Parkinson's disease may seem tenuous at best, the researchers engineered the yeast

Sabatini, David M.

219

Improving industrial yeast strains: exploiting natural and artificial diversity  

PubMed Central

Yeasts have been used for thousands of years to make fermented foods and beverages, such as beer, wine, sake, and bread. However, the choice for a particular yeast strain or species for a specific industrial application is often based on historical, rather than scientific grounds. Moreover, new biotechnological yeast applications, such as the production of second-generation biofuels, confront yeast with environments and challenges that differ from those encountered in traditional food fermentations. Together, this implies that there are interesting opportunities to isolate or generate yeast variants that perform better than the currently used strains. Here, we discuss the different strategies of strain selection and improvement available for both conventional and nonconventional yeasts. Exploiting the existing natural diversity and using techniques such as mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, breeding, genome shuffling and directed evolution to generate artificial diversity, or the use of genetic modification strategies to alter traits in a more targeted way, have led to the selection of superior industrial yeasts. Furthermore, recent technological advances allowed the development of high-throughput techniques, such as ‘global transcription machinery engineering’ (gTME), to induce genetic variation, providing a new source of yeast genetic diversity. PMID:24724938

Steensels, Jan; Snoek, Tim; Meersman, Esther; Nicolino, Martina Picca; Voordeckers, Karin; Verstrepen, Kevin J

2014-01-01

220

Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

2008-01-01

221

Exploring the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Protein Degradation Pathway in Yeast  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory investigating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in yeast. In this exercise, the enzyme beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) is expressed in yeast under the control of a stress response promoter. Following exposure to heat stress to induce beta-gal expression, cycloheximide is added to halt…

Will, Tamara J.; McWatters, Melissa K.; McQuade, Kristi L.

2006-01-01

222

Yeast biodiversity from oleic ecosystems: Study of their biotechnological properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to know the yeast biodiversity from fresh olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits, olive paste (crush olives) and olive pomace (solid waste) from Arbequina and Cornicabra varieties. Yeasts were isolated from fruits randomly harvested at various olive groves in the region of Castilla La Mancha (Spain). Olive paste and pomace, a byproduct of the processing

Sheila Romo-Sánchez; Milla Alves-Baffi; María Arévalo-Villena; Juan Úbeda-Iranzo; Ana Briones-Pérez

2010-01-01

223

Where does fission yeast sit on the tree of life?  

PubMed Central

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe are as different from each other as either is from animals: their ancestors separated about 420 to 330 million years ago. Now that S. pombe is poised to join the post-genome era, its evolutionary position should become much clearer. PMID:11178233

Sipiczki, Matthias

2000-01-01

224

The ultrastructure of yeast: Cell wall structure and formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotes, and are used widely as a model system in basic and applied field of life science, medicine, and biotechnology. The ultrastructure of yeast cells was first studied in 1957 and the techniques used have advanced greatly in the 40 years since then; an overview of these methods is first presented in this review. The ultrastructure of

Masako Osumi

1998-01-01

225

Improving industrial yeast strains: exploiting natural and artificial diversity.  

PubMed

Yeasts have been used for thousands of years to make fermented foods and beverages, such as beer, wine, sake, and bread. However, the choice for a particular yeast strain or species for a specific industrial application is often based on historical, rather than scientific grounds. Moreover, new biotechnological yeast applications, such as the production of second-generation biofuels, confront yeast with environments and challenges that differ from those encountered in traditional food fermentations. Together, this implies that there are interesting opportunities to isolate or generate yeast variants that perform better than the currently used strains. Here, we discuss the different strategies of strain selection and improvement available for both conventional and nonconventional yeasts. Exploiting the existing natural diversity and using techniques such as mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, breeding, genome shuffling and directed evolution to generate artificial diversity, or the use of genetic modification strategies to alter traits in a more targeted way, have led to the selection of superior industrial yeasts. Furthermore, recent technological advances allowed the development of high-throughput techniques, such as 'global transcription machinery engineering' (gTME), to induce genetic variation, providing a new source of yeast genetic diversity. PMID:24724938

Steensels, Jan; Snoek, Tim; Meersman, Esther; Nicolino, Martina Picca; Voordeckers, Karin; Verstrepen, Kevin J

2014-09-01

226

Overexpression of membrane proteins from higher eukaryotes in yeasts.  

PubMed

Heterologous expression and characterisation of the membrane proteins of higher eukaryotes is of paramount interest in fundamental and applied research. Due to the rather simple and well-established methods for their genetic modification and cultivation, yeast cells are attractive host systems for recombinant protein production. This review provides an overview on the remarkable progress, and discusses pitfalls, in applying various yeast host strains for high-level expression of eukaryotic membrane proteins. In contrast to the cell lines of higher eukaryotes, yeasts permit efficient library screening methods. Modified yeasts are used as high-throughput screening tools for heterologous membrane protein functions or as benchmark for analysing drug-target relationships, e.g., by using yeasts as sensors. Furthermore, yeasts are powerful hosts for revealing interactions stabilising and/or activating membrane proteins. We also discuss the stress responses of yeasts upon heterologous expression of membrane proteins. Through co-expression of chaperones and/or optimising yeast cultivation and expression strategies, yield-optimised hosts have been created for membrane protein crystallography or efficient whole-cell production of fine chemicals. PMID:25070595

Emmerstorfer, Anita; Wriessnegger, Tamara; Hirz, Melanie; Pichler, Harald

2014-09-01

227

A virtual lab for exploring the yeast prion  

E-print Network

A virtual lab for exploring the ¢¡¤£¦¥¨§© yeast prion Jacqueline L. Whalley , Mick F. Tuite within the cell of a prion protein in yeast. The biological background to the project is outlined for this transformation process. Abnormal forms of proteins which have this infectious property and known as prion

Kent, University of

228

Oxygen Stress: A Regulator of Apoptosis in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen radicals are important components of metazoan apoptosis. We have found that apoptosis can be induced in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by depletion of glutathione or by low external doses of H 2 O 2 . Cycloheximide prevents apoptotic death reveal- ing active participation of the cell. Yeast can also be triggered into apoptosis by a mutation in CDC48 or

Frank Madeo; Eleonore Fröhlich; Martin Ligr; Martin Grey; Stephan J. Sigrist; Dieter H. Wolf; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich

1999-01-01

229

ASCOMYCETOUS MITOSIS IN BASIDIOMYCETOUS YEASTS: ITS EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In budding cells of ascomycetous yeasts, mitosis occurs in the parent, while in basidiomyceteous yeasts it occurs in the bud. However, in the basidiomycete Agaricostilbum pulcherrimum mitosis occurs in the parent and parent-bud junction. To test whether A. pulcherrimum has a novel mitotic pattern, i...

230

Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Food-Borne Yeasts  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria are known to inhibit food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, by secreting a variety of bactericidal and bacteriostatic substances. In sharp contrast, it is unknown whether yeast has an inhibitory potential for the growth of pathogenic bacteria in food. A total of 404 yeasts were screened for inhibitory activity against five Listeria monocytogenes strains. Three hundred and four of these yeasts were isolated from smear-ripened cheeses. Most of the yeasts were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Using an agar-membrane screening assay, a fraction of approximately 4% of the 304 red smear cheese isolates clearly inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, 14 out of these 304 cheese yeasts were cocultivated with L. monocytogenes WSLC 1364 on solid medium to test the antilisterial activity of yeast in direct cell contact with Listeria. All yeasts inhibited L. monocytogenes to a low degree, which is most probably due to competition for nutrients. However, one Candida intermedia strain was able to reduce the listerial cell count by 4 log units. Another four yeasts, assigned to C. intermedia (three strains) and Kluyveromyces marxianus (one strain), repressed growth of L. monocytogenes by 3 log units. Inhibition of L. monocytogenes was clearly pronounced in the cocultivation assay, which simulates the conditions and contamination rates present on smear cheese surfaces. We found no evidence that the unknown inhibitory molecule is able to diffuse through soft agar. PMID:16391059

Goerges, Stefanie; Aigner, Ulrike; Silakowski, Barbara; Scherer, Siegfried

2006-01-01

231

Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of baker's yeast: relevance to baking.  

PubMed

Yeasts rarely encounter ideal physiological conditions during their industrial life span; therefore, their ability to adapt to changing conditions determines their usefulness and applicability. This is especially true for baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The success of this yeast in the ancient art of bread making is based on its capacity to rapidly transform carbohydrates into CO2 rather than its unusual resistance to environmental stresses. Moreover, baker's yeast must exhibit efficient respiratory metabolism during yeast manufacturing, which determines biomass yield. However, optimal growth conditions often have negative consequences in other commercially important aspects, such as fermentative power or stress tolerance. This article reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of baking yeast strains, emphasizing the activation of regulatory mechanisms in response to carbon source and stress signaling and their importance in defining targets for strain selection and improvement. PMID:23464571

Randez-Gil, Francisca; Córcoles-Sáez, Isaac; Prieto, José A

2013-01-01

232

Multiple Functions of Sterols in Yeast Endocytosis  

PubMed Central

Sterols are essential factors for endocytosis in animals and yeast. To investigate the sterol structural requirements for yeast endocytosis, we created a variety of erg? mutants, each accumulating a distinct set of sterols different from ergosterol. Mutant erg2?erg6? and erg3?erg6? cells exhibit a strong internalization defect of the ?-factor receptor (Ste2p). Specific sterol structures are necessary for pheromone-dependent receptor hyperphosphorylation, a prerequisite for internalization. The lack of phosphorylation is not due to a defect in Ste2p localization or in ligand–receptor interaction. Contrary to most known endocytic factors, sterols seem to function in internalization independently of actin. Furthermore, sterol structures are required at a postinternalization step of endocytosis. erg? cells were able to take up the membrane marker FM4-64, but exhibited defects in FM4-64 movement through endosomal compartments to the vacuole. Therefore, there are at least two roles for sterols in endocytosis. Based on sterol analysis, the sterol structural requirements for these two processes were different, suggesting that sterols may have distinct functions at different places in the endocytic pathway. Interestingly, sterol structures unable to support endocytosis allowed transport of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein Gas1p from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi compartment. PMID:12181337

Heese-Peck, Antje; Pichler, Harald; Zanolari, Bettina; Watanabe, Reika; Daum, Günther; Riezman, Howard

2002-01-01

233

Origins of multicellular evolvability in snowflake yeast  

PubMed Central

Complex life has arisen through a series of ‘major transitions’ in which collectives of formerly autonomous individuals evolve into a single, integrated organism. A key step in this process is the origin of higher-level evolvability, but little is known about how higher-level entities originate and gain the capacity to evolve as an individual. Here we report a single mutation that not only creates a new level of biological organization, but also potentiates higher-level evolvability. Disrupting the transcription factor ACE2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae prevents mother–daughter cell separation, generating multicellular ‘snowflake’ yeast. Snowflake yeast develop through deterministic rules that produce geometrically defined clusters that preclude genetic conflict and display a high broad-sense heritability for multicellular traits; as a result they are preadapted to multicellular adaptation. This work demonstrates that simple microevolutionary changes can have profound macroevolutionary consequences, and suggests that the formation of clonally developing clusters may often be the first step to multicellularity. PMID:25600558

Ratcliff, William C.; Fankhauser, Johnathon D.; Rogers, David W.; Greig, Duncan; Travisano, Michael

2015-01-01

234

Perfect and Imperfect Nucleosome Positioning in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies of nucleosome positioning have shown that nucleosomes almost invariably adopt one of several alternative overlapping positions on a short DNA fragment in vitro. We define such a set of overlapping positions as a "position cluster", and the 5S RNA gene positioning sequence is presented as an example. The notable exception is the synthetic 601-sequence, which can position a nucleosome perfectly in vitro, though not in vivo. Many years ago, we demonstrated that nucleosome position clusters are present on the CUP1 and HIS3 genes in native yeast chromatin. Recently, using genome-wide paired-end sequencing of nucleosomes, we have shown that position clusters are the general rule in yeast chromatin, not the exception. We argue that, within a cell population, one of several alternative nucleosomal arrays is formed on each gene. We show how position clusters and alternative arrays can give rise to typical nucleosome occupancy profiles, and that position clusters are disrupted by transcriptional activation. The centromeric nucleosome is a rare example of perfect positioning in vivo. It is, however, a special case, since it contains the centromeric histone H3 variant instead of normal H3. Perfect positioning might be due to centromeric sequence-specific DNA binding proteins. Finally, we point out that the existence of position clusters implies that the putative nucleosome code is degenerate. We suggest that degeneracy might be a crucial point in the debate concerning the code. PMID:22306662

Cole, Hope A.; Nagarajavel, V.; Clark, David J.

2012-01-01

235

Speciation of chromium in chromium yeast.  

PubMed

High-performance liquid chromatography was used to separate Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The separation was achieved on a weak anion exchange column. The mobile phase was pH 7.0 ammonium nitrate solution. The redox reaction between Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was avoided during separation and determination. This separation method could be used to separate the samples with large concentration differences between Cr(III) and Cr(VI). The alkaline digestion was used to extract chromium in solid sample, which had no effect on the retention time and the peak area of the Cr(VI). However, the conversion of Cr(VI) from Cr(III) was observed during alkaline digestion, which displayed positive relation with the ratio of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples. Both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) contents of chromium yeasts cultured in media with different chromium additions were determined. The spike recoveries of Cr(VI) for chromium yeasts were in the range of 95-108 %. PMID:25269546

Guo, Xuena; Liu, Wei; Bai, Xuejing; He, Xiuping; Zhang, Borun

2014-12-01

236

Origins of multicellular evolvability in snowflake yeast.  

PubMed

Complex life has arisen through a series of 'major transitions' in which collectives of formerly autonomous individuals evolve into a single, integrated organism. A key step in this process is the origin of higher-level evolvability, but little is known about how higher-level entities originate and gain the capacity to evolve as an individual. Here we report a single mutation that not only creates a new level of biological organization, but also potentiates higher-level evolvability. Disrupting the transcription factor ACE2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae prevents mother-daughter cell separation, generating multicellular 'snowflake' yeast. Snowflake yeast develop through deterministic rules that produce geometrically defined clusters that preclude genetic conflict and display a high broad-sense heritability for multicellular traits; as a result they are preadapted to multicellular adaptation. This work demonstrates that simple microevolutionary changes can have profound macroevolutionary consequences, and suggests that the formation of clonally developing clusters may often be the first step to multicellularity. PMID:25600558

Ratcliff, William C; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Rogers, David W; Greig, Duncan; Travisano, Michael

2015-01-01

237

Using Yeast Genetics to Study Splicing Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Pre-mRNA splicing is a critical step in eukaryotic gene expression, which involves removal of noncoding intron sequences from pre-mRNA and ligation of the remaining exon sequences to make a mature message. Splicing is carried out by a large ribonucleoprotein complex called the spliceosome. Since the first description of the pre-mRNA splicing reaction in the 1970s, elegant genetic and biochemical studies have revealed that the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction, the spliceosome, is an exquisitely dynamic macromolecular machine, and its RNA and protein components undergo highly ordered, tightly coordinated rearrangements in order to carry out intron recognition and splicing catalysis. Studies using the genetically tractable unicellular eukaryote budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) have played an instrumental role in deciphering splicing mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss how yeast genetics has been used to deepen our understanding of the mechanism of splicing and explore the potential for future mechanistic insights using S. cerevisiae as an experimental tool. PMID:24549672

Hossain, Munshi Azad; Johnson, Tracy L.

2014-01-01

238

Production of glycolipid biosurfactants by basidiomycetous yeasts.  

PubMed

BSs (biosurfactants) produced by various micro-organisms show unique properties (e.g. mild production conditions, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility) compared with chemically synthesized surfactants. The numerous advantages of BSs have prompted applications not only in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries but also in environmental protection and energy-saving technology. Among BSs, glycolipid types are the most promising, owing to their high productivity from renewable resources and versatile biochemical properties. MELs (mannosylerythritol lipids), which are glycolipid BSs abundantly produced by basidiomycetous yeasts such as strains of Pseudozyma, exhibit not only excellent interfacial properties, but also remarkable differentiation-inducing activities against human leukaemia cells. MELs also show high binding affinity towards different immunoglobulins and lectins. Recently, a cationic liposome bearing MEL has been demonstrated to increase dramatically the efficiency of gene transfection into mammalian cells. These features of BSs should broaden their application in new advanced technologies. In the present review the current status of research and development on glycolipid BSs, especially their production by Pseudozyma yeasts, is described. PMID:19341364

Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

2009-05-01

239

Nucleotide degradation and ribose salvage in yeast  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide degradation is a universal metabolic capability. Here we combine metabolomics, genetics and biochemistry to characterize the yeast pathway. Nutrient starvation, via PKA, AMPK/SNF1, and TOR, triggers autophagic breakdown of ribosomes into nucleotides. A protein not previously associated with nucleotide degradation, Phm8, converts nucleotide monophosphates into nucleosides. Downstream steps, which involve the purine nucleoside phosphorylase, Pnp1, and pyrimidine nucleoside hydrolase, Urh1, funnel ribose into the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway. During carbon starvation, the ribose-derived carbon accumulates as sedoheptulose-7-phosphate, whose consumption by transaldolase is impaired due to depletion of transaldolase's other substrate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Oxidative stress increases glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, resulting in rapid consumption of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate to make NADPH for antioxidant defense. Ablation of Phm8 or double deletion of Pnp1 and Urh1 prevent effective nucleotide salvage, resulting in metabolite depletion and impaired survival of starving yeast. Thus, ribose salvage provides means of surviving nutrient starvation and oxidative stress. PMID:23670538

Xu, Yi-Fan; Létisse, Fabien; Absalan, Farnaz; Lu, Wenyun; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Brown, Greg; Caudy, Amy A; Yakunin, Alexander F; Broach, James R; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

2013-01-01

240

Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.  

PubMed

Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment. PMID:23614011

Bellon, Jennifer R; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L; Dunn, Barbara L; Chambers, Paul J

2013-01-01

241

Antifungal susceptibility of emerging opportunistic yeasts and yeast-like fungi from Rhea americana.  

PubMed

Opportunistic yeasts and yeast-like fungi have been recognized as important pathogens in high-risk patients. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of these microorganisms in the microbiota of captive rheas and to investigate the antifungal susceptibility of the isolated strains. Isolates representing Magnusiomyces capitatus (Geotrichum capitatum, n = 11), Trichosporon mucoides (n = 11), Trichosporon asteroides (n = 5), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (n = 4), Trichosporon asahii (n = 3), Trichosporon cutaneum (n = 3), and Trichosporon ovoides (n = 3) were obtained from the oropharynx, cloaca, and feces of 58 animals. Most of the isolates were susceptible to antifungals in vitro; however, resistance against fluconazole (n = 1) and itraconazole (n = 2) was detected among T. mucoides. This study indicates that healthy rheas can be reservoirs of opportunistic pathogens. Primary resistance to azoles in T. mucoides obtained from these animals demonstrates the potential risk to humans. PMID:23899001

de Aguiar Cordeiro, Rossana; Pereira de Alencar, Lucas; Nogueira Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia; de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Débora; Cordeiro Teixeira, Carlos Eduardo; de Brito Macedo, Ramila; Teixeira Lima, Daniel; Paiva de Araújo Neto, Manoel; Jalles Monteiro, André; Dutra Alves, Nilza; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Costa Sidrim, José Júlio; Rocha Gadelha, Marcos Fábio

2013-08-01

242

An intervention resembling caloric restriction prolongs life span and retards aging in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a finite life span that is measured by the number of daughter cells an individual produces. The 20 genes known to determine yeast life span appear to function in more than one pathway, implicating a variety of physiological processes in yeast longevity. Less attention has been focused on environmental effects on yeast aging. We have

James C. Jiang; Ewa Jaruga; Marina V. Repnevskaya; S. Michal Jazwinski

2000-01-01

243

Advances in Gene Expression in Non-Conventional Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yeast has been a favoured lower eukaryotic system for the expression and production of recombinant proteins for both basic research and practical applications, and the demand for foreign-gene expression systems is increasing rapidly. Despite the vast amount of information on the molecular biology and physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has consequently been the first choice as host system for recombinant protein production in the past, several limitations have been identified in this expression system. These limitations have recently been relieved by the development of expression systems in other yeast species known as ‘ non-conventional yeasts’ or ‘non-Saccharomyces ’ yeasts. With the increasing interest in the biotechnological applications of these yeasts in applied and fundamental studies and processes, the term ‘ non-conventional ’ yeast may well soon become redundant. As there is no universal expression system for heterologous protein production, it is necessary to recognize the merits and demerits of each system in order to make a right choice. This chapter will evaluate the competitive environment of non-conventional expression platforms represented by some of the best-known alternative yeasts systems including Kluyveromyces lactis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia pastoris and more recently, Arxula adeninivorans.

Nel, Sanet; Labuschagne, Michel; Albertyn, Jacobus

244

Vaginal yeasts in the era of "over the counter" antifungals  

PubMed Central

Objective: To establish whether there has been any rise in the prevalence of non-albicans Candida species isolated from vaginal swabs since the introduction of "over the counter" antifungal treatments. Method: A retrospective review looking at all positive vaginal yeast isolates collected from women attending one genitourinary medicine clinic during the 6 year period from 1993 to 1998 inclusive. All positive vaginal yeast isolates were included, regardless of whether or not the patients were symptomatic. Isolates from HIV positive women were excluded from the analysis. Result: No increase in non-albicans vaginal yeast isolates was shown during the period studied. The proportion of non-albicans yeasts remained constant at approximately 5% of the total yeasts isolated. The most common non-albicans yeast isolated was C glabrata. Conclusion: There is no evidence from this study to suggest that the increasing use of "over the counter" antifungal treatment has selected for atypical, possibly inherently azole resistant, strains of vaginal yeasts in HIV seronegative women. Key Words: vulvovaginal candidiasis; non-albicans species; antifungal drug resistance PMID:11221124

Walker, P; Reynolds, M; Ashbee, H; Brown, C; Evans, E

2000-01-01

245

Yeast biomass production in brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate.  

PubMed

Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h(-1), 0.61 g g(-1), and 0.56 g l(-1) h(-1), respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids. PMID:18418745

Duarte, Luís C; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Inês; Gírio, Francisco M

2008-03-01

246

Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

247

Characterization of isolated yeast growth response to methionine analogs.  

PubMed

Methionine is one of the first limiting amino acids in poultry nutrition. The use of methionine-rich natural feed ingredients, such as soybean meal or rapeseed meal may lead to negative environmental consequences. Amino acid supplementation leads to reduced use of protein-rich ingredients. The objectives of this study were isolation of potentially high content methionine-containing yeasts, quantification of methionine content in yeasts and their respective growth response to methionine analogs. Minimal medium was used as the selection medium and the isolation medium of methionine-producing yeasts from yeast collection and environmental samples, respectively. Two yeasts previously collected along with six additional strains isolated from Caucasian kefir grains, air-trapped, cantaloupe, and three soil samples could grow on minimal medium. Only two of the newly isolated strains, K1 and C1, grew in minimal medium supplied with either methionine analogs ethionine or norleucine at 0.5% (w/v). Based on large subunit rRNA sequences, these isolated strains were identified as Pichia udriavzevii/Issatchenkia orientalis. P. kudriavzevii/I. orentalis is a generally recognized as a safe organism. In addition, methionine produced by K1 and C1 yeast hydrolysate yielded 1.3 ± 0.01 and 1.1 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) dry cell. Yeast strain K1 may be suitable as a potential source of methionine for dietary supplements in organic poultry feed but may require growth conditions to further increase their methionine content. PMID:24007489

Saengkerdsub, Suwat; Lingbeck, Jody M; Wilkinson, Heather H; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Crandall, Philip G; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Biswas, Debabrata; Ricke, Steven C

2013-01-01

248

Biocavity laser spectroscopy of genetically altered yeast cells and isolated yeast mitochondria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an analysis of 2 yeast cell mutants using biocavity laser spectroscopy. The two yeast strains differed only by the presence or absence of mitochondrial DNA. Strain 104 is a wild-type (? +) strain of the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strain 110 was derived from strain 104 by removal of its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Removal of mtDNA causes strain 110 to grow as a "petite" (? -), named because it forms small colonies (of fewer cells because it grows more slowly) on agar plates supplemented with a variety of different carbon sources. The absence of mitochondrial DNA results in the complete loss of all the mtDNA-encoded proteins and RNAs, and loss of the pigmented, heme-containing cytochromes a and b. These cells have mitochondria, but the mitochondria lack the normal respiratory chain complexes I, III, IV, and V. Complex II is preserved because its subunits are encoded by genes located in nuclear DNA. The frequency distributions of the peak shifts produced by wild-type and petite cells and mitochondria show striking differences in the symmetry and patterns of the distributions. Wild-type ? + cells (104) and mitochondria produced nearly symmetric, Gaussian distributions. The ? - cells (110) and mitochondria showed striking asymmetry and skew that appeared to follow a Poisson distribution.

Gourley, Paul L.; Hendricks, Judy K.; McDonald, Anthony E.; Copeland, R. Guild; Naviaux, Robert K.; Yaffe, Michael P.

2006-02-01

249

Glucose and the ATP paradox in yeast.  

PubMed Central

A sustained decrease in the intracellular ATP concentration has been observed when extra glucose was added to yeast cells growing aerobically under glucose limitation. Because glucose degradation is the main source of ATP-derived free energy, this is a counter-intuitive phenomenon, which cannot be attributed to transient ATP consumption in the initial steps of glycolysis. We present a core model for aerobic growth in which glucose supplies carbon, as well as free energy, for biosynthesis. With Metabolic Control Analysis and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the decrease in the ATP concentration can be reproduced if the biosynthetic route is more strongly activated by carbon substrates than is the catabolic (ATP-producing) route. PMID:11085955

Somsen, O J; Hoeben, M A; Esgalhado, E; Snoep, J L; Visser, D; van der Heijden, R T; Heijnen, J J; Westerhoff, H V

2000-01-01

250

Chromosome Dynamics in the Yeast Interphase Nucleus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the dynamics of chromosomes in interphase nuclei. By tagging four chromosomal regions with a green fluorescent protein fusion to lac repressor, we monitored the movement and subnuclear position of specific sites in the yeast genome, sampling at short time intervals. We found that early and late origins of replication are highly mobile in G1 phase, frequently moving at or faster than 0.5 micrometers/10 seconds, in an energy-dependent fashion. The rapid diffusive movement of chromatin detected in G1 becomes constrained in S phase through a mechanism dependent on active DNA replication. In contrast, telomeres and centromeres provide replication-independent constraint on chromatin movement in both G1 and S phases.

Heun, Patrick; Laroche, Thierry; Shimada, Kenji; Furrer, Patrick; Gasser, Susan M.

2001-12-01

251

Yeast Gal4: a transcriptional paradigm revisited  

PubMed Central

During the past two decades, the yeast Gal4 protein has been used as a model for studying transcriptional activation in eukaryotes. Many of the properties of transcriptional regulation first demonstrated for Gal4 have since been shown to be reiterated in the function of several other eukaryotic transcriptional regulators. Technological advances based on the transcriptional properties of this factor—such as the two-hybrid technology and Gal4-inducible systems for controlled gene expression—have had far-reaching influences in fields beyond transcription. In this review, we provide an updated account of Gal4 function, including data from new technologies that have been recently applied to the study of the GAL network. PMID:16670683

Traven, Ana; Jelicic, Branka; Sopta, Mary

2006-01-01

252

Phyllosphere yeasts rapidly break down biodegradable plastics.  

PubMed

The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily isolated from plant surfaces, displayed strong degradation activity on films made from poly-butylene succinate or poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate. Strains of P. antarctica isolated from leaves and husks of paddy rice displayed strong degradation activity on these films at 30°C. The type strain, P. antarctica JCM 10317, and Pseudozyma spp. strains from phyllosphere secreted a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme with a molecular mass of about 22 kDa. Reliable source of biodegradable plastic-degrading microorganisms are now in our hands. PMID:22126328

Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Cao, Xiao-Hong; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Tago, Kanako; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Tsushima, Seiya

2011-01-01

253

Phyllosphere yeasts rapidly break down biodegradable plastics  

PubMed Central

The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily isolated from plant surfaces, displayed strong degradation activity on films made from poly-butylene succinate or poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate. Strains of P. antarctica isolated from leaves and husks of paddy rice displayed strong degradation activity on these films at 30°C. The type strain, P. antarctica JCM 10317, and Pseudozyma spp. strains from phyllosphere secreted a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme with a molecular mass of about 22 kDa. Reliable source of biodegradable plastic-degrading microorganisms are now in our hands. PMID:22126328

2011-01-01

254

Chemical genetic and chemogenomic analysis in yeast.  

PubMed

Chemogenomics is the systematic genome-wide study of the cellular response to small molecule agents. Modern high-throughput genetic techniques allow massively parallel examination of the genetic effects of such biologically active small molecules (BASM). Here we present methodology for the identification and characterization of potentially bioactive compounds using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. First, we present a method for screening libraries of compounds for growth inhibition in solid or liquid phase, followed by techniques for potency determination using a half-log dose response. Then the Deletion Mutant Array (DMA), a genome-wide library of single gene deletion strains, is used to probe the chemical genetic interactions of individual BASMs on genetic networks-a process that can be achieved with a solid phase pinning assay or a pooled liquid assay utilizing barcode microarray techniques. Finally, we offer some considerations for optimizing these protocols. PMID:25213245

Coorey, Namal V C; Sampson, Liam D P; Barber, Jacqueline M; Bellows, David S

2014-01-01

255

Biofilm/Mat assays for budding yeast.  

PubMed

Many microbial species form biofilms/mats under nutrient-limiting conditions, and fungal pathogens rely on this social behavior for virulence. In budding yeast, mat formation is dependent on the mucin-like flocculin Flo11, which promotes cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate adhesion in mats. The biofilm/mat assays described here allow the evaluation of the role of Flo11 in the formation of mats. Cells are grown on surfaces with different degrees of rigidity to assess their expansion and three-dimensional architecture, and the cells are also exposed to plastic surfaces to quantify their adherence. These assays are broadly applicable to studying biofilm/mat formation in microbial species. PMID:25646504

Cullen, Paul J

2015-01-01

256

Yeast biotechnology: teaching the old dog new tricks  

PubMed Central

Yeasts are regarded as the first microorganisms used by humans to process food and alcoholic beverages. The technology developed out of these ancient processes has been the basis for modern industrial biotechnology. Yeast biotechnology has gained great interest again in the last decades. Joining the potentials of genomics, metabolic engineering, systems and synthetic biology enables the production of numerous valuable products of primary and secondary metabolism, technical enzymes and biopharmaceutical proteins. An overview of emerging and established substrates and products of yeast biotechnology is provided and discussed in the light of the recent literature. PMID:24602262

2014-01-01

257

Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

1979-01-01

258

Yeast Cells Respire, Too (But Not Like Me and You)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Each student adds a small amount of baking yeast to a test tube filled with diluted molasses. Then a second, smaller test tube is placed upside-down inside the solution. As the yeast cells respire, the carbon dioxide they produce is trapped inside the inverted test tube, producing a growing bubble of gas that is easily observed and measured. Students are presented with the procedure for designing an effective experiment; they learn to think critically about experimental results and indirect observations of experimental events.

Engineering K-Phd Program

259

Coping with oxidative stress. The yeast model.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an optimal model to study stress responses for various reasons: i) budding yeast genome presents a high degree of homology with the human genome; ii) there are many proteins that show an elevated functional homology with specific human proteins; iii) it is a system whose genetic manipulation is reasonably easy and cheaper than other models; iv) the possibility of working with an haploid state facilitates the study of multiple processes; v) databases are the most complete of all the eukaryotic models. Due to the latest information derived from proteomic and genomic analyses, the genetic, biochemical and molecular information available relative to this biological system is extraordinarily big and complete. In this review, we present an overview of the mechanisms unravelling sensing and transducing oxidative stress. TOR, RAS/PKA, CWI, SNF1, and HOG are the main pathways involved both in the oxidative response and in the correct entry in stationary phase. In general, TOR and RAS/PKA dowregulation and SNF1 and CWI upregulation favour both a correct defence against oxidative damage and the entry in the quiescent state. All of these pathways have counterparts in humans. The actin cytoskeleton plays a dual function as sensor and target of oxidation, in tight connection with the former signalling cascades. In budding yeast, progression through stationary phase and quiescence constitute an accepted current model to study some of the mechanisms that determine life span. Aging is a process associated to oxidative stress and it is in tight relationship with bulk autophagy and mitophagy, both are mechanisms belonging to the oxidative defence and promoters of life extension when correctly regulated by, among other elements, the signalling cascades. PMID:25330032

de la Torre-Ruiz, Maria Angeles; Pujol, Nuria; Sundaran, Venkatraghavan

2015-01-01

260

Unsuspected pyocyanin effect in yeast under anaerobiosis  

PubMed Central

The blue–green phenazine, Pyocyanin (PYO), is a well-known virulence factor produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, notably during cystic fibrosis lung infections. It is toxic to both eukaryotic and bacterial cells and several mechanisms, including the induction of oxidative stress, have been postulated. However, the mechanism of PYO toxicity under the physiological conditions of oxygen limitation that are encountered by P. aeruginosa and by target organisms in vivo remains unclear. In this study, wild-type and mutant strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as an effective eukaryotic model to determine the toxicity of PYO (100–500??mol/L) under key growth conditions. Under respiro-fermentative conditions (with glucose as substrate), WT strains and certain H2O2-hypersensitive strains showed a low-toxic response to PYO. Under respiratory conditions (with glycerol as substrate) all the strains tested were significantly more sensitive to PYO. Four antioxidants were tested but only N-acetylcysteine was capable of partially counteracting PYO toxicity. PYO did not appear to affect short-term respiratory O2 uptake, but it did seem to interfere with cyanide-poisoned mitochondria through a complex III-dependent mechanism. Therefore, a combination of oxidative stress and respiration disturbance could partly explain aerobic PYO toxicity. Surprisingly, the toxic effects of PYO were more significant under anaerobic conditions. More pronounced effects were observed in several strains including a ‘petite’ strain lacking mitochondrial DNA, strains with increased or decreased levels of ABC transporters, and strains deficient in DNA damage repair. Therefore, even though PYO is toxic for actively respiring cells, O2 may indirectly protect the cells from the higher anaerobic-linked toxicity of PYO. The increased sensitivity to PYO under anaerobic conditions is not unique to S. cerevisiae and was also observed in another yeast, Candida albicans. PMID:24307284

Barakat, Rana; Goubet, Isabelle; Manon, Stephen; Berges, Thierry; Rosenfeld, Eric

2014-01-01

261

Mechanisms of Fatty Acid Toxicity for Yeast  

PubMed Central

Neal, A. L. (Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N.J.), Joan O. Weinstock, and J. Oliver Lampen. Mechanisms of fatty acid toxicity for yeast. J. Bacteriol. 90:126–131. 1965.—The internal pH of stationary- and log-phase yeast cells dropped quite rapidly when the cells were exposed to acetate buffers at pH 4 and 3, whereas no, or much less, acidification occurred with pyruvate or phosphate. Although inhibition of respiration and glycolysis was almost instantaneous when the cells were exposed to 0.2 m acetate at pH 4, the effect was not permanent and could be reversed by washing them with water or phosphate buffer. Irreversible inhibition did occur, however, at 0.5 m acetate under the same conditions; there was a marked decrease in several glycolytic enzyme systems, which undoubtedly contributed to the irreversible nature of the inhibition. In cell-free homogenates, various low-molecular-weight monocarboxylic acids exhibited about the same inhibitory effect on glycolysis; structural differences such as branching or unsaturation did not cause a marked change in their inhibitory effect. Also, glycolysis was much more sensitive to dicarboxylic acids such as succinate and phthalate than to acetate; phthalate was more inhibitory than succinate. This is in contrast with the noninhibitory nature of succinate and phthalate to whole cells, even at pH 4. Pyruvic acid decarboxylation was inhibited by phthalate but not by succinate. The greater toxic effect of phthalic acid may be due to the fixed steric configuration of its carboxyl groups, as compared with those of succinic acid. PMID:16562006

Neal, A. L.; Weinstock, Joan O.; Lampen, J. Oliver

1965-01-01

262

Organoleptic Analysis of Doughs Fermented with Yeasts From A Nigerian Palm Wine (Elaeis guineensis) and Certain Commercial Yeasts  

PubMed Central

Yeasts isolated from a freshly tapped palm wine obtained from Akure, Nigeria were identified as Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Geotrichum lactis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Each of the isolates was used to ferment wheat flour dough and baked. Sensory analysis of the doughs was carried out on leavening, texture, aroma, taste and appearance. Saccharomyces cerevisiae performed best in leavening the dough while Debaryomyces hansenii produced doughs with the best taste and aroma. Appearances of the doughs made with all the isolated yeasts did not differ significantly (P<0.05) from that of the dough that lacked yeast. PMID:19088921

B, Boboye; I, Dayo-Owoyemi; F. A, Akinyosoye

2008-01-01

263

Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas.  

PubMed

We demonstrated sensitive detection of individual yeast cells and yeast films by using slot antenna arrays operating in the terahertz frequency range. Microorganisms located at the slot area cause a shift in the resonant frequency of the THz transmission. The shift was investigated as a function of the surface number density for a set of devices fabricated on different substrates. In particular, sensors fabricated on a substrate with relatively low permittivity demonstrate higher sensitivity. The frequency shift decreases with increasing slot antenna width for a fixed coverage of yeast film, indicating a field enhancement effect. Furthermore, the vertical range of the effective sensing volume has been studied by varying the thickness of the yeast film. The resonant frequency shift saturates at 3.5 ?m for a slot width of 2 ?m. In addition, the results of finite-difference time-domain simulations are in good agreement with our experimental data. PMID:25606992

Park, S J; Son, B H; Choi, S J; Kim, H S; Ahn, Y H

2014-12-15

264

Reprogrammed glucose metabolic pathways of inhibitor-tolerant yeast  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Representative inhibitory compounds such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural generated from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment inhibit yeast growth and interfere with the subsequent ethanol fermentation. Evolutionary engineering under laboratory settings is a powerful tool that can be used to...

265

Culture nutrition key to inhibitor-tolerant yeast performance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Inhibitory compounds generated during acid hydrolysis pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass interfere with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. A tolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-50049 has recently been developed by targeted evolution in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and f...

266

Dissecting the spatial structure of overlapping transcription in budding yeast  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a computational and algorithmic method for the analysis of high-resolution transcription data in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We begin by describing a computational system for storing ...

Danford, Timothy W. (Timothy William), 1979-

2010-01-01

267

Use of yeast as a system to study amyloid toxicity.  

PubMed

The formation of amyloid-like fibrils is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases. How the assembly of amyloid-like fibrils contributes to cell death is a major unresolved question in the field. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism to study basic mechanisms for how cellular pathways regulate amyloid assembly and proteotoxicity. For example, studies of the amyloidogenic yeast prion [RNQ(+)] have revealed novel roles by which molecular chaperones protect cells from the accumulation of cytotoxic protein species. In budding yeast there are a variety of cellular assays that can be employed to analyze the assembly of amyloid-like aggregates and mechanistically dissect how cellular pathways influence proteotoxicity. In this review, we describe several assays that are routinely used to investigate aggregation and toxicity of the [RNQ(+)] prion in yeast. PMID:21115125

Summers, Daniel W; Cyr, Douglas M

2011-03-01

268

Polygalacturonase secreted by yeasts from Brazilian semi-arid environments.  

PubMed

Microbial pectinolytic enzymes are known to play a commercially important role in a number of industrial processes. The objective of this study was to investigate the extracellular polygalacturonases of yeasts isolated from Brazilian semi-arid environments. Among the 250 colonies tested, only 33 produced extracellular polygalacturonases: Aureobasidium pullulans (18 isolates), Candida boidinii (one isolate), Trichosporonoides sp. (three isolates), Kluyveromyces marxianus (one isolate), Cryptococcus liquefaciens (one isolate), Pseudozyma sp. (four isolates), and yeast-like related to fungal endophyte (five isolates). The highest activity of polygalacturonase was observed in Pseudozyma sp. CCMB 300 (14.17+/-0.08 micromol acid galacturonic released/min/mg protein). This study shows the potential of yeasts and yeast-like organisms isolated from Brazilian semi-arid environments to produce pectinolytic enzymes. PMID:19462328

Oliveira, Rodrigo Q; Rosa, Carlos A; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Azeredo, Antônio; Neto, Aristóteles Góes; Assis, Sandra A

2009-01-01

269

Contemporary, yeast-based approaches to understanding human genetic variation  

PubMed Central

Determining how genetic variation contributes to human health and disease is a critical challenge. As one of the most genetically tractable model organisms, yeast has played a central role in meeting this challenge. The advent of new technologies, including high-throughput DNA sequencing and synthesis, proteomics, and computational methods, has vastly increased the power of yeast-based approaches to determine the consequences of human genetic variation. Recent successes include systematic exploration of the effects of gene dosage, large-scale analysis of the effect of coding variation on gene function, and the use of humanized yeast to model disease. By virtue of its manipulability, small genome size, and genetic tractability, yeast is poised to help us understand human genetic variation. PMID:24252429

Dunham, Maitreya J.; Fowler, Douglas M.

2013-01-01

270

Yeast replicative aging: a paradigm for defining conserved longevity interventions  

PubMed Central

The finite replicative life span of budding yeast mother cells was demonstrated as early as 1959, but the idea that budding yeast could be used to model aging of multicellular eukaryotes did not enter the scientific mainstream until relatively recently. Despite continued skepticism by some, there are now abundant data that several interventions capable of extending yeast replicative life span have a similar effect in multicellular eukaryotes including nematode worms, fruit flies, and rodents. In particular, dietary restriction, mTOR signaling, and sirtuins are among the most studied longevity interventions in the field. Here, we describe key conserved longevity pathways in yeast and discuss relationships that may help explain how such broad conservation of aging processes could have evolved. PMID:24119093

Wasko, Brian M.; Kaeberlein, Matt

2014-01-01

271

21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...yeast may be used in feed formulations of broiler chickens as a source of protein not to exceed 10 percent by weight of the total...percent-by-weight specifications: (1) Crude protein, not less than 60 percent. (2) Crude...

2010-04-01

272

21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...yeast may be used in feed formulations of broiler chickens as a source of protein not to exceed 10 percent by weight of the total...percent-by-weight specifications: (1) Crude protein, not less than 60 percent. (2) Crude...

2012-04-01

273

21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...yeast may be used in feed formulations of broiler chickens as a source of protein not to exceed 10 percent by weight of the total...percent-by-weight specifications: (1) Crude protein, not less than 60 percent. (2) Crude...

2011-04-01

274

21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...yeast may be used in feed formulations of broiler chickens as a source of protein not to exceed 10 percent by weight of the total...percent-by-weight specifications: (1) Crude protein, not less than 60 percent. (2) Crude...

2013-04-01

275

21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.  

...yeast may be used in feed formulations of broiler chickens as a source of protein not to exceed 10 percent by weight of the total...percent-by-weight specifications: (1) Crude protein, not less than 60 percent. (2) Crude...

2014-04-01

276

Architecture and evolutionary stability of yeast signaling pathways  

E-print Network

I have researched the effect that selection for the function of the High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) pathway has on the evolutionary stability of the pheromone response pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I first ...

Gritton, Jeffrey S

2006-01-01

277

Evolutionary principles of modular gene regulation in yeasts  

E-print Network

Divergence in gene regulation can play a major role in evolution. Here, we used a phylogenetic framework to measure mRNA profiles in 15 yeast species from the phylum Ascomycota and reconstruct the evolution of their modular ...

Thompson, Dawn A.

278

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis ) using the sprout portion of malt barley as the source of enzymes. The additive contains a maximum of 6 percent...

2010-04-01

279

THE UPTAKE OF AROMATIC AND BRANCHED CHAIN HYDROCARBONS BY YEAST  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies of the hydrocarbon utilizing yeasts, Candida maltosa and C. lipolytica, have shown that both were capable of reducing recoverable amounts of branched chain and aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture of naphthalene, tetradecane, hexadecane, pristane (tetra-methylpentadecane). ...

280

Collaborative evaluation of the Abbott yeast identification system.  

PubMed Central

The Abbott yeast identification system (Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Irving, Tex.) is a 24-h, instrumental method for identifying medically important yeasts, based on matrix analysis of 19 biochemical reactions and the germ tube test. The system was evaluated in two clinical laboratories by using 179 coded isolates, which included a high percentage of the less frequently encountered species. Based upon results with these coded isolates and from previously obtained laboratory data, the system software was adjusted and accuracy of the yeast identification system was further evaluated with 378 isolates from clinical sources. Of the 378 clinical yeast isolates tested, 364 (96%) were correctly identified with the Abbott system. Isolates were deliberately selected so that germ tube-positive isolates made up less than 10% of the clinical isolates tested. PMID:6381526

Cooper, B H; Prowant, S; Alexander, B; Brunson, D H

1984-01-01

281

Growth assays to assess polyglutamine toxicity in yeast.  

PubMed

Protein misfolding is associated with many human diseases, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by the abnormal expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) region within the protein huntingtin. The polyQ-expanded huntingtin protein attains an aberrant conformation (i.e. it misfolds) and causes cellular toxicity. At least eight further neurodegenerative diseases are caused by polyQ-expansions, including the Spinocerebellar Ataxias and Kennedy's disease. The model organism yeast has facilitated significant insights into the cellular and molecular basis of polyQ-toxicity, including the impact of intra- and inter-molecular factors of polyQ-toxicity, and the identification of cellular pathways that are impaired in cells expressing polyQ-expansion proteins. Importantly, many aspects of polyQ-toxicity that were found in yeast were reproduced in other experimental systems and to some extent in samples from HD patients, thus demonstrating the significance of the yeast model for the discovery of basic mechanisms underpinning polyQ-toxicity. A direct and relatively simple way to determine polyQ-toxicity in yeast is to measure growth defects of yeast cells expressing polyQ-expansion proteins. This manuscript describes three complementary experimental approaches to determine polyQ-toxicity in yeast by measuring the growth of yeast cells expressing polyQ-expansion proteins. The first two experimental approaches monitor yeast growth on plates, the third approach monitors the growth of liquid yeast cultures using the BioscreenC instrument. Furthermore, this manuscript describes experimental difficulties that can occur when handling yeast polyQ models and outlines strategies that will help to avoid or minimize these difficulties. The protocols described here can be used to identify and to characterize genetic pathways and small molecules that modulate polyQ-toxicity. Moreover, the described assays may serve as templates for accurate analyses of the toxicity caused by other disease-associated misfolded proteins in yeast models. PMID:22415521

Duennwald, Martin L

2012-01-01

282

Kinetics of growth and sugar consumption in yeasts.  

PubMed

An overview is presented of the steady- and transient state kinetics of growth and formation of metabolic byproducts in yeasts. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is strongly inclined to perform alcoholic fermentation. Even under fully aerobic conditions, ethanol is produced by this yeast when sugars are present in excess. This so-called 'Crabtree effect' probably results from a multiplicity of factors, including the mode of sugar transport and the regulation of enzyme activities involved in respiration and alcoholic fermentation. The Crabtree effect in S. cerevisiae is not caused by an intrinsic inability to adjust its respiratory activity to high glycolytic fluxes. Under certain cultivation conditions, for example during growth in the presence of weak organic acids, very high respiration rates can be achieved by this yeast. S. cerevisiae is an exceptional yeast since, in contrast to most other species that are able to perform alcoholic fermentation, it can grow under strictly anaerobic conditions. 'Non-Saccharomyces' yeasts require a growth-limiting supply of oxygen (i.e. oxygen-limited growth conditions) to trigger alcoholic fermentation. However, complete absence of oxygen results in cessation of growth and therefore, ultimately, of alcoholic fermentation. Since it is very difficult to reproducibly achieve the right oxygen dosage in large-scale fermentations, non-Saccharomyces yeasts are therefore not suitable for large-scale alcoholic fermentation of sugar-containing waste streams. In these yeasts, alcoholic fermentation is also dependent on the type of sugar. For example, the facultatively fermentative yeast Candida utilis does not ferment maltose, not even under oxygen-limited growth conditions, although this disaccharide supports rapid oxidative growth. PMID:8279829

van Dijken, J P; Weusthuis, R A; Pronk, J T

1993-01-01

283

Dynamics of Nuclear Pore Distribution in Nucleoporin Mutant Yeast Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To follow the dynamics of nuclear pore dis- tribution in living yeast cells, we have generated fusion proteins between the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the yeast nucleoporins Nup49p and Nup133p. In nup133 2 dividing cells that display a constitutive nu- clear pore clustering, in vivo analysis of GFP-Nup49p localization revealed changes in the distribution of nu- clear pore complex

Naïma Belgareh; Valérie Doye

1997-01-01

284

Revision of the oligosaccharide structures of yeast carboxypeptidase Y  

SciTech Connect

The N-linked oligosaccharides from baker's yeast carboxypeptidase Y were analyzed by {sup 1}H NMR and specific mannosidase digestion and found to be identical to those from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mnn9 mutant bulk mannoprotein. The results support the view that the mnn mutants make oligosaccharides that are a true reflection of the normal biosynthetic pathway and confirm that a recently revised yeast oligosaccharide structure is applicable to wild-type mannoproteins.

Ballou, L.; Hernandez, L.M.; Alvarado, E.; Ballou, C.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

1990-05-01

285

Identification of Yeasts From the Suwannee River Florida Estuary1  

PubMed Central

The yeast flora of the Suwannee River estuary in Florida has been studied. The predominant genera were Candida and Rhodotorula; however, the yeast most frequently isolated was Cryptococcus laurentii. Nine ascosporogenous species were isolated, with Hansenula saturnus predominating. The salinity range of the sediments was 0.4 to 20.6%; in the estuary water, 0.07 to 0.25%; and in the open Gulf of Mexico, 18 to 20%. Images PMID:16349995

Lazarus, C. R.; Koburger, J. A.

1974-01-01

286

A Combined Yeast\\/Bacteria Two-hybrid System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-hybrid screening is a standard method used to iden- tify and characterize protein-protein interactions and has become an integral component of many proteomic inves- tigations. The two-hybrid system was initially developed using yeast as a host organism. However, bacterial two- hybrid systems have also become common laboratory tools and are preferred in some circumstances, although yeast and bacterial two-hybrid systems

Ilya G. Serebriiskii; Rui Fang; Ekaterina Latypova; Richard Hopkins; Charles Vinson; J. Keith Joung; Erica A. Golemis

287

Yeast as a model for ageing and apoptosis research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death with a crucial role in health and disease in metazoans. Recent findings demonstrate\\u000a the existence of an apoptotic program also in unicellular eukaryotes. Oxygen stress as well as the expression of several conserved\\u000a proapoptotic genes induce the apoptotic pathway in mammalian cells and yeast cells. The dying yeast cells show diagnostic\\u000a markers

Michael Breitenbach; Frank Madeo; Peter Laun; Gino Heeren; Stefanie Jarolim; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich; Silke Wissing; Alena Pichova

288

Bacteria Yeast Insect & Mammalian Transgenic Cells Plants & Animals  

E-print Network

0 Bacteria Yeast Insect & Mammalian Transgenic Cells Plants & Animals · Insufficient folding Yeast e.g. Pichia Bacteria LeishmaniaLeishmaniaInsect cells e.g. Sf9/21 ( ) ( ) +3rd +4th+3rd +4th signal peptide 1.2 x 105 U/mg Leishmania signal peptide 4.0 x 105 U/mg CFU-GEMM* cell proliferation assay

Lebendiker, Mario

289

Williopsis saturnus yeast killer toxin does not kill Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human bacterial pathogen, and the increase in antibiotic resistance demands the development of new antimicrobial\\u000a compounds. Several reports have suggested that yeast killer toxins show activity against bacteria and we therefore investigated\\u000a the activity of K9 killer toxin from the yeast Williopsis saturnus var. mrakii NCYC 500 against S. pneumoniae. However, no inhibition of bacterial

Irma Ochigava; Phillip J. Collier; Graeme M. Walker; Regine Hakenbeck

2011-01-01

290

Heat shock response in psychrophilic and psychrotrophic yeast from Antarctica.  

PubMed

The response to heat stress in six yeast species isolated from Antarctica was examined. The yeast were classified into two groups: one psychrophilic, with a maximum growth temperature of 20 degrees C, and the other psychrotrophic, capable of growth at temperatures above 20 degrees C. In addition to species--specific heat shock prote in (hsp) profiles, a heat shock (15 degrees C-25 degrees C for 3 h) induced the synthesis of a 110-kDa protein common to the psychrophiles, Mrakia stokesii, M. frigida, and M. gelida, but not evident in Leucosporidium antarcticum. Immunoblot analyses revealed heat shock inducible proteins (hsps) corresponding to hsps 70 and 90. Interestingly, no proteins corresponding to hsps 60 and 104 were observed in any of the psychrophilic species examined. In the psychrotrophic yeast, Leucosporidium fellii and L. scottii, in addition to the presence of hsps 70 and 90, a protein corresponding to hsp 104 was observed. In psychrotrophic yeast, as observed in psychrophilic yeast, the absence of a protein corresponding to hsp 60 was noted. Relatively high endogenous levels of trehalose which were elevated upon a heat shock were exhibited by all species. A 10 Celsius degree increase in temperature above the growth temperature (15 degrees C) of psychrophiles and psychrotrophs was optimal for heat shock induced thermotolerance. On the other hand, in psychrotrophic yeast grown at 25 degrees C, only a 5 Celsius degree increase in temperature was necessary for heat shock induced thermotolerance. Induced thermotolerance in all yeast species was coincident with hsp synthesis and trehalose accumulation. It was concluded that psychrophilic and psychrotrophic yeast, although exhibiting a stress response similar to mesophilic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nevertheless had distinctive stress protein profiles. PMID:9676242

Deegenaars, M L; Watson, K

1998-01-01

291

Occurrence and diversity of marine yeasts in Antarctica environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 28 yeast strains were obtained from the sea sediment of Antarctica. According to the results of routine identification and molecular characterization, the strains belonged to species of Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula slooffiae, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mrakia frigida and Guehomyces pullulans, respectively. The Antarctica yeasts have wide potential applications in biotechnology, for some of them can produce ?-galactosidase and killer toxins.

Zhang, Xue; Hua, Mingxia; Song, Chunli; Chi, Zhenming

2012-03-01

292

Diversity of Soil Yeasts Isolated from South Victoria Land, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unicellular fungi, commonly referred to as yeasts, were found to be components of the culturable soil fungal population in\\u000a Taylor Valley, Mt. Discovery, Wright Valley, and two mountain peaks of South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Samples were taken\\u000a from sites spanning a diversity of soil habitats that were not directly associated with vertebrate activity. A large proportion\\u000a of yeasts isolated in

L. Connell; R. Redman; S. Craig; G. Scorzetti; M. Iszard; R. Rodriguez

2008-01-01

293

Heat shock response in psychrophilic and psychrotrophic yeast from Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response to heat stress in six yeast species isolated from Antarctica was examined. The yeast were classified into two\\u000a groups: one psychrophilic, with a maximum growth temperature of 20°C, and the other psychrotrophic, capable of growth at temperatures\\u000a above 20°C. In addition to species-specific heat shock protein (hsp) profiles, a heat shock (15°C–25°C for 3 h) induced the\\u000a synthesis

Michelle L. Deegenaars; K. Watson

1998-01-01

294

Modeling the septation initiation network (SIN) in fission yeast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokinesis in fission yeast is controlled by a signal transduction pathway called the Septation Initiation Network (SIN).\\u000a From a dynamical point of view the most interesting questions about the regulation of fission yeast cytokinesis are: how do\\u000a wild type cells ensure that septation is initiated only once per cycle? Why does the control system stay in a continuously\\u000a septating state

Attila Csikász-Nagy; Orsolya Kapuy; Béla Gy?rffy; John J. Tyson; Béla Novák

2007-01-01

295

The effect of selenium enrichment on baker's yeast proteome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of regular yeast (RY) and selenium-enriched yeast (SEY) as dietary supplement is of interest because the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer (NPC) trial revealed that SEY but not RY decreased the incidence of prostate cancer (PC). Using two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS) approach, we performed proteomic analysis of RY and SEY to identify proteins that

Karam El-Bayoumy; Arunangshu Das; Stephen Russell; Steven Wolfe; Rick Jordan; Kutralanathan Renganathan; Thomas P. Loughran; Richard Somiari

296

Yeasts associated to Traditional Balsamic Vinegar: ecological and technological features.  

PubMed

Traditional Balsamic Vinegar (TBV) is an Italian homemade vinegar made with cooked grape must through a three-step process: conversion of sugars to ethanol by naturally occurring yeasts; oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria (AAB); and, finally, at least 12-years ageing. The cooked must is a selective and stressful medium for yeasts growth, due to its high sugar content and low pH values. Recent studies have shown that a large number of yeast species are involved in the fermentation, among them there are Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Zygosaccharomyces pseudorouxii, Zygosaccharomyces mellis, Zygosaccharomyces bisporus, Zygosaccharomyces lentus, Hanseniaspora valbyensis, Hanseniaspora osmophila, Candida lactis-condensi, Candida stellata, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nevertheless, the TBV-associated yeast population could be even more complex and many other slow-growing or poorly cultivable species might contribute to cooked must fermentation. In this review the main TBV yeast species are described, pointing out their role in TBV production and their influence on final product quality. Finally, both future developments in TBV yeast community studies (culture-independent and metagenomic techniques) and technological advances in TBV making (use of starter culture) are discussed. PMID:17900732

Solieri, L; Giudici, P

2008-06-30

297

Psychrophilic yeasts in glacial environments of Alpine glaciers.  

PubMed

The presence of psychrophilic yeasts in supra- and subglacial sediments, ice and meltwater collected from two glaciers of the Italian Alps (Forni and Sforzellina-Ortles-Cevedale group) was investigated. After incubation at 4 degrees C, subglacial sediments contained from 1.3 x 10(3) to 9.6 x 10(3) CFU of yeasts g(-1). The number of yeast cells in supraglacial sediments was c. 10-100-fold lower. A significant proportion of isolated yeasts exhibited one or more extracellular enzymatic activities (starch-degrading, lipolytic, esterolytic, proteolytic and pectinolytic activity) at 4 degrees C. Selected isolates were able to grow at 2 degrees C under laboratory-simulated in situ conditions. In all, 106 isolated yeasts were identified by MSP-PCR fingerprinting and 26S rRNA gene sequencing of the D1/D2 region as belonging to 10 species: Aureobasidium pullulans, Cryptococcus gilvescens (over 50% of the total), Cryptococcus terricolus, Mrakia gelida, Naganishia globosa, Rhodotorula glacialis, Rhodotorula psychrophenolica, Rhodotorula bacarum, Rhodotorula creatinivora and Rhodotorula laryngis. Four strains, all belonging to a new yeast species, yet to be described, were also isolated. PMID:18067577

Turchetti, Benedetta; Buzzini, Pietro; Goretti, Marta; Branda, Eva; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; D'Agata, Carlo; Smiraglia, Claudio; Vaughan-Martini, Ann

2008-01-01

298

Fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel screening methodology based on the combined use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence (CGE-LIF) is developed for the fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine. As model, a recombinant EKD-13 Saccaromyces cerevisiae strain was selected and different wines were prepared using either recombinant or conventional yeasts. Special emphasis is put on the yeast DNA extraction step, exploring different commercial and non-commercial methods, in order to overcome the important difficulty of obtaining amplifiable DNA from wine samples. To unequivocally detect the transgenic yeast, two specific segments of the transgenic construction were amplified. In addition, a third primer pair was used as amplification control to confirm the quality of the yeast DNA obtained from the extraction step. CGE-LIF provides high sensitivity, good analysis speed and impressive resolution of DNA fragments, making this technique very convenient to optimize multiplex PCR parameters and to analyze the amplified DNA fragments. Thus, the CGE-LIF method provided %RSD values for DNA migration times lower than 0.82% (n=10) with the same capillary and lower than 1.92% (n=15) with three different capillaries, allowing the adequate size determination of the PCR products with an error lower than 4% compared to the theoretically expected. The whole method developed in this work requires less than one working day and grants the sensitive detection of transgenic yeasts in wine samples. PMID:21296357

León, Carlos; García-Cañas, Virginia; González, Ramón; Morales, Pilar; Cifuentes, Alejandro

2011-10-21

299

Plant farnesyltransferase can restore yeast Ras signaling and mating  

SciTech Connect

Farnesyltransferase (FTase) is a heterodimeric enzyme that modifies a group of proteins, including Ras, in mammals and yeasts. Plant FTase {alpha} and {beta} subunits were cloned from tomato and expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to assess their functional conservation in farnesylating Ras and a-factor proteins, which are important for cell growth and mating. The tomato FTase {beta} subunit (LeFTB) alone was unable to complement the growth defect of ram1{del} mutant yeast strains in which the chromosomal FTase {beta} subunit gene was deleted, but coexpression of LeFTB with the plant {alpha} subunit gene (LeFTA) restored normal growth, Ras membrane association, and mating. LeFTB contains a novel 66-amino-acid sequence domain whose deletion reduces the efficiency of tomato FTase to restore normal growth to yeast ram1{del} strains. Coexpression of LeFTA and LeFTB in either yeast or insect cells yielded a functional enzyme that correctly farnesylated CaaX-motif-containing peptides. Despite their low degree of sequence homology, yeast and plant FTases shared similar in vivo and in vitro substrate specificities, demonstrating that this enzymatic modification of proteins with intermediates from the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway is conserved in evolutionarily divergent eukaryotes. 56 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Yalovsky, S.; Callan, K.L.; Narita, J.O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-04-01

300

Biochemical characterization and growth patterns of new yeast isolates.  

PubMed

African sorghum opaque beers play a vital role in the diet of millions of consumers. In the current study we investigated the growth profiles of yeast strains isolated from kpete-kpete, a traditional starter used to produce tchoukoutou, an opaque sorghum beer in Benin. 10 yeast strains were isolated from sorghum beer starters and cultivated under both liquid and solid media for phenotypic growth characterization. All yeast isolates were able to grow both on solid and liquid media. Based on their growth profiles, the isolates were clustered into three groups: (i) the aggressive growth pattern (30%), (ii) the moderate growth pattern (50%), and (iii) the slow growth pattern (20%). Based on gene expression pattern, absorbance (A(600 nm)) and diameter of growth in both liquid and solid media respectively, yeast strains YK34, YK15 and YK48 were clustered in the first group, and referred to as the most aggressive growth strains, followed by group 2 (YK24, YK5, YK12, YK20, YK2) and group 3 (YK37, YK41). This growth pattern was confirmed by Invertase gene expression profiling of the yeasts showing group 1 with high level of Invertase gene expression followed by group 2 and group 3 respectively. Our results suggest that YK34, YK15 and YK48 and YK2 yeast strains constitute the best candidates in fermentation of sorghum beer production based on growth rate and assimilation of carbon and nitrogen sources. PMID:24802797

Djegui, Kadjogbé Y; Gachomo, Emma W; Hounhouigan, Djidjoho J; Kayodé, Adéchola P P; Kotchoni, Simeon O

2014-08-01

301

Improvement of Yeast Stress Tolerance by Soy Peptides ?Study on the E? ects of Soy Peptides on Yeast Lipid Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported that the cultivation of yeast cells in media containing soy peptides can improve tolerance to freeze?thaw stress indicating that soy peptides are suitable ingredients of culture media to provide high?quality yeast cells for frozen?dough technology. We further investigated the mechanisms of the improved tolerance to freeze?thaw stress by soy peptides and found that soy peptides affect

Shingo IZAWA

2009-01-01

302

Design and Construction of Two Yeast Shuttle Vectors Containing Human Procollagen Genes Expression Cassette for Expression in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Collagens are the most abundant proteins in the human body. Their main function is to provide structural and mechanical support for the tissues, but they are also involved in a number of other biological functions including cell attachment, migration and differentiation. Collagens and gelatins are widely used in pharmaceutical and medical applications. Every year, more than 50,000 tons of collagen and gelatin are used in medical applications. These materials may have some viral and prion impurity and/or stimulate allergic response in human body. Therefore, scientists have produced human collagen in recombinant systems. In this study we have constructed two yeast shuttle vectors containing human procollagen genes expression cassette for expression in yeast. Total RNA was extracted from human skin fibroblast cell line, and cDNA synthesis was done by oligo dt. Then gene fragments were amplified from the cDNA with the necessary changes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Finally they were cloned in yeast vector pPICZ?A containing regulatory sequences for expressing and secreting the polypeptide product. Two yeast shuttle vectors containing human COL1A1 and COL1A2 expression cassettes were created. Final constructs were confirmed by enzymatic digestion, PCR of desired fragment and sequencing. The yeast shuttle vectors containing human COL1A1 and COL1A2 can be transferred into the yeast in the later stages to determine the scale of expression. PMID:23407617

Abdemami, Baharak; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Shahreza, Hossein Khanahmad; Ghavami, Mehdi

2011-01-01

303

Influence of the farming system on the epiphytic yeasts and yeast-like fungi colonizing grape berries during the ripening process.  

PubMed

Grape berries are colonized by a wide array of epiphytic microorganisms such as yeast and filamentous fungi. This microbiota plays a major role in crop health and also interferes with the winemaking process. In this study, culture-dependent and -independent methods were used to investigate the dynamics and diversity of the yeast and yeast-like microorganisms on the grape berry surface during maturation and the influence of cropping systems in this microflora. The results showed a significant impact of both the farming system and the maturity stage on the epiphytic yeast and yeast-like community. A quantitative approach based on counting cultivable populations indicated an increase in the yeast and yeast-like population during the grape ripening process, reaching a maximum when the berries became overripe. The cultivable yeast and yeast-like population also varied significantly depending on the farming system. Microorganism counts were significantly higher for organically- than conventionally-farmed grapes. The yeast and yeast-like community structures were analysed by culture independent methods, using CE-SSCP. The results revealed changes in the genetic structure of the yeast and yeast-like community throughout the ripening process, as well as the impact of the farming system. Copper-based fungicide treatments were revealed as the main factor responsible for the differences in microbial population densities between samples of different farming systems. The results showed a negative correlation between copper levels and yeast and yeast-like populations, providing evidence that copper inhibited this epiphytic community. Taken together, our results showed that shifts in the microbial community were related to changes in the composition of the grape-berry surface, particularly sugar exudation and the occurrence of copper residues from pesticide treatments. PMID:24603471

Martins, Guilherme; Vallance, Jessica; Mercier, Anne; Albertin, Warren; Stamatopoulos, Panagiotis; Rey, Patrice; Lonvaud, Aline; Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle

2014-05-01

304

Ribonucleotide incorporation by yeast DNA polymerase ?.  

PubMed

During replication in yeast, the three B family DNA replicases frequently incorporate ribonucleotides (rNMPs) into DNA, and their presence in the nuclear genome can affect genome stability. This prompted us to examine ribonucleotide incorporation by the fourth B family member, Pol ?, the enzyme responsible for the majority of damage-induced mutagenesis in eukaryotes. We first show that Pol ? inserts rNMPs into DNA and can extend primer termini containing 3'-ribonucleotides. We then measure rNMP incorporation by Pol ? in the presence of its cofactors, RPA, RFC and PCNA and at normal cellular dNTP and rNTP concentrations that exist under unstressed conditions. Under these conditions, Pol ? stably incorporates one rNMP for every 200-300 dNMPs incorporated, a frequency that is slightly higher than for the high fidelity replicative DNA polymerases. Under damage-induced conditions wherein cellular dNTP concentrations are elevated 5-fold, Pol ? only incorporates one rNMP per 1300 dNMPs. Functional interaction of Pol ? with the mutasome assembly factor Rev1 gives comparable rNMP incorporation frequencies. These results suggest that ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA during Pol ?-mediated mutagenesis in vivo may be rare. PMID:24674899

Makarova, Alena V; Nick McElhinny, Stephanie A; Watts, Brian E; Kunkel, Thomas A; Burgers, Peter M

2014-06-01

305

A unified model for yeast transcript definition.  

PubMed

Identifying genes in the genomic context is central to a cell's ability to interpret the genome. Yet, in general, the signals used to define eukaryotic genes are poorly described. Here, we derived simple classifiers that identify where transcription will initiate and terminate using nucleic acid sequence features detectable by the yeast cell, which we integrate into a Unified Model (UM) that models transcription as a whole. The cis-elements that denote where transcription initiates function primarily through nucleosome depletion, and, using a synthetic promoter system, we show that most of these elements are sufficient to initiate transcription in vivo. Hrp1 binding sites are the major characteristic of terminators; these binding sites are often clustered in terminator regions and can terminate transcription bidirectionally. The UM predicts global transcript structure by modeling transcription of the genome using a hidden Markov model whose emissions are the outputs of the initiation and termination classifiers. We validated the novel predictions of the UM with available RNA-seq data and tested it further by directly comparing the transcript structure predicted by the model to the transcription generated by the cell for synthetic DNA segments of random design. We show that the UM identifies transcription start sites more accurately than the initiation classifier alone, indicating that the relative arrangement of promoter and terminator elements influences their function. Our model presents a concrete description of how the cell defines transcript units, explains the existence of nongenic transcripts, and provides insight into genome evolution. PMID:24170600

de Boer, Carl G; van Bakel, Harm; Tsui, Kyle; Li, Joyce; Morris, Quaid D; Nislow, Corey; Greenblatt, Jack F; Hughes, Timothy R

2014-01-01

306

Synthetic cooperation in engineered yeast populations  

PubMed Central

Cooperative interactions are key to diverse biological phenomena ranging from multicellularity to mutualism. Such diversity makes the ability to create and control cooperation desirable for potential applications in areas as varied as agriculture, pollutant treatment, and medicine. Here we show that persistent cooperation can be engineered by introducing a small set of genetic modifications into previously noninteracting cell populations. Specifically, we report the construction of a synthetic obligatory cooperative system, termed CoSMO (cooperation that is synthetic and mutually obligatory), which consists of a pair of nonmating yeast strains, each supplying an essential metabolite to the other strain. The behavior of the two strains in isolation, however, revealed unintended constraints that restrict cooperation, such as asymmetry in starvation tolerance and delays in nutrient release until near cell death. However, the joint system is shown mathematically and experimentally to be viable over a wide range of initial conditions, with oscillating population ratio settling to a value predicted by nutrient supply and consumption. Unexpectedly, even in the absence of explicitly engineered mechanisms to stabilize cooperation, the cooperative system can consistently develop increased ability to survive reductions in population density. Extending synthetic biology from the design of genetic circuits to the engineering of ecological interactions, CoSMO provides a quantitative system for linking processes at the cellular level to the collective behavior at the system level, as well as a genetically tractable system for studying the evolution of cooperation. PMID:17267602

Shou, Wenying; Ram, Sri; Vilar, Jose M. G.

2007-01-01

307

Structure of yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase: Refinement  

SciTech Connect

Yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase, PPase, is a dimeric enzyme (64kD) of chemically identical subunits consisting of 285 amino acids. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate to orthophosphate and is therefore essential in the energy utilization of all life forms. PPase crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with cell dimensions of a = 69.96, b = 95.27, c = 51.77 {angstrom}, {beta} = 99.5{degree} and a dimer in the asymmetric unit. Data up to 2.3{angstrom} resolution were collected at {minus}50C by rotation photography, optically scanned and processed. Coordinates of a 3{angstrom} resolution study of PPase at room temperature were taken from the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank and used to initiate refinement with a starting R-factor of 52%. The refinement proceeded smoothly using the program PROLSQ installed on a Cray-2, and from 2F{sub o}-F{sub c} maps the missing terminal amino acids were eventually fitted on a PS350 graphics system. Some corrections were made to the backbone and numerous side-chains were also readjusted. The intermediate R-factor is 28% with solvent water presently being incorporated into the structure.

Zabel, V.; Bunick, G.J.; Vanderhoff, P.A.; Uberbacher, E.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Voet, D. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States))

1991-03-11

308

Mechanisms of Chromosome Number Evolution in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The whole-genome duplication (WGD) that occurred during yeast evolution changed the basal number of chromosomes from 8 to 16. However, the number of chromosomes in post-WGD species now ranges between 10 and 16, and the number in non-WGD species (Zygosaccharomyces, Kluyveromyces, Lachancea, and Ashbya) ranges between 6 and 8. To study the mechanism by which chromosome number changes, we traced the ancestry of centromeres and telomeres in each species. We observe only two mechanisms by which the number of chromosomes has decreased, as indicated by the loss of a centromere. The most frequent mechanism, seen 8 times, is telomere-to-telomere fusion between two chromosomes with the concomitant death of one centromere. The other mechanism, seen once, involves the breakage of a chromosome at its centromere, followed by the fusion of the two arms to the telomeres of two other chromosomes. The only mechanism by which chromosome number has increased in these species is WGD. Translocations and inversions have cycled telomere locations, internalizing some previously telomeric genes and creating novel telomeric locations. Comparison of centromere structures shows that the length of the CDEII region is variable between species but uniform within species. We trace the complete rearrangement history of the Lachancea kluyveri genome since its common ancestor with Saccharomyces and propose that its exceptionally low level of rearrangement is a consequence of the loss of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway in this species. PMID:21811419

Gordon, Jonathan L.; Byrne, Kevin P.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.

2011-01-01

309

Electrochemical regulation of budding yeast polarity.  

PubMed

Cells are naturally surrounded by organized electrical signals in the form of local ion fluxes, membrane potential, and electric fields (EFs) at their surface. Although the contribution of electrochemical elements to cell polarity and migration is beginning to be appreciated, underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we show that an exogenous EF can orient cell polarization in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, directing the growth of mating projections towards sites of hyperpolarized membrane potential, while directing bud emergence in the opposite direction, towards sites of depolarized potential. Using an optogenetic approach, we demonstrate that a local change in membrane potential triggered by light is sufficient to direct cell polarization. Screens for mutants with altered EF responses identify genes involved in transducing electrochemical signals to the polarity machinery. Membrane potential, which is regulated by the potassium transporter Trk1p, is required for polarity orientation during mating and EF response. Membrane potential may regulate membrane charges through negatively charged phosphatidylserines (PSs), which act to position the Cdc42p-based polarity machinery. These studies thus define an electrochemical pathway that directs the orientation of cell polarization. PMID:25548923

Haupt, Armin; Campetelli, Alexis; Bonazzi, Daria; Piel, Matthieu; Chang, Fred; Minc, Nicolas

2014-12-01

310

A unified model for yeast transcript definition  

PubMed Central

Identifying genes in the genomic context is central to a cell's ability to interpret the genome. Yet, in general, the signals used to define eukaryotic genes are poorly described. Here, we derived simple classifiers that identify where transcription will initiate and terminate using nucleic acid sequence features detectable by the yeast cell, which we integrate into a Unified Model (UM) that models transcription as a whole. The cis-elements that denote where transcription initiates function primarily through nucleosome depletion, and, using a synthetic promoter system, we show that most of these elements are sufficient to initiate transcription in vivo. Hrp1 binding sites are the major characteristic of terminators; these binding sites are often clustered in terminator regions and can terminate transcription bidirectionally. The UM predicts global transcript structure by modeling transcription of the genome using a hidden Markov model whose emissions are the outputs of the initiation and termination classifiers. We validated the novel predictions of the UM with available RNA-seq data and tested it further by directly comparing the transcript structure predicted by the model to the transcription generated by the cell for synthetic DNA segments of random design. We show that the UM identifies transcription start sites more accurately than the initiation classifier alone, indicating that the relative arrangement of promoter and terminator elements influences their function. Our model presents a concrete description of how the cell defines transcript units, explains the existence of nongenic transcripts, and provides insight into genome evolution. PMID:24170600

de Boer, Carl G.; van Bakel, Harm; Tsui, Kyle; Li, Joyce; Morris, Quaid D.; Nislow, Corey; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Hughes, Timothy R.

2014-01-01

311

Electrochemical Regulation of Budding Yeast Polarity  

PubMed Central

Cells are naturally surrounded by organized electrical signals in the form of local ion fluxes, membrane potential, and electric fields (EFs) at their surface. Although the contribution of electrochemical elements to cell polarity and migration is beginning to be appreciated, underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we show that an exogenous EF can orient cell polarization in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, directing the growth of mating projections towards sites of hyperpolarized membrane potential, while directing bud emergence in the opposite direction, towards sites of depolarized potential. Using an optogenetic approach, we demonstrate that a local change in membrane potential triggered by light is sufficient to direct cell polarization. Screens for mutants with altered EF responses identify genes involved in transducing electrochemical signals to the polarity machinery. Membrane potential, which is regulated by the potassium transporter Trk1p, is required for polarity orientation during mating and EF response. Membrane potential may regulate membrane charges through negatively charged phosphatidylserines (PSs), which act to position the Cdc42p-based polarity machinery. These studies thus define an electrochemical pathway that directs the orientation of cell polarization. PMID:25548923

Piel, Matthieu; Chang, Fred; Minc, Nicolas

2014-01-01

312

Yeast cells can access distinct quiescent states  

PubMed Central

We conducted a phenotypic, transcriptional, metabolic, and genetic analysis of quiescence in yeast induced by starvation of prototrophic cells for one of three essential nutrients (glucose, nitrogen, or phosphate) and compared those results with those obtained with cells growing slowly due to nutrient limitation. These studies address two related questions: (1) Is quiescence a state distinct from any attained during mitotic growth, and (2) does the nature of quiescence differ depending on the means by which it is induced? We found that either limitation or starvation for any of the three nutrients elicits all of the physiological properties associated with quiescence, such as enhanced cell wall integrity and resistance to heat shock and oxidative stress. Moreover, the starvations result in a common transcriptional program, which is in large part a direct extrapolation of the changes that occur during slow growth. In contrast, the metabolic changes that occur upon starvation and the genetic requirements for surviving starvation differ significantly depending on the nutrient for which the cell is starved. The genes needed by cells to survive starvation do not overlap the genes that are induced upon starvation. We conclude that cells do not access a unique and discrete G0 state, but rather are programmed, when nutrients are scarce, to prepare for a range of possible future stressors. Moreover, these survival strategies are not unique to quiescence, but are engaged by the cell in proportion to nutrient scarcity. PMID:21289062

Klosinska, Maja M.; Crutchfield, Christopher A.; Bradley, Patrick H.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Broach, James R.

2011-01-01

313

X-ray irradiation of yeast cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saccharomyces Cerevisiae yeast cells were irradiated using the soft X-ray laser-plasma source at Rutherford Laboratory. The aim was to produce a selective damage of enzyme metabolic activity at the wall and membrane level (responsible for fermentation) without interfering with respiration (taking place in mitochondria) and with nuclear and DNA activity. The source was calibrated by PIN diodes and X-ray spectrometers. Teflon stripes were chosen as targets for the UV laser, emitting X-rays at about 0.9 keV, characterized by a very large decay exponent in biological matter. X-ray doses to the different cell compartments were calculated following a Lambert-Bouguet-Beer law. After irradiation, the selective damage to metabolic activity at the membrane level was measured by monitoring CO2 production with pressure silicon detectors. Preliminary results gave evidence of pressure reduction for irradiated samples and non-linear response to doses. Also metabolic oscillations were evidenced in cell suspensions and it was shown that X-ray irradiation changed the oscillation frequency.

Masini, Alessandra; Batani, Dimitri; Previdi, Fabio; Conti, Aldo; Pisani, Francesca; Botto, Cesare; Bortolotto, Fulvia; Torsiello, Flavia; Turcu, I. C. Edmond; Allott, Ric M.; Lisi, Nicola; Milani, Marziale; Costato, Michele; Pozzi, Achille; Koenig, Michel

1997-10-01

314

Mechanical forces of fission yeast growth.  

PubMed

Mechanical properties contribute to the control of cell size, morphogenesis, development, and lifestyle of fungal cells. Tip growth can be understood by a viscoplastic model, in which growth is derived by high internal turgor pressure and cell-wall elasticity. To understand how these properties regulate growth in the rod-shaped fission yeast Schizosaccaromyces pombe, we devised femtoliter cylindrical polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchambers with varying elasticity as force sensors for single cells. By buckling cells in these chambers, we determine the elastic surface modulus of the cell wall to be 20.2 +/- 6.1 N.m(-1). By analyzing the growth of the cells as they push against the walls of the chamber, we derive force-velocity relationships and values for internal effective turgor pressure of 0.85 +/- 0.15 MPa and a growth-stalling force of 11 +/- 3 muN. The behavior of cells buckling under the force of their own growth provides an independent test of this model and parameters. Force generation is dependent on turgor pressure and a glycerol synthesis gene, gpd1(+) (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), and is independent of actin cables. This study develops a quantitative framework for tip cell growth and characterizes mechanisms of force generation that contribute to fungal invasion into host tissues. PMID:19500986

Minc, Nicolas; Boudaoud, Arezki; Chang, Fred

2009-07-14

315

Modular assembly of yeast cytochrome oxidase  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of yeast cytochrome oxidase (COX) biogenesis identified Cox1p, one of the three mitochondrially encoded core subunits, in two high–molecular weight complexes combined with regulatory/assembly factors essential for expression of this subunit. In the present study we use pulse-chase labeling experiments in conjunction with isolated mitochondria to identify new Cox1p intermediates and place them in an ordered pathway. Our results indicate that before its assimilation into COX, Cox1p transitions through five intermediates that are differentiated by their compositions of accessory factors and of two of the eight imported subunits. We propose a model of COX biogenesis in which Cox1p and the two other mitochondrial gene products, Cox2p and Cox3p, constitute independent assembly modules, each with its own complement of subunits. Unlike their bacterial counterparts, which are composed only of the individual core subunits, the final sequence in which the mitochondrial modules associate to form the holoenzyme may have been conserved during evolution. PMID:23266989

McStay, Gavin P.; Su, Chen Hsien; Tzagoloff, Alexander

2013-01-01

316

Isolating potentiated Hsp104 variants using yeast proteinopathy models.  

PubMed

Many protein-misfolding disorders can be modeled in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proteins such as TDP-43 and FUS, implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and ?-synuclein, implicated in Parkinson's disease, are toxic and form cytoplasmic aggregates in yeast. These features recapitulate protein pathologies observed in patients with these disorders. Thus, yeast are an ideal platform for isolating toxicity suppressors from libraries of protein variants. We are interested in applying protein disaggregases to eliminate misfolded toxic protein conformers. Specifically, we are engineering Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ protein from yeast that is uniquely capable of solubilizing both disordered aggregates and amyloid and returning the proteins to their native conformations. While Hsp104 is highly conserved in eukaryotes and eubacteria, it has no known metazoan homologue. Hsp104 has only limited ability to eliminate disordered aggregates and amyloid fibers implicated in human disease. Thus, we aim to engineer Hsp104 variants to reverse the protein misfolding implicated in neurodegenerative disorders. We have developed methods to screen large libraries of Hsp104 variants for suppression of proteotoxicity in yeast. As yeast are prone to spontaneous nonspecific suppression of toxicity, a two-step screening process has been developed to eliminate false positives. Using these methods, we have identified a series of potentiated Hsp104 variants that potently suppress the toxicity and aggregation of TDP-43, FUS, and ?-synuclein. Here, we describe this optimized protocol, which could be adapted to screen libraries constructed using any protein backbone for suppression of toxicity of any protein that is toxic in yeast. PMID:25407485

Jackrel, Meredith E; Tariq, Amber; Yee, Keolamau; Weitzman, Rachel; Shorter, James

2014-01-01

317

Lipase production by yeasts from extra virgin olive oil.  

PubMed

Newly produced olive oil has an opalescent appearance due to the presence of solid particles and micro-drops of vegetation water from the fruits. Some of our recent microbiological research has shown that a rich micro-flora is present in the suspended fraction of the freshly produced olive oil capable of improving the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the oleuropein. Present research however has, for the first time, demonstrated the presence of lipase-positive yeasts in some samples of extra virgin olive oil which can lower the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. The tests performed with yeasts of our collection, previously isolated from olive oil, demonstrated that two lipase-producing yeast strains named Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1525 and Williopsis californica 1639 were able to hydrolyse different specific synthetic substrates represented by p-nitrophenyl stearate, 4-nitrophenyl palmitate, tripalmitin and triolein as well as olive oil triglycerides. The lipase activity in S. cerevisiae 1525 was confined to the whole cells, whereas in W. californica 1639 it was also detected in the extracellular fraction. The enzyme activity in both yeasts was influenced by the ratio of the aqueous to the organic phase reaching its maximum value in S. cerevisiae 1525 when the water added to the olive oil was present in a ratio of 0.25% (v/v), whereas in W. californica 1639 the optimal ratio was 1% (v/v). Furthermore, the free fatty acids of olive oil proved to be good inducers of lipase activity in both yeasts. The microbiological analysis carried out on commercial extra virgin olive oil, produced in four different geographic areas, demonstrated that the presence of lipase-producing yeast varied from zero to 56% of the total yeasts detected, according to the source of oil samples. The discovery of lipase-positive yeasts in some extra virgin olive oils leads us to believe that yeasts are able to contribute in a positive or negative way towards the organological quality of the olive oil. PMID:16942987

Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A; Iride, A

2006-02-01

318

Genome-Wide Generation of Yeast Gene Deletion Strains  

PubMed Central

In the year 2001 a collection of yeast strains will be completed that are deleted in the 6000 open reading frames selected as putative genes by the initial bioinformatic analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. The collection was produced by the transatlantic yeast gene deletion project, a collaboration involving researchers in the USA, Canada and Europe. The European effort was part of EUROFAN (European Functional Analysis Network) where some of the strains could feed into various functional analysis nodes dealing with specific areas of cell biology. With approximately 40% of human genes involved in heritable disease having a homologue in yeast and with the use of yeast in various drug discovery strategies, not least due to the dramatic increase in fungal infections, these strains will be valuable in trans-genomic studies and in specialised interest studies in individual laboratories. A detailed analysis of the project by the consortium is in preparation, here we discuss the yeast strains, reported findings and approaches to using this resource. PMID:18628917

Lamb, David C.; Kelly, Steven L.

2001-01-01

319

Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males.  

PubMed

The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G

2014-01-01

320

Screening Wild Yeast Strains for Alcohol Fermentation from Various Fruits  

PubMed Central

Wild yeasts on the surface of various fruits including grapes were surveyed to obtain yeast strains suitable for fermenting a novel wine with higher alcohol content and supplemented with rice starch. We considered selected characteristics, such as tolerance to alcohol and osmotic pressure, capability of utilizing maltose, and starch hydrolysis. Among 637 putative yeast isolates, 115 strains exhibiting better growth in yeast-peptone-dextrose broth containing 30% dextrose, 7% alcohol, or 2% maltose were selected, as well as five ?-amylase producers. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA gene classified the strains into 13 species belonging to five genera; Pichia anomala was the most prevalent (41.7%), followed by Wickerhamomyces anomalus (19.2%), P. guilliermondii (15%), Candida spp. (5.8%), Kodamaea ohmeri (2.5%), and Metschnikowia spp. (2.5%). All of the ?-amylase producers were Aureobasidium pullulans. Only one isolate (NK28) was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NK28 had all of the desired properties for the purpose of this study, except ?-amylase production, and fermented alcohol better than commercial wine yeasts. PMID:22783070

Lee, Yeon-Ju; Choi, Yu-Ri; Lee, So-Young; Park, Jong-Tae; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Park, Kwan-Hwa

2011-01-01

321

Technological properties of bakers' yeasts in durum wheat semolina dough.  

PubMed

Properties of 13 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different sources (traditional sourdoughs, industrial baking yeasts etc.) were studied in dough produced with durum wheat (Sicilian semolina, variety Mongibello). Durum wheat semolina and durum wheat flour are products prepared from grain of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) by grinding or milling processes in which the bran and germ are essentially removed and the remainder is comminuted to a suitable degree of fineness. Acidification and leavening properties of the dough were evaluated. Strains isolated from traditional sourdoughs (DSM PST18864, DSM PST18865 and DSM PST18866) showed higher leavening power, valuable after the first and second hours of fermentation, than commercial baking yeasts. In particular the strain DSM PST 18865 has also been successfully tested in bakery companies for the improvement of production processes. Baking and staling tests were carried out on five yeast strains to evaluate their fermentation ability directly and their resistance to the staling process. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) was used to investigate genetic variations in the yeast strains. This study showed an appreciable biodiversity in the microbial populations of both wild and commercial yeast strains. PMID:20039189

Giannone, Virgilio; Longo, Chiara; Damigella, Arcangelo; Raspagliesi, Domenico; Spina, Alfio; Palumbo, Massimo

2010-04-01

322

Diversity of soil yeasts isolated from South Victoria Land, Antarctica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unicellular fungi, commonly referred to as yeasts, were found to be components of the culturable soil fungal population in Taylor Valley, Mt. Discovery, Wright Valley, and two mountain peaks of South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Samples were taken from sites spanning a diversity of soil habitats that were not directly associated with vertebrate activity. A large proportion of yeasts isolated in this study were basidiomycetous species (89%), of which 43% may represent undescribed species, demonstrating that culturable yeasts remain incompletely described in these polar desert soils. Cryptococcus species represented the most often isolated genus (33%) followed by Leucosporidium (22%). Principle component analysis and multiple linear regression using stepwise selection was used to model the relation between abiotic variables (principle component 1 and principle component 2 scores) and yeast biodiversity (the number of species present at a given site). These analyses identified soil pH and electrical conductivity as significant predictors of yeast biodiversity. Species-specific PCR primers were designed to rapidly discriminate among the Dioszegia and Leucosporidium species collected in this study. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Scorzetti, G.; Iszard, M.; Rodriguez, R.

2008-01-01

323

Assessing the potential of wild yeasts for bioethanol production.  

PubMed

Bioethanol fermentations expose yeasts to a new, complex and challenging fermentation medium with specific inhibitors and sugar mixtures depending on the type of carbon source. It is, therefore, suggested that the natural diversity of yeasts should be further exploited in order to find yeasts with good ethanol yield in stressed fermentation media. In this study, we screened more than 50 yeast isolates of which we selected five isolates with promising features. The species Candida bombi, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Torulaspora delbrueckii showed better osmo- and hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, S. cerevisiae isolates had the highest ethanol yield in fermentation experiments mimicking high gravity fermentations (25 % glucose) and artificial lignocellulose hydrolysates (with a myriad of inhibitors). Interestingly, among two tested S. cerevisiae strains, a wild strain isolated from an oak tree performed better than Ethanol Red, a S. cerevisiae strain which is currently commonly used in industrial bioethanol fermentations. Additionally, a W. anomalus strain isolated from sugar beet thick juice was found to have a comparable ethanol yield, but needed longer fermentation time. Other non-Saccharomyces yeasts yielded lower ethanol amounts. PMID:25413210

Ruyters, Stefan; Mukherjee, Vaskar; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Thevelein, Johan M; Willems, Kris A; Lievens, Bart

2014-11-21

324

Divergence of iron metabolism in wild Malaysian yeast.  

PubMed

Comparative genomic studies have reported widespread variation in levels of gene expression within and between species. Using these data to infer organism-level trait divergence has proven to be a key challenge in the field. We have used a wild Malaysian population of S. cerevisiae as a test bed in the search to predict and validate trait differences based on observations of regulatory variation. Malaysian yeast, when cultured in standard medium, activated regulatory programs that protect cells from the toxic effects of high iron. Malaysian yeast also showed a hyperactive regulatory response during culture in the presence of excess iron and had a unique growth defect in conditions of high iron. Molecular validation experiments pinpointed the iron metabolism factors AFT1, CCC1, and YAP5 as contributors to these molecular and cellular phenotypes; in genome-scale sequence analyses, a suite of iron toxicity response genes showed evidence for rapid protein evolution in Malaysian yeast. Our findings support a model in which iron metabolism has diverged in Malaysian yeast as a consequence of a change in selective pressure, with Malaysian alleles shifting the dynamic range of iron response to low-iron concentrations and weakening resistance to extreme iron toxicity. By dissecting the iron scarcity specialist behavior of Malaysian yeast, our work highlights the power of expression divergence as a signpost for biologically and evolutionarily relevant variation at the organismal level. Interpreting the phenotypic relevance of gene expression variation is one of the primary challenges of modern genomics. PMID:24142925

Lee, Hana N; Mostovoy, Yulia; Hsu, Tiffany Y; Chang, Amanda H; Brem, Rachel B

2013-12-01

325

Analysis of the Secretomes of Paracoccidioides Mycelia and Yeast Cells  

PubMed Central

Paracoccidioides, a complex of several phylogenetic species, is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. The ability of pathogenic fungi to develop a multifaceted response to the wide variety of stressors found in the host environment is important for virulence and pathogenesis. Extracellular proteins represent key mediators of the host-parasite interaction. To analyze the expression profile of the proteins secreted by Paracoccidioides, Pb01 mycelia and yeast cells, we used a proteomics approach combining two-dimensional electrophoresis with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-Q-TOF MS/MS). From three biological replicates, 356 and 388 spots were detected, in mycelium and yeast cell secretomes, respectively. In this study, 160 non-redundant proteins/isoforms were indentified, including 30 and 24 proteins preferentially secreted in mycelia and yeast cells, respectively. In silico analyses revealed that 65% of the identified proteins/isoforms were secreted primarily via non-conventional pathways. We also investigated the influence of protein export inhibition in the phagocytosis of Paracoccidioides by macrophages. The addition of Brefeldin A to the culture medium significantly decreased the production of secreted proteins by both Paracoccidioides and internalized yeast cells by macrophages. In contrast, the addition of concentrated culture supernatant to the co-cultivation significantly increased the number of internalized yeast cells by macrophages. Importantly, the proteins detected in the fungal secretome were also identified within macrophages. These results indicate that Paracoccidioides extracellular proteins are important for the fungal interaction with the host. PMID:23272246

Weber, Simone Schneider; Parente, Ana Flávia Alves; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Parente, Juliana Alves; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

2012-01-01

326

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae- the main character in beer brewing.  

PubMed

Historically, mankind and yeast developed a relationship that led to the discovery of fermented beverages. Numerous inventions have led to improved technologies and capabilities to optimize fermentation technology on an industrial scale. The role of brewing yeast in the beer-making process is reviewed and its importance as the main character is highlighted. On considering the various outcomes of functions in a brewery, it has been found that these functions are focused on supporting the supply of yeast requirements for fermentation and ultimately to maintain the integrity of the product. The functions/processes include: nutrient supply to the yeast (raw material supply for brewhouse wort production); utilities (supply of water, heat and cooling); quality assurance practices (hygiene practices, microbiological integrity measures and other specifications); plant automation (vessels, pipes, pumps, valves, sensors, stirrers and centrifuges); filtration and packaging (product preservation until consumption); distribution (consumer supply); and marketing (consumer awareness). Considering this value chain of beer production and the 'bottle neck' during production, the spotlight falls on fermentation, the age-old process where yeast transforms wort into beer. PMID:18795959

Lodolo, Elizabeth J; Kock, Johan L F; Axcell, Barry C; Brooks, Martin

2008-11-01

327

Relative incidence of ascomycetous yeasts in arctic coastal environments.  

PubMed

Previous studies of fungi in polar environments have revealed a prevalence of basidiomycetous yeasts in soil and in subglacial environments of polythermal glaciers. Ascomycetous yeasts have rarely been reported from extremely cold natural environments, even though they are known contaminants of frozen foods. Using media with low water activity, we have isolated various yeast species from the subglacial ice of four glaciers from the coastal Arctic environment of Kongsfjorden, Spitzbergen, including Debaryomyces hansenii and Pichia guillermondii, with counts reaching 10(4) CFU L(-1). Together with the basidiomycetes Cryptococcus liquefaciens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, these yeasts represent the stable core of the subglacial yeast communities. Other glacial ascomycetous species isolated included Candida parapsilosis and a putative new species that resembles Candida pseudorugosa. The archiascomycete Protomyces inouyei has seldom been detected anywhere in the world but was here recovered from ice in a glacier cave. The glacier meltwater contained only D. hansenii, whereas the seawater contained D. hansenii, Debaryomyces maramus, Pichia guilliermondii, what appears to represent a novel species resembling Candida galli and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Only P. guilliermondii was isolated from sea ice, while snow/ice in the fjord tidal zone included C. parapsilosis, D. hansenii, P. guilliermondii and Metschnikowia zobellii. All of these isolated strains were characterized as psychrotolerant and xero/halotolerant, with the exception of P. inouyei. PMID:21221569

Butinar, Lorena; Strmole, Tadeja; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

2011-05-01

328

Engineering of mucin-type human glycoproteins in yeast cells  

PubMed Central

Mucin-type O-glycans are the most typical O-glycans found in mammalian cells and assume many different biological roles. Here, we report a genetic engineered yeast strain capable of producing mucin-type sugar chains. Genes encoding Bacillus subtilis UDP-Gal/GalNAc 4-epimerase, human UDP-Gal/GalNAc transporter, human ppGalNAc-T1, and Drosophila melanogaster core1 ?1–3 GalT were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The engineered yeast was able to produce a MUC1a peptide containing O-glycan and also a mucin-like glycoprotein, human podoplanin (hPod; also known as aggrus), which is a platelet-aggregating factor that requires a sialyl-core1 structure for activity. After in vitro sialylation, hPod from yeast could induce platelet aggregation. Interestingly, substitution of ppGalNAc-T1 for ppGalNAc-T3 caused a loss of platelet aggregation-inducing activity, despite the fact that the sialyl-core1 was detectable in both hPod proteins on a lectin microarray. Most of O-mannosylation, a common modification in yeast, to MUC1a was suppressed by the addition of a rhodanine-3-acetic acid derivative in the culture medium. The yeast system we describe here is able to produce glycoproteins modified at different glycosylation sites and has the potential for use in basic research and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:18296643

Amano, Koh; Chiba, Yasunori; Kasahara, Yoshiko; Kato, Yukinari; Kaneko, Mika Kato; Kuno, Atsushi; Ito, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Hirabayashi, Jun; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Narimatsu, Hisashi

2008-01-01

329

Immobilized yeast bioreactor systems for continuous beer fermentation  

PubMed

Two different types of immobilized yeast bioreactors were examined for continuous fermentation of high-gravity worts. One of these is a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) that employs porous glass beads for yeast immobilization. The second system is a loop reactor containing a porous silicon carbide cartridge (SCCR) for immobilizing the yeast cells. Although there was some residual fermentable sugar in the SCCR system product, nearly complete attenuation of the wort sugars was achieved in either of the systems when operated as a two-stage process. Fermentation could be completed in these systems in only half the time required for a conventional batch process. Both the systems showed similar kinetics of extract consumption, and therefore similar volumetric productivity. As compared to the batch fermentation, total fusel alcohols were lower; total esters, while variable, were generally higher. The yeast biomass production was similar to that in a conventional fermentation process. As would be expected in an accelerated fermentation system, the levels of vicinal diketones (VDKs) were higher. To remove the VDKs, the young beer was heat-treated to convert the VDK precursors and processed through a packed bed immobilized yeast bioreactor for VDK assimilation. The finished product from the FBR system was found to be quite acceptable from a flavor perspective, albeit different from the product from a conventional batch process. Significantly shortened fermentation times demonstrate the feasibility of this technology for beer production. PMID:9933520

Tata; Bower; Bromberg; Duncombe; Fehring; Lau; Ryder; Stassi

1999-01-01

330

Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males  

PubMed Central

The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G.

2014-01-01

331

Grape berry yeast communities: influence of fungicide treatments.  

PubMed

The yeast communities colonising grape berry surfaces were evaluated for the influence of fungicide treatments in an organic vineyard (copper/sulphur-based products) and a conventional vineyard (commonly used fungicides). Analysis of yeast abundance and diversity was carried out on grape berries and juice during fermentation, using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Yeast abundance was as generally reported for mature grapes and it was slight higher from grapes treated with conventional fungicides. Initial grape samples showed less yeast species diversity in the organic vineyard compared with the conventional one. In both vineyards, the dominant yeast were Candida zemplinina and Hanseniaspora uvarum (>50%), respectively, typical species that colonise surfaces of mature grape berries. Metschnikowia pulcherrima was widely found in the conventional samples while it was only occasionally found in organic ones. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated only at the end of natural fermentation (conducted in sterile condition), with lower levels in the organic samples. S. cerevisiae strains showed less intraspecies diversity in the organic samples (two genotypes), in comparison with the conventional samples (six genotypes). PMID:23337124

Milanovi?, Vesna; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

2013-02-15

332

Intermembrane Space Proteome of Yeast Mitochondria*  

PubMed Central

The intermembrane space (IMS) represents the smallest subcompartment of mitochondria. Nevertheless, it plays important roles in the transport and modification of proteins, lipids, and metal ions and in the regulation and assembly of the respiratory chain complexes. Moreover, it is involved in many redox processes and coordinates key steps in programmed cell death. A comprehensive profiling of IMS proteins has not been performed so far. We have established a method that uses the proapoptotic protein Bax to release IMS proteins from isolated mitochondria, and we profiled the protein composition of this compartment. Using stable isotope-labeled mitochondria from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we were able to measure specific Bax-dependent protein release and distinguish between quantitatively released IMS proteins and the background efflux of matrix proteins. From the known 31 soluble IMS proteins, 29 proteins were reproducibly identified, corresponding to a coverage of >90%. In addition, we found 20 novel intermembrane space proteins, out of which 10 had not been localized to mitochondria before. Many of these novel IMS proteins have unknown functions or have been reported to play a role in redox regulation. We confirmed IMS localization for 15 proteins using in organello import, protease accessibility upon osmotic swelling, and Bax-release assays. Moreover, we identified two novel mitochondrial proteins, Ymr244c-a (Coa6) and Ybl107c (Mic23), as substrates of the MIA import pathway that have unusual cysteine motifs and found the protein phosphatase Ptc5 to be a novel substrate of the inner membrane protease (IMP). For Coa6 we discovered a role as a novel assembly factor of the cytochrome c oxidase complex. We present here the first and comprehensive proteome of IMS proteins of yeast mitochondria with 51 proteins in total. The IMS proteome will serve as a valuable source for further studies on the role of the IMS in cell life and death. PMID:22984289

Vögtle, F.-Nora; Burkhart, Julia M.; Rao, Sanjana; Gerbeth, Carolin; Hinrichs, Jens; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Sickmann, Albert; Zahedi, René P.; Meisinger, Chris

2012-01-01

333

Telomerase Activation after Recruitment in Fission Yeast  

PubMed Central

Summary Current models depict that telomerase recruitment equates to activation. Telomeric DNA-binding proteins and the telomerase accessory proteins coordinate the recruitment of telomerase to the ends of chromosomes in a telomere length- and cell-cycle-dependent manner [1–4]. Recent studies have demonstrated that the telomeric protein TPP1 and its binding protein TIN2 are key proteins for both telomerase recruitment and processivity in mammalian cells [5–7]. Although the precise molecular mechanism of telomerase recruitment has not yet been established, targeted point mutations within the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB)-fold domain of TPP1 have been shown to impair telomerase association and processivity [8–10]. In fission yeast, telomerase is recruited through an interaction between the telomerase subunit Est1 and Ccq1, a component of the Pot1-Tpz1 telomere complex (POT1-TPP1 orthologs) [11–15]. Here, we demonstrate that association of telomerase with telomeres does not engage activity. We describe a mutation of Tpz1 that causes critical telomere shortening despite telomeric accumulation of the telomerase catalytic subunit, Trt1. Furthermore, Est1-directed telomerase association with Ccq1 is transient, and the Est1-Ccq1 interaction does not remain the bridge between telomeres and telomerase. Rather, direct interaction of Trt1 with Tpz1 is critical for telomere elongation. Moreover, Ccq1, which has been well characterized as a telomerase recruiter, is also required for the activation of telomere-associated telomerase. Our findings reveal a layer of telomerase regulation that controls activity after recruitment. PMID:25131669

Armstrong, Christine Anne; Pearson, Siân Rosanna; Amelina, Hanna; Moiseeva, Vera; Tomita, Kazunori

2014-01-01

334

Telomerase activation after recruitment in fission yeast.  

PubMed

Current models depict that telomerase recruitment equates to activation. Telomeric DNA-binding proteins and the telomerase accessory proteins coordinate the recruitment of telomerase to the ends of chromosomes in a telomere length- and cell-cycle-dependent manner [1-4]. Recent studies have demonstrated that the telomeric protein TPP1 and its binding protein TIN2 are key proteins for both telomerase recruitment and processivity in mammalian cells [5-7]. Although the precise molecular mechanism of telomerase recruitment has not yet been established, targeted point mutations within the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB)-fold domain of TPP1 have been shown to impair telomerase association and processivity [8-10]. In fission yeast, telomerase is recruited through an interaction between the telomerase subunit Est1 and Ccq1, a component of the Pot1-Tpz1 telomere complex (POT1-TPP1 orthologs) [11-15]. Here, we demonstrate that association of telomerase with telomeres does not engage activity. We describe a mutation of Tpz1 that causes critical telomere shortening despite telomeric accumulation of the telomerase catalytic subunit, Trt1. Furthermore, Est1-directed telomerase association with Ccq1 is transient, and the Est1-Ccq1 interaction does not remain the bridge between telomeres and telomerase. Rather, direct interaction of Trt1 with Tpz1 is critical for telomere elongation. Moreover, Ccq1, which has been well characterized as a telomerase recruiter, is also required for the activation of telomere-associated telomerase. Our findings reveal a layer of telomerase regulation that controls activity after recruitment. PMID:25131669

Armstrong, Christine Anne; Pearson, Siân Rosanna; Amelina, Hanna; Moiseeva, Vera; Tomita, Kazunori

2014-09-01

335

Heritable yeast prions have a highly organized three-dimensional architecture with interfiber structures  

E-print Network

Yeast prions constitute a “protein-only” mechanism of inheritance that is widely deployed by wild yeast to create diverse phenotypes. One of the best-characterized prions, [PSI+], is governed by a conformational change in ...

Lindquist, Susan

336

Associations of yeasts with spotted-wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii; Diptera: Drosophilidae) in cherries and raspberries.  

PubMed

A rich history of investigation documents various Drosophila-yeast mutualisms, suggesting that Drosophila suzukii similarly has an association with a specific yeast species or community. To discover candidate yeast species, yeasts were isolated from larval frass, adult midguts, and fruit hosts of D. suzukii. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) technology and decimal dilution plating were used to identify and determine the relative abundance of yeast species present in fruit juice samples that were either infested with D. suzukii or not infested. Yeasts were less abundant in uninfested than infested samples. A total of 126 independent yeast isolates were cultivated from frass, midguts, and fruit hosts of D. suzukii, representing 28 species of yeasts, with Hanseniaspora uvarum predominating. This suggests an association between D. suzukii and H. uvarum that could be utilized for pest management of the highly pestiferous D. suzukii. PMID:22582060

Hamby, Kelly A; Hernández, Alejandro; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Zalom, Frank G

2012-07-01

337

Associations of Yeasts with Spotted-Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii; Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Cherries and Raspberries  

PubMed Central

A rich history of investigation documents various Drosophila-yeast mutualisms, suggesting that Drosophila suzukii similarly has an association with a specific yeast species or community. To discover candidate yeast species, yeasts were isolated from larval frass, adult midguts, and fruit hosts of D. suzukii. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) technology and decimal dilution plating were used to identify and determine the relative abundance of yeast species present in fruit juice samples that were either infested with D. suzukii or not infested. Yeasts were less abundant in uninfested than infested samples. A total of 126 independent yeast isolates were cultivated from frass, midguts, and fruit hosts of D. suzukii, representing 28 species of yeasts, with Hanseniaspora uvarum predominating. This suggests an association between D. suzukii and H. uvarum that could be utilized for pest management of the highly pestiferous D. suzukii. PMID:22582060

Hernández, Alejandro; Zalom, Frank G.

2012-01-01

338

Inventions on baker's yeast storage and activation at the bakery plant.  

PubMed

Baker's yeast is the gas-forming ingredient in bakery products. Methods have been invented to properly handle baker's yeast and optimize its activity at the bakery plant. Over the years, incentives for inventions on yeast storage and activation have greatly changed depending on trends in the baking industry. For example, retailer's devices for cutting bulk pressed yeast and techniques for activating dry yeast have now lost their importance. Review of patents for invention indicates that activation of baker's yeast activity has been a very important issue for bakers, for example, with baking ingredients called yeast foods. In the recent years and especially for highly automated bakeries, interest has moved to equipments and processes for optimized storage of liquid cream yeast to thoroughly control dough fermentation and bread quality. PMID:20653548

Gélinas, Pierre

2010-01-01

339

RNA Methylation by the MIS Complex Regulates a Cell Fate Decision in Yeast  

E-print Network

For the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient limitation is a key developmental signal causing diploid cells to switch from yeast-form budding to either foraging pseudohyphal (PH) growth or meiosis and sporulation. ...

Agarwala, Sundeep

340

Budding yeast cell cycle analysis and morphological characterization by automated image analysis  

E-print Network

Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a standard model system for analyzing cellular response as it is related to the cell cycle. The analysis of yeast cell cycle is typically done visually or by using flow cytometry. ...

Perley, Elizabeth (Elizabeth Bacher)

2011-01-01

341

Prions are a common mechanism for phenotypic inheritance in wild yeasts  

E-print Network

The self-templating conformations of yeast prion proteins act as epigenetic elements of inheritance. Yeast prions might provide a mechanism for generating heritable phenotypic diversity that promotes survival in fluctuating ...

Halfmann, Randal

342

In vivo unnatural amino acid expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris  

SciTech Connect

The invention provides orthogonal translation systems for the production of polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris. Methods for producing polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris are also provided.

Young, Travis [San Diego, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

2014-02-11

343

Antifungal chitinase against human pathogenic yeasts from Coprinellus congregatus.  

PubMed

The inky cap, Coprinellus congregatus, produces mushrooms which become autolyzed rapidly to generate black liquid droplets, in which no cell wall is detected by microscopy. A chitinase (Chi2) which is synthesized during the autolytic phase of C. congregatus inhibits the growths of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans up to 10% at the concentration of 10 ?g/ml, about 50% at concentration of 20 ?g/ml, and up to 95% at the concentration of 70 ?g/ml. Upon treatment these yeast cells are observed to be severely deformed, with the formation of large holes in the cell wall. The two yeast species show no growth inhibition at the concentration of 5 ?g/ml, which means the minimum inhibitory concentrations for both yeast species are 10 ?g/ml under these experimental conditions. PMID:24535739

Yoo, Yeeun; Choi, Hyoung T

2014-05-01

344

Yeast PPR proteins, watchdogs of mitochondrial gene expression  

PubMed Central

PPR proteins are a family of ubiquitous RNA-binding factors, found in all the Eukaryotic lineages, and are particularly numerous in higher plants. According to recent bioinformatic analyses, yeast genomes encode from 10 (in S. pombe) to 15 (in S. cerevisiae) PPR proteins. All of these proteins are mitochondrial and very often interact with the mitochondrial membrane. Apart from the general factors, RNA polymerase and RNase P, most yeast PPR proteins are involved in the stability and/or translation of mitochondrially encoded RNAs. At present, some information concerning the target RNA(s) of most of these proteins is available, the next challenge will be to refine our understanding of the function of the proteins and to resolve the yeast PPR-RNA-binding code, which might differ significantly from the plant PPR code. PMID:24184848

Herbert, Christopher J; Golik, Pawel; Bonnefoy, Nathalie

2013-01-01

345

Production and characterization of yeast killer toxin monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies were obtained after fusion of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from mice primed with a crude extract of yeast killer toxin produced by a strain of Hansenula anomala. Hybridomas were selected by specific immunoassay reaction of their fluid with crude yeast killer toxin extract. Among the monoclonal antibodies, which were characterized by the Western blot technique, one (designated KT4) proved to have precipitating properties, thus permitting the neutralization of the killer activity of the toxin. Experiments in double immunodiffusion showed that monoclonal antibody KT4 produced homologous precipitin bands by reacting with either the crude toxin used as immunogen or a toxic extract of Hansenula mrakii. It is suggested that these monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the purification, characterization, and understanding of the bioactions of yeast killer toxins. Images PMID:2434524

Polonelli, L; Morace, G

1987-01-01

346

Yeast Sensors for Novel Drugs: Chloroquine and Others Revealed  

PubMed Central

In this study the mitochondrion is regarded as a target to reveal compounds that may be used to combat various diseases. Consequently, the sexual structures of yeasts (with high mitochondrial activity) were identified as sensors to screen for various anti-mitochondrial drugs that may be toxic to humans and that are directed, amongst others, against fungal diseases and cancer. Strikingly, these sensors indicated that chloroquine is a potent pro-mitochondrial drug which stimulated yeast sexual reproduction. In addition, these sensors also showed that some Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anti-malarial drugs, antifungal and anticancer drugs are anti-mitochondrial. These yeast sensor bio-assays may fast track studies aimed at discovering new drugs as well as their mechanisms and should now be further evaluated for selectivity towards anti-/ pro-mitochondrials, fertility drugs and contraceptives, using in vitro, in vivo, in silico and omics research. PMID:23201985

Swart, Chantel; Olivier, Andries; Dithebe, Khumisho; Pohl, Carolina; van Wyk, Pieter; Swart, Hendrik; Coetsee, Elizabeth; Kock, Lodewyk

2012-01-01

347

Immobilization of "Disguised" yeast in chemically crosslinked chitosan beads.  

PubMed

A new simple method for the preparation of chemically crosslinked chitosan beads is presented. It consists of the dropwise addition of 2-3% (w/v) low molecular weight chitosan solution containing 2% (w/v) glyoxal in 1% (w/v) tetrasodiumdiphosphate, pH 8.0. Immobilized viable baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) could be obtained via gel entrapment within the new beads when means preventing their direct contact with soluble chitosan were provided, "disguising" the cells until gelation and crosslinking were completed. Such means included cell suspension in castor oil or mixing with carboxymethyl-cellulose powder. Application of these means was shown to be necessary, as cells exposed to soluble chitosan immediately lost their viability and glycolytic activity. Yeast disguised in castor oil was also protected from bead reinforcement by glutaraldehyde treatment, significantly strengthening bead stability while operating under acidic conditions. This capability was demonstrated by continuous ethanol production by chitosan entrapped yeast. PMID:18623025

Freeman, A; Dror, Y

1994-11-01

348

Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.  

PubMed

Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25267117

Nedovi?, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjevi?, V; Kaluševi?, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovi?ová, D; Yilmaztekin, M

2015-01-01

349

Synthetic Biology for Engineering Acetyl Coenzyme A Metabolism in Yeast  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used cell factory for the production of fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The use of this cell factory for cost-efficient production of novel fuels and chemicals requires high yields and low by-product production. Many industrially interesting chemicals are biosynthesized from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which serves as a central precursor metabolite in yeast. To ensure high yields in production of these chemicals, it is necessary to engineer the central carbon metabolism so that ethanol production is minimized (or eliminated) and acetyl-CoA can be formed from glucose in high yield. Here the perspective of generating yeast platform strains that have such properties is discussed in the context of a major breakthrough with expression of a functional pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol. PMID:25370498

2014-01-01

350

The Ecology of Yeasts in the Bark Beetle Holobiont: A Century of Research Revisited.  

PubMed

Yeasts are extremely common associates of scolytine bark beetles, yet the basic ecology of yeasts in the bark beetle holobiont remains poorly understood. Yeasts are present in all beetle life stages and consistently isolated from adult, larval, and pupal integuments and mycangial structures, but yeasts are also found in oviposition galleries, pupal chambers, larval and adult digestive tracts, as well as phloem and xylem tissues. Yeasts in the Saccharomycetaceae family are the most prevalent associates, and most individual beetles are associated with only one or several yeast species. Kuraishia capsulata and Ogataea pini are the most commonly encountered yeast species in surveys of Dendroctonus and Ips beetles; most beetles that have been surveyed are vectors for one or both yeasts. Yeasts have significant but often overlooked functional roles in bark beetle ecology. Infochemicals resulting from volatile production by yeast have wide-ranging bioactivity for arthropods: Yeast emissions attract beetles at low concentrations but repel beetles at high concentrations, and yeast emissions can also serve as cues to predators and parasites of bark beetles. In some cases, yeasts can modify tree chemistry over time or metabolize toxic terpenoids, though potential consequences for beetle performance or the growth of nutritional fungi remain to be demonstrated. Also, the presence of yeast species can restrict or promote the establishment and growth of filamentous fungi, including mutualists, entomopathogens, and opportunistic saprophytes. The role of yeasts as nutritional symbionts has received mixed support, though a nutritional hypothesis has not been extensively tested. Continued research on the functional ecology of bark beetle-yeast associations is needed to better understand the emergent properties of these complex symbiont assemblages. PMID:25117532

Davis, Thomas Seth

2014-08-13

351

Removal of lead from solution using non-living residual brewery yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of preparations of residual non-living brewery yeast were examined for their ability to remove lead from solution. Those preparations included washed and un-washed intact yeast and washed and un-washed homogenates of the yeast cells. Using biosorption isotherm analysis it was found that the washed and un-washed preparations of intact, non-living yeast exhibited maximum biosorption capacities for lead of

C. Riordan; A. P. McHale

1998-01-01

352

Identification and characterization of yeast isolated from the elaboration of seasoned green table olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the yeast population during the processing of green table olives. In the fresh olives, yeast were found at concentrations of around 3.0logcfu\\/g, with Cryptococcus spp. being predominant. In the brine, the yeast concentrations were greater than 4.9logcfu\\/ml, with Pichia anomala, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae being the predominant species. Unlike the yeast

Alejandro Hernández; Alberto Martín; Emilio Aranda; Francisco Pérez-Nevado; María G. Córdoba

2007-01-01

353

Fermentative lifestyle in yeasts belonging to the Saccharomyces complex.  

PubMed

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is characterized by its ability to: (a) degrade glucose or fructose to ethanol, even in the presence of oxygen (Crabtree effect); (b) grow in the absence of oxygen; and (c) generate respiratory-deficient mitochondrial mutants, so-called petites. How unique are these properties among yeasts in the Saccharomyces clade, and what is their origin? Recent progress in genome sequencing has elucidated the phylogenetic relationships among yeasts in the Saccharomyces complex, providing a framework for the understanding of the evolutionary history of several modern traits. In this study, we analyzed over 40 yeasts that reflect over 150 million years of evolutionary history for their ability to ferment, grow in the absence of oxygen, and generate petites. A great majority of isolates exhibited good fermentation ability, suggesting that this trait could already be an intrinsic property of the progenitor yeast. We found that lineages that underwent the whole-genome duplication, in general, exhibit a fermentative lifestyle, the Crabtree effect, and the ability to grow without oxygen, and can generate stable petite mutants. Some of the pre-genome duplication lineages also exhibit some of these traits, but a majority of the tested species are petite-negative, and show a reduced Crabtree effect and a reduced ability to grow in the absence of oxygen. It could be that the ability to accumulate ethanol in the presence of oxygen, a gradual independence from oxygen and/or the ability to generate petites were developed later in several lineages. However, these traits have been combined and developed to perfection only in the lineage that underwent the whole-genome duplication and led to the modern Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. PMID:17239085

Merico, Annamaria; Sulo, Pavol; Piskur, Jure; Compagno, Concetta

2007-02-01

354

Phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts.  

PubMed

Currently, pursuing yeast strains that display both a high potential fitness for alcoholic fermentation and a favorable impact on quality is a major goal in the alcoholic beverage industry. This considerable industrial interest has led to many studies characterizing the phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial yeast populations. In this study, 20 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins exhibited high phenotypic diversity when their response to nine biotechnologically relevant conditions was examined. Next, the fermentation fitness and metabolic traits of eight selected strains with a unique phenotypic profile were evaluated in a high-sugar synthetic medium under two nitrogen regimes. Although the strains exhibited significant differences in nitrogen requirements and utilization rates, a direct relationship between nitrogen consumption, specific growth rate, cell biomass, cell viability, acetic acid and glycerol formation was only observed under high-nitrogen conditions. In contrast, the strains produced more succinic acid under the low-nitrogen regime, and a direct relationship with the final cell biomass was established. Glucose and fructose utilization patterns depended on both yeast strain and nitrogen availability. For low-nitrogen fermentation, three strains did not fully degrade the fructose. This study validates phenotypic and metabolic diversity among commercial wine yeasts and contributes new findings on the relationship between nitrogen availability, yeast cell growth and sugar utilization. We suggest that measuring nitrogen during the stationary growth phase is important because yeast cells fermentative activity is not exclusively related to population size, as previously assumed, but it is also related to the quantity of nitrogen consumed during this growth phase. PMID:24949272

Barbosa, Catarina; Lage, Patrícia; Vilela, Alice; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

2014-01-01

355

Yeast identification in floral nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nectar is such a sugar-rich resource that serves as a natural habitat in which microbes thrive. As a result, yeasts arrive to nectar on the bodies of pollinators such as hummingbirds and bees. Yeasts use the sugar in nectar for their own needs when introduced. This research focuses on the identification of different types of yeast that are found in the nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (commonly known as sticky monkey-flower). Unopened Mimulus aurantiacus flower buds were tagged at Jasper Ridge and bagged three days later. Floral nectar was then extracted and plated on potato dextrose agar. Colonies on the plates were isolated and DNA was extracted from each sample using QIAGEN DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The DNA was amplified through PCR and ran through gel electrophoresis. The PCR product was used to clone the nectar samples into an E.coli vector. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was created by BLAST searching sequences in GenBank using the Internal Transcribed Space (ITS) locus. It was found that 18 of the 50 identified species were Candida magnifica, 14 was Candida rancensis, 6 were Crytococcus albidus and there were 3 or less of the following: Starmella bombicola, Candida floricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Pichia kluyvera, Metschnikowa cibodaserisis, Rhodotorua colostri, and Malassezia globosa. The low diversity of the yeast could have been due to several factors: time of collection, demographics of Jasper Ridge, low variety of pollinators, and sugar concentration of the nectar. The results of this study serve as a necessary first step for a recently started research project on ecological interactions between plants, pollinators, and nectar-living yeast. More generally, this research studies the use of the nectar-living yeast community as a natural microcosm for addressing basic questions about the role of dispersal and competitive and facilitative interactions in ecological succession.

Kyauk, C.; Belisle, M.; Fukami, T.

2009-12-01

356

Phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts  

PubMed Central

Currently, pursuing yeast strains that display both a high potential fitness for alcoholic fermentation and a favorable impact on quality is a major goal in the alcoholic beverage industry. This considerable industrial interest has led to many studies characterizing the phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial yeast populations. In this study, 20 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins exhibited high phenotypic diversity when their response to nine biotechnologically relevant conditions was examined. Next, the fermentation fitness and metabolic traits of eight selected strains with a unique phenotypic profile were evaluated in a high-sugar synthetic medium under two nitrogen regimes. Although the strains exhibited significant differences in nitrogen requirements and utilization rates, a direct relationship between nitrogen consumption, specific growth rate, cell biomass, cell viability, acetic acid and glycerol formation was only observed under high-nitrogen conditions. In contrast, the strains produced more succinic acid under the low-nitrogen regime, and a direct relationship with the final cell biomass was established. Glucose and fructose utilization patterns depended on both yeast strain and nitrogen availability. For low-nitrogen fermentation, three strains did not fully degrade the fructose. This study validates phenotypic and metabolic diversity among commercial wine yeasts and contributes new findings on the relationship between nitrogen availability, yeast cell growth and sugar utilization. We suggest that measuring nitrogen during the stationary growth phase is important because yeast cells fermentative activity is not exclusively related to population size, as previously assumed, but it is also related to the quantity of nitrogen consumed during this growth phase. PMID:24949272

2014-01-01

357

Biosurfactant-producing yeasts isolated from flowering plants and bees.  

PubMed

The yeast strains (n=160) have been isolated from various flowering plants and bees Apis mellifera. Oil-spreading method was used to assay the ability of the isolated yeasts to produce biosurfactants. Five most active strains able to synthesize glycolipid biosurfactants produced the oil-spreading zone with diameter 3.66-50 cm The addition of oleic acid, sunflower oil and octadecane significantly increased biosurfactant activity of the studied strains. Crude biosurfactants produced by the strains Candida sp. 79a and 156a were isolated as ethyl acetate extract and proved to be a mixture of glycolipids by thin-layer chromatography. PMID:24006785

Ianieva, O D

2013-01-01

358

The synthetic biology toolbox for tuning gene expression in yeast.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae can serve as a key production platform for biofuels, nutraceuticals, industrial compounds, and therapeutic proteins. Over the recent years, synthetic biology tools and libraries have expanded in yeast to provide newfound control over regulation and synthetic circuits. This review provides an update on the status of the synthetic biology toolbox in yeast for use as a cell factory. Specifically, we discuss the impact of plasmid selection and composition, promoter, terminator, transcription factor, and aptamer selection. In doing so, we highlight documented interactions between these components, current states of development, and applications that demonstrate the utility of these parts with a particular focus on synthetic gene expression control. PMID:25047958

Redden, Heidi; Morse, Nicholas; Alper, Hal S

2014-07-22

359

RAPD analysis: a rapid technique for differentiation of spoilage yeasts.  

PubMed

Techniques for the identification of the spoilage yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and members of the Zygosaccharomyces genus from food and beverages sources were evaluated. The use of identification systems based on physiological characteristics resulted often in incomplete identification or misidentification. Also the cellular fatty acid analysis failed on differentiating species within the Zygosaccharomyces genus. However, the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay, using selected 10-mer oligonucleotides, allowed discrimination between all species tested. For this RAPD assay, a simple and reproducible method of DNA isolation from spoilage yeast cells is described. PMID:7703018

Baleiras Couto, M M; van der Vossen, J M; Hofstra, H; Huis in 't Veld, J H

1994-12-01

360

Transcriptional regulatory network for sexual differentiation in fission yeast  

E-print Network

promoter, cells were grown in EMM contain- ing 15 ?M thiamine, washed three times in EMM, and incu- bated at 32°C for 18 h. In every experiment, RNA extracted from cells overexpressing a particular transcription factor was compared with RNA from cells... chromatids is ensured by two distinct mechanisms at the first meiotic division in fission yeast. EMBO J 2003, 22:2284-2296. 19. Maundrell K: Thiamine-repressible expression vectors pREP and pRIP for fission yeast. Gene 1993, 123:127-130. 20. Bähler J: Cell...

Mata, Juan; Wilbrey, Anna; Bahler, Jurg

2007-10-10

361

Phosphorelay Signaling in Yeast in Response to Changes in Osmolarity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevesiae, phosphorelay signaling systems that involve a three-step His-Asp-His-Asp phosphotransfer are involved in transmitting signals in response to cellular stress. The animation shows one example of such a phosphorelay system involved in yeast responses to changes in osmolarity. Under conditions of low osmolarity, a histidine-aspartate phosphorelay pathway transmits information that deactivates one signaling pathway and activates gene expression through another pathway. In response to high osmolarity, the Sln1 kinase that initiates the phosphorelay is inhibited and the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade is active.

Jennifer L. Santos (University of California Davis; Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Graduate Program REV)

2004-12-07

362

[Selection of thermophilic lactose-fermenting yeast strains].  

PubMed

The screening and selection of lactose-fermenting yeasts among 97 collection yeast strains belonging to different taxonomic groups has been conducted to obtain ethanol from whey. The strains (n=18) (1 strain of K. lactis. 16 strains of K. marxianus and 1 strain of C. kefyr) fermented lactose at 48 degrees C and 15 selected strains rapidly consumed lactose within 24-48 h of cultivation. The presence of 6% of ethanol in the medium resulted in a considerable growth inhibition (more than 80%) of the selected strains. PMID:23293829

Ianeva, O D; Sichkar', S V; Voronina, A A; Podgorski?, V S

2012-01-01

363

Teaching nutritional biochemistry: an experimental approach using yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this report, we present a practical approach to teaching several topics in nutrition to science students at the high school and college freshmen levels. This approach uses baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a biological system model. The diameters of yeast colonies, which vary according to the nutrients present in the medium, can be observed, compared, and used to teach metabolic requirements. The experiments described in this report show simple macroscopic evidence of submicroscopic nutritional events. This can serve as a useful base for an analogy of heterotrophic human cell nutrition.

Manuel Alonso (Universidad de Buenos Aires); Carlos Stella (Universidad de Buenos Aires)

2012-12-01

364

Evaluation of yeast products in fruit fly adult diet and liquid larval diet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several yeasts and yeast products were tested as components of adult diet for Medfly, Ceratitis capitata, Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae and larval liquid diet for Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis in mass rearing process. Three hydrolyzed yeasts ...

365

Ascomycetous yeast communities of marine invertebrates in a Southeast Brazilian mangrove ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ascomycetous yeast communities associated with 3 bivalve mollusk, and 4 crab species were studied in the mangrove at Coroa Grande on Sepetiba Bay in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These were made up mostly of diverse but sparse and apparently allochtonous yeast populations. The striking exception was a prevalent population of the speciesKluyveromyces aestuarii, which predominated the yeast communities of

F. V. Araujo; C. A. G. Soares; A. N. Hagler; L. C. Mendonça-Hagler

1995-01-01

366

Seasonal Dynamics in a Yeast Population on Leaves of the Common Wood Sorrel Oxalis acetosella L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of an epiphytic yeast population on the leaves of the evergreen common wood sorrel Oxalis acetosella L. throughout a year showed that the density and the species composition of this population underwent regular seasonal changes. There were almost no yeasts on the young spring leaves. However, the yeast population on the mature leaves tended to increase in the autumn,

A. M. Glushakova; I. Yu. Chernov

2004-01-01

367

The beetle gut: a hyperdiverse source of novel yeasts Sung-Oui SUH1  

E-print Network

The beetle gut: a hyperdiverse source of novel yeasts Sung-Oui SUH1 , Joseph V. McHUGH2 , David D over 650 yeasts over a three year period from the gut of a variety of beetles and characterized them more species as are currently known worldwide. The beetle gut yeasts occur in 45 independent lineages

Pollock, David

368

A Comparative Study of the Cell Wall Structure of Basidiomycetous and Related Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wall of basidiomycetous and related yeasts showed a lamellar structure in sections of both budding cells and hyphae fixed with potassium permanganate. The yeasts also had a typical way of bud formation and septation. These features differ from those recorded for ascomycetous yeasts. In the hyphae of some species septal pores were observed which were either dolipores or simple

N. J. W. Kreger-van Rij; M. Veenhuis

1971-01-01

369

Dry amyloid fibril assembly in a yeast prion peptide is mediated by long-lived structures  

E-print Network

Dry amyloid fibril assembly in a yeast prion peptide is mediated by long-lived structures sequences using two amyloidogenic peptides, one a polar sequence from the N terminus of the yeast prion Sup interface formation characterizes protofilament assembly in the yeast prions. Indeed, as the two sheets

Thirumalai, Devarajan

370

fluctuating structures A natively unfolded yeast prion monomer adopts an ensemble of collapsed and rapidly  

E-print Network

fluctuating structures A natively unfolded yeast prion monomer adopts an ensemble of collapsed reprints, see: Notes: #12;A natively unfolded yeast prion monomer adopts an ensemble of collapsed Lindquist, December 22, 2006 (sent for review December 5, 2006) The yeast prion protein Sup35

Lindquist, Susan

371

Crystal structure of the protein kinase domain of yeast AMP-activated protein kinase Snf1  

E-print Network

Crystal structure of the protein kinase domain of yeast AMP-activated protein kinase Snf1 Michael J of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD by phosphatases. AMPK is found in all eukaryotes. Yeast AMPK is more commonly known as SNF1 [1,6,7]. SNF1 has

Tong, Liang

372

Kinetic mechanism of yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase  

SciTech Connect

The kinetic mechanism of yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) was examined by carrying out initial velocity studies. Ca2+ and Rh(H/sub 2/O)4(methylenediphosphonate) (Rh(H/sub 2/O)4PCP) were used as dead-end inhibitors to study the order of binding of Cr(H/sub 2/O)4PP to the substrate site and Mg2+ to the low affinity activator site on the enzyme. Competitive inhibition was observed for Ca2+ vs Mg2+ (Kis = 0.93 +/- 0.03 mM), for Rh(H/sub 2/O)4PCP vs Cr(H/sub 2/O)4PP (Kis = 0.25 +/- 0.07 mM), and for RH(H/sub 2/O)4PCP vs Mg2+ (Kis = 0.38 +/- 0.03 mM). Uncompetitive inhibition was observed for Ca2+ vs Cr(H/sub 2/O)4PP (Kii = 0.49 +/- 0.01). On the basis of these results a rapid equilibrium ordered mechanism in which Cr(H/sub 2/O)4PP binding precedes Mg2+ ion binding is proposed. The inert substrate analog, Mg(imidodiphosphate) (MgPNP) was shown to induce Mg2+ inhibition of the PPase-catalyzed hydrolysis of MgPP. The Mg2+ inhibition observed was competitive vs MgPP and partial. These results suggest that Mg2+/MgPNP release from the enzyme occurs in preferred rather than strict order and that the Mg2+/MgPP-binding steps are at steady state. Zn2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ (but not Mg2+) displayed activator inhibition of the PPase-catalyzed hydrolysis of PPi and of Cr(H/sub 2/O)4PP. These findings suggest that cofactor release from the low affinity cofactor site on the enzyme must precede product release and that Zn2+, Mn2+, and Co2+ (but not Mg2+) have high affinities for the cofactor sites on both the PPase.M.MPP and PPase.M.M(P)2 complexes. The role of the metal cofactor in determining PPase substrate specificity was briefly explored by testing the ability of the Mg2+ complex of tripolyphosphate (PPPi) (a substrate for the Zn2+-activated enzyme but not the Mg2+-activated enzyme) to induce Mg2+ inhibition of PPase-catalyzed hydrolysis of MgPP.

Barry, R.J.; Dunaway-Mariano, D.

1987-11-15

373

Increasing alcohol yield by selected yeast fermentation of sweet sorghum. I. Evaluation of yeast strains for ethanol production  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted for the purpose of evaluating and selecting yeast strains for their ability to produce ethanol using sweet sorghum juice as the substrate. Stalks of sweet sorghum were obtained by cutting off the tops and stripping away the leaves. Fermentation media were prepared by diluting or adding dextrose to the sorghum juice to give a sugar concentration of either 10% (w/v) or 20% (w/v). All yeast strains were first tested in 10% (w/v) total sugar medium. Those strains showing more than 90% sugar conversion efficiency were further tested in 20% (w/v) total sugar medium. Active cultures for inoculation were prepared by growing the yeast strains on the fermentation medium (10% (w/v) total sugar) for 24 h. Then the cultures were added to the fermentation media at a rate of 2%.

de Mancilha, I.M.; Pearson, A.M.; Waller, J.; Hogaboam, G.J.

1984-01-01

374

Kefir-yeast technology: Industrial scale-up of alcoholic fermentation of whey, promoted by raisin extracts, using kefir-yeast granular biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial scale-up of whey fermentation, promoted by raisin extracts, using free kefir-yeast cells is reported. The fermented whey would be exploited as raw material to produce kefir-like whey-based drinks, potable and fuel alcohol, as well as kefir-yeast biomass for use as baker's yeast. The scale-up process involved the development of a technology transfer scheme from lab-scale experiments to a successive

Athanasios A. Koutinas; Ilias Athanasiadis; Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Maria Kanellaki; Nikolaos Agouridis; Georgios Blekas

2007-01-01

375

Identification of a possible MAP kinase cascade in Arabidopsis thaliana based on pairwise yeast two-hybrid analysis and functional complementation tests of yeast mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade of Arabidopsis thaliana was identified on the basis of both yeast 2-hybrid analysis and complementation analysis of yeast mutants. Specific protein-protein interactions between ATMPK4 (a MAPK) and MEK1 (a MAPKK) and interactions between MEK1 and ATMEKK1 (a MAPKKK) were detected by using the 2-hybrid system. A growth defect of the yeast mpk1? mutant was

Tsuyoshi Mizoguchi; Kazuya Ichimura; Kenji Irie; Peter Morris; Jérôme Giraudat; Kunihiro Matsumoto; Kazuo Shinozaki

1998-01-01

376

Using fungi and yeasts to manage vegetable crop diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable crops are grown worldwide as a source of nutrients and fiber in the human diet. Fungal plant pathogens can cause devastation in these crops under appropriate environmental conditions. Vegetable producers confronted with the challenges of managing fungal pathogens have the opportunity to use fungi and yeasts as biological control agents. Several commercially available products have shown significant disease reduction

Zamir K. Punja; Raj S. Utkhede

2003-01-01

377

Succinic Acid Synthesis by Ethanol-Grown Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The synthesis of succinic acid in ethanol-containing media has been tested in 32 yeasts of different genera (Debaryomyces, Candida, Pichia, Saccharomyces, Torulopsis). The capability of succinic acid synthesis was revealed in 29 strains, from which two most effective produ- cers were selected. When grown in a fermentor under high aeration in mineral medium with pulsed addition of ethanol, the

Svetlana V. Kamzolova; Alsu I. Yusupova; Emiliya G. Dedyukhina; Tatiana I. Chistyakova; Tatiana M. Kozyreva; Igor G. Morgunov

2009-01-01

378

MAP kinase pathways in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cascade of three protein kinases known as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is commonly found as part of the signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. Almost two decades of genetic and biochemical experimentation plus the recently completed DNA sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome have revealed just five functionally distinct MAPK cascades in this yeast. Sexual conjugation, cell growth, and adaptation to stress, for example, all require MAPK-mediated cellular responses. A primary function of these cascades appears to be the regulation of gene expression in response to extracellular signals or as part of specific developmental processes. In addition, the MAPK cascades often appear to regulate the cell cycle and vice versa. Despite the success of the gene hunter era in revealing these pathways, there are still many significant gaps in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms for activation of these cascades and how the cascades regulate cell function. For example, comparison of different yeast signaling pathways reveals a surprising variety of different types of upstream signaling proteins that function to activate a MAPK cascade, yet how the upstream proteins actually activate the cascade remains unclear. We also know that the yeast MAPK pathways regulate each other and interact with other signaling pathways to produce a coordinated pattern of gene expression, but the molecular mechanisms of this cross talk are poorly understood. This review is therefore an attempt to present the current knowledge of MAPK pathways in yeast and some directions for future research in this area.

Gustin, M. C.; Albertyn, J.; Alexander, M.; Davenport, K.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

379

The Yeast Exosome Functions as a Macromolecular Cage to Channel  

E-print Network

The Yeast Exosome Functions as a Macromolecular Cage to Channel RNA Substrates for Degradation.cell.2009.08.042 SUMMARY The exosome is a conserved macromolecular com- plex essential for RNA degradation. The nine-subunit core of the eukaryotic exosome shares a similar barrel-like architecture with prokaryotic

Bedwell, David M.

380

Trehalose in yeast, stress protectant rather than reserve carbohydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trehalose and glycogen are generally regarded as the two main reserve carbohydrates in yeast. However, several lines of evidence suggest that trehalose does not primarily function as a reserve but as a highly efficient protecting agent to maintain strutural integrity of the cytoplasm under environmental stress conditions.

Andres Wiemken

1990-01-01

381

Chromosome condensation and sister chromatid pairing in budding yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a fluorescent in situ hy- bridization (FISH) method to examine the structure of both natural chromosomes and small artificial chromo- somes during the mitotic cycle of budding yeast. Our results suggest that the pairing of sister chromatids: (a) occurs near the centromere and at multiple places along the chromosome arm as has been observed in other eukaryotic

Vincent Guacci; Eileen Hogan; Douglas Koshland

1994-01-01

382

Purification and partial characterization of a flocculin from brewer's yeast.  

PubMed Central

Analysis of a shear supernatant from flocculent, "fimbriated" Saccharomyces cerevisiae brewer's yeast cells revealed the presence of a protein involved in flocculation of the yeast cells and therefore designated a flocculin. The molecular mass of the flocculin was estimated to be over 300 kDa, as judged from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel permeation chromatography of the flocculin yielded an aggregate with an apparent molecular weight of > 2,000. The flocculin was found to be protease sensitive, and the sequence of its 16 N-terminal amino acids revealed at least 69% identity with the predicted N terminus of the putative protein encoded by the flocculation gene FLO1. The flocculin was isolated from flocculent S. cerevisiae cells, whereas only a low amount of flocculin, if any, could be isolated from nonflocculent cells. The flocculin was found to stimulate the flocculation ability of flocculent yeast cells without displaying lectinlike activity (that is, the ability to agglutinate yeast cells). Images PMID:8085818

Straver, M H; Smit, G; Kijne, J W

1994-01-01

383

Snowdrift game dynamics and facultative cheating in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of cooperation is a central challenge to our understanding of evolution. The fact that microbial interactions can be manipulated in ways that animal interactions cannot has led to a growing interest in microbial models of cooperation and competition. For the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to grow on sucrose, the disaccharide must first be hydrolysed by the enzyme invertase.

Jeff Gore; Hyun Youk; Alexander van Oudenaarden

2009-01-01

384

INVESTIGATION Natural Variation in the Yeast Glucose-Signaling  

E-print Network

of respiration, is a hallmark of budding yeast's glucose response and a model for the Warburg effect in human-Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ABSTRACT The Crabtree effect, in which fermentative metabolism is preferred at the expense-characterized roles in the Crabtree effect, little function for the related Mig3p transcription factor has been

Gasch, Audrey P.

385

Genome Sequence of the Yeast Cyberlindnera fabianii (Hansenula fabianii)  

PubMed Central

The yeast Cyberlindnera fabianii is used in wastewater treatment, fermentation of alcoholic beverages, and has caused blood infections. To assist in the accurate identification of this species, and to determine the genetic basis for properties involved in fermentation and water treatment, we sequenced and annotated the genome of C. fabianii (YJS4271). PMID:25103752

Freel, Kelle C.; Sarilar, Véronique; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Devillers, Hugo; Friedrich, Anne

2014-01-01

386

Adherence and penetration of vascular endothelium by Candida yeasts.  

PubMed Central

Metastatic infection after hematogenous dissemination of Candida species is presumably dependent on the fungus traversing the vascular endothelium. An in vitro model of the earliest events of metastatic Candida infection was developed with whole vascular strips. Freshly obtained porcine blood vessels were secured in a perforated Lucite template that allowed the application of yeasts directly to the endothelial surface. Multiple wells allowed experimental and control observations on the same vascular segments. Adherence to endothelium was greatest with Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, less with Candida Krusei, and least with Candida parapsilosis, Candida pseudotropicalis, and Torulopsis glabrata. This hierarchy of adherence parallels that in other in vitro systems employing mucosal epithelial cells or fibrin-platelet matrixes and reflects the known virulence of the respective species and their potential for hematogenous dissemination. C. albicans and C. tropicalis yeasts that adhered were capable of directly traversing the endothelial surface before the production of germ tubes. Heat or Formalin-killed yeasts and viridans group streptococci, although adherent, were incapable of vascular penetration, a process presumably attributable to enzymatic digestion of host tissue. Loss of integrity of penetrated endothelial tissue was verified by loss of dye exclusion, lactic dehydrogenase release, and ultramicroscopic changes. These two steps, adherence and penetration, provide direct insight into the earliest events in hematogenous Candida species dissemination and suggest that C. albicans and C. tropicalis yeasts are capable of initiating tissue invasion before germ tubes have had the opportunity to form and participate in the invasive process. Images PMID:6352500

Klotz, S A; Drutz, D J; Harrison, J L; Huppert, M

1983-01-01

387

Moulds and yeasts in fruit salads and fruit juices.  

PubMed

Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruit juice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts at levels ranging from <2.0 to 9.72 log10 of colony forming units per gram (cfu/g). Frequently encountered yeasts were Pichia spp., Candida pulcherrima, C. lambica, C. sake, Rhodotorula spp., and Debaryomyces polymorphus. Low numbers of Penicillium spp. were found in pineapple salads, whereas Cladosporium spp. were present in mixed fruit and cut strawberry salads. Twenty-two per cent of the fruit juice samples tested showed fungal contamination. Yeasts were the predominant contaminants ranging from <1.0 to 6.83 log10 cfu/ml. Yeasts commonly found in fruit juices were C. lambica, C. sake, and Rhodotorula rubra. Geotrichum spp. and low numbers of Penicillium and Fusarium spp. (1.70 and 1.60 log10 cfu/ml, respectively) were present in grapefruit juice. PMID:16943069

Tournas, V H; Heeres, J; Burgess, L

2006-10-01

388

Genetic control of cell size at cell division in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A temperature-sensitive mutant strain of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been isolated which divides at half the size of the wild type. Study of this strain suggests that there is a cell size control over DNA synthesis and a second control acting on nuclear division.

P. Nurse; R. K. Mortimer; J. Culotti; M. Culotti

1975-01-01

389

Physiology of yeasts in relation to biomass yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stoichiometric limit to the biomass yield (maximal assimilation of the carbon source) is determined by the amount of CO2 lost in anabolism and the amount of carbon source required for generation of NADPH. This stoichiometric limit may be reached when yeasts utilize formate as an additional energy source. Factors affecting the biomass yield on single substrates are discussed under

Cornelis Verduyn

1991-01-01

390

Molecular and phenotypic identification of the yeast pathogen Candida dubliniensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida dubliniensis is an emerging yeast pathogen generally misclassified as Candida albicans by standard diagnostic procedures. This study examined the efficiency of molecular identification, based on a discriminative PCR test, in a prospective study on the prevalence of C. dubliniensis among 103 oropharyngeal isolates from HIV-infected individuals or transplant recipients, and 30 vaginal isolates. All of the isolates had been

Oliver Kurzai; Hans-Christian Korting; Dag Harmsen; Wilfried Bautsch; Michael Molitor; Matthias Frosch; Fritz A. Mühlschlegel

2000-01-01

391

A Simple Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Active Transport in Yeast Cells.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple laboratory activity illustrating the chemiosmotic principles of active transport in yeast cells. Demonstrates the energy coupling mechanism of active a-glucoside uptake by Saccaromyces cerevisiae cells with a colorimetric transport assay using very simple equipment. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

Stambuk, Boris U.

2000-01-01

392

Yeast autolytic mutants potentially useful for sparkling wine production.  

PubMed

A selection method, based on a temperature-sensitive autolytic phenotype, has been used to genetically improve a second fermentation Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain by UV mutagenesis. The mutations carried by the resulting strains affected cell morphology, growth kinetics, sporulation and the release of nitrogenous compounds in an accelerated autolysis experimental model. Their fermentation power was not severely impaired. PMID:12781950

Gonzalez, R; Martinez-Rodriguez, A J; Carrascosa, A V

2003-07-15

393

Up-to-date catalogues of yeast protein complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold standard datasets on protein complexes are key to inferring and validating protein-protein inter- actions. Despite much progress in characterizing protein complexes in the yeast Saccharomyces cer- evisiae, numerous researchers still use as reference the manually curated complexes catalogued by the Munich Information Center of Protein Sequences database. Although this catalogue has served the community extremely well, it no longer

Shuye Pu; Jessica Wong; Brian Turner; Emerson Cho; Shoshana J. Wodak

2008-01-01

394

Method for using a yeast alpha-amylase promoter  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

Gao, Johnway (Richland, WA); Skeen, Rodney S. (Pendleton, OR); Hooker, Brian S. (Kennewick, WA); Anderson, Daniel B. (Pasco, WA)

2003-04-22

395

Selective Gene Expression in Multigene Families from Yeast to Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cell identity is the direct consequence of the genes expressed. This STKE Review highlights the diverse mechanisms that cells use to achieve exclusive gene expression. The details of the molecular mechanism underlying yeast mating-type switching are compared and contrasted with the mechanisms involved in immunoglobulin gene expression and odorant receptor gene expression in mammals.

Jacob Z. Dalgaard (Marie Curie Research Institute; REV)

2004-10-26

396

Untangling the web of functional and physical interactions in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of an integrated network of over 150,000 functional and physical interactions in yeast suggests that the network\\u000a can be hierarchically decomposed into themes and thematic maps. This decomposition can be used to explore the organizational\\u000a principles of integrated biological networks within cells.

Markus J Herrgård; Bernhard Ø Palsson

2005-01-01

397

Transcriptional regulatory network for sexual differentiation in fission yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Changes in gene expression are hallmarks of cellular differentiation. Sexual differentiation in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) provides a model system for gene expression programs accompanying and driving cellular specialization. The expression of hundreds of genes is modulated in successive waves during meiosis and sporulation in S. pombe, and several known transcription factors are critical for these processes. RESULTS: We

Juan Mata; Anna Wilbrey; Jürg Bähler

2007-01-01

398

Evolutionary rates and centrality in the yeast gene regulatory network  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Transcription factors play a fundamental role in regulating physiological responses and developmental processes. Here we examine the evolution of the yeast transcription factors in the context of the structure of the gene regulatory network. RESULTS: In contrast to previous results for the protein-protein interaction and metabolic networks, we find that the position of a gene within the transcription

Richard Jovelin; Patrick C Phillips

2009-01-01

399

Lithium acetate transformation of yeast Maitreya Dunham August 2004  

E-print Network

Lithium acetate transformation of yeast Maitreya Dunham August 2004 Original protocol from Katja until the OD600 is around 0.7-0.8 (~7 hours). Spin down the cells. Resuspend in 5 ml lithium acetate mix. Spin. Resuspend in 0.5 ml lithium acetate mix. Transfer to an eppendorf tube. Incubate 60 minutes

Dunham, Maitreya

400

Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion  

PubMed Central

Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256?g/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health. PMID:24031889

Gomes, Bruno Severo; Siqueira, Ana Beatriz Sotero; de Cássia Carvalho Maia, Rita; Giampaoli, Viviana; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; de Lima, Adriana Nunes; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

2012-01-01

401

Yeast Genomic Library Genomic DNA Sau3AI partial digestion  

E-print Network

Yeast Genomic Library Concept: Genomic DNA ­ Sau3AI partial digestion Vector DNA ­ BamHI full digestion partial Ligate and transform above products Vector Information: · use centromeric plasmid to avoid of the mcs Preparing Vector: 1) digest 3-4ug of library vector with BamHI for 2-4hrs in a total volume of 20

Odorizzi, Greg

402

Some Experiments with Respiratory Deficient Mutants of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods are described for the induction and identification of respiratory deficient mutants in yeast. Practical schemes are given to enable students to obtain dose-response information for physical and chemical mutagens such as heat, ultraviolet light, or acriflavine. A simple test for environmental mutagens is described. (Author/MA)

Freeland, P. W.

1978-01-01

403

Extracellular protease from the antarctic yeast Candida humicola.  

PubMed Central

The psychrotrophic, dimorphic yeast Candida humicola, isolated from Antarctic soil, secretes an acidic protease into the medium. The secretion of this protease by C. humicola was found to be dependent on the composition of the medium. In YPD or yeast nitrogen base medium containing either amino acids or ammonium sulfate as the nitrogen source, the activity of the protease in the medium was low (basal level). However, when yeast nitrogen base medium was depleted of amino acids or ammonium sulfate and supplemented with proteins, the activity of the enzyme increased. The secretion of the enzyme was greater during exponential growth at low temperatures than during growth at higher temperatures. The purified protease had a molecular mass of 36,000 Da and was inhibited by pepstatin, iodoacetamide, and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Despite the prevalent cold temperatures in Antarctica, this extracellular protease of the psychrotrophic yeast C. humicola was active at temperatures ranging from 0 to 45 degrees C, with an optimum activity at 37 degrees C. Images PMID:1622266

Ray, M K; Devi, K U; Kumar, G S; Shivaji, S

1992-01-01

404

Early Replication of Short Telomeres in Budding Yeast  

E-print Network

Early Replication of Short Telomeres in Budding Yeast Alessandro Bianchi1, * and David Shore1 1.bianchi@molbio.unige.ch DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.041 SUMMARY The maintenance of an appropriate number of telomere repeats by telomerase is essential for proper chromosome protection. The action of telomerase at the telomere terminus

Halazonetis, Thanos

405

Telomere-Led Premeiotic Chromosome Movement in Fission Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement of chromosomes that precedes meiosis was observed in living cells of fission yeast by fluorescence microscopy. Further analysis by in situ hybridization revealed that the telomeres remain clustered at the leading end of premeiotic chromosome movement, unlike mitotic chromosome movement in which the centromere leads. Once meiotic chromosome segregation starts, however, centromeres resumed the leading position in chromosome

Yuji Chikashige; Da-Qiao Ding; Hironori Funabiki; Tokuko Haraguchi; Shinro Mashiko; Mitsuhiro Yanagida; Yasushi Hiraoka

1994-01-01

406

Defective yeast opsonization and C2 deficiency in atopic patients.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-seven per cent of atopic patients initially presenting with infantile eczema or hay fever were defective for yeast opsonization and 18% had low levels of C2; these deficiencies were mutually exclusive, suggesting that they are primary. Both defects were associated with each of four different atopic syndromes, some of which were related to certain HLA haplotypes. PMID:737910

Turner, M W; Mowbray, J F; Harvey, B A; Brostoff, J; Wells, R S; Soothill, J F

1978-01-01

407

Regulation of glycogen metabolism in yeast and bacteria  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms have the capacity to utilize a variety of nutrients and adapt to continuously changing environmental conditions. Many microorganisms, including yeast and bacteria, accumulate carbon and energy reserves to cope with starvation conditions temporarily present in the environment. Glycogen biosynthesis is a main strategy for such metabolic storage and a variety of sensing and signaling mechanisms have evolved in evolutionarily distant species to guarantee the production of this homopolysaccharide. At the most fundamental level, the processes of glycogen synthesis and degradation in yeast and bacteria share certain broad similarities. However, the regulation of these processes is sometimes quite distinct, indicating that they have evolved separately to respond optimally to the habitat conditions of each species. This review aims to highlight the mechanisms, both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, which regulate glycogen metabolism in yeast and bacteria, focusing on selected areas where the greatest increase in knowledge has occurred during the last few years. In the yeast system, we focus particularly on the various signaling pathways that control the activity of the enzymes of glycogen storage. We also discuss our recent understanding of the important role played by the vacuole in glycogen metabolism. In the case of bacterial glycogen, especial emphasis is given to aspects related with genetic regulation of glycogen metabolism and its connection with other biological processes. PMID:20412306

Wilson, Wayne A.; Roach, Peter J.; Montero, Manuel; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Muñoz, Francisco José; Eydallin, Gustavo; Viale, Alejandro M.; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

2010-01-01

408

Mitochondrial fission proteins regulate programmed cell death in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that single-cell organisms undergo programmed cell death has been questioned in part because they lack several key components of the mammalian cell death machinery. However, yeast encode a homolog of human Drp1, a mitochondrial fission protein that was shown previously to promote mammalian cell death and the excessive mitochondrial fragmentation characteristic of apoptotic mammalian cells. In support of

Yihru Fannjiang; Wen-Chih Cheng; Sarah J. Lee; Bing Qi; Jonathan Pevsner; J. Michael McCaffery; R. Blake Hill; Gorka Basañez; J. Marie Hardwick

2004-01-01

409

Isolation of glucanase-containing vesicles from budding yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an investigation of the role of glucanases in modifying yeast cell walls at the location of new buds, vesicles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, which are secreted locally into the cell wall of growing buds, and may be involved in the secretion of glucanases, have been isolated.

M. Cortat; P. Matile; A. Wiemken

1972-01-01

410

The Size of the Nucleus Increases as Yeast Cells Grow  

PubMed Central

It is not known how the volume of the cell nucleus is set, nor how the ratio of nuclear volume to cell volume (N/C) is determined. Here, we have measured the size of the nucleus in growing cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of mutant yeast strains spanning a range of cell sizes revealed that the ratio of average nuclear volume to average cell volume was quite consistent, with nuclear volume being ?7% that of cell volume. At the single cell level, nuclear and cell size were strongly correlated in growing wild-type cells, as determined by three different microscopic approaches. Even in G1-phase, nuclear volume grew, although it did not grow quite as fast as overall cell volume. DNA content did not appear to have any immediate, direct influence on nuclear size, in that nuclear size did not increase sharply during S-phase. The maintenance of nuclear size did not require continuous growth or ribosome biogenesis, as starvation and rapamycin treatment had little immediate impact on nuclear size. Blocking the nuclear export of new ribosomal subunits, among other proteins and RNAs, with leptomycin B also had no obvious effect on nuclear size. Nuclear expansion must now be factored into conceptual and mathematical models of budding yeast growth and division. These results raise questions as to the unknown force(s) that expand the nucleus as yeast cells grow. PMID:17596521

Edgington, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Brandt L.; Rupeš, Ivan

2007-01-01

411

Construction of a lactose-assimilating strain of baker's yeast.  

PubMed

A recombinant strain of baker's yeast has been constructed which can assimilate lactose efficiently. This strain has been designed to allow its propagation in whey, the byproduct resulting from cheese-making. The ability to metabolize lactose is conferred by the functional expression of two genes from Kluyveromyces lactis, LAC12 and LAC4, which encode a lactose permease and a beta-galactosidase, respectively. To make the recombinant strain more acceptable for its use in bread-making, the genetic transformation of the host baker's yeast was carried out with linear fragments of DNA of defined sequence, carrying as the only heterologous material the coding regions of the two K. lactis genes. Growth of the new strain on cheese whey affected neither the quality of bread nor the yeast gassing power. The significance of the newly developed strain is two-fold: it affords a cheap alternative to the procedure generally used for the propagation of baker's yeast, and it offers a profitable use for cheese whey. PMID:10509012

Adam, A C; Prieto, J A; Rubio-Texeira, M; Polaina, J

1999-09-30

412

Integrative model of the response of yeast to osmotic shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of experimental studies with mathematical modeling allows insight into systems properties, prediction of perturbation effects and generation of hypotheses for further research. We present a comprehensive mathematical description of the cellular response of yeast to hyperosmotic shock. The model integrates a biochemical reaction network comprising receptor stimulation, mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade dynamics, activation of gene expression and adaptation of

Bodil Nordlander; Roland Krüger; Peter Gennemark; Edda Klipp; Stefan Hohmann

2005-01-01

413

Metabolic Regulation and Anticancer Drug Resistance in the Yeast  

E-print Network

. It owes its specificity against neoplasms due to the higher rate of nutrient uptake, RNA and DNA synthesis in yeast 14 1.1.1 Haploinsufficiency profiling 15 1.1.2 Homozygous deletion profiling 15 1.1.3 Plasmid arrest and DNA damage 21 3.1 DNA damage and DNA breaks 21 3.2 DNA repair mechanisms and DNA damage

414

Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) -based genome mapping of Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistosoma mansoni has 7 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (ZZ for a male worm and ZW for a female), of a haploid genome size of 2.7 × 108 bp. We initiated the molecular genetic approach for the detailed characterization and understanding of the evolutionary biology of schistosomes. We have constructed a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)-library

Manami Tanaka; Hirohisa Hirai; Philip T. LoVerde; Shigeo Nagafuchi; Glória R. Franco; Andrew J. G. Simpson; Sérgio D. J. Pena

1995-01-01

415

T-2307 Causes Collapse of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Yeast  

PubMed Central

T-2307, an arylamidine compound, has been previously reported to have broad-spectrum in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities against clinically significant pathogens, including Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus species, and is now undergoing clinical trials. Here we investigated the mechanism of action of T-2307 using yeast cells and mitochondria isolated from yeast and rat liver. Nonfermentative growth of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glycerol medium, in which yeasts relied on mitochondrial respiratory function, was inhibited at 0.001 to 0.002 ?g/ml (0.002 to 0.004 ?M) of T-2307. However, fermentative growth in dextrose medium was not inhibited by T-2307. Microscopic examination using Mitotracker fluorescent dye, a cell-permeant mitochondrion-specific probe, demonstrated that T-2307 impaired the mitochondrial function of C. albicans and S. cerevisiae at concentrations near the MIC in glycerol medium. T-2307 collapsed the mitochondrial membrane potential in mitochondria isolated from S. cerevisiae at 20 ?M. On the other hand, in isolated rat liver mitochondria, T-2307 did not have any effect on the mitochondrial membrane potential at 10 mM. Moreover, T-2307 had little inhibitory and stimulatory effect on mitochondrial respiration in rat liver mitochondria. In conclusion, T-2307 selectively disrupted yeast mitochondrial function, and it was also demonstrated that the fungal mitochondrion is an attractive antifungal target. PMID:22948882

Takahashi, Toshinari; Yamada, Eio; Kimura, Akiko; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Hiroyoshi; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Mitsuyama, Junichi

2012-01-01

416

Effect of Chromosome Tethering on Nuclear Organization in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Interphase chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are tethered to the nuclear envelope at their telomeres and to the spindle pole body (SPB) at their centromeres. Using a polymer model of yeast chromosomes that includes these interactions, we show theoretically that telomere attachment to the nuclear envelope is a major determinant of gene positioning within the nucleus only for genes within 10 kb of the telomeres. We test this prediction by measuring the distance between the SPB and the silent mating locus (HML) on chromosome III in wild–type and mutant yeast strains that contain altered chromosome-tethering interactions. In wild-type yeast cells we find that disruption of the telomere tether does not dramatically change the position of HML with respect to the SPB, in agreement with theoretical predictions. Alternatively, using a mutant strain with a synthetic tether that localizes an HML-proximal site to the nuclear envelope, we find a significant change in the SPB-HML distance, again as predicted by theory. Our study quantifies the importance of tethering at telomeres on the organization of interphase chromosomes in yeast, which has been shown to play a significant role in determining chromosome function such as gene expression and recombination. PMID:25020108

Av?aro?lu, Bar??; Bronk, Gabriel; Gordon-Messer, Susannah; Ham, Jungoh; Bressan, Debra A.; Haber, James E.; Kondev, Jane

2014-01-01

417

Recent advances in yeast molecular biology: recombinant DNA. [Lead abstract  

SciTech Connect

Separate abstracts were prepared for the 25 papers presented at a workshop focusing on chromosomal structure, gene regulation, recombination, DNA repair, and cell type control, that have been obtained by experimental approaches incorporating the new technologies of yeast DNA transformation, molecular cloning, and DNA sequence analysis. (KRM)

Not Available

1982-09-01

418

Proteome survey reveals modularity of the yeast cell machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein complexes are key molecular entities that integrate multiple gene products to perform cellular functions. Here we report the first genome-wide screen for complexes in an organism, budding yeast, using affinity purification and mass spectrometry. Through systematic tagging of open reading frames (ORFs), the majority of complexes were purified several times, suggesting screen saturation. The richness of the data set

Anne-Claude Gavin; Patrick Aloy; Paola Grandi; Roland Krause; Markus Boesche; Martina Marzioch; Christina Rau; Lars Juhl Jensen; Sonja Bastuck; Birgit Dümpelfeld; Angela Edelmann; Marie-Anne Heurtier; Verena Hoffman; Christian Hoefert; Karin Klein; Manuela Hudak; Anne-Marie Michon; Malgorzata Schelder; Markus Schirle; Marita Remor; Tatjana Rudi; Sean Hooper; Andreas Bauer; Tewis Bouwmeester; Georg Casari; Gerard Drewes; Gitte Neubauer; Jens M. Rick; Bernhard Kuster; Peer Bork; Robert B. Russell; Giulio Superti-Furga

2006-01-01

419

'Yeast mail': a novel Saccharomyces application (NSA) to encrypt messages.  

PubMed

The universal genetic code is used by all life forms to encode biological information. It can also be used to encrypt semantic messages and convey them within organisms without anyone but the sender and recipient knowing, i.e., as a means of steganography. Several theoretical, but comparatively few experimental, approaches have been dedicated to this subject, so far. Here, we describe an experimental system to stably integrate encrypted messages within the yeast genome using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based, one-step homologous recombination system. Thus, DNA sequences encoding alphabetical and/or numerical information will be inherited by yeast propagation and can be sent in the form of dried yeast. Moreover, due to the availability of triple shuttle vectors, Saccharomyces cerevisiae can also be used as an intermediate construction device for transfer of information to either Drosophila or mammalian cells as steganographic containers. Besides its classical use in alcoholic fermentation and its modern use for heterologous gene expression, we here show that baker's yeast can thus be employed in a novel Saccharomyces application (NSA) as a simple steganographic container to hide and convey messages. PMID:25238077

Rosemeyer, Helmut; Paululat, Achim; Heinisch, Jürgen J

2014-09-01

420

Heterochromatin Spreading at Yeast Telomeres Occurs in M Phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterochromatin regulation of gene expression exhibits epigenetic inheritance, in which some feature of the structure is retained and can reseed formation in new cells. To understand the cell-cycle events that influence heterochromatin assembly and maintenance in budding yeast, we have conducted two types of experiments. First we have examined the kinetics of heterochromatin spreading at telomeres. We have constructed a

Kristen Martins-Taylor; Mary Lou Dula; Scott G. Holmes

2004-01-01

421

Evolution of linear chromosomes and multipartite genomes in yeast mitochondria  

E-print Network

Evolution of linear chromosomes and multipartite genomes in yeast mitochondria Matus Valach1 mitochondria contain linear (cir- cularly permuted) concatemers that are heterogeneous in size (termed, mitochondria of numerous organisms contain multipartite genome; i.e. fragmented into multiple (from few

Brejova, Brona

422

Some characteristics of Ca2+ uptake by yeast cells.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed to obtain information on: (i) the specific properties of Ca2+ binding and transport in yeast; (ii) the relationship between both parameters; (iii) similarities to or differences from other biological systems as measured by the effects of inhibitors; and (iv) the effects of mono and divalent cations, in order to get some insight on the specificity and some characteristics of the mechanism of the transport system for divalent cations in yeast. The results obtained gave some kinetic parameters for a high affinity system involved in the transport of Ca2+ in yeast. These were obtained mainly by considering actual concentrations of Ca2+ in the medium after substracting the amounts bound to the cell. A km of 1.9 microM and a Vmax of 1.2 nmol (100 mg.3 min)-1 were calculated. The effects of some inhibitors and other cations on Ca2+ uptake allow one to postulate some independence between binding and transport for this divalent cation. Of the inhibitors tested, only lanthanum seems to be a potent inhibitor of Ca2+ uptake in yeast. The effects of Mg2+ on the uptake of Ca2+ agree with the existence of a single transport system for both divalent cations. The actions of Na+ and K+ on the transport of Ca2+ offer interesting possibilities to study further some of the mechanistic properties of this transport system for divalent cations. PMID:6157027

Borbolla, M; Peña, A

1980-05-23

423

The complete DNA sequence of yeast chromosome III  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entire DNA sequence of chromosome III of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been determined. This is the first complete sequence analysis of an entire chromosome from any organism. The 315-kilobase sequence reveals 182 open reading frames for proteins longer than 100 amino acids, of which 37 correspond to known genes and 29 more show some similarity to sequences in

S. G. Oliver; Q. J. M. van der Aart; M. L. Agostoni-Carbone; M. Aigle; L. Alberghina; D. Alexandraki; G. Antoine; R. Anwar; J. P. G. Ballesta; P. Benit; G. Berben; E. Bergantino; N. Biteau; P. A. Bolle; M. Bolotin-Fukuhara; A. Brown; J. M. Buhler; C. Carcano; G. Carignani; H. Cederberg; R. Chanet; R. Contreras; M. Crouzet; B. Daignan-Fornier; E. Defoor; M. Delgado; J. Demolder; C. Doira; E. Dubois; B. Dujon; A. Dusterhoft; D. Erdmann; M. Esteban; F. Fabre; C. Fairhead; G. Faye; H. Feldmann; W. Fiers; M. C. Francingues-Gaillard; L. Franco; L. Frontali; H. Fukuhara; L. J. Fuller; P. Galland; M. E. Gent; D. Gigot; V. Gilliquet; N. Glansdorff; A. Goffeau; M. Grenson; P. Grisanti; L. A. Grivell; M. de Haan; M. Haasemann; D. Hatat; J. Hoenicka; J. Hegemann; C. J. Herbert; F. Hilger; S. Hohmann; C. P. Hollenberg; K. Huse; F. Iborra; K. J. Indje; K. Isono; C. Jacq; M. Jacquet; C. M. James; J. C. Jauniaux; Y. Jia; A. Jimenez; A. Kelly; U. Kleinhans; P. Kreisl; G. Lanfranchi; C. Lewis; C. G. Vanderlinden; G. Lucchini; K. Lutzenkirchen; M. J. Maat; L. Mallet; G. Mannhaupet; E. Martegani; A. Mathieu; C. T. C. Maurer; D. McConnell; R. A. McKee; F. Messenguy; H. W. Mewes; F. Molemans; M. A. Montague; M. Muzi Falconi; L. Navas; C. S. Newlon; D. Noone; C. Pallier; L. Panzeri; B. M. Pearson; J. Perea; P. Philippsen; A. Pierard; R. J. Planta; P. Plevani; B. Poetsch; F. Pohl; B. Purnelle; M. Ramezani Rad; S. W. Rasmussen; A. Raynal; M. Remacha; P. Richterich; A. B. Roberts; F. Rodriguez; E. Sanz; I. Schaaff-Gerstenschlager; B. Scherens; B. Schweitzer; Y. Shu; J. Skala; P. P. Slonimski; F. Sor; C. Soustelle; R. Spiegelberg; L. I. Stateva; H. Y. Steensma; S. Steiner; A. Thierry; G. Thireos; M. Tzermia; L. A. Urrestarazu; G. Valle; I. Vetter; J. C. van Vliet-Reedijk; M. Voet; G. Volckaert; P. Vreken; H. Wang; J. R. Warmington; D. von Wettstein; B. L. Wicksteed; C. Wilson; H. Wurst; G. Xu; A. Yoshikawa; F. K. Zimmermann; J. G. Sgouros

1992-01-01

424

Original article Effect of chromium yeast supplementation on performance,  

E-print Network

Original article Effect of chromium yeast supplementation on performance, reproduction and immune macrophages when control and Cr-supplemented sows were compared. (© Elsevier / Inra) chromium / immune. (@ Elsevier / Inra) chrome / réponse immunitaire / porc 1. INTRODUCTION Chromium (Cr) influences several

Boyer, Edmond

425

Sir2 and calorie restriction in yeast: A skeptical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of Sir2-family proteins in response to calorie restriction (CR) has been proposed as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for life span extension. This idea has been called into question with the discovery that Sir2-family proteins are not required for life span extension from CR in yeast. We present here a historical perspective and critical evaluation of the model that CR

Matt Kaeberlein; R. Wilson Powers

2007-01-01

426

The Treasure of the Humble: Lessons from Baker's Yeast  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of model organisms is a powerful and proven experimental strategy for understanding biological processes. This paper describes an attempt to utilize advances in yeast molecular biology to enhance student understanding by presenting a more comprehensive view of several interconnected molecular processes in the overall functioning of an…

Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

2011-01-01

427

Key words: STREAMLINE, yeast, scale up, automation, sanitization.  

E-print Network

Key words: STREAMLINE, yeast, scale up, automation, sanitization. Abstract This application note was evaluated by performing a sanitization study in which the column and system were challenged with culture consistent throughout the different scales. Cleaning-in-place (CIP) and sanitization-in-place (SIP) were

Lebendiker, Mario

428

Membrane Trafficking in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model  

PubMed Central

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM), or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC), and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway) or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway). Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END) and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway). Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes. PMID:25584613

Feyder, Serge; De Craene, Johan-Owen; Bär, Séverine; Bertazzi, Dimitri L.; Friant, Sylvie

2015-01-01

429

Global Gene Deletion Analysis Exploring Yeast Filamentous Growth  

E-print Network

albicans to invade human tissues and evade the immune system. We constructed a genome-wide set of targeted Candida albicans, the capacity to tran- sition between yeast and filamentous growth is correlated deletion con- struct carrying 200 base pairs (bp) of flanking DNA for efficient integration and gene

Gifford, David K.

430

Hsp70 Structure, Function, Regulation and Influence on Yeast Prions  

PubMed Central

Heat shock proteins protect cells from various conditions of stress. Hsp70, the most ubiquitous and highly conserved Hsp, helps proteins adopt native conformation or regain function after misfolding. Various co-chaperones specify Hsp70 function and broaden its substrate range. We discuss Hsp70 structure and function, regulation by co-factors and influence on propagation of yeast prions. PMID:19519514

Sharma, D.; Masison, D. C.

2009-01-01

431

Amino acids control ammonia pulses in yeast colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual yeast colonies produce pulses of volatile ammonia separated by phases of medium acidification. Colonies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant defective in the general amino acid permease, Gap1p, exhibit decreased ammonia production. Mutations in the S. cerevisiae amino acid sensor SPS completely abolish the colony ammonia pulses. In contrast, the ammonia pulse production is independent of external concentrations of ammonium and

Blanka Zikánová; Martin Kuthan; Markéta ?i?icová; Jitka Forstová; Zdena Palková

2002-01-01

432

Why, when, and how did yeast evolve alcoholic fermentation?  

PubMed Central

The origin of modern fruits brought to microbial communities an abundant source of rich food based on simple sugars. Yeasts, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, usually become the predominant group in these niches. One of the most prominent and unique features and likely a winning trait of these yeasts is their ability to rapidly convert sugars to ethanol at both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Why, when, and how did yeasts remodel their carbon metabolism to be able to accumulate ethanol under aerobic conditions and at the expense of decreasing biomass production? We hereby review the recent data on the carbon metabolism in Saccharomycetaceae species and attempt to reconstruct the ancient environment, which could promote the evolution of alcoholic fermentation. We speculate that the first step toward the so-called fermentative lifestyle was the exploration of anaerobic niches resulting in an increased metabolic capacity to degrade sugar to ethanol. The strengthened glycolytic flow had in parallel a beneficial effect on the microbial competition outcome and later evolved as a “new” tool promoting the yeast competition ability under aerobic conditions. The basic aerobic alcoholic fermentation ability was subsequently “upgraded” in several lineages by evolving additional regulatory steps, such as glucose repression in the S. cerevisiae clade, to achieve a more precise metabolic control. PMID:24824836

Dashko, Sofia; Zhou, Nerve; Compagno, Concetta; Piškur, Jure

2014-01-01

433

HeritableRemodelingofYeastMulticellularity by an Environmentally Responsive Prion  

E-print Network

HeritableRemodelingofYeastMulticellularity by an Environmentally Responsive Prion Daniel L. Holmes.cell.2013.02.026 SUMMARY Prion proteins undergo self-sustaining conforma- tional conversions that heritably is translated into pheno- type. But the breadth of prion influences on biology and their evolutionary

Zhang, Jianzhi

434

Induction of petite yeast mutants by membrane-active agents.  

PubMed Central

Ethanol proved to be a strong mutagenic agent of Saccharomyces mitochondrial DNA. Other active membrane solvents, such as tert-butanol, isopropanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, also turned out to be powerful petite mutation [rho-] inducers. Mutants defective in ergosterol synthesis (erg mutants) showed an extremely high frequency of spontaneous petite cells, suggesting that mitochondrial membrane alterations that were caused either by changes in its composition, as in the erg mutants, or by the effects of organic solvents resulted in an increase in the proportion of petite mutants. Wine yeast strains were generally more tolerant to the mutagenic effects of alcohols on mitochondrial DNA and more sensitive to the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate than laboratory strains. However, resistance to petite mutation formation in laboratory strains was increased by mitochondrial transfer from alcohol-tolerant wine yeasts. Hence, the stability of the [rho+] mitochondrial DNA in either the presence or absence of solvents depends in part on the nature of the mitochondrial DNA itself. The low frequency of petite mutants found in wine yeast-laboratory yeast hybrids and the fact that the high frequency of petite mutants of a particular wine spore segregated meiotically indicated that many nuclear genes also play an important role in the mitochondrial genome in both the presence and absence of membrane solvents. PMID:3066293

Jiménez, J; Longo, E; Benítez, T

1988-01-01

435

Oleate Inhibits Steryl Ester Synthesis and Causes Liposensitivity in Yeast*  

PubMed Central

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, neutral lipids can be synthesized by four acyltransferases, namely Dga1p and Lro1p producing triacylglycerols (TAG) and Are1p and Are2p forming steryl esters (SE). TAG and SE are stored in an organelle called lipid particles/droplet. Growth of yeast cells on oleate-supplemented media strongly induced proliferation of lipid particles and specifically the synthesis of TAG, which serve as the major pool for the excess of fatty acids. Surprisingly, SE synthesis was strongly inhibited under these conditions. Here, we show that this effect was not due to decreased expression of ARE2 encoding the major yeast SE synthase at the transcriptional level but to competitive enzymatic inhibition of Are2p by free oleate. Consequently, a triple mutant dga1?lro1?are1?ARE2+ grown on oleate did not form substantial amounts of SE and exhibited a growth phenotype similar to the dga1?lro1?are1?are2? quadruple mutant, including lack of lipid particles. Growth of these mutants on oleate was strongly delayed, and cell viability was decreased but rescued by adaptation. In these strains, oleate stress caused morphological changes of intracellular membranes, altered phospholipid composition and formation of an additional lipid class, ethyl esters of fatty acids. In summary, our data showed that exposure to oleate led to disturbed lipid and membrane homeostasis along with liposensitivity of the yeast. PMID:20571028

Connerth, Melanie; Czabany, Tibor; Wagner, Andrea; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Steyrer, Ernst; Daum, Günther

2010-01-01

436

Subcellular localization of the yeast Anuj Kumar,1  

E-print Network

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, 2 Department of Molecular Biophysics proteins in yeast. To facilitate access to these data, we provide a searchable database featuring 2900 1, 2002. A global understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning cell biology necessitates

Gerstein, Mark

437

Influence of Zero-Shear on Yeast Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the research was to begin evaluating the effect of zero-shear on the development of the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae employing the High Aspect Rotating-Wall Vessel (HARV) NASA bioreactor. This particular yeast has enormous potential for research as a model eukaryotic system on the International Space Station, as well as the production of food stuffs' at the future lunar colony. Because the cell wall is the barrier between the cell and the environment, its form and function as influenced by microgravity is of great importance. Morphologic studies revealed that the circularity and total area of the individual yeast cells were essentially the same in both the control and test HARV's. The growth rates were also essentially the same. In zero-shear, the yeast grew in clumps consisting of rudimentary pseudohyphae in contrast to solitary budding cells in the control. Based upon mechanical and sonic shear applied to the yeast cells, those grown in zero-shear had stronger cell walls and septa. This suggests that there are structural differences, most likely related to the chitin skeleton of the cell wall. From this research further NASA support was obtained to continue the work. Investigations will deal with gene expression and ultrastructure. These will lead to a clearer assessment of the value of S. cerevisiae eukaryotic as a model for space station research.

McGinnis, Michael R.

1997-01-01

438

Fluconazole and itraconazole susceptibility of vaginal yeast isolates from Slovakia.  

PubMed

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common mucosal infection caused by opportunistic yeasts of the Candida genus. In this study, we isolated and identified the yeast species in the vagina of patients treated in the gynecology clinic and tested in vitro activities of fluconazole and itraconazole against 227 clinical yeast isolates by the NCCLS microdilution method. C. albicans (87.6%) was the most frequently identified species followed by C. glabrata (6.2%) and C. krusei (2.2%). Almost thirteen percent of yeast strains were resistant to fluconazole and 18.5% were resistant to itraconazole. Cross-resistance analyses of C. albicans isolates revealed that fluconazole resistance and itraconazole resistance were also associated with decreased susceptibilities to other azole derivatives mainly to ketoconazole and miconazole. At the same time no cross-resistance to polyene antibiotics amphotericin B and nystatin was observed. These results support the notion that antifungal agents used to treat vaginitis may be contributing to the drug resistance problem by promoting cross-resistance to a range of clinically used antifungals. PMID:15119851

Sojakova, Monika; Liptajova, Denisa; Borovsky, Miroslav; Subik, Julius

2004-02-01

439

Trehalose synthase: guard to the gate of glycolysis in yeast?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of glucose to cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae triggers a variety of regulatory phenomena. Initial glucose metabolism is required for the induction of most of them. Mutants deficient in both glucose-induced signalling and the control of initial glucose metabolism have a defect in the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase catalytic subunit of the trehalose synthase complex. This finding has raised

Johan M. Thevelein; Stefan Hohmann

1995-01-01

440

Supplementary Online Material SGA Analysis: Robotic Manipulation of Yeast Arrays  

E-print Network

Supplementary Online Material SGA Analysis: Robotic Manipulation of Yeast Arrays The robotic manipulation of deletion mutant array (DMA) and SGA screens were carried out as described (S1). We conducted tetrads for interactions that appeared to be inconclusive in the random spore assay. SGA Analysis: Media

Roth, Frederick

441

Rapid method for detection of urea hydrolysis by yeasts.  

PubMed Central

A method is described for the rapid detection of urea hydrolysis by yeasts, using the Berthelot color reaction. The results could be determined within 30 to 50 min with this method, compared with 8 to 72 h usually required with Christensen urea agar. PMID:322609

Paliwal, D K; Randhawa, H S

1977-01-01

442

The yeast VPS genes affect telomere length regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic cells invest a large proportion of their genome in maintaining telomere length homeostasis. Among the 173 non-essential yeast genes found to affect telomere length, a large proportion is involved in vacuolar traffic. When mutated, these vacuolar protein-sorting (VPS) genes lead to telomeres shorter than those observed in the wild type. Using genetic analysis, we characterized the pathway by which

Ofer Rog; Sarit Smolikov; Anat Krauskopf; Martin Kupiec

2005-01-01

443

Study of the mechanisms of Cu2+ biosorption by ethanol/caustic-pretreated baker's yeast biomass.  

PubMed

Baker's yeast biomass was pretreated by ethanol and caustic soda, and then the pristine baker's yeast, ethanol pretreated baker's yeast (ethanol-baker's yeast) and caustic soda pretreated baker's yeast (caustic-baker's yeast) were utilized as biosorbents to adsorb Cu(2+) in aqueous solution. The influence of different parameters on Cu(2+) uptake by the three biomasses, such as initial Cu(2+) concentration, initial pH of solution, contact time and temperature, was studied. The mechanism of Cu(2+) binding by biomass was investigated by a number of techniques. Evidence from potentiometric titration revealed that the concentration of carboxyl and amino groups is higher on the caustic and ethanol-baker's yeast compared to the pristine baker's yeast and FTIR spectra confirmed carboxyl, and amino groups on the surface of baker's yeast could be available for characteristic coordination bonding with Cu(2+). In addition, SEM and Zeta potential of the three samples show that caustic and ethanol-pretreatment resulted in the change of baker's yeast surface structure and charge which is relative to adsorption. These results demonstrate that the increase of biosorption capacity for Cu(2+) by ethanol and caustic-baker's yeast was attributed to the increase and exposure of carboxyl and amino groups on the surface of biomass sample. PMID:20226588

Zhang, Yunsong; Liu, Weiguo; Xu, Meng; Zheng, Fei; Zhao, Maojun

2010-06-15

444

Dietary Yeasts Reduce Inflammation in Central Nerve System via Microflora  

PubMed Central

Objectives The intestinal microflora affects the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases by influencing immune system function. Some bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria, have been reported to have beneficial effects on immune function. However, little is known about the effects of yeasts. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of various dietary yeasts contained in fermented foods on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects. Methods The effects of eight yeasts selected from 18 types of yeasts contained in fermented foods were examined using an EAE model. Of these, Candida kefyr was investigated by analyzing the intestinal microflora and its effects on intestinal and systemic immune states. Results Administration of C. kefyr ameliorated the severity of EAE. Reduced numbers of Th17 cells, suppressed interleukin (IL)-6 production by intestinal explants, and increased Tregs and CD103-positive regulatory dendritic cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were observed. Analysis of 16s-rDNA from feces of C. kefyr-treated mice demonstrated increased Lactobacillales and decreased Bacteroides compared to control flora. Transfer of intestinal microbiota also resulted in decreased Bacteroides and ameliorated symptoms of EAE. Thus, oral administration of C. kefyr ameliorated EAE by altering the microflora, accompanied by increased Tregs and CD103-positive regulatory dendritic cells in MLNs and decreased Th17 cells in the intestinal lamina propria. Interpretation Oral ingestion of C. kefyr may have beneficial effects on MS by modifying microflora. In addition, our findings also suggested the potential health benefits of dietary yeasts. PMID:25642435

Takata, Kazushiro; Tomita, Takayuki; Okuno, Tatsusada; Kinoshita, Makoto; Koda, Toru; Honorat, Josephe A; Takei, Masaya; Hagihara, Kouichiro; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Mochizuki, Hideki; Sakoda, Saburo; Nakatsuji, Yuji

2015-01-01

445

Single-particle tracking of quantum dot-conjugated prion proteins inside yeast cells  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} We develop a method to track a quantum dot-conjugated protein in yeast cells. {yields} We incorporate the conjugated quantum dot proteins into yeast spheroplasts. {yields} We track the motions by conventional or 3D tracking microscopy. -- Abstract: Yeast is a model eukaryote with a variety of biological resources. Here we developed a method to track a quantum dot (QD)-conjugated protein in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We chemically conjugated QDs with the yeast prion Sup35, incorporated them into yeast spheroplasts, and tracked the motions by conventional two-dimensional or three-dimensional tracking microscopy. The method paves the way toward the individual tracking of proteins of interest inside living yeast cells.

Tsuji, Toshikazu; Kawai-Noma, Shigeko [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B56, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B56, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Pack, Chan-Gi [Cellular Informatics Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Cellular Informatics Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Terajima, Hideki [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B56, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B56, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Yajima, Junichiro; Nishizaka, Takayuki [Department of Physics, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan); Kinjo, Masataka [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Dynamics, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Dynamics, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Taguchi, Hideki, E-mail: taguchi@bio.titech.ac.jp [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B56, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B56, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan)

2011-02-25

446

Yeast Transformation (introducing plasmid vector into a yeast strain): This protocol is a modification (shortened version) of "The BEST  

E-print Network

pellet and resuspend the pellet in 1 ml of sterile nano-pure H2O. 7. Centrifuge cells again in clinical the cell pellet in 1 ml of 100 mM lithium acetate and incubate for 5 minutes at 30O C. 10. Swirl tube spin.) 12. Remove the supernatant with a micropipet. Do not disturb the cell pellet. The yeast cells

447

Running title: Yeasts from refrigerated commercial shell eggs Identification of yeasts isolated from commercial shell eggs stored at refrigerated temperatures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yeasts and molds can grow on or in eggs, causing spoilage. Washed and unwashed eggs (treatments) were collected aseptically on three separate days (replications) from a commercial processing facility and stored for 10 weeks at 4ºC. Ten eggs from each treatment were sampled weekly (110 eggs/treatme...

448

Yeast Modulation of Human Dendritic Cell Cytokine Secretion: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The concept of individual microorganisms influencing the makeup of T cell subsets via interactions with intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) appears to constitute the foundation for immunoregulatory effects of probiotics, and several studies have reported probiotic strains resulting in reduction of intestinal inflammation through modulation of DC function. Consequent to a focus on Saccharomyces boulardii as the fundamental probiotic yeast, very little is known about hundreds of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in terms of their interaction with the human gastrointestinal immune system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate 170 yeast strains representing 75 diverse species for modulation of inflammatory cytokine secretion by human DCs in vitro, as compared to cytokine responses induced by a S. boulardii reference strain with probiotic properties documented in clinical trials. Furthermore, we investigated whether cytokine inducing interactions between yeasts and human DCs are dependent upon yeast viability or rather a product of membrane interactions regardless of yeast metabolic function. We demonstrate high diversity in yeast induced cytokine profiles and employ multivariate data analysis to reveal distinct clustering of yeasts inducing similar cytokine profiles in DCs, highlighting clear species distinction within specific yeast genera. The observed differences in induced DC cytokine profiles add to the currently very limited knowledge of the cross-talk between yeasts and human immune cells and provide a foundation for selecting yeast strains for further characterization and development toward potentially novel yeast probiotics. Additionally, we present data to support a hypothesis that the interaction between yeasts and human DCs does not solely depend on yeast viability, a concept which may suggest a need for further classifications beyond the current definition of a probiotic. PMID:24816850

Smith, Ida M.; Christensen, Jeffrey E.; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

2014-01-01

449

Marine yeasts as biocontrol agents and producers of bio-products.  

PubMed

As some species of marine yeasts can colonize intestine of marine animals, they can be used as probiotics. It has been reported that beta-glucans from marine yeast cells can be utilized as immuno-stimulants in marine animals. Some siderophores or killer toxins produced by marine yeasts have ability to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria or kill pathogenic yeasts in marine animals. The virulent factors from marine pathogens can be genetically displayed on marine yeast cells, and the yeast cells displaying the virulent factors can stimulate marine animals to produce specific antibody against the pathogens. Some marine yeast cells are rich in proteins and essential amino acids and can be used in nutrition for marine animals. The marine yeast cells rich in lipid can be used for biodiesel production. Recently, it has been reported that some strains of Yarrowia lipolytica isolated from marine environments can produce nanoparticles. Because many marine yeasts can remove organic pollutants and heavy metals, they can be applied to remediation of marine environments. It has been shown that the enzymes produced by some marine yeasts have many unique properties and many potential applications. PMID:20195858

Chi, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Guanglei; Zhao, Shoufeng; Li, Jing; Peng, Ying

2010-05-01

450

Evidence for a Far East Asian origin of lager beer yeast.  

PubMed

Lager-brewing arose in 15th century Bavaria [1] and is nowadays the most popular technique for alcoholic beverage production in the world. The technique is characterized by low temperature fermentation using the domesticated yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus (synonym S. carlsbergensis). It has been clear that the lager yeast is a hybrid with one portion of its genome having originated from S. cerevisiae ale yeast [2]. However, the source of the non-ale subgenome, which endows lager yeast with cold tolerance, had been a matter of debate [3]. Recently, a Patagonian origin hypothesis of lager yeast has been proposed based on the discovery of a new cryotolerant Saccharomyces species from Patagonian native forests of Argentina [4]. This yeast, named S. eubayanus, exhibited the closest known match (99.56%) to the non-ale portion of lager yeast and, thus, was believed to be its progenitor. However, we now show that this yeast species is likely native to the Tibetan Plateau. One of the Tibetan populations of the species exhibits closer affinity with lager yeast than the Patagonian population as inferred from population genetics and genome sequence analyses. We thus provide strong evidence for a Far East Asian origin hypothesis of lager yeast, which apparently corresponds better with geography and world trade history. PMID:24845661

Bing, Jian; Han, Pei-Jie; Liu, Wan-Qiu; Wang, Qi-Ming; Bai, Feng-Yan

2014-05-19

451

Biodiversity of cold-adapted yeasts from glacial meltwater rivers in Patagonia, Argentina.  

PubMed

The occurrence of culturable yeasts in glacial meltwater from the Frías, Castaño Overo and Río Manso glaciers, located on Mount Tronador in the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina) is presented. Subsurface water samples were filtered for colony counting and yeast isolation. The total yeast count ranged between 6 and 360 CFU L(-1). Physiologic and molecular methods were employed to identify 86 yeast isolates. In agreement with yeast diversity data from studies for Antarctic and Alpine glaciers, the genera Cryptococcus, Leucosporidiella, Dioszegia, Rhodotorula, Rhodosporidium, Mrakia, Sporobolomyces, Udeniomyces and Candida were found. Cryptococcus and Leucosporidiella accounted for 50% and 20% of the total number of strains, respectively. Among 21 identified yeast species, Cryptococcus sp. 1 and Leucosporidiella fragaria were the most frequent. The typically psychrophilic Mrakia yeast strain and three new yeast species, yet to be described, were also isolated. All yeast strains were able to grow at 5, 10, and 15 degrees C. Among yeast strains expressing extracellular enzymatic activity, higher proteolytic and lipolytic activities were obtained at 4 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. PMID:17313582

de García, Virginia; Brizzio, Silvia; Libkind, Diego; Buzzini, Pietro; van Broock, María

2007-02-01

452

Extracellular enzymatic activities and physiological profiles of yeasts colonizing fruit trees.  

PubMed

Yeasts form a significant and diverse part of the phyllosphere microbiota. Some yeasts that inhabit plants have been found to exhibit extracellular enzymatic activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of yeasts isolated from leaves, fruits, and blossoms of fruit trees cultivated in Southwest Slovakia to produce extracellular enzymes, and to discover whether the yeasts originating from these plant organs differ from each other in their physiological properties. In total, 92 strains belonging to 29 different species were tested for: extracellular protease, ?-glucosidase, lipase, and polygalacturonase activities; fermentation abilities; the assimilation of xylose, saccharose and alcohols (methanol, ethanol, glycerol); and for growth in a medium with 33% glucose. The black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans showed the largest spectrum of activities of all the species tested. Almost 70% of the strains tested demonstrated some enzymatic activity, and more than 90% utilized one of the carbon compounds tested. Intraspecies variations were found for the species of the genera Cryptococcus and Pseudozyma. Interspecies differences of strains exhibiting some enzymatic activities and utilizing alcohols were also noted. The largest proportion of the yeasts exhibited ?-glucosidase activity and assimilated alcohols independently of their origin. The highest number of strains positive for all activities tested was found among the yeasts associated with leaves. Yeasts isolated from blossoms assimilated saccharose and D-xylose the most frequently of all the yeasts tested. The majority of the fruit-inhabiting yeasts grew in the medium with higher osmotic pressure. PMID:23744750

Molnárová, Jana; Vadkertiová, Renáta; Stratilová, Eva

2014-07-01

453

A novel fluorescence-activated cell sorter-based screen for yeast endocytosis mutants identifies a yeast homologue of mammalian eps15  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms of endocytosis requires the discovery and characterization of the protein machinery that mediates this aspect of membrane trafficking. A novel genetic screen was used to identify yeast mutants defective in internalization of bulk lipid. The fluorescent lipophilic styryl dye FM4-64 was used in conjunction with FACS ® to enrich for yeast mutants that

Beverly Wendland; J. Michael McCaffery; Qin Xiao; Scott D. Emr

1996-01-01

454

Yeast-yeast interactions revealed by aromatic profile analysis of Sauvignon Blanc wine fermented by single or co-culture of non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeasts.  

PubMed

There has been increasing interest in the use of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main reason is that the multistarter fermentation process is thought to simulate indigenous fermentation, thus increasing wine aroma complexity while avoiding the risks linked to natural fermentation. However, multistarter fermentation is characterised by complex and largely unknown interactions between yeasts. Consequently the resulting wine quality is rather unpredictable. In order to better understand the interactions that take place between non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeasts during alcoholic fermentation, we analysed the volatile profiles of several mono-culture and co-cultures. Candida zemplinina, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Metschnikowia pulcherrima were used to conduct fermentations either in mono-culture or in co-culture with S. cerevisiae. Up to 48 volatile compounds belonging to different chemical families were quantified. For the first time, we show that C. zemplinina is a strong producer of terpenes and lactones. We demonstrate by means of multivariate analysis that different interactions exist between the co-cultures studied. We observed a synergistic effect on aromatic compound production when M. pulcherrima was in co-culture with S. cerevisiae. However a negative interaction was observed between C. zemplinina and S. cerevisiae, which resulted in a decrease in terpene and lactone content. These interactions are independent of biomass production. The aromatic profiles of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae in mono-culture and in co-culture are very close, and are biomass-dependent, reflecting a neutral interaction. This study reveals that a whole family of compounds could be altered by such interactions. These results suggest that the entire metabolic pathway is affected by these interactions. PMID:22986187

Sadoudi, Mohand; Tourdot-Maréchal, Raphaëlle; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Steyer, Damien; Gallardo-Chacón, Joan-Josep; Ballester, Jordi; Vichi, Stefania; Guérin-Schneider, Rémi; Caixach, Josep; Alexandre, Hervé

2012-12-01

455

Identification and characterization of antimicrobial activity in two yeast genera.  

PubMed Central

A general screening test for the expression of antibacterial activity was performed on over 400 cultures belonging to 31 yeast genera. Of these cultures, only two, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans and Kloeckera apiculata, were found to produce zones of inhibition of bacterial growth on Diagnostic Sensitivity Test Agar medium supplemented with 0.002% methylene blue. Of nine bacteria used as test organisms, only Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus megaterium were inhibited. No antibacterial activity was evident against four gram-negative bacteria used in this study. Optimal activities were found to be expressed after yeasts were grown at pH 6. A requirement for cultivation in the presence of methylene blue added to culture media for the expression of apparent antibacterial activity was demonstrated. Images PMID:3937494

Bilinski, C A; Innamorato, G; Stewart, G G

1985-01-01

456

Effects of yeast-originating polymeric compounds on ethanol pervaporation.  

PubMed

During ethanol fermentation with in situ pervaporation, membrane fouling might occur due to polymers originating from yeast cell lysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of yeast cellular polymers on pervaporative membrane performance. Lipids were identified as the most detrimental components among these cellular polymers causing 50% and 33% flux decrease in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyoctylmethylsiloxane (POMS) membranes, respectively. This fouling was irreversible and might be due to hydrophobic interactions between lipids and membranes resulting in high lipid adsorption on membrane surface. The relatively hydrophobic model protein BSA also contributed to flux decrease in PDMS membrane but RNA and the model polysaccharide glycogen did not. The PDMS membrane selectivity for ethanol/water remained ~4.5 in all cases. All the cellular components decreased the water flux through the POMS membrane. However, the ethanol flux through the membrane was not altered very much, resulting in increased membrane selectivity. PMID:22609648

Gaykawad, S S; van der Wielen, L A M; Straathof, A J J

2012-07-01

457

Actin Depolymerization Drives Actomyosin Ring Contraction during Budding Yeast Cytokinesis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Actin filaments and myosin-II are evolutionarily conserved force generating components of the contractile ring during cytokinesis. Here we show that in budding yeast actin filament depolymerization plays a major role in actomyosin ring constriction. Cofilin mutation or chemically stabilizing actin filaments attenuates actomyosin ring constriction. Deletion of myosin-II motor domain or the myosin regulatory light chain reduced the contraction rate and also the rate of actin depolymerization in the ring. We constructed a quantitative microscopic model of actomyosin ring constriction via filament sliding driven by both actin depolymerization and myosin-II motor activity. Model simulations based on experimental measurements supports the notion that actin depolymerization is the predominant mechanism for ring constriction. The model predicts invariability of total contraction time irrespective of the initial ring size as originally reported for C elegans embryonic cells. This prediction was validated in yeast cells of different sizes due to having different ploidies. PMID:22698284

Pinto, Inês Mendes; Rubinstein, Boris; Kucharavy, Andrei; Unruh, Jay R.; Li, Rong

2012-01-01

458

Synthetic biology: lessons from engineering yeast MAPK signalling pathways.  

PubMed

All living cells respond to external stimuli and execute specific physiological responses through signal transduction pathways. Understanding the mechanisms controlling signalling pathways is important for diagnosing and treating diseases and for reprogramming cells with desired functions. Although many of the signalling components in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been identified by genetic studies, many features concerning the dynamic control of pathway activity, cross-talk, cell-to-cell variability or robustness against perturbation are still incompletely understood. Comparing the behaviour of engineered and natural signalling pathways offers insight complementary to that achievable with standard genetic and molecular studies. Here, we review studies that aim at a deeper understanding of signalling design principles and generation of novel signalling properties by engineering the yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. The underlying approaches can be applied to other organisms including mammalian cells and offer opportunities for building synthetic pathways and functionalities useful in medicine and biotechnology. PMID:23461595

Furukawa, Kentaro; Hohmann, Stefan

2013-04-01

459

Radiometric detection of yeasts in blood cultures of cancer patients.  

PubMed Central

During a 12-month period, 19,457 blood cultures were collected. Yeasts were isolated from 193 cultures derived from 76 cancer patients. Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis accounted for 79% of isolates. Of the three methods compared, the radiometric method required 2.9 days to become positive, "blind" subculture required 2.6 days, and Gram stains required 1 day. However, the radiometric method was clearly superior in detecting positive cultures, since 73% of all cultures were first detected radiometrically, 22% were detected by subculture, and only 5% were detected by Gram stain. Although 93% of the isolates were detected by aerobic culture, five (7%) isolates were obtained only from anaerobic cultures. Seven days of incubation appear to be sufficient for the radiometric detection of yeasts. PMID:7012168

Hopfer, R L; Orengo, A; Chesnut, S; Wenglar, M

1980-01-01

460

Biotechnological potential of yeast isolates from cachaça: the Brazilian spirit.  

PubMed

This study identified phenotypic traits appropriate for biotechnological applications of 118 yeasts isolated from cachaça distilleries. Different properties were verified: capacity to use alternative carbon sources; ability to tolerate high concentrations of sucrose, ethanol, methanol, aluminum and zinc as well as different pH values and foam production. Pichia guilliermondii and Pichia anomala strains were identified as the most promising ones for application in the second-generation biofuel industry, showing ability to grow on high glycerol concentrations. Other isolates, identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, produced bioethanol comparable to the industrial strains, and were therefore ideal for use in the first-generation ethanol industry. Some of these strains also showed high resistance to aluminum, as observed in sugarcane juice, and to inter-cycle washings with diluted sulphuric acid, as performed in the industrial bioethanol production process. In summary, yeast isolates from cachaça distilleries displayed robustness and phenotypic plasticity, which makes them interesting for biotechnological applications. PMID:25540045

da Conceição, Luís Eduardo Fernandes Rodrigues; Saraiva, Margarete Alice Fontes; Diniz, Raphael Hermano Santos; Oliveira, Juliana; Barbosa, Gustavo Dimas; Alvarez, Florencia; da Mata Correa, Lygia Fátima; Mezadri, Hygor; Coutrim, Mauricio Xavier; Afonso, Robson José de Cássia Franco; Lucas, Candida; Castro, Ieso Miranda; Brandão, Rogelio Lopes

2015-02-01

461

The mitochondrial permeability transition from yeast to mammals  

PubMed Central

Regulated permeability changes have been detected in mitochondria across species. We review here their key features, with the goal of assessing whether a “permeability transition” similar to that observed in higher eukaryotes is present in other species. The recent discoveries (i) that treatment with cyclosporin A unmasks an inhibitory site for Pi [Basso et al. (2008) J. Biol Chem. 283, 26307–26311], the classical inhibitor of the permeability transition of yeast; and (ii) that under proper experimental conditions a matrix Ca2+-dependence can be demonstrated in yeast as well [Yamada et al. (2009) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1787, 1486–1491] suggest that the mitochondrial permeability transition has been conserved during evolution. PMID:20398660

Azzolin, Luca; von Stockum, Sophia; Basso, Emy; Petronilli, Valeria; Forte, Michael A.; Bernardi, Paolo

2010-01-01

462

Calcium ion influx during sporulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The changes in intra- and (or) extra-cellular concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+ during sporulation of a MATa/MAT alpha diploid yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined in a nutrition-deprived medium with potassium acetate. Among these, Ca2+ in external medium was preferentially incorporated into cells, and sporulation was induced when the magnitude of free Ca2+ gradient between cytosol [Ca2+]i and external medium [Ca2+]o reached more than 3 x 10(3) ([Ca2+]i/[Ca2+]o = 3.5 x 10(3)). The result indicated that the meiosis and (or) sporulation signal of the yeast S. cerevisiae was generated through elevated Ca2+ influx rather than release from the internal Ca2+ stores. PMID:7497351

Suizu, T; Tsutsumi, H; Kawado, A; Suginami, K; Imayasu, S; Murata, K

1995-11-01

463

IQGAP Family Members in Yeast, Dictyostelium, and Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

IQGAPs are a family of scaffolding proteins with multiple domains, named for the IQ motifs and GTPase activating protein (GAP) related domains. Despite their GAP homology, IQGAP proteins act as effectors for GTP-bound GTPases of the Ras superfamily and do not stimulate GTP hydrolysis. IQGAPs are found in eukaryotic cells from yeast to human, and localize to actin-containing structures such as lamellipodia, membrane ruffles, cell-cell adhesions, phagocytic cups, and the actomyosin ring formed during cytokinesis. Mammalian IQGAPs also act as scaffolds for signaling pathways. IQGAPs perform their myriad functions through association with a large number of proteins including filamentous actin (F-actin), GTPases, calcium-binding proteins, microtubule binding proteins, kinases, and receptors. The focus of this paper is on recent studies describing new binding partners, mechanisms of regulation, and biochemical and physiological functions of IQGAPs in yeast, amoeba, and mammalian cells. PMID:22505937

Shannon, Katie B.

2012-01-01