Sample records for yeast phaffia rhodozyma

  1. Production of astaxanthin from cellulosic biomass sugars by mutants of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid of high value to the aquaculture, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. Three mutant strains of the astaxanthin-producing yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, which were derived from the parent strain ATCC 24202 (UCD 67-210) and designated JTM166, JTM185, and SSM19, were test...

  2. The kinetic reduction of Cr(VI) by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Phaffia rhodozyma and their protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Chwastowski, Jaros?aw; Ko?oczek, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    Chromium in the sixth oxidation state may easily penetrate cellular membranes via non-specific sulfate transporters due to its tetrahedral symmetry (high similarity to SO4(2-) and HPO4(2-)). This feature makes chromium a toxic and hazardous pollutant responsible for the deterioration of midland water quality. The aim of the study was to evaluate the capacity of two yeast species - Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Phaffia rhodozyma - and their protoplasts to reduce Cr(VI) to lower oxidation states. The study also deals with the behavior of the yeasts upon the presence of elevated sulfate ions as a competitive inhibitor of chromate transport by the sulfate transporters. The chromate-reducing activities were monitored by determination of Cr(V) free radical form with the use of L-band (1.2 GHz) EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) spectroscopy. It was observed that both of the studied yeast strains exhibited the ability to reduce Cr(VI) applied at 4 mM. The cells of P. rhodozyma showed about 3.5 times higher reduction than S. cerevisiae. The reduction efficiency was significantly improved when the protoplasts of both strains were used and reached 100% in the first 10 minutes of the reduction process which suggests that the cellular wall may have a notable influence on the uptake and/or inhibition of chromium reduction process. The reduction effect of P. rhodozyma cells and protoplasts may be associated with the more sufficient production of metabolites (such as glutathione and cysteine), which may also be responsible for the increased tolerance of the strain towards high concentrations of toxic chromium. PMID:24432341

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of the ATP citrate lyase from carotenogenic yeast Phaffia rhodozyma.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Cabrera, Cipriano; Marsch, Rodolfo; Bartolo-Aguilar, Yaneth; Flores-Bustamante, Zoila Rosa; Hidalgo-Lara, María Eugenia; Martínez-Cárdenas, Anahí; Cancino-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Sánchez, Sergio; Flores-Cotera, Luis Bernardo

    2015-09-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACL), is a key cytosolic source of acetyl-CoA for fatty acid and sterol biosynthesis and appear to be involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in yeasts. Three homologous DNA sequences encoding ACLs in Phaffia rhodozyma were isolated i.e two genes and one cDNA. The two genes were multi-intronic, with 3450-bp-coding sequences and both genes, as the cDNA, encoded identical 120.1-kDa polypeptides. Full-length amino acid sequences of these ACLs showed the two multidomains, PLN02235 and PLN02522, which are necessary for activity. The ACLs showed 82-87% similarity to putative ACLs from other basidiomycetes and 71% similarity to human ACL. The acl cDNA was used to express the heterologous ACL 6XHis-tagged which was identified using MALDI-TOF-MS. The sequenced peptides with 42.2% coverage showed 100% identity to the amino acid sequence generated in silico. The recombinant ACL purified to homogeneity showed an activity of 2 U. This is the first study to characterize a recombinant ACL from a carotenogenic yeast. The present study provides a key foundation for future studies to assess (a) the possible occurrence of alternative splicing, (b) identify the promoter(s) sequence(s) and (c) the involvement of ACL in the differential regulation of fatty acid and carotenoid biosynthesis in yeasts. PMID:26122278

  4. A factorial approach for a sugarcane juice-based low cost culture medium: increasing the astaxanthin production by the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Florêncio; C. R. Soccol; L. F. Furlanetto; T. M. B. Bonfim; N. Krieger; M. Baron; J. D. Fontana

    1998-01-01

    A sugarcane juice-based low cost culture medium was previously explored to produce the carotenoid pigment astaxanthin in liquid culture by the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma (1300 7g astaxanthin\\/g of dry yeast and 6500 7g\\/l whole culture medium). Two peculiar limitations in Phaffia are growth temperature (7g\\/l) obtained was 23.0% but at the expense of 16.0% pigment content decrease (7g\\/g). In

  5. Effect of dietary astaxanthin rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Perenlei, Ganzaya; Tojo, Hitomi; Okada, Toru; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin (Ax)-rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous), on broiler chicken meat quality. Fourteen-day-old female Ross broilers were divided into three groups: control group, Ax-free diet; Ax 10 group, 10?mg/kg Ax diet; and Ax 20 group, 20?mg/kg Ax diet for 28 days. At 42 days old, chickens were slaughtered, and then growth performance, meat quality and sensory attributes were analyzed. Compared with the control, a* values increased significantly after slaughter and 48?h postmortem for Ax 20 samples (P<0.05) and for b* values in Ax 20 and Ax 10 groups (P<0.05). Cooking loss decreased in the Ax 20 group (P<0.05). After 120?h aging, contents of several free amino acids and total free amino acid content of Ax 20 group were significantly higher than the control (P<0.05). In sensory evaluation, meat texture attributes improved significantly in the Ax 20 group (P<0.01). No significant changes occurred in flavor attribute scores of meat soup from the Ax 20 group compared with the control even though most assessors preferred meat soup from the Ax 20 group. Overall, Ax-rich yeast in the diet improves broiler chicken meat quality. PMID:24840792

  6. [Effect of beta-carotene and carotene producing yeast Phaffia rhodozyma on oxidative stress in rats treated with tetrachloromethane].

    PubMed

    Simonova, M I; Borets'ka, N I; Kamins'ka, M V; Necha?, H I; Kolisnyk, H V; Vlizlo, V V

    2010-01-01

    Supplementation of rats' diet with beta-carotene or biomass of carotene producing yeast Phaffia rhodozyma caused a decrease of aminotransferases in the blood serum as well as a decrease of lipid peroxidation products and protein carbonil groups in the liver, brain and myocardium tissues of animals treated with tetrachloromethane. When compared to the control group the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the liver of carotene fed rats were respectively 1.6, 2.2, and 1.5-fold higher. Thus, these supplements to standard diet slow down development of tetrachlorometane mediated oxidative stress in rats. PMID:21328879

  7. Astaxanthinogenesis in the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma - optimization of low-cost culture media and yeast cell-wall lysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Baron, M.; Guimaraes, M.F. [LQBB-Biomass Chemo Biotechnology Lab., Curitiba (Brazil)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Astaxanthin is a diketo-dihydroxy-carotenoid produced by Phaffia rhodozyma, a basidiomicetous yeast. A low-cost fermentation medium consisting of raw sugarcane juice and urea was developed to exploit the active sucrolytic/urelolytic enzyme apparatus inherent to the yeast. As compared to the beneficial effect of 0.1 g% urea, a ready nitrogen source, mild phosphoric pre inversion of juice sucrose to glucose and fructose, promptly fermentable carbon sources, resulted in smaller benefits. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was found to be a valuable supplement for both yeast biomass yield (9.2 g dry cells/L) and astaxanthin production (1.3 mg/g cells). Distillery effluent (vinace), despite only a slightly positive effect on yeast growth, allowed for the highest pigment productivity (1.9 mg/g cells). Trace amounts of Ni{sup 2} (1 mg/L, as a cofactor for urease) resulted in controversial effects, namely, biomass decrease and astaxanthin increase, with no effect on the release (and uptake) of ammonium ion from urea. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Genetics and electrophoretic karyotyping of wild-type and astaxanthin mutant strains of Phaffia rhodozyma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Víctor Cifuentes; Germán Hermosilla; Claudio Martínez; Ruben León; Guido Pincheira; Antonio Jiménez

    1997-01-01

    In this work we establish the chromosomal composition of a wild-type, one astaxanthin and two ß-carotene overproducer strains of the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. The method used has been pulsed field gel electrophoresis, which has determined 9 DNA chromosomal bands in the yeast genome. The two largest bands are triplets and two other bands, VI and VIII, seem to be

  9. Effects of oxidative stress on the production of carotenoid pigments byPhaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous).

    PubMed

    Santopietro, L M; Spencer, J F; Spencer, D M; Siñeriz, F

    1998-01-01

    The resistance to killing by free radicals of two mutants ofPhaffia rhodozyma was determined. Mutant 5-7 did not produce astaxanthin but produced beta-carotene, while mutant 3-4 did not produce any carotenoid pigments. The resistance of mutant 5-7 was the same as that of the wild type but mutant 3-4 was rapidly killed. Carotenoid pigments increased the resistance to killing by free radicals. We investigated the effects of free radicals, generated by H(2)O(2) and Fe(2+) added to the medium, on wild-type cells and mutants ofP. rhodozyma. Unpigmented mutants of basidiomycetous yeasts (Rhodotorula spp. and others) are more susceptible to killing by UV-irradiation than the pigmented, wild-type strains. Therefore, we investigated the effect of free radicals on a similar basidiomycetous yeast,P. rhodozyma, a species of economic importance, in the biological production of astaxanthin. PMID:18470490

  10. Studies on optimization of nitrogen sources for astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma *

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Hui; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui; Yang, Yuan-fan; Li, Li-jun; Wu, Guang-bin; Hu, Yang; He, Guo-qing

    2007-01-01

    Fermentation of Phaffia rhodozyma is a major method for producing astaxanthin, an important pigment with industrial and pharmaceutical application. To improve astaxanthin productivity, single factor and mixture design experiments were used to investigate the effects of nitrogen source on Phaffia rhodozyma cultivation and astaxanthin production. Results of single factor experiments showed nitrogen source could significantly affect P. rhodozyma cultivation with respect to carbon source utilization, yeast growth and astaxanthin accumulation. Further studies of mixture design experiments using (NH4)2SO4, KNO3 and beef extract as nitrogen sources indicated that the proportion of three nitrogen sources was very important to astaxanthin production. Validation experiments showed that the optimal nitrogen source was composed of 0.28 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 0.49 g/L KNO3 and 1.19 g/L beef extract. The kinetic characteristics of batch cultivation were investigated in a 5-L pH-stat fermentor. The maximum amount of biomass and highest astaxanthin yield in terms of volume and in terms of biomass were 7.71 mg/L and 1.00 mg/g, respectively. PMID:17542066

  11. Production of the UVB-absorbing compound mycosporine-glutaminol-glucoside by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma).

    PubMed

    Libkind, Diego; Moline, Martín; van Broock, María

    2011-02-01

    The ability of the basidiomycetous yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) to accumulate astaxanthin is responsible for the industrial use of this yeast as a microbial source of pigments for aquaculture. It is also hypothesized that astaxanthin accounts for its ability to thrive in highly oxidative and UV-exposed habitats. Here, we assessed the ability of this species to synthesize UV-absorbing compounds generally known as mycosporines, evaluated the effect of culture media in the production of these compounds and compared its UV growth resistance and tolerance with other yeasts. The 48 wild and collection strains screened were positive for mycosporines and a unique compound identified as mycosporine-glutaminol-glucoside (MGG) was detected. Thus, the ability of X. dendrorhous to produce MGG, as described here for the first time, is so far unique among the Cystofilobasidiales. The compound was synthesized constitutively, although growth under visible light and, to a greater extent, UVA radiation stimulated its production. Strains from UV-exposed habitats produced larger quantities and oligotrophic complex media seemed to favor MGG accumulation. UV tolerance and survival of X. dendrorhous was high and comparable to that of the polyextremophilic Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The taxonomical and ecological implications of the production of MGG by X. dendrorhous are discussed. PMID:20955516

  12. Effect of Phaffia rhodozyma on performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, and meat quality in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Lei, Y; Kim, I H

    2014-01-01

    The red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma (PR), has possible applications as a component of diets for use in the animal industry. Its primary value lies in its content of astaxanthin, which has been shown to be an antioxidant several times more effective than vitamin E. A total of 96 ([Landrace × Yorkshire] × Duroc) crossbred pigs with an initial BW of 58.61 ± 3.05 kg were used in this 10-wk feeding study to determine the effects of PR on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, and meat quality in finishing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0, 0.1, or 0.2% PR. There were 8 replicate pens per treatment with 4 pigs (2 barrows and 2 gilts) per pen. The inclusion of PR linearly improved G:F in the phase 1 (P = 0.02), phase 2 (P = 0.02), and during the overall experimental period (P < 0.01) The DM digestibility was improved in the 0.1% PR treatment in phase 2 (quadratic, P = 0.01). The white blood cell concentration was increased in 0.1% PR group (P < 0.05) during phase 2 (quadratic, P < 0.01) and phase 2 (P = 0.04). The inclusion of graded levels of PR linearly increased (P < 0.01) the pH of LM. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were linearly decreased (P = 0.03) by the supplementation of PR. In conclusion, the inclusion of PR could improve feed efficiency, DM digestibility, and meat quality of the finishing pig. PMID:24352965

  13. Influence of Oxygen and Glucose on Primary Metabolism and Astaxanthin Production by Phaffia rhodozyma in Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures: Kinetic and Stoichiometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Y; Higashida, K; Nakashimada, Y; Kakizono, T; Nishio, N

    1997-11-01

    The influence of the oxygen and glucose supply on primary metabolism (fermentation, respiration, and anabolism) and astaxanthin production in the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma was investigated. When P. rhodozyma grew under fermentative conditions with limited oxygen or high concentrations of glucose, the astaxanthin production rate decreased remarkably. On the other hand, when the yeast grew under aerobic conditions, the astaxanthin production rate increased with increasing oxygen uptake. A kinetic analysis showed that the respiration rate correlated positively with the astaxanthin production rate, whereas there was a negative correlation with the ethanol production rate. The influence of glucose concentration at a fixed nitrogen concentration with a high level of oxygen was then investigated. The results showed that astaxanthin production was enhanced by an initial high carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) present in the medium, but cell growth was inhibited by a high glucose concentration. A stoichiometric analysis suggested that astaxanthin production was enhanced by decreasing the amount of NADPH required for anabolism, which could be achieved by the repression of protein biosynthesis with a high C/N ratio. Based on these results, we performed a two-stage fed-batch culture, in which cell growth was enhanced by a low C/N ratio in the first stage and astaxanthin production was enhanced by a high C/N ratio in the second stage. In this culture system, the highest astaxanthin production, 16.0 mg per liter, was obtained. PMID:16535733

  14. Influence of Oxygen and Glucose on Primary Metabolism and Astaxanthin Production by Phaffia rhodozyma in Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures: Kinetic and Stoichiometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Y.; Higashida, K.; Nakashimada, Y.; Kakizono, T.; Nishio, N.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the oxygen and glucose supply on primary metabolism (fermentation, respiration, and anabolism) and astaxanthin production in the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma was investigated. When P. rhodozyma grew under fermentative conditions with limited oxygen or high concentrations of glucose, the astaxanthin production rate decreased remarkably. On the other hand, when the yeast grew under aerobic conditions, the astaxanthin production rate increased with increasing oxygen uptake. A kinetic analysis showed that the respiration rate correlated positively with the astaxanthin production rate, whereas there was a negative correlation with the ethanol production rate. The influence of glucose concentration at a fixed nitrogen concentration with a high level of oxygen was then investigated. The results showed that astaxanthin production was enhanced by an initial high carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) present in the medium, but cell growth was inhibited by a high glucose concentration. A stoichiometric analysis suggested that astaxanthin production was enhanced by decreasing the amount of NADPH required for anabolism, which could be achieved by the repression of protein biosynthesis with a high C/N ratio. Based on these results, we performed a two-stage fed-batch culture, in which cell growth was enhanced by a low C/N ratio in the first stage and astaxanthin production was enhanced by a high C/N ratio in the second stage. In this culture system, the highest astaxanthin production, 16.0 mg per liter, was obtained. PMID:16535733

  15. Genotoxicity and subacute toxicity studies of a new astaxanthin-containing Phaffia rhodozyma extract.

    PubMed

    Tago, Yoshiyuki; Fujii, Toshihide; Wada, Jutaro; Kato, Masanori; Wei, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Kitano, Mitsuaki

    2014-06-01

    Experimental and clinical studies demonstrate that astaxanthin (AXN), a xanthophyll carotenoid, has protective effects against oxidative damage. Because most of these studies assessed AXN derived from Haematococcus pluvialis that were cultivated at industrial scales, few studies have examined the toxicity of AXN derived from Phaffia rhodozyma. To evaluate the safety of astaxanthin-containing P. rhodozymaextract (AXN-PRE), genotoxicity was assessed in bacterial reverse mutation test and mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, and general toxicity was assessed in 4-week repeated oral toxicity study in rats. AXN-PRE did not induce reverse mutations in the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 or TA100 at concentrations of 5,000 µg/plate with or without S9 mix, and no chromosome damage was observed at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg in mouse micronucleus test. In the subacute toxicity study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given AXN-PRE at doses of 0, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg by gavage for 4 weeks. Body weights, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weights, or histopathological lesions indicated no distinct toxicity. In conclusion, AXN-PRE had no effect in bacterial reverse mutation test and mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for AXN-PRE in 4-week repeated oral toxicity study in rats was determined to be greater than 1,000 mg/kg (corresponding to dose of 50 mg/kg AXN) regardless of gender. PMID:24849672

  16. Analysis of proteomic changes in colored mutants of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma).

    PubMed

    Barbachano-Torres, Alejandra; Castelblanco-Matiz, Lina M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Salgado, Luis M; Flores-Ortiz, César M; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa

    2014-06-01

    The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous synthesizes astaxanthin as its most prevalent xanthophyll derivative. Comparisons between the protein profiles of mutant lines of this yeast can provide insight into the carotenogenic pathway. Differently colored mutants (red, orange, pink, yellow, and white) were obtained from this yeast species, and their protein profiles were determined using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE). Individual proteins differentially expressed were identified using mass spectrometry. The red mutants hyperproduced total carotenoids (mainly astaxanthin), while in white and orange mutants, mutagenesis affected the phytoene dehydrogenase activity as indicated by the accumulation of phytoene. Inactivation of astaxanthin synthase after the mutagenic treatment was evident in ?-carotene accumulating mutants. Differences in the proteomic profiles of wild-type X. dendrorhous and its colored mutants were demonstrated using 2DE. Of the total number of spots detected in each gel (297-417), 128 proteins were present in all strains. The red mutant showed the greatest number of matches with respect to the wild type (305 spots), while the white and yellow mutants, which had reduced concentrations of total carotenoids, presented the highest correlation coefficient (0.6) between each other. A number of differentially expressed proteins were sequenced, indicating that tricarboxylic acid cycle and stress response proteins are closely related to the carotenogenic process. PMID:24676883

  17. Accumulation of xanthophylls from the phaffia yeast (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhrous) in calves.

    PubMed

    Tani, Chikako; Maoka, Takashi; Tani, Mineto; Moritomo, Yasuo; Okada, Toru; Kitahara, Go; Katamoto, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    An investigation into the absorption and accumulation of carotenoids from phaffia yeast in two to three-week-old calves was carried out. Carotenoid contents of the control cattle (n=1) were 615.0 ng/g in the liver, 263.7 ng/g in the duodenum, 218.0 ng/g in the pancreas, 170.0 ng/g in the blood, 140.3 ng/g in the jejunum, 115.0 ng/g in the spleen. Among the accumulated carotenoids, ?-carotene was presented as a major component (86.0 to 94.3%) along with lutein (5.7 to 14.0%) as a minor component. On the other hand, carotenoid contents in phaffia yeast-supplemented (5 g/day for one month) calves (n=3) were 4 to 10 times higher than those of the control calf. Carotenoid contents of phaffia yeast-supplemented calves were 2570.1±782 ng/g in the liver, 1806.6±1064 ng/g in the pancreas, 1648.4±630.2 ng/g in the spleen, and 1255.9±300.2 ng/g in the blood. In addition to ?-carotene, keto-carotenoids from phaffia yeast, echinenone, (3R)-3-hydroxyechinenone, and (3R,3'R)-astaxanthin, were accumulated in all organs of phaffia yeast-supplemented calves. ?-Carotene and (3R)-3-hydroxyechinenone were present as major carotenoids followed by echinenone. However, (3R,3'R)-astaxanthin, which was the major carotenoid in phaffia yeast, was found to be a minor carotenoid in calves. This indicated that calves well absorbed fewer polar xanthophylls, echinenone and (3R)-3-hydroxyechinenone compared to the polar xanthophyll, astaxanthin. PMID:25099913

  18. Astaxanthin biosynthesis is enhanced by high carotenogenic gene expression and decrease of fatty acids and ergosterol in a Phaffia rhodozyma mutant strain.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lili; Chi, Shuang; Tang, Yichen; Su, Zhongyu; Yin, Tie; Guan, Guohua; Li, Ying

    2011-03-01

    An astaxanthin-overproducing (?1000 ?g g(-1)) strain of Phaffia rhodozyma, termed MK19, was established through 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine and Co60 mutagenesis from wild-type JCM9042 (merely 35-67 ?g g(-1)). The total fatty acid content of MK19 was much lower than that of the wild type. Possible causes of the astaxanthin increase were studied at the gene expression level. The expression of the carotenogenic genes crtE, crtI, pbs, and ast, which are responsible for astaxanthin biosynthesis from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, was highly induced at the mRNA level, leading to excessive astaxanthin accumulation. In contrast, transcription levels of the genes (hmgs, hmgr, idi, mvk, mpd, fps), responsible for the initial steps in the terpenoid pathway, were essentially the same in wild type and MK19. Although fatty acid and total ergosterol content were reduced by 40-70 mg g(-1) and 760.3 ?g g(-1) , respectively, in MK19 as compared with the wild type, but the transcription levels of rate-limiting genes in fatty acid and ergosterol pathways such as acc and sqs were similar. Because fatty acids and ergosterol are two branch pathways of astaxanthin biosynthesis in P. rhodozyma, our findings indicate that enhancement of astaxanthin in MK19 results from decreased fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis, leading to precursor accumulation, and transfer to the astaxanthin pathway. Strengthening of the mevalonate pathway is suggested as a promising metabolic engineering approach for further astaxanthin enhancement in MK19. PMID:21155970

  19. Global distribution, diversity hot spots and niche transitions of an astaxanthin-producing eukaryotic microbe.

    PubMed

    David-Palma, Márcia; Libkind, Diego; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2014-02-01

    Microbes establish very diverse but still poorly understood associations with other microscopic or macroscopic organisms that do not follow the more conventional modes of competition or mutualism. Phaffia rhodozyma, an orange-coloured yeast that produces the biotechnologically relevant carotenoid astaxanthin, exhibits a Holarctic association with birch trees in temperate forests that contrasts with the more recent finding of a South American population associated with Nothofagus (southern beech) and with stromata of its biotrophic fungal parasite Cyttaria spp. We investigated whether the association of Phaffia with Nothofagus-Cyttaria could be expanded to Australasia, the other region of the world where Nothofagus are endemic, studied the genetic structure of populations representing the known worldwide distribution of Phaffia and analysed the evolution of the association with tree hosts. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that Phaffia diversity in Australasia is much higher than in other regions of the globe and that two endemic and markedly divergent lineages seem to represent new species. The observed genetic diversity correlates with host tree genera rather than with geography, which suggests that adaptation to the different niches is driving population structure in this yeast. The high genetic diversity and endemism in Australasia indicate that the genus evolved in this region and that the association with Nothofagus is the ancestral tree association. Estimates of the divergence times of Phaffia lineages point to splits that are much more recent than the break-up of Gondwana, supporting that long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance is responsible for observed distribution of P. rhodozyma. PMID:24372735

  20. Dry yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ranveig Thattai (None; )

    2005-09-27

    Yeast is a type of eukaryotic organism that can live in a dormant state. It can be activated from its dormant state by water and sugar. The yeast uses the sugar to grow and produces carbon dioxide gas as a byproduct.

  1. Yeast virology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    REED B. WICKNER

    The three families of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses and two families of retroviruses (retrotranspo- sons) of the yeast Sacc\\/zaromyces cerevisiaeare all trans- mitted between cells only by cell fusion, probably re- flecting the high frequency of mating of yeast cells in nature. One dsRNA virus and two retroviruses appar- ently use ribosomal \\

  2. Counting Yeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bealer, Jonathan; Welton, Briana

    1998-01-01

    Describes changes to a traditional study of population in yeast colonies. Changes to the procedures include: (1) only one culture per student team; (2) cultures are inoculated only once; and (3) the same tube is sampled daily. (DDR)

  3. Yeast Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

  4. Production, extraction, and quantification of astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous or Haematococcus pluvialis: standardized techniques.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Bocanegra, Alma Rosa

    2012-01-01

    For many years, benefits and disadvantages of pigments production either by microalgae or yeasts have been under analysis. In this contribution we shall deal with Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (formerly Phaffia rhodozyma) and Haematococcus pluvialis, which are known as major prominent microorganisms able to synthesize astaxanthin pigment. Then, the usual trend is to look for optimal conditions to conduct astaxanthin synthesis. From one side, pigment production by H. pluvialis is promoted under cellular stress conditions like nutrient deprivation, exposition to high light intensity, aeration. On the other side, X. dendrorhous is able to show significant increase in astaxanthin synthesis when grown in natural carbon sources like coconut milk, grape juice. The main aim of this chapter is to describe optimal environmental conditions for astaxanthin production by X. dendrorhous or H. pluvialis. PMID:22711125

  5. YEAST GENETICS Fred Winston

    E-print Network

    Winston, Fred

    YEAST GENETICS Fred Winston 7.1 Introduction Key Concepts · Genetic studies of the yeast. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ideal experimental organism. It is a microorganism that has a fast biology. Yeast has been the focus of extensive studies in many aspects of molecular biology. These areas

  6. Genital Yeast Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Oriel; Betty M. Partridge; Maire J. Denny; J. C. Coleman

    1972-01-01

    Genital yeast infection was studied in 533 women seen in a department of venereology. Yeasts were recovered in culture from 138 patients (26% of the total). Candida albicans accounted for 112 (81%) of the isolates and Torulopsis glabrata for 22 (16%); other yeasts were uncommon. There was no evidence that the presence of yeasts was related to age. 32% of

  7. Yeast Education Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Yeast Education Network provides a variety of resources to facilitate use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in undergraduate science curricula. Laboratory, classroom, and computer-based activities can be used with college and advanced high school students.

  8. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infection from your sexual partner. Condoms and dental dams may help prevent getting or passing yeast infections ... infection from your sexual partner. Condoms and dental dams may help prevent getting or passing yeast infections ...

  9. Vaginal Yeast Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Vaginal Yeast Infection Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Vaginal yeast infection, or vulvovaginal candidiasis, is a common cause ...

  10. CLONTECHInnovative Yeast Protocols Handbook

    E-print Network

    Erickson, F. Les

    CLONTECHInnovative Tools to Accelerate Discovery Yeast Protocols Handbook PT3024-1 (PR13103 FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY #12;Yeast Protocols Handbook CLONTECH Laboratories, Inc. www.clontech.com Protocol # PT3024-1 2 Version # PR13103 I. Introduction 4 II. Introduction to Yeast Promoters 5 III. Culturing

  11. Transformation of Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Hinnen; James B. Hicks; Gerald R. Fink

    1978-01-01

    A stable leu2- yeast strain has been transformed to LEU2+ by using a chimeric ColE1 plasmid carrying the yeast leu2 gene. We have used recently developed hybridization and restriction endonuclease mapping techniques to demonstrate directly the presence of the transforming DNA in the yeast genome and also to determine the arrangement of the sequences that were introduced. These studies show

  12. Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment is simple and painless. What Is a Yeast Infection? A yeast infection, also known as candidiasis ( ... you can be treated appropriately. Do Guys Get Yeast Infections? Guys can get an infection of the ...

  13. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction On this page: Key ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Red Yeast Rice Red yeast rice is made by ...

  14. Mitochondrial assembly in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Les A Grivell; Marta Artal-Sanz; Gertjan Hakkaart; Liesbeth de Jong; Leo G. J Nijtmans; Katinka van Oosterum; Michel Siep; Hans van der Spek

    1999-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is likely to be the first organism for which a complete inventory of mitochondrial proteins and their functions can be drawn up. A survey of the 340 or so proteins currently known to be localised in yeast mitochondria reveals the considerable investment required to maintain the organelle’s own genetic system, which itself contributes seven key components

  15. Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

  16. Yeasts: Neglected Pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Poulain; Boualem Sendid; Annie Standaert-Vitse; Chantal Fradin; Thierry Jouault; Samir Jawhara; Jean-Frederic Colombel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Current research on Crohn’s disease (CD) concerns molecular events related to loss of tolerance to microbes that could trigger or maintain inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. CD is also associated with antimicrobial antibodies, including the antibodies we described against yeast oligomannosides (ASCA). This prompted us to investigate a role for another yeast, Candida albicans, a very common commensal of

  17. Yeast transcription factors Kevin Struhl

    E-print Network

    Yeast transcription factors Kevin Struhl Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA Studies of yeast Transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are fundamentally similar in eukaryotic organisms from yeasts to humans (for reviews of yeast transcription, see [1,2]). Compo- nents of the chromatin template and the basic RNA

  18. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ai Leng Teoh; Gillian Heard; Julian Cox

    2004-01-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and

  19. Yeast expression platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Böer; Gerhard Steinborn; Gotthard Kunze; Gerd Gellissen

    2007-01-01

    Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms. They combine ease of genetic manipulations and the option for a simple fermentation\\u000a design of a microbial organism with the capabilities of an eukaryotic organism to secrete and to modify a protein according\\u000a to a general eukaryotic scheme. For platform applications, a range of yeast species has been developed during the last decades.\\u000a We present

  20. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

  1. Forces in yeast flocculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  2. Enzymatic fractionation of SAA-pretreated barley straw for production of fuel ethanol and astaxanthin as a value-added co-product.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Kim, Tae Hyun; Yoo, Chang Geun; Hicks, Kevin B

    2013-09-01

    Barley straw was used to demonstrate an integrated process for production of fuel ethanol and astaxanthin as a value-added co-product. Barley straw was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia using the previously determined optimum conditions, which included 77.6 °C treatment temperature, 12.1 h treatment time, 15 wt% ammonia concentration, and 1:8 solid-to-liquid ratio. In the newly developed process, the pretreated barley straw was first hydrolyzed with ACCELLERASE® XY (a commercial hemicellulase product) to generate a xylose-rich solution, which contained 3.8 g/l glucose, 22.9 g/l xylose, and 2.4 g/l arabinose, with 96 % of the original glucan being left intact. The xylose-rich solution was used for production of astaxanthin by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma without further treatment. The resulting cellulose-enriched solid residue was used for ethanol production in a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using ACCELLERASE® 1500 (a commercial cellulase product) and the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. At the end of the fermentation, 70 g/l ethanol was obtained, which was equivalent to 63 % theoretical yield based on the glucan content of the solid substrate. PMID:23836333

  3. Evolutionary history of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 20 ascomyceteous yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comp...

  4. Virtual Yeast Cell

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

  5. Yeast killer systems.

    PubMed Central

    Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

    1997-01-01

    The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

  6. Yeast Metabolism Lab Mrs. Zimmerman

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Yeast Metabolism Lab Mrs. Zimmerman 10/22/10 #12;Photosynthesis 6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Oxygen Glucose Carbon Dioxide Water Energy #12;Yeast · Unicellular · Eukaryotic (like us) · Kingdom Fungi" Saccharomyces cerevisiae #12;Alcoholic Fermentation · Some organisms, including yeast, can create energy without

  7. Genetics of Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

    The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

  8. Genome evolution in yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Dujon; David Sherman; Gilles Fischer; Pascal Durrens; Serge Casaregola; Ingrid Lafontaine; Jacky de Montigny; Christian Marck; Cécile Neuvéglise; Emmanuel Talla; Nicolas Goffard; Lionel Frangeul; Michel Aigle; Véronique Anthouard; Anna Babour; Valérie Barbe; Stéphanie Barnay; Sylvie Blanchin; Jean-Marie Beckerich; Emmanuelle Beyne; Claudine Bleykasten; Anita Boisramé; Jeanne Boyer; Laurence Cattolico; Fabrice Confanioleri; Antoine de Daruvar; Laurence Despons; Emmanuelle Fabre; Cécile Fairhead; Hélène Ferry-Dumazet; Alexis Groppi; Florence Hantraye; Christophe Hennequin; Nicolas Jauniaux; Philippe Joyet; Rym Kachouri; Alix Kerrest; Romain Koszul; Marc Lemaire; Isabelle Lesur; Laurence Ma; Héloïse Muller; Jean-Marc Nicaud; Macha Nikolski; Sophie Oztas; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Stefan Pellenz; Serge Potier; Guy-Franck Richard; Marie-Laure Straub; Audrey Suleau; Dominique Swennen; Fredj Tekaia; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Eric Westhof; Bénédicte Wirth; Maria Zeniou-Meyer; Ivan Zivanovic; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Agnès Thierry; Christiane Bouchier; Bernard Caudron; Claude Scarpelli; Claude Gaillardin; Jean Weissenbach; Patrick Wincker; Jean-Luc Souciet

    2004-01-01

    Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity

  9. METHODS TO IDENTIFY YEAST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are commonly identified from either phenotype or, more recently, from diagnostic gene sequences. Methods based on phenotype include fermentation reactions on a select set of sugars and growth responses on various carbon and nitrogen sources or on other diagnostic compounds. Isolates are fur...

  10. Opportunistic Pathogenic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Uma

    Advances in medical research, made during the last few decades, have improved the prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for variety of infections/diseases. However, many of the prophylactic and therapeutic procedures have been seen in many instances to exact a price of host-vulnerability to an expanding group of opportunistic pathogens and yeasts are one of the important members in it. Fortunately amongst the vast majority of yeasts present in nature only few are considered to have the capability to cause infections when certain opportunities predisposes and these are termed as ‘opportunistic pathogenic yeasts.’ However, the term ‘pathogenic’ is quite tricky, as it depends of various factors of the host, the ‘bug’ and the environment to manifest the clinical infection. The borderline is expanding. In the present century with unprecedented increase in number of immune-compromised host in various disciplines of health care settings, where any yeast, which has the capability to grow at 37 ° C (normal body temperature of human), can be pathogenic and cause infection in particular situation

  11. Flavour-active wine yeasts.

    PubMed

    Cordente, Antonio G; Curtin, Christopher D; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S

    2012-11-01

    The flavour of fermented beverages such as beer, cider, saké and wine owe much to the primary fermentation yeast used in their production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Where once the role of yeast in fermented beverage flavour was thought to be limited to a small number of volatile esters and higher alcohols, the discovery that wine yeast release highly potent sulfur compounds from non-volatile precursors found in grapes has driven researchers to look more closely at how choice of yeast can influence wine style. This review explores recent progress towards understanding the range of 'flavour phenotypes' that wine yeast exhibit, and how this knowledge has been used to develop novel flavour-active yeasts. In addition, emerging opportunities to augment these phenotypes by engineering yeast to produce so-called grape varietal compounds, such as monoterpenoids, will be discussed. PMID:22940803

  12. Yeasts associated with Manteca.

    PubMed

    Suzzi, Giovanna; Schirone, Maria; Martuscelli, Maria; Gatti, Monica; Fornasari, Maria Emanuela; Neviani, Erasmo

    2003-04-01

    Manteca is a traditional milk product of southern Italy produced from whey deriving from Caciocavallo Podolico cheese-making. This study was undertaken to obtain more information about the microbiological properties of this product and particularly about the presence, metabolic activities, and technological significance of the different yeast species naturally occurring in Manteca. High numbers of yeasts were counted after 7 days ripening (10(4)-10(5) cfu g(-1)) and then decreased to 10(2) at the end. A total of 179 isolates were identified and studied for their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The most frequently encountered species were Trichosporon asahii (45), Candida parapsilosis (33), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (32), Candida inconspicua (29). Some of these yeasts showed lipolytic activity (32 strains) and proteolytic activity (29 strains), NaCl resistance up to 10% and growth up to 45 degrees C (42 strains). Biogenic amines were formed by proteolytic strains, in particular phenylethylamine, putrescine and spermidine. Spermidine was produced by all the yeasts tested in this work, but only Trichosporon produced a great quantity of this compound. Histamine was not detectable. Caseinolytic activity was common to almost all strains, corresponding to the ability to efficiently split off amino-terminal amino acids. The highest and most constant activity expressed by all species was X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase. The findings suggest that the presence of yeasts may play a significant role in justifying interactions with lactic acid bacteria, and consequently with their metabolic activity in the definition of the peculiar characteristics of Manteca cheese. PMID:12702448

  13. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

  14. ''Is Yeast Alive?''

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Katrenia Hosea-Flanigan (Frank Cody High School)

    2006-04-01

    In this inquiry activity students explore the characteristics of living organisms to determine whether yeast meets the criteria of a living thing. This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2006 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  15. Emerging opportunistic yeast infections.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Marisa H; Díaz, José A; Lee, Samuel A

    2011-02-01

    A growing population of immunosuppressed patients has resulted in increasingly frequent diagnoses of invasive fungal infections, including those caused by unusual yeasts. The incidence of non-albicans species of Candida is increasing compared with that of Candida albicans, and several species, such as Candida glabrata and Candida krusei, may be resistant to azole antifungal therapy. Trichosporon species are the second most common cause of fungaemia in patients with haematological malignant disease and are characterised by resistance to amphotericin and echinocandins and poor prognosis. Rhodotorula species belong to the family Cryptococcaceae, and are a cause of catheter-related fungaemia, sepsis, and invasive disease in severely immunosuppressed patients. An increasing number of sporadic cases of invasive fungal infections by non-neoformans cryptococci have been reported in immunocompromised hosts, especially for patients with advanced HIV infection or cancer who are undergoing transplant. Other uncommon yeasts that can cause invasive disease in severely immunosuppressed patients include Geotrichum, Hansenula, Malassezia, and Saccharomyces. Host immune status is a crucial determinant of the type of invasive fungal infection a patient is at risk for. Diagnosis can be challenging and relies heavily on traditional cultures of blood and other sterile sites, although serum (1,3)-?-D-glucan testing might have an adjunctive role. Although rare yeasts are emerging as opportunistic human pathogens, diagnosis remains challenging and treatment suboptimal. PMID:21272794

  16. Yeast interactions and wine flavour.

    PubMed

    Fleet, Graham H

    2003-09-01

    Wine is the product of complex interactions between fungi, yeasts and bacteria that commence in the vineyard and continue throughout the fermentation process until packaging. Although grape cultivar and cultivation provide the foundations of wine flavour, microorganisms, especially yeasts, impact on the subtlety and individuality of the flavour response. Consequently, it is important to identify and understand the ecological interactions that occur between the different microbial groups, species and strains. These interactions encompass yeast-yeast, yeast-filamentous fungi and yeast-bacteria responses. The surface of healthy grapes has a predominance of Aureobasidium pullulans, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora (Kloeckera), Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula species depending on stage of maturity. This microflora moderates the growth of spoilage and mycotoxigenic fungi on grapes, the species and strains of yeasts that contribute to alcoholic fermentation, and the bacteria that contribute to malolactic fermentation. Damaged grapes have increased populations of lactic and acetic acid bacteria that impact on yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation is characterised by the successional growth of various yeast species and strains, where yeast-yeast interactions determine the ecology. Through yeast-bacterial interactions, this ecology can determine progression of the malolactic fermentation, and potential growth of spoilage bacteria in the final product. The mechanisms by which one species/strain impacts on another in grape-wine ecosystems include: production of lytic enzymes, ethanol, sulphur dioxide and killer toxin/bacteriocin like peptides; nutrient depletion including removal of oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide; and release of cell autolytic components. Cell-cell communication through quorum sensing molecules needs investigation. PMID:12892919

  17. Conservation of yeasts by dehydration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Beker; Alexander Rapoport

    The presented material concerns the theoretical basis for obtaining high-quality active dry biopreparations. It deals with the present understanding of anabiosis, contains data on yeast resistance against dehydration and the limits for preserving the viability of microorganisms in anabiosis. The process of water transport in yeast biomass during dehydration is discussed.\\u000a The changes and transformations in yeast cells occuring after

  18. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

  19. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

  20. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

  1. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

  2. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

  3. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Athanasios A. Koutinas

    2006-01-01

    Summary Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the

  4. Yeast Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Rollides; Thomas J. Walsh

    A number of yeast fungi are pathogenic, but the two genera that contain the most important animal and human pathogens are\\u000a Candida and Cryptococcus. In addition, there are a number of other yeasts that have been, more rarely, implicated in disease.

  5. Yeast interactions and wine flavour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham H. Fleet

    2003-01-01

    Wine is the product of complex interactions between fungi, yeasts and bacteria that commence in the vineyard and continue throughout the fermentation process until packaging. Although grape cultivar and cultivation provide the foundations of wine flavour, microorganisms, especially yeasts, impact on the subtlety and individuality of the flavour response. Consequently, it is important to identify and understand the ecological interactions

  6. Preservation of manipulated yeast diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joong Kyun Kim; Hae-Yoon Chung

    2002-01-01

    Manipulated yeast diet can be usedfor seed production of aquacultural organisms.Various methods for preserving the yeast dietduring the periods of circulation in marketwere tested, and the preservation of the yeastdiet by freeze-drying was the best. With thispreservation method, the manipulated yeastswere maintained fairly well (up to 71%) whenstored for three weeks under refrigeratedcondition (4 °C), while more than 80% ofthe

  7. Agriculturally important yeasts: Biological control of field and postharvest diseases using yeast antagonists, and yeasts as pathogens of plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two important agricultural aspects of yeasts, control of plant diseases through application of yeasts as the control agent, and yeasts that are plant pathogens are reviewed. Yeasts as biocontrol organisms are presented first, followed by a discussion of some of the more common plant pathogenic yeas...

  8. Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    1995-12-31

    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species. PMID:15282124

  10. Yeast Breads: Made at Home. 

    E-print Network

    Cox, Maeona; Harris, Jimmie Nell; Reasonover, Frances; Mason, Lousie

    1957-01-01

    tablespoons sugar ll/z teaspoons salt cup shortening 1/4 CUP lukewarm water 2 packages yeast or 2 yeast cakes 39'4 CUPS flour Apple Coffee Cake. Scald milk and stir in sugar, salt and shorten~r , Cool to lukewarm. Sprinkle or crumble yeast tnto nit1.... Honey twist. Streusel coffee cake. Butterscotch pecan rolls. STREUSEL COFFEE CAKE 2 tablespoons butter or margarine 2 tablespoons sugar cup flour CUP fine bread crumbs 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon Cream fat and sugar. Add flour, bread crumbs...

  11. Polyglutamine misfolding in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Protein misfolding is associated with many human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and Huntington disease. Protein misfolding often results in the formation of intracellular or extracellular inclusions or aggregates. Even though deciphering the role of these aggregates has been the object of intense research activity, their role in protein misfolding diseases is unclear. Here, I discuss the implications of studies on polyglutamine aggregation and toxicity in yeast and other model organisms. These studies provide an excellent experimental and conceptual paradigm that contributes to understanding the differences between toxic and protective trajectories of protein misfolding. Future studies like the ones discussed here have the potential to transform basic concepts of protein misfolding in human diseases and may thus help to identify new therapeutic strategies for their treatment. PMID:22052348

  12. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drugs, and some may contain a potentially harmful contaminant. This fact sheet provides basic information about red ... supplements. Some red yeast rice products contain a contaminant called citrinin, which can cause kidney failure. Tell ...

  13. Mössbauer studies on yeast metallothionein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X.-Q. Ding; E. Bill; A. X. Trautwein; H. J. Hartmann; U. Weser

    1994-01-01

    Iron-substituted yeast metallothionein, Fe(II)-yeast-MT, has been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The iron in the protein is in the high-spin ferrous state. As maximum metal content, 4 Fe(II)\\/molecule has been determined, with the 4 metal ions forming a diamagnetic cluster due to the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between the Fe(II) ions via bridging thiolates. In case the iron titration is less than

  14. Sociobiology of the budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wloch-Salamon, Dominika M

    2014-04-01

    Social theory has provided a useful framework for research with microorganisms. Here I describe the advantages and possible risks of using a well-known model organism, the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for sociobiological research. I discuss the problems connected with clear classification of yeast behaviour based on the fitnessbased Hamilton paradigm. Relevant traits include different types of communities, production of flocculins, invertase and toxins, and the presence of apoptosis. PMID:24736156

  15. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  16. Study of amyloids using yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Shewmaker, Frank; McGlinchey, Ryan; Edskes, Herman K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism in such fields as the cell cycle, regulation of transcription, protein trafficking and cell biology, primarily because of its ease of genetic manipulation. This is no less so in the area of amyloid studies. The endogenous yeast amyloids described to date include prions, infectious proteins (Table 1), and some cell wall proteins (1). and amyloids of humans and a fungal prion have also been studied using the yeast system. Accordingly, the emphasis of this chapter will be on genetic, biochemical, cell biological and physical methods particularly useful in the study of yeast prions and other amyloids studied in yeast. We limit our description of these methods to those aspects which have been most useful in studying yeast prions, citing more detailed expositions in the literature. Volumes on yeast genetics methods (2–4), and on amyloids and prions (5, 6) are useful, and Masison has edited a volume of Methods on “Identification, analysis and characterization of fungal prions” which covers some of this territory (7). We also outline some useful physical methods, pointing the reader to more extensive and authoratative descriptions. PMID:22528100

  17. Coherent regulation in yeast’s cell-cycle network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aral, Ne?e; Kabakç?o?lu, Alkan

    2015-05-01

    We define a measure of coherent activity for gene regulatory networks, a property that reflects the unity of purpose between the regulatory agents with a common target. We propose that such harmonious regulatory action is desirable under a demand for energy efficiency and may be selected for under evolutionary pressures. We consider two recent models of the cell-cycle regulatory network of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a case study and calculate their degree of coherence. A comparison with random networks of similar size and composition reveals that the yeast’s cell-cycle regulation is wired to yield an exceptionally high level of coherent regulatory activity. We also investigate the mean degree of coherence as a function of the network size, connectivity and the fraction of repressory/activatory interactions.

  18. Nuclear Transport of Yeast Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Enenkel, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    Proteasomes are conserved protease complexes enriched in the nuclei of dividing yeast cells, a major site for protein degradation. If yeast cells do not proliferate and transit to quiescence, metabolic changes result in the dissociation of proteasomes into proteolytic core and regulatory complexes and their sequestration into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli. These granuli rapidly clear with the resumption of growth, releasing the stored proteasomes, which relocalize back to the nucleus to promote cell cycle progression. Here, I report on three models of how proteasomes are transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus of yeast cells. The first model applies for dividing yeast and is based on the canonical pathway using classical nuclear localization sequences of proteasomal subcomplexes and the classical import receptor importin/karyopherin ??. The second model applies for quiescent yeast cells, which resume growth and use Blm10, a HEAT-like repeat protein structurally related to karyopherin ?, for nuclear import of proteasome core particles. In the third model, the fully-assembled proteasome is imported into the nucleus. Our still marginal knowledge about proteasome dynamics will inspire the discussion on how protein degradation by proteasomes may be regulated in different cellular compartments of dividing and quiescent eukaryotic cells. PMID:25333764

  19. 280 EXPRESSION IN YEAST [23] [23] Manipulating Yeast Genome Using Plasmid Vectors

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    280 EXPRESSION IN YEAST [23] [23] Manipulating Yeast Genome Using Plasmid Vectors By TIM STEARNS, HONG MA, and DAVID BOTSTEIN The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proved to be a popular high status of yeast as an experimental system is in large part due to the work of the many geneticists

  20. Pre-Absorbing Antibody with Yeast Cells Preparation of Fixed Yeast

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    106 Pre-Absorbing Antibody with Yeast Cells Preparation of Fixed Yeast 1. Plan to do steps 1-10 in the yeast immunofluorescence method. But, start with 100 mls of cells at OD600=0.2. Then, do all steps in quadruplicate. Do pretreatment, and digest cells for 10 minutes. 2. Pool all yeast in SPC + Pics in one

  1. Yeast through the ages: A statistical analysis of genetic changes in aging yeast

    E-print Network

    Hardin, Jo

    Yeast through the ages: A statistical analysis of genetic changes in aging yeast A. Wise J. Hardin focuses on the analysis of data from a yeast DNA microarray experiment. The biological question that motivates our research is "What genetic changes in yeast happen over time?" In order to explore the research

  2. APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA

    E-print Network

    Winston, Fred

    containers in which 2.5 kg of dextrose is packaged. Throughout this chapter, YNB -AA/AS refers to yeastAPPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA Like Escherichia coli, yeast can be grown in either liquid media or on the surface of (or embedded in) solid agar plates

  3. Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Microbes_040115-1.html Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin HealthDay News ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin For closed ...

  4. Yeast Can Affect Behavior and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, William G.

    1984-01-01

    A pediatrician recounts his experiences in diagnosing and treating allergies to common yeast germs that may result in behavior and learning problems. He lists characteristics that may predispose children to yeast-connected health problems. (CL)

  5. Cdc42 Oscillations in Yeasts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Felipe O. Bendezu (Switzerland; University of Lausanne REV)

    2012-12-04

    A fundamental problem in cell biology is how cells define one or several discrete sites of polarity. Through mechanisms involving positive and negative feedback, the small Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase Cdc42 breaks symmetry in round budding yeast cells to define a single site of polarized cell growth. However, it is not clear how cells can define multiple sites of polarization concurrently. We discuss a study in which rod-shaped fission yeast cells, which naturally polarize growth at their two cell ends, exhibited oscillations of Cdc42 activity between these sites. We compare these findings with similar oscillatory behavior of Cdc42 detected in budding yeast cells and discuss the possible mechanism and functional outputs of these oscillations.

  6. Yeast proteome map (update 2006).

    PubMed

    Perrot, Michel; Guieysse-Peugeot, Anne-Laure; Massoni, Aurélie; Espagne, Christelle; Claverol, Stéphane; Silva, Raquel Monteiro; Jenö, Paul; Santos, Manuel; Bonneu, Marc; Boucherie, Hélian

    2007-04-01

    To improve the potential of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for proteomic investigations in yeast we have undertaken the systematic identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins separated on 2-D gels. We report here the identification of 187 novel protein spots. They were identified by two methods, mass spectrometry and gene inactivation. These identifications extend the number of protein spots identified on our yeast 2-D proteome map to 602, i.e. nearly half the detectable spots of the proteome map. These spots correspond to 417 different proteins. The reference map and the list of identified proteins can be accessed on the Yeast Protein Map server (www.ibgc.u-bordeaux2.fr/YPM). PMID:17351888

  7. Red yeast rice: a new hypolipidemic drug

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mélanie Journoud; Peter J. H Jones

    2004-01-01

    Red yeast rice is a source of fermented pigment with possible bioactive effect. Evidence shows that fermented red yeast rice lowers cholesterol levels moderately compared to other statin drugs, but with the added advantage of causing less adverse effects. A review of the body of evidence surrounding the properties of red yeast rice underscores its potential as a new alternative

  8. Enological functions of parietal yeast mannoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Caridi

    2006-01-01

    Parietal yeast mannoproteins play a very important role in the overall vinification process. Their production and release, both during winemaking and aging on lees, depends on the specific yeast strain and the nutritional conditions. The following enological functions of parietal yeast mannoproteins have been described: (a) adsorption of ochratoxin A; (b) combination with phenolic compounds; (c) increased growth of malolactic

  9. YEASTBOOK PERSPECTIVES Yeast: An Experimental Organism

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    YEASTBOOK PERSPECTIVES Yeast: An Experimental Organism for 21st Century Biology David Botstein*,1, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ABSTRACT In this essay, we revisit the status of yeast as a model system for biology. We first summarize important contributions of yeast to eukaryotic biology that we anticipated

  10. Yeast: A Research Organism for Teaching Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manney, Thomas R.; Manney, Monta L.

    1992-01-01

    Explains why laboratory strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are particularly suited for classroom science activities. Describes the sexual life cycle of yeast and the genetic system with visible mutations. Presents an overview of activities that can be done with yeast and gives a source for teachers to obtain more information. (PR)

  11. Mössbauer studies on yeast metallothionein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, X.-Q.; Bill, E.; Trautwein, A. X.; Hartmann, H. J.; Weser, U.

    1994-12-01

    Iron-substituted yeast metallothionein, Fe(II)-yeast-MT, has been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The iron in the protein is in the high-spin ferrous state. As maximum metal content, 4 Fe(II)/molecule has been determined, with the 4 metal ions forming a diamagnetic cluster due to the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between the Fe(II) ions via bridging thiolates. In case the iron titration is less than 4 Fe(II)/apoprotein, the ions are magnetically noninteracting, with each individual Fe(II) behaving similar to Fe(II) in reduced rubredoxin.

  12. Combined nuclear measurements of yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, N. S.; Al-Saleh, K. A.; Arafah, D.-E.; Halim, N. A.

    1987-05-01

    Combined Rutherford backscattering (RBS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) techniques were used to determine the elemental composition of yeast. Results reveal no toxic elements (e.g. Ag, Pb, etc) in yeast. Yet results display some similarities in concentrations of some elements (e.g. Ti, Mn, Ni, Cu and Sr), large differences are observed for others (e.g. S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Zn). Variations are accounted due to different growing media or contamination during processing.

  13. Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast and a brewer's yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuhiko Mukai; Chiharu Nishimori; Ikuko Wilson Fujishige; Akihiro Mizuno; Toshiro Takahashi; Kazuo Sato

    2001-01-01

    Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast (a lysine auxotrophic mutant of sake yeast K-14) and a brewer's yeast (a respiratory-deficient mutant of the top fermentation yeast NCYC1333) was performed to take advantage of the beneficial characteristics of sake yeasts, i.e., the high productivity of esters, high tolerance to ethanol, and high osmotolerance. The fusant (F-32) obtained was

  14. Yeast Cultures in Ruminant Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. DENEV; Tz. PEEVA; P. RADULOVA; N. STANCHEVA; G. STAYKOVA; G. BEEV; P. TODOROVA; S. TCHOBANOVA

    2007-01-01

    Abstract DENEV,, S. A., Tz. PEEVA, P. RADULOVA, P. STANCHEVA, G. STAYKOVA, G. BEEV, P. TODOROVA and S. TCHOBANOVA, 2007. Yeast cultures in ruminant nutrition. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci.13: 357-374 Interest in the use of fungal direct-fed microbials in ruminant nutrition is considerable.The

  15. Malassezia Baillon, emerging clinical yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roma Batra; Teun Boekhout; Eveline Guého; F. Javier Cabañes; Thomas L. Dawson; Aditya K. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    The human and animal pathogenic yeast genus Malassezia has received considerable attention in recent years from dermatologists, other clinicians, veterinarians and mycologists. Some points highlighted in this review include recent advances in the technological developments related to detection, identification, and classification of Malassezia species. The clinical association of Malassezia species with a number of mammalian dermatological diseases including dandruff, seborrhoeic

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum involvement in yeast cell death

    PubMed Central

    Austriaco, O. P., Nicanor

    2012-01-01

    Yeast cells undergo programed cell death (PCD) with characteristic markers associated with apoptosis in mammalian cells including chromatin breakage, nuclear fragmentation, reactive oxygen species generation, and metacaspase activation. Though significant research has focused on mitochondrial involvement in this phenomenon, more recent work with both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe has also implicated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in yeast PCD. This minireview provides an overview of ER stress-associated cell death (ER-SAD) in yeast. It begins with a description of ER structure and function in yeast before moving to a discussion of ER-SAD in both mammalian and yeast cells. Three examples of yeast cell death associated with the ER will be highlighted here including inositol starvation, lipid toxicity, and the inhibition of N-glycosylation. It closes by suggesting ways to further examine the involvement of the ER in yeast cell death. PMID:22876361

  17. Occurrence and Growth of Yeasts in Yogurts

    PubMed Central

    Suriyarachchi, V. R.; Fleet, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    Yogurts purchased from retail outlets were examined for the presence of yeasts by being plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar. Of the 128 samples examined, 45% exhibited yeast counts above 103 cells per g. A total of 73 yeast strains were isolated and identified as belonging to the genera Torulopsis, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Candida, Rhodotorula, Pichia, Debaryomyces, and Sporobolomyces. Torulopsis candida and Kluyveromyces fragilis were the most frequently isolated species, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula rubra, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Torulopsis versatilis. The growth of yeasts in yogurts was related to the ability of the yeasts to grow at refrigeration temperatures, to ferment lactose and sucrose, and to hydrolyze milk casein. Most yeast isolates grew in the presence of 100 ?g of sorbate and benzoate preservatives per ml. Higher yeast counts from yogurts were obtained when the yogurts were plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar than when they were plated onto acidified malt extract agar. PMID:16345853

  18. Mycotoxins - prevention and decontamination by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Pfliegler, Walter P; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Pócsi, István

    2015-07-01

    The application of yeasts has great potential in reducing the economic damage caused by toxigenic fungi in the agriculture. Some yeasts may act as biocontrol agents inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi. These species may also gain importance in the preservation of agricultural products and in the reduction of their mycotoxin contamination, yet the extent of mycotoxin production in the presence of biocontrol agents is relatively less understood. The application of yeasts in various technological processes may have a direct inhibitory effect on the toxin production of certain molds, which is independent of their growth suppressing effect. Furthermore, several yeast species are capable of accumulating mycotoxins from agricultural products, thereby effectively decontaminating them. Probiotic yeasts or products containing yeast cell wall are also applied to counteract mycotoxicosis in livestock. Several yeast strains are also able to degrade toxins to less-toxic or even non-toxic substances. This intensively researched field would greatly benefit from a deeper knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of toxin degradation. Moreover, yeasts and their biotechnologically important enzymes may exhibit sensitivity to certain mycotoxins, thereby mounting a considerable problem for the biotechnological industry. It is noted that yeasts are generally regarded as safe; however, there are reports of toxin degrading species that may cause human fungal infections. The aspects of yeast-mycotoxin relations with a brief consideration of strain improvement strategies and genetic modification for improved detoxifying properties and/or mycotoxin resistance are reviewed here. PMID:25682759

  19. Yeast Metabolism Lab Purpose: To determine the effects of different

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    1 Yeast Metabolism Lab Purpose: To determine the effects of different carbohydrates on the metabolism of live yeast. Background: Some organisms are capable of photosynthesis- using energy captured treatment (yeast+water, yeast+glucose, or yeast+sweetener) will produce the most carbon dioxide (CO2) from

  20. Morphology of a human-derived YAC in yeast meiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Loidl; Harry Scherthan; Johan T. Den Dunnen; Franz Klein

    1995-01-01

    In meiosis of human males DNA is packaged along pachytene chromosomes about 20 time more compactly than in meiosis of yeast. Nevertheless, a human-derived yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) shows the same degree of compaction of DNA as endogenous chromosomes in meiotic prophase nuclei of yeast. This suggests that in yeast meiosis, human and yeast DNA adopt a similar organization of

  1. Morphology of a human-derived YAC in yeast meiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Loidl; Harry Scherthan; Johan T. Den Dunnen; Franz Klein

    1995-01-01

    In meiosis of human males DNA is packaged along pachytene chromosomes about 20 times more compactly than in meiosis of yeast. Nevertheless, a human-derived yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) shows the same degree of compaction of DNA as endogenous chromosomes in meiotic prophase nuclei of yeast. This suggests that in yeast meiosis, human and yeast DNA adopt a similar organization of

  2. Characterization of the Yeast Transcriptome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor E. Velculescu; Lin Zhang; Wei Zhou; Jacob Vogelstein; Munira A. Basrai; Douglas E Bassett; Phil Hieter; Bert Vogelstein; Kenneth W. Kinzler

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed the set of genes expressed from the yeast genome, herein called the transcriptome, using serial analysis of gene expression. Analysis of 60,633 transcripts revealed 4,665 genes, with expression levels ranging from 0.3 to over 200 transcripts per cell. Of these genes, 1981 had known functions, while 2684 were previously uncharacterized. The integration of positional information with gene

  3. Malassezia Baillon, emerging clinical yeasts.

    PubMed

    Batra, Roma; Boekhout, Teun; Guého, Eveline; Cabañes, F Javier; Dawson, Thomas L; Gupta, Aditya K

    2005-12-01

    The human and animal pathogenic yeast genus Malassezia has received considerable attention in recent years from dermatologists, other clinicians, veterinarians and mycologists. Some points highlighted in this review include recent advances in the technological developments related to detection, identification, and classification of Malassezia species. The clinical association of Malassezia species with a number of mammalian dermatological diseases including dandruff, seborrhoeic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, psoriasis, folliculitis and otitis is also discussed. PMID:16084129

  4. Yeast diversity in hypersaline habitats.

    PubMed

    Butinar, L; Santos, S; Spencer-Martins, I; Oren, A; Gunde-Cimerman, N

    2005-03-15

    Thus far it has been considered that hypersaline natural brines which are subjected to extreme solar heating, do not contain non-melanized yeast populations. Nevertheless we have isolated yeasts in eight different salterns worldwide, as well as from the Dead Sea, Enriquillo Lake (Dominican Republic) and the Great Salt Lake (Utah). Among the isolates obtained from hypersaline waters, Pichia guilliermondii, Debaryomyces hansenii, Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida parapsilosis are known contaminants of low water activity food, whereas Rhodosporidium sphaerocarpum, R. babjevae, Rhodotorula laryngis, Trichosporon mucoides, and a new species resembling C. glabrata were not known for their halotolerance and were identified for the first time in hypersaline habitats. Moreover, the ascomycetous yeast Metschnikowia bicuspidata, known to be a parasite of the brine shrimp, was isolated as a free-living form from the Great Salt Lake brine. In water rich in magnesium chloride (bitterns) from the La Trinitat salterns (Spain), two new species provisionally named C. atmosphaerica - like and P. philogaea - like were discovered. PMID:15766773

  5. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  6. Assembly of eukaryotic algal chromosomes in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Synthetic genomic approaches offer unique opportunities to use powerful yeast and Escherichia coli genetic systems to assemble and modify chromosome-sized molecules before returning the modified DNA to the target host. For example, the entire 1 Mb Mycoplasma mycoides chromosome can be stably maintained and manipulated in yeast before being transplanted back into recipient cells. We have previously demonstrated that cloning in yeast of large (>?~?150 kb), high G?+?C (55%) prokaryotic DNA fragments was improved by addition of yeast replication origins every ~100 kb. Conversely, low G?+?C DNA is stable (up to at least 1.8 Mb) without adding supplemental yeast origins. It has not been previously tested whether addition of yeast replication origins similarly improves the yeast-based cloning of large (>150 kb) eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content. The model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has an average G?+?C content of 48% and a 27.4 Mb genome sequence that has been assembled into chromosome-sized scaffolds making it an ideal test case for assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic chromosomes in yeast. Results We present a modified chromosome assembly technique in which eukaryotic chromosomes as large as ~500 kb can be assembled from cloned ~100 kb fragments. We used this technique to clone fragments spanning P. tricornutum chromosomes 25 and 26 and to assemble these fragments into single, chromosome-sized molecules. We found that addition of yeast replication origins improved the cloning, assembly, and maintenance of the large chromosomes in yeast. Furthermore, purification of the fragments to be assembled by electroelution greatly increased assembly efficiency. Conclusions Entire eukaryotic chromosomes can be successfully cloned, maintained, and manipulated in yeast. These results highlight the improvement in assembly and maintenance afforded by including yeast replication origins in eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content (48%). They also highlight the increased efficiency of assembly that can be achieved by purifying fragments before assembly. PMID:24325901

  7. Yeasts in floral nectar: a quantitative survey

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Carlos M.; de Vega, Clara; Canto, Azucena; Pozo, María I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims One peculiarity of floral nectar that remains relatively unexplored from an ecological perspective is its role as a natural habitat for micro-organisms. This study assesses the frequency of occurrence and abundance of yeast cells in floral nectar of insect-pollinated plants from three contrasting plant communities on two continents. Possible correlations between interspecific differences in yeast incidence and pollinator composition are also explored. Methods The study was conducted at three widely separated areas, two in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and one in the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico). Floral nectar samples from 130 species (37–63 species per region) in 44 families were examined microscopically for the presence of yeast cells. For one of the Spanish sites, the relationship across species between incidence of yeasts in nectar and the proportion of flowers visited by each of five major pollinator categories was also investigated. Key Results Yeasts occurred regularly in the floral nectar of many species, where they sometimes reached extraordinary densities (up to 4 × 105 cells mm?3). Depending on the region, between 32 and 44 % of all nectar samples contained yeasts. Yeast cell densities in the order of 104 cells mm?3 were commonplace, and densities >105 cells mm?3 were not rare. About one-fifth of species at each site had mean yeast cell densities >104 cells mm?3. Across species, yeast frequency and abundance were directly correlated with the proportion of floral visits by bumble-bees, and inversely with the proportion of visits by solitary bees. Conclusions Incorporating nectar yeasts into the scenario of plant–pollinator interactions opens up a number of intriguing avenues for research. In addition, with yeasts being as ubiquitous and abundant in floral nectars as revealed by this study, and given their astounding metabolic versatility, studies focusing on nectar chemical features should carefully control for the presence of yeasts in nectar samples. PMID:19208669

  8. Efficacy of marine yeasts and baker's yeast as immunostimulants in Fenneropenaeus indicus: A comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Sarlin; Rosamma Philip

    2011-01-01

    Efficacy of marine yeasts Debaryomyces hansenii (S8) and Candida tropicalis (S186) as immunostimulants to Indian white prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus was estimated in comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae S36. Biomass of yeast strains was prepared using Malt Extract Agar and incorporated into a standard diet to prepare yeast diets of varying concentrations. F. indicus were fed these diets for a period of

  9. Role of glucose signaling in yeast metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, K. van [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). E.C. Slater Inst.

    1996-10-05

    The conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast was the first biochemical pathway to be studied in detail. The initial observation that this process is catalyzed by an extract of yeast led to the discovery of enzymes and coenzymes and laid the foundation for modern biochemistry. In this article, knowledge concerning the relation between uptake of and signaling by glucose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed and compared to the analogous process in prokaryotes. It is concluded that (much) more fundamental knowledge concerning these processes is required before rational redesign of metabolic fluxes from glucose in yeast can be achieved.

  10. Evaluation of Automated Yeast Identification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and nine teleomorphic and anamorphic yeast isolates representing approximately 30 taxa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the Biolog yeast identification system. Isolates derived from nomenclatural types, environmental, and clinica isolates of known identity were tested in the Biolog system. Of the isolates tested, 81 were in the Biolog database. The system correctly identified 40, incorrectly identified 29, and was unable to identify 12. Of the 28 isolates not in the database, 18 were given names, whereas 10 were not. The Biolog yeast identification system is inadequate for the identification of yeasts originating from the environment during space program activities.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  15. Drosophila Regulate Yeast Density and Increase Yeast Community Similarity in a Natural Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Judy A.; Yang, Louie H.; Morales, Vanessa M.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster adults and larvae, but especially larvae, had profound effects on the densities and community structure of yeasts that developed in banana fruits. Pieces of fruit exposed to adult female flies previously fed fly-conditioned bananas developed higher yeast densities than pieces of the same fruits that were not exposed to flies, supporting previous suggestions that adult Drosophila vector yeasts to new substrates. However, larvae alone had dramatic effects on yeast density and species composition. When yeast densities were compared in pieces of the same fruits assigned to different treatments, fruits that developed low yeast densities in the absence of flies developed significantly higher yeast densities when exposed to larvae. Across all of the fruits, larvae regulated yeast densities within narrow limits, as compared to a much wider range of yeast densities that developed in pieces of the same fruits not exposed to flies. Larvae also affected yeast species composition, dramatically reducing species diversity across fruits, reducing variation in yeast communities from one fruit to the next (beta diversity), and encouraging the consistent development of a yeast community composed of three species of yeast (Candida californica, C. zemplinina, and Pichia kluvyeri), all of which were palatable to larvae. Larvae excreted viable cells of these three yeast species in their fecal pools, and discouraged the growth of filamentous fungi, processes which may have contributed to their effects on the yeast communities in banana fruits. These and other findings suggest that D. melanogaster adults and their larval offspring together engage in ‘niche construction’, facilitating a predictable microbial environment in the fruit substrates in which the larvae live and develop. PMID:22860093

  16. Prevention of Yeast Spoilage in Feed and Food by the Yeast Mycocin HMK

    PubMed Central

    Lowes, K. F.; Shearman, C. A.; Payne, J.; MacKenzie, D.; Archer, D. B.; Merry, R. J.; Gasson, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe construction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier, which resulted in secretion of biologically active mycocin into the culture media. A partial purification protocol was developed, and a comparison with native W. mrakii mycocin showed that the heterologously expressed mycocin had similar physiological properties and an almost identical spectrum of biological activity against a number of yeasts isolated from silage and yoghurt. Two food and feed production systems prone to yeast spoilage were used as models to assess the ability of mycocin HMK to act as a biocontrol agent. The onset of aerobic spoilage in mature maize silage was delayed by application of A. niger mycocin HMK on opening because the toxin inhibited growth of the indigenous spoilage yeasts. This helped maintain both higher lactic acid levels and a lower pH. In yoghurt spiked with dairy spoilage yeasts, A. niger mycocin HMK was active at all of the storage temperatures tested at which yeast growth occurred, and there was no resurgence of resistant yeasts. The higher the yeast growth rate, the more effective the killing action of the mycocin. Thus, mycocin HMK has potential applications in controlling both silage spoilage and yoghurt spoilage caused by yeasts. PMID:10698773

  17. Anhydrobiosis in yeast: influence of calcium and magnesium ions on yeast resistance to dehydration-rehydration.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Yuliya; Walker, Graeme; Rapoport, Alexander

    2010-07-01

    The influence of calcium and magnesium ions on resistance to dehydration in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was investigated. Magnesium ion availability directly influenced yeast cells' resistance to dehydration and, when additionally supplemented with calcium ions, this provided further significant increase of yeast resistance to dehydration. Gradual rehydration of dry yeast cells in water vapour indicated that both magnesium and calcium may be important for the stabilization of yeast cell membranes. In particular, calcium ions were shown for the first time to increase the resistance of yeast cells to dehydration in stress-sensitive cultures from exponential growth phases. It is concluded that magnesium and calcium ion supplementations in nutrient media may increase the dehydration stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae cells significantly, and this finding is important for the production of active dry yeast preparations for food and fermentation industries. PMID:20487021

  18. Yeast Breads: Made at Home. 

    E-print Network

    Reasonover, Frances

    1971-01-01

    and salt. Cool to lukewarm. Add softened yeast. Blend well. Gradually add flour to form a soft dough. Cover. Let rise in warm place until light and doubled in bulk from 1% to 2 hours. Roll out dough on well-floured surface or pastry cloth to a 15... Turn dough onto surface well dusted with . Knead until smooth, about 20 times. :sired, into crescents, rolls, etc. Place on jed baking sheet. Cover with damp cloth. warm place, free from draft, about 1 hour. F. 10 to 15 minutes, depending on size...

  19. YEAST MEIOSIS Sister kinetochores are mechanically

    E-print Network

    Asbury, Chip

    YEAST MEIOSIS Sister kinetochores are mechanically fused during meiosis I in yeast Krishna K Production of healthy gametes requires a reductional meiosis I division in which replicated sister chromatids comigrate, rather than separate as in mitosis or meiosis II. Fusion of sister kinetochores during meiosis I

  20. Chronological aging leads to apoptosis in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Herker; Helmut Jungwirth; Katharina A. Lehmann; Corinna Maldener; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich; Silke Wissing; Sabrina Büttner; Markus Fehr; Stephan Sigrist; Frank Madeo

    2004-01-01

    uring the past years, yeast has been successfully established as a model to study mechanisms of apoptotic regulation. However, the beneficial effects of such a cell suicide program for a unicellular organism remained obscure. Here, we demonstrate that chronologi- cally aged yeast cultures die exhibiting typical markers of apoptosis, accumulate oxygen radicals, and show caspase activation. Age-induced cell death is

  1. Yeast flora of grape berries during ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianfranco Rosini; Federico Federici; Alessandro Martini

    1982-01-01

    The yeast flora associated with the surface of grapes during ripening was studied with regard to different sectors of the grape skin and the position in the bunch by means of traditional as well as more vigorous preisolation and precounting treatments. The yeast number per square centimeter of skin increases with ripening and is highest in the area immediately surrounding

  2. Yeast: An Experimental Organism for Modern Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botstein, David; Fink, Gerald R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the applicability and advantages of using yeasts as popular and ideal model systems for studying and understanding eukaryotic biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Cites experimental tractability and the cooperative tradition of the research community of yeast biologists as reasons for this success. (RT)

  3. Phosphoinositides in yeast: genetically tractable signalling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefaan Wera; Jan C. T. Bergsma; Johan M. Thevelein

    2001-01-01

    Research on signalling through phosphoinositides has made tremendous advances over the last few years. Studies with budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) combine the advantage of a eukaryotic system with those of a rapidly growing, genetically modifiable and tractable organism of which the genome is fully sequenced. Hence, despite some differences in phosphoinositide signalling between mammals and yeast (e.g. the absence of

  4. The oenological characteristics of commercial dry yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Comi; Isabella Croattini; Marilena Marino; Michela Maifreni; Roberto Zironi

    1997-01-01

    Twenty preparations of dry active yeast (18 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and two Saccharomyces bayanus) available in Italy were tested in white and red musts (Moscato, Albana and Sangiovese) to study their oenological characteristics (i.e. fermentation rate, total alcohol and acetic acid production). After the application of chemiometric techniques for descriptive analyses to the results of the oenological assessment, the yeasts were

  5. PERSPECTIVES Chromatin Conformation of Yeast Centromeres

    E-print Network

    PERSPECTIVES Chromatin Conformation of Yeast Centromeres KERRY S. BLOOM, ENRIQUE AMAYA, JOHN CARBON The centromere region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III has been replaced by various DNA fragments from the centromere regions of yeast chromosomes III and Xl. A 289-base pair centromere (CEN3) sequence can stabilize

  6. Definition, classification and nomenclature of the yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This submission includes sections for the Preface, Use of this Book, Table of Contents and a chapter entitled Definition, classification and nomenclature of the yeasts, which are to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. This book has been prepared by a team of international ex...

  7. Topical Therapy for Mucosal Yeast Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Summers

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal yeast infection is best understood as a consequence of compromised mucosal cell-mediated and innate immunity. Defense against oral candidiasis is dominantly cell mediated. The innate immune system may play the main role in regulating vulvovaginal yeast infection. Conditions that compromise cell-mediated immunity such as leukemia, severe illness and HIV infection must be considered as predisposing factors for recurrent oral

  8. Life Stress and Chronic Yeast Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy A. Williams; Jerry L. Deffenbacher

    1983-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of positive and negative life change to yeast infections in women having a gynecological examination at a university health center. Subjects completed the Life Experiences Survey and a questionnaire about experiences with yeast infections and received, as a routine part of their visitation of the gynecology service, a standard gynecological examination, including a laboratory test

  9. Can yeast transcriptomics help improve wine fermentation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Varela; J. Cárdenas; E. Agosin

    Wine fermentation is a dynamic and complex process in which the yeast cell is subjected to multiple stress conditions. A successful adaptation involves changes in gene expression profiles where a large number of genes are up- or down-regulated. Functional genomic approaches are com- monly used to obtain global gene expression profiles, providing a comprehensive view of yeast physiology. We used

  10. Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains

    SciTech Connect

    Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

  11. Anaerobic digestion of food waste using yeast.

    PubMed

    Suwannarat, Jutarat; Ritchie, Raymond J

    2015-08-01

    Fermentative breakdown of food waste seems a plausible alternative to feeding food waste to pigs, incineration or garbage disposal in tourist areas. We determined the optimal conditions for the fermentative breakdown of food waste using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in incubations up to 30days. Yeast efficiently broke down food waste with food waste loadings as high as 700g FW/l. The optimum inoculation was ?46×10(6)cells/l of culture with a 40°C optimum (25-40°C). COD and BOD were reduced by ?30-50%. Yeast used practically all the available sugars and reduced proteins and lipids by ?50%. Yeast was able to metabolize lipids much better than expected. Starch was mobilized after very long term incubations (>20days). Yeast was effective in breaking down the organic components of food waste but CO2 gas and ethanol production (?1.5%) were only significant during the first 7days of incubations. PMID:25987287

  12. Encapsulation of yeast cells in colloidosomes.

    PubMed

    Keen, Polly H R; Slater, Nigel K H; Routh, Alexander F

    2012-01-17

    Polymeric colloidosomes encapsulating viable Baker's yeast cells were prepared. To make the capsules, an aqueous suspension of 153 nm poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) latex particles plus yeast cells is emulsified in a continuous phase of sunflower oil. By adding a small amount of ethanol to the oil phase, the latex particles at the surface of the emulsion droplets aggregate, forming the colloidosome shells. The microcapsules have been examined using optical, confocal, and scanning electron microscopies. The viability of the yeast cells was tested using fluorescent molecular probes. The encapsulated Baker's yeast cells were able to metabolize glucose from solution, although at a slower rate compared to nonencapsulated yeast. This demonstrates diffusion limitation through the colloidosome shell. The diffusive resistance could be increased by manufacturing colloidosomes with a double latex shell. PMID:22149136

  13. Ultrastructural organization of yeast chromatin

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The ultrastructural organization of yeast chromatin was examined in Miller spread preparations of samples prepared from spheroplasts or isolated nuclei of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Micrographs from preparations dispersed in 1 mM Tris (pH 7.2) illustrate that the basic chromatin fiber in yeast exists in two ultrastructurally distinct conformations. The majority (up to 95%) of the chromatin displays a beaded nucleosomal organization, although adjacent nucleosomes are separated by internucleosomal linkers of variable lengths. Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) fibrils are only occasionally associated with chromatin displaying the conformation. The remaining 5-10% of the chromatin appears to be devoid of discrete nucleosomes and has a smooth contour with a fiber diameter of 30-40 A. Transcriptional units, including putative ribosomal precursor RNA genes, defined by the presence of nascent RNP fibrils are restricted to chromatin displaying this smooth morphology. Chromatin released from nuclei in the presence of 5 mM Mg++ displays higher-order chromatin fibers, 200-300 A in diameter, these fibers appear to be arranged in a manner than reflects the two forms of the basic chromatin fiber. PMID:7040415

  14. New search for pectolytic yeasts.

    PubMed

    Biely, P; Sláviková, E

    1994-01-01

    A new screening method for pectin-depolymerizing microorganisms is described. The method is based on precipitation of non-hydrolyzed citrus pectin with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide in a medium solidified with a bacterial gelling gum. A substrate depolymerized by the secreted enzymes does not precipitate, and the positive strains thus show transparent areas around the colonies. The method was used to screen 300 yeast and yeast-like microorganisms belonging to 52 different genera. The secretion of pectin-depolymerizing enzymes occurred with different frequencies in 13 genera (69 positive strains of 207 tested), the lowest frequency being found in the genus Candida (13 positive out of 125 strains tested) and the highest frequency in the genera Aureobasidium (4 of 6) Cryptococcus (29 of 38), Geotrichum (4 of 9), Kluyveromyces (5 of 5), Rhodosporidium (2 of 2), Leucosporidium (2 of 2), Trichosporon (3 of 6) and Ustilago (2 of 2). Strains giving the highest number of harvested cells after growth on pectin in a liquid medium have been identified. PMID:8549997

  15. A Caspase-Related Protease Regulates Apoptosis in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Madeo; Eva Herker; Corinna Maldener; Silke Wissing; Stephan Lächelt; Mark Herlan; Markus Fehr; Kirsten Lauber; Stephan J Sigrist; Sebastian Wesselborg; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich

    2002-01-01

    Yeast can undergo cell death accompanied by cellular markers of apoptosis. However, orthologs of classical mammalian apoptosis regulators appeared to be missing from the yeast genome, challenging a common mechanism of yeast and mammalian apoptosis. Here we investigate Yor197w, a yeast protein with structural homology to mammalian caspases, and demonstrate caspase-like processing of the protein. Hydrogen peroxide treatment induces apoptosis

  16. Original article Screening for the potential probiotic yeast strains

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Screening for the potential probiotic yeast strains from raw milk to assimilate yeast strains, isolated from raw milk, were tested to obtain potential probiotic yeasts for assimilating cholesterol. During in vitro tests, 17 yeast strains were capable of growth in bile salt solutions, and most

  17. Genome Analysis The pattern and evolution of yeast promoter

    E-print Network

    Barkai, Naama

    Genome Analysis The pattern and evolution of yeast promoter bendability Itay Tirosh1 , Judith-less promoters from 11 yeast species, whereas the position of the rigid DNA varies substantially among species. cerevisiae promoters We examined the bendability pattern of yeast promoters. The promoters of many yeast

  18. Computational Predictions of Structures of Multichromosomes of Budding Yeast

    E-print Network

    Liang, Jie

    Computational Predictions of Structures of Multichromosomes of Budding Yeast (Accepted, Conf Proc of budding yeast nucleus. We successfully generated a large number of model genomes of yeast with appropriate yeast genome realistically. The model developed here provides a general computational framework

  19. Yeast (in press) Published online in Wiley InterScience

    E-print Network

    Lycan, Deborah E.

    Yeast Yeast (in press) Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/yea.1502 Yeast Functional Analysis Report A suite of Gateway cloning vectors for high of overexpression plasmids containing the entire complement of yeast open reading frames (ORFs) have recently been

  20. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. PMID:24932634

  1. Quality assessment of lager brewery yeast samples and strains using barley malt extracts with anti-yeast activity.

    PubMed

    van Nierop, Sandra N E; Axcell, Barry C; Cantrell, Ian C; Rautenbach, Marina

    2009-04-01

    Membrane active anti-yeast compounds, such as antimicrobial peptides and proteins, cause yeast membrane damage which is likely to affect yeast vitality and fermentation performance, parameters which are notoriously difficult to analyse. In this work the sensitivity of lager brewery yeast strains towards barley malt extracts with anti-yeast activity was assessed with an optimised assay. It was found that yeast, obtained directly from a brewery, was much more sensitive towards the malt extracts than the same yeast strain propagated in the laboratory. Sensitivity to the malt extracts increased during the course of a laboratory scale fermentation when inoculated with brewery yeast. As the assay was able to differentiate yeast samples with different histories, it shows promise as a yeast quality assay measuring the yeast's ability to withstand stress which can be equated to vitality. The assay was also able to differentiate between different lager yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae propagated in the laboratory when challenged with a number of malt extracts of varying anti-yeast activity. The assessment of yeast strains in the presence of malt extracts will lead to the identification of yeast strains with improved quality/vitality that can withstand malt-associated anti-yeast activity during brewery fermentations. PMID:19171262

  2. Yeast is one of the most common causes of vaginal infections. Yeast infections occur when a fungus called

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Yeast is one of the most common causes of vaginal infections. Yeast infections occur when a fungus bacteria in the vagina, which creates an imbalance and promotes yeast proliferation. Excessive fatigue, stress, or illness may lower the body's ability to control excessive yeast growth. Tight clothing

  3. Yeast Transformation (introducing plasmid vector into a yeast strain): This protocol is a modification (shortened version) of "The BEST

    E-print Network

    Yeast Transformation (introducing plasmid vector into a yeast strain): This protocol://www.umanitoba.ca/medicine/biochem/gietz/Trafo.html) 1. Inoculate 5 ml of YPD with a yeast colony from plate. 2. Grow culture overnight at 300 C. 3 and centrifuging at 1750xg (high speed in clinical centrifuge) for 2 minutes. 6. Carefully pour media off of yeast

  4. MAP kinase dynamics in yeast.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, F; Peter, M

    2001-09-01

    MAP kinase pathways play key roles in cellular responses towards extracellular signals. In several cases, the three core kinases interact with a scaffold molecule, but the function of these scaffolds is poorly understood. They have been proposed to contribute to signal specificity, signal amplification, or subcellular localization of MAP kinases. Several MAP kinases translocate to the nucleus in response to their activation, suggesting that nuclear transport may provide a regulatory mechanism. Here we describe new applications for Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Loss In Photobleaching (FLIP), to study dynamic translocations of MAPKs between different subcellular compartments. We have used these methods to measure the nuclear/cytoplasmic dynamics of several yeast MAP kinases, and in particular to address the role of scaffold proteins for MAP-kinase signaling. PMID:11730324

  5. Pityrosporum yeasts--what's new?

    PubMed

    Faergemann, J

    1997-01-01

    The lipophilic yeast Pityrosporum ovale is a member of the normal human cutaneous flora in adults but also associated with several skin diseases. In pityriasis versicolor, under the influence of predisposing factors, P. ovale changes from the round blastospore form to the mycelial form. A great problem in pityriasis versicolor is the high rate of recurrence and to avoid this a prophylactic treatment is mandatory. Pityrosporum folliculitis is a chronic disease characterized by pruritic follicular papules and pustules located primarily on the upper trunk, neck and upper arms. In direct microscopy clusters of round budding yeast cells are found. The disease responds rapidly to antimycotic therapy. There are now many studies indicating that P. ovale plays an important role in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Many of these are treatment studies showing a good effect of antimycotics paralleled by a reduction in number of organisms. Severe seborrhoeic dermatitis often difficult to treat is associated with AIDS. In peripheral blood from a high number of patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis we found an increase in number of natural killer T-cells and decreased PHA and Con-A stimulation. Secondary we found low serum IgG antibody titres in patients compared to controls. Other studies have found a reduced lymphocyte stimulation reaction when lymphocytes from patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis were stimulated with a P. ovale extract. Additionally, IL-2 and IFN gamma production by lymphocytes from patients was markedly depressed and IL-10 synthesis were increased after stimulation with P. ovale extract. The majority of adult patients with atopic dermatitis localized to the head, neck and scalp are prick-test positive to a protein P. ovale extract. One study showed that p. ovale extracts increased IL-4, IL-10 and IgE synthesis in patients with atopic dermatitis. There are also treatment studies indicating that antifungal treatment may be beneficial in these patients. PMID:9370147

  6. Assimilation spectrum of the yeast Candida utilis 49 used for producing fodder yeast from synthetic ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Šestáková

    1976-01-01

    Oxidizing and assimilating ability of the yeastCandida utilis 49 was tested with 21 different low-boiling organic compounds which come as components of raw synthetic ethanol. The highest\\u000a yields of yeast dry weight were obtained with ethanol (72.0%), propanol (48.2%), ethyl acetate (43.4%) and acetic acid (34.2%).\\u000a To a minor extent, the yeast was capable of utilizing also 2-propanol, butanol and

  7. Kinetochore Structure: Pulling Answers from Yeast

    E-print Network

    Cheeseman, Iain M.

    Despite the identification of multiple kinetochore proteins, their structure and organization has remained unclear. New work uses electron microscopy to visualize isolated budding yeast kinetochore particles and reveal the ...

  8. [Malassezia yeasts and their significance in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Hort, W; Nilles, M; Mayser, P

    2006-07-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia belong to the normal microflora of the human skin. In addition they are known to cause a variety of skin diseases; the most frequent of which is pityriasis versicolor. Malassezia yeasts are also thought to be associated with seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff and Malassezia folliculitis. Recently the significance of Malassezia yeasts as a trigger factor for atopic dermatitis of the head and neck region has been pointed out. The role of the Malassezia yeasts in these different diseases has been controversial in the past and remains an issue because of difficulties in isolation, culture and differentiation of the organism. Thanks to molecular techniques, 10 species can actually be differentiated. The article presents the different Malassezia-associated diseases, their clinical picture, diagnosis and appropriate therapy. In addition the speciation of Malassezia is reviewed. PMID:16758222

  9. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  10. The growth of solar radiated yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, T.

    1995-09-01

    This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland; and (2) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The procedure used was based on the fact that yeast is most often used in consumable baked goods. Therefore, the yeast was incorporated into a basic Betty Crocker bread recipe. Data was collected by placing measured amounts of dough into sample containers with fifteen minute growth in height measurements collected and recorded. This researcher assumed the viability of yeast to be relative to its ability to produce carbon dioxide gas and cause the dough to rise. As all ingredients and surroundings were equal, this researcher assumed the yeast will produce the only significant difference in data collected. This researcher noted the approximate use date on all sample packages to be prior to arrival and experiment date. All dates equal, it was then assumed each would act in a similar manner of response. This assumption will allow for equally correct data collection.

  11. The growth of solar radiated yeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Tyrone

    1995-01-01

    This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland; and (2) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The procedure used was based on the fact that yeast is most often used in consumable baked goods. Therefore, the yeast was incorporated into a basic Betty Crocker bread recipe. Data was collected by placing measured amounts of dough into sample containers with fifteen minute growth in height measurements collected and recorded. This researcher assumed the viability of yeast to be relative to its ability to produce carbon dioxide gas and cause the dough to rise. As all ingredients and surroundings were equal, this researcher assumed the yeast will produce the only significant difference in data collected. This researcher noted the approximate use date on all sample packages to be prior to arrival and experiment date. All dates equal, it was then assumed each would act in a similar manner of response. This assumption will allow for equally correct data collection.

  12. Physiological and environmental control of yeast prions

    PubMed Central

    Chernova, Tatiana A.; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2014-01-01

    Prions are self-perpetuating protein isoforms that cause fatal and incurable neurodegenerative disease in mammals. Recent evidence indicates that a majority of human proteins involved in amyloid and neural inclusion disorders possess at least some prion properties. In lower eukaryotes, such as yeast, prions act as epigenetic elements, which increase phenotypic diversity by altering a range of cellular processes. While some yeast prions are clearly pathogenic, it is also postulated that prion formation could be beneficial in variable environmental conditions. Yeast and mammalian prions have similar molecular properties. Crucial cellular factors and conditions influencing prion formation and propagation were uncovered in the yeast models. Stress-related chaperones, protein quality control deposits, degradation pathways and cytoskeletal networks control prion formation and propagation in yeast. Environmental stresses trigger prion formation and loss, supposedly acting via influencing intracellular concentrations of the prion-inducing proteins, and/or by localizing prionogenic proteins to the prion induction sites via heterologous ancillary helpers. Physiological and environmental modulation of yeast prions points to new opportunities for pharmacological intervention and/or prophylactic measures targeting general cellular systems rather than the properties of individual amyloids and prions. PMID:24236638

  13. Functional adaptation between yeast actin and its cognate myosin motors.

    PubMed

    Stark, Benjamin C; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; Allingham, John S; Rubenstein, Peter A; Lord, Matthew

    2011-09-01

    We employed budding yeast and skeletal muscle actin to examine the contribution of the actin isoform to myosin motor function. While yeast and muscle actin are highly homologous, they exhibit different charge density at their N termini (a proposed myosin-binding interface). Muscle myosin-II actin-activated ATPase activity is significantly higher with muscle versus yeast actin. Whether this reflects inefficiency in the ability of yeast actin to activate myosin is not known. Here we optimized the isolation of two yeast myosins to assess actin function in a homogenous system. Yeast myosin-II (Myo1p) and myosin-V (Myo2p) accommodate the reduced N-terminal charge density of yeast actin, showing greater activity with yeast over muscle actin. Increasing the number of negative charges at the N terminus of yeast actin from two to four (as in muscle) had little effect on yeast myosin activity, while other substitutions of charged residues at the myosin interface of yeast actin reduced activity. Thus, yeast actin functions most effectively with its native myosins, which in part relies on associations mediated by its outer domain. Compared with yeast myosin-II and myosin-V, muscle myosin-II activity was very sensitive to salt. Collectively, our findings suggest differing degrees of reliance on electrostatic interactions during weak actomyosin binding in yeast versus muscle. Our study also highlights the importance of native actin isoforms when considering the function of myosins. PMID:21757693

  14. Yeast and human mitochondrial helicases.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Roman J; Wojcik, Magdalena A; Borowski, Lukasz S; Szewczyk, Maciej J; Skrok, Magda M; Golik, Pawel; Stepien, Piotr P

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondria are semiautonomous organelles which contain their own genome. Both maintenance and expression of mitochondrial DNA require activity of RNA and DNA helicases. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the nuclear genome encodes four DExH/D superfamily members (MSS116, SUV3, MRH4, IRC3) that act as helicases and/or RNA chaperones. Their activity is necessary for mitochondrial RNA splicing, degradation, translation and genome maintenance. In humans the ortholog of SUV3 (hSUV3, SUPV3L1) so far is the best described mitochondrial RNA helicase. The enzyme, together with the matrix-localized pool of PNPase (PNPT1), forms an RNA-degrading complex called the mitochondrial degradosome, which localizes to distinct structures (D-foci). Global regulation of mitochondrially encoded genes can be achieved by changing mitochondrial DNA copy number. This way the proteins involved in its replication, like the Twinkle helicase (c10orf2), can indirectly regulate gene expression. Here, we describe yeast and human mitochondrial helicases that are directly involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism, and present other helicases that participate in mitochondrial DNA replication and maintenance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Biology of RNA helicases - Modulation for life. PMID:23454114

  15. Yeast prions assembly and propagation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Yeast prions are self-perpetuating protein aggregates that are at the origin of heritable and transmissible non-Mendelian phenotypic traits. Among these, [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] are the most well documented prions and arise from the assembly of Sup35p, Ure2p and Rnq1p, respectively, into insoluble fibrillar assemblies. Fibril assembly depends on the presence of N- or C-terminal prion domains (PrDs) which are not homologous in sequence but share unusual amino-acid compositions, such as enrichment in polar residues (glutamines and asparagines) or the presence of oligopeptide repeats. Purified PrDs form amyloid fibrils that can convert prion-free cells to the prion state upon transformation. Nonetheless, isolated PrDs and full-length prion proteins have different aggregation, structural and infectious properties. In addition, mutations in the “non-prion” domains (non-PrDs) of Sup35p, Ure2p and Rnq1p were shown to affect their prion properties in vitro and in vivo. Despite these evidences, the implication of the functional non-PrDs in fibril assembly and prion propagation has been mostly overlooked. In this review, we discuss the contribution of non-PrDs to prion assemblies, and the structure-function relationship in prion infectivity in the light of recent findings on Sup35p and Ure2p assembly into infectious fibrils from our laboratory and others. PMID:22052349

  16. Aggregated platelets enhance adherence of Candida yeasts to endothelium.

    PubMed

    Klotz, S A; Harrison, J L; Misra, R P

    1989-10-01

    The adherence of Candida albicans yeasts to human umbilical vein endothelium to subendothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) was investigated. Yeasts added to confluent endothelium in citrated platelet-poor plasma adhered on the average of 1 colony forming unit (cfu) per culture well. When platelets were added as platelet-rich plasma, a significant increase of yeast adherence was not seen. However, when endothelium was contracted by treatment with 2 mM EDTA, resulting in exposure of ECM, yeast adherence was increased to 10 cfu/well. When platelets were added with these yeasts, the number of adhering yeasts was further increased to 23 cfu/well (P less than .01). This represented an increase in adherence of yeasts of 230%. When the endothelial cells were completely removed and ECM exposed, platelets were found to likewise augment yeast adherence. Platelets, when added to the ECM, formed aggregates to which the yeasts firmly adhered. Likewise, when platelets were aggregated by adenosine diphosphate and mixed with yeasts, yeasts were shown to bind avidly to aggregated platelets, whereas yeasts did not adhere to unactivated, discoid platelets. Thus, exposed subendothelial ECM induces the aggregation of platelets and yeasts bind avidly to these platelet aggregates. PMID:2677163

  17. Production of alpha-amylase by yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Thomse, K.K.

    1987-01-01

    The enzyme alpha-amylase confers to an organism the enzymatic activity for the degradation of polyglucosides with alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds such as starch and glycogen which are among the major storage compounds in plants and animals. Most alpha-amylases are single polypeptides of molecular weights around 50,000 dalton. They are generally found in the digestive tract of animals and in germinating seeds. Among the products released upon enzymatic degradation of polyglucosides maltose, a sugar that can be utilized as carbon source by yeast, is a major constituent. A cDNA segment complementary to mouse salivary amylase messenger RNA has been inserted into the yeast expression vector pMA56 behind the promoter of the gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase I of yeast. Yeast transformants harboring plasmids with the normal orientation of the promoter and the mouse amylase cDNA gene produce amylase and release the enzyme in free form into the culture medium. Approximately 90% of the amylase activity is found in the medium. Yeast strains carrying MAL allele and transformed with a plasmid which directed the synthesis of mouse alpha-amylase were tested on plates containing starch and in batch fermentations using different high molecular weight sugars and oligosaccharides as carbon source. The results of these experiments will be discussed. (Refs. 21).

  18. Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

  19. Abundant ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA by yeast replicative polymerases

    E-print Network

    Burgers, Peter M.

    Abundant ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA by yeast replicative polymerases Stephanie A. Nick Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), Umeå University, SE-901 87, Umeå, Sweden Edited in vitro using the physiological nucleoside triphosphate concentra- tions, yeast DNA polymerase , which

  20. Cytotoxic Mechanism of Selenomethionine in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Toshihiko; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Chiba, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    Although selenium is an essential element, its excessive uptake is detrimental to living organisms. The significance of selenium for living organisms has been exploited for various purposes. However, the molecular basis of selenium toxicity is not completely understood. Here, we applied a capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach to analysis of yeast cells treated with selenomethionine. The data indicated that intracellular thiol compounds are significantly decreased, and diselenide and selenosulfide compounds are increased in selenomethionine-treated cells. The growth defect induced by selenomethionine was recovered by extracellular addition of cysteine and by genetic modification of yeast cells that have an additional de novo synthetic pathway for cysteine. Because cysteine is an intermediate of thiol compounds, these results suggested that the loss of a reduced form of thiol compounds due to selenomethionine causes a growth defect of yeast cells. PMID:22311978

  1. New yeast recombineering tools for bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Robert M Q; Kadouri, Daniel E; MacEachran, Daniel P; O'Toole, George A

    2009-09-01

    Recombineering with Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful methodology that can be used to clone multiple unmarked pieces of DNA to generate complex constructs with high efficiency. Here, we introduce two new tools that utilize the native recombination enzymes of S. cerevisiae to facilitate the manipulation of DNA. First, yeast recombineering was used to make directed nested deletions in a bacteria-yeast shuttle plasmid using only one or two single stranded oligomers, thus obviating the need for a PCR step. Second, we have generated several new shuttle vectors for yeast recombineering capable of replication in a wide variety of bacterial genera. As a demonstration of utility, some of the approaches and vectors generated in this study were used to make a pigP deletion mutation in the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens. PMID:19477196

  2. The organization of oligonucleosomes in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Szent-Gyorgyi, C; Isenberg, I

    1983-01-01

    We have developed a method of preparing yeast chromatin that facilitates the analysis of nucleoprotein organization. Yeast chromatin, isolated as an insoluble complex, is digested with micrococcal nuclease and fractionated into major insoluble and soluble fractions. No nucleosomal repeat is seen early in digestion for the insoluble fraction. Nucleosomal complexes of the soluble fraction are excised by nuclease in a distinctive non-random pattern; they are markedly depleted in mononucleosomes. When we analyze the soluble material by high resolution native electrophoresis, we find that the nucleoproteins resolve into two bands for each DNA multimer of the nucleosomal repeat. Our results suggest that there are structural similarities between bulk yeast chromatin and chromatin configurations found in transcribing genes of complex eukaryotes. Images PMID:6344013

  3. Yeast Oligo-mediated Genome Engineering (YOGE)

    PubMed Central

    DiCarlo, JE; Conley, AJ; Penttilä, M; Jäntti, J; Wang, HH; Church, GM

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency oligonucleotide-directed recombination engineering (recombineering) has enabled rapid modification of several prokaryotic genomes to date. Here, we present a method for oligonucleotide-mediated recombineering in the model eukaryote and industrial production host S. cerevisiae, which we call Yeast Oligo-mediated Genome Engineering (YOGE). Through a combination of overexpression and knockouts of relevant genes and optimization of transformation and oligonucleotide designs, we achieve high gene modification frequencies at levels that only require screening of dozens of cells. We demonstrate the robustness of our approach in three divergent yeast strains, including those involved in industrial production of bio-based chemicals. Furthermore, YOGE can be iteratively executed via cycling to generate genomic libraries up to 105 individuals at each round for diversity generation. YOGE cycling alone, or in combination with phenotypic selections or endonuclease-based negative genotypic selections, can be used to easily generate modified alleles in yeast populations with high frequencies. PMID:24160921

  4. RNA degradation in yeast and human mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Roman J; Borowski, Lukasz S; Malecki, Michal; Wojcik, Magdalena A; Stepien, Piotr P; Golik, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Expression of mitochondrially encoded genes must be finely tuned according to the cell's requirements. Since yeast and human mitochondria have limited possibilities to regulate gene expression by altering the transcription initiation rate, posttranscriptional processes, including RNA degradation, are of great importance. In both organisms mitochondrial RNA degradation seems to be mostly depending on the RNA helicase Suv3. Yeast Suv3 functions in cooperation with Dss1 ribonuclease by forming a two-subunit complex called the mitochondrial degradosome. The human ortholog of Suv3 (hSuv3, hSuv3p, SUPV3L1) is also indispensable for mitochondrial RNA decay but its ribonucleolytic partner has so far escaped identification. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about RNA degradation in human and yeast mitochondria. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Gene Expression. PMID:22178375

  5. The long physiological reach of the yeast vacuolar H + ATPase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia M. Kane

    2007-01-01

    V-ATPases are structurally conserved and functionally versatile proton pumps found in all eukaryotes. The yeast V-ATPase has\\u000a emerged as a major model system, in part because yeast mutants lacking V-ATPase subunits (vma mutants) are viable and exhibit a distinctive Vma- phenotype. Yeast vma mutants are present in ordered collections of all non-essential yeast deletion mutants, and a number of additional

  6. Fermentation of maltotriose by brewer's and baker's yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Londesborough

    2001-01-01

    Two brewer's yeasts and one baker's yeast grew with =95% (w\\/w) pure maltotriose as carbon source in the presence of antimycin A to block respiration. Biomass yields (0.15 and 0.24 g dry yeast g-1 sugar, respectively, with and without antimycin A) were similar for growth on maltose and maltotriose, and yields of ethanol were 80% of stoichiometric. Yeasts harvested during

  7. Biochemical Comparison of Commercial Selenium Yeast Preparations.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Sheena; Owens, Rebecca; Ward, Patrick; Connolly, Cathal; Doyle, Sean; Murphy, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The trace mineral selenium (Se) is an essential element for human and animal nutrition. The addition of Se to the diet through dietary supplements or fortified food/feed is increasingly common owing to the often sub-optimal content of standard diets of many countries. Se supplements commercially available include the inorganic mineral salts such as sodium selenite or selenate, and organic forms such as Se-enriched yeast. Today, Se yeast is produced by several manufacturers and has become the most widely used source of Se for human supplementation and is also widely employed in animal nutrition where approval in all species has been granted by regulatory bodies such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Characterisation and comparison of Se-enriched yeast products has traditionally been made by quantifying total selenomethionine (SeMet) content. A disadvantage of this approach, however, is that it does not consider the effects of Se deposition on subsequent digestive availability. In this study, an assessment was made of the water-soluble extracts of commercially available Se-enriched yeast samples for free, peptide-bound and total water-soluble SeMet. Using LC-MS/MS, a total of 62 Se-containing proteins were identified across four Se yeast products, displaying quantitative/qualitative changes in abundance relative to the certified reference material, SELM-1 (P value <0.05; fold change ?2). Overall, the study indicates that significant differences exist between Se yeast products in terms of SeMet content, Se-containing protein abundance and associated metabolic pathways. PMID:25855372

  8. [The yeast biofilm in human medicine].

    PubMed

    R?zicka, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, the role of Candida yeasts as causative agents of nosocomial infections has increased. One of the important virulence factors contributing to the development of such infections is biofilm production. This virulence factor enables yeast to colonize both native surfaces and artificial implants. The most common sources of infection are patients themselves, in particular the gastrointestinal tract and skin. The vectors of exogenous yeast infections are predominantly the hands of the health personnel and contaminated medical instruments. The adhesion of yeasts to the implant surfaces is determined both by implant surface and yeast characteristics. This is followed by proliferation and production of microcolonies and extracellular matrix. The final biofilm structure is also influenced by the production of hyphae and pseudohyphae. The entire process of biofilm production is controlled by numerous regulatory systems, with the key role being played by the quorum sensing system. Like the adhered bacterial cultures, candidas growing in the form of a biofilm are highly resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Resistance of yeast biofilms to antifungals is a complex process with multiple contributing factors. These are especially increased gene expression (e.g. genes encoding the so called multidrug efflux pumps), limited penetration of substances through the extracellular matrix, inhibited cell growth and altered microenvironment in deeper biofilm layers. The concentrations of antifungals able to effectively affect the biofilm cells exceed, by several orders of magnitude, the values of conventionally determined MICs. High biofilm resistance results in ineffective antifungal therapy of biofilm infections. Therefore, if possible, the colonized implant should be removed. Conservative therapy should involve antifungals with a proven effect on the biofilm (e.g. caspofungin). The most effective measure in fighting biofilm infections is prevention, especially adhering to aseptic techniques when manipulating with implants and their correct maintenance. PMID:17929219

  9. Research Articles Yeast Ancestral Genome Reconstructions: The Possibilities

    E-print Network

    Chauve, Cedric

    Research Articles Yeast Ancestral Genome Reconstructions: The Possibilities of Computational the availability of assembled eukaryotic genomes, the first one being a budding yeast, many computational methods them to infer and analyse the architectures of two ancestral yeast genomes, based on the sequence

  10. Growth and survival of a probiotic yeast in dairy products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Lourens-Hattingh; B. C Viljoen

    2001-01-01

    Poor survival of probiotic bacteria in yogurt has been recorded. Growth of a probiotic yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, in association with the bio-yogurt microflora, by incorporating the yeast into commercial bio-yogurt, has been suggested to stimulate the growth of the probiotic organisms and to assure their survival during shelflife. Therefore, the ability of growth and survival of the probiotic yeast itself

  11. The humanization of N-glycosylation pathways in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Wildt; Tilllman U. Gerngross

    2005-01-01

    Yeast and other fungal protein-expression hosts have been extensively used to produce industrial enzymes, and are often the expression system of choice when manufacturing costs are of primary concern. However, for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins intended for use in humans, yeast have been less useful owing to their inability to modify proteins with human glycosylation structures. Yeast N-glycosylation is

  12. Cycloheximide resistance as marker for monitoring yeasts in wine fermentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Pérez; J. A Regodón; M. E Valdés; C De Miguel; M Ram??rez

    2000-01-01

    When selected yeast strains are used in wine-making, it is necessary to ensure that the fermentation process is really conducted by the inoculated yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae spontaneous mutants resistant to cycloheximide (cyhr) were isolated from industrial strains. The mutations did not affect the fermentation kinetics, the quality of the wines, or the viability of active dry yeast made with the

  13. Tripartite organization of centromeric chromatin in budding yeast

    E-print Network

    Henikoff, Steven

    Tripartite organization of centromeric chromatin in budding yeast Kristina Krassovskya,b , Jorja G by nucleosomes containing the CenH3 histone variant, whereas in budding yeast, a 120-bp centromere DNA element this is the case in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where each of the 16 centromeres consists of a 120

  14. Lovastatin Content of Commercially Available Red Yeast Rice Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Gregory; Rebecca Pettit; Zara Risoldi Cochrane; Amy F. Wilson; Andrew M. Abe

    2012-01-01

    Red yeast rice is a commonly used supplement in North America, primarily promoted for lowering cholesterol. The fermentation process for producing red yeast rice naturally produces a small concentration of lovastatin and related compounds. The authors evaluated label information and contacted manufacturers to inquire about lovastatin content in 117 commercially available red yeast rice supplement products. Only 14% of the

  15. 21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Pichia pastoris dried yeast. 573.750 Section 573.750 Food...Listing § 573.750 Pichia pastoris dried yeast. (a) Identity. The food additive Pichia pastoris dried yeast may be used in feed formulations...

  16. 21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Pichia pastoris dried yeast. 573.750 Section 573.750 Food...Listing § 573.750 Pichia pastoris dried yeast. (a) Identity . The food additive Pichia pastoris dried yeast may be used in feed formulations...

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Candida gelsemii sp. nov., a yeast

    E-print Network

    Thomson, James D.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Candida gelsemii sp. nov., a yeast of the Metschnikowiaceae clade isolated from+Business Media B.V. 2006 Abstract A new yeast species, Candida gelsemii, is described to accommodate three Metschnikowiaceae Á Gelsemium sempervirens Á Nectar alkaloids Á Gelsemine Á New yeast species Introduction Floral

  18. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

  19. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

  20. Yeast Genes That Enhance the Toxicity of a Mutant Huntingtin

    E-print Network

    Lindquist, Susan

    Yeast Genes That Enhance the Toxicity of a Mutant Huntingtin Fragment or -Synuclein Stephen-wide screens were performed in yeast to identify genes that enhance the toxicity of a mutant huntingtin's yeast Sac- charomyces cerevisiae as a model eukaryotic organism to test the hypothesis that the down

  1. Glucose and sucrose: hazardous fast-food for industrial yeast?

    E-print Network

    Glucose and sucrose: hazardous fast-food for industrial yeast? Kevin J. Verstrepen1,2 , Dirk 197, Glen Osmond, Adelaide SA-5064, Australia Yeast cells often encounter a mixture of different resist- ance. In an industrial context, these effects lead to several yeast-related problems

  2. Clustering, Communication and Environmental Oscillations in Populations of Budding Yeast

    E-print Network

    Young, Todd

    Clustering, Communication and Environmental Oscillations in Populations of Budding Yeast Chris describe how simple models of communication, consistent with known yeast phys- iological mechanisms relevant variables during yeast growth and division have been reported and studied for over 40 years [8, 12

  3. 21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Pichia pastoris dried yeast. 573.750 Section 573.750 Food...Listing § 573.750 Pichia pastoris dried yeast. (a) Identity . The food additive Pichia pastoris dried yeast may be used in feed formulations...

  4. GENE ENGINEERING OF YEASTS FOR THE DEGRADATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research examined the structure and function of cytochrome P-450 genes in yeast as a model for gene engineering such as eukaryotic P-450 enzymes for biodegradation of hazardous waste by yeasts. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis are two yeasts known to produce ma...

  5. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

  6. Boolean Network Model Predicts Cell Cycle Sequence of Fission Yeast

    E-print Network

    Bornholdt, Stefan

    Boolean Network Model Predicts Cell Cycle Sequence of Fission Yeast Maria I. Davidich, Stefan network model of the cell-cycle regulatory network of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces Pombe sequence being a strongly attractive trajectory. Comparing the fission yeast cell-cycle model to a similar

  7. Robust Spatial Sensing of Mating Pheromone Gradients by Yeast Cells

    E-print Network

    Nie, Qing

    Robust Spatial Sensing of Mating Pheromone Gradients by Yeast Cells Travis I. Moore1,2 , Ching not degrade the pheromone input. The yeast cells exhibited good accuracy with the mating projection typically caused defects in both sensing and response. Interestingly, yeast cells employed adaptive mechanisms

  8. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

  9. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

  10. 21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Pichia pastoris dried yeast. 573.750 Section 573.750 Food...Listing § 573.750 Pichia pastoris dried yeast. (a) Identity . The food additive Pichia pastoris dried yeast may be used in feed formulations...

  11. Research Focus A short history of recombination in yeast

    E-print Network

    Otto, Sarah

    Research Focus A short history of recombination in yeast Clifford W. Zeyl1* and Sarah P. Otto2* 1 of fungal genomics, we know little about either the ecology or reproductive biology of the budding yeast of a studyofhistoricalpoutcrossingeventsand inferthe genomic positions of previous recombination events in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  12. Exploring the Yeast Genome with Generalized Singular Value

    E-print Network

    Fonseca, Rodrigo

    Exploring the Yeast Genome with Generalized Singular Value Decomposition Andrew Ferguson Advisor courses of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under two different experimental con- ditions. In the first analysis, a comparison is performed between the yeast stress response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2

  13. 21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Pichia pastoris dried yeast. 573.750 Section 573.750 Food...Listing § 573.750 Pichia pastoris dried yeast. (a) Identity . The food additive Pichia pastoris dried yeast may be used in feed formulations...

  14. Invited Review Functional expression of heterologous proteins in yeast: insights

    E-print Network

    Rao, Rajini

    Invited Review Functional expression of heterologous proteins in yeast: insights into Ca2 signaling of heterologous proteins in yeast: insights into Ca2 signaling and Ca2 -transporting ATPases. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 287: C580­C589, 2004; 10.1152/ajpcell.00135.2004.-- The baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  15. Population genomic analysis of outcrossing and recombination in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas M Ruderfer; Stephen C Pratt; Hannah S Seidel; Leonid Kruglyak

    2006-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used by humans for millennia to make wine, beer and bread. More recently, it became a key model organism for studies of eukaryotic biology and for genomic analysis. However, relatively little is known about the natural lifestyle and population genetics of yeast. One major question is whether genetically diverse yeast strains mate and

  16. Triacetic acid lactone production in industrial Saccharomyces yeast strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical that can be produced in yeast. To evaluate the potential for industrial yeast strains to produce TAL, the g2ps1 gene encoding 2-pyrone synthase was transformed into thirteen industrial yeast strains of varied genetic background. TAL produ...

  17. Principles of chromosomal organization: lessons from yeast

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The spatial organization of genes and chromosomes plays an important role in the regulation of several DNA processes. However, the principles and forces underlying this nonrandom organization are mostly unknown. Despite its small dimension, and thanks to new imaging and biochemical techniques, studies of the budding yeast nucleus have led to significant insights into chromosome arrangement and dynamics. The dynamic organization of the yeast genome during interphase argues for both the physical properties of the chromatin fiber and specific molecular interactions as drivers of nuclear order. PMID:21383075

  18. Hajjoul/Mathon et al. Chromatin dynamics in living yeasts High throughput chromatin motion tracking in living yeast reveals the

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Hajjoul/Mathon et al. Chromatin dynamics in living yeasts - 1 - High throughput chromatin motion tracking in living yeast reveals the flexibility of the fiber throughout the genome Houssam Hajjoul1.1101/gr.157008.113 #12;Hajjoul/Mathon et al. Chromatin dynamics in living yeasts - 2 - ABSTRACT (211 words

  19. Biodiversity of Saccharomyces yeast strains from grape berries of wine-producing areas using starter commercial yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Valero; Brigitte Cambon; Dorit Schuller; Margarida Casal; Sylvie Dequin

    2007-01-01

    The use of commercial wine yeast strains as starters has grown extensively over the past two decades. In this study, a large-scale sampling plan was devised over a period of 3 years in three different vineyards in the south of France, to evaluate autochthonous wine yeast biodiversity in vineyards around wineries where active dry yeasts have been used as fermentation

  20. The spindle pole body of yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Snyder

    1994-01-01

    Microtubule organizing centers play an essential cellular role in nucleating microtubule assembly and establishing the microtubule array. The microtubule organizing center of yeast, the spindle pole body (SPB), shares many functions and properties with those other organisms. In recent years considerable new information has been generated concerning components associated with the SPB, and the mechanism by which it duplicates. This

  1. Turning yeast sequence into protein function

    SciTech Connect

    Heijne, G. von

    1996-04-01

    The complete genome sequencing of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae leads us into a new era of potential use for such data base information. Protein engineering studies suggest that genetic selection of overproducing strains may aid the assignment of protein function. Data base management and sequencing software have been developed to scan entire genomes.

  2. Number of Cytoplasmic Factors in Yeast Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Sugimura; Kazuko Okabe; Akira Imamura

    1966-01-01

    IT is well known that the self-reproducing genetic factors (rho), required for the development of mitochondria, are present in the cytoplasm of yeast cell. When the cells are allowed to grow in a medium containing acriflavine or related dyes, large numbers of mutant cells with deficient respiration are produced, which tend to dominate the entire cell population after several generations1.

  3. Actin and Endocytosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Bruce L.; Eskin, Julian A.; Wendland, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis, the process whereby the plasma membrane invaginates to form vesicles, is essential for bringing many substances into the cell and for membrane turnover. The mechanism driving clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves > 50 different protein components assembling at a single location on the plasma membrane in a temporally ordered and hierarchal pathway. These proteins perform precisely choreographed steps that promote receptor recognition and clustering, membrane remodeling, and force-generating actin-filament assembly and turnover to drive membrane invagination and vesicle scission. Many critical aspects of the CME mechanism are conserved from yeast to mammals and were first elucidated in yeast, demonstrating that it is a powerful system for studying endocytosis. In this review, we describe our current mechanistic understanding of each step in the process of yeast CME, and the essential roles played by actin polymerization at these sites, while providing a historical perspective of how the landscape has changed since the preceding version of the YeastBook was published 17 years ago (1997). Finally, we discuss the key unresolved issues and where future studies might be headed. PMID:25657349

  4. Resurrecting ancestral alcohol dehydrogenases from yeast

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, J Michael; Gaucher, Eric A; Burgan, Michelle F; De Kee, Danny W; Li, Tang; Aris, John P; Benner, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Modern yeast living in fleshy fruits rapidly convert sugars into bulk ethanol through pyruvate. Pyruvate loses carbon dioxide to produce acetaldehyde, which is reduced by alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) to ethanol, which accumulates. Yeast later consumes the accumulated ethanol, exploiting Adh2, an Adh1 homolog differing by 24 (of 348) amino acids. As many microorganisms cannot grow in ethanol, accumulated ethanol may help yeast defend resources in the fruit1. We report here the resurrection of the last common ancestor2 of Adh1 and Adh2, called AdhA. The kinetic behavior of AdhA suggests that the ancestor was optimized to make (not consume) ethanol. This is consistent with the hypothesis that before the Adh1-Adh2 duplication, yeast did not accumulate ethanol for later consumption but rather used AdhA to recycle NADH generated in the glycolytic pathway. Silent nucleotide dating suggests that the Adh1-Adh2 duplication occurred near the time of duplication of several other proteins involved in the accumulation of ethanol, possibly in the Cretaceous age when fleshy fruits arose. These results help to connect the chemical behavior of these enzymes through systems analysis to a time of global ecosystem change, a small but useful step towards a planetary systems biology. PMID:15864308

  5. Resurrecting ancestral alcohol dehydrogenases from yeast.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J Michael; Gaucher, Eric A; Burgan, Michelle F; De Kee, Danny W; Li, Tang; Aris, John P; Benner, Steven A

    2005-06-01

    Modern yeast living in fleshy fruits rapidly convert sugars into bulk ethanol through pyruvate. Pyruvate loses carbon dioxide to produce acetaldehyde, which is reduced by alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) to ethanol, which accumulates. Yeast later consumes the accumulated ethanol, exploiting Adh2, an Adh1 homolog differing by 24 (of 348) amino acids. As many microorganisms cannot grow in ethanol, accumulated ethanol may help yeast defend resources in the fruit. We report here the resurrection of the last common ancestor of Adh1 and Adh2, called Adh(A). The kinetic behavior of Adh(A) suggests that the ancestor was optimized to make (not consume) ethanol. This is consistent with the hypothesis that before the Adh1-Adh2 duplication, yeast did not accumulate ethanol for later consumption but rather used Adh(A) to recycle NADH generated in the glycolytic pathway. Silent nucleotide dating suggests that the Adh1-Adh2 duplication occurred near the time of duplication of several other proteins involved in the accumulation of ethanol, possibly in the Cretaceous age when fleshy fruits arose. These results help to connect the chemical behavior of these enzymes through systems analysis to a time of global ecosystem change, a small but useful step towards a planetary systems biology. PMID:15864308

  6. Cell Biology of Homologous Recombination in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is an important pathway for error-free repair of DNA lesions, such as single-and double-strand breaks, and for rescue of collapsed replication forks. Here, we describe protocols for live cell imaging of single-lesion recombination events in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:21660714

  7. Yeast and Egg Contamination of Shell Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry and eggs are often contaminated with microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds. Bacteria such as Salmonella cause illness in human who eat eggs contaminated with them, particularly if the eggs are pooled, improperly refrigerated, and eaten raw or undercooked. Other bacteria such a...

  8. yApoptosis: yeast apoptosis database

    PubMed Central

    Wanichthanarak, Kwanjeera; Cvijovic, Marija; Molt, Andrea; Petranovic, Dina

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years, programmed cell death (PCD) has become a popular research area due to its fundamental aspects and its links to human diseases. Yeast has been used as a model for studying PCD, since the discovery of morphological markers of apoptotic cell death in yeast in 1997. Increasing knowledge in identification of components and molecular pathways created a need for organization of information. To meet the demands from the research community, we have developed a curated yeast apoptosis database, yApoptosis. The database structurally collects an extensively curated set of apoptosis, PCD and related genes, their genomic information, supporting literature and relevant external links. A web interface including necessary functions is provided to access and download the data. In addition, we included several networks where the apoptosis genes or proteins are involved, and present them graphically and interactively to facilitate rapid visualization. We also promote continuous inputs and curation by experts. yApoptosis is a highly specific resource for sharing information online, which supports researches and studies in the field of yeast apoptosis and cell death. Database URL: http://www.ycelldeath.com/yapoptosis/ PMID:24082050

  9. yApoptosis: yeast apoptosis database.

    PubMed

    Wanichthanarak, Kwanjeera; Cvijovic, Marija; Molt, Andrea; Petranovic, Dina

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years, programmed cell death (PCD) has become a popular research area due to its fundamental aspects and its links to human diseases. Yeast has been used as a model for studying PCD, since the discovery of morphological markers of apoptotic cell death in yeast in 1997. Increasing knowledge in identification of components and molecular pathways created a need for organization of information. To meet the demands from the research community, we have developed a curated yeast apoptosis database, yApoptosis. The database structurally collects an extensively curated set of apoptosis, PCD and related genes, their genomic information, supporting literature and relevant external links. A web interface including necessary functions is provided to access and download the data. In addition, we included several networks where the apoptosis genes or proteins are involved, and present them graphically and interactively to facilitate rapid visualization. We also promote continuous inputs and curation by experts. yApoptosis is a highly specific resource for sharing information online, which supports researches and studies in the field of yeast apoptosis and cell death. DATABASE URL: http://www.ycelldeath.com/yapoptosis/. PMID:24082050

  10. Conflict between Noise and Plasticity in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Lehner

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression responds to changes in conditions but also stochastically among individuals. In budding yeast, both expression responsiveness across conditions (“plasticity”) and cell-to-cell variation (“noise”) have been quantified for thousands of genes and found to correlate across genes. It has been argued therefore that noise and plasticity may be strongly coupled and mechanistically linked. This is consistent with some theoretical

  11. The economics of ribosome biosynthesis in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan R Warner

    1999-01-01

    In a rapidly growing yeast cell, 60% of total transcription is devoted to ribosomal RNA, and 50% of RNA polymerase II transcription and 90% of mRNA splicing are devoted to ribosomal proteins (RPs). Coordinate regulation of the ?150 rRNA genes and 137 RP genes that make such prodigious use of resources is essential for the economy of the cell. This

  12. Glucose-Induced Acidification in Yeast Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Alan; Bourn, Julia; Pool, Brynne

    2005-01-01

    We present an investigation (for A-level biology students and equivalent) into the mechanism of glucose-induced extracellular acidification in unbuffered yeast suspensions. The investigation is designed to enhance understanding of aspects of the A-level curriculum that relate to the phenomenon (notably glucose catabolism) and to develop key skills…

  13. Microfermentation Test For Identification Of Yeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Molina, Thomas C.

    1995-01-01

    Microfermentation test developed as supplementary method for use in identifying yeasts, especially in clinical and environmental studies. In comparison with traditional fermentation tests, simpler and easier, and requiries less equipment, material, and laboratory space. Results obtained in days instead of weeks.

  14. Antarctic Yeasts: Biodiversity and Potential Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaji, S.; Prasad, G. S.

    This review is an attempt in cataloguing the diversity of yeasts in Antarctica, highlight their biotechnological potential and understand the basis of adaptation to low temperature. As of now several psychrophilic and psychrotolerant yeasts from Antarctic soils and marine waters have been characterized with respect to their growth characteristics, ecological distribution and taxonomic significance. Interestingly most of these species belonged to basidiomycetous yeasts which as a group are known for their ability to circumvent and survive under stress conditions. Simultaneously their possible role as work horses in the biotechnological industry was recognized due to their ability to produce novel enzymes and biomolecules such as agents for the breakdown of xenobiotics, and novel pharmaceutical chemi cals. The high activity of psychrophilic enzymes at low and moderate temperatures offers potential economic benefits. As of now lipases from Pseudozyma antarctica have been extensively studied to understand their unique thermal stability at 90°C and also because of its use in the pharmaceutical, agriculture, food, cosmetics and chemical industry. A few of the other enzymes which have been studied include extracellular alpha-amylase and glucoamylase from the yeast Pseudozyma antarctica (Candida antarctica), an extra-cellular protease from Cryptococcus humicola, an aspartyl proteinase from Cryptococcus humicola, a novel extracellular subtilase from Leucosporidium antarcticum, and a xylanase from Cryptococcus adeliensis

  15. Metal cation uptake by yeast: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Blackwell; I. Singleton; J. M. Tobin

    1995-01-01

    This review addresses metal uptake specifically by yeast. Metal uptake may be passive, active or both, depending on the viability of the biomass, and is influenced by a number of environmental and experimental factors. Uptake is typically accompanied by a degree of ion exchange and, under certain conditions, may be enhanced by the addition of an energy source, Intracellularly accumulated

  16. Inventions on baker's yeast strains and specialty ingredients.

    PubMed

    Gélinas, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Baker's yeast is one of the oldest food microbial starters. Between 1927 and 2008, 165 inventions on more than 337 baker's yeast strains were patented. The first generation of patented yeast strains claimed improved biomass yield at the yeast plant, higher gassing power in dough or better survival to drying to prepare active dry baker's yeast. Especially between 1980 and 1995, a major interest was given to strains for multiple bakery applications such as dough with variable sugar content and stored at refrigeration (cold) or freezing temperatures. During the same period, genetically engineered yeast strains became very popular but did not find applications in the baking industry. Since year 2000, patented baker's yeast strains claimed aroma, anti-moulding or nutritive properties to better meet the needs of the baking industry. In addition to patents on yeast strains, 47 patents were issued on baker's yeast specialty ingredients for niche markets. This review shows that patents on baker's yeast with improved characteristics such as aromatic or nutritive properties have regularly been issued since the 1920's. Overall, it also confirms recent interest for a very wide range of tailored-made yeast-based ingredients for bakery applications. PMID:20653532

  17. Molecular identification of yeasts associated with traditional Egyptian dairy products.

    PubMed

    El-Sharoud, W M; Belloch, C; Peris, D; Querol, A

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the diversity and ecology of yeasts associated with traditional Egyptian dairy products employing molecular techniques in yeast identification. A total of 120 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese, kariesh cheese, and "Matared" cream were collected from local markets and examined. Forty yeast isolates were cultured from these samples and identified using the restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs) of 5.8S-ITS rDNA region and sequencing of the domains D1 and D2 of the 26S rRNA gene. Yeasts were identified as Issatchenkia orientalis (13 isolates), Candida albicans (4 isolates), Clavispora lusitaniae (Candida lusitaniae) (9 isolates), Kodamaea ohmeri (Pichia ohmeri) (1 isolate), Kluyveromyces marxianus (6 isolates), and Candida catenulata (7 isolates). With the exception of C. lusitaniae, the D1/D2 26S rRNA gene sequences were 100% identical for the yeast isolates within the same species. Phylogenetic reconstruction of C. lusitaniae isolates grouped them into 3 distinguished clusters. Kariesh cheese was found to be the most diverse in its yeast floras and contained the highest total yeast count compared with other examined dairy products. This was linked to the acidic pH and lower salt content of this cheese, which favor the growth and survival of yeasts in foodstuffs. Stored Domiati cheese also contained diverse yeast species involving isolates of the pathogenic yeast C. albicans. This raises the possibility of dairy products being vehicles of transmission of pathogenic yeasts. PMID:19895478

  18. Immunosuppressive drug rapamycin restores sporulation competence in industrial yeasts.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Nobushige; Niijima, Seiko; Tanaka, Yukari; Ito, Toshihiko

    2012-04-01

    Industrial yeasts, including a sake yeast strain Kyokai no. 7 (K7), are generally unable to sporulate. Previously, we have reported that in K7 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, deletion of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3, a key activator of the cell cycle, allows the cells to induce IME1 transcription and sporulate under sporulation conditions. Here we show that treatment with the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin also restores sporulation competence in K7 cells. Moreover, sporulation was observed after rapamycin treatment in other industrial yeasts, namely bottom fermenting yeast strains and a wine yeast strain, which are not able to sporulate under normal sporulation conditions. These findings suggest that activation of TORC1 under sporulation conditions leads to sporulation incompetence in these yeasts. Thus, rapamycin treatment will be useful to restore sporulation competence in industrial yeasts. PMID:22197499

  19. Fractal analysis of yeast cell optical speckle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamholz, A.; Schneider, P. S.; Subramaniam, R.; Wong, P. K.; Lieberman, D. H.; Cheung, T. D.; Burgos, J.; Leon, K.; Romero, J.

    2006-02-01

    Steady state laser light propagation in diffuse media such as biological cells generally provide bulk parameter information, such as the mean free path and absorption, via the transmission profile. The accompanying optical speckle can be analyzed as a random spatial data series and its fractal dimension can be used to further classify biological media that show similar mean free path and absorption properties, such as those obtained from a single population. A population of yeast cells can be separated into different portions by centrifuge, and microscope analysis can be used to provide the population statistics. Fractal analysis of the speckle suggests that lower fractal dimension is associated with higher cell packing density. The spatial intensity correlation revealed that the higher cell packing gives rise to higher refractive index. A calibration sample system that behaves similar as the yeast samples in fractal dimension, spatial intensity correlation and diffusion was selected. Porous silicate slabs with different refractive index values controlled by water content were used for system calibration. The porous glass as well as the yeast random spatial data series fractal dimension was found to depend on the imaging resolution. The fractal method was also applied to fission yeast single cell fluorescent data as well as aging yeast optical data; and consistency was demonstrated. It is concluded that fractal analysis can be a high sensitivity tool for relative comparison of cell structure but that additional diffusion measurements are necessary for determining the optimal image resolution. Practical application to dental plaque bio-film and cam-pill endoscope images was also demonstrated.

  20. Plasmid vectors capable of transferring large DNA fragments to yeast.

    PubMed

    Morris, D W; Noti, J D; Osborne, F A; Szalay, A A

    1981-01-01

    We have constructed several cloning vectors which can be used in vitro packaging and yeast transformation. These plasmids have been designed for the convenient cloning of large segments of DNA and their transfer to yeast. They contain bacterial plasmid DNA sequences for replication and selection in Escherichia coli, yeast 2-microns plasmid DNA sequences or chromosomal replicators and yeast markers necessary for replication and selection in yeast, and the cohesive ends of bacteriophage lambda which allow packaging of recombinant molecules into lambda phage heads. Large fragments (22-38 kb) of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Zea mays DNA were ligated into plasmid vector pBTI-1 to make complete genome libraries. One clone from the K. pneumoniae library was amplified in E. coli and the purified DNA used to transform yeast cells. Transformation of yeast by large DNA fragments occurred at high frequencies. The recombinant plasmid was stably maintained in yeast, provided selective pressure for Leu+ transformants was maintained. The structurally complete recombinant plasmid can be recovered from yeast by transforming E. coli to ampicillin resistance. Fewer than 5% of the recovered plasmids had undergone recombination with endogenous yeast 2-microns plasmid. PMID:6299664

  1. Collaborative study on yeast activity, gas production (AACC Method 89-01)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Gélinas

    1997-01-01

    A method of the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) for determining yeast activity (gas production) was tested in a collaborative study involving five laboratories. Samples of three different manufacturers for each of three yeast types (three active dry yeasts, three compressed yeasts, and three instant active dry yeasts) were duplicated and tested in three dough formulations mainly characterized by

  2. Hybrid yeast strains capable of raising an extraordinarily broad range of dough types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kowalski; I. Zander; S. Windisch

    1981-01-01

    Over 200 hybrid yeast strains were screened and 11 of these found to have versatile fermentation characteristics. This paper reports the results obtained with these 11 strains compared with a commercially available strain of baker's yeast used for bread making and marketed as “instant active dry yeast”. In contrast to bakers yeast, the hybrid strains fermented very well in yeast,

  3. Prion formation by a yeast GLFG nucleoporin

    PubMed Central

    Halfmann, Randal; Wright, Jessica R.; Alberti, Simon; Lindquist, Susan; Rexach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The self-assembly of proteins into higher order structures is both central to normal biology and a dominant force in disease. Certain glutamine/asparagine (Q/N)-rich proteins in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae assemble into self-replicating amyloid-like protein polymers, or prions, that act as genetic elements in an entirely protein-based system of inheritance. The nuclear pore complex (NPC) contains multiple Q/N-rich proteins whose self-assembly has also been proposed to underlie structural and functional properties of the NPC. Here we show that an essential sequence feature of these proteins—repeating GLFG motifs—strongly promotes their self-assembly into amyloids with characteristics of prions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nup100 can form bona fide prions, thus establishing a previously undiscovered ability of yeast GLFG nucleoporins to adopt this conformational state in vivo. PMID:22561191

  4. Cloning whole bacterial genomes in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Benders, Gwynedd A.; Noskov, Vladimir N.; Denisova, Evgeniya A.; Lartigue, Carole; Gibson, Daniel G.; Assad-Garcia, Nacyra; Chuang, Ray-Yuan; Carrera, William; Moodie, Monzia; Algire, Mikkel A.; Phan, Quang; Alperovich, Nina; Vashee, Sanjay; Merryman, Chuck; Venter, J. Craig; Smith, Hamilton O.; Glass, John I.; Hutchison, Clyde A.

    2010-01-01

    Most microbes have not been cultured, and many of those that are cultivatable are difficult, dangerous or expensive to propagate or are genetically intractable. Routine cloning of large genome fractions or whole genomes from these organisms would significantly enhance their discovery and genetic and functional characterization. Here we report the cloning of whole bacterial genomes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as single-DNA molecules. We cloned the genomes of Mycoplasma genitalium (0.6 Mb), M. pneumoniae (0.8 Mb) and M. mycoides subspecies capri (1.1 Mb) as yeast circular centromeric plasmids. These genomes appear to be stably maintained in a host that has efficient, well-established methods for DNA manipulation. PMID:20211840

  5. Patulin biodegradation by marine yeast Kodameae ohmeri.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Wei; Li, Chunsheng; Ma, Ning; Xu, Ying; Meng, Xianghong

    2015-01-01

    Patulin contamination of fruit- and vegetable-based products had become a major challenge for the food industry. Biological methods of patulin control can play an important role due to their safety and high efficiency. In this study, a strain of marine yeast with high patulin degradation ability was screened. The yeast was identified as Kodameae ohmeri by the BioLog identification system and partial 26S rRNA gene sequencing. The degradation products of patulin were identified as (E)- and (Z)-ascladiol through HPLC and LC-TOF/MS. High patulin tolerance at 100 ?g ml(-1) and a high degradation rate at 35°C at a pH between 3 and 6 indicates the potential application of K. ohmeri for patulin detoxification of apple-derived products. PMID:25585640

  6. FORMATION OF AUXIN IN YEAST CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, True W.; Stier, T. J. B.

    1941-01-01

    We have found far more auxin in the culture media of bakers' yeast than was obtained by Kögl and Kostermans from the cells themselves. The production of auxin by yeast cells resembles the formation observed in other organisms such as Rhizopus and Rhizobium which also form auxins in their culture media. The auxin yield was found to increase with the concentration of sucrose and to decrease with the concentration of peptone. An inverse relation with the rate of cell multiplication was observed. Enlarged and elongated cells appeared only in those media which contained considerable amounts of auxin. The total auxin yield in the various cultures was found to be directly proportional, below pH 5, to the hydrogen ion concentration. Thus, it was proposed that certain growth conditions favor the breakage of the link between auxin and its protein carrier (Skoog and Thimann) 1940) and consequently accelerate the rate of excretion of auxin into the growth medium. PMID:19873251

  7. Coherent regulation in yeast cell cycle network

    E-print Network

    Nese Aral; Alkan Kabakcioglu

    2014-12-14

    We define a measure of coherent activity for gene regulatory networks, a property that reflects the unity of purpose between the regulatory agents with a common target. We propose that such harmonious regulatory action is desirable under a demand for energy efficiency and may be selected for under evolutionary pressures. We consider two recent models of the cell-cycle regulatory network of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a case study and calculate their degree of coherence. A comparison with random networks of similar size and composition reveals that the yeast's cell-cycle regulation is wired to yield and exceptionally high level of coherent regulatory activity. We also investigate the mean degree of coherence as a function of the network size, connectivity and the fraction of repressory/activatory interactions.

  8. Dynamic Trans Interactions in Yeast Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Mirkin, Ekaterina V.; Chang, Frederick S.; Kleckner, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional organization of the genome is important for regulation of gene expression and maintenance of genomic stability. It also defines, and is defined by, contacts between different chromosomal loci. Interactions between loci positioned on different chromosomes, i.e. “trans” interactions are one type of such contacts. Here, we describe a case of inducible trans interaction in chromosomes of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae. Special DNA sequences, inserted in two ectopic chromosomal loci positioned in trans, pair with one another in an inducible manner. The spatial proximity diagnostic of pairing is observable by both chromosome capture analysis (3C) and epifluorescence microscopy in whole cells. Protein synthesis de novo appears to be required for this process. The three-dimensional organization of the yeast nucleus imposes a constraint on such pairing, presumably by dictating the probability with which the two sequences collide with one another. PMID:24098740

  9. Yeast secretory expression of insulin precursors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kjeldsen

    2000-01-01

    Since the 1980s, recombinant human insulin for the treatment of diabetes mellitus has been produced using either the yeast\\u000a Saccharomyces cerevisiae or the prokaryote Escherichia coli. Here, development of the insulin secretory expression system in S. cerevisiae and its subsequent optimisation is described. Expression of proinsulin in S. cerevisiae does not result in efficient secretion of proinsulin or insulin. However,

  10. Complete DNA sequence of yeast chromosome XI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Dujon; D. Alexandraki; B. André; W. Ansorge; V. Baladron; J. P. G. Ballesta; A. Banrevi; P. A. Bolle; M. Bolotin-Fukuhara; P. Bossier; G. Bou; J. Boyer; M. J. Buitrago; G. Cherét; L. Colleaux; B. Dalgnan-Fornier; F. Del Rey; C. Dion; H. Domdey; A. Düsterhöft; S. Düsterhus; K.-D. Entian; H. Erfle; P. F. Esteban; H. Feldmann; L. Fernandes; G. M. Fobo; C. Fritz; H. Fukuhara; C. Gabel; L. Gaillon; J. M. Carcia-Cantalejo; J. J. Garcia-Ramirez; M. E. Gent; M. Ghazvini; A. Goffeau; A. Gonzaléz; D. Grothues; P. Guerreiro; J. Hegemann; N. Hewitt; F. Hilger; C. P. Hollenberg; O. Horaitis; K. J. Indge; A. Jacquier; C. M. James; J. C. Jauniaux; A. Jimenez; H. Keuchel; L. Kirchrath; K. Kleine; P. Kötter; P. Legrain; S. Liebl; E. J. Louis; A. Maia E Silva; C. Marck; A.-L. Monnier; D. Möstl; S. Müller; B. Obermaier; S. G. Oliver; C. Pallier; S. Pascolo; F. Pfeiffer; P. Philippsen; R. J. Planta; F. M. Pohl; T. M. Pohl; R. Pöhlmann; D. Portetelle; B. Purnelle; V. Puzos; M. Ramezani Rad; S. W. Rasmussen; M. Remacha; J. L. Revuelta; G.-F. Richard; M. Rieger; C. Rodrigues-Pousada; M. Rose; T. Rupp; M. A. Santos; C. Schwager; C. Sensen; J. Skala; H. Soares; F. Sor; J. Stegemann; H. Tettelin; A. Thierry; M. Tzermia; L. A. Urrestarazu; L. van Dyck; J. C. van Vliet-Reedijk; M. Valens; M. Vandenbo; C. Vilela; S. Vissers; D. von Wettstein; H. Voss; S. Wiemann; G. Xu; J. Zimmermann; M. Haasemann; I. Becker; H. W. Mewes

    1994-01-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XI has been determined. In addition to a compact arrangement of potential protein coding sequences, the 666,448-base-pair sequence has revealed general chromosome patterns; in particular, alternating regional variations in average base composition correlate with variations in local gene density along the chromosome. Significant discrepancies with the previously published genetic map

  11. Modelling signalling pathways – a yeast approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bodil Nordlander; Edda Klipp; Bente Kofahl; Stefan Hohmann

    MAP kinase pathways are conserved signalling systems in eukaryotes that control stress responses, cell growth, and proliferation,\\u000a as well as differentiation. Here, we discuss and compare the feedback control mechanisms of two very well studied yeast signalling\\u000a systems: the pheromone response pathway and the osmosensing HOG pathway. Mathematical models have recently been generated,\\u000a allowing in silico analysis of signalling properties

  12. Anhydrobiosis in yeast: Stabilization by exogenous lactose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Rapoport; G. M. Khroustalyova; L. M. Crowe; J. H. Crowe

    2009-01-01

    We have found that incubation in lactose solutions (0.75 M) of yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae sensitive to dehydration damage increased the stability of the cells during dehydration. Simultaneously with this increase\\u000a in viability, a decrease in plasma membrane permeability during rehydration was seen. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy\\u000a to measure lipid phase transitions, we observed that the lactose treatment depressed

  13. The core meiotic transcriptome in budding yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Primig; Roy M. Williams; Elizabeth A. Winzeler; Gela G. Tevzadze; Andrew R. Conway; Seung Y. Hwang; Ronald W. Davis; Rochelle Easton Esposito

    2000-01-01

    We used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to analyse the genomes and meiotic expression patterns of two yeast strains, SK1 and W303, that display distinct kinetics and efficiencies of sporulation. Hybridization of genomic DNA to arrays revealed numerous gene deletions and polymorphisms in both backgrounds. The expression analysis yielded approximately 1,600 meiotically regulated genes in each strain, with a core set of

  14. PROPHECY - a yeast phenome database, update 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano Fernandez-ricaud; Jonas Warringer; Elke Ericson; Kerstin Glaab; Pär Davidsson; Fabian Nilsson; Graham J. L. Kemp; Olle Nerman; Anders Blomberg

    2007-01-01

    Connecting genotype to phenotype is fundamental in biomedical research and in our understanding of disease. Phenomics—the large-scale quantitative phenotypic analysis of genotypes on a genome- wide scale—connects automated data generation with the development of novel tools for phenotype data integration, mining and visualization. Our yeast phenomics database PROPHECY is available at http:\\/\\/prophecy.lundberg.gu.se. Via phenotyping of 984 heterozygous diploids for all

  15. SNF1/AMPK pathways in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hedbacker, Kristina; Carlson, Marian

    2009-01-01

    The SNF1/AMPK family of protein kinases is highly conserved in eukaryotes and is required for energy homeostasis in mammals, plants, and fungi. SNF1 protein kinase was initially identified by genetic analysis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SNF1 is required primarily for the adaptation of yeast cells to glucose limitation and for growth on carbon sources that are less preferred than glucose, but is also involved in responses to other environmental stresses. SNF1 regulates transcription of a large set of genes, modifies the activity of metabolic enzymes, and controls various nutrient-responsive cellular developmental processes. Like AMPK, SNF1 protein kinase is heterotrimeric. It is phosphorylated and activated by the upstream kinases Sak1, Tos3, and Elm1 and is inactivated by the Reg1-Glc7 protein phosphatase 1. Further regulation of SNF1 is achieved through autoinhibition and through control of its subcellular localization. Here we review the current understanding of SNF1 protein kinase pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts. PMID:17981722

  16. Lipids and cell death in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Büttner, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Understanding lipid-induced malfunction represents a major challenge of today's biomedical research. The connection of lipids to cellular and organ dysfunction, cell death, and disease (often referred to as lipotoxicity) is more complex than the sole lipotoxic effects of excess free fatty acids and requires genetically tractable model systems for mechanistic investigation. We herein summarize recent advances in the field of lipid-induced toxicity that employ the established model system for cell death and aging research of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Studies in yeast have shed light on various aspects of lipotoxicity, including free fatty acid toxicity, sphingolipid-modulated cell death as well as the involvement of cardiolipin and lipid peroxidation in the mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis. Regimens used range from exogenously applied lipids, genetic modulation of lipolysis and triacylglyceride synthesis, variations in sphingolipid/ceramide metabolism as well as changes in peroxisome function by either genetic or pharmacological means. In future, the yeast model of programmed cell death will further contribute to the clarification of crucial questions of lipid-associated malfunction. PMID:24119111

  17. Functional artificial free-standing yeast biofilms.

    PubMed

    Konnova, Svetlana A; Kahraman, Mehmet; Zamaleeva, Alsu I; Culha, Mustafa; Paunov, Vesselin N; Fakhrullin, Rawil F

    2011-12-01

    Here we report fabrication of artificial free-standing yeast biofilms built using sacrificial calcium carbonate-coated templates and layer-by-layer assembly of extracellular matrix-mimicking polyelectrolyte multilayers. The free-standing biofilms are freely floating multilayered films of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and live cells incorporated in the polyelectrolyte layers. Such biofilms were initially formed on glass substrates of circular and ribbon-like shapes coated with thin layers of calcium carbonate microparticles. The templates were then coated with cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes to produce a supporting multilayered thin film. Then the yeast alone or mixed with various micro- and nanoparticle inclusions was deposited onto the multilayer composite films and further coated with outer polyelectrolyte multilayers. To detach the biofilms from the glass substrates the calcium carbonate layer was chemically dissolved yielding free-standing composite biofilms. These artificial biofilms to a certain degree mimic the primitive multicellular and colonial species. We have demonstrated the added functionality of the free-standing artificial biofilms containing magnetic, latex and silver micro- and nanoparticles. We have also developed "symbiotic" multicellular biofilms containing yeast and bacteria. This approach for fabrication of free-standing artificial biofilms can be potentially helpful in development of artificial colonial microorganisms composed of several different unicellular species and an important tool for growing cell cultures free of supporting substrates. PMID:21855301

  18. Replication forks pause at yeast centromeres.

    PubMed Central

    Greenfeder, S A; Newlon, C S

    1992-01-01

    The 120 bp of yeast centromeric DNA is tightly complexed with protein to form a nuclease-resistant core structure 200 to 240 bp in size. We have used two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis to analyze the replication of the chromosomal copies of yeast CEN1, CEN3, and CEN4 and determine the fate of replication forks that encounter the protein-DNA complex at the centromere. We have shown that replication fork pause sites are coincident with each of these centromeres and therefore probably with all yeast centromeres. We have analyzed the replication of plasmids containing mutant derivatives of CEN3 to determine whether the replication fork pause site is a result of an unusual structure adopted by centromere DNA or a result of the protein-DNA complex formed at the centromere. The mutant centromere derivatives varied in function as well as the ability to form the nuclease-resistant core structure. The data obtained from analysis of these derivatives indicate that the ability to cause replication forks to pause correlates with the ability to form the nuclease-resistant core structure and not with the presence or absence of a particular DNA sequence. Our findings further suggest that the centromere protein-DNA complex is present during S phase when replication forks encounter the centromere and therefore may be present throughout the cell cycle. Images PMID:1508202

  19. Yeast glycosylation mutants are sensitive to aminoglycosides.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, N

    1995-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are a therapeutically important class of antibiotics that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis and a number of viral and eukaryotic functions by blocking RNA-protein interactions. Vanadate-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with defects in Golgi-specific glycosylation processes exhibit growth sensitivity to hygromycin B, an aminoglycoside [Ballou, L., Hitzeman, R. A., Lewis, M. S. & Ballou, C. E. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 3209-3212]. Here, evidence is presented that glycosylation is, in and of itself, a key factor mediating aminoglycoside sensitivity in yeast. Examination of mutants with a wide range of glycosylation abnormalities reveals that all are sensitive to aminoglycosides. This effect is specific to aminoglycosides and not merely a consequence of increased permeability of the yeast mutants to drugs. Furthermore, inhibition of glycosylation in wild-type cells leads to a marked increase in their sensitivity to aminoglycosides. These results establish that a defect in glycosylation is sufficient to render yeast cells susceptible to these clinically important drugs. Further, they suggest that a molecule which prevents the uptake or mediates removal of aminoglycosides requires glycosylation for its activity. Perhaps more importantly, this finding on drug sensitivity provides the most powerful screen to date to identify mutants and thereby to isolate genes involved in all aspects of N-linked glycosylation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7877969

  20. Measuring Chromatin Structure in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Belton, Jon-Matthew; Dekker, Job

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome conformation capture (3C) has revolutionized the ways in which the conformation of chromatin and its relationship to other molecular functions can be studied. 3C-based techniques are used to determine the spatial arrangement of chromosomes in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. In particular, they can be applied to the study of chromosome folding and organization in model organisms with small genomes and for which powerful genetic tools exist, such as budding yeast. Studies in yeast allow the mechanisms that establish or maintain chromatin structure to be analyzed at very high resolution with relatively low cost, and further our understanding of these fundamental processes in higher eukaryotes as well. Here we provide an overview of chromatin structure and introduce methods for performing 3C, with a focus on studies in budding yeast. Variations of the basic 3C approach (e.g., 3C-PCR, 5C, and Hi-C) can be used according to the scope and goals of a given experiment. PMID:26134912

  1. Strategies for identifying new prions in yeast

    PubMed Central

    MacLea, Kyle S

    2011-01-01

    The unexpected discovery of two prions, [URE3] and [PSI+], in Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to questions about how many other proteins could undergo similar prion-based structural conversions. However, [URE3] and [PSI+] were discovered by serendipity in genetic screens. Cataloging the full range of prions in yeast or in other organisms will therefore require more systematic search methods. Taking advantage of some of the unique features of prions, various researchers have developed bioinformatic and experimental methods for identifying novel prion proteins. These methods have generated long lists of prion candidates. The systematic testing of some of these prion candidates has led to notable successes; however, even in yeast, where rapid growth rate and ease of genetic manipulation aid in testing for prion activity, such candidate testing is laborious. Development of better methods to winnow the field of prion candidates will greatly aid in the discovery of new prions, both in yeast and in other organisms, and help us to better understand the role of prions in biology. PMID:22052351

  2. A microfluidic synchronizer for fission yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Luo, Chunxiong; Ouyang, Qi

    2013-10-21

    Among all the cell cycle synchronization technologies, the baby machine may be considered as the most artifact-free method. A baby machine incubates "mother cells" under normal conditions and collects their "babies", producing cell cultures that are similar not only in cell cycle phase but also in age. Unlike many other synchronization methods, no cell-cycle-blocking agent or metabolic stress is introduced in this method. Several macroscale and microfluidic baby machines have been developed for producing synchronized cell colonies. However, for rod-shaped cells like fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), it is still a challenge to immobilize only the mother cells in a microfluidic device. Here we presented a new baby machine suitable for fission yeast. The device is fixed one end of the cell and releases the free-end daughter cell every time the cell finishes cytokinesis. A variety of structures for cell immobilization were attempted to find the optimal design. For the convenience of collection and further assay, we integrated into our baby machine chip a cell screener, which exploited the deformation of polymer material to switch between opening and closing states. Synchronous populations of fission yeast cells were produced with this device, its working detail was analyzed and performance was evaluated. The device provides a new on-chip tool for cell biology studies. PMID:23966136

  3. Engineered yeast for enhanced CO2 mineralization†

    PubMed Central

    Barbero, Roberto; Carnelli, Lino; Simon, Anna; Kao, Albert; Monforte, Alessandra d’Arminio; Riccò, Moreno; Bianchi, Daniele; Belcher, Angela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a biologically catalyzed CO2 mineralization process for the capture of CO2 from point sources was designed, constructed at a laboratory scale, and, using standard chemical process scale-up protocols, was modeled and evaluated at an industrial scale. A yeast display system in Saccharomyces cerevisae was used to screen several carbonic anhydrase isoforms and mineralization peptides for their impact on CO2 hydration, CaCO3 mineralization, and particle settling rate. Enhanced rates for each of these steps in the CaCO3 mineralization process were confirmed using quantitative techniques in lab-scale measurements. The effect of these enhanced rates on the CO2 capture cost in an industrial scale CO2 mineralization process using coal fly ash as the CaO source was evaluated. The model predicts a process using bCA2- yeast and fly ash is ~10% more cost effective per ton of CO2 captured than a process with no biological molecules, a savings not realized by wild-type yeast and high-temperature stable recombinant CA2 alone or in combination. The levelized cost of electricity for a power plant using this process was calculated and scenarios in which this process compares favorably to CO2 capture by MEA absorption process are presented. PMID:25289021

  4. On the modeling of endocytosis in yeast

    E-print Network

    T. Zhang; R. Sknepnek; M. J. Bowick; J. M. Schwarz

    2014-12-04

    The cell membrane deforms during endocytosis to surround extracellular material and draw it into the cell. Experiments on endocytosis in yeast all agree that (i) actin polymerizes into a network of filaments exerting active forces on the membrane to deform it and (ii) the large scale membrane deformation is tubular in shape. There are three competing proposals, in contrast, for precisely how the actin filament network organizes itself to drive the deformation. We use variational approaches and numerical simulations to address this competition by analyzing a meso-scale model of actin-mediated endocytosis in yeast. The meso-scale model breaks up the invagination process into three stages: (i) initiation, where clathrin interacts with the membrane via adaptor proteins, (ii) elongation, where the membrane is then further deformed by polymerizing actin filaments, followed by (iii) pinch-off. Our results suggest that the pinch-off mechanism may be assisted by a pearling-like instability. We rule out two of the three competing proposals for the organization of the actin filament network during the elongation stage. These two proposals could possibly be important in the pinch-off stage, however, where additional actin polymerization helps break off the vesicle. Implications and comparisons with earlier modeling of endocytosis in yeast are discussed.

  5. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

  6. Studies on methanol - oxidizing yeast. III. Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Volfová, O

    1975-01-01

    Oxidation of methanol, formaldehyde and formic acid was studied in cells and cell-free extract of the yeast Candida boidinii No. 11Bh. Methanol oxidase, an enzyme oxidizing methanol to formaldehyde, was formed inducibly after the addition of methanol to yeast cells. The oxidation of methanol by cell-free extract was dependent on the presence of oxygen and independent of any addition of nicotine-amide nucleotides. Temperature optimum for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde was 35 degrees C, pH optimum was 8.5. The Km for methanol was 0.8mM. The cell-free extract exhibited a broad substrate specificity towards primary alcohols (C1--C6). The activity of methanol oxidase was not inhibited by 1mM KCN, EDTA or monoiodoacetic acid. The strongest inhibitory action was exerted by p-chloromercuribenzoate. Both the cells and the cell-free extract contained catalase which participated in the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde; the enzyme was constitutively formed by the yeast. The pH optimum for the degradation of H2O2 was in the same range as the optimum for methanol oxidation, viz. at 8.5. Catalase was more resistant to high pH than methanol oxidase. The cell-free extract contained also GSH-dependent NAD-formaldehyde dehydrogenase with Km = 0.29mM and NAD-formate dehydrogenase with Km = 55mM. PMID:240764

  7. Mechanisms of autophagy and pexophagy in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Sibirny, A A

    2011-12-01

    Autophagy is a process of recycling of the intracellular constituents using vacuoles (lysosomes). General autophagy occurs due to involvement of highly conservative components found in all eukaryotes, from yeasts to higher plants and humans. Autophagy also could be a selective process and be involved in regulation of the cellular number of organelles, including that of peroxisomes. The process of specific autophagic peroxisome degradation is known as pexophagy. Yeasts appear to be convenient model for studying molecular mechanisms of pexophagy, and most known ATG genes (from the term AuTophaGy) were identified in yeast studies. This review examines characteristics of general autophagy, other types of autophagy as well as pexophagy, in particular, functions of Atg proteins in general autophagy and in macro- and micropexophagy. Special attention is given to mechanisms of phagophore assembly, the role of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate in pexophagy, the role of peroxines (proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis) in pexophagy, as well as properties of Atg proteins specifically involved in micropexophagy. PMID:22150273

  8. Yeast Genomics for Bread, Beer, Biology, Bucks and Breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakharkar, Kishore R.; Sakharkar, Meena K.

    The rapid advances and scale up of projects in DNA sequencing dur ing the past two decades have produced complete genome sequences of several eukaryotic species. The versatile genetic malleability of the yeast, and the high degree of conservation between its cellular processes and those of human cells have made it a model of choice for pioneering research in molecular and cell biology. The complete sequence of yeast genome has proven to be extremely useful as a reference towards the sequences of human and for providing systems to explore key gene functions. Yeast has been a ‘legendary model’ for new technologies and gaining new biological insights into basic biological sciences and biotechnology. This chapter describes the awesome power of yeast genetics, genomics and proteomics in understanding of biological function. The applications of yeast as a screening tool to the field of drug discovery and development are highlighted and the traditional importance of yeast for bakers and brewers is discussed.

  9. A new methodology to obtain wine yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins.

    PubMed

    Quirós, Manuel; Gonzalez-Ramos, Daniel; Tabera, Laura; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2010-04-30

    Yeast mannoproteins are highly glycosylated proteins that are covalently bound to the beta-1,3-glucan present in the yeast cell wall. Among their outstanding enological properties, yeast mannoproteins contribute to several aspects of wine quality by protecting against protein haze, reducing astringency, retaining aroma compounds and stimulating growth of lactic-acid bacteria. The development of a non-recombinant method to obtain enological yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins would therefore be very useful. Our previous experience on the genetic determinants of the release of these molecules by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has allowed us to propose a new methodology to isolate and characterize wine yeast that overproduce mannoproteins. The described methodology is based on the resistance of the killer 9 toxin produced by Williopsis saturnus, a feature linked to an altered biogenesis of the yeast cell wall. PMID:20219260

  10. Isolation and characterization of ethanol tolerant yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    Tikka, Chiranjeevi; Osuru, Hari Prasad; Atluri, Navya; Raghavulu, Praveen Chakravarthi Veera; yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Mannur, Ismail Shaik; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Aluru, Sudheer; K, Narasimha Varma; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2013-01-01

    Yeast strains are commonly associated with sugar rich environments. Various fruit samples were selected as source for isolating yeast cells. The isolated cultures were identified at Genus level by colony morphology, biochemical characteristics and cell morphological characters. An attempt has been made to check the viability of yeast cells under different concentrations of ethanol. Ethanol tolerance of each strain was studied by allowing the yeast to grow in liquid YEPD (Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose) medium having different concentrations of ethanol. A total of fifteen yeast strains isolated from different samples were used for the study. Seven strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from different fruit sources were screened for ethanol tolerance. The results obtained in this study show a range of tolerance levels between 7%-12% in all the stains. Further, the cluster analysis based on 22 RAPD (Random Amplified polymorphic DNA) bands revealed polymorphisms in these seven Saccharomyces strains. PMID:23750092

  11. Taming wild yeast: potential of conventional and nonconventional yeasts in industrial fermentations.

    PubMed

    Steensels, Jan; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are the main driving force behind several industrial food fermentation processes, including the production of beer, wine, sake, bread, and chocolate. Historically, these processes developed from uncontrolled, spontaneous fermentation reactions that rely on a complex mixture of microbes present in the environment. Because such spontaneous processes are generally inconsistent and inefficient and often lead to the formation of off-flavors, most of today's industrial production utilizes defined starter cultures, often consisting of a specific domesticated strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, or S. pastorianus. Although this practice greatly improved process consistency, efficiency, and overall quality, it also limited the sensorial complexity of the end product. In this review, we discuss how Saccharomyces yeasts were domesticated to become the main workhorse of food fermentations, and we investigate the potential and selection of nonconventional yeasts that are often found in spontaneous fermentations, such as Brettanomyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia spp. PMID:24773331

  12. YeastMed: an XML-Based System for Biological Data Integration of Yeast

    E-print Network

    Briache, Abdelaali; Kerzazi, Amine; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Montes, Jose F Aldana; Hassani, Badr D Rossi; Lairini, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    A key goal of bioinformatics is to create database systems and software platforms capable of storing and analysing large sets of biological data. Hundreds of biological databases are now available and provide access to huge amount of biological data. SGD, Yeastract, CYGD-MIPS, BioGrid and PhosphoGrid are five of the most visited databases by the yeast community. These sources provide complementary data on biological entities. Biologists are brought systematically to query these data sources in order to analyse the results of their experiments. Because of the heterogeneity of these sources, querying them separately and then manually combining the returned result is a complex and laborious task. To provide transparent and simultaneous access to these sources, we have developed a mediator-based system called YeastMed. In this paper, we present YeastMed focusing on its architecture.

  13. Brewer’s yeast: genetic structure and targets for improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jørgen Hansen; Morten Kielland-Brandt

    The art of beer brewing is ancient, and Saccharomyces yeast probably played a pivotal role from the beginning. Production of beer from the barley grain consists of multiple steps,\\u000a of which only the last few involve the yeast. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the yeast is highly decisive for both speed and\\u000a outcome of the whole process, and to a large

  14. Genomic stability disorders: from budding yeast to humans.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Nicolas Carlos; Lai, Xianning; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of eukaryotic molecular and cellular biology are extensively studied in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome maintenance pathways are highly conserved and research into a number of human genetic disorders with increased genome instability and cancer predisposition have benefited greatly from studies in budding yeast. Here, we present some of the examples where yeast research into DNA damage responses and telomere maintenance pathways paved the way to understanding these processes, and their involvement in selected human diseases. PMID:23277058

  15. Prevalence of Candida dubliniensis Isolates in a Yeast Stock Collection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANK C. ODDS; LUC VAN NUFFEL; GERY DAMS

    1998-01-01

    To establish the historical prevalence of the novel yeast species Candida dubliniensis, a survey of 2,589 yeasts originally identified as Candida albicans and maintained in a stock collection dating back to the early 1970s was undertaken. A total of 590 yeasts, including 93 (18.5%) b-glucosidase-negative isolates among 502 isolates that showed abnormal colony colors on a differential chromogenic agar and

  16. Media for preservative resistant yeasts: a collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hocking, A D

    1996-04-01

    An international collaborative study was carried out to determine the most effective medium for selective isolation and enumeration of preservative resistant yeasts. Such a medium should prevent the growth of other yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are tolerant to lower levels of commonly used food preservatives, and sensitive yeasts such as Rhodotorula species. The study compared two non-selective media that are in common use for cultivation of yeasts from foods, Malt Extract agar (MEA) and Tryptone Glucose Yeast extract agar (TGY) with media made selective for preservative resistant yeasts by addition of 0.5% acetic acid to these two basal media (MEAA and TGYA). A fifth medium, Zygosaccharomyces bailii medium (ZBM) was also included in the study. These media were compared for their efficacy in selective isolation and enumeration of the preservative resistant yeasts Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Pichia membranaefaciens. MEA and TGY without acetic acid were used as control, non-selective media, and Rhodotorula glutinis was the preservative sensitive control culture. Seven laboratories in six countries took part in the study. Of the non-selective media, TGY generally gave the highest counts, and TGY amended with 0.5% acetic acid (TGYA) was the best medium for recovery of all three preservative-resistant yeasts. ZBM was found to be selective for Z. bailii, but counts of this yeast on ZBM were significantly lower than on TGYA. R. glutinis did not grow on any of the selective media. PMID:8796419

  17. Effect of fungicides on epiphytic yeasts associated with strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Debode, Jane; Van Hemelrijck, Wendy; Creemers, Piet; Maes, Martine

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of two commonly used fungicides on the epiphytic yeast community of strawberry. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted applying Switch (cyprodinil plus fludioxonil) or Signum (boscalid plus pyraclostrobin) to strawberry plants. Yeasts on leaves and fruits were assessed on treated and untreated plants at several time points via plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The yeast counts on plates of the treated plants were similar to the control plants. Unripe fruits had 10 times larger yeast concentrations than ripe fruits or leaves. Some dominant yeast types were isolated and in vitro tests showed that they were at least 10 times less sensitive to Switch and Signum as compared with two important fungal strawberry pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum acutatum, which are the targets for the fungicide control. DGGE analysis showed that the applied fungicides had no effect on the composition of the yeast communities, while the growing system, strawberry tissue, and sampling time did affect the yeast communities. The yeast species most commonly identified were Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, and Sporobolomyces. These results point toward the potential applicability of natural occurring yeast antagonists into an integrated disease control strategy for strawberry diseases.

  18. Production of d-Mannitol and Glycerol by Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    1968-01-01

    D-Mannitol has not so far been known as a major product of sugar metabolism by yeasts. Three yeast strains, a newly isolated yeast from soy-sauce mash, Torulopsis versatilis, and T. anomala, were found to be good mannitol producers. Under optimal conditions, the isolate produced mannitol at good yield of 30% of the sugar consumed. Glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, maltose, glycerol, and xylitol were suitable substrates for mannitol formation. High concentrations of yeast extract, Casamino Acids, NaCl, and KCl in media affected significantly the mannitol yield, whereas high levels of inorganic phosphate did not show any detrimental effect. PMID:5749751

  19. A Photometer for Measuring Population Growth in Yeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatina, Robert; Hartley, Tamela; Thomas, Danita

    1999-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, portable photometer designed specifically for estimating population sizes in yeast cultures. Suggests activities for use with the photometer. (WRM)

  20. Cytokinesis Depends on the Motor Domains of Myosin-II in Fission Yeast but Not in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Matthew; Laves, Ellen; Pollard, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Budding yeast possesses one myosin-II, Myo1p, whereas fission yeast has two, Myo2p and Myp2p, all of which contribute to cytokinesis. We find that chimeras consisting of Myo2p or Myp2p motor domains fused to the tail of Myo1p are fully functional in supporting budding yeast cytokinesis. Remarkably, the tail alone of budding yeast Myo1p localizes to the contractile ring, supporting both its constriction and cytokinesis. In contrast, fission yeast Myo2p and Myp2p require both the catalytic head domain as well as tail domains for function, with the tails providing distinct functions (Bezanilla and Pollard, 2000). Myo1p is the first example of a myosin whose cellular function does not require a catalytic motor domain revealing a novel mechanism of action for budding yeast myosin-II independent of actin binding and ATPase activity. PMID:16148042

  1. A novel ascosporogenous yeast species, Zygosaccharomyces siamensis , and the sugar tolerant yeasts associated with raw honey collected in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sujinan Saksinchai; Motofumi Suzuki; Panuwan Chantawannakul; Moriya Ohkuma; Saisamorn Lumyong

    Diversity of yeasts in association with bees and their food sources has been explored during the last decade. In Thailand,\\u000a there has been no study of yeast identification in honey and bees. Hence, a total of 186 yeast strains were isolated from\\u000a 37 honey samples of 12 different bee species. On the basis of morphological and physiological characteristics, 55 representative

  2. Yeast and Mammalian Metallothioneins Functionally Substitute for Yeast Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, Katherine T.; Gralla, Edith B.; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Valentine, Joan S.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    1993-09-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide and dioxygen and is thought to play an important role in protecting cells from oxygen toxicity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, which is encoded by the SOD1 gene, are sensitive to oxidative stress and exhibit a variety of growth defects including hypersensitivity to dioxygen and to superoxide-generating drugs such as paraquat. We have found that in addition to these known phenotypes, SOD1-deletion strains fail to grow on agar containing the respiratory carbon source lactate. We demonstrate here that expression of the yeast or monkey metallothionein proteins in the presence of copper suppresses the lactate growth defect and some other phenotypes associated with SOD1-deletion strains, indicating that copper metallothioneins substitute for copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in vivo to protect cells from oxygen toxicity. Consistent with these results, we show that yeast metallothionein mRNA levels are dramatically elevated under conditions of oxidative stress. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrate that yeast metallothionein, purified or from whole-cell extracts, exhibits copper-dependent antioxidant activity. Taken together, these data suggest that both yeast and mammalian metallothioneins may play a direct role in the cellular defense against oxidative stress by functioning as antioxidants.

  3. Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    DOEpatents

    Rajgarhia, Vineet (Kingsport, TN); Koivuranta, Kari (Helsinki, FI); Penttila, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Miller, Christopher Kenneth (Cottage Grove, MN); Olson, Stacey (St. Bonifacius, MN); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI)

    2011-05-17

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  4. Crystal structure of yeast Sco1

    SciTech Connect

    Abajian, Carnie; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    The Sco family of proteins are involved in the assembly of the dinuclear CuA site in cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme in aerobic respiration. These proteins, which are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, are characterized by a conserved CXXXC sequence motif that binds copper ions and that has also been proposed to perform a thiol:disulfide oxidoreductase function. The crystal structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae apo Sco1 (apo-ySco1) and Sco1 in the presence of copper ions (Cu-ySco1) were determined to 1.8- and 2.3-{angstrom} resolutions, respectively. Yeast Sco1 exhibits a thioredoxin-like fold, similar to that observed for human Sco1 and a homolog from Bacillus subtilis. The Cu-ySco1 structure, obtained by soaking apo-ySco1 crystals in copper ions, reveals an unexpected copper-binding site involving Cys181 and Cys216, cysteine residues present in ySco1 but not in other homologs. The conserved CXXXC cysteines, Cys148 and Cys152, can undergo redox chemistry in the crystal. An essential histidine residue, His239, is located on a highly flexible loop, denoted the Sco loop, and can adopt positions proximal to both pairs of cysteines. Interactions between ySco1 and its partner proteins yeast Cox17 and yeast COX2 are likely to occur via complementary electrostatic surfaces. This high-resolution model of a eukaryotic Sco protein provides new insight into Sco copper binding and function.

  5. Studying Functions of All Yeast Genes Simultaneously

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor; Eason, Robert G.; Poumand, Nader; Herman, Zelek S.; Davis, Ronald W.; Anthony Kevin; Jejelowo, Olufisayo

    2006-01-01

    A method of studying the functions of all the genes of a given species of microorganism simultaneously has been developed in experiments on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commonly known as baker's or brewer's yeast). It is already known that many yeast genes perform functions similar to those of corresponding human genes; therefore, by facilitating understanding of yeast genes, the method may ultimately also contribute to the knowledge needed to treat some diseases in humans. Because of the complexity of the method and the highly specialized nature of the underlying knowledge, it is possible to give only a brief and sketchy summary here. The method involves the use of unique synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences that are denoted as DNA bar codes because of their utility as molecular labels. The method also involves the disruption of gene functions through deletion of genes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly powerful experimental system in that multiple deletion strains easily can be pooled for parallel growth assays. Individual deletion strains recently have been created for 5,918 open reading frames, representing nearly all of the estimated 6,000 genetic loci of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tagging of each deletion strain with one or two unique 20-nucleotide sequences enables identification of genes affected by specific growth conditions, without prior knowledge of gene functions. Hybridization of bar-code DNA to oligonucleotide arrays can be used to measure the growth rate of each strain over several cell-division generations. The growth rate thus measured serves as an index of the fitness of the strain.

  6. Cell Polarization and Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Erfei; Park, Hay-Oak

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division, which includes cell polarization and cytokinesis, is essential for generating cell diversity during development. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduces by asymmetric cell division, and has thus served as an attractive model for unraveling the general principles of eukaryotic cell polarization and cytokinesis. Polarity development requires G-protein signaling, cytoskeletal polarization, and exocytosis, whereas cytokinesis requires concerted actions of a contractile actomyosin ring and targeted membrane deposition. In this chapter, we discuss the mechanics and spatial control of polarity development and cytokinesis, emphasizing the key concepts, mechanisms, and emerging questions in the field. PMID:22701052

  7. Minimal nutritional requirements for immobilized yeast.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Dale, M C; Okos, M R

    1990-12-01

    The effect of reduced nutritional levels (particularly nitrogen source) for immobilized K. fragilis type yeast were studied using a trickle flow, "differential" plug flow type reactor with cells immobilized by adsorption onto an absorbant packing matrix. Minimizing nutrient levels in a feed stream to an immobilized cell reactor (ICR) might have the benefits of reducing cell growth and clogging problems in the ICR, reducing feed preparation costs, as well as reducing effluent disposal costs. In this study step changes in test feed medium nutrient compositions were introduced to the ICR, followed by a return to a basal medium. Gas evolution rates were monitored and logged on a continuous basis, and effluent cell density was used as an indicator of cell growth rate of the immobilized cell mass. Startup of the reactor using a YEP medium showed a rapid buildup of cells in the reactor during the initial 110 h operation. The population density then stabilized at 1.6 x 10(11) cells/g sponge. A defined medium containing a complex mix of essential nutrients with an inorganic nitrogen source (ammonium sulfate) was able to maintain 90% of the productivity in the ICR as compared to the YEP medium, but proved unable to promote growth of the immobilized cell mass during startup. Experiments on reduced ammonium sulfate in the defined medium, and reduced yeast extract and peptone in YEP medium indicated that stable productivity could be maintained for extended periods (80 h) in the complete absence of any nutrients besides a few salts (potassium phosphate and magnesium sulfate). It was found that productivity rates dropped by 35-65% from maximal values as nitrogenous nutrients were eliminated from the test mediums, while growth rates (as determined by shed cell density from the reactor) dropped by 75-95%. Thus, nutritional deficiencies largely decoupled growth and productivity of the immobilized yeast which suggests productivity is both growth- and non-growth-associated for the immobilized cells. A yeast extract concentration of 0.375 g/L with or without 1 g/L ammonium sulfate was determined to be the minimum level which gave a sustained increase in productivity rates as compared to the nutritionally deficient salt medium. This represents a 94% reduction in complex nitrogenous nutrient levels compared to standard YEP batch medium (3 g/L YE and 3.5 g/L peptone). PMID:18595037

  8. [Mechanisms of yeast resistance to environmental stress].

    PubMed

    Piecuch, Agata; Ob??k, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Changes in environmental conditions might be a stress factor for yeast cells. There are several mechanisms of stress tolerance, developed by the cell, which activate when the stress appears. Different transcription factors coordinate the expression of stress response genes. Msn2/4p regulate the expression of the general stress response. Heat shock defense involves heat shock proteins (Hsp), controlled by Hsf1p. Osmotic shock induces the MAP kinase cascade (HOG), whereas the oxidative stress response requires the YAP network. Fungicide resistance is mediated mainly by the activity of membrane transporters and changes in the structure of the plasma membrane.  PMID:23619223

  9. d-Arabinose Countertransport in Bakers' Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Peter O.

    1967-01-01

    The initial rate of the glucose-induced countertransport of d-arabinose was measured at several concentrations of extracellular glucose. These data permit the calculation of the intracellular concentration of free glucose, and, if the rate of glucose metabolism is known, the maximal rate of glucose transport can be estimated. Since the maximal transport rate remained essentially constant when the extracellular glucose concentration was increased from 2 to 100 mm, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that, during glucose metabolism, glucose is transported across the yeast cell membrane by a symmetrical carrier system which functions independently of metabolism. PMID:6025445

  10. [Prevalence of endodontic yeasts in periapical infections].

    PubMed

    Zbidi, N D; Zaki, A; Zouiten, S; Boughzala, A; Baccouche, C

    2005-06-01

    In literature, microbiology results of periapical lesions are limited. Only several types are frequently isolated in rebellious cases. These ones include Enterococcus Faecalis and Enterococcus gram. Recently, a gain of interest is focused on discussion concerning endodontic yeasts that is why we developed our research in this way. From the 81 cases of endodontic culture studied, 20% were positive isolating Candida in which 14% weren't C. albicans, for the rest we identify C. glabrata, C.sp., C. kefyr, C. kruseii. The predominance of Candida albicans was justified by their frequency as commensal oral flora, explaining someway the failure of some intracanal endodontic medication. PMID:16245760

  11. Dynamic modeling of yeast meiotic initiation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meiosis is the sexual reproduction process common to eukaryotes. The diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes meiosis in sporulation medium to form four haploid spores. Initiation of the process is tightly controlled by intricate networks of positive and negative feedback loops. Intriguingly, expression of early meiotic proteins occurs within a narrow time window. Further, sporulation efficiency is strikingly different for yeast strains with distinct mutations or genetic backgrounds. To investigate signal transduction pathways that regulate transient protein expression and sporulation efficiency, we develop a mathematical model using ordinary differential equations. The model describes early meiotic events, particularly feedback mechanisms at the system level and phosphorylation of signaling molecules for regulating protein activities. Results The mathematical model is capable of simulating the orderly and transient dynamics of meiotic proteins including Ime1, the master regulator of meiotic initiation, and Ime2, a kinase encoded by an early gene. The model is validated by quantitative sporulation phenotypes of single-gene knockouts. Thus, we can use the model to make novel predictions on the cooperation between proteins in the signaling pathway. Virtual perturbations on feedback loops suggest that both positive and negative feedback loops are required to terminate expression of early meiotic proteins. Bifurcation analyses on feedback loops indicate that multiple feedback loops are coordinated to modulate sporulation efficiency. In particular, positive auto-regulation of Ime2 produces a bistable system with a normal meiotic state and a more efficient meiotic state. Conclusions By systematically scanning through feedback loops in the mathematical model, we demonstrate that, in yeast, the decisions to terminate protein expression and to sporulate at different efficiencies stem from feedback signals toward the master regulator Ime1 and the early meiotic protein Ime2. We argue that the architecture of meiotic initiation pathway generates a robust mechanism that assures a rapid and complete transition into meiosis. This type of systems-level regulation is a commonly used mechanism controlling developmental programs in yeast and other organisms. Our mathematical model uncovers key regulations that can be manipulated to enhance sporulation efficiency, an important first step in the development of new strategies for producing gametes with high quality and quantity. PMID:23631506

  12. Zebrafish genomic library in yeast artificial chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Zhong, T P; Kaphingst, K; Akella, U; Haldi, M; Lander, E S; Fishman, M C

    1998-02-15

    We have constructed a zebrafish yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library using genomic DNA isolated from the inbred AB zebrafish strain. The average insert size is 470 kb, estimated from analysis of 155 random selected YACs. The library consists of 17,000 clones, providing about a 4.7-fold coverage of zebrafish genome. The YAC clones have been arrayed in individual wells of 96-well microplates and also pooled to permit rapid polymerase chain reaction screening of the entire library. We have also found that the YAC ends can be easily rescued and sequenced from pRML1/pRML2-based mini-YAC clones. PMID:9503028

  13. New insights into treating Parkinson's from yeast, stem cell experiments

    E-print Network

    Sabatini, David M.

    New insights into treating Parkinson's from yeast, stem cell experiments By Carolyn Y. Johnson cells created from Parkinson's disease patients' stem cells. The work, described in a pair of studies problems of Parkinson's disease may seem tenuous at best, the researchers engineered the yeast

  14. Description of new yeast species – is one strain enough?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The issue of description of new yeast species on the basis of a single strain is discussed. Single gene sequences, such as those from D1/D2 LSU rRNA, or sequences from ITS1/ITS2 are commonly used as the basis for recognizing new yeast species. Evidence is presented that hybrids and species with poly...

  15. ASCOMYCETOUS MITOSIS IN BASIDIOMYCETOUS YEASTS: ITS EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In budding cells of ascomycetous yeasts, mitosis occurs in the parent, while in basidiomyceteous yeasts it occurs in the bud. However, in the basidiomycete Agaricostilbum pulcherrimum mitosis occurs in the parent and parent-bud junction. To test whether A. pulcherrimum has a novel mitotic pattern, i...

  16. Iron enriched yeast biomass – A promising mineral feed supplement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maja Paš; Barbara Piškur; Matevž Šuštari?; Peter Raspor

    2007-01-01

    Yeast biomass enriched with iron could represent a new and safer solution for prevention from anaemia development. Such an iron source is less toxic and has better absorbability in organisms. The purpose of our research was the determination of the most suitable iron source in the cultivation medium for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, regarding good growth and iron accumulation in

  17. Improving industrial yeast strains: exploiting natural and artificial diversity

    PubMed Central

    Steensels, Jan; Snoek, Tim; Meersman, Esther; Nicolino, Martina Picca; Voordeckers, Karin; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts have been used for thousands of years to make fermented foods and beverages, such as beer, wine, sake, and bread. However, the choice for a particular yeast strain or species for a specific industrial application is often based on historical, rather than scientific grounds. Moreover, new biotechnological yeast applications, such as the production of second-generation biofuels, confront yeast with environments and challenges that differ from those encountered in traditional food fermentations. Together, this implies that there are interesting opportunities to isolate or generate yeast variants that perform better than the currently used strains. Here, we discuss the different strategies of strain selection and improvement available for both conventional and nonconventional yeasts. Exploiting the existing natural diversity and using techniques such as mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, breeding, genome shuffling and directed evolution to generate artificial diversity, or the use of genetic modification strategies to alter traits in a more targeted way, have led to the selection of superior industrial yeasts. Furthermore, recent technological advances allowed the development of high-throughput techniques, such as ‘global transcription machinery engineering’ (gTME), to induce genetic variation, providing a new source of yeast genetic diversity. PMID:24724938

  18. Quantitative Analysis of the Effective Functional Structure in Yeast Glycolysis

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Jesus

    Quantitative Analysis of the Effective Functional Structure in Yeast Glycolysis Ildefonso M. De la glycolysis. Citation: De la Fuente IM, Cortes JM (2012) Quantitative Analysis of the Effective Functional Structure in Yeast Glycolysis. PLoS ONE 7(2): e30162. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0030162 Editor: Christos A

  19. The yeast flora of the coast redwood, Sequoia sempervirens.

    PubMed

    Middelhoven, W J

    2003-01-01

    Only four yeast species could be isolated from young and perannual shoots of the coast redwood tree, Sequoia sempervirens, and from soil beneath the trees, viz. both varieties of Debaryomyces hansenii, Trichosporon pullulans, T. porosum and an unidentified red basidiomycetous yeast. PMID:12879747

  20. The yeast flora of the coast redwood, Sequoia sempervirens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Middelhoven

    2003-01-01

    Only four yeast species could be isolated from young and perannual shoots of the coast redwood tree,Sequoia sempervirens, and from soil beneath the trees,viz. both varieties ofDebaryomyces hansenii, Trichosporon pullulans, T. porosum and an unidentified red basidiomycetous yeast.

  1. Telomere Regulation During the Cell Cycle in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Bettina A.; Chang, Ya-Ting; Nakamura, Toru M.

    2015-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has emerged as a useful model organism to study telomere maintenance mechanisms. In this chapter, we provide detailed protocols for quantitative ChIP and BrdU incorporation analyses to investigate how fission yeast telomeres are regulated during the cell cycle by utilizing cdc25-22 synchronized cell cultures. PMID:24906327

  2. Spray Drying of Extracts from Red Yeast Fermentation Broth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. C. Teixeira; G. A. Teixeira; L. A. P. Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Red yeast rice is a pigmented material that is traditionally used in Asia as a food colorant. In addition to food applications, red yeast rice is known in traditional Chinese medicine for its therapeutic actions. The aim of this work was to study the quality interactions during spray drying of extracts from the Monascus ruber van Tiegham fermentation broth. The

  3. Dual fluorochrome flow cytometric assessment of yeast viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel staining protocol is reported for the assessment of viability in yeast, specifically the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala. Employing both the red fluorescent membrane potential sensitive oxonol stain DiBAC4(5) (Bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)pentamethine oxonol), a structural analog of the ...

  4. Mechanical dispersion procedures improve the rehydration of active dry yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Ferrarini; Enrico Bocca; Agostino Cavazza

    2007-01-01

    The process of reactivating the yeast preparation and inoculating it into the must constitutes a critical stage in the management of alcoholic fermentation.Various parameters condition the efficiency of active dry yeast (ADY) reactivation for oenological use: temperature, composition of the medium (concentration of sugar and assimilable nitrogen), the way of dispersion in water and associated hydration times.This paper reports the

  5. Formulation and Cost-Effective Drying of Probiotic Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varsha S. Joshi; Bhaskar N. Thorat

    2011-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii yeast is considered as a probiotic according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Like any other probiotic, Saccharomyces boulardii is available as a freeze-dried formulation. Although freeze drying is the most preferred method of preserving the microorganisms, the process is very expensive. The cost of capsules containing freeze-dried probiotic yeast is certainly out of reach of the underprivileged

  6. Metabolic acclimatization: preparing active dry yeast for fuel ethanol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bellissimi; W. M. Ingledew

    2005-01-01

    “Propagation” or “conditioning” of active dry yeast (ADY) for the production of fuel ethanol is thought to reduce lag times in fermentation and reduce overall fermentation times. The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal time that ADY should be conditioned prior to fermentation and to determine how well yeast and bacterial contaminants present in ADY are propagated.

  7. Vitality enhancement of the rehydrated active dry wine yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Rodríguez-Porrata; M. Novo; J. Guillamón; N. Rozès; A. Mas; R. Cordero Otero

    2008-01-01

    In winemaking, spontaneous grape must fermentations have been replaced by inoculation of commercial active dry wine yeast (ADWY). Yeast rehydration is the key to avoiding stuck and sluggish fermentations. Despite the importance of this step, not enough is known about what this process implies for winemaking as a whole or about what kind of practices could help to improve it.

  8. Medical significance of the so-called black yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Matsumoto; A. A. Padhye; L. Ajello

    1987-01-01

    Infections caused by the black yeasts (leveduras pretas) are reviewed with respect to their clinical manifestations, classification under the umbrella term, phaeohyphomycosis, and differentiation from chromoblastomycosis. Data on the prevalence of black yeasts submitted to a national reference diagnostic center are provided. Cases of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Aureobasidium pullulans, Exophiala jeanselmei, E. moniliae, E. spinifera, Phaeoannelomyces werneckii, Phaeosclera dematioirles, Sarcinomyces

  9. The protein kinases of budding yeast: six score and more

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Hunter; Gregory D. Plowman

    1997-01-01

    The completion of the budding yeast genome sequencing project has made it possible to determine not only the total number of genes, but also the exact number of genes of a particular type1–3. As a consequence, we now know exactly how many protein kinases are encoded by the yeast genome, a number of considerable interest because of the importance of

  10. Global analysis of protein localization in budding yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won-Ki Huh; James V. Falvo; Luke C. Gerke; Adam S. Carroll; Russell W. Howson; Jonathan S. Weissman; Erin K. O'Shea

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental goal of cell biology is to define the functions of proteins in the context of compartments that organize them in the cellular environment. Here we describe the construction and analysis of a collection of yeast strains expressing full-length, chromosomally tagged green fluorescent protein fusion proteins. We classify these proteins, representing 75% of the yeast proteome, into 22 distinct

  11. Analysis of the inhibition of food spoilage yeasts by vanillin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J Fitzgerald; Malcolm Stratford; Arjan Narbad

    2003-01-01

    The antimicrobial potential of vanillin, the major component of vanilla flavour, was examined against the growth of three yeasts associated with food spoilage, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 21, 20 and 13 mM vanillin were determined for the three yeast strains, respectively. The observed inhibition was found to be biostatic. During fermentation,

  12. Yeasts from high-altitude lakes: influence of UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Libkind, Diego; Moliné, Martín; Sampaio, José Paulo; van Broock, Maria

    2009-09-01

    Mountain lakes located at a high elevation are typically exposed to high UV radiation (UVR). Little is known about the ecology and diversity of yeasts inhabiting these extreme environments. We studied yeast occurrence (with special emphasis on those producing carotenoid pigments) at five high-altitude (>1400 m a.s.l.) water bodies located in the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Bariloche, Argentina). Isolates were identified using a polyphasic approach. Production of photoprotective compounds (carotenoids and mycosporines) by yeast isolates, and UVB resistance of selected species were studied. All water samples contained viable yeast cells in variable numbers, generally ranging from 49 to 209 cells L(-1). A total of 24 yeast species was found; at least four represented novel species. Carotenogenic yeasts prevailed in lakes with low water conductivity and higher transparency and chlorophyll a levels. Apparently, the ability to produce photoprotective compounds in yeasts was related to the transparency of mountain lake waters, and strains from more transparent waters developed increased UVB resistance. Our results indicate that UVR is an important environmental factor affecting the yeast community structure in aquatic habitats. PMID:19624739

  13. Oral yeast carriage correlates with presence of oral epithelial dysplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M McCullough; M Jaber; A. W Barrett; L Bain; P. M Speight; S. R Porter

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between the presence of Candida albicans and the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of the present study was to assess the presence and level of colonisation of oral yeast in patients undergoing an incisional oral mucosal biopsy in order to assess whether the amount of oral yeast present correlated with

  14. Exploring the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Protein Degradation Pathway in Yeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Tamara J.; McWatters, Melissa K.; McQuade, Kristi L.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory investigating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in yeast. In this exercise, the enzyme beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) is expressed in yeast under the control of a stress response promoter. Following exposure to heat stress to induce beta-gal expression, cycloheximide is added to halt…

  15. Vulvovaginal carriage of yeasts other than Candida albicans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Holland; M L Young; O Lee; S C-A Chen

    2003-01-01

    Aims: We investigated the spectrum of yeasts isolated, and compared the epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of women carrying vulvovaginal Candida albicans with those carrying yeasts other than C albicans.Method: Between April and June 2001, 5802 consecutively received genital swabs from women were plated onto Candida ID chromogenic media (BioMerieux). Blue colonies were reported as C albicans; all other colonies (white

  16. How often are gonorrhoea and genital yeast infection sexually transmitted?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R N Thin; P Rendell; J Wadsworth

    1979-01-01

    Although gonorrhoea is often regarded as the sexually transmitted disease against which others are measured, its infectivity is not clearly understood. Estimates of the infection rate have varied from 5--90%. In this study, 50 couples with gonorrhoea were matched with 50 couples with genital yeast infection. Gonorrhoea was diagnosed in both partners of 32 couples and genital yeast infection in

  17. Molecular evolution of eukaryotic genomes: hemiascomycetous yeast spliceosomal introns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Bon; Serge Casaregola; Gaelle Blandin; Bertrand Llorente; Martin Munsterkotter; Ulrich Guldener; Hans-Werner Mewes; Jacques Van Helden; Bernard Dujon; Claude Gaillardin

    2003-01-01

    As part of the exploratory sequencing program Genolevures, visual scrutinisation and bioinfor- matic tools were used to detect spliceosomal introns in seven hemiascomycetous yeast species. A total of 153 putative novel introns were identified. Introns are rare in yeast nuclear genes (<5% have an intron), mainly located at the 5¢ end of ORFs, and not highly conserved in sequence. They

  18. Baker's yeast assay procedure for testing heavy metal toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Bitton; Ben Koopman; Hsien-Deng Wang

    1984-01-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is microorganism which is commercially available and sold as packaged dry pellets in any food store at low cost. Studies have been undertaken on the effects of organic xenobiotics as well as heavy metals on yeast metabolism. This type of study has been generally useful in examining the mechanism(s) of chemical toxicity. However, a rapid and

  19. Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes

    E-print Network

    Miller, Webb

    Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes Adam Siepel,1%­53%), Caenorhabditis elegans (18%­37%), and Saccharaomyces cerevisiae (47%­68%) genomes. From yeasts to vertebrates://genome.ucsc.edu). The phastCons program is part of a software package called PHAST (PHylogenetic Analysis with Space

  20. Unusual chromosome structure of fission yeast DNA in mouse cells.

    PubMed

    McManus, J; Perry, P; Sumner, A T; Wright, D M; Thomson, E J; Allshire, R C; Hastie, N D; Bickmore, W A

    1994-03-01

    Chromosomes from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have been introduced into mouse cells by protoplast fusion. In most cell lines the yeast DNA integrates into a single site within a mouse chromosome and results in striking chromosome morphology at metaphase. Both light and electron microscopy show that the yeast chromosome region is narrower than the flanking mouse DNA. Regions of the yeast insert stain less intensely with propidium iodide than surrounding DNA and bear a morphological resemblance to fragile sites. We investigate the composition of the yeast transgenomes and the modification and chromatin structure of this yeast DNA in mouse cells. We suggest that the underlying basis for the structure we see lies above the level of DNA modification and nucleosome assembly, and may reflect the attachment of the yeast DNA to the rodent cell nucleoskeleton. The yeast integrant replicates late in S phase at a time when G bands of the mouse chromosomes are being replicated, and participates in sister chromatid exchanges at a high frequency. We discuss the implications of these studies to the understanding of how chromatin folding relates to metaphase chromosome morphology and how large stretches of foreign DNA behave when introduced into mammalian cells. PMID:8006067

  1. Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of baker's yeast: relevance to baking.

    PubMed

    Randez-Gil, Francisca; Córcoles-Sáez, Isaac; Prieto, José A

    2013-01-01

    Yeasts rarely encounter ideal physiological conditions during their industrial life span; therefore, their ability to adapt to changing conditions determines their usefulness and applicability. This is especially true for baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The success of this yeast in the ancient art of bread making is based on its capacity to rapidly transform carbohydrates into CO2 rather than its unusual resistance to environmental stresses. Moreover, baker's yeast must exhibit efficient respiratory metabolism during yeast manufacturing, which determines biomass yield. However, optimal growth conditions often have negative consequences in other commercially important aspects, such as fermentative power or stress tolerance. This article reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of baking yeast strains, emphasizing the activation of regulatory mechanisms in response to carbon source and stress signaling and their importance in defining targets for strain selection and improvement. PMID:23464571

  2. New lager yeast strains generated by interspecific hybridization.

    PubMed

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2015-05-01

    The interspecific hybrid Saccharomyces pastorianus is the most commonly used yeast in brewery fermentations worldwide. Here, we generated de novo lager yeast hybrids by mating a domesticated and strongly flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale strain with the Saccharomyces eubayanus type strain. The hybrids were characterized with respect to the parent strains in a wort fermentation performed at temperatures typical for lager brewing (12 °C). The resulting beers were analysed for sugar and aroma compounds, while the yeasts were tested for their flocculation ability and ?-glucoside transport capability. These hybrids inherited beneficial properties from both parent strains (cryotolerance, maltotriose utilization and strong flocculation) and showed apparent hybrid vigour, fermenting faster and producing beer with higher alcohol content (5.6 vs 4.5 % ABV) than the parents. Results suggest that interspecific hybridization is suitable for production of novel non-GM lager yeast strains with unique properties and will help in elucidating the evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast. PMID:25682107

  3. Yeast cell factories for fine chemical and API production

    PubMed Central

    Pscheidt, Beate; Glieder, Anton

    2008-01-01

    This review gives an overview of different yeast strains and enzyme classes involved in yeast whole-cell biotransformations. A focus was put on the synthesis of compounds for fine chemical and API (= active pharmaceutical ingredient) production employing single or only few-step enzymatic reactions. Accounting for recent success stories in metabolic engineering, the construction and use of synthetic pathways was also highlighted. Examples from academia and industry and advances in the field of designed yeast strain construction demonstrate the broad significance of yeast whole-cell applications. In addition to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alternative yeast whole-cell biocatalysts are discussed such as Candida sp., Cryptococcus sp., Geotrichum sp., Issatchenkia sp., Kloeckera sp., Kluyveromyces sp., Pichia sp. (including Hansenula polymorpha = P. angusta), Rhodotorula sp., Rhodosporidium sp., alternative Saccharomyces sp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulopsis sp., Trichosporon sp., Trigonopsis variabilis, Yarrowia lipolytica and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. PMID:18684335

  4. Uniform Yeast Cell Assembly Based on Microfluidic Microgels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ya-Wen; He, Peng; Marquez, Manuel; Cheng, Zhengdong; Marquez, Samantha M.

    2011-03-01

    We present a novel microgel templated Yeastosome (Yeast- Celloidosome ) based on self-assembly of yeast cells onto liquid-gel interfaces. To organize living cells onto the surface of the gel particles, strong positive charges were first introduced via LbL (layer by layer) polyelectrolyte decoration on monodisperse agarose microgel templates fabricated with a microfluidic flow focusing device. Native yeasts, bearing negative surface charges can then be driven electrostatically to form a monolayer shell around the gel core. Surface coverage/packing density of the yeast biofilm on varying microgel-to-yeast size ratio assemblies is evaluated with optical microscopy. Mechanical properties of the corresponding shells are characterized with buckling or collapse behavior during drying-hydrating cycle. We demonstrate the capability to fabricate narrow size distribution Yeastosome with a soft hydrogel core. The combination of microfluidic fabrication with cell assembly offers excellent control over inner core properties and could enable further hierarchy bio-structures.

  5. Extrachromosomal circular DNA is common in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Henrik D.; Parsons, Lance; Jørgensen, Tue S.; Botstein, David; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Examples of extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs) are found in many organisms, but their impact on genetic variation at the genome scale has not been investigated. We mapped 1,756 eccDNAs in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome using Circle-Seq, a highly sensitive eccDNA purification method. Yeast eccDNAs ranged from an arbitrary lower limit of 1 kb up to 38 kb and covered 23% of the genome, representing thousands of genes. EccDNA arose both from genomic regions with repetitive sequences ?15 bases long and from regions with short or no repetitive sequences. Some eccDNAs were identified in several yeast populations. These eccDNAs contained ribosomal genes, transposon remnants, and tandemly repeated genes (HXT6/7, ENA1/2/5, and CUP1-1/-2) that were generally enriched on eccDNAs. EccDNAs seemed to be replicated and 80% contained consensus sequences for autonomous replication origins that could explain their maintenance. Our data suggest that eccDNAs are common in S. cerevisiae, where they might contribute substantially to genetic variation and evolution. PMID:26038577

  6. Stationary phase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Werner-Washburne, M; Braun, E; Johnston, G C; Singer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Growth and proliferation of microorganisms such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are controlled in part by the availability of nutrients. When proliferating yeast cells exhaust available nutrients, they enter a stationary phase characterized by cell cycle arrest and specific physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes. These changes include thickening of the cell wall, accumulation of reserve carbohydrates, and acquisition of thermotolerance. Recent characterization of mutant cells that are conditionally defective only for the resumption of proliferation from stationary phase provides evidence that stationary phase is a unique developmental state. Strains with mutations affecting entry into and survival during stationary phase have also been isolated, and the mutations have been shown to affect at least seven different cellular processes: (i) signal transduction, (ii) protein synthesis, (iii) protein N-terminal acetylation, (iv) protein turnover, (v) protein secretion, (vi) membrane biosynthesis, and (vii) cell polarity. The exact nature of the relationship between these processes and survival during stationary phase remains to be elucidated. We propose that cell cycle arrest coordinated with the ability to remain viable in the absence of additional nutrients provides a good operational definition of starvation-induced stationary phase. PMID:8393130

  7. Origins of multicellular evolvability in snowflake yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, William C.; Fankhauser, Johnathon D.; Rogers, David W.; Greig, Duncan; Travisano, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Complex life has arisen through a series of ‘major transitions’ in which collectives of formerly autonomous individuals evolve into a single, integrated organism. A key step in this process is the origin of higher-level evolvability, but little is known about how higher-level entities originate and gain the capacity to evolve as an individual. Here we report a single mutation that not only creates a new level of biological organization, but also potentiates higher-level evolvability. Disrupting the transcription factor ACE2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae prevents mother–daughter cell separation, generating multicellular ‘snowflake’ yeast. Snowflake yeast develop through deterministic rules that produce geometrically defined clusters that preclude genetic conflict and display a high broad-sense heritability for multicellular traits; as a result they are preadapted to multicellular adaptation. This work demonstrates that simple microevolutionary changes can have profound macroevolutionary consequences, and suggests that the formation of clonally developing clusters may often be the first step to multicellularity. PMID:25600558

  8. Extrachromosomal circular DNA is common in yeast.

    PubMed

    Møller, Henrik D; Parsons, Lance; Jørgensen, Tue S; Botstein, David; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2015-06-16

    Examples of extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs) are found in many organisms, but their impact on genetic variation at the genome scale has not been investigated. We mapped 1,756 eccDNAs in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome using Circle-Seq, a highly sensitive eccDNA purification method. Yeast eccDNAs ranged from an arbitrary lower limit of 1 kb up to 38 kb and covered 23% of the genome, representing thousands of genes. EccDNA arose both from genomic regions with repetitive sequences ?15 bases long and from regions with short or no repetitive sequences. Some eccDNAs were identified in several yeast populations. These eccDNAs contained ribosomal genes, transposon remnants, and tandemly repeated genes (HXT6/7, ENA1/2/5, and CUP1-1/-2) that were generally enriched on eccDNAs. EccDNAs seemed to be replicated and 80% contained consensus sequences for autonomous replication origins that could explain their maintenance. Our data suggest that eccDNAs are common in S. cerevisiae, where they might contribute substantially to genetic variation and evolution. PMID:26038577

  9. Yeast cell adhesion on oligopeptide modified surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dhadwar, S S; Bemman, T; Anderson, W A; Chen, P

    2003-08-01

    Self-assembling oligopeptides are novel materials with potential bioengineering applications; this paper explores the use of one of these oligopeptides, EAK 16 II, for modifying the surface properties of cell-supporting substrates. To characterize the surface properties, thermodynamic measurements of liquid contact angle and surface free energy were correlated to atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations. A critical concentration of 0.1 mg/ml was found necessary to completely modify the surface properties of the substrate with EAK 16 II. Adhesion of a yeast cell, Candida utilis, was modified by the coating of EAK 16 II on both hydrophobic (plastic) and hydrophilic (glass) surfaces: Cell coverage was slightly enhanced on the glass substrate, but decreased significantly on the plastic substrate. This indicates that the yeast cell adhesion was mainly determined via hydrophobic interactions between the substrate and the cell wall. However, on the EAK 16 II modified glass substrate, surface roughness might be a factor in causing a slightly larger cell adhesion than that on bare glass. The morphology of adhered cells was also obtained with AFM imaging, showing a depression at the center of the cell on all substrates. Small depressions on the oligopeptide-coated surfaces and plastic substrate may indicate good water-retaining ability by the cell. There was no apparent difference in cell adhesion and morphology among cells obtained from lag, exponential and stationary growth phases. PMID:14499122

  10. METABOLIC CONTROL OF ?-GLUCOSIDASE SYNTHESIS IN YEAST

    PubMed Central

    MacQuillan, Anthony M.; Halvorson, Harlyn O.

    1962-01-01

    MacQuillan, Anthony M. (University of Wisconsin, Madison) and Harlyn O. Halvorson. Metabolic control of ?-glucosidase synthesis in yeast. J. Bacteriol. 84:23–30. 1962—The hybrid Saccharomyces fragilis × S. dobzhanskii produced a constitutive ?-glucosidase when grown in succinate synthetic medium. Upon addition of ?-glucosides, thio-?-glucosides, or low concentrations of glucose, a further induction of enzyme synthesis was observed. Studies with other sugars revealed some specificity in response to hexose induction. Phenyl-thio-?-d-glucoside did not affect constitutive synthesis nor induction by glucosides, thio-glucosides, or glucose. Repression of ?-glucosidase synthesis is brought about by high concentrations of glucose and other carbon compounds. Preinduction does not confer resistance to catabolic repression of enzyme synthesis; this leads to the conclusion that two sites of control for ?-glucosidase synthesis are present in yeast. Multiplicity of control is further suggested from: (i) the properties of the inducing system; (ii) semiconstitutive nature of enzyme synthesis; (iii) the repression of constitutive synthesis by glucose; (iv) the elevated derepressed rates of enzyme synthesis after glucose inhibition; and (v) the selection of a family of low constitutive mutants with variable inducibility. PMID:14468063

  11. Origins of multicellular evolvability in snowflake yeast.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, William C; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Rogers, David W; Greig, Duncan; Travisano, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Complex life has arisen through a series of 'major transitions' in which collectives of formerly autonomous individuals evolve into a single, integrated organism. A key step in this process is the origin of higher-level evolvability, but little is known about how higher-level entities originate and gain the capacity to evolve as an individual. Here we report a single mutation that not only creates a new level of biological organization, but also potentiates higher-level evolvability. Disrupting the transcription factor ACE2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae prevents mother-daughter cell separation, generating multicellular 'snowflake' yeast. Snowflake yeast develop through deterministic rules that produce geometrically defined clusters that preclude genetic conflict and display a high broad-sense heritability for multicellular traits; as a result they are preadapted to multicellular adaptation. This work demonstrates that simple microevolutionary changes can have profound macroevolutionary consequences, and suggests that the formation of clonally developing clusters may often be the first step to multicellularity. PMID:25600558

  12. An intervention resembling caloric restriction prolongs life span and retards aging in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Jiang; Ewa Jaruga; Marina V. Repnevskaya; S. Michal Jazwinski

    2000-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a finite life span that is measured by the number of daughter cells an individual produces. The 20 genes known to determine yeast life span appear to function in more than one pathway, implicating a variety of physiological processes in yeast longevity. Less attention has been focused on environmental effects on yeast aging. We have

  13. Trehalose and glycogen in wine-making yeasts: methodological aspects and variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Louis Roustan; Jean-Marie Sablayrolles

    2002-01-01

    Trehalose and glycogen, which can represent up to 30% of wine yeasts, was evaluated by different methods in (i) yeasts during fermentation of musts (200 g sugar l-1) and (ii) active dry yeasts. Fermentation trials demonstrated the potential value of monitoring changes in trehalose concentration during the rehydration step so that the performance of the yeasts can be evaluated.

  14. Influence of yeast drying process on different lager brewing strains viability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina C. Bolat; Maria Turtoi; Michael C. Walsh

    The potential for the application active dry yeast within brewing industry is supported by the advantages this type of yeast offers. Dried yeast is more robust and stable for transportation, distribution and storage. Further, there is no requirement for skilled laboratory staff as there is for yeast supplied on slope. During the drying process though, performed at high temperatures, a

  15. Dynamics of indigenous yeast populations during spontaneous fermentation of wines from Mendoza, Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Combina; A. Elía; L. Mercado; C. Catania; A. Ganga; C. Martinez

    2005-01-01

    Fermentation of wine is a complex microbial reaction, which involves the sequential development of various species of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. Of these, yeasts are the main group responsible for alcoholic fermentation. The aim of this work was to study, under industrial conditions, the evolution of yeast populations and to describe the individual evolution of the most important yeasts

  16. Cell Cycle and Chaperone-Mediated Regulation of H3K56ac Incorporation in Yeast

    E-print Network

    Friedman, Nir

    Cell Cycle­ and Chaperone-Mediated Regulation of H3K56ac Incorporation in Yeast Tommy Kaplan1 growing yeast cultures, as well as in yeast proceeding synchronously through the cell cycle. We developed replaced in G1 phase to stably bound during M phase. Finally, by measuring H3 replacement in yeast deleted

  17. Yeast UCS proteins promote actomyosin interactions and limit myosin turnover in cells

    E-print Network

    Yeast UCS proteins promote actomyosin interactions and limit myosin turnover in cells Matthew Lord of folded myosins. We examined both func- tions in yeast. The fission yeast UCS protein (Rng3p) concentrates and supports actin filament gliding. In budding yeast the single UCS protein (She4p) acts on both myosin

  18. High-Frequency Transformation of Yeast: Autonomous Replication of Hybrid DNA Molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Struhl; Dan T. Stinchcomb; Stewart Scherer; Ronald W. Davis

    1979-01-01

    A set of vector DNAs (Y vectors) useful for the cloning of DNA fragments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and in Escherichia coli are characterized. With these vectors, three modes of yeast transformation are defined. (i) Vectors containing yeast chromosomal DNA sequences (YIp1, YIp5) transform yeast cells at low frequency (1-10 colonies per mu g) and integrate into the genome by

  19. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mine Yücesoy; Serhat Marol

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. METHODS: A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C.

  20. Antifungal susceptibility of emerging opportunistic yeasts and yeast-like fungi from Rhea americana.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar Cordeiro, Rossana; Pereira de Alencar, Lucas; Nogueira Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia; de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Débora; Cordeiro Teixeira, Carlos Eduardo; de Brito Macedo, Ramila; Teixeira Lima, Daniel; Paiva de Araújo Neto, Manoel; Jalles Monteiro, André; Dutra Alves, Nilza; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Costa Sidrim, José Júlio; Rocha Gadelha, Marcos Fábio

    2013-08-01

    Opportunistic yeasts and yeast-like fungi have been recognized as important pathogens in high-risk patients. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of these microorganisms in the microbiota of captive rheas and to investigate the antifungal susceptibility of the isolated strains. Isolates representing Magnusiomyces capitatus (Geotrichum capitatum, n = 11), Trichosporon mucoides (n = 11), Trichosporon asteroides (n = 5), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (n = 4), Trichosporon asahii (n = 3), Trichosporon cutaneum (n = 3), and Trichosporon ovoides (n = 3) were obtained from the oropharynx, cloaca, and feces of 58 animals. Most of the isolates were susceptible to antifungals in vitro; however, resistance against fluconazole (n = 1) and itraconazole (n = 2) was detected among T. mucoides. This study indicates that healthy rheas can be reservoirs of opportunistic pathogens. Primary resistance to azoles in T. mucoides obtained from these animals demonstrates the potential risk to humans. PMID:23899001

  1. Rapid isolation of yeast genomic DNA: Bust n' Grab

    PubMed Central

    Harju, Susanna; Fedosyuk, Halyna; Peterson, Kenneth R

    2004-01-01

    Background Mutagenesis of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) often requires analysis of large numbers of yeast clones to obtain correctly targeted mutants. Conventional ways to isolate yeast genomic DNA utilize either glass beads or enzymatic digestion to disrupt yeast cell wall. Using small glass beads is messy, whereas enzymatic digestion of the cells is expensive when many samples need to be analyzed. We sought to develop an easier and faster protocol than the existing methods for obtaining yeast genomic DNA from liquid cultures or colonies on plates. Results Repeated freeze-thawing of cells in a lysis buffer was used to disrupt the cells and release genomic DNA. Cell lysis was followed by extraction with chloroform and ethanol precipitation of DNA. Two hundred ng – 3 ?g of genomic DNA could be isolated from a 1.5 ml overnight liquid culture or from a large colony. Samples were either resuspended directly in a restriction enzyme/RNase coctail mixture for Southern blot hybridization or used for several PCR reactions. We demonstrated the utility of this method by showing an analysis of yeast clones containing a mutagenized human ?-globin locus YAC. Conclusion An efficient, inexpensive method for obtaining yeast genomic DNA from liquid cultures or directly from colonies was developed. This protocol circumvents the use of enzymes or glass beads, and therefore is cheaper and easier to perform when processing large numbers of samples. PMID:15102338

  2. Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

    Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

  3. A1 toxicity in yeast. A role for Mg?

    PubMed Central

    MacDiarmid, C W; Gardner, R C

    1996-01-01

    We have established conditions in which soluble Al is toxic to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The major modifications to a standard synthetic medium were lowering the pH and the concentration of Mg ions. Alterations to the PO4, Ca, or K concentration had little effect on toxicity. Organic acids known to chelate Al reduced its toxicity, suggesting that Al3+ is the toxic Al species. The unique ability of Mg ions to ameliorate Al toxicity led us to investigate the hypothesis that Al inhibits Mg uptake by yeast. Yeast cells accumulate Mg, Co, Zn, Ni, and Mn ions via the same transport system (G.F. Fuhrmann, A. Rothstein [1968] Biochim Biophys Acta 163: 325-330). Al3+ inhibited the accumulation of 57Co2+ by yeast cells more effectively than Ga, La, or Mg. In addition, a mutant yeast strain with a defect in divalent cation uptake proved to be more sensitive to Al than a wild-type strain. Taken together, these results suggest that Al may cause Mg deficiency in yeast by blocking Mg transport. We discuss the relevance of yeast as a model for the study of Al toxicity in plant systems. PMID:8938412

  4. Accumulation and metabolism of selenium by yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Kieliszek, Marek; B?a?ejak, Stanis?aw; Gientka, Iwona; Bzducha-Wróbel, Anna

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the process of selenium bioaccumulation and selenium metabolism in yeast cells. Yeast cells can bind elements in ionic from the environment and permanently integrate them into their cellular structure. Up to now, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis, and Yarrowia lipolytica yeasts have been used primarily in biotechnological studies to evaluate binding of minerals. Yeast cells are able to bind selenium in the form of both organic and inorganic compounds. The process of bioaccumulation of selenium by microorganisms occurs through two mechanisms: extracellular binding by ligands of membrane assembly and intracellular accumulation associated with the transport of ions across the cytoplasmic membrane into the cell interior. During intracellular metabolism of selenium, oxidation, reduction, methylation, and selenoprotein synthesis processes are involved, as exemplified by detoxification processes that allow yeasts to survive under culture conditions involving the elevated selenium concentrations which were observed. Selenium yeasts represent probably the best absorbed form of this element. In turn, in terms of wide application, the inclusion of yeast with accumulated selenium may aid in lessening selenium deficiency in a diet. PMID:26003453

  5. Effect of wine yeast monoculture practice on the biodiversity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Ganga; C. Martinez

    2004-01-01

    M.A. G ANGA A ND C. M ARTIN E Z. 2003. Aims: The objective of this work was to study the effect of the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae monocultures over the biodiversity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in wine-producing areas in Chile. Methods and Results: Microvinifications were carried out with grape musts of two areas. In one of them, the fermentation is

  6. The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.

    PubMed

    Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

    1995-01-01

    The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably consume controlled commercial Kombucha beverages. PMID:8559192

  7. Plating Yeast Colonies 1. Swirl 1 colony (0.5 -2 mm diameter) into 1 ml sterile dH2O with toothpick (faintly turbid).

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    78 Plating Yeast Colonies 1. Swirl 1 colony (0.5 - 2 mm diameter) into 1 ml sterile dH2O. Undiluted Cells (2nd column from left is best) Yeast Strain #1 Yeast Strain #2 Yeast Strain #3 Yeast Strain #4 Yeast Strain #5 Yeast Strain #6 10X Dilution Series Replica plating samples without serial

  8. Strain differentiation of pathogenic yeasts by the killer system.

    PubMed

    Morace, G; Archibusacci, C; Sestito, M; Polonelli, L

    1984-02-15

    High sensitivity rates to the activity of killer toxins produced by 25 species of yeasts belonging to the genera Candida, Hansenula, Pichia, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces and Trichosporon have been observed among 112 yeast isolates (25 Cryptococcus neoformans, 29 C. glabrata 16 C. parapsilosis, 20 C. pseudotropicalis and 22 C. tropicalis). The highest sensitivity has been observed among the C. parapsilosis isolates, the lowest in C. glabrata strains. Genera Pichia and Hansenula proved to have the greatest killer activity. A killer system, formerly used for differentiating C. albicans isolates within the species, proved to be valid as epidemiological marker when applied to 112 strains of pathogenic yeasts. PMID:6371541

  9. Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

    1979-01-01

    Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

  10. Yeast biotechnology: teaching the old dog new tricks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are regarded as the first microorganisms used by humans to process food and alcoholic beverages. The technology developed out of these ancient processes has been the basis for modern industrial biotechnology. Yeast biotechnology has gained great interest again in the last decades. Joining the potentials of genomics, metabolic engineering, systems and synthetic biology enables the production of numerous valuable products of primary and secondary metabolism, technical enzymes and biopharmaceutical proteins. An overview of emerging and established substrates and products of yeast biotechnology is provided and discussed in the light of the recent literature. PMID:24602262

  11. [Biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons by Candida yeast].

    PubMed

    Rusyn, I B; Moroz, O M; Karabyn, V V; Kulachkovs'ki?, O R; Hudz', S P

    2003-01-01

    Capability of 14 yeast species to utilize oil hydrocarbons has been analyzed. All strains utilized oil hydrocarbons as a single carbon source. Four strains-destructors that are characterized by higher growth in the presence oil in cultivation medium have been chosen among them. Peroxisomes participation in utilization of oil hydrocarbons by strains-destructors has been shown. Availability of peroxisome key enzymes are characteristic of these strains grown in cultivation medium with oil. Numerous peroxisomes available in the cells of some strains grown in oil cultivation medium have been demonstrated. Utilization of a wide spectrum of oil hydrocarbons has been revealed in all four strains. Two strains are promising to be used for environment purification from oil pollution. PMID:15077547

  12. Stable Stochastic Dynamics in Yeast Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Yurie; Sasai, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    Chemical reactions in cells are subject to intense stochastic fluctuations. An important question is how the fundamental physiological behavior of the cell is kept stable against those noisy perturbations. In this study, a stochastic model of the cell cycle of budding yeast was constructed to analyze the effects of noise on the cell-cycle oscillation. The model predicts intense noise in levels of mRNAs and proteins, and the simulated protein levels explain the observed statistical tendency of noise in populations of synchronous and asynchronous cells. Despite intense noise in levels of proteins and mRNAs, the cell cycle is stable enough to bring the largely perturbed cells back to the physiological cyclic oscillation. The model shows that consecutively appearing fixed points are the origin of this stability of the cell cycle. PMID:17704157

  13. Lipid droplet dynamics in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Wen

    2015-07-01

    Eukaryotic cells store excess fatty acids as neutral lipids, predominantly triacylglycerols and sterol esters, in organelles termed lipid droplets (LDs) that bulge out from the endoplasmic reticulum. LDs are highly dynamic and contribute to diverse cellular functions. The catabolism of the storage lipids within LDs is channeled to multiple metabolic pathways, providing molecules for energy production, membrane building blocks, and lipid signaling. LDs have been implicated in a number of protein degradation and pathogen infection processes. LDs may be linked to prevalent human metabolic diseases and have marked potential for biofuel production. The knowledge accumulated on LDs in recent years provides a foundation for diverse, and even unexpected, future research. This review focuses on recent advances in LD research, emphasizing the diverse physiological roles of LDs in the model system of budding yeast. PMID:25894691

  14. Synthesis of Fatty Acids by Yeast Particles

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Harold P.

    1966-01-01

    Klein, Harold P. (Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.). Synthesis of fatty acids by yeast particles. J. Bacteriol. 92:130–135. 1966.—When a mitochondria-free homogenate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was centrifuged at 100,000 × g for 60 min, the sedimented crude particles incorporated acetate into fatty acids, but not into nonsaponifiable lipids. Degradation of the fatty acids formed indicated this to be de novo synthesis rather than chain elongation. Subfractions of the crude particles were obtained. The “ribosomal” fraction was unable to synthesize fatty acids, but had properties indicating the presence of acetokinase, fatty acid desaturase, and, probably, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase. A “light” particle fraction with a high specific activity of fatty acid synthetase was also obtained. Fatty acid synthesis by the “soluble” supernatant fluid appeared to be the result of contamination by the “light” particles. The data suggested the presence of several particulate entities in mitochondria-free homogenates. PMID:5941271

  15. Biofilm/Mat Assays for Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Many microbial species form biofilms/mats under nutrient-limiting conditions, and fungal pathogens rely on this social behavior for virulence. In budding yeast, mat formation is dependent on the mucinlike flocculin Flo11, which promotes cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate adhesion in mats. The biofilm/ mat assays described here allow the evaluation of the role of Flo11 in the formation of mats. Cells are grown on surfaces with different degrees of rigidity to assess their expansion and three-dimensional architecture, and the cells are also exposed to plastic surfaces to quantify their adherence. These assays are broadly applicable to studying biofilm/mat formation in microbial species. PMID:25646504

  16. Biofuels. Engineering alcohol tolerance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Lam, Felix H; Ghaderi, Adel; Fink, Gerald R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2014-10-01

    Ethanol toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae limits titer and productivity in the industrial production of transportation bioethanol. We show that strengthening the opposing potassium and proton electrochemical membrane gradients is a mechanism that enhances general resistance to multiple alcohols. The elevation of extracellular potassium and pH physically bolsters these gradients, increasing tolerance to higher alcohols and ethanol fermentation in commercial and laboratory strains (including a xylose-fermenting strain) under industrial-like conditions. Production per cell remains largely unchanged, with improvements deriving from heightened population viability. Likewise, up-regulation of the potassium and proton pumps in the laboratory strain enhances performance to levels exceeding those of industrial strains. Although genetically complex, alcohol tolerance can thus be dominated by a single cellular process, one controlled by a major physicochemical component but amenable to biological augmentation. PMID:25278607

  17. Sporulation in the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Neiman, Aaron M.

    2011-01-01

    In response to nitrogen starvation in the presence of a poor carbon source, diploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo meiosis and package the haploid nuclei produced in meiosis into spores. The formation of spores requires an unusual cell division event in which daughter cells are formed within the cytoplasm of the mother cell. This process involves the de novo generation of two different cellular structures: novel membrane compartments within the cell cytoplasm that give rise to the spore plasma membrane and an extensive spore wall that protects the spore from environmental insults. This article summarizes what is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling spore assembly with particular attention to how constitutive cellular functions are modified to create novel behaviors during this developmental process. Key regulatory points on the sporulation pathway are also discussed as well as the possible role of sporulation in the natural ecology of S. cerevisiae. PMID:22084423

  18. A Single Templating RNA in Yeast Telomerase.

    PubMed

    Bajon, Emmanuel; Laterreur, Nancy; Wellinger, Raymund J

    2015-07-21

    The number of essential telomerase components in the active ribonucleoprotein (RNP) has important implications for its mechanism of action yet is by and large unknown. We report that two differentially tagged TLC1 RNAs endogenously expressed in a heterozygous diploid and simultaneously detected via multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments do not co-localize. Probabilistic calculations combined with direct quantification of FISH signals demonstrate that the TLC1 RNA indeed occurs as a single molecule in these RNPs. In addition, two differentially tagged reverse-transcriptase subunits could not be co-immunoprecipitated. These results therefore show that, in yeast cells, telomerase is assembled and matured and occurs as a monomer when not on telomeres. Finally, combining these findings with previous evidence leads us to propose that the enzyme also acts as a monomer when elongating telomeres. PMID:26166570

  19. Cyanohydrin reactions enhance glycolytic oscillations in yeast.

    PubMed

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Nielsen, Astrid Gram; Tortzen, Christian; Sørensen, Preben Graae

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous metabolic oscillations can be induced in yeast by addition of glucose and removal of extracellular acetaldehyde (ACAx). Compared to other means of ACAx removal, cyanide robustly induces oscillations, indicating additional cyanide reactions besides ACA to lactonitrile conversion. Here, (13)C NMR is used to confirm our previous hypothesis, that cyanide directly affects glycolytic fluxes through reaction with carbonyl-containing compounds. Intracellularly, at least 3 cyanohydrins were identified. Extracellularly, all signals could be identified and lactonitrile was found to account for ~66% of total cyanide removal. Simulations of our updated computational model show that intracellular cyanide reactions increase the amplitude of oscillations and that cyanide addition lowers [ACA] instantaneously. We conclude that cyanide provides the following means of inducing global oscillations: a) by reducing [ACAx] relative to oscillation amplitude, b) by targeting multiple intracellular carbonyl compounds during fermentation, and c) by acting as a phase resetting stimulus. PMID:25863195

  20. Zebrafish Genomic Library in Yeast Artificial Chromosomes

    PubMed

    Zhong; Kaphingst; Akella; Haldi; Lander; Fishman

    1998-02-15

    We have constructed a zebrafish yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library using genomic DNA isolated from the inbred AB zebrafish strain. The average insert size is 470 kb, estimated from analysis of 155 random selected YACs. The library consists of 17,000 clones, providing about a 4.7-fold coverage of zebrafish genome. The YAC clones have been arrayed in individual wells of 96-well microplates and also pooled to permit rapid polymerase chain reaction screening of the entire library. We have also found that the YAC ends can be easily rescued and sequenced from pRML1/pRML2-based mini-YAC clones. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9514818

  1. Chromosome dynamics in the yeast interphase nucleus.

    PubMed

    Heun, P; Laroche, T; Shimada, K; Furrer, P; Gasser, S M

    2001-12-01

    Little is known about the dynamics of chromosomes in interphase nuclei. By tagging four chromosomal regions with a green fluorescent protein fusion to lac repressor, we monitored the movement and subnuclear position of specific sites in the yeast genome, sampling at short time intervals. We found that early and late origins of replication are highly mobile in G1 phase, frequently moving at or faster than 0.5 micrometers/10 seconds, in an energy-dependent fashion. The rapid diffusive movement of chromatin detected in G1 becomes constrained in S phase through a mechanism dependent on active DNA replication. In contrast, telomeres and centromeres provide replication-independent constraint on chromatin movement in both G1 and S phases. PMID:11739961

  2. Import of ribosomal proteins into yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Woellhaf, Michael W; Hansen, Katja G; Garth, Christoph; Herrmann, Johannes M

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomes of baker's yeast contain at least 78 protein subunits. All but one of these proteins are nuclear-encoded, synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes, and imported into the matrix for biogenesis. The import of matrix proteins typically relies on N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequences that form positively charged amphipathic helices. Interestingly, the N-terminal regions of many ribosomal proteins do not closely match the characteristics of matrix targeting sequences, suggesting that the import processes of these proteins might deviate to some extent from the general import route. So far, the biogenesis of only two ribosomal proteins, Mrpl32 and Mrp10, was studied experimentally and indeed showed surprising differences to the import of other preproteins. In this review article we summarize the current knowledge on the transport of proteins into the mitochondrial matrix, and thereby specifically focus on proteins of the mitochondrial ribosome. PMID:24943357

  3. Construction of new yeast vectors and cloning of the nif (nitrogen fixation) gene cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Gerbaud; Claudine Elmerich; Nicole Tandeau de Marsac; Patrick Chocat; Nicole Charpin; Michel Guérineau; Jean-Paul Aubert

    1981-01-01

    Two vectors, termed pG63.11 (7.6 Kb) and pHCG3 (9.6 Kb), suitable for yeast transformation have been constructed. The pHCG3 vector has cosmid properties. Both vectors contain a single 3.3 Kb EcoRI-HindIII fragment of yeast origin which carries the yeast URA3 gene (1.1 Kb) and the origin of replication of the 2 µm plasmid (2.2 Kb). They confer ampicillin resistance and

  4. Production of a yeast artificial chromosome for stable expression of a synthetic xylose isomerase-xylulokinase polyprotein in a fuel ethanol yeast strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercialization of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has focused on engineering the glucose-fermenting industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize pentose sugars. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) was engineered to contain a polyprotein gene construct expressing xylos...

  5. Variable flocculation profiles of yeast strains isolated from cachaça distilleries.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Florencia; Correa, Lygia Fátima da Mata; Araújo, Thalita Macedo; Mota, Bruno Eduardo Fernandes; da Conceição, Luís Eduardo F Ribeiro; Castro, Ieso de Miranda; Brandão, Rogelio Lopes

    2014-11-01

    In cachaça production, the use of yeast cells as starters with predictable flocculation behavior facilitates the cell recovery at the end of each fermentation cycle. Therefore, the aim of this work was to explain the behavior of cachaça yeast strains in fermentation vats containing sugarcane through the determination of biochemical and molecular parameters associated with flocculation phenotypes. By analyzing thirteen cachaça yeast strains isolated from different distilleries, our results demonstrated that neither classic biochemical measurements (e.g., percentage of flocculation, EDTA sensitivity, cell surface hydrophobicity, and sugar residues on the cell wall) nor modern molecular approaches, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR (q-PCR), were sufficient to distinctly classify the cachaça yeast strains according to their flocculation behavior. It seems that flocculation is indeed a strain-specific phenomenon that is difficult to explain and/or categorize by the available methodologies. PMID:25209588

  6. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...than 10,000 organisms/gram by aerobic plate count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other...

  7. Yeast replicative aging: a paradigm for defining conserved longevity interventions.

    PubMed

    Wasko, Brian M; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2014-02-01

    The finite replicative life span of budding yeast mother cells was demonstrated as early as 1959, but the idea that budding yeast could be used to model aging of multicellular eukaryotes did not enter the scientific mainstream until relatively recently. Despite continued skepticism by some, there are now abundant data that several interventions capable of extending yeast replicative life span have a similar effect in multicellular eukaryotes including nematode worms, fruit flies, and rodents. In particular, dietary restriction, mTOR signaling, and sirtuins are among the most studied longevity interventions in the field. Here, we describe key conserved longevity pathways in yeast and discuss relationships that may help explain how such broad conservation of aging processes could have evolved. PMID:24119093

  8. Contemporary, yeast-based approaches to understanding human genetic variation

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Maitreya J.; Fowler, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    Determining how genetic variation contributes to human health and disease is a critical challenge. As one of the most genetically tractable model organisms, yeast has played a central role in meeting this challenge. The advent of new technologies, including high-throughput DNA sequencing and synthesis, proteomics, and computational methods, has vastly increased the power of yeast-based approaches to determine the consequences of human genetic variation. Recent successes include systematic exploration of the effects of gene dosage, large-scale analysis of the effect of coding variation on gene function, and the use of humanized yeast to model disease. By virtue of its manipulability, small genome size, and genetic tractability, yeast is poised to help us understand human genetic variation. PMID:24252429

  9. Function of yeast species and strains in wine flavour.

    PubMed

    Romano, P; Fiore, C; Paraggio, M; Caruso, M; Capece, A

    2003-09-01

    The diversity and the composition of the yeast micropopulation significantly contribute to the sensory characteristics of wine. The growth of each wine yeast species is characterized by a specific metabolic activity, which determines concentrations of flavour compounds in the final wine. However, it must be underlined that, within each species, significant strain variability has been recorded. The wide use of starter cultures, mainly applied to reduce the risk of spoilage and unpredictable changes of wine flavour, can ensure a balanced wine flavour, but it may also cause a loss of characteristic aroma and flavour determinants. Thus, the beneficial contribution from the yeast increases when starter cultures for winemaking are selected on the basis of scientifically verified characteristics and are able to complement and optimise grape quality and individual characteristics. Here we report the characterization of a large number of strains of different wine yeast species, isolated from spontaneous wine fermentations and included in the culture collection of the Basilicata University. PMID:12892932

  10. Protein transmission during Dean vortex microfiltration of yeast suspensions.

    PubMed

    Kluge, T; Rezende, C; Wood, D; Belfort, G

    1999-12-20

    Substantially higher rates of protein and fluid volume transport for microfiltration of yeast suspensions were possible with improved hydrodynamics using centrifugal fluid instabilities called Dean vortices. Under constant permeate flux operation with suspended yeast cells, a helical module exhibited 19 times the filtration capacity of a linear module. For feed containing both BSA and beer yeast under constant transmembrane pressure with diafiltration, about twice as much protein (BSA and other proteins from cell lysis) was transported out of the feed by the helical module as compared with the linear module. The volumetric permeation flux improvements for the helical over the linear module ranged from 18 to 43% for yeast concentrations up to 4.5 dry wt %. PMID:10550771

  11. Integrative selection of human chromosome-specific yeast artificial chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Pavan, W.J.; Reeves, R.G. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Human specific integrative selection vectors (ISVs) were designed to optimize integration of a yeast-selectable marker specifically into yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) derived from human but not mouse DNA. ISVs were transformed into a YAC genomic library constructed from DNA of a human-mouse somatic cell hybrid containing chromosome 21 (HSA21) as the only human chromosome. One percent of the yeast in the original library contained HSA21-derived YACs; between 45% and 54% of the yeast recovered after transformation with ISV vectors contained human YACs. Integrative selection provides a rapid means of obtaining a highly enriched population of human chromosome-specific YACs by eliminating the labor-intensive steps of isolating and screening primary transformants. The procedure is biased toward the selection of YACs that contain a large number of targets for homologous recombination; thus, libraries constructed by this procedure will be composed primarily of the largest YACs in the population.

  12. Culture nutrition key to inhibitor-tolerant yeast performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inhibitory compounds generated during acid hydrolysis pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass interfere with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. A tolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-50049 has recently been developed by targeted evolution in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and f...

  13. Reprogrammed Glucose Metabolic Pathways of Inhibitor-Tolerant Yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Representative inhibitory compounds such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural generated from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment inhibit yeast growth and interfere with the subsequent ethanol fermentation. Evolutionary engineering under laboratory settings is a powerful tool that can be used to ...

  14. Physical Properties of Polymorphic Yeast Prion Amyloid Fibers

    E-print Network

    Castro, Carlos E.

    Amyloid fibers play important roles in many human diseases and natural biological processes and have immense potential as novel nanomaterials. We explore the physical properties of polymorphic amyloid fibers formed by yeast ...

  15. Asymmetric synthesis of (+)-febrifugine and (+)-isofebrifugine using yeast reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Takeuchi; Kumiko Azuma; Kentaro Takakura; Hitoshi Abe; Hye-Sook Kim; Yusuke Wataya; Takashi Harayama

    2001-01-01

    The antimalarial agents febrifugine (d-1) and isofebrifugine (d-2) were synthesized from chiral 3-piperidinol (d-4), which was asymmetrically prepared by the yeast reduction of 3-piperidone derivatives (dl-3), with dynamic optical resolution.

  16. Linking Sulfur Metabolism to the Cell Division Machinery in Yeast 

    E-print Network

    Blank, Heidi M.

    2010-07-14

    cells to increase in size faster and initiate DNA replication sooner, mimicking the phenotype seen in cells moderately overexpressing Abf2p. I then investigated possible interactions between sulfur metabolism enzymes and the yeast Cdk, Cdc28p. Performing...

  17. Baker's yeast assay procedure for testing heavy metal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bitton, G.; Koopman, B.; Wang, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is microorganism which is commercially available and sold as packaged dry pellets in any food store at low cost. Studies have been undertaken on the effects of organic xenobiotics as well as heavy metals on yeast metabolism. This type of study has been generally useful in examining the mechanism(s) of chemical toxicity. However, a rapid and quantitative toxicity test using S. cerevisiae as the test organism has not been developed. The purpose of this study was to develop a toxicity assay for heavy metals, using commercial dry yeast as the test microorganism. This rapid and simple procedure is based on the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) to INT-formazan by the yeast electron transport system. The scoring of active cells following exposure to heavy metals was undertaken according to the MINT (malachite green-INT) method developed by Bitton and Koopman.

  18. Yeast as a model for ageing and apoptosis research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Breitenbach; Frank Madeo; Peter Laun; Gino Heeren; Stefanie Jarolim; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich; Silke Wissing; Alena Pichova

    \\u000a Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death with a crucial role in health and disease in metazoans. Recent findings demonstrate\\u000a the existence of an apoptotic program also in unicellular eukaryotes. Oxygen stress as well as the expression of several conserved\\u000a proapoptotic genes induce the apoptotic pathway in mammalian cells and yeast cells. The dying yeast cells show diagnostic\\u000a markers

  19. Biomineralization of iron phosphate nanoparticles in yeast cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen He; Weijia Zhou; Yingjun Wang; Xudong Zhang; Hongshi Zhao; Zhengmao Li; Shunpu Yan

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous iron phosphate nanoparticles mineralized in yeast cells are studied by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrograph and micro electrophoresis. Iron phosphate nanoparticles in yeast cells show uniform morphology with extensive surface roughness and disperse well. The size distribution of iron phosphate is about 50–200 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to analyze the chemical bond linkages between

  20. Coadaptation of Drosophila and yeasts in their natural habitat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William T. Starmer; James C. Fogleman

    1986-01-01

    The mutualistic interactions of cactophilicDrosophila and their associated yeasts in the Sonoran Desert are studied as a system which has evolved within the framework of their host cactus stem chemistry. Because theDrosophila-yeast system is saphrophytic, their responses are not thought to directly influence the evolution of the host. Host cactus stem chemistry appears to play an important role in determining

  1. Diversity of Soil Yeasts Isolated from South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Connell; R. Redman; S. Craig; G. Scorzetti; M. Iszard; R. Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    Unicellular fungi, commonly referred to as yeasts, were found to be components of the culturable soil fungal population in\\u000a Taylor Valley, Mt. Discovery, Wright Valley, and two mountain peaks of South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Samples were taken\\u000a from sites spanning a diversity of soil habitats that were not directly associated with vertebrate activity. A large proportion\\u000a of yeasts isolated in

  2. Effect of xylitol and trehalose on dry resistance of yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Krallish; H. Jeppsson; A. Rapoport; B. Hahn-Hägerdal

    1997-01-01

    The effects of dehydration\\/rehydration on two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: S600, a metabolically engineered xylose-utilising strain, and H158, the non-xylose-utilising host strain; and on the naturally\\u000a xylose-utilising yeast Pachysolen tannophilus CBS 4044, were compared after glucose and xylose utilisation respectively. The yeast strains differed in their ability to\\u000a excrete and accumulate intracellular xylitol. A high intracellular xylitol content before and

  3. Metabolic control of glucose degradation in yeast and tumor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armin Fiechter; Felix K. Gmiinder

    Regulation of glucose degradation in both yeasts and tumor cells is very similar in many respects: In both cases it leads\\u000a to excretion of intermediary metabolites (e.g. ethanol, lactate) in those cell types where uptake of glucose is unrestricted\\u000a (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bowes melanoma cells).\\u000a \\u000a The similarities between glucose metabolism observed in yeast and tumor cells is explained by the fact

  4. Revision of the oligosaccharide structures of yeast carboxypeptidase Y

    SciTech Connect

    Ballou, L.; Hernandez, L.M.; Alvarado, E.; Ballou, C.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The N-linked oligosaccharides from baker's yeast carboxypeptidase Y were analyzed by {sup 1}H NMR and specific mannosidase digestion and found to be identical to those from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mnn9 mutant bulk mannoprotein. The results support the view that the mnn mutants make oligosaccharides that are a true reflection of the normal biosynthetic pathway and confirm that a recently revised yeast oligosaccharide structure is applicable to wild-type mannoproteins.

  5. The Role of Red Yeast Rice for the Physician

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram Y. Gordon; David J. Becker

    2011-01-01

    Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese dietary staple and medication used by millions of patients as an alternative therapy\\u000a for hypercholesterolemia. In recent years, the use of red yeast rice has grown exponentially due to increased public interest\\u000a in complementary and alternative medications and the publication of several randomized, controlled trials demonstrating its\\u000a efficacy and safety in different populations.

  6. Yeasts and wine off-flavours: a technological perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Malfeito-Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    In wine production, yeasts have both beneficial and detrimental activities. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the yeast mainly responsible for turning grape juice into wine but this species and several others may also show undesirable\\u000a effects in wines. Among such effects, technologists are particularly concerned with the production of off-flavours that may\\u000a occur during all stages of winemaking. Typical spoiling activities include

  7. Biochemical characterization and growth patterns of new yeast isolates.

    PubMed

    Djegui, Kadjogbé Y; Gachomo, Emma W; Hounhouigan, Djidjoho J; Kayodé, Adéchola P P; Kotchoni, Simeon O

    2014-08-01

    African sorghum opaque beers play a vital role in the diet of millions of consumers. In the current study we investigated the growth profiles of yeast strains isolated from kpete-kpete, a traditional starter used to produce tchoukoutou, an opaque sorghum beer in Benin. 10 yeast strains were isolated from sorghum beer starters and cultivated under both liquid and solid media for phenotypic growth characterization. All yeast isolates were able to grow both on solid and liquid media. Based on their growth profiles, the isolates were clustered into three groups: (i) the aggressive growth pattern (30%), (ii) the moderate growth pattern (50%), and (iii) the slow growth pattern (20%). Based on gene expression pattern, absorbance (A(600 nm)) and diameter of growth in both liquid and solid media respectively, yeast strains YK34, YK15 and YK48 were clustered in the first group, and referred to as the most aggressive growth strains, followed by group 2 (YK24, YK5, YK12, YK20, YK2) and group 3 (YK37, YK41). This growth pattern was confirmed by Invertase gene expression profiling of the yeasts showing group 1 with high level of Invertase gene expression followed by group 2 and group 3 respectively. Our results suggest that YK34, YK15 and YK48 and YK2 yeast strains constitute the best candidates in fermentation of sorghum beer production based on growth rate and assimilation of carbon and nitrogen sources. PMID:24802797

  8. Basic principles of yeast genomics, a personal recollection.

    PubMed

    Dujon, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    The genomes of many yeast species or strain isolates have now been sequenced with an accelerating momentum that quickly relegates initial data to history, albeit that they are less than two decades old. Today, novel yeast genomes are entirely sequenced for a variety of reasons, often only to identify a few expected genes of specific interest, thus providing a wealth of data, heterogenous in quality and completion but informative about the origin and evolution of this heterogeneous collection of unicellular modern fungi. However, how many scientists fully appreciate the important conceptual and technological roles played by yeasts in the extraordinary development of today's genomics? Novel notions of general significance emerged from the very first eukaryote sequenced, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and were successively refined and extended over time. Tools with general applications were originally developed with this yeast; and surprises emerged from the results. Here, I have tried to recollect the gradual building up of knowledge as yeast genomics developed, and then briefly summarize our present views about the basic nature of yeast genomes, based on the most recent data. PMID:26071597

  9. Molecular evolution of eukaryotic genomes: hemiascomycetous yeast spliceosomal introns

    PubMed Central

    Bon, Elisabeth; Casaregola, Serge; Blandin, Gaëlle; Llorente, Bertrand; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Munsterkotter, Martin; Guldener, Ulrich; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Helden, Jacques Van; Dujon, Bernard; Gaillardin, Claude

    2003-01-01

    As part of the exploratory sequencing program Génolevures, visual scrutinisation and bioinformatic tools were used to detect spliceosomal introns in seven hemiascomycetous yeast species. A total of 153 putative novel introns were identified. Introns are rare in yeast nuclear genes (<5% have an intron), mainly located at the 5? end of ORFs, and not highly conserved in sequence. They all share a clear non-random vocabulary: conserved splice sites and conserved nucleotide contexts around splice sites. Homologues of metazoan snRNAs and putative homologues of SR splicing factors were identified, confirming that the spliceosomal machinery is highly conserved in eukaryotes. Several introns’ features were tested as possible markers for phylogenetic analysis. We found that intron sizes vary widely within each genome, and according to the phylogenetic position of the yeast species. The evolutionary origin of spliceosomal introns was examined by analysing the degree of conservation of intron positions in homologous yeast genes. Most introns appeared to exist in the last common ancestor of present day yeast species, and then to have been differentially lost during speciation. However, in some cases, it is difficult to exclude a possible sliding event affecting a pre-existing intron or a gain of a novel intron. Taken together, our results indicate that the origin of spliceosomal introns is complex within a given genome, and that present day introns may have resulted from a dynamic flux between intron conservation, intron loss and intron gain during the evolution of hemiascomycetous yeasts. PMID:12582231

  10. The yeast deletion collection: a decade of functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2014-06-01

    The yeast deletion collections comprise >21,000 mutant strains that carry precise start-to-stop deletions of ?6000 open reading frames. This collection includes heterozygous and homozygous diploids, and haploids of both MAT A: and MAT? mating types. The yeast deletion collection, or yeast knockout (YKO) set, represents the first and only complete, systematically constructed deletion collection available for any organism. Conceived during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequencing project, work on the project began in 1998 and was completed in 2002. The YKO strains have been used in numerous laboratories in >1000 genome-wide screens. This landmark genome project has inspired development of numerous genome-wide technologies in organisms from yeast to man. Notable spinoff technologies include synthetic genetic array and HIPHOP chemogenomics. In this retrospective, we briefly describe the yeast deletion project and some of its most noteworthy biological contributions and the impact that these collections have had on the yeast research community and on genomics in general. PMID:24939991

  11. Immobilisation increases yeast cells' resistance to dehydration-rehydration treatment.

    PubMed

    Borovikova, Diana; Rozenfelde, Linda; Pavlovska, Ilona; Rapoport, Alexander

    2014-08-20

    This study was performed with the goal of revealing if the dehydration procedure used in our new immobilisation method noticeably decreases the viability of yeast cells in immobilised preparations. Various yeasts were used in this research: Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that were rather sensitive to dehydration and had been aerobically grown in an ethanol-containing medium, a recombinant strain of S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic conditions which were completely non-resistant to dehydration and an anaerobically grown bakers' yeast strain S. cerevisiae, as well as a fairly resistant Pichia pastoris strain. Experiments performed showed that immobilisation of all these strains essentially increased their resistance to a dehydration-rehydration treatment. The increase of cells' viability (compared with control cells dehydrated in similar conditions) was from 30 to 60%. It is concluded that a new immobilisation method, which includes a dehydration stage, does not lead to an essential loss of yeast cell viability. Correspondingly, there is no risk of losing the biotechnological activities of immobilised preparations. The possibility of producing dry, active yeast preparations is shown, for those strains that are very sensitive to dehydration and which can be used in biotechnology in an immobilised form. Finally, the immobilisation approach can be used for the development of efficient methods for the storage of recombinant yeast strains. PMID:24886905

  12. The Fermentative and Aromatic Ability of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Montaño, Dulce M.; de Jesús Ramírez Córdova, J.

    Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation from grape, agave and others musts into an alcoholic beverage is usually characterized by the presence of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These genera yeasts are dominant in the early stages of the alcoholic fermentation. However the genera Hanseniaspora and Kloeckera may survive at a significant level during fermentation and can influence the chemical composition of the beverage. Several strains belonging to the species Kloeckera api-culata and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii have been extensively studied in relation to the formation of some metabolic compounds affecting the bouquet of the final product. Indeed some apiculate yeast showed positive oenological properties and their use in the alcoholic fermentations has been suggested to enhance the aroma and flavor profiles. The non- Saccharomyces yeasts have the capability to produce and secrete enzymes in the medium, such as ? -glucosidases, which release monoterpenes derived from their glycosylated form. These compounds contribute to the higher fruit-like characteristic of final product. This chapter reviews metabolic activity of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora yeasts in several aspects: fermentative capability, aromatic compounds production and transformation of aromatic precursor present in the must, also covers the molecular methods for identifying of the yeast

  13. [Development of a detection system (APC yeast color assay) of APC mutations by color change of yeast].

    PubMed

    Furuuchi, K

    2000-11-01

    The author developed a sensitive yeast-based color assay which expresses APC-ADE2 (reporter) fusion protein in yeast and can screen almost the entire coding region of the APC gene. In this assay, the wild-type APC coding sequence of 8.5 kb is divided into 5 overlapping regions which are respectively ligated in-frame with an ADE2 open reading frame. The resulting five constructs containing a part of wild-type APC gene preserve the ADE2(+) phenotype (white yeast colony) when introduced into the yeast, whereas the yeast transfected with plasmids containing frameshift mutations of the APC gene shows an ADE2(-) phenotype (red yeast colony). Six human colon cancer cell lines were analyzed by this yeast color assay. HCT116 cells with wild-type APC and normal colonic mucosa gave low percentages of red colonies (0-9.9%) in all the regions. On the other hand, more than 96% red colonies were observed in one of the five regions in SW480, Colo201 and Colo320DM cells. Sequence analysis demonstrated the clonal APC mutations at codon 1,338 in SW480, 1,554 in Colo201 and 811 in Colo320DM. Moreover, the assay detected a germline mutation of the APC gene in polyps of a familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patient which gave about 50% red colonies. For testing the assay for clinical utilization, 18 colon cancer tissues were subjected to the assay. Eleven cancers (61%) gave more than 10% red colonies (17-57%) and clonal mutations were detected in all these samples. The same mutations were demonstrated in both DNA and RNA samples derived from idendical tissues. These results suggest that this APC yeast color assay is powerful means for detection of APC mutations in clinical samples. PMID:11193931

  14. Response of lactating cows to live yeast supplementation during summer.

    PubMed

    Salvati, G G S; Morais Júnior, N N; Melo, A C S; Vilela, R R; Cardoso, F F; Aronovich, M; Pereira, R A N; Pereira, M N

    2015-06-01

    Dairy cows experiencing heat stress have reduced intake and increased reliance on glucose, making feeding strategies capable of improving diet digestibility plausible for improving postrumen nutrient flow and performance. The effect of yeast on digestion and performance of lactating cows during the warm summer months of southeastern Brazil was evaluated. Cows were individually fed in tie stalls and temperature-humidity index was above 68 during 75.6% of the experiment. Twenty-eight Holstein cows (207±87 d in milk) received a standard diet for 14 d and then a treatment for 70 d, in a covariate-adjusted, randomized block design with repeated measures over time. Treatments were yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or control. Yeast was top dressed to the diet in the morning, equivalent to 25×10(10) cfu of live cells and 5×10(10) cfu of dead cells. The diet contained corn silage (37.7%), Tifton silage (7.1%), raw soybeans (4.1%), soybean meal (16.5%), finely ground corn (20.7%), and citrus pulp (11.9%). Yeast increased milk (26.7 vs. 25.4kg/d) and solids yield (3.06 vs. 2.92kg/d), especially lactose. Response in milk yield was consistent over time and started at d 5. The daily intake of digestible OM, total-tract digestibility of nutrients, urinary allantoin excretion, chewing pattern throughout the day, and dry matter intake did not respond to yeast. A trend was observed for increased plasma glucose with yeast (62.9 vs. 57.3mg/dL), lowered respiratory frequency (48 vs. 56 breaths/min), and increased plasma niacin content (1.31 vs. 1.22 µg/mL), though cows had similar rectal temperature. Ruminal lactate and butyrate as proportions of ruminal organic acids were reduced by yeast, but no effects on other organic acids, ruminal pH, or protozoa content were detected. Plasma urea N over 24h was increased by yeast. On d 72 to 74, citrus pulp was abruptly replaced with finely ground corn to induce acidosis. The increased load of starch increased dry matter intake between 0700 and 1300h, jugular blood partial pressure of CO2, HCO3(-), and base excess, and decreased blood pH for both treatments. The yeast treatment had a higher blood pH compared with the control, 7.34, and 7.31, respectively. Yeast supplementation improved lactation performance of dairy cows under heat stress. Improvement in lactation performance apparently involved the regulation of body homeothermia, rather than improved digestibility. PMID:25795491

  15. Purity Control of the Production of Baker's Yeast Employing a Fluorescent Antiserum

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Ch.; Klaushofer, H.

    1961-01-01

    A simple staining procedure for the rapid detection of wild yeasts contaminating baker's yeast during the course of industrial production is described. Fluorescein-labeled, specific antiserum against Saccharomyces cerevisiae is applied to smears of baker's yeast which are then examined by ultraviolet microscopy. Optimal results are obtained with the combined phase contrast and fluorescence which makes the S. cerevisiae appear green, whereas cells of wild yeasts are visible in bright red counterstain. With this method, wild yeasts could be identified in baker's yeast at a dilution of 1:10,000. Images FIG. 1 PMID:14460617

  16. Mechanistic mathematical model of polarity in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Natasha S.; Layton, Anita T.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of cell polarity involves positive-feedback mechanisms that concentrate polarity regulators, including the conserved GTPase Cdc42p, at the “front” of the polarized cell. Previous studies in yeast suggested the presence of two parallel positive-feedback loops, one operating as a diffusion-based system, and the other involving actin-directed trafficking of Cdc42p on vesicles. F-actin (and hence directed vesicle traffic) speeds fluorescence recovery of Cdc42p after photobleaching, suggesting that vesicle traffic of Cdc42p contributes to polarization. We present a mathematical modeling framework that combines previously developed mechanistic reaction-diffusion and vesicle-trafficking models. Surprisingly, the combined model recapitulated the observed effect of vesicle traffic on Cdc42p dynamics even when the vesicles did not carry significant amounts of Cdc42p. Vesicle traffic reduced the concentration of Cdc42p at the front, so that fluorescence recovery mediated by Cdc42p flux from the cytoplasm took less time to replenish the bleached pool. Simulations in which Cdc42p was concentrated into vesicles or depleted from vesicles yielded almost identical predictions, because Cdc42p flux from the cytoplasm was dominant. These findings indicate that vesicle-mediated delivery of Cdc42p is not required to explain the observed Cdc42p dynamics, and raise the question of whether such Cdc42p traffic actually contributes to polarity establishment. PMID:22438587

  17. Yeast sirtuins and the regulation of aging.

    PubMed

    Wierman, Margaret B; Smith, Jeffrey S

    2014-02-01

    The sirtuins are a phylogenetically conserved family of NAD(+) -dependent protein deacetylases that consume one molecule of NAD(+) for every deacetylated lysine side chain. Their requirement for NAD(+) potentially makes them prone to regulation by fluctuations in NAD(+) or biosynthesis intermediates, thus linking them to cellular metabolism. The Sir2 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the founding sirtuin family member and has been well characterized as a histone deacetylase that functions in transcriptional silencing of heterochromatin domains and as a pro-longevity factor for replicative life span (RLS), defined as the number of times a mother cell divides (buds) before senescing. Deleting SIR2 shortens RLS, while increased gene dosage causes extension. Furthermore, Sir2 has been implicated in mediating the beneficial effects of caloric restriction (CR) on life span, not only in yeast, but also in higher eukaryotes. While this paradigm has had its share of disagreements and debate, it has also helped rapidly drive the aging research field forward. S. cerevisiae has four additional sirtuins, Hst1, Hst2, Hst3, and Hst4. This review discusses the function of Sir2 and the Hst homologs in replicative aging and chronological aging, and also addresses how the sirtuins are regulated in response to environmental stresses such as CR. PMID:24164855

  18. Genetic Basis of Metabolome Variation in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Breunig, Jeffrey S.; Hackett, Sean R.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism, the conversion of nutrients into usable energy and biochemical building blocks, is an essential feature of all cells. The genetic factors responsible for inter-individual metabolic variability remain poorly understood. To investigate genetic causes of metabolome variation, we measured the concentrations of 74 metabolites across 100 segregants from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cross by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found 52 quantitative trait loci for 34 metabolites. These included linkages due to overt changes in metabolic genes, e.g., linking pyrimidine intermediates to the deletion of ura3. They also included linkages not directly related to metabolic enzymes, such as those for five central carbon metabolites to ira2, a Ras/PKA pathway regulator, and for the metabolites, S-adenosyl-methionine and S-adenosyl-homocysteine to slt2, a MAP kinase involved in cell wall integrity. The variant of ira2 that elevates metabolite levels also increases glucose uptake and ethanol secretion. These results highlight specific examples of genetic variability, including in genes without prior known metabolic regulatory function, that impact yeast metabolism. PMID:24603560

  19. Ribonucleotide incorporation by yeast DNA polymerase ?

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Alena V.; McElhinny, Stephanie A. Nick; Watts, Brian E.; Kunkel, Thomas A.; Burgers, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    During replication in yeast, the three B family DNA replicases frequently incorporate ribonucleotides (rNMPs) into DNA, and their presence in the nuclear genome can affect genome stability. This prompted us to examine ribonucleotide incorporation by the fourth B family member, Pol ? the enzyme responsible for the majority of damage-induced mutagenesis in eukaryotes. We first show that Pol ? inserts rNMPs into DNA and can extend primer termini containing 3’-ribonucleotides. We then measure rNMP incorporation by Pol ? in the presence of its cofactors, RPA, RFC and PCNA and at normal cellular dNTP and rNTP concentrations that exist under unstressed conditions. Under these conditions, Pol ? stably incorporates one rNMP for every 200-300 dNMPs incorporated, a frequency that is slightly higher than for the high fidelity replicative DNA polymerases. Under damage-induced conditions wherein cellular dNTP concentrations are elevated 5-fold, Pol ? only incorporates one rNMP per 1,300 dNMPs. Functional interaction of Pol ? with the mutasome assembly factor Rev1 gives comparable rNMP incorporation frequencies. These results suggest that ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA during Pol ?-mediated mutagenesis in vivo may be rare. PMID:24674899

  20. Evolution of intraspecific transcriptomic landscapes in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Brion, Christian; Pflieger, David; Friedrich, Anne; Schacherer, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Variations in gene expression have been widely explored in order to obtain an accurate overview of the changes in regulatory networks that underlie phenotypic diversity. Numerous studies have characterized differences in genomic expression between large numbers of individuals of model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To more broadly survey the evolution of the transcriptomic landscape across species, we measured whole-genome expression in a large collection of another yeast species: Lachancea kluyveri (formerly Saccharomyces kluyveri), using RNAseq. Interestingly, this species diverged from the S. cerevisiae lineage prior to its ancestral whole genome duplication. Moreover, L. kluyveri harbors a chromosome-scale compositional heterogeneity due to a 1-Mb ancestral introgressed region as well as a large set of unique unannotated genes. In this context, our comparative transcriptomic analysis clearly showed a link between gene evolutionary history and expression behavior. Indeed, genes that have been recently acquired or under function relaxation tend to be less transcribed show a higher intraspecific variation (plasticity) and are less involved in network (connectivity). Moreover, utilizing this approach in L. kluyveri also highlighted specific regulatory network signatures in aerobic respiration, amino-acid biosynthesis and glycosylation, presumably due to its different lifestyle. Our data set sheds an important light on the evolution of intraspecific transcriptomic variation across distant species. PMID:25897111

  1. The Regulation of Filamentous Growth in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul J.; Sprague, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous growth is a nutrient-regulated growth response that occurs in many fungal species. In pathogens, filamentous growth is critical for host–cell attachment, invasion into tissues, and virulence. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes filamentous growth, which provides a genetically tractable system to study the molecular basis of the response. Filamentous growth is regulated by evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways. One of these pathways is a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. A remarkable feature of the filamentous growth MAPK pathway is that it is composed of factors that also function in other pathways. An intriguing challenge therefore has been to understand how pathways that share components establish and maintain their identity. Other canonical signaling pathways—rat sarcoma/protein kinase A (RAS/PKA), sucrose nonfermentable (SNF), and target of rapamycin (TOR)—also regulate filamentous growth, which raises the question of how signals from multiple pathways become integrated into a coordinated response. Together, these pathways regulate cell differentiation to the filamentous type, which is characterized by changes in cell adhesion, cell polarity, and cell shape. How these changes are accomplished is also discussed. High-throughput genomics approaches have recently uncovered new connections to filamentous growth regulation. These connections suggest that filamentous growth is a more complex and globally regulated behavior than is currently appreciated, which may help to pave the way for future investigations into this eukaryotic cell differentiation behavior. PMID:22219507

  2. Cytotoxic dehydromonacolins from red yeast rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Yau, Lee-Fong; Lu, Jing-Guang; Zhu, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Jing-Rong; Han, Quan-Bin; Hsiao, Wen-Luan; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2012-02-01

    Two new dehydromonacolins (1 and 3), together with nine known monacolins (4-12), were isolated from red yeast rice. Compounds 4-6 were isolated from a natural resource for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by means of NMR and mass spectroscopic analyses. The structure of dehydromonacolin N (1) was further confirmed by its semisynthesis from monacolin K (lovastatin) (11). Dehydromonacolin J (2), an intermediate in the semisynthesis of 1, was obtained as a new dehydromonacolin. The structure of dehydromonacolin L (3) was also confirmed by an elimination reaction of monacolin L (12). Compound 1, possessing a C2 side chain, is unprecedented in the natural monacolin family and exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against Hep G2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Dehydromonacolin K (8) demonstrated the most potent cytotoxicity to all three of these cell lines. The structure-activity relationship of natural and synthesized monacolins was discussed. This is the first report on the cytotoxic effects of dehydromonacolins. PMID:22224625

  3. Genome linking with yeast artificial chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Coulson, A; Waterston, R; Kiff, J; Sulston, J; Kohara, Y

    1988-09-01

    The haploid genome of Caenorhabditis elegans consists of some 80 x 10(6) base pairs of DNA contained in six chromosomes. The large number of interesting loci that have been recognized by mutation, and the accuracy of the genetic map, mean that a physical map of the genome is highly desirable, because it will facilitate the molecular cloning of chosen loci. The first steps towards such a map used a fingerprinting method to link cosmid clones together. This approach reached its practical limit last year, when 90-95% of the genome had been cloned into 17,500 cosmids assembled into some 700 clusters (contigs), but the linking clones needed were either non-existent or extremely rare. Anticipating this, we had planned to link by physical means--probably by hybridization to NotI fragments separated by pulse field gel electrophoresis. NotI recognizes an eight base sequence of GC pairs; thus the fragments should be large enough to bridge regions that clone poorly in cosmids, and, with no selective step involved, would necessarily be fully representative. However, with the availability of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) vector, we decided to use this alternative source of large DNA fragments to obtain linkage. The technique involves the ligation of large (50-1,000 kilobase) genomic fragments into a vector that provides centromeric, telomeric and selective functions; the constructs are then introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and replicate in the same manner as the host chromosomes. PMID:3045566

  4. Compartmentalized signaling of Ras in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Onken, Brian; Wiener, Heidi; Philips, Mark R; Chang, Eric C

    2006-06-13

    Compartment-specific Ras signaling is an emerging paradigm that may explain the multiplex outputs from a single GTPase. The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, affords a simple system in which to study Ras signaling because it has a single Ras protein, Ras1, that regulates two distinct pathways: one that controls mating through a Byr2-mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and one that signals through Scd1-Cdc42 to maintain elongated cell morphology. We generated Ras1 mutants that are restricted to either the endomembrane or the plasma membrane. Protein binding studies showed that each could interact with the effectors of both pathways. However, when examined in ras1 null cells, endomembrane-restricted Ras1 supported morphology but not mating, and, conversely, plasma membrane-restricted Ras1 supported mating but did not signal to Scd1-Cdc42. These observations provide a striking demonstration of compartment-specific Ras signaling and indicate that spatial specificity in the Ras pathway is evolutionarily conserved. PMID:16754851

  5. Producing aglycons of ginsenosides in bakers' yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhubo; Wang, Beibei; Liu, Yi; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Xianan; Liu, Tao; Huang, Luqi; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenosides are the primary bioactive components of ginseng, which is a popular medicinal plant that exhibits diverse pharmacological activities. Protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol and oleanolic acid are three basic aglycons of ginsenosides. Producing aglycons of ginsenosides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was realized in this work and provides an alternative route compared to traditional extraction methods. Synthetic pathways of these three aglycons were constructed in S. cerevisiae by introducing ?-amyrin synthase, oleanolic acid synthase, dammarenediol-II synthase, protopanaxadiol synthase, protopanaxatriol synthase and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from different plants. In addition, a truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, squalene synthase and 2,3-oxidosqualene synthase genes were overexpressed to increase the precursor supply for improving aglycon production. Strain GY-1 was obtained, which produced 17.2?mg/L protopanaxadiol, 15.9?mg/L protopanaxatriol and 21.4?mg/L oleanolic acid. The yeast strains engineered in this work can serve as the basis for creating an alternative way for producing ginsenosides in place of extractions from plant sources. PMID:24424342

  6. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from...

  11. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Cavalheiro, A.; Monteiro, G.

    2013-01-01

    The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast. PMID:24516432

  12. Regulation of cytokinesis in the milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Rippert, Dorthe; Heppeler, Nele; Albermann, Sabine; Schmitz, Hans-Peter; Heinisch, Jürgen J

    2014-11-01

    Cytokinesis in yeast and mammalian cells is a highly coordinated process mediated by the constriction of an actomyosin ring. In yeasts, it is accompanied by the formation of a chitinous primary septum. Although much is known about the regulation of cytokinesis in budding yeast, overlapping functions of redundant genes complicates genetic analyses. Here, we investigated the effects of various deletion mutants on cytokinesis in the milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. To determine the spatiotemporal parameters of cytokinesis components, live-cell imaging of fluorophor-tagged KlMyo1 and a new Lifeact probe for KlAct1 was employed. In contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where deletion of ScMYO1 is lethal, Klmyo1 deletion was temperature-sensitive. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the Klmyo1 deletion cells had a defect in the formation of the primary septum and in cell separation; this result was confirmed by FACS analyses. Deletion of KlCYK3 was lethal, whereas in S. cerevisiae a cyk3 deletion is synthetically lethal with hof1 deletion. Growth of Klhof1 mutants was osmoremedial at 25°C, as it is in S. cerevisiae. CYK3 and HOF1 genes cross-complemented in both species, suggesting that they are functional homologs. Inn1, a common interactor for these two regulators, was essential in both yeasts and the encoding genes did not cross-complement. The C2 domain of the Inn1 homologs conferred species specificity. Thus, our work establishes K. lactis as a model yeast to study cytokinesis with less genetic redundancy than S. cerevisiae. The viability of Klmyo1 deletions provides an advantage over budding yeast to study actomyosin-independent cytokinesis. Moreover, the lethality of Klcyk3 null mutants suggests that there are fewer functional redundancies with KlHof1 in K. lactis. PMID:25110348

  13. In vitro antimycotic activity of some plant extracts towards yeast and yeast-like strains.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, B; Pinelli, P; Buzzini, P; Romani, A; Heimler, D; Franconi, F; Martini, A

    2005-01-01

    As part of screening aimed at the selection of novel antimycotic compounds of vegetable origin, leaf extracts of Camellia sinensis L., Cupressus sempervirens L. and Pistacia lentiscus L. and the seed extract of Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc. were tested against yeast and yeast-like species implicated in human mycoses. Of the extracts only those of C. sinensis (obtained from a commercial preparation of green tea) exhibited broad activity towards Candida glabrata, Clavispora lusitatiae, Cryptococcus laurentii, Filobasidiella neoformans, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Prototheca wickerhamii strains. MICs ranging from 300 to 4800 microg extract/mL (corresponding to 130-2010 microg/mL total polyphenols) were observed. Concentrations of the C. sinensis extract over 25 000 microg/mL caused a rapid decrease of viable cells of Fil. neoformans and its activity was dose-dependent. Tests carried out using the pure polyphenols present in C. sinensis extract composition, showed that only epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) possess antimycotic activity. PMID:15798996

  14. Screening Wild Yeast Strains for Alcohol Fermentation from Various Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon-Ju; Choi, Yu-Ri; Lee, So-Young; Park, Jong-Tae; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Wild yeasts on the surface of various fruits including grapes were surveyed to obtain yeast strains suitable for fermenting a novel wine with higher alcohol content and supplemented with rice starch. We considered selected characteristics, such as tolerance to alcohol and osmotic pressure, capability of utilizing maltose, and starch hydrolysis. Among 637 putative yeast isolates, 115 strains exhibiting better growth in yeast-peptone-dextrose broth containing 30% dextrose, 7% alcohol, or 2% maltose were selected, as well as five ?-amylase producers. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA gene classified the strains into 13 species belonging to five genera; Pichia anomala was the most prevalent (41.7%), followed by Wickerhamomyces anomalus (19.2%), P. guilliermondii (15%), Candida spp. (5.8%), Kodamaea ohmeri (2.5%), and Metschnikowia spp. (2.5%). All of the ?-amylase producers were Aureobasidium pullulans. Only one isolate (NK28) was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NK28 had all of the desired properties for the purpose of this study, except ?-amylase production, and fermented alcohol better than commercial wine yeasts. PMID:22783070

  15. Analysis of the Secretomes of Paracoccidioides Mycelia and Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Simone Schneider; Parente, Ana Flávia Alves; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Parente, Juliana Alves; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioides, a complex of several phylogenetic species, is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. The ability of pathogenic fungi to develop a multifaceted response to the wide variety of stressors found in the host environment is important for virulence and pathogenesis. Extracellular proteins represent key mediators of the host-parasite interaction. To analyze the expression profile of the proteins secreted by Paracoccidioides, Pb01 mycelia and yeast cells, we used a proteomics approach combining two-dimensional electrophoresis with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-Q-TOF MS/MS). From three biological replicates, 356 and 388 spots were detected, in mycelium and yeast cell secretomes, respectively. In this study, 160 non-redundant proteins/isoforms were indentified, including 30 and 24 proteins preferentially secreted in mycelia and yeast cells, respectively. In silico analyses revealed that 65% of the identified proteins/isoforms were secreted primarily via non-conventional pathways. We also investigated the influence of protein export inhibition in the phagocytosis of Paracoccidioides by macrophages. The addition of Brefeldin A to the culture medium significantly decreased the production of secreted proteins by both Paracoccidioides and internalized yeast cells by macrophages. In contrast, the addition of concentrated culture supernatant to the co-cultivation significantly increased the number of internalized yeast cells by macrophages. Importantly, the proteins detected in the fungal secretome were also identified within macrophages. These results indicate that Paracoccidioides extracellular proteins are important for the fungal interaction with the host. PMID:23272246

  16. Prions of yeast from cytoplasmic genes to heritable amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Wickner, R B; Edskes, H K; Taylor, K L; Maddelein, M L; Moriyama, H; Tibor Roberts, B

    2001-01-01

    It was believed that only proteins could carry out enzymatic reactions, and only nucleic acids could mediate inheritance. In recent years, the work of Cech and Altman and others has shown that nucleic acids can catalyze reactions. Now it has been shown that, in yeast, proteins can mediate inheritance. The infectious protein (prion) concept arose from studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of mammals (1), and several lines of evidence suggest that TSEs are indeed caused by infectious forms of the PrP protein, but the absence of definitive proof has left substantial doubt and disagreement on this point (2-6). The ease of genetic manipulation of yeast offers experimental possibilities not yet available even in the mouse system. This enabled the discovery of yeast prions (7), and has facilitated the rapid characterization of these systems. The parallels between the yeast and mammalian systems are striking. Moreover, because both of the yeast prion systems appear to involve self-propagating amyloid forms of the respective proteins, these systems may also serve as models for the broader class of diseases for which amyloid accumulation is a central feature. The discovery of the [HET-s] prion of the filamentous fungus Podospora, another genetically manipulable system, adds a new dimension to prion studies (8). PMID:21374508

  17. Structure and Function in the Budding Yeast Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Angela; Gasser, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Budding yeast, like other eukaryotes, carries its genetic information on chromosomes that are sequestered from other cellular constituents by a double membrane, which forms the nucleus. An elaborate molecular machinery forms large pores that span the double membrane and regulate the traffic of macromolecules into and out of the nucleus. In multicellular eukaryotes, an intermediate filament meshwork formed of lamin proteins bridges from pore to pore and helps the nucleus reform after mitosis. Yeast, however, lacks lamins, and the nuclear envelope is not disrupted during yeast mitosis. The mitotic spindle nucleates from the nucleoplasmic face of the spindle pole body, which is embedded in the nuclear envelope. Surprisingly, the kinetochores remain attached to short microtubules throughout interphase, influencing the position of centromeres in the interphase nucleus, and telomeres are found clustered in foci at the nuclear periphery. In addition to this chromosomal organization, the yeast nucleus is functionally compartmentalized to allow efficient gene expression, repression, RNA processing, genomic replication, and repair. The formation of functional subcompartments is achieved in the nucleus without intranuclear membranes and depends instead on sequence elements, protein–protein interactions, specific anchorage sites at the nuclear envelope or at pores, and long-range contacts between specific chromosomal loci, such as telomeres. Here we review the spatial organization of the budding yeast nucleus, the proteins involved in forming nuclear subcompartments, and evidence suggesting that the spatial organization of the nucleus is important for nuclear function. PMID:22964839

  18. Genome Sequence of the Lager Brewing Yeast, an Interspecies Hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Yoshihiro; Kanamori, Takeshi; Itoh, Takehiko; Kodama, Yukiko; Rainieri, Sandra; Nakamura, Norihisa; Shimonaga, Tomoko; Hattori, Masahira; Ashikari, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the genome sequencing of the lager brewing yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) Weihenstephan 34/70, a strain widely used in lager beer brewing. The 25 Mb genome comprises two nuclear sub-genomes originating from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus and one circular mitochondrial genome originating from S. bayanus. Thirty-six different types of chromosomes were found including eight chromosomes with translocations between the two sub-genomes, whose breakpoints are within the orthologous open reading frames. Several gene loci responsible for typical lager brewing yeast characteristics such as maltotriose uptake and sulfite production have been increased in number by chromosomal rearrangements. Despite an overall high degree of conservation of the synteny with S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, the syntenies were not well conserved in the sub-telomeric regions that contain lager brewing yeast characteristic and specific genes. Deletion of larger chromosomal regions, a massive unilateral decrease of the ribosomal DNA cluster and bilateral truncations of over 60 genes reflect a post-hybridization evolution process. Truncations and deletions of less efficient maltose and maltotriose uptake genes may indicate the result of adaptation to brewing. The genome sequence of this interspecies hybrid yeast provides a new tool for better understanding of lager brewing yeast behavior in industrial beer production. PMID:19261625

  19. Responses of yeast biocontrol agents to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yuan; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir; Liu, Jia

    2015-05-01

    Biological control of postharvest diseases, utilizing wild species and strains of antagonistic yeast species, is a research topic that has received considerable attention in the literature over the past 30 years. In principle, it represents a promising alternative to chemical fungicides for the management of postharvest decay of fruits, vegetables, and grains. A yeast-based biocontrol system is composed of a tritrophic interaction between a host (commodity), a pathogen, and a yeast species, all of which are affected by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and UV light as well as osmotic and oxidative stresses. Additionally, during the production process, biocontrol agents encounter various severe abiotic stresses that also impact their viability. Therefore, understanding the ecological fitness of the potential yeast biocontrol agents and developing strategies to enhance their stress tolerance are essential to their efficacy and commercial application. The current review provides an overview of the responses of antagonistic yeast species to various environmental stresses, the methods that can be used to improve stress tolerance and efficacy, and the related mechanisms associated with improved stress tolerance. PMID:25710368

  20. The Yeast Copper Response Is Regulated by DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Kangzhen; Addinall, Stephen G.; Lydall, David

    2013-01-01

    Copper is an essential but potentially toxic redox-active metal, so the levels and distribution of this metal are carefully regulated to ensure that it binds to the correct proteins. Previous studies of copper-dependent transcription in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have focused on the response of genes to changes in the exogenous levels of copper. We now report that yeast copper genes are regulated in response to the DNA-damaging agents methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and hydroxyurea by a mechanism(s) that requires the copper-responsive transcription factors Mac1 and AceI, copper superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity, and the Rad53 checkpoint kinase. Furthermore, in copper-starved yeast, the response of the Rad53 pathway to MMS is compromised due to a loss of Sod1 activity, consistent with the model that yeast imports copper to ensure Sod1 activity and Rad53 signaling. Crucially, the Mac1 transcription factor undergoes changes in its redox state in response to changing levels of copper or MMS. This study has therefore identified a novel regulatory relationship between cellular redox, copper homeostasis, and the DNA damage response in yeast. PMID:23959798

  1. Phylogenetic Relationships Matter: Antifungal Susceptibility among Clinically Relevant Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Schmalreck, A. F.; Becker, K.; Fegeler, W.; Czaika, V.; Ulmer, H.; Lass-Flörl, C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was 2-fold: to evaluate whether phylogenetically closely related yeasts share common antifungal susceptibility profiles (ASPs) and whether these ASPs can be predicted from phylogeny. To address this question, 9,627 yeast strains were collected and tested for their antifungal susceptibility. Isolates were reidentified by considering recent changes in taxonomy and nomenclature. A phylogenetic (PHYLO) code based on the results of multilocus sequence analyses (large-subunit rRNA, small-subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor 1?, RNA polymerase II subunits 1 and 2) and the classification of the cellular neutral sugar composition of coenzyme Q and 18S ribosomal DNA was created to group related yeasts into PHYLO groups. The ASPs were determined for fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole in each PHYLO group. The majority (95%) of the yeast strains were Ascomycetes. After reclassification, a total of 23 genera and 54 species were identified, resulting in an increase of 64% of genera and a decrease of 5% of species compared with the initial identification. These taxa were assigned to 17 distinct PHYLO groups (Ascomycota, n = 13; Basidiomycota, n = 4). ASPs for azoles were similar among members of the same PHYLO group and different between the various PHYLO groups. Yeast phylogeny may be an additional tool to significantly enhance the assessment of MIC values and to predict antifungal susceptibility, thereby more rapidly initiating appropriate patient management. PMID:24366735

  2. Diversity of soil yeasts isolated from South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Scorzetti, G.; Iszard, M.; Rodriguez, R.

    2008-01-01

    Unicellular fungi, commonly referred to as yeasts, were found to be components of the culturable soil fungal population in Taylor Valley, Mt. Discovery, Wright Valley, and two mountain peaks of South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Samples were taken from sites spanning a diversity of soil habitats that were not directly associated with vertebrate activity. A large proportion of yeasts isolated in this study were basidiomycetous species (89%), of which 43% may represent undescribed species, demonstrating that culturable yeasts remain incompletely described in these polar desert soils. Cryptococcus species represented the most often isolated genus (33%) followed by Leucosporidium (22%). Principle component analysis and multiple linear regression using stepwise selection was used to model the relation between abiotic variables (principle component 1 and principle component 2 scores) and yeast biodiversity (the number of species present at a given site). These analyses identified soil pH and electrical conductivity as significant predictors of yeast biodiversity. Species-specific PCR primers were designed to rapidly discriminate among the Dioszegia and Leucosporidium species collected in this study. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. Grape berry yeast communities: influence of fungicide treatments.

    PubMed

    Milanovi?, Vesna; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

    2013-02-15

    The yeast communities colonising grape berry surfaces were evaluated for the influence of fungicide treatments in an organic vineyard (copper/sulphur-based products) and a conventional vineyard (commonly used fungicides). Analysis of yeast abundance and diversity was carried out on grape berries and juice during fermentation, using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Yeast abundance was as generally reported for mature grapes and it was slight higher from grapes treated with conventional fungicides. Initial grape samples showed less yeast species diversity in the organic vineyard compared with the conventional one. In both vineyards, the dominant yeast were Candida zemplinina and Hanseniaspora uvarum (>50%), respectively, typical species that colonise surfaces of mature grape berries. Metschnikowia pulcherrima was widely found in the conventional samples while it was only occasionally found in organic ones. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated only at the end of natural fermentation (conducted in sterile condition), with lower levels in the organic samples. S. cerevisiae strains showed less intraspecies diversity in the organic samples (two genotypes), in comparison with the conventional samples (six genotypes). PMID:23337124

  4. Yeasts in table olive processing: desirable or spoilage microorganisms?

    PubMed

    Arroyo-López, F N; Romero-Gil, V; Bautista-Gallego, J; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Jiménez-Díaz, R; García-García, P; Querol, A; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2012-11-01

    Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms isolated from many foods, and are commonly found in table olive processing where they can play a double role. On one hand, these microorganisms can produce spoilage of fruits due to the production of bad odours and flavours, the accumulation of CO(2) leading to swollen containers, the clouding of brines, the softening of fruits and the degradation of lactic acid, which is especially harmful during table olive storage and packaging. But on the other hand, fortunately, yeasts also possess desirable biochemical activities (lipase, esterase, ?-glucosidase, catalase, production of killer factors, etc.) with important technological applications in this fermented vegetable. Recently, the probiotic potential of olive yeasts has begun to be evaluated because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show beneficial effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve consumers' health by decreasing cholesterol levels, inhibiting pathogens, degrading non assimilated compounds, producing antioxidants and vitamins, adhering to intestinal cells or by maintaining epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually also found in table olive processing, such as Wicherhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens and Kluyveromyces lactis, have been reported to exhibit some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in a near future which might improve the added value of the commercialized product. PMID:23141644

  5. Genes determining yeast replicative life span in a long-lived genetic background

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Maitreya

    (three genetic models of calorie restriction) significantly enhanced longevity. In addition, over reserved. Keywords: Yeast aging; Caloric restriction; Genetic pathways 1. Introduction The budding yeast longevity genes and pathways whose counterparts can be examined in higher eukaryotes (Kaeberlein et al

  6. RNA Methylation by the MIS Complex Regulates a Cell Fate Decision in Yeast

    E-print Network

    Agarwala, Sundeep

    For the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient limitation is a key developmental signal causing diploid cells to switch from yeast-form budding to either foraging pseudohyphal (PH) growth or meiosis and sporulation. ...

  7. In vivo analysis of cohesin architecture using FRET in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Davis, Trisha N.

    EMBO open In vivo analysis of cohesin architecture using FRET in the budding yeast Saccharomyces resonance energy transfer (FRET) to analyse inter- actions within the cohesin complex in live budding yeast

  8. Associations of Yeasts with Spotted-Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii; Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Cherries and Raspberries

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Alejandro; Zalom, Frank G.

    2012-01-01

    A rich history of investigation documents various Drosophila-yeast mutualisms, suggesting that Drosophila suzukii similarly has an association with a specific yeast species or community. To discover candidate yeast species, yeasts were isolated from larval frass, adult midguts, and fruit hosts of D. suzukii. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) technology and decimal dilution plating were used to identify and determine the relative abundance of yeast species present in fruit juice samples that were either infested with D. suzukii or not infested. Yeasts were less abundant in uninfested than infested samples. A total of 126 independent yeast isolates were cultivated from frass, midguts, and fruit hosts of D. suzukii, representing 28 species of yeasts, with Hanseniaspora uvarum predominating. This suggests an association between D. suzukii and H. uvarum that could be utilized for pest management of the highly pestiferous D. suzukii. PMID:22582060

  9. Associations of yeasts with spotted-wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii; Diptera: Drosophilidae) in cherries and raspberries.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Kelly A; Hernández, Alejandro; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Zalom, Frank G

    2012-07-01

    A rich history of investigation documents various Drosophila-yeast mutualisms, suggesting that Drosophila suzukii similarly has an association with a specific yeast species or community. To discover candidate yeast species, yeasts were isolated from larval frass, adult midguts, and fruit hosts of D. suzukii. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) technology and decimal dilution plating were used to identify and determine the relative abundance of yeast species present in fruit juice samples that were either infested with D. suzukii or not infested. Yeasts were less abundant in uninfested than infested samples. A total of 126 independent yeast isolates were cultivated from frass, midguts, and fruit hosts of D. suzukii, representing 28 species of yeasts, with Hanseniaspora uvarum predominating. This suggests an association between D. suzukii and H. uvarum that could be utilized for pest management of the highly pestiferous D. suzukii. PMID:22582060

  10. Comprehensive Analysis of Combinatorial Regulation using the Transcriptional Regulatory Network of Yeast

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Nancy R.

    of Yeast S. Balaji1 , M. Madan Babu1 , Lakshminarayan M. Iyer1 Nicholas M. Luscombe2 and L. Aravind1 1 approach this problem by using the largest assembled transcriptional regulatory network for yeast

  11. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    E-print Network

    Mohseni, Hooman

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells Johanna Nelsona,1 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which

  12. Budding yeast cell cycle analysis and morphological characterization by automated image analysis

    E-print Network

    Perley, Elizabeth (Elizabeth Bacher)

    2011-01-01

    Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a standard model system for analyzing cellular response as it is related to the cell cycle. The analysis of yeast cell cycle is typically done visually or by using flow cytometry. ...

  13. Heritable yeast prions have a highly organized three-dimensional architecture with interfiber structures

    E-print Network

    Lindquist, Susan

    Yeast prions constitute a “protein-only” mechanism of inheritance that is widely deployed by wild yeast to create diverse phenotypes. One of the best-characterized prions, [PSI+], is governed by a conformational change in ...

  14. Effects of Yeast Product on Modulating the Adaptive Immune Function in Broilers 

    E-print Network

    Park, Jung-Woo

    2014-12-10

    In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation yeast product was fed to broilers to investigate the effect of yeast products on the broiler immune function. The broilers were vaccinated for Newcastle Disease Virus on day 1 (B1 strain) and day...

  15. Edinburgh Research Explorer Fission Yeast Mto1 Regulates Diversity of Cytoplasmic

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Fission Yeast Mto1 Regulates Diversity of Cytoplasmic Microtubule, 'Fission Yeast Mto1 Regulates Diversity of Cytoplasmic Microtubule Organizing Centers' Current Biology, vol Mto1 Regulates Diversity of Cytoplasmic Microtubule Organizing Centers Itaru Samejima,1 Victoria J

  16. Denaturation and Renaturation of Self-Assembled Yeast Iso-1-cytochrome c on Au

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    Denaturation and Renaturation of Self-Assembled Yeast Iso-1-cytochrome c on Au Soonwoo Chah, Challa 06269-4060 We have made surface plasmon resonance (SPR) mea- surements of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c (Cyt

  17. Biodiversity of Saccharomyces yeast strains from grape berries of wine-producing areas using starter commercial yeasts.

    PubMed

    Valero, Eva; Cambon, Brigitte; Schuller, Dorit; Casal, Margarida; Dequin, Sylvie

    2007-03-01

    The use of commercial wine yeast strains as starters has grown extensively over the past two decades. In this study, a large-scale sampling plan was devised over a period of 3 years in three different vineyards in the south of France, to evaluate autochthonous wine yeast biodiversity in vineyards around wineries where active dry yeasts have been used as fermentation starters for more than 5 years. Seventy-two spontaneous fermentations were completed from a total of 106 grape samples, and 2160 colonies were isolated. Among these, 608 Saccharomyces strains were identified and 104 different chromosomal patterns found. The large majority of these (91) were found as unique patterns, indicating great biodiversity. There were differences in biodiversity according to the vineyard and year, showing that the biodiversity of Saccharomyces strains is influenced by climatic conditions and specific factors associated with the vineyards, such as age and size. Strains that were terroir yeast candidates were not found. The biodiversity of S. cerevisiae strains after harvest was similar to that in the early campaign; moreover, a temporal succession of S. cerevisiae strains is shown. This fact, together with the differences in biodiversity levels verifies that other factors were more important than commercial yeast utilization in the biodiversity of the vineyard. PMID:17040482

  18. Antifungal chitinase against human pathogenic yeasts from Coprinellus congregatus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeeun; Choi, Hyoung T

    2014-05-01

    The inky cap, Coprinellus congregatus, produces mushrooms which become autolyzed rapidly to generate black liquid droplets, in which no cell wall is detected by microscopy. A chitinase (Chi2) which is synthesized during the autolytic phase of C. congregatus inhibits the growths of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans up to 10% at the concentration of 10 ?g/ml, about 50% at concentration of 20 ?g/ml, and up to 95% at the concentration of 70 ?g/ml. Upon treatment these yeast cells are observed to be severely deformed, with the formation of large holes in the cell wall. The two yeast species show no growth inhibition at the concentration of 5 ?g/ml, which means the minimum inhibitory concentrations for both yeast species are 10 ?g/ml under these experimental conditions. PMID:24535739

  19. Cystationine synthesis in yeast: an alternative pathway for homocysteine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Savin, M A; Flavin, M

    1972-10-01

    Cystathionine synthesis from O-acetylhomoserine and cysteine has been demonstrated in yeast extracts for the first time. The activity is less than that of O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase, but it is higher than that reported for homoserine O-transacetylase and therefore should not be growth limiting. Cystathionine synthase seems to share the regulatory properties of the sulfhydrylase, and both activities are missing from the methionine auxotroph Saccharomyces cerevisiae EY9, suggesting that both reactions are catalyzed by the same enzyme. However, cystathionine synthase activity was lost during purification of the sulfhydrylase, suggesting that the two reactions may be catalyzed by separate enzymes. Since previous studies have shown that yeast extracts can catalyze the cleavage of cystathionine to homocysteine, our results show the existence of two complete alternate pathways for homocysteine biosynthesis in yeast. Which of these is the major physiological pathway remains to be determined. PMID:4263404

  20. A genomic view of mRNA turnover in yeast.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ortín, José E; Jordán-Pla, Antonio; Pelechano, Vicent

    2011-01-01

    The steady-state mRNA level is the result of two opposing processes: transcription and degradation; both of which can provide important points to regulate gene expression. In the model organism yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is now possible to determine, at the genomic level, the transcription and degradation rates, as well as the mRNA amount, using DNA chip or parallel sequencing technologies. In this way, the contribution of both rates to individual and global gene expressions can be analysed. Here we review the techniques used for the genomic evaluation of the transcription and degradation rates developed for this yeast, and we discuss the integration of the data obtained to fully analyse the expression strategies used by yeast and other eukaryotic cells. PMID:21819946

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a sexy yeast with a prion problem.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amy C; Wickner, Reed B

    2013-01-01

    Yeast prions are infectious proteins that spread exclusively by mating. The frequency of prions in the wild therefore largely reflects the rate of spread by mating counterbalanced by prion growth slowing effects in the host. We recently showed that the frequency of outcross mating is about 1% of mitotic doublings with 23-46% of total matings being outcrosses. These findings imply that even the mildest forms of the [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] prions impart > 1% growth/survival detriment on their hosts. Our estimate of outcrossing suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is far more sexual than previously thought and would therefore be more responsive to the adaptive effects of natural selection compared with a strictly asexual yeast. Further, given its large effective population size, a growth/survival detriment of > 1% for yeast prions should strongly select against prion-infected strains in wild populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23764836

  2. Potential of yeast secretory vesicles in biodelivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kutralam-Muniasamy, Gurusamy; Flores-Cotera, Luis B; Perez-Guevara, Fermin

    2015-06-01

    Membranous vesicular organelles (MVOs), such as secretory vesicles and exosomes, perform a variety of biological functions ranging from secretion to cellular communication in eukaryotic cells. Exosomes, particularly those of mammalian cells, have been widely studied as potential carriers in human therapeutic applications. However, no study has yet demonstrated the use of yeast secretory vesicles for such applications. Therefore, we explore here the current state of knowledge on yeast secretory vesicles and their potential use in therapeutic delivery systems. We focus on the characteristics shared by exosomes and yeast secretory vesicles to provide insights into the use of the latter as delivery vehicles. From this perspective, we speculate on the potential application of post-Golgi vesicles (PGVs) in the biomedical field. PMID:25843637

  3. Design of synthetic yeast promoters via tuning of nucleosome architecture

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Ashty S.; Gupta, Akash; Wagman, Allison M.; Alper, Hal S.

    2014-01-01

    Model-based design of biological parts is a critical goal of synthetic biology, especially for eukaryotes. Here we demonstrate that nucleosome architecture can play a role in defining yeast promoter activity and utilize a computationally-guided approach that can enable both the redesign of endogenous promoter sequences and the de novo design of synthetic promoters. Initially, we use our approach to reprogram native promoters for increased expression and evaluate their performance in various genetic contexts. Increases in expression ranging from 1.5 to nearly 6-fold in a plasmid-based system and up to 16-fold in a genomic context were obtained. Next, we demonstrate that, in a single design cycle, it is possible to create functional, purely synthetic yeast promoters that achieve substantial expression levels (within the top sixth percentile among native yeast promoters). In doing so, this work establishes a unique DNA-level specification of promoter activity and demonstrates predictive design of synthetic parts. PMID:24862902

  4. Chromatin architectures at fission yeast transcriptional promoters and replication origins.

    PubMed

    Givens, Robert M; Lai, William K M; Rizzo, Jason M; Bard, Jonathan E; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Leatherwood, Janet; Huberman, Joel A; Buck, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    We have used micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion followed by deep sequencing in order to obtain a higher resolution map than previously available of nucleosome positions in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our data confirm an unusually short average nucleosome repeat length, ?152 bp, in fission yeast and that transcriptional start sites (TSSs) are associated with nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs), ordered nucleosome arrays downstream and less regularly spaced upstream nucleosomes. In addition, we found enrichments for associated function in four of eight groups of genes clustered according to chromatin configurations near TSSs. At replication origins, our data revealed asymmetric localization of pre-replication complex (pre-RC) proteins within large NDRs-a feature that is conserved in fission and budding yeast and is therefore likely to be conserved in other eukaryotic organisms. PMID:22573177

  5. Myosin V orientates the mitotic spindle in yeast.

    PubMed

    Yin, H; Pruyne, D; Huffaker, T C; Bretscher, A

    2000-08-31

    Coordination of spindle orientation with the axis of cell division is an essential process in all eukaryotes. In addition to ensuring accurate chromosomal segregation, proper spindle orientation also establishes differential cell fates and proper morphogenesis. In both animal and yeast cells, this process is dependent on cytoplasmic microtubules interacting with the cortical actin-based cytoskeleton, although the motive force was unknown. Here we show that yeast Myo2, a myosin V that translocates along polarized actin cables into the bud, orientates the spindle early in the cell cycle by binding and polarizing the microtubule-associated protein Kar9 (refs 7-9). The tail domain of Myo2 that binds Kar9 also interacts with secretory vesicles and vacuolar elements, making it a pivotal component of yeast cell polarization. PMID:10984058

  6. Synthetic biology for engineering acetyl coenzyme A metabolism in yeast.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used cell factory for the production of fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The use of this cell factory for cost-efficient production of novel fuels and chemicals requires high yields and low by-product production. Many industrially interesting chemicals are biosynthesized from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which serves as a central precursor metabolite in yeast. To ensure high yields in production of these chemicals, it is necessary to engineer the central carbon metabolism so that ethanol production is minimized (or eliminated) and acetyl-CoA can be formed from glucose in high yield. Here the perspective of generating yeast platform strains that have such properties is discussed in the context of a major breakthrough with expression of a functional pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol. PMID:25370498

  7. Permeabilization of baker's yeast with N-lauroyl sarcosine.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jessy; Bhat, S G

    2008-08-01

    N-Lauroyl sarcosine (LS), a cationic, non-toxic and biodegradable detergent readily permeabilized whole cells of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Permeabilization was carried out to increase assayable cellular catalase activity, an enzyme of great physiological and industrial importance, and to release 5'-nucleotides which find food/nutritional applications. The event of permeabilization was concentration, time and temperature dependent. Maximum permeabilization of yeast cells were observed when 1 g wet weight (0.2 g dry wt) of cells were permeabilized with 1.0 ml of 2% LS at 45 degrees C for 15 min. LS-permeabilized cells showed 350-fold increase in catalase activity and the supernatant obtained after permeabilization was rich in 5'-nucleotides. LS-permeabilized baker's yeast cells can be used as a source of biocatalyst and to isolate valuable by-products. PMID:18415131

  8. Yeast Sensors for Novel Drugs: Chloroquine and Others Revealed

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Chantel; Olivier, Andries; Dithebe, Khumisho; Pohl, Carolina; van Wyk, Pieter; Swart, Hendrik; Coetsee, Elizabeth; Kock, Lodewyk

    2012-01-01

    In this study the mitochondrion is regarded as a target to reveal compounds that may be used to combat various diseases. Consequently, the sexual structures of yeasts (with high mitochondrial activity) were identified as sensors to screen for various anti-mitochondrial drugs that may be toxic to humans and that are directed, amongst others, against fungal diseases and cancer. Strikingly, these sensors indicated that chloroquine is a potent pro-mitochondrial drug which stimulated yeast sexual reproduction. In addition, these sensors also showed that some Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anti-malarial drugs, antifungal and anticancer drugs are anti-mitochondrial. These yeast sensor bio-assays may fast track studies aimed at discovering new drugs as well as their mechanisms and should now be further evaluated for selectivity towards anti-/ pro-mitochondrials, fertility drugs and contraceptives, using in vitro, in vivo, in silico and omics research. PMID:23201985

  9. In vitro reconstruction of the mitochondrial translation system of yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Pfisterer, J; Buetow, D E

    1981-01-01

    We have isolated the translation system from yeast mitochondria and have reconstructed it in vitro. This submitochondrial system, composed of mitochondrial ribosomes, tRNA, pH 5 fraction and mRNA, is maximally active at 10 mM Mg2+ and 100 mM KCl or NH4Cl. NH4+ is more stimulatory than K+. Added Escherichia coli tRNA gives less than half the activity obtained with added mitochondrial tRNA. Activity is enhanced with protease inhibitors but not with Ca2+, spermine, or spermidine. In contrast to heterologous translation systems, the present system produces products with molecular weights similar to those of products synthesized by yeast mitochondria in vivo and by intact yeast mitochondria in vitro. The results support the idea that the unique coding features of the mitochondrial genome require a unique translation system for accurate translation of mitochondrial mRNAs. Images PMID:6946437

  10. Method to purify mitochondrial DNA directly from yeast total DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingwen; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2010-11-01

    During the purification of total DNA from yeast, both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules are obtained. Here, we describe a simple enzymatic method using a combination of ? exonuclease and RecJ(f) to obtain pure and intact mtDNA by removing linear DNA from total DNA isolated from yeast cells. The combination of the two enzymes efficiently removed linear DNA from the total DNA of Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, leaving the mtDNA intact. The purity and integrity of mtDNA was assayed by PCR amplification of ARG1/2/5/8, URA3 and COX1, and by RFLP analysis, respectively. This method can be used to prepare mtDNA for PCR amplification or RFLP analysis without the need for purification of mitochondria by gradient ultracentrifugation or fractional precipitation. The method was also successfully applied to the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis, Pichia pastoris and Yarrowia lypolytica. PMID:20600282

  11. Yeast mating for combinatorial Fab library generation and surface display

    SciTech Connect

    Feldhaus, Jane M.; Lou, Jianlong; Coleman, James R.; Siegel, Robert W.; Marks, James D.; Feldhaus, Michael

    2004-04-23

    Yeast display of antibody fragments has proven to be an efficient and productive means for directed evolution of single chain Fv (scFv) antibodies for increased affinity and thermal stability, and more recently for the display and screening of a non-immune library. In this paper, we describe an elegant and simple method for constructing large combinatorial Fab libraries for display on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, from modestly sized, and easily constructed, heavy and light chain libraries. To this end, we have constructed a set of yeast strains and a two vector system for heavy chain and light chain surface display of Fab fragments with free native amino termini. Through yeast mating of the haploid libraries, a very large heterodimeric immune Fab library was displayed on the diploids and high affinity antigen specific Fabs were isolated from the library.

  12. Triacetic acid lactone production in industrial Saccharomyces yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Lauren P; Bowman, Michael J; Mertens, Jeffrey A; Da Silva, Nancy A; Hector, Ronald E

    2015-05-01

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical that can be produced in yeast. To evaluate the potential for industrial yeast strains to produce TAL, the g2ps1 gene encoding 2-pyrone synthase was transformed into 13 industrial yeast strains of varied genetic background. TAL production varied 63-fold between strains when compared in batch culture with glucose. Ethanol, acetate, and glycerol were also tested as potential carbon sources. Batch cultures with ethanol medium produced the highest titers. Therefore, fed-batch cultivation with ethanol feed was assayed for TAL production in bioreactors, producing our highest TAL titer, 5.2 g/L. Higher feed rates resulted in a loss of TAL and subsequent production of additional TAL side products. Finally, TAL efflux was measured and TAL is actively exported from S. cerevisiae cells. Percent yield for all strains was low, indicating that further metabolic engineering of the strains is required. PMID:25682106

  13. Inulinase production by a marine yeast Pichia guilliermondii and inulin hydrolysis by the crude inulinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Gong; Jun Sheng; Zhenming Chi; Jing Li

    2007-01-01

    Marine yeast strain 1, isolated from the surface of a marine alga, was found to secrete a large amount of inulinase into the\\u000a medium. This marine yeast was identified as a strain of Pichia guilliermondii according to the results of routine yeast identification and molecular methods. The crude inulinase produced by this marine\\u000a yeast worked optimally at pH 6.0 and

  14. Brewing performance of a yeast after prolonged growth on a synthetic medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørn E. Christensen; Morten C. Kielland-Brandt; Kenneth Erdal

    1978-01-01

    Two clones of brewers yeast, grown for more than 300 cell generations on a synthetic minimal medium were propagated on wort\\u000a and used in pilot brewing experiments. Parallel brews with wort cultured yeast were carried out for comparison. Analytical\\u000a data showed no differences between beer brewed with yeast grown on minimal medium and wort cultured yeast. One out of the

  15. Marine yeasts as biocontrol agents and producers of bio-products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen-Ming Chi; Guanglei Liu; Shoufeng Zhao; Jing Li; Ying Peng

    2010-01-01

    As some species of marine yeasts can colonize intestine of marine animals, they can be used as probiotics. It has been reported\\u000a that ?-glucans from marine yeast cells can be utilized as immuno-stimulants in marine animals. Some siderophores or killer\\u000a toxins produced by marine yeasts have ability to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria or kill pathogenic yeasts in marine\\u000a animals.

  16. The importance of aeration strategy in fuel alcohol fermentations contaminated with Dekkera\\/Brettanomyces yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Abbott; W. M. Ingledew

    2005-01-01

    Whole corn mash fermentations infected with industrially-isolated Brettanomyces yeasts were not affected even when viable Brettanomyces yeasts out-numbered Saccharomyces yeasts tenfold at the onset of fermentation. Therefore, aeration, a parameter that is pivotal to the physiology of Dekkera\\/Brettanomyces yeasts, was investigated in mixed culture fermentations. Results suggest that aeration strategy plays a significant role in Dekkera\\/Brettanomyces-mediated inhibition of fuel alcohol

  17. Scheffersomyces cryptocercus: a new xylose-fermenting yeast associated with the gut of wood roaches and new combinations in the Sugiyamaella yeast clade.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Hector; Frank, Robert; Blackwell, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    The gut of wood-feeding insects is a microhabitat for a specialized community of microbes, including bacteria and several groups of eukaryotes such as nematodes, parabasalids and fungi. The characterization of gut yeast communities from a variety of insects has shown that certain yeasts often are associated with the insects. The gut of wood-feeding insects is rich in ascomycete yeasts and in particular xylose-fermenting (X-F) and assimilating yeasts have been consistently present in the gut of lignicolous insects. The objective of this study was the characterization of the yeast flora from the gut of the wood roach Cryptocercus sp. (Blattodea: Cryptocercidae). Five wood roaches were collected along the Appalachian Trail near the border between Tennessee and North Carolina, USA. We isolated 18 yeast strains from the wood roaches identified as Sugiyamaella paludigena and Sugiyamaella lignohabitans, xylose-assimilating yeasts, and Scheffersomyces cryptocercus (NRRL Y-48824(T) = CBS 12658) a new species of X-F yeast. The presence of X-F and certain non X-F yeasts in the gut of the subsocial wood roach Cryptocercus sp. extends the previous findings of associations between certain ascomycete yeasts and lignicolous insects. New combinations were made for 13 asexual members of the Sugiyamaella clade. PMID:23233509

  18. Yeast as a cell factory: current state and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kavš?ek, Martin; Stražar, Martin; Curk, Tomaž; Natter, Klaus; Petrovi?, Uroš

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the oldest and most frequently used microorganisms in biotechnology with successful applications in the production of both bulk and fine chemicals. Yet, yeast researchers are faced with the challenge to further its transition from the old workhorse to a modern cell factory, fulfilling the requirements for next generation bioprocesses. Many of the principles and tools that are applied for this development originate from the field of synthetic biology and the engineered strains will indeed be synthetic organisms. We provide an overview of the most important aspects of this transition and highlight achievements in recent years as well as trends in which yeast currently lags behind. These aspects include: the enhancement of the substrate spectrum of yeast, with the focus on the efficient utilization of renewable feedstocks, the enhancement of the product spectrum through generation of independent circuits for the maintenance of redox balances and biosynthesis of common carbon building blocks, the requirement for accurate pathway control with improved genome editing and through orthogonal promoters, and improvement of the tolerance of yeast for specific stress conditions. The causative genetic elements for the required traits of the future yeast cell factories will be assembled into genetic modules for fast transfer between strains. These developments will benefit from progress in bio-computational methods, which allow for the integration of different kinds of data sets and algorithms, and from rapid advancement in genome editing, which will enable multiplexed targeted integration of whole heterologous pathways. The overall goal will be to provide a collection of modules and circuits that work independently and can be combined at will, depending on the individual conditions, and will result in an optimal synthetic host for a given production process. PMID:26122609

  19. Phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Catarina; Lage, Patrícia; Vilela, Alice; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Currently, pursuing yeast strains that display both a high potential fitness for alcoholic fermentation and a favorable impact on quality is a major goal in the alcoholic beverage industry. This considerable industrial interest has led to many studies characterizing the phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial yeast populations. In this study, 20 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins exhibited high phenotypic diversity when their response to nine biotechnologically relevant conditions was examined. Next, the fermentation fitness and metabolic traits of eight selected strains with a unique phenotypic profile were evaluated in a high-sugar synthetic medium under two nitrogen regimes. Although the strains exhibited significant differences in nitrogen requirements and utilization rates, a direct relationship between nitrogen consumption, specific growth rate, cell biomass, cell viability, acetic acid and glycerol formation was only observed under high-nitrogen conditions. In contrast, the strains produced more succinic acid under the low-nitrogen regime, and a direct relationship with the final cell biomass was established. Glucose and fructose utilization patterns depended on both yeast strain and nitrogen availability. For low-nitrogen fermentation, three strains did not fully degrade the fructose. This study validates phenotypic and metabolic diversity among commercial wine yeasts and contributes new findings on the relationship between nitrogen availability, yeast cell growth and sugar utilization. We suggest that measuring nitrogen during the stationary growth phase is important because yeast cells fermentative activity is not exclusively related to population size, as previously assumed, but it is also related to the quantity of nitrogen consumed during this growth phase. PMID:24949272

  20. Phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Currently, pursuing yeast strains that display both a high potential fitness for alcoholic fermentation and a favorable impact on quality is a major goal in the alcoholic beverage industry. This considerable industrial interest has led to many studies characterizing the phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial yeast populations. In this study, 20 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins exhibited high phenotypic diversity when their response to nine biotechnologically relevant conditions was examined. Next, the fermentation fitness and metabolic traits of eight selected strains with a unique phenotypic profile were evaluated in a high-sugar synthetic medium under two nitrogen regimes. Although the strains exhibited significant differences in nitrogen requirements and utilization rates, a direct relationship between nitrogen consumption, specific growth rate, cell biomass, cell viability, acetic acid and glycerol formation was only observed under high-nitrogen conditions. In contrast, the strains produced more succinic acid under the low-nitrogen regime, and a direct relationship with the final cell biomass was established. Glucose and fructose utilization patterns depended on both yeast strain and nitrogen availability. For low-nitrogen fermentation, three strains did not fully degrade the fructose. This study validates phenotypic and metabolic diversity among commercial wine yeasts and contributes new findings on the relationship between nitrogen availability, yeast cell growth and sugar utilization. We suggest that measuring nitrogen during the stationary growth phase is important because yeast cells fermentative activity is not exclusively related to population size, as previously assumed, but it is also related to the quantity of nitrogen consumed during this growth phase. PMID:24949272

  1. Mutation of Ser172 in Yeast b Tubulin Induces Defects in Microtubule Dynamics and Cell Division

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mutation of Ser172 in Yeast b Tubulin Induces Defects in Microtubule Dynamics and Cell Division cells. To examine the role of this residue, we used the yeast S. cerevisiae as a model and produced two different mutations (S172A and S172E) of the conserved Ser172 in the yeast b tubulin Tub2p. The two mutants

  2. HPLC measurement of guanine for the determination of nucleic acids (RNA) in yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan Todd; Jian Zhao; Graham Fleet

    1995-01-01

    A method based upon the assay of guanine is described for the determination of nucleic acid content in yeasts. Total nucleic acids are hydrolysed by hot perchloric acid and the resultant quantitative release of guanine is measured by reverse-phase HPLC. Due to the high RNA:DNA ratio in yeasts, the method can be used to estimate the RNA concentration in yeasts.

  3. Synthesis and assembly of hepatitis B virus surface antigen particles in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Valenzuela; Angelica Medina; William J. Rutter; Gustav Ammerer; Benjamin D. Hall

    1982-01-01

    The surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) has been synthesized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using an expression vector that employs the 5'-flanking region of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase I as a promoter to transcribe surface antigen coding sequences. The protein synthesized in yeast is assembled into particles having properties similar to the 22-nm particles secreted by human cells.

  4. Characteristics and significance of yeasts' involvement in cassava fermentation for ‘fufu’ production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. B Oyewole

    2001-01-01

    Six different strains of yeast, namely Candida krusei, C. tropicalis, Pichia saitoi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, P. anomala and Zygosaccharomyces bailii were found present in cassava-fermenting water in the early part of the fermentation. The latter part of the fermentation was dominated in all cases by three strains of yeast namely C. krusei, C. tropicalis and Z. bailii. All the yeast strains

  5. Iron and copper transport in yeast and its relevance to human disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candice Askwith; Jerry Kaplan

    1998-01-01

    Recent progress in the field of copper and iron metabolism has resulted from a convergence of human and yeast genetics. The mechanisms of iron and copper transport are remarkably conserved between yeast and humans. Studies of the yeast homologs of human disease genes involved in metal homeostasis have shed light on the pathophysiology of these disorders.

  6. Iron-induced oligomerization of yeast frataxin homologue Yfh1 is dispensable in vivo

    E-print Network

    Craig, Elizabeth A

    Iron-induced oligomerization of yeast frataxin homologue Yfh1 is dispensable in vivo Kerman Aloria1 of frataxin is under debate. Frataxin, as well as its yeast homologue Yfh1, binds multiple iron atoms). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, deletion of YFH1, the yeast frataxin homologue, also causes an accumula- tion of iron

  7. Evaluation of yeast products in fruit fly adult diet and liquid larval diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several yeasts and yeast products were tested as components of adult diet for Medfly, Ceratitis capitata, Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae and larval liquid diet for Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis in mass rearing process. Three hydrolyzed yeasts ...

  8. Use of high-ethanol-resistant yeast isolates from Nigerian palm wine in lager beer brewing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Agu; T. U. Anyanwu; A. H. Onwumelu

    1993-01-01

    High-ethanol-resistant yeasts, characterized as Saccharomyces sp., were isolated from Nigerian palm wine with added sucrose for high gravity brewing. The yeast isolates that survived the highest ethanol production were used to ferment brewery wort and produced 8.2 to 8.5% (v\\/v) ethanol; values almost double that of the control yeast from a local brewery.

  9. [28] Exploiting the utility of yeast in the context of programmed cell death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine N. Torgler; Robin Brown; Eric Meldrum

    2000-01-01

    Many researchers have explored the extent to which yeast can be used to dissect the mechanisms of programmed cell death in higher cells. Yeast has been used as a system to analyze protein-protein interactions and structure-function relationships, and as a cloning tool to identify novel higher eukaryote regulators of apoptosis. In addition, classic genetic strategies in yeast have been used

  10. Ecological study of wine yeast in inoculated vats from La Mancha region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Barrajón; M. Arévalo-Villena; L. J. Rodríguez-Aragón; A. Briones

    2009-01-01

    Use of certain selected commercial yeast cultures has become widespread throughout the wine-making sector, but there was not any study about their effectiveness in Castilla-La Mancha region. This study sought to determine, whether the commercial yeast successfully displaced native yeasts during the fermentation process, or whether it was replaced by them. A total of 41 vats containing different grape varieties

  11. The beetle gut: a hyperdiverse source of novel yeasts Sung-Oui SUH1

    E-print Network

    Pollock, David

    The beetle gut: a hyperdiverse source of novel yeasts Sung-Oui SUH1 , Joseph V. McHUGH2 , David D over 650 yeasts over a three year period from the gut of a variety of beetles and characterized them more species as are currently known worldwide. The beetle gut yeasts occur in 45 independent lineages

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Cells Undergoing Mycelium-to-Yeast Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz R. Nunes; Regina Costa de Oliveira; Daniela Batista Leite; Vivian Schmidt da Silva; E. dos Reis Marques; M. E. da Silva Ferreira; D. C. D. Ribeiro; L. A. de Souza Bernardes; M. H. S. Goldman; R. Puccia; L. R. Travassos; W. L. Batista; M. P. Nobrega; F. G. Nobrega; D.-Y. Yang; C. A. de Braganca Pereira; G. H. Goldman

    2005-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus associated with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis prevalent in South America. In humans, infection starts by inhalation of fungal propagules, which reach the pulmonary epithelium and transform into the yeast parasitic form. Thus, the mycelium-to- yeast transition is of particular interest because conversion to yeast is essential for infection. We have used a P.

  13. Red Yeast Rice Prepared from Thai Glutinous Rice and the Antioxidant Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Em-on Chairote; Griangsak Chairote; Saisamorn Lumyong

    Red yeast rice which is a product of solid fermentation was prepared from several kinds of Thai glutinous rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Korkor 6 (RD6), Kam (Kam) and Sanpatong1 (SPT1). Monascus purpureus CMU001 isolated from available Chinese red yeast rice was used as the fermentation starter. The analysis for the presence of antioxidant activity in red yeast rice was

  14. fluctuating structures A natively unfolded yeast prion monomer adopts an ensemble of collapsed and rapidly

    E-print Network

    Lindquist, Susan

    fluctuating structures A natively unfolded yeast prion monomer adopts an ensemble of collapsed reprints, see: Notes: #12;A natively unfolded yeast prion monomer adopts an ensemble of collapsed Lindquist, December 22, 2006 (sent for review December 5, 2006) The yeast prion protein Sup35

  15. The Yeast Transcription Factor Mac1 Binds to DNA in a Modular Fashion*

    E-print Network

    Tullius, Thomas D.

    The Yeast Transcription Factor Mac1 Binds to DNA in a Modular Fashion* (Received for publication is a metalloregulatory protein that regulates ex- pression of the high affinity copper transport system in the yeast of the DNA binding domain of Mac1 (called here Mac1t) with the two CuRE sites found in the yeast CTR1

  16. Structure theorems and the dynamics of nitrogen catabolite repression in yeast

    E-print Network

    Gedeon, Tomas

    Structure theorems and the dynamics of nitrogen catabolite repression in yeast Erik M. Boczko catabolite repression (NCR) in yeast. A variety of mathematical ``structure'' theorems are described of nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) in yeast, the power of the theory, its current limitations, and some

  17. The Yeast Resource Center Public Data Repository Michael Riffle, Lars Malmstrom and Trisha N. Davis*

    E-print Network

    Davis, Trisha N.

    The Yeast Resource Center Public Data Repository Michael Riffle, Lars Malmstro¨m and Trisha N, 2004; Revised and Accepted October 6, 2004 ABSTRACT The Yeast Resource Center Public Data Repository- tions typically studying Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast). The experimental data include large

  18. Analysis of Yeast's ORF Upstream Regions by Parallel Processing, Microarrays, and Computational Methods

    E-print Network

    Kibler, Dennis F.

    Analysis of Yeast's ORF Upstream Regions by Parallel Processing, Microarrays, and Computational­ gions, gene regulation, DNA­microarrays, yeast, motifs, Markov models Abstract We use a network of workstations to compute all pairwise alignments of the 500 bp upstream regions of 6,225 yeast ORFs (Open

  19. GFP tagging of budding yeast chromosomes reveals that proteinprotein interactions can mediate sister chromatid

    E-print Network

    Straight, Aaron

    GFP tagging of budding yeast chromosomes reveals that protein­protein interactions can mediate by the spindle-assembly checkpoint. Studies on these problems in budding yeast are hampered by the inability for visualizing specific DNA sequences in fixed and living budding yeast cells. A tandem array of 256 copies

  20. Yeast and human TFIIDs are interchangeable for the response to acidic

    E-print Network

    Yeast and human TFIIDs are interchangeable for the response to acidic transcriptional activators, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 USA Previous work showed that human TFIID fails to support yeast cell growth, although it is nearly identical to yeast TFIID in a carboxy-terminal region of the molecule that suffices

  1. Coordination of Gene Expression and Growth-Rate in Natural Populations of Budding Yeast

    E-print Network

    Barkai, Naama

    Coordination of Gene Expression and Growth-Rate in Natural Populations of Budding Yeast Zvi Tamari expression. In the budding yeast, ribosomal-related gene expression correlates with cell growth rate across of twenty-four wild type yeast strains originating from diverse habitats, grown on the pentose sugar

  2. High similarity between yeast and human mitochondria allows functional genomic study of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to be

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    High similarity between yeast and human mitochondria allows functional genomic study we apply a systematic func- tional screen using the pre-existing whole-genome pool of yeast deletion were identified and linked to heritable diseases using genomic map positions. The yeast deletion

  3. Whole-genome Comparative Annotation and Regulatory Motif Discovery in Multiple Yeast Species

    E-print Network

    Kellis, Manolis

    Whole-genome Comparative Annotation and Regulatory Motif Discovery in Multiple Yeast Species these three yeast species to their close relative, S. cerevisiae. Genome-wide comparative analysis allowed than 90% of genes despite the large number of duplicated genes in the yeast genome, and the discovery

  4. Machine Learning for Regulatory Analysis and Transcription Factor Target Prediction in Yeast

    E-print Network

    Kon, Mark

    - 1 - Machine Learning for Regulatory Analysis and Transcription Factor Target Prediction in Yeast SVM classifier for each transcriptional regulator to all promoters in the yeast genome to obtain predictions have been made on only 104 TFs in yeast, new classifiers will be built for the remaining 100

  5. Connectivity in the Yeast Cell Cycle Transcription Network: Inferences from Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Mjolsness, Eric

    1 Connectivity in the Yeast Cell Cycle Transcription Network: Inferences from Neural Networks this on the yeast cell cycle transcription network, which is composed of several hundred genes with phase specific-of-squared weights metric. Comparative analysis of motif occurrences among multiple yeast species independently

  6. Incompatibility with Formin Cdc12p Prevents Human Profilin from Substituting for Fission Yeast Profilin

    E-print Network

    Incompatibility with Formin Cdc12p Prevents Human Profilin from Substituting for Fission Yeast Profilin INSIGHTS FROM CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF FISSION YEAST PROFILIN*S Received for publication,September 11 not complement the temperature-sensitive cdc3-124 mutation of the single profilin gene in fission yeast

  7. A Screen for Recessive Speciation Genes Expressed in the Gametes of F1 Hybrid Yeast

    E-print Network

    Nachman, Michael

    A Screen for Recessive Speciation Genes Expressed in the Gametes of F1 Hybrid Yeast Duncan Greig not play a major role in yeast speciation. Citation: Greig D (2007) A screen for recessive speciation genes expressed in the gametes of F1 hybrid yeast. PLoS Genet 3(2): e21. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030021

  8. Structure of a Yeast RNase III dsRBD Complex with a Noncanonical RNA Substrate Provides

    E-print Network

    Chanfreau, Guillaume

    Structure Article Structure of a Yeast RNase III dsRBD Complex with a Noncanonical RNA Substrate et al., 1999) in budding yeast. Rnt1p is also important for mRNA quality control, cleaving intronic related yeast species such as S. castellii and Kluyveromyces polysporus. Introduction of S. castellii

  9. Yeast Oligo-Mediated Genome Engineering (YOGE) James E. DiCarlo,,

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    Yeast Oligo-Mediated Genome Engineering (YOGE) James E. DiCarlo,, Andrew J. Conley,,§ Merja production host Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which we call yeast oligo-mediated genome engineering (YOGE of dozens of cells. We demonstrate the robustness of our approach in three divergent yeast strains

  10. Measurement of mass, density, and volume during the cell cycle of yeast

    E-print Network

    Manalis, Scott

    Measurement of mass, density, and volume during the cell cycle of yeast Andrea K. Bryana,b , Alexi in mass of 0.1% for yeast. Here we use the suspended microchannel resonator with a Coulter counter to measure the mass, volume, and density of bud- ding yeast cells through the cell cycle. We observe

  11. Classification of Yeast Cells from Image Features to Evaluate Pathogen Conditions

    E-print Network

    Putten, Peter van der

    Classification of Yeast Cells from Image Features to Evaluate Pathogen Conditions Peter van der), Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 1, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands b Yeast Research, CBS Fungal in the images. We have performed an image-features-based classification for the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus

  12. Phenotypic Mutation Rates and the Abundance of Abnormal Proteins in Yeast

    E-print Network

    Nowak, Martin A.

    Phenotypic Mutation Rates and the Abundance of Abnormal Proteins in Yeast Martin Willensdorfer1 yeast protein. For phenotypic mutation rates much above 5 3 10À4 , the error-free synthesis of large rates and the abundance of abnormal proteins in yeast. PLoS Comput Biol 3(11): e203. doi:10. 1371

  13. A model of yeast cell-cycle regulation based on multisite phosphorylation

    E-print Network

    Paul, Mark

    A model of yeast cell-cycle regulation based on multisite phosphorylation Debashis Barik1 fluctuations on cell-cycle progression in budding yeast cells, we have constructed a new model to the level of molecular noise expected in yeast-sized cells (B50 fL volume). The model gives a quantitatively

  14. The yeast genome project identified approximately 6500 open reading frames (ORFs), some of which encode ubiquitous

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Nathan

    The yeast genome project identified approximately 6500 open reading frames (ORFs), some of which of the identified yeast proteins have unknown functions in mammals (Supek et al., 1996; Askwith and Kaplan, 1998). The function of many other ubiquitous proteins is still unknown, and disruption of their ORF in yeast results

  15. Bioconversion of Methanol to Formaldehyde. II. By Purified Methanol Oxidase from Modified Yeast, Hansenula polymorpha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayten Sagiroglu; Volkan Altay

    2006-01-01

    Modified methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha (HP A16) that was obtained by repressing leucine oxotrophic yeast; a wild type of Hansenula polymorpha CB4732 was used in this study. The yeast is grown with methanol, which is used as a sole carbon source, using various methanol concentrations and temperatures, and methanol oxidase (MOX) which is a key enzyme of methanol metabolism; production

  16. Crystal structure of the protein kinase domain of yeast AMP-activated protein kinase Snf1

    E-print Network

    Tong, Liang

    Crystal structure of the protein kinase domain of yeast AMP-activated protein kinase Snf1 Michael J of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD by phosphatases. AMPK is found in all eukaryotes. Yeast AMPK is more commonly known as SNF1 [1,6,7]. SNF1 has

  17. [Selection of thermophilic lactose-fermenting yeast strains].

    PubMed

    Ianeva, O D; Sichkar', S V; Voronina, A A; Podgorski?, V S

    2012-01-01

    The screening and selection of lactose-fermenting yeasts among 97 collection yeast strains belonging to different taxonomic groups has been conducted to obtain ethanol from whey. The strains (n=18) (1 strain of K. lactis. 16 strains of K. marxianus and 1 strain of C. kefyr) fermented lactose at 48 degrees C and 15 selected strains rapidly consumed lactose within 24-48 h of cultivation. The presence of 6% of ethanol in the medium resulted in a considerable growth inhibition (more than 80%) of the selected strains. PMID:23293829

  18. The seasonal variability of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in water and bottom sediment of the Szczecin Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Bogus?awska-Was, E; Dabrowski, W

    2001-07-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples of water and bottom sediment from the Szczecin Lagoon were carried out from May, 1996 to December, 1997. Isolates of yeasts and yeast-like fungi from water samples reached maximum counts in July whereas sediment samples revealed highest counts in May. Qualitative analysis showed that Candida famata and Rhodothorula rubra were dominant species. As they are typical of strongly eutrophic water their presence indicates that the Szczecin Lagoon is significantly polluted by industrial and municipal sewage. PMID:11556149

  19. Kefir-yeast technology: Industrial scale-up of alcoholic fermentation of whey, promoted by raisin extracts, using kefir-yeast granular biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athanasios A. Koutinas; Ilias Athanasiadis; Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Maria Kanellaki; Nikolaos Agouridis; Georgios Blekas

    2007-01-01

    Industrial scale-up of whey fermentation, promoted by raisin extracts, using free kefir-yeast cells is reported. The fermented whey would be exploited as raw material to produce kefir-like whey-based drinks, potable and fuel alcohol, as well as kefir-yeast biomass for use as baker's yeast. The scale-up process involved the development of a technology transfer scheme from lab-scale experiments to a successive

  20. Detection of pathogenic yeasts from processed fresh edible sea urchins sold in a fish market.

    PubMed

    Kajikazawa, Teruo; Sugita, Takashi; Takashima, Masako; Nishikawa, Akemi

    2007-01-01

    Yeasts of 17 processed fresh edible (raw) sea urchins obtained from seven countries were analyzed. In total, 45 to 7 x 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g of sea urchins were recovered, and 23 yeast species were identified. Of these species, six pathogenic yeasts (Candida albicans, C. sake, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia anomala, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Trichosporon mucoides) were detected from 11 sea urchins (65%). As these yeasts are opportunistic pathogens, infections in healthy individuals normally will not occur, but it should be understood that processed fresh edible sea urchin includes such opportunistic yeast pathogens. PMID:17975532

  1. Native yeast telomeres are sufficient to stabilize linear DNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Schmid, M; Steinbeisser, H; Ascenzioni, F; Trendelenburg, M F; Lipps, H J

    1991-09-30

    We have constructed a linear plasmid in yeast containing the entire bovine papillomavirus genome and tested its physical stability following microinjection into stage VI oocytes of Xenopus laevis. Our results show that unmodified telomeres, in contrast to the yeast-passaged telomeres, drastically affect the stability of the injected linear plasmid. Plasmids carrying unmodified Tetrahymena thermophila telomeric sequences are rapidly degraded in oocytes. When these plasmids are passed through yeast, the telomere ends become modified by the addition of yeast telomeric sequences. These plasmids are stably maintained in X. laevis oocytes, demonstrating that yeast-modified telomeres are sufficient to prevent linear DNA degradation. PMID:1657721

  2. Yeast stimulation of bone marrow mitosis for cytogenetic investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Lee; F. F. B. Elder

    1980-01-01

    We report a simple, dependable method for stimulating bone marrow mitosis in small mammals. Subcutaneous injections of a suspension of active baker’s yeast may elevate the mitotic index as much as six times or more. Additionally, the metaphases obtained are easily spread when air dried, and the chromosomes are readily banded. This method should prove useful to investigators who wish

  3. RICE BREAD QUALITY AS AFFECTED BY YEAST AND BRAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole rice bread (WRB) has been developed in our laboratory for people suffering from Celiac disease and other food allergies. The WRB has texture and related qualities comparable with white or whole wheat breads. This paper reports the results of three levels of yeast, defatted rice bran on the t...

  4. Spatial organization and dynamics of interphase yeast chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avsaroglu, Baris; Gordon-Messer, Susannah; Fritsche, Miriam; Ham, Jungoh; Heermann, Dieter W.; Haber, James E.; Kondev, Jane

    2012-02-01

    Understanding how the genome is spatially organized is an important problem in cell biology, due to its key roles in gene expression and DNA recombination. Here we report on a combined experimental and theoretical study of the organization and dynamics of yeast chromosome III which has a functional role in the yeast life cycle, in particular, it is responsible for mating type switching. By imaging two fluorescent markers, one at the spindle pole body (SPB) and the other proximal to the HML locus that is involved in DNA recombination during mating type switching, we measured the cell to cell distribution of distances and the mean square displacement between the markers as a function of time. We compared our experimental results with a random-walk polymer model that takes into account tethering and confinement of chromosomes in the nucleus, and found that the model recapitulates the observed spatial and temporal organization of chromosome III in yeast in quantitative detail. The polymer model makes specific predictions for mating-type switching in yeast, and suggests new experiments to test them.

  5. Mechanism of iron uptake by the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ismail

    1986-01-01

    C. albicans requires iron for growth and phenotypic development. When deprived of iron, mycelium and bud formation was suppressed. Survival of the organism was also reduced under iron-limiting conditions. The combination of elevated temperature and iron-deprivation further reduced phenotypic development and survival of the yeast. The combination of elevated temperature and iron starvation resulted in a decrease in both the

  6. Oxidation Reduction Potential of Complex Iron Compounds in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas B. Coolidge

    1931-01-01

    WHEN an alkaline extract of yeast is saturated with ammonium sulphate there is precipitated, with the protein, cytochrome `C' and a complex iron compound giving no visible spectrum. The latter can be separated from the proteins slowly by ultra-filtration. It remains in solution when the protein, with the cytochrome `C', is precipitated by trichloracetic acid.

  7. Genetic analysis of iron uptake in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Dancis

    1998-01-01

    Objective: We used the methods of yeast genetics to identify genes involved in acquisition of iron by eukaryotic cells. Methods: Mutants were identified with defects in cellular iron uptake. These were organized into an upstream group and a downstream group. The upstream group was involved in the delivery of copper to the multicopper oxidase FET3. Mutants of this group were

  8. Integrative Analysis of the Mitochondrial Proteome in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Prokisch; Curt M. Scharfe; David G. Camp; Wenzhong Xiao; Lior David; Christophe Andreoli; Matthew E. Monroe; Ronald J. Moore; Marina A. Gritsenko; Christian Kozany; Kim K. Hixson; Heather M. Mottaz; Hans Zischka; Marius Ueffing; Zelek S. Herman; Ronald W. Davis; Thomas Meitinger; Peter J. Oefner; Richard D. Smith; Lars M. Steinmetz

    2004-01-01

    In this study yeast mitochondria were used as a model system to apply, evaluate, and integrate different genomic approaches to define the proteins of an organelle. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry applied to purified mitochondria identified 546 proteins. By expression analysis and comparison to other proteome studies, we demonstrate that the proteomic approach identifies primarily highly abundant proteins. By expanding our

  9. Long-chain alkane production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade industrial-scale production of renewable transportation biofuels has been developed as an alternative to fossil fuels, with ethanol as the most prominent biofuel and yeast as the production organism of choice. However, ethanol is a less efficient substitute fuel for heavy-duty and maritime transportation as well as aviation due to its low energy density. Therefore, new types of biofuels, such as alkanes, are being developed that can be used as drop-in fuels and can substitute gasoline, diesel, and kerosene. Here, we describe for the first time the heterologous biosynthesis of long-chain alkanes by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that elimination of the hexadecenal dehydrogenase Hfd1 and expression of a redox system are essential for alkane biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of HFD1 together with expression of an alkane biosynthesis pathway resulted in the production of the alkanes tridecane, pentadecane, and heptadecane. Our study provides a proof of principle for producing long-chain alkanes in the industrial workhorse S. cerevisiae, which was so far limited to bacteria. We anticipate that these findings will be a key factor for further yeast engineering to enable industrial production of alkane based drop-in biofuels, which can allow the biofuel industry to diversify beyond bioethanol. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 1275-1279. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25545362

  10. Trehalose synthase: guard to the gate of glycolysis in yeast?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan M. Thevelein; Stefan Hohmann

    1995-01-01

    The addition of glucose to cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae triggers a variety of regulatory phenomena. Initial glucose metabolism is required for the induction of most of them. Mutants deficient in both glucose-induced signalling and the control of initial glucose metabolism have a defect in the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase catalytic subunit of the trehalose synthase complex. This finding has raised

  11. Yeast Genomic Library Genomic DNA Sau3AI partial digestion

    E-print Network

    Odorizzi, Greg

    Yeast Genomic Library Concept: Genomic DNA ­ Sau3AI partial digestion Vector DNA ­ BamHI full digestion partial Ligate and transform above products Vector Information: · use centromeric plasmid to avoid of the mcs Preparing Vector: 1) digest 3-4ug of library vector with BamHI for 2-4hrs in a total volume of 20

  12. EFFECTS OF YEAST, FERMENTATION TIME, AND PRESERVATION METHODS ON TARHANA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozan Gurbuz; Duygu Gocmen; Nese Ozmen; Fatih Dagdelen

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of tarhana soup produced with different dough treatments, fermentation times, and preservation methods were examined. Tarhana doughs were prepared with yogurt (control) or baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fermented for 3 days. Samples were taken at 24, 48, and 72 hr. Samples were then preserved via one of four methods: sun dried, dried in the shade, vacumn dried,

  13. Light-mediated control of DNA transcription in yeast.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robert M; Bolger, Steven; Tapadia, Hersh; Tucker, Chandra L

    2012-12-01

    A variety of methods exist for inducible control of DNA transcription in yeast. These include the use of native yeast promoters or regulatory elements that are responsive to small molecules such as galactose, methionine, and copper, or engineered systems that allow regulation by orthogonal small molecules such as estrogen. While chemically regulated systems are easy to use and can yield high levels of protein expression, they often provide imprecise control over protein levels. Moreover, chemically regulated systems can affect many other proteins and pathways in yeast, activating signaling pathways or physiological responses. Here, we describe several methods for light mediated control of DNA transcription in vivo in yeast. We describe methodology for using a red light and phytochrome dependent system to induce transcription of genes under GAL1 promoter control, as well as blue light/cryptochrome dependent systems to control transcription of genes under GAL1 promoter or LexA operator control. Light is dose dependent, inexpensive to apply, easily delivered, and does not interfere with cellular pathways, and thus has significant advantages over chemical systems. PMID:22922268

  14. Yeast metabolic state identification using micro-fiber optics spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Silva; C. C. Castro; A. A. Vicente; P. Tafulo; P. A. S. Jorge; R. C. Martins

    2011-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae morphology is known to be dependent on the cell physiological state and environmental conditions. On their environment, wild yeasts tend to form complex colonies architectures, such as stress response and pseudohyphal filaments morphologies, far away from the ones found inside bioreactors, where the regular cell cycle is observed under controlled conditions (e.g. budding and flocculating colonies). In this

  15. Catalytic Mechanism of Yeast Cytosine Deaminase:  An ONIOM Computational Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stepan Sklenak; Lishan Yao; Robert I. Cukier; Honggao Yan

    2004-01-01

    The complete path for the deamination reaction catalyzed by yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD), a zinc metalloenzyme of significant biomedical interest, has been investigated using the ONIOM method. Cytosine deamination proceeds via a sequential mechanism involving the protonation of N 3 , the nucleophilic attack of C 4 by the zinc-coordinated hydroxide, and the cleavage of the C 4 -N 4

  16. [Comparison of infrared spectra of native and esterified beer yeast].

    PubMed

    Han, Run-ping; Bao, Gai-ling; Lu, Zhu

    2004-07-01

    The native beer yeast and esterified beer yeast were examined by infrared spectroscopy. The IR spectrum of beer yeast is mainly composed of the adsorption of carbohydrates, protein, etc. The dominating bands near 1652, 1532 and 1240 cm(-1) were assigned to amide I, amide II and amide III, and the characteristic IR absorption of protein could be one of the significant components of cell walls. The peak near 1 454 cm(-1) is attributable to the bending stretching of CH2- and CH3-. A substantial portion of the absorbance at 1160 cm(-1) is attributable to the stretching vibration of C-O on the structure of carbohydrates, the main components of the cell walls. The band present at 1080 cm(-1) was caused by the C-O stretching of carbohydrates and alcohols found in the RNA, the DNA and/or the cell envelop of the yeast. The peaks at 1744 cm(-1) (attributed to the carboxylate stretching) and 1454 cm(-1) confirmed the esterification process of carboxylate groups presented in the cell wall. After esterification with methanol-chloride hydride, the major components and the structures of the biomaterial remained intact. PMID:15766080

  17. NDR kinases regulate essential cell processes from yeast to humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Hergovich; Mario R. Stegert; Debora Schmitz; Brian A. Hemmings

    2006-01-01

    Members of the NDR (nuclear Dbf2-related) protein-kinase family are essential components of pathways that control important cellular processes, such as morphological changes, mitotic exit, cytokinesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Recent progress has shed light on the mechanisms that underlie the regulation and function of the NDR family members. Combined data from yeast, worms, flies, mice and human cells now highlight

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF YEASTS ISOLATED FROM MUKUMBI, A ZIMBABWEAN TRADITIONAL WINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mpofu; J. L. F. Kock; E. E. Pretorious; C. H. Pohl; R. Zvauya

    The use and identity of microbes in traditional fermented beverages has attracted the interest of researchers and industrialists world-wide, probably due to their potential to reduce transmission of bacterial enteric pathogens, as well as improving their nutritional value. In the work done, yeasts were isolated from samples of Zimbabwean traditional wine, mukumbi, collected from rural households in Mberengwa, Zimbabwe. Isolates

  19. Metabolic engineering for improved fermentation of pentoses by yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Jeffries; Y.-S. Jin

    2004-01-01

    The fermentation of xylose is essential for the bioconversion of lignocellulose to fuels and chemicals, but wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae do not metabolize xylose, so researchers have engineered xylose metabolism in this yeast. Glucose transporters mediate xylose uptake, but no transporter specific for xylose has yet been identified. Over-expressing genes for aldose (xylose) reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and moderate levels

  20. Functional Characterization of Nuclear Localization Signals in Yeast Sm Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bordonné, Rémy

    2000-01-01

    In mammals, nuclear localization of U-snRNP particles requires the snRNA hypermethylated cap structure and the Sm core complex. The nature of the signal located within the Sm core proteins is still unknown, both in humans and yeast. Close examination of the sequences of the yeast SmB, SmD1, and SmD3 carboxyl-terminal domains reveals the presence of basic regions that are reminiscent of nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Fluorescence microscopy studies using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins indicate that both yeast SmB and SmD1 basic amino acid stretches exhibit nuclear localization properties. Accordingly, deletions or mutations in the NLS-like motifs of SmB and SmD1 dramatically reduce nuclear fluorescence of the GFP-Sm mutant fusion alleles. Phenotypic analyses indicate that the NLS-like motifs of SmB and SmD1 are functionally redundant: each NLS-like motif can be deleted without affecting yeast viability whereas a simultaneous deletion of both NLS-like motifs is lethal. Taken together, these findings suggest that, in the doughnut-like structure formed by the Sm core complex, the carboxyl-terminal extensions of Sm proteins may form an evolutionarily conserved basic amino acid-rich protuberance that functions as a nuclear localization determinant. PMID:11027265