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1

Yellow Fever.  

PubMed

Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease occurs in tropical areas of South America and Africa. It is a disease of major historical importance, but remains a threat to travelers to and residents of endemic areas despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 70 years. An important aspect is the receptivity of many non-endemic areas to introduction and spread of yellow fever. This paper reviews the clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of yellow fever, with an emphasis on recent changes in the distribution and incidence of the disease. Recent knowledge about yellow fever 17D vaccine mechanism of action and safety are discussed. PMID:25453327

Monath, Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

2015-03-01

2

Yellow fever  

MedlinePLUS

... liver, and kidney. Bleeding disorders, seizures, coma, and delirium may also occur. Symptoms may include: Irregular heartbeats ( ... Bleeding (may progress to hemorrhage) Coma Decreased urination Delirium Fever Headache Yellow skin and eyes (jaundice) Muscle ...

3

Extra Exercises for Chapter 8. Epidemic Dynamics The Case of Yellow Fever  

E-print Network

Extra Exercises for Chapter 8. Epidemic Dynamics The Case of Yellow Fever Yellow Fever has been and sent one of three residents fleeing into the countryside." Yellow fever is transmitted in urban areas" (Benneson 1990, 486). These exercises introduce you to a model to simulate the spread of Yellow Fever

Ford, Andrew

4

Yellow Fever Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected ...

5

Yellow Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 1951, Max Theiler (Fig. 10.1), a Rockefeller Foundation scientist, became the only person to be awarded the Nobel Prize\\u000a in Medicine and Physiology for the development of a virus vaccine (Norrby 2007). His live, attenuated 17D vaccine was not\\u000a the first yellow fever vaccine to be tested in humans, but it was by far the most successful one. More

Thomas P. Monath

6

[Yellow fever: new recommendations].  

PubMed

Indication for yellow fever vaccination is not always easy to assess. The decision to immunize is not only based on the actual risk of the disease in a specific location, but also on public health considerations in the visited country (in order to respectively avoid epidemics in endemic countries or the introduction of the virus in zones where the vectors mosquitoes are present) and on travelers' risk factors for severe or even fatal vaccine adverse events. WHO has recently published new recommendations regarding vaccination against yellow fever after concluding that one dose of vaccine generates a life-long protection. This article tends to clarify the strategy to adopt in 2013 using cases frequently encountered in the practice of travel medicine. PMID:24908746

Rochat, L; Genton, B

2014-05-01

7

A case suspected for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most successful vaccines ever developed. Since 2001, 56 cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we report a new case suspected for YEL-AVD in the Netherlands. Further research is needed to determine the true incidence of YEL-AVD and to clarify host and vaccine-associated factors in the pathogenesis of YEL-AVD. Because of the potential adverse events, healthcare providers should carefully consider vaccination only in people who are truly at risk for YF infection, especially in primary vaccine recipients. PMID:24920138

van de Pol, Eva M; Gisolf, Elizabeth H; Richter, Clemens

2014-01-01

8

Adverse events following yellow fever immunization: Report and analysis of 67 neurological cases in Brazil.  

PubMed

Neurological adverse events following administration of the 17DD substrain of yellow fever vaccine (YEL-AND) in the Brazilian population are described and analyzed. Based on information obtained from the National Immunization Program through passive surveillance or intensified passive surveillance, from 2007 to 2012, descriptive analysis, national and regional rates of YFV associated neurotropic, neurological autoimmune disease, and reporting rate ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for first time vaccinees stratified on age and year. Sixty-seven neurological cases were found, with the highest rate of neurological adverse events in the age group from 5 to 9 years (2.66 per 100,000 vaccine doses in Rio Grande do Sul state, and 0.83 per 100,000 doses in national analysis). Two cases had a combination of neurotropic and autoimmune features. This is the largest sample of YEL-AND already analyzed. Rates are similar to other recent studies, but on this study the age group from 5 to 9 years of age had the highest risk. As neurological adverse events have in general a good prognosis, they should not contraindicate the use of yellow fever vaccine in face of risk of infection by yellow fever virus. PMID:24837504

Martins, Reinaldo de Menezes; Pavăo, Ana Luiza Braz; de Oliveira, Patrícia Mouta Nunes; dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Carvalho, Sandra Maria D; Mohrdieck, Renate; Fernandes, Alexandre Ribeiro; Sato, Helena Keico; de Figueiredo, Patricia Mandali; von Doellinger, Vanessa Dos Reis; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S

2014-11-20

9

Experimental therapies for yellow fever  

PubMed Central

A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

Julander, Justin G.

2013-01-01

10

17DD yellow fever vaccine  

PubMed Central

Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

2013-01-01

11

Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.  

PubMed

Until recently, urban yellow fever had not been reported from the Americas since 1954, but jungle yellow fever increasingly affects forest dwellers in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The reinvasion by Aedes aegypti of cities in the Americas now threatens to urbanize yellow fever. After yellow fever infection was identified in a resident of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December 1997, all subsequent suspected cases were investigated. Active surveillance of yellow fever was introduced in the Santa Cruz area, with hospitals and selected urban and rural health centers reporting all suspected cases. Patients were serologically screened for yellow fever, dengue, hepatitis A and B, and leptospirosis; clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients' records and through interviews; and a population-based serosurvey was conducted in the neighborhood of one case. Between December 1997 and June 1998, symptomatic yellow fever infection was confirmed in 6 residents of Santa Cruz, of whom 5 died. 5 lived in the southern sector of the city. 2 cases did not leave the city during their incubation period, and 1 had visited only an area in which sylvatic transmission was deemed impossible. Of the 281 people covered in the serosurvey, 16 (6%) were positive for IgM antibody to yellow fever. Among 5 people for whom that result could not be explained by recent vaccination, there were 2 pairs of neighbors. This instance of urban yellow fever transmission was limited in both time and space. PMID:10334253

Van der Stuyft, P; Gianella, A; Pirard, M; Cespedes, J; Lora, J; Peredo, C; Pelegrino, J L; Vorndam, V; Boelaert, M

1999-05-01

12

Anaphylaxis from yellow fever vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are very few reports of anaphylactic reactions to yellow fever (YF) vaccine in the literature, and these date from the 1940s. Objective: We sought to estimate the rate of YF vaccine–related anaphylaxis. Methods: All reports of adverse reactions to YF vaccine submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System between 1990 and 1997 were reviewed for those meeting

John M. Kelso; Gina T. Mootrey; Theodore F. Tsai

1999-01-01

13

RESEARCH ARTICLE Nucleotide Sequence of Yellow Fever  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Nucleotide Sequence of Yellow Fever Virus: Implications for Flavivirus Gene related human or veterinary pathogens causing many serious illness- es, including dengue fever, Japanese, and yellow fever (1). Most fever was spread by ship to ports as far north as Boston and as far east as En

Eddy, Sean

14

Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008–2009  

PubMed Central

Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. PMID:24625634

Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

2014-01-01

15

Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... be administered subcutaneously. The International Health Regulations (IHR) published by the World Health Organization (WHO) require revaccination ... Since the initial cases of YEL-AVD were published in 2001, >60 confirmed and suspected cases have ...

16

Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.  

PubMed Central

Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:822563

Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

1976-01-01

17

Lost Trust: A Yellow Fever Patient Response  

PubMed Central

In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care. PMID:24348220

Runge, John S.

2013-01-01

18

Lost trust: a yellow fever patient response.  

PubMed

In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care. PMID:24348220

Runge, John S

2013-12-01

19

Timeliness of yellow fever surveillance, Central African Republic.  

PubMed

During January 2007-July 2012, a total of 3,220 suspected yellow fever cases were reported in the Central African Republic; 55 were confirmed and 11 case-patients died. Mean delay between onset of jaundice and case confirmation was 16.6 days. Delay between disease onset and blood collection could be reduced by increasing awareness of the population. PMID:24857597

Rachas, Antoine; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Bouscaillou, Julie; Paireau, Juliette; Selekon, Benjamin; Senekian, Dominique; Fontanet, Arnaud; Kazanji, Mirdad

2014-06-01

20

Timeliness of Yellow Fever Surveillance, Central African Republic  

PubMed Central

During January 2007–July 2012, a total of 3,220 suspected yellow fever cases were reported in the Central African Republic; 55 were confirmed and 11 case-patients died. Mean delay between onset of jaundice and case confirmation was 16.6 days. Delay between disease onset and blood collection could be reduced by increasing awareness of the population. PMID:24857597

Rachas, Antoine; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Bouscaillou, Julie; Paireau, Juliette; Selekon, Benjamin; Senekian, Dominique; Fontanet, Arnaud

2014-01-01

21

Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti with Drosophila melanogaster aegypti, and Culex pipiens, the primary vectors for malaria, yellow fever and dengue, and lymphatic 103

Severson, David

22

Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. PMID:25531105

Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

2015-01-01

23

Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. PMID:25531105

Auguste, Albert J.; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A.; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos

2015-01-01

24

Aedes aegypti in Brazil: genetically differentiated populations with high susceptibility to dengue and yellow fever viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aedes aegypti was eliminated from Brazil in 1955, but re-infested the country in the 1970s. Dengue outbreaks have occurred since 1981 and became endemic in several cities in Brazil after 1986. Urban yellow fever has not occurred since 1942, and only jungle yellow fever cases have been reported. A population genetic analysis using isoenzyme variation combined with an evaluation of

R Lourenço-de-Oliveira; M Vazeille; A. M. B de Filippis; A. B Failloux

2004-01-01

25

[Present status of an arbovirus infection: yellow fever, its natural history of hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever].  

PubMed

In the early 20th century, when it was discovered that the yellow fever virus was transmitted in its urban cycle by Aedes aegypti, measures of control were introduced leading to its disappearance. Progressive neglect of the disease, however, led to a new outbreak in 1927 during which the etiological agent was isolated; some years later a vaccine was discovered and yellow fever disappeared again. In the 1960s, rare cases of encephalitis were observed in young children after vaccination and the administration of the vaccine was forbidden for children under 10 years. Five years later, a new outbreak of yellow fever in Diourbel, Senegal, was linked to the presence of Aedes aegypti. In the late 1970s, the idea of a selvatic cycle for yellow fever arose. Thanks to new investigative techniques in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire, the yellow fever virus was isolated from the reservoir of virus and vectors. The isolated virus was identified in monkeys and several vectors: Aedes furcifer, Aedes taylori, Aedes luteocephalus. Most importantly, the virus was isolated in male mosquitoes. Until recently, the only known cycle had been that of Haddow in East Africa. The virus circulate in the canopea between monkeys and Aedes africanus. These monkeys infect Aedes bromeliae when they come to eat in banana plantations. This cycle does not occur in West Africa. Vertical transmission is the main method of maintenance of the virus through the dry season. "Reservoirs of virus" are often mentioned in medical literature, monkeys having a short viremia whereas mosquitoes remain infected throughout their life cycle. In such a selvatic cycle, circulation can reach very high levels and no child would be able to escape an infecting bite and yet no clinical cases of yellow fever have been reported. The virulence--as it affects man--of the yellow fever virus in its wild cycle is very low. In areas where the virus can circulate in epidemic form, two types of circulation can be distinguished. Intermediate yellow fever--a term coined to define epidemia which do not correspond exactly to urban yellow fever. The cycle involves men and monkeys through wild vectors as Aedes furcifer but also through Aedes aegypti and the mortality rate is much lower than for urban epidemics. In urban yellow fever, man is the only vertebrate host involved in the circulation of the virus, the vector being generally Aedes aegypti. This vector maintains a selective pressure, increasing the transmission of virus capable of producing high viremia in man. In the selvatic cycles, two cycles can be distinguished: one of maintenance which does not increase the quantity of virus in circulation and one of amplification which does increase this quantity. As we shall see, it develops into an epizootic form but also in an epidemic form in man. When the decrease in yellow fevers across Africa is considered, it appears that all major epidemics occur in West Africa inspite of the presence of wild cycles of the yellow fever virus in Central and East Africa. For the rare epidemics that have occurred there, the vector has never been Aedes aegypti. In a recent outbreak in Kenya, the vector was Aedes bromeliae. The examination of part of the gene encoding for envelope protein showed the presence of two geographical types corresponding to West-Africa and Central East-Africa. Clinically speaking, yellow fever is an haemorrhagic fever with hepatitis similar to other haemorrhagic fevers such as Rift Valley fever. When, in 1987, an outbreak of haemorrhagic fever occurred in southern Mauritania, for several days it was thought to be yellow fever. Four days later, the diagnosis was corrected by isolating and identifying the virus as that of Rift Valley fever (RVFV). RVFV causes several pathogenic syndromes in human beings: acute febrile illness, haemorrhagic fever, haemorrhagic fever with hepatitis, nervous syndromes or ocular disease. Mortality rate was high for haemorrhagic fever with hepatitis, reaching 36%. (ABST PMID:10690474

Digoutte, J P

1999-12-01

26

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2012-10-01

27

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2014-10-01

28

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2013-10-01

29

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2011-10-01

30

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2010-10-01

31

Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

2002-01-01

32

Advances and controversies in yellow fever vaccination  

PubMed Central

Ever since its development in 1937, the live-attenuated 17D yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been one of the most effective vaccines available to man. In this review we highlight the major steps in the development of 17D YF vaccine. We discuss the use of neutralizing antibodies as a surrogate marker for protection, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of the current plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), a technique developed in the 1960s that continues to be superior to every modern test in both sensitivity and specificity. The neutralizing antibodies demonstrated by the PRNT can be detected for several decades after vaccination, possibly even for the remainder of the recipient’s natural life. We review the available evidence on the duration of protection after primary vaccination, a topic that has been the subject of controversy over the last few months. For persons who are immunocompromised due to disease, medication or advancing age, the duration of protection may be shorter: they should always have their vaccine response checked by PRNT. Due to the higher risk of severe adverse events after vaccination with 17D YF in this group, the development of a new, inactivated vaccine will have substantial benefits in this population. PMID:24757521

Jonker, Emile F. F.; Visser, Leonardus G.

2013-01-01

33

The enigma of yellow fever in East Africa.  

PubMed

Despite a safe and effective vaccine, there are approximately 200,000 cases, including 30,000 deaths, due to yellow fever virus (YFV) each year, of which 90% are in Africa. The natural history of YFV has been well described, especially in West Africa, but in East Africa yellow fever (YF) remains characterised by unpredictable focal periodicity and a precarious potential for large epidemics. Recent outbreaks of YF in Kenya (1992-1993) and Sudan (2003 and 2005) are important because each of these outbreaks have involved the re-emergence of a YFV genotype (East Africa) that remained undetected for nearly 40 years and was previously unconfirmed in a clinically apparent outbreak. In addition, unlike West Africa and South America, YF has yet to emerge in urban areas of East Africa and be vectored by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti. This is a significant public health concern in a region where the majority of the population remains unvaccinated. This review describes historical findings, highlights a number of disease indicators, and provides clarification regarding the natural history, recent emergence and future risk of YF in East Africa. PMID:18615782

Ellis, Brett R; Barrett, Alan D T

2008-01-01

34

Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.  

PubMed

Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity. PMID:24743951

Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

2014-05-01

35

Multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccination  

PubMed Central

The paper describes the first reported case of multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous hepatitis-A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccinations. A 33-year-old male developed sudden onset of flashing lights and floaters in his right eye 3 weeks following hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccinations. Fundus examination and angiography confirmed the presence of multiple peripheral chorioretinal lesions. These lesions demonstrated characteristic morphologic changes over a period of 8 weeks which were consistent with a diagnosis of self-resolving multifocal choroiditis. Vaccine-induced intraocular inflammation has been described infrequently. We demonstrate the first case of self-resolving multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous administration of hepatitis A, yellow fever, and typhoid immunizations. PMID:23439495

Escott, Sarah; Tarabishy, Ahmad B; Davidorf, Frederick H

2013-01-01

36

Genetic Divergence and Dispersal of Yellow Fever Virus, Brazil  

PubMed Central

An analysis of 79 yellow fever virus (YFV) isolates collected from 1935 to 2001 in Brazil showed a single genotype (South America I) circulating in the country, with the exception of a single strain from Rondônia, which represented South America genotype II. Brazilian YFV strains have diverged into two clades; an older clade appears to have become extinct and another has become the dominant lineage in recent years. Pairwise nucleotide diversity between strains ranged from 0% to 7.4%, while amino acid divergence ranged from 0% to 4.6%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated traffic of virus variants through large geographic areas and suggested that migration of infected people may be an important mechanism of virus dispersal. Isolation of vaccine virus from a patient with a fatal case suggests that vaccine-related illness may have been misdiagnosed in the past. PMID:15498159

Bryant, Juliet E.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Tesh, Robert B.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Barrett, Alan D.T.

2004-01-01

37

Aedes FADD: A novel death domain-containing protein required for antibacterial immunity in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Dawn M. Cooper*,1 , Ciara M. Chamberlain 1 , Carl Lowenberger 1 and the arboviruses that cause Dengue fever, Yellow fever and West Nile fever. Much of the current research efforts

Lowenberger, Carl

38

Recombinant Chimeric Yellow Fever-Dengue Type 2 Virus Is Immunogenic and Protective in Nonhuman Primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chimeric yellow fever (YF)-dengue type 2 (dengue-2) virus (ChimeriVax-D2) was constructed using a re- combinant cDNA infectious clone of a YF vaccine strain (YF 17D) as a backbone into which we inserted the premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes of dengue-2 virus (strain PUO-218 from a case of dengue fever in Bangkok, Thailand). The chimeric virus was recovered from

F. Guirakhoo; R. Weltzin; T. J. Chambers; Z.-X. Zhang; K. Soike; M. Ratterree; J. Arroyo; K. Georgakopoulos; J. Catalan; T. P. Monath

2000-01-01

39

No maternal effects after stimulation of the melanization response in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

No maternal effects after stimulation of the melanization response in the yellow fever mosquito the maternal melanization response of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti by inoculating female mosquitoes

40

Yellow fever vaccination: some thoughts on how much is enough [Vaccine 23 (2005) 3908-3914].  

PubMed

In a recently published article in this journal, Massad et al. contraindicates yellow fever vaccination to persons 60 years or older, considering that the risk of serious adverse events is higher for this age class. The conclusion was based on the input of available data on age-related probabilities of developing serious adverse events in the United States, as well on other data not firmly established. We consider such contraindication inadequate, because the data input has limitations, higher letality of wild-type yellow fever infection in older adults, risk of introduction of yellow fever by travelers into new countries, lower risk of vaccine adverse events in revaccinated or immune people in endemic countries, and the experience of Brazil, with only one suspect case of associated viscerotropic disease in an individual older than 60 years. The model proposed by Massad et al. is useful but can lead to different conclusions, depending on the epidemiological context and individual risk profile. PMID:16448728

Martins, Reinaldo M; Galler, Ricardo; Freire, Marcos Silva; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B; de Lourdes S Maia, Maria; Homma, Akira

2007-01-01

41

Pathology Case Study: Fevers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors in the health sciences field. In this case, a 68-year-old male patient experiencing fevers, chills, an associated non-productive cough, and weight loss was admitted to the hospital for examination. The â??Gross Description,â?ť â??Microscopic Description,â?ť and â?? Microbiologyâ?ť sections provide key information and images that contributed to the patientâ??s diagnosis. Clicking on the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment from the contributing doctors.

Kulich, Scott

42

Antibody-dependent Enhancement of Yellow Fever and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Neurovirulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Antibody-dependent enhancement of yellow fever virus neurovirulence, as measured by a reduction in the average survival time of groups of mice, was demonstrated with wild-type or vaccine strains of yellow fever virus and with Japanese encephalitis virus using intraperitoneally administered monoclonal antibodies specific for the viral E glycoprotein of yellow fever virus. Enhancement of virulence could be induced by

E. A. Gould; A. Buckley

1989-01-01

43

The changing epidemiology of yellow fever and dengue, 1900 to 2003: full circle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever and dengue are old diseases, having caused major epidemics in centuries past. Both were effectively controlled in the mid 1900s, yellow fever in Francophone Africa by vaccination and yellow fever and dengue in the Americas by effective control of the principal urban vector of both viruses, Aedes aegypti. In the last 25 years of the 20th century, however,

D. J. Gubler

2004-01-01

44

Suspected YF-AND after yellow fever vaccination in Finland.  

PubMed

Yellow fever (YF) vaccine is considered safe but vaccine-associated complications have also been encountered. We report neurological symptoms after YF-vaccination in a previously healthy Finnish male. Other concomitant infections or causes for the symptoms could not be identified. PMID:25223921

Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Huhtamo, Eili; Kivioja, Reetta; Domingo, Cristina; Vene, Sirkka; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Niedrig, Matthias; Tienari, Pentti J; Vapalahti, Olli

2014-11-01

45

58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, presented to the Portsmouth Naval Hospital by the Town Council of Portsmouth, 1856. (Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Museum, Portsmouth, VA) - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

46

A regional reconnaissance on yellow fever in the Sudan  

PubMed Central

Neutralization-tests with yellow fever virus performed on 666 human sera collected in the southern Sudan imply that yellow fever is still endemic south of the 10th parallel, in the south-west border of the Nuba Mountains, and in the plains west of the Nuba Mountains as far north as El Muglad. Similar tests on bloods from 110 primates revealed a high rate of immunity among both baboons (Papio sp.) (94%) and grivet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) (77%), and a very low rate (1 in 56) among galagos (Galago senegalensis). It would therefore appear that, in contrast to the baboon and the grivet monkey, the galago is not significantly involved in the cycle of the virus. The epidemiological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:14379007

Taylor, R. M.; Haseeb, M. A.; Work, T. H.

1955-01-01

47

Functional Requirements of the Yellow Fever Virus Capsid Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is known that the flavivirus capsid protein is essential for genome packaging and formation of infectious particles, the minimal requirements of the dimeric capsid protein for virus assembly\\/disassembly have not been characterized. By use of a trans-packaging system that involved packaging a yellow fever virus (YFV) replicon into pseudo-infectious particles by supplying the YFV structural proteins using a

Chinmay G. Patkar; Christopher T. Jones; Yu-hsuan Chang; Ranjit Warrier; Richard J. Kuhn

2007-01-01

48

Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

2002-01-01

49

Aedes aegypti, Dengue and Re-urbanization of Yellow Fever in Brazil and other South American Countries - Past and Present Situation and Future Perspectives By  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue (DEN) and yellow fever (YF) viruses are two important arboviruses causing human disease. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF\\/DHF) reemerged in the Americas after Aedes aegypti had reinfested most tropical and subtropical regions in the hemisphere. The number of DF\\/DHF cases being reported are increasing each year; and in South America only Chile and Uruguay have not reported

Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos; Amélia P. A. T. Rosa; Francisco P. Pinheiro; Sueli G. Rodrigues; Ana C. R. Cruz; Jorge F. S. T. Rosa

50

Using next generation sequencing to identify yellow fever virus in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October and November 2010, hospitals in northern Uganda reported patients with suspected hemorrhagic fevers. Initial tests for Ebola viruses, Marburg virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus were negative. Unbiased PCR amplification of total RNA extracted directly from patient sera and next generation sequencing resulted in detection of yellow fever virus and generation of 98%

Laura K. McMullan; Mike Frace; Scott A. Sammons; Trevor Shoemaker; Stephen Balinandi; Joseph F. Wamala; Julius J. Lutwama; Robert G. Downing; Ute Stroeher; Adam MacNeil; Stuart T. Nichol

51

The risk of yellow fever in a dengue-infested area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever and dengue are viral infections that in urban centres are transmitted by the same arthropod vector, a mosquito of the genus Aedes. In order to estimate the risk of an epidemic of urban yellow fever in a dengue-infested area we calculated the threshold in the basic reproduction number, R0, of dengue, above which any single sylvatic yellow fever-infected

Eduardo Massad; Francisco Antonio Bezerra Coutinho; Marcelo Nascimento Burattini; Luiz Fernandes Lopez

2001-01-01

52

The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre-and Post-Blood Meal  

E-print Network

The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22573. doi@nmsu.edu Introduction The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for dengue fever, several

Houde, Peter

53

The yellow fever 17D vaccine and risk of malignant melanoma in the United States military.  

PubMed

Previous studies show that the tuberculosis and smallpox vaccine protect against melanoma because of sequence homologies they have with the melanoma antigen, HERV-K-MEL. The yellow fever 17D (YF 17D) vaccine is thought to have this property, so there is a possibility that the YF17D vaccine is able to protect against melanoma. This nested case-control study used the Defense Medical Surveillance System to assess the association between the YF17D vaccine and risk of malignant melanoma in active members of the United States military. Although point estimates hinted at a protective effect, none of the values reached a significant level. Therefore, this study concluded that in the ten year period following vaccination there is no association between the yellow fever 17D vaccine and risk of malignant melanoma in active members of the US armed forces. PMID:22561488

Hodges-Vazquez, Meredith; Wilson, James P; Hughes, Hayley; Garman, Patrick

2012-06-22

54

Nucleotide Sequence Variation of the Envelope Protein Gene Identifies Two Distinct Genotypes of Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of yellow fever virus over 67 years was investigated by comparing the nucleotide sequences of the envelope (E) protein genes of 20 viruses isolated in Africa, the Caribbean, and South America. Uniformly weighted parsimony algorithm analysis defined two major evolutionary yellow fever virus lineages designated E genotypes I and II. E genotype I contained viruses isolated from East

GWONG-JEN J. CHANG; BRUCE C. CROPP; RICHARD M. KINNEY; DENNIS W. TRENT; ANDDUANE J. GUBLER

1995-01-01

55

Yellow Fever in Africa: Estimating the Burden of Disease and Impact of Mass Vaccination from Outbreak and Serological Data  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the 1940s to 1960s reduced yellow fever incidence for several decades. However, after a period of low vaccination coverage, yellow fever has resurged in the continent. Since 2006 there has been substantial funding for large preventive mass vaccination campaigns in the most affected countries in Africa to curb the rising burden of disease and control future outbreaks. Contemporary estimates of the yellow fever disease burden are lacking, and the present study aimed to update the previous estimates on the basis of more recent yellow fever occurrence data and improved estimation methods. Methods and Findings Generalised linear regression models were fitted to a dataset of the locations of yellow fever outbreaks within the last 25 years to estimate the probability of outbreak reports across the endemic zone. Environmental variables and indicators for the surveillance quality in the affected countries were used as covariates. By comparing probabilities of outbreak reports estimated in the regression with the force of infection estimated for a limited set of locations for which serological surveys were available, the detection probability per case and the force of infection were estimated across the endemic zone. The yellow fever burden in Africa was estimated for the year 2013 as 130,000 (95% CI 51,000–380,000) cases with fever and jaundice or haemorrhage including 78,000 (95% CI 19,000–180,000) deaths, taking into account the current level of vaccination coverage. The impact of the recent mass vaccination campaigns was assessed by evaluating the difference between the estimates obtained for the current vaccination coverage and for a hypothetical scenario excluding these vaccination campaigns. Vaccination campaigns were estimated to have reduced the number of cases and deaths by 27% (95% CI 22%–31%) across the region, achieving up to an 82% reduction in countries targeted by these campaigns. A limitation of our study is the high level of uncertainty in our estimates arising from the sparseness of data available from both surveillance and serological surveys. Conclusions With the estimation method presented here, spatial estimates of transmission intensity can be combined with vaccination coverage levels to evaluate the impact of past or proposed vaccination campaigns, thereby helping to allocate resources efficiently for yellow fever control. This method has been used by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI Alliance) to estimate the potential impact of future vaccination campaigns. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24800812

Garske, Tini; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Yactayo, Sergio; Ronveaux, Olivier; Lewis, Rosamund F.; Staples, J. Erin; Perea, William; Ferguson, Neil M.

2014-01-01

56

SHORT REPORT Open Access Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in  

E-print Network

SHORT REPORT Open Access Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly fever virus (YFV) represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Structure of Yellow Fever Virus Envelope Protein Domain III  

PubMed Central

The structure of recombinant domain III of the envelope protein (rED3) of yellow fever virus (YFV), containing the major neutralization site, was determined using NMR spectroscopy. The amino acid sequence and structure of the YFV-rED3 shows differences from ED3s of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses; in particular, the partially surface-exposed BC loop where methionine-304 and valine-324 were identified as being critical for the structure of the loop. Variations in the structure and surface chemistry of ED3 between flaviviruses affect neutralization sites and may affect host cell receptor interactions and play a role in the observed variations in viral pathogenesis and tissue tropism. PMID:19818466

Volk, David E.; May, Fiona J.; Gandham, Sai H. A.; Anderson, Anjenique; Von Lindern, Jana J.; Beasley, David W. C.; Barrett, Alan D. T.; Gorenstein, David G.

2009-01-01

58

Occurrence of Autoimmune Diseases Related to the Vaccine against Yellow Fever  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever is an infectious disease, endemic in South America and Africa. This is a potentially serious illness, with lethality between 5 and 40% of cases. The most effective preventive vaccine is constituted by the attenuated virus strain 17D, developed in 1937. It is considered safe and effective, conferring protection in more than 90% in 10 years. Adverse effects are known as mild reactions (allergies, transaminases transient elevation, fever, headache) and severe (visceral and neurotropic disease related to vaccine). However, little is known about its potential to induce autoimmune responses. This systematic review aims to identify the occurrence of autoinflammatory diseases related to 17D vaccine administration. Six studies were identified describing 13 possible cases. The diseases were Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, multiple points evanescent syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and Kawasaki disease. The data suggest that 17D vaccination may play a role in the mechanism of loss of self-tolerance. PMID:25405025

Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Maria Henrique da Mota, Licia; dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz; De Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Caldas, Iramaya Rodrigues; Martins Filho, Olindo Assis; Tauil, Pedro Luis

2014-01-01

59

Risk groups for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD).  

PubMed

Although previously considered as the safest of the live virus vaccines, reports published since 2001 indicate that live yellow fever virus vaccine can cause a severe, often fatal, multisystemic illness, yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD), that resembles the disease it was designed to prevent. This review was prompted by the availability of a listing of the cumulative cases of YEL-AVD, insights from a statistical method for analyzing risk factors and re-evaluation of previously published data. The purpose of this review is to identify and analyze risk groups based on gender, age, outcome and predisposing illnesses. Using a passive surveillance system in the US, the incidence was reported as 0.3 to 0.4 cases per 100,000. However, other estimates range from 0 to 12 per 100,000. Identified and potential risk groups for YEL-AVD include elderly males, women between the ages of 19 and 34, people with a variety of autoimmune diseases, individuals who have been thymectomized because of thymoma, and infants and children ?11 years old. All but the last group are supported by statistical analysis. The confirmed risk groups account for 77% (49/64) of known cases and 76% (32/42) of the deaths. The overall case fatality rate is 66% (42/64) with a rate of 80% (12/15) in young women, in contrast to 50% (13/26) in men ?56 years old. Recognition of YEL-AVD raises the possibility that similar reactions to live chimeric flavivirus vaccines that contain a yellow fever virus vaccine backbone could occur in susceptible individuals. Delineation of risk groups focuses the search for genetic mutations resulting in immune defects associated with a given risk group. Lastly, identification of risk groups encourages concentration on measures to decrease both the incidence and the severity of YEL-AVD. PMID:25192973

Seligman, Stephen J

2014-10-01

60

Using Local History To Understand National Themes: The Yellow Fever Epidemic in Philadelphia in 1793.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information for a local history project about the 1793 Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) yellow fever outbreak. Offers potential project topics to help students learn about local history and understand life in the eighteenth century United States. (CMK)

Westbury, Susan

2003-01-01

61

Fever  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Fever See complete list of charts. A fever is defined as a temperature 1° or more above the normal 98.6°. Minor ... Contact your doctor in case of a high fever or if a lower fever doesn't resolve ...

62

Equilibrium Analysis of a Yellow Fever Dynamical Model with Vaccination  

PubMed Central

We propose an equilibrium analysis of a dynamical model of yellow fever transmission in the presence of a vaccine. The model considers both human and vector populations. We found thresholds parameters that affect the development of the disease and the infectious status of the human population in the presence of a vaccine whose protection may wane over time. In particular, we derived a threshold vaccination rate, above which the disease would be eradicated from the human population. We show that if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is greater than a given threshold, then the disease is naturally (without intervention) eradicated from the population. In contrast, if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is less than that threshold, then the disease is eradicated from the populations only when the growing rate of humans is less than another threshold; otherwise, the disease is eradicated only if the reproduction number of the infection after vaccination is less than 1. When this reproduction number is greater than 1, the disease will be eradicated from the human population if the vaccination rate is greater than a given threshold; otherwise, the disease will establish itself among humans, reaching a stable endemic equilibrium. The analysis presented in this paper can be useful, both to the better understanding of the disease dynamics and also for the planning of vaccination strategies.

Martorano Raimundo, Silvia

2015-01-01

63

Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four antennae-specific proteins (AaegOBP1, AaegOBP2, AaegOBP3, and AaegASP1) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and their full-length cDNAs were cloned. RT-PCR indicated that they are expressed in female and, to a lesser extent, in male antennae, but not in control tissues (legs). AaegOBP1 and AaegOBP3 showed significant similarity to previously identified mosquito odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in cysteine spacing pattern and sequence. Two of the isolated proteins have a total of eight cysteine residues. The similarity of the spacing pattern of the cysteine residues and amino acid sequence to those of previously identified olfactory proteins suggests that one of the cysteine-rich proteins (AaegOBP2) is an OBP. The other (AaegASP1) did not belong to any group of known OBPs. Structural analyses indicate that six of the cysteine residues in AaegOBP2 are linked in a similar pattern to the previously known cysteine pairing in OBPs, i.e., Cys-24 Cys-55, Cys-51 Cys-104, Cys-95 Cys-113. The additional disulfide bridge, Cys-38 Cys-125, knits the extended C-terminal segment of the protein to a predicted ?2-helix. As indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, the extra rigidity seems to prevent the predicted formation of a C-terminal ?-helix at low pH.

Ishida, Yuko; Chen, Angela M.; Tsuruda, Jennifer M.; Cornel, Anthon J.; Debboun, Mustapha; Leal, Walter S.

2004-09-01

64

Vector Competence of Australian Mosquitoes for Yellow Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

The vector competence of Australian mosquitoes for yellow fever virus (YFV) was evaluated. Infection and transmission rates in Cairns and Townsville populations of Aedes aegypti and a Brisbane strain of Ae. notoscriptus were not significantly different from a well-characterized YFV-susceptible strain of Ae. aegypti. After exposure to 107.2 tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/mL of an African strain of YFV, > 70% of Ae. aegypti and Ae. notoscriptus became infected, and > 50% transmitted the virus. When exposed to 106.7 TCID50/mL of a South American strain of YFV, the highest infection (64%) and transmission (56%) rates were observed in Ae. notoscriptus. The infection and transmission rates in the Cairns Ae. aegypti were both 24%, and they were 36% and 28%, respectively, for the Townsville population. Because competent vectors are present, the limited number of travelers from endemic areas and strict vaccination requirements will influence whether YFV transmission occurs in Australia. PMID:21896802

van den Hurk, Andrew F.; McElroy, Kate; Pyke, Alyssa T.; McGee, Charles E.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Day, Andrew; Ryan, Peter A.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Higgs, Stephen

2011-01-01

65

Equilibrium analysis of a yellow Fever dynamical model with vaccination.  

PubMed

We propose an equilibrium analysis of a dynamical model of yellow fever transmission in the presence of a vaccine. The model considers both human and vector populations. We found thresholds parameters that affect the development of the disease and the infectious status of the human population in the presence of a vaccine whose protection may wane over time. In particular, we derived a threshold vaccination rate, above which the disease would be eradicated from the human population. We show that if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is greater than a given threshold, then the disease is naturally (without intervention) eradicated from the population. In contrast, if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is less than that threshold, then the disease is eradicated from the populations only when the growing rate of humans is less than another threshold; otherwise, the disease is eradicated only if the reproduction number of the infection after vaccination is less than 1. When this reproduction number is greater than 1, the disease will be eradicated from the human population if the vaccination rate is greater than a given threshold; otherwise, the disease will establish itself among humans, reaching a stable endemic equilibrium. The analysis presented in this paper can be useful, both to the better understanding of the disease dynamics and also for the planning of vaccination strategies. PMID:25834634

Martorano Raimundo, Silvia; Amaku, Marcos; Massad, Eduardo

2015-01-01

66

Yellow fever vaccination coverage following massive emergency immunization campaigns in rural Uganda, May 2011: a community cluster survey  

PubMed Central

Background Following an outbreak of yellow fever in northern Uganda in December 2010, Ministry of Health conducted a massive emergency vaccination campaign in January 2011. The reported vaccination coverage in Pader District was 75.9%. Administrative coverage though timely, is affected by incorrect population estimates and over or under reporting of vaccination doses administered. This paper presents the validated yellow fever vaccination coverage following massive emergency immunization campaigns in Pader district. Methods A cross sectional cluster survey was carried out in May 2011 among communities in Pader district and 680 respondents were indentified using the modified World Health Organization (WHO) 40?×?17 cluster survey sampling methodology. Respondents were aged nine months and above. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect data on demographic characteristics, vaccination status and reasons for none vaccination. Vaccination status was assessed using self reports and vaccination card evidence. Our main outcomes were measures of yellow fever vaccination coverage in each age-specific stratum, overall, and disaggregated by age and sex, adjusting for the clustered design and the size of the population in each stratum. Results Of the 680 survey respondents, 654 (96.1%, 95% CI 94.9 – 97.8) reported being vaccinated during the last campaign but only 353 (51.6%, 95% CI 47.2 – 56.1) had valid yellow fever vaccination cards. Of the 280 children below 5 years, 269 (96.1%, 95% CI 93.7 – 98.7) were vaccinated and nearly all males 299 (96.9%, 95% CI 94.3 – 99.5) were vaccinated. The main reasons for none vaccination were; having travelled out of Pader district during the campaign period (40.0%), lack of transport to immunization posts (28.0%) and, sickness at the time of vaccination (16.0%). Conclusions Our results show that actual yellow fever vaccination coverage was high and satisfactory in Pader district since it was above the desired minimum threshold coverage of 80% according to World Health Organization. Massive emergency vaccination done following an outbreak of Yellow fever achieved high population coverage in Pader district. Active surveillance is necessary for early detection of yellow fever cases. PMID:23497254

2013-01-01

67

Antibody response to 17D yellow fever vaccine in Ghanaian infants.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess the seroresponses to yellow fever vaccination at 6 and 9 months of age; assess any possible adverse effects of immunization with the 17D yellow fever vaccine in infants, particularly at 6 months of age. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty infants who had completed BCG, OPV and DPT immunizations were randomized to receive yellow fever immunization at either 6 or 9 months. A single dose of 0.5 ml of the reconstituted vaccine was administered to each infant by subcutaneous injection. To determine the yellow fever antibody levels of the infants, each donated 1 ml whole blood prior to immunization and 3 months post-immunization. Each serum sample was titred on Vero cells against the vaccine virus. FINDINGS: The most common adverse reactions reported were fever, cough, diarrhoea and mild reactions at the inoculation site. The incidences of adverse reactions were not statistically different in both groups. None of the pre-immunization sera in both age groups had detectable yellow fever antibodies. Infants immunized at 6 months recorded seroconversion of 98.6% and those immunized at 9 months recorded 98% seroconversion. The GMT of their antibodies were 158.5 and 129.8, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that seroresponses to yellow fever immunization at 6 and 9 months as determined by seroconversion and GMTs of antibodies are similar. The findings of good seroresponses at 6 months without significant adverse effects would suggest that the 17D yellow fever vaccine could be recommended for use in children at 6 months in outbreak situations or in high risk endemic areas. PMID:11731813

Osei-Kwasi, M.; Dunyo, S. K.; Koram, K. A.; Afari, E. A.; Odoom, J. K.; Nkrumah, F. K.

2001-01-01

68

Use of the yellow fever virus vaccine strain 17D for the study of strategies for the treatment of yellow fever virus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have employed the attenuated vaccine strain 17D of yellow fever virus (YFV) to evaluate the inhibitory effect of a selected series of compounds on YFV in Vero cells. Use of the vaccine strain does not require high-level microbiological containment facilities and should allow extensive screening. In addition, YFV may serve as a model for other flaviviruses including hepatitis C

J. Neyts; A. Meerbach; P. McKenna; E. De Clercq

1996-01-01

69

A DNA Vaccine against Yellow Fever Virus: Development and Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Attenuated yellow fever (YF) virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE) or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE), aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies. PMID:25875109

Maciel, Milton; Cruz, Fábia da Silva Pereira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; da Motta, Márcia Archer; Cassemiro, Klécia Marília Soares de Melo; Maia, Rita de Cássia Carvalho; de Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; Galler, Ricardo; Freire, Marcos da Silva; August, Joseph Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T. A.; Dhalia, Rafael

2015-01-01

70

A DNA Vaccine against Yellow Fever Virus: Development and Evaluation.  

PubMed

Attenuated yellow fever (YF) virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE) or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE), aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies. PMID:25875109

Maciel, Milton; Cruz, Fábia da Silva Pereira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; da Motta, Márcia Archer; Cassemiro, Klécia Marília Soares de Melo; Maia, Rita de Cássia Carvalho; de Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; Galler, Ricardo; Freire, Marcos da Silva; August, Joseph Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T A; Dhalia, Rafael

2015-04-01

71

Functional characterization of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

After taking vertebrate blood, female mosquitoes quickly shed excess water and ions while retaining and concentrating the mostly proteinaceous nutrients. Aquaporins (AQPs) are an evolutionary conserved family of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the flow of water and in some cases glycerol and other small molecules across cellular membranes. In a previous study, we found six putative AQP genes in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, Ae. aegypti, and demonstrated the involvement of three of them in the blood meal-induced diuresis. Here we characterized AQP expression in different tissues before and after a blood meal, explored the substrate specificity of AQPs expressed in the Malpighian tubules and performed RNAi-mediated knockdown and tested for changes in mosquito desiccation resistance. We found that AQPs are generally down-regulated 24?hrs after a blood meal. Ae. aegypti AQP 1 strictly transports water, AQP 2 and 5 demonstrate limited solute transport, but primarily function as water transporters. AQP 4 is an aquaglyceroporin with multiple substrates. Knockdown of AQPs expressed in the MTs increased survival of Ae. aegypti under dry conditions. We conclude that Malpighian tubules of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes utilize three distinct AQPs and one aquaglyceroporin in their osmoregulatory functions. PMID:25589229

Drake, Lisa L.; Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Hansen, Immo A.

2015-01-01

72

Functional characterization of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

After taking vertebrate blood, female mosquitoes quickly shed excess water and ions while retaining and concentrating the mostly proteinaceous nutrients. Aquaporins (AQPs) are an evolutionary conserved family of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the flow of water and in some cases glycerol and other small molecules across cellular membranes. In a previous study, we found six putative AQP genes in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, Ae. aegypti, and demonstrated the involvement of three of them in the blood meal-induced diuresis. Here we characterized AQP expression in different tissues before and after a blood meal, explored the substrate specificity of AQPs expressed in the Malpighian tubules and performed RNAi-mediated knockdown and tested for changes in mosquito desiccation resistance. We found that AQPs are generally down-regulated 24?hrs after a blood meal. Ae. aegypti AQP 1 strictly transports water, AQP 2 and 5 demonstrate limited solute transport, but primarily function as water transporters. AQP 4 is an aquaglyceroporin with multiple substrates. Knockdown of AQPs expressed in the MTs increased survival of Ae. aegypti under dry conditions. We conclude that Malpighian tubules of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes utilize three distinct AQPs and one aquaglyceroporin in their osmoregulatory functions. PMID:25589229

Drake, Lisa L; Rodriguez, Stacy D; Hansen, Immo A

2015-01-01

73

Yellow fever vaccine: An updated assessment of advanced age as a risk factor for serious adverse events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1996, the scientific community has become aware of 14 reports of yellow fever vaccine (YEL)-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) cases and four reports of YEL-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND) worldwide, changing our understanding of the risks of the vaccine. Based on 722 adverse event reports after YEL submitted to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System in 1990–2002, we updated the

Alena Y. Khromava; Rachel Barwick Eidex; Leisa H. Weld; Katrin S. Kohl; Robert D. Bradshaw; Robert T. Chen; Martin S. Cetron

2005-01-01

74

[Control discourses and power relations of yellow fever: Philadelphia in 1793].  

PubMed

1793 Yellow fever in Philadelphia was the most severe epidemics in the late 18th century in the United States. More than 10% of the population in the city died and many people fled to other cities. The cause of yellow fever in the United States had close relationship with slaves and sugar in Philadelphia. Sugarcane plantation had needed many labors to produce sugar and lots of Africans had to move to America as slaves. In this process, Aëdes aegypti, the vector of yellow fever had migrated to America and the circumstances of ships or cities provided appropriate conditions for its breeding. In this period, the cause of yellow fever could not be established exactly, so suggestions of doctors became entangled in political and intellectual discourses in American society. There was a critical conflict between Jeffersonian Republicanism and Federalism about the origin and treatment of yellow fever. Benjamin Rush, a Jeffersonian Republican, suggested urban sanitation reform and bloodletting. He believed the infectious disease happened because of unsanitary city condition, so he thought the United States could be a healthy nation by improvement of the public health and sanitation. He would like to cope with national crisis and develop American society on the basis of republicanism. While Rush suggested the improvement of public health and sanitation, the city government of Philadelphia suggested isolation of yellow fever patients and quarantine. City government isolated the patients from healthy people and it reconstructed space of hospital. Also, it built orphanages to take care of children who lost their parents during the epidemic and implemented power to control people put in the state of exception. Of course, city government tried to protect the city and nation by quarantine of every ship to Philadelphia. Control policies of yellow fever in 1793 showed different conflicts and interactions. Through the yellow fever, Jeffersonian Republicanism and Federalism had conflicted in politically, but they had interactions for control of the infectious disease. And with these kinds of infectious diseases policies, we can see interactions in local, national and global level. PMID:25608507

Kim, Seohyung

2014-12-01

75

Yellow fever and Max Theiler: the only Nobel Prize for a virus vaccine  

PubMed Central

In 1951, Max Theiler of the Rockefeller Foundation received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of an effective vaccine against yellow fever—a discovery first reported in the JEM 70 years ago. This was the first, and so far the only, Nobel Prize given for the development of a virus vaccine. Recently released Nobel archives now reveal how the advances in the yellow fever vaccine field were evaluated more than 50 years ago, and how this led to a prize for Max Theiler. PMID:18039952

Norrby, Erling

2007-01-01

76

Phenotypic and Molecular Analyses of Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Viruses Associated with Serious Adverse Events in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yellow fever (YF) 17D virus is one of the most successful vaccines developed to date. Its use has been estimated to be over 400 million doses with an excellent record of safety. In the past 3 years, yellow fever vaccination was intensified in Brazil in response to higher risk of urban outbreaks of the disease. Two fatal adverse events

R. Galler; K. V. Pugachev; C. L. S. Santos; S. W. Ocran; A. V. Jabor; S. G. Rodrigues; R. S. Marchevsky; M. S. Freire; L. F. C. Almeida; A. C. R. Cruz; A. M. Y. Yamamura; I. M. Rocco; E. S. Travassos da Rosa; L. T. M. Souza; P. F. C. Vasconcelos; F. Guirakhoo; T. P. Monath

2001-01-01

77

Lethal 17D Yellow Fever Encephalitis in Mice. I. Passive Protection by Monoclonal Antibodies to the Envelope Proteins of 17D Yellow Fever and Dengue 2 Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Monoclonal antibodies to the envelope proteins (E) of the 17D vaccine strain of yellow fever virus (17D YF) and to dengue 2 virus were examined for their ability to confer passive protection against lethal 17D YF encephalitis in mice. All 13 IgG anti- 17D YF antibodies, regardless of neutralizing capacity, conferred solid protection when given in a relatively high

MICHAEL W. BRANDRISS; JACOB J. SCHLESINGER; EDWARD E. WALSH; MICHAEL BRISELLI

1986-01-01

78

429Vol. 5, No. 3, MayJune 1999 Emerging Infectious Diseases Yellow fever (YF) is a serious public health  

E-print Network

429Vol. 5, No. 3, MayJune 1999 Emerging Infectious Diseases Dispatches Yellow fever (YF on the Maroni River was admitted to the health center in Maripasoula, French Guiana, with fever, headache positive blood smear. Two days later, the patients fever increased (40.2°C), she became jaundiced, and she

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

Risk Assessment for Yellow Fever in Western and North-Western Provinces of Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0%) samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1%) for Dengue, 370 (10.2%) for West Nile and 217 (6.0%) for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation. PMID:25722614

Babaniyi, Olusegun A.; Mwaba, Peter; Mulenga, David; Monze, Mwaka; Songolo, Peter; Mazaba-Liwewe, Mazyanga L.; Mweene-Ndumba, Idah; Masaninga, Freddie; Chizema, Elizabeth; Eshetu-Shibeshi, Messeret; Malama, Costantine; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter

2015-01-01

80

Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African Republic, 2006–2010  

PubMed Central

Background The causative agent of yellow fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly in Africa. In the Central African Republic since 2006, cases have been notified in the provinces of Ombella-Mpoko, Ouham-Pende, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto and in Bangui the capital. As the presence of a vector of yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations at these sites to identify potential vectors of YFV and their abundance. Findings Between 2006 and 2010, 5066 mosquitoes belonging to six genera and 43 species were identified. The 20 species of the Aedes genus identified included Ae. aegypti, the main vector of YFV in urban settings, and species found in tropical forests, such as Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. luteocephalus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. opok. These species were not distributed uniformly in the various sites studied. Thus, the predominant Aedes species was Ae. aegypti in Bangui (90.7?%) and Basse-Kotto (42.2?%), Ae. africanus in Ombella-Mpoko (67.4?%) and Haute-Kotto (77.8?%) and Ae. vittatus in Ouham-Pende (62.2?%). Ae. albopictus was also found in Bangui. The distribution of these dominant species differed significantly according to study site (P?

2012-01-01

81

An outbreak of yellow fever with concurrent chikungunya virus transmission in South Kordofan, Sudan, 2005.  

PubMed

From September through December 2005, an outbreak of hemorrhagic fever occurred in South Kordofan, Sudan. Initial laboratory test results identified IgM antibodies against yellow fever (YF) virus in patient samples, and a YF outbreak was declared on 14 November. To control the outbreak, a YF mass vaccination campaign was conducted and vector control implemented in parts of South Kordofan. Surveillance data were obtained from the Sudan Federal Ministry of Health. Clinical information and serum samples were obtained from a subset of patients with illness during the outbreak. Nomads, health personnel and village chiefs were interviewed about the outbreak. Mosquitoes were collected in 11 villages and towns in North and South Kordofan. From 10 September to 9 December 2005 a total of 605 cases of outbreak-related illness were reported, of which 45% were in nomads. Twenty-nine percent of 177 patients seen at clinics in Julud and Abu Jubaiyah had illness consistent with YF. Five of 18 unvaccinated persons with recent illness and 4 of 16 unvaccinated asymptomatic persons had IgM antibodies to YF virus. IgM antibodies to chikungunya virus were detected in five (27%) ill persons and three (19%) asymptomatic persons. These results indicate that both chikungunya and YF occurred during the outbreak. PMID:18502458

Gould, L Hannah; Osman, Magdi S; Farnon, Eileen C; Griffith, Kevin S; Godsey, Marvin S; Karch, Said; Mulenda, Basimike; El Kholy, Amgad; Grandesso, Francesco; de Radigučs, Xavier; Brair, Maria-Emanuela; Briand, Sylvie; El Tayeb, El Sadig Mahgoub; Hayes, Edward B; Zeller, Herve; Perea, William

2008-12-01

82

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A focal epidemic of yellow fever occurred in late 1970 in southern Benue Plateau State, Nigeria, 1 year after a much larger outbreak in northern Nigeria. Like its predecessor, the 1970 epidemic was associated with virus transmission by wild-breeding Stegomyia mosquitos. Epidemiological data on the outbreak are reported in this paper. PMID:4545318

Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Lee, V. H.; Stroh, G.; Kuteyi, K.; Smith, E. A.

1973-01-01

83

Investigations into yellow fever virus and other arboviruses in the northern regions of Kenya  

PubMed Central

Previous studies having shown an appreciable level of yellow fever immunity to exist in northern Kenya, further epidemiological and serological surveys were carried out there in 1968 in an attempt to define more clearly the distribution of yellow fever and to locate possible vector and reservoir hosts of the disease; these surveys also provided information on a number of other arboviruses. Altogether 436 sera from 5 areas in northern Kenya were screened by haemagglutination-inhibition tests with 8 antigens, and 107 of these sera by neutralization tests for Group-B arboviruses. Small numbers of yellow-fever-immune adults were found in Ileret, Garissa, Loglogo and Mikona. At Marsabit high proportions of immune adults and children were found among the Burgi tribe. As the Burgi are permanent agricultural workers on Marsabit Mountain, an entomological investigation was made, over 15 000 mosquitos being collected. From these, 13 strains of Pongola virus, 1 strain of Semliki Forest virus and an unidentified virus were isolated, but no yellow fever strains. Aedes africanus and Aedes simpsoni were not found at Marsabit; small numbers of Aedes aegypti were collected biting man. The vector potential of other mosquitos collected (particularly Mansonia africana, which is present throughout the year) is discussed. PMID:4393661

Henderson, B. E.; Metselaar, D.; Kirya, G. B.; Timms, G. L.

1970-01-01

84

Size Heterogeneity in the 3' Noncoding Region of South American Isolates of Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3 noncoding region (3 NCR) of flaviviruses contains secondary and tertiary structures essential for virus replication. Previous studies of yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus have found that modifications to the 3 NCR are sometimes associated with attenuation in vertebrate and\\/or mosquito hosts. The 3 NCRs of 117 isolates of South American YFV have been examined, and major

Juliet E. Bryant; Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos; Rene C. A. Rijnbrand; J. P. Mutebi; Stephen Higgs; Alan D. T. Barrett

2005-01-01

85

Detection of yellow fever virus: a comparison of quantitative real-time PCR and plaque assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever virus quantitation is performed routinely by cultivation of virus containing samples using susceptible cells. Counting of the resulting plaques provides a marker for the number of infectious particles present in the sample. This assay usually takes up to 5 days before results are obtained and must be carried out under L2 or L3 laboratory conditions, depending on the

Hi-Gung Bae; Andreas Nitsche; Anette Teichmann; Stefan S. Biel; Matthias Niedrig

2003-01-01

86

FIRST RECORDED OUTBREAK OF YELLOW FEVER IN KENYA, 1992-1993. II. ENTOMOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first recorded outbreak of yellow fever in Kenya occurred from mid-1992 through March 1993 in the south Kerio Valley, Rift Valley Province. We conducted entomologic studies in February-March 1993 to identify the likely vectors and determine the potential for transmission in the surrounding rural and urban areas. Mosquitoes were collected by landing capture and processed for virus isolation. Container

PAUL REITER; ROGER CORDELLIER; JOHN O. OUMA; C. BRUCE CROPP; HARRY M. SAVAGE; EDUARD J. SANDERS; ANTHONY A. MARFIN; PETER M. TUKEI; NAFTALI N. AGATA; LEWIS G. GITAU; BETH A. RAPUODA; DUANE J. GUBLER

87

Notes from the field: fatal yellow Fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease - Oregon, september 2014.  

PubMed

In September 2014, a previously healthy Oregon woman in her 60s went to a hospital emergency department with malaise, dyspnea, vomiting, and diarrhea of 3-5 days' duration. She reported no recent travel, ill contacts, or dietary changes. Six days earlier, she had received a single dose of yellow fever vaccine and typhoid vaccine before planned travel to South America. PMID:25789744

DeSilva, Malini; Sharma, Arun; Staples, Erin; Arndt, Byron; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Shames, Jim; Cieslak, Paul

2015-03-20

88

Genetic Variation in Yellow Fever Virus: Duplication in the 3? Noncoding Region of Strains from Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequences of three regions of the genomes of 13 yellow fever (YF) virus isolates were determined to define genetic variation and evolution of the virus. Phylogenetic trees generated from sequences of either the 5? terminal 1320 nucleotides of the genome, 754 nucleotides from the NS4A and NS4B genes, or the 3? terminal 511 nucleotides were very similar and

Eryu Wang; Scott C. Weaver; Robert E. Shope; Robert B. Tesh; Douglas M. Watts; Alan D. T. Barrett

1996-01-01

89

Complete nucleotide sequence of yellow fever virus vaccine strains 17DD and 17D-213  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome from two yellow fever (YF) virus vaccine strains, 17DD and 17D-213, has been determined. Comparison of these sequences with those of other YF viruses including the parental virulent Asibi strain allowed the identification of 48 nucleotide sequence differences which are common to all 17D substrains. This is a significant reduction from the 67

Claudia N. Duarte dos Santos; Paulo R. Post; Ricardo Carvalho; Idevaldo I. Ferreira; Charles M. Rice; Ricardo Galler

1995-01-01

90

Stable Transformation of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, with the Hermes Element from the Housefly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the world's most important vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses. Work is currently in progress to control the transmission of these viruses by genetically altering the capacity of wild Ae. aegypti populations to support virus replication. The germline transformation system reported here constitutes a major advance toward the implementation of this control strategy. A

Nijole Jasinskiene; Craig J. Coates; Mark Q. Benedict; Anthony J. Cornel; Cristina Salazar Rafferty; Anthony A. James; Frank H. Collins

1998-01-01

91

Safety and efficacy of yellow fever vaccine in children less thanone-year-old.  

PubMed

In a clinical trial of stabilized yellow fever vaccine from Institute Pasteur in 77 children aged seven to eight months, fever was the most significant immediate and delayed side effect. Fever occurred in 12 (15.6%) children with in 48 hours of vaccination while it occurred in 10 (12.9%) children within ten days of vaccination. Other recorded side effects were pain at innoculation site in four (5.2%) children and vomiting in one (1.3%) child. Temperature recorded in 20 of the 22 febrile episodes ranged from 37.8 degrees C to 38.6 degrees C. One of the two patients who had temperatures of 39 degrees C and above had malaria parasites in her blood film. All episodes of fever except one responded to antipyretic. There was no episode of febrile convulsion and no feature suggestive of encephalitis. Of the 20 children who had neutralization test carried out against yellow fever virus six weeks after vaccination, the test was positive in post vaccination sera of 12 (60%) children whose pre-vaccination sera were negative. Two others showed evidence of partial protection. Although the seroconversion rate of 60% is less than reported in adults and older children, the result of this study shows that yellow fever vaccine is safe and fairly effective in infants. It is our suggestion that if a larger trial confirms our findings, the vaccine may be incorporated into the expanded programme on immunization (EPI) to be given at the age of seven months after completion of diptheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccinations and before measles vaccination is due. PMID:2271433

Osinusi, K; Akinkugbe, F M; Akinwolere, O A; Fabiyi, A

1990-01-01

92

The Safety of Yellow Fever Vaccine 17D or 17DD in Children, Pregnant Women, HIV+ Individuals, and Older Persons: Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting immunity. Rare serious adverse events after vaccination include neurologic or viscerotropic syndromes or anaphylaxis. We conducted a systematic review of adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccination in vulnerable populations. Nine electronic bibliographic databases and reference lists of included articles were searched. Electronic databases identified 2,415 abstracts for review, and 32 abstracts were included in this review. We identified nine studies of adverse events in infants and children, eight studies of adverse events in pregnant women, nine studies of adverse events in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, five studies of adverse events in persons 60 years and older, and one study of adverse events in individuals taking immunosuppressive medications. Two case studies of maternal–neonate transmission resulted in serious adverse events, and the five passive surveillance databases identified very small numbers of cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease, yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease, and anaphylaxis in persons ? 60 years. No other serious adverse events were identified in the other studies of vulnerable groups. PMID:22302874

Thomas, Roger E.; Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Spragins, Wendy; Jackson, Dave; Williamson, Tyler

2012-01-01

93

The Molecular Characterization of a Diuretic Hormone Receptor (GPRdih1) From Females of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.)  

E-print Network

In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), hemolymph-circulating diuretic hormones act upon the renal organs (Malpighian tubules) to regulate primary urine composition and secretion rate; however, the molecular endocrine mechanisms underlying...

Jagge, Christopher Lloyd

2011-02-22

94

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Serological studies of persons infected with yellow fever (YF) during the 1970 epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that epidemic YF occurred despite a high prevalence of pre-existing group B arbovirus immunity, which increased with age. The viruses involved were primarily dengue, Zika, and Wesselsbron. Patterns of responses of haemagglutination-inhibiting, complement-fixing, and neutralizing antibodies in primary YF and in superinfections are defined in this paper. PMID:4546521

Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Casals, J.

1973-01-01

95

A recombinant Yellow Fever 17D vaccine expressing Lassa virus glycoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow Fever Vaccine 17D (YFV17D) has been used as a vector for the Lassa virus glycoprotein precursor (LASV-GPC) resulting in construction of YFV17D\\/LASV-GPC recombinant virus. The virus was replication-competent and processed the LASV-GPC in cell cultures. The recombinant replicated poorly in guinea pigs but still elicited specific antibodies against LASV and YFV17D antigens. A single subcutaneous injection of the

Peter J. Bredenbeek; Richard Molenkamp; Willy J. M. Spaan; Vincent Deubel; Phillippe Marianneau; Maria S. Salvato; Dmitry Moshkoff; Juan Zapata; Ilia Tikhonov; Jean Patterson; Ricardo Carrion; Anysha Ticer; Kathleen Brasky; Igor S. Lukashevich

2006-01-01

96

Systems biology approach predicts immunogenicity of the yellow fever vaccine in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge in vaccinology is to prospectively determine vaccine efficacy. Here we have used a systems biology approach to identify early gene 'signatures' that predicted immune responses in humans vaccinated with yellow fever vaccine YF-17D. Vaccination induced genes that regulate virus innate sensing and type I interferon production. Computational analyses identified a gene signature, including complement protein C1qB and

Troy D Querec; Rama S Akondy; Eva K Lee; Weiping Cao; Helder I Nakaya; Dirk Teuwen; Ali Pirani; Kim Gernert; Jiusheng Deng; Bruz Marzolf; Kathleen Kennedy; Haiyan Wu; Soumaya Bennouna; Herold Oluoch; Joseph Miller; Ricardo Z Vencio; Mark Mulligan; Alan Aderem; Rafi Ahmed; Bali Pulendran

2008-01-01

97

Human Effector and Memory CD8 + T Cell Responses to Smallpox and Yellow Fever Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY ToexplorethehumanTcellresponsetoacuteviralin- fection, we performed a longitudinal analysis of CD8+ T cells responding to the live yellow fever virus and smallpox vaccines—two highly successful human vaccines. Our results show that both vaccines gener- ated a brisk primary effector CD8+ T cell response of substantial magnitude that could be readily quanti- tated with a simple set of four phenotypic markers. Secondly,

Joseph D. Miller; Robbert G. van der Most; Rama S. Akondy; John T. Glidewell; Sophia Albott; David Masopust; Kaja Murali-Krishna; Patryce L. Mahar; Srilatha Edupuganti; Susan Lalor; Stephanie Germon; Carlos Del Rio; Silvija I. Staprans; John D. Altman; Mark B. Feinberg; Rafi Ahmed

2008-01-01

98

The In Vivo Differentiation of Strains of Yellow Fever Virus in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Strains of yellow fever virus isolated since I927 in Africa and the Americas, and strains derived from them, have been differentiated by the responses of mice of different ages to intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intracerebral (i.c.) infection. Infection, antibody conversion, protection and death have been presented on age-dose response phase diagrams that serve as in vivo 'fingerprints' for the differentiation

R. Fitzgeorge; C. J. Bradish

1980-01-01

99

Neutralization of Yellow Fever Virus Studied Using Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies with known specificity for either the 54K envelope glycoprotein or the 48K non-structural glycoprotein of yellow fever (YF) virus-infected cells were studied in plaque reduction neutralization tests. Viruses employed in the tests comprised wild-type and vaccine strains of YF and a selection of other flaviviruses. Of 17 monoclonal antibodies examined, six of the 54K-specific antibodies

A. Buckley; E. A. Gould

1985-01-01

100

Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining molecular-biological techniques with our increased understanding of the effect of gene sequence modification on viral function, yellow fever 17D, a positive-strand RNA virus vaccine, has been manipulated to induce a protective immune response against viruses of the same family (e.g. Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses). Triggered by the emergence of West Nile virus infections in the New World

Juan Arroyo; Charles A Miller; John Catalan; Thomas P Monath

2001-01-01

101

SATELLITE-BASED RIFT VALLEY FEVER FORECASTS PREDICT A LARGE YELLOW FEVER EPIDEMIC IN SUDAN, 2005  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sustained, heavy East African rainfall is associated with Aedes spp. breeding in Kenyan grasslands and Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics. Validated RVF forecasts use satellite measurements of vegetation greenness (which increases after heavy rains) and other eco-climate indicators. These models may ...

102

Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever: WHO Position Paper, June 2013--recommendations.  

PubMed

This article presents the World Health Organizations (WHO) evidence and recommendations for the use of yellow fever (YF) vaccination from "Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever: WHO Position Paper - June 2013" published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record. This position paper summarizes the WHO position on the use of YF vaccination, in particular that a single dose of YF vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained life-long protective immunity against YF disease. A booster dose is not necessary. The current document replaces the position paper on the use of yellow fever vaccines and vaccination published in 2003. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its April 2013 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. PMID:24852721

2015-01-01

103

Survey of the relative prevalence of potential yellow fever vectors in north-west Nigeria.  

PubMed

The yellow fever epidemic in Nigeria in 1969-70 emphasized the lack of data concerning the possible importance of Aedes aegypti and other Stegomyia mosquitos as vectors. An entomological survey was therefore undertaken in September 1973 in 6 areas in the north-west of Nigeria to determine the prevalence of Stegomyia populations in the villages. An examination of over 6 700 water pots showed that 11-53% contained A. aegypti larvae, and in some areas larvae of A. vittatus were found in up to 18% of pots. In villages in the relatively dry Sudan savanna neither leaf axils nor tree-holes were important Stegomyia larval habitats, but in the more southern Kontagora area of the wetter northern Guinea savanna, these habitats were probably important breeding sites. In the early evening the most abundant man-biting mosquito in the villages was A. aegypti. A. vittatus was also caught at bait in some villages. It was concluded that the only potential yellow fever vectors in the area were A. aegypti and A. vittatus. There were large populations of A. aegypti, closely associated with man, in all the areas surveyed, but they should not present a risk of yellow fever transmission unless the disease were to be introduced into the area by man, or unless virus reservoirs, such as monkeys, were also present. Although monkeys were common in the Kontagora area they were rare in the Sudan savanna. PMID:4156499

Service, M W

1974-01-01

104

Mutual interference on the immune response to yellow fever vaccine and a combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella.  

PubMed

A randomized trial was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of yellow fever vaccines (YFV) given either simultaneously in separate injections, or 30 days or more after a combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Volunteers were also randomized to YFV produced from 17DD and WHO-17D-213 substrains. The study group comprised 1769 healthy 12-month-old children brought to health care centers in Brasilia for routine vaccination. The reactogenicity was of the type and frequency expected for the vaccines and no severe adverse event was associated to either vaccine. Seroconversion and seropositivity 30 days or more after vaccination against yellow fever was similar across groups defined by YFV substrain. Subjects injected YFV and MMR simultaneously had lower seroconversion rates--90% for rubella, 70% for yellow fever and 61% for mumps--compared with those vaccinated 30 days apart--97% for rubella, 87% for yellow fever and 71% for mumps. Seroconversion rates for measles were higher than 98% in both comparison groups. Geometric mean titers for rubella and for yellow fever were approximately three times higher among those who got the vaccines 30 days apart. For measles and mumps antibodies GMTs were similar across groups. MMR's interference in immune response of YFV and YFV's interference in immune response of rubella and mumps components of MMR had never been reported before but are consistent with previous observations from other live vaccines. These results may affect the recommendations regarding primary vaccination with yellow fever vaccine and MMR. PMID:21640779

Nascimento Silva, Juliana Romualdo; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B; Siqueira, Marilda M; Freire, Marcos de Silva; Castro, Yvone P; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S; Yamamura, Anna Maya Y; Martins, Reinaldo M; Leal, Maria de Luz F

2011-08-26

105

Yellow fever virus: genetic and phenotypic diversity and implications for detection, prevention and therapy.  

PubMed

Yellow fever virus (YFV) is the prototypical hemorrhagic fever virus, yet our understanding of its phenotypic diversity and any molecular basis for observed differences in disease severity and epidemiology is lacking, when compared to other arthropod-borne and haemorrhagic fever viruses. This is, in part, due to the availability of safe and effective vaccines resulting in basic YFV research taking a back seat to those viruses for which no effective vaccine occurs. However, regular outbreaks occur in endemic areas, and the spread of the virus to new, previously unaffected, areas is possible. Analysis of isolates from endemic areas reveals a strong geographic association for major genotypes, and recent epidemics have demonstrated the emergence of novel sequence variants. This review aims to outline the current understanding of YFV genetic and phenotypic diversity and its sources, as well as the available animal models for characterizing these differences in vivo. The consequences of genetic diversity for detection and diagnosis of yellow fever and development of new vaccines and therapeutics are discussed. PMID:25545072

Beasley, David W C; McAuley, Alexander J; Bente, Dennis A

2015-03-01

106

Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 28 (1998) 915925 Vitelline envelope genes of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes  

E-print Network

Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 28 (1998) 915­925 Vitelline envelope genes of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Marten J. Edwards a,* , David W. Severson b , Henry H. Hagedorn c: Aedes aegypti; Vitelline envelope; 20-hydroxyecdysone 1. Introduction Eggshell development in the yellow

Severson, David

107

A Curious Case of Fever and Hyperpigmentation  

PubMed Central

Megaloblastic anaemia as a cause of pyrexia is a rare entity. Similarly, hyperpigmentation of skin has rarely been reported as the presenting manifestation of folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency. The author reports the case of a patient who presented with fever and hyperpigmentation and was diagnosed to have megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency after other infective, inflammatory/autoimmune, endocrine causes of pyrexia and hyperpigmentation were excluded by appropriate investigations. The patient responded remarkably well to the treatment with vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation. Although presentation of megaloblastic anaemia as isolated fever or hyperpigmentation are noted in literature, simultaneous fever and hyperpigmentation as its initial presentation is exceedingly rare. PMID:25738019

2015-01-01

108

[Yellow fever in the Ribeirăo Preto region at the turn of the 19th century: its scientific importance and economic repercussions].  

PubMed

Yellow fever in the Region of Ribeirao Preto at the turn of XIX century: scientific importance and economic repercussion. This historical review describes the bad situation of public health in Brazil during the XIX Century caused by multiple yellow fever outbreaks. The knowledge regarding to yellow fever at that time is also described. A short history is presented of the development of the Region of Ribeirao Preto, located in the Northeast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, emphasising the actuation of immigrants and pioneer coffee farmers like Luiz Pereira Barreto. Yellow fever outbreaks occurred in the City of Sao Simao in 1896, 1898, and 1902 are described as well as an outbreak in the City of Ribeirao Preto occurring in 1903. It is shown that yellow fever outbreaks were stopped in the 2 cities by Emilio Ribas who led the fight against the transmitting mosquito Aedes aegypti. Emilio Ribas, helped by Adolpho, Lutz and Luiz Pereira Barreto, promoted scientific experiments in order to confirm the vectorial transmission of yellow fever and to annul the supposed importance of other kinds of contagion. The yellow fever outbreaks caused damage to the development of Sao Simao and influenced the transference of the economic pole of the region to the City of Ribeirao Preto. The vector control work done during yellow fever outbreak and the scientific experiments on the transmission of yellow fever were important for the development of medical science and fpublic health in Brazil. PMID:8851220

Figueiredo, L T

1996-01-01

109

Mortality and morbidity among military personnel and civilians during the 1930s and World War II from transmission of hepatitis during yellow fever vaccination: systematic review.  

PubMed

During World War II, nearly all US and Allied troops received yellow fever vaccine. Until May 1942, it was both grown and suspended in human serum. In April 1942, major epidemics of hepatitis occurred in US and Allied troops who had received yellow fever vaccine. A rapid and thorough investigation by the US surgeon general followed, and a directive was issued discontinuing the use of human serum in vaccine production. The large number of cases of hepatitis caused by the administration of this vaccine could have been avoided. Had authorities undertaken a thorough review of the literature, they would have discovered published reports, as early as 1885, of postvaccination epidemics of hepatitis in both men and horses. It would take 4 additional decades of experiments and epidemiological research before viruses of hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E were identified, their modes of transmission understood, and their genomes sequenced. PMID:23327242

Thomas, Roger E; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Spragins, Wendy

2013-03-01

110

Mortality and Morbidity Among Military Personnel and Civilians During the 1930s and World War II From Transmission of Hepatitis During Yellow Fever Vaccination: Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

During World War II, nearly all US and Allied troops received yellow fever vaccine. Until May 1942, it was both grown and suspended in human serum. In April 1942, major epidemics of hepatitis occurred in US and Allied troops who had received yellow fever vaccine. A rapid and thorough investigation by the US surgeon general followed, and a directive was issued discontinuing the use of human serum in vaccine production. The large number of cases of hepatitis caused by the administration of this vaccine could have been avoided. Had authorities undertaken a thorough review of the literature, they would have discovered published reports, as early as 1885, of postvaccination epidemics of hepatitis in both men and horses. It would take 4 additional decades of experiments and epidemiological research before viruses of hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E were identified, their modes of transmission understood, and their genomes sequenced. PMID:23327242

Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Spragins, Wendy

2013-01-01

111

Yellow Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) Home A-Z Index Policies Using this Site Link to Us Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329- ...

112

Yellow fever vaccination in Malaya by subcutaneous injection and multiple puncture  

PubMed Central

Because of the risk of introduction of yellow fever to South-East Asia, comparative studies were made of yellow fever vaccination in Malayans who had a high prevalence of antibody to related viruses and in volunteers without related antibody. The proportions of positive neutralizing antibody responses to subcutaneous vaccination with 17D vaccine were not significantly different between volunteers with and without heterologous antibody but the degree of antibody response was greater in those without. The ID50 of 17D in both groups was about 5 mouse intracerebral LD50. Multiple puncture vaccination with 17D gave a much lower response rate than subcutaneous vaccination in volunteers with heterologous antibody. In both groups subcutaneous doses of about 50 mouse intracerebral LD50 gave larger antibody responses than higher doses. The neutralizing indices and analysis of results were calculated by a method based on the survival time of the mice. This method, which has advantages over that of Reed & Muench, is fully described in an annex to this paper. PMID:13993152

Smith, C. E. Gordon; Turner, L. H.; Armitage, P.

1962-01-01

113

Yellow fever: ecology, epidemiology, and role in the collapse of the Classic lowland Maya civilization.  

PubMed

Mystery has long surrounded the collapse of the Classic lowland Mayan civilization of the Peten region in Guatemala. Recent population reconstructions derived from archaeological evidence from the central lowlands show population declines from urban levels of between 2.5 and 3.5 million to around 536,000 in the two hundred year interval between 800 A.D. and 1000 A.D., the period known as the Classic Maya Collapse. A steady, but lesser rate of population decline continued until the time of European contact. When knowledge of the ecology and epidemiology of yellow fever and its known mosquito vectors are compared with what is known of the ecological conditions of lowland Guatemala as modified by the Classic Maya, provocative similarities are observed. When infection and mortality patterns of more recent urban yellow fever epidemics are used as models for a possible series of Classic Maya epidemics, a correlation is noted between the modeled rate of population decline for a series of epidemics, and population decline figures reconstructed from archaeological evidence. PMID:8643025

Wilkinson, R L

1995-07-01

114

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 1-undec-10-enoyl-piperidines as adulticides against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), is considered the primary vector for both dengue and yellow fever. Using insecticide is one of the major ways to control this medically important insect pest. However, few new insecticides have been developed for mosquito control. As part of our collabo...

115

Dengue Fever With Rectus Sheath Hematoma: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the Dengue virus. It is associated with a number of complications, which are well documented. However, Dengue fever associated with rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a very rare complication. Only one case report has been published prior supporting the association of Dengue fever with RSH. We report a case of Dengue fever who presented with RSH and was successfully treated conservatively. RSH is also an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear. PMID:25161976

Sharma, Anurag; Bhatia, Sonia; Singh, Rajendra Pratap; Malik, Gaurav

2014-01-01

116

Travel Characteristics and Yellow Fever Vaccine Usage Among US Global TravEpiNet Travelers Visiting Countries with Risk of Yellow Fever Virus Transmission, 2009–2011  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated serious adverse events and changing YF epidemiology have challenged healthcare providers to vaccinate only travelers whose risk of YF during travel is greater than their risk of adverse events. We describe the travel characteristics and YF vaccine use among US travelers visiting Global TravEpiNet clinics from January of 2009 to March of 2011. Of 16,660 travelers, 5,588 (34%) had itineraries to areas with risk of YF virus transmission. Of those travelers visiting one country with YF risk (N = 4,517), 71% were vaccinated at the visit, and 20% were presumed to be immune from prior vaccination. However, travelers visiting friends and relatives (odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.27–5.22) or going to Nigeria (OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.37–6.62) were significantly more likely to decline vaccination. To optimize YF vaccine use, clinicians should discuss an individual's risk–benefit assessment of vaccination and close knowledge gaps regarding vaccine use among at-risk populations. PMID:23458961

Jentes, Emily S.; Han, Pauline; Gershman, Mark D.; Rao, Sowmya R.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Staples, J. Erin; Ryan, Edward T.

2013-01-01

117

Laboratory vector competence experiments with yellow fever virus and five South African mosquito species including Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three domestic and peridomestic mosquito species, selected because their prevalence, distribution and ecology favoured them as potential urban vectors of yellow fever (YF) in South Africa, were submitted to numerous tests for infectivity [measured as dose needed to infect 50% of the mosquitoes (MID50)], mainly with a Kenyan strain (BC7914) of the virus. Use of a Nigerian virus strain (TVP1617)

Peter G. Jupp; Alan Kemp

2002-01-01

118

Geographic distribution and evolution of yellow fever viruses based on direct sequencing of genomic cDNA fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared the nucleotide sequence of an envelope protein gene fragment encoding amino acids 291 to 406 of 22 yellow fever (YF) virus strains of diverse geographic and host origins isolated over a 63 year time span. The nucleotide fragment of viral RNA was examined by direct sequencing ofa PCR product derived from complementary DNA. Alignment with the proto-

Loic Lepiniec; Lynn Dalgarno; V. T. Q. Huong; T. P. Monath; J.-P. Digoutte; V. Deubel

1994-01-01

119

The single kinin receptor signals to separate and independent physiological pathways in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past we have used the leucokinins, the kinins of the cockroach Leucophaea, to evaluate the mechanism of diuretic action of kinin peptides in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Now using aedeskinins, the kinins of Aedes, are available, we find that in isolated Aede...

120

Out of Africa: A Molecular Perspective on the Introduction of Yellow Fever Virus into the Americas  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever virus (YFV) remains the cause of severe morbidity and mortality in South America and Africa. To determine the evolutionary history of this important reemerging pathogen, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the largest YFV data set compiled to date, representing the prM/E gene region from 133 viral isolates sampled from 22 countries over a period of 76 years. We estimate that the currently circulating strains of YFV arose in Africa within the last 1,500 years and emerged in the Americas following the slave trade approximately 300–400 years ago. These viruses then spread westwards across the continent and persist there to this day in the jungles of South America. We therefore illustrate how gene sequence data can be used to test hypotheses of viral dispersal and demographics, and document the role of human migration in the spread of infectious disease. PMID:17511518

Bryant, Juliet E; Holmes, Edward C; Barrett, Alan D. T

2007-01-01

121

Evaluation of two molecular methods for the detection of Yellow fever virus genome.  

PubMed

Yellow fever virus (YFV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus is endemic to tropical areas of Africa and South America and is among the arboviruses that pose a threat to public health. Recent outbreaks in Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay and the observation that vectors capable of transmitting YFV are presenting in urban areas underscore the urgency of improving surveillance and diagnostic methods. Two novel methods (RT-hemi-nested-PCR and SYBR(®) Green qRT-PCR) for efficient detection of YFV strains circulating in South America have been developed. The methods were validated using samples obtained from golden hamsters infected experimentally with wild-type YFV strains as well as human serum and tissue samples with acute disease. PMID:21419803

Nunes, Marcio R T; Palacios, Gustavo; Nunes, Keley N B; Casseb, Samir M M; Martins, Lívia C; Quaresma, Juarez A S; Savji, Nazir; Lipkin, W Ian; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

2011-06-01

122

Efficient, trans-complementing packaging systems for chimeric, pseudoinfectious dengue 2/yellow fever viruses  

SciTech Connect

In our previous studies, we have stated to build a new strategy for developing defective, pseudoinfectious flaviviruses (PIVs) and applying them as a new type of vaccine candidates. PIVs combined the efficiency of live vaccines with the safety of inactivated or subunit vaccines. The results of the present work demonstrate further development of chimeric PIVs encoding dengue virus 2 (DEN2V) glycoproteins and yellow fever virus (YFV)-derived replicative machinery as potential vaccine candidates. The newly designed PIVs have synergistically functioning mutations in the prM and NS2A proteins, which abolish processing of the latter proteins and make the defective viruses capable of producing either only noninfectious, immature and/or subviral DEN2V particles. The PIV genomes can be packaged to high titers into infectious virions in vitro using the NS1-deficient YFV helper RNAs, and both PIVs and helpers can then be passaged as two-component genome viruses at an escalating scale.

Shustov, Alexandr V. [Department of Microbiology, BBRB 373/Box 3, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294-2170 (United States); Frolov, Ilya, E-mail: ivfrolov@UAB.ed [Department of Microbiology, BBRB 373/Box 3, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294-2170 (United States)

2010-04-25

123

Pathology Case Study: Fever, Purpura and Hypotension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. In this case, a 20 year old male college student is admitted to the emergency room with "general malaise, low-grade fever, and purplish discoloration on his face. Using the information provided, which includes patient and social history, images and descriptions from his physical exam, the hospital course and microscopic images, students are encouraged to test their knowledge of pathology and diagnose the patient's medical condition. You can check your diagnosis against the official conclusions in the "Final Diagnosis" section. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Anhalt, John P.

124

BCX4430, a novel nucleoside analog, effectively treats yellow fever in a Hamster model.  

PubMed

No effective antiviral therapies are currently available to treat disease after infection with yellow fever virus (YFV). A Syrian golden hamster model of yellow fever (YF) was used to characterize the effect of treatment with BCX4430, a novel adenosine nucleoside analog. Significant improvement in survival was observed after treatment with BCX4430 at 4 mg/kg of body weight per day dosed intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice daily (BID). Treatment with BCX4430 at 12.5 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days offered complete protection from mortality and also resulted in significant improvement of other YF disease parameters, including weight loss, serum alanine aminotransferase levels (6 days postinfection [dpi]), and viremia (4 dpi). In uninfected hamsters, BCX4430 at 200 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days was well tolerated and did not result in mortality or weight loss, suggesting a potentially wide therapeutic index. Treatment with BCX4430 at 12 mg/kg/day i.p. remained effective when administered once daily and for only 4 days. Moreover, BCX4430 dosed at 200 mg/kg/day i.p. BID for 7 days effectively treated YF, even when treatment was delayed up to 4 days after virus challenge, corresponding with peak viral titers in the liver and serum. BCX4430 treatment did not preclude a protective antibody response, as higher neutralizing antibody (nAb) concentrations corresponded with increasing delays of treatment initiation, and greater nAb responses resulted in the protection of animals from a secondary challenge with YFV. In summary, BCX4430 is highly active in a hamster model of YF, even when treatment is initiated at the peak of viral replication. PMID:25155605

Julander, Justin G; Bantia, Shanta; Taubenheim, Brian R; Minning, Dena M; Kotian, Pravin; Morrey, John D; Smee, Donald F; Sheridan, William P; Babu, Yarlagadda S

2014-11-01

125

Fever of Unknown Origin: An Unusual Case  

PubMed Central

Recurrent episodic fever of unknown origin (FUO) arising from tumour of the gastrointestinal tract is rare. We report an otherwise healthy 62-year-old man with recurrent circumscribed bouts of fever and raised CRP for 3 years who has remained well and fever-free 2 years after the removal of a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the colon. Occult colonic neoplasm should be considered and sought when routine investigations for FUO are negative. PMID:22567466

Bansal, R. A.; Hayman, G. R.; Bansal, A. S.

2011-01-01

126

Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*  

PubMed Central

The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

2014-01-01

127

Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... medicine to lower a fever: Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help reduce fever in children and ... works by turning down the brain's thermostat. Take ibuprofen every 6 to 8 hours. Do not use ...

128

Spatiotemporal distribution of diurnal yellow fever vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) at two sylvan interfaces in Kenya, East Africa.  

PubMed

Yellow fever virus (YFV) remains a significant public health threat in sub-Saharan Africa in which 90% of the estimated 200,000 cases occur annually. In East Africa, human cases of YFV are characterized by unpredictable focal periodicity, lengthy inter-epidemic periods, and a precarious potential for large epidemics. YFV had remained undetected in this region for nearly 40 years until emerging in Kenya in 1992-93 and more recently in Sudan during 2003 and 2005. From an ecological perspective the emergence and epidemiological outcomes associated with YFV, and related vector-borne diseases, are critically dependent upon the underlying vector ecology at a local scale. The study here was aimed at defining the dynamics of important vector interactions at two important sites in Kenya with previous YFV or related arbovirus activity. The temporal abundance, spatial distribution, and human host seeking behavior of diurnal man-landing mosquito species along sylvan interfaces were investigated. A number of YFV vectors were identified including their abundances for the duration of the main rainy season. Spatially, results indicated that the greatest human-mosquito interactions occurred within the forest and decreased across more domesticated biotopes. A discussion of significant differences, ecological associations, and epidemiological implications is included. PMID:17627429

Ellis, Brett Richard; Wesson, Dawn M; Sang, Rosemary C

2007-01-01

129

Experimental Yellow Fever Virus Infection in the Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). I. Virologic, Biochemical, and Immunologic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the clinical laboratory findings in golden hamsters experimentally infected with yellow fever (YF) virus. An accompanying paper describes the pathologic find- ings. Following intraperitoneal inoculation of a virulent strain of YF virus, hamsters developed a high-titered viremia (up to 109\\/mL) lasting 5-6 days and abnormal liver function tests. YF hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies appeared 4 or 5 days after

Hilda Guzman; Hui Zhang

2001-01-01

130

Cell surface expression of yellow fever virus non-structural glycoprotein NS1: consequences of interaction with antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among antibodies to flaviviral proteins only those directed at the virion envelope protein (E) or the non- structural glycoprotein NS1 are known to confer protection. To investigate the possible role of comple- ment-mediated cytolysis (CMC) in protection we measured the capacity of anti-NS 1, or E monospecific serum or monoclonal antibodies to bind to yellow fever virus (YFV)-infected cells and

Jacob J. Schlesinger; Michael W. Brandriss; J. Robert Putnak; Edward E. Walsh

1990-01-01

131

Construction, Safety, and Immunogenicity in Nonhuman Primates of a Chimeric Yellow Fever-Dengue Virus Tetravalent Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported construction of a chimeric yellow fever-dengue type 2 virus (YF\\/DEN2) and deter- mined its safety and protective efficacy in rhesus monkeys (F. Guirakhoo et al., J. Virol. 74:5477-5485, 2000). In this paper, we describe construction of three additional YF\\/DEN chimeras using premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes of wild-type (WT) clinical isolates: DEN1 (strain PUO359, isolated in

F. Guirakhoo; J. Arroyo; K. V. Pugachev; C. Miller; Z.-X. Zhang; R. Weltzin; K. Georgakopoulos; J. Catalan; S. Ocran; K. Soike; M. Ratterree; T. P. Monath

2001-01-01

132

A Flow Cytometry-Based Assay for Quantifying Non-Plaque Forming Strains of Yellow Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

Primary clinical isolates of yellow fever virus can be difficult to quantitate by standard in vitro methods because they may not form discernable plaques or induce a measurable cytopathic effect (CPE) on cell monolayers. In our hands, the Dakar strain of yellow fever virus (YFV-Dakar) could not be measured by plaque assay (PA), focus-forming assay (FFA), or by measurement of CPE. For these reasons, we developed a YFV-specific monoclonal antibody (3A8.B6) and used it to optimize a highly sensitive flow cytometry-based tissue culture limiting dilution assay (TC-LDA) to measure levels of infectious virus. The TC-LDA was performed by incubating serial dilutions of virus in replicate wells of C6/36 cells and stained intracellularly for virus with MAb 3A8.B6. Using this approach, we could reproducibly quantitate YFV-Dakar in tissue culture supernatants as well as from the serum of viremic rhesus macaques experimentally infected with YFV-Dakar. Moreover, the TC-LDA approach was >10-fold more sensitive than standard plaque assay for quantitating typical plaque-forming strains of YFV including YFV-17D and YFV-FNV (French neurotropic vaccine). Together, these results indicate that the TC-LDA technique is effective for quantitating both plaque-forming and non-plaque-forming strains of yellow fever virus, and this methodology may be readily adapted for the study and quantitation of other non-plaque-forming viruses. PMID:23028428

Hammarlund, Erika; Amanna, Ian J.; Dubois, Melissa E.; Barron, Alex; Engelmann, Flora; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Slifka, Mark K.

2012-01-01

133

MEK/ERK activation plays a decisive role in yellow fever virus replication: implication as an antiviral therapeutic target.  

PubMed

Exploiting the inhibition of host signaling pathways aiming for discovery of potential antiflaviviral compounds is clearly a beneficial strategy for the control of life-threatening diseases caused by flaviviruses. Here we describe the antiviral activity of the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 against Yellow fever virus 17D vaccine strain (YFV-17D). Infection of VERO cells with YFV-17D stimulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation early during infection. Pharmacological inhibition of MEK1/2 through U0126 treatment of VERO cells blockades not only the YFV-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but also inhibits YFV replication by ?99%. U0126 was also effective against dengue virus (DENV-2 and -3) and Saint-Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). Levels of NS4AB, as detected by immunofluorescence, are diminished upon treatment with the inhibitor, as well as the characteristic endoplasmic reticulum membrane invagination stimulated during the infection. Though not protective, treatment of YFV-infected, adult BALB/c mice with U0126 resulted in significant reduction of virus titers in brains. Collectively, our data suggest the potential targeting of the MEK1/2 kinase as a therapeutic tool against diseases caused by flaviviruses such as yellow fever, adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccination and dengue. PMID:25241249

Albarnaz, Jonas D; De Oliveira, Leonardo C; Torres, Alice A; Palhares, Rafael M; Casteluber, Marisa C; Rodrigues, Claudiney M; Cardozo, Pablo L; De Souza, Aryádina M R; Pacca, Carolina C; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Kroon, Erna G; Nogueira, Maurício L; Bonjardim, Cláudio A

2014-11-01

134

Is There a Risk of Yellow Fever Virus Transmission in South Asian Countries with Hyperendemic Dengue?  

PubMed Central

The fact that yellow fever (YF) has never occurred in Asia remains an “unsolved mystery” in global health. Most countries in Asia with high Aedes aegypti mosquito density are considered “receptive” for YF transmission. Recently, health officials in Sri Lanka issued a public health alert on the potential spread of YF from a migrant group from West Africa. We performed an extensive review of literature pertaining to the risk of YF in Sri Lanka/South Asian region to understand the probability of actual risk and assist health authorities to form evidence informed public health policies/practices. Published data from epidemiological, historical, biological, molecular, and mathematical models were harnessed to assess the risk of YF in Asia. Using this data we examine a number of theories proposed to explain lack of YF in Asia. Considering the evidence available, we conclude that the probable risk of local transmission of YF is extremely low in Sri Lanka and for other South Asian countries despite a high Aedes aegypti density and associated dengue burden. This does not however exclude the future possibility of transmission in Asia, especially considering the rapid influx travelers from endemic areas, as we report, arriving in Sri Lanka. PMID:24367789

Agampodi, Suneth B.; Wickramage, Kolitha

2013-01-01

135

YELLOW FEVER PREVENTION STRATEGIES AWARENESS AMONG HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS IN SĂO PAULO, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Vaccination is the main preventive strategy against Yellow Fever (YF), which is a public health concern in Brazil. However, HIV-infected patients might have insufficient knowledge regarding YF, YF prevention, and vaccines in general. Methods: In this questionnaire-based study, data from 158 HIV-infected individuals were addressed in three distinct outpatient clinics in Săo Paulo. Information was collected on demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as patients' knowledge of vaccines, YF and YF preventive strategies. In addition, individual YF vaccine recommendations and vaccine status were investigated. Results: Although most participants adequately ascertain the vaccine as the main prevention strategy against YF, few participants were aware of the severity and lack of specific treatment for YF. Discrepancy in YF vaccine (patients who should have taken the vaccine, but did not) was observed in 18.8% of participants. Conclusion: YF is an important and preventable public health concern, and these results demonstrate that more information is necessary for the HIV-infected population. PMID:25229222

Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Francelino, Hilario Sousa; Kallás, Esper Georges

2014-01-01

136

The effect of bacterial challenge on ferritin regulation in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Secreted ferritin is the major iron storage and transport protein in insects. Here, we characterize the message and protein expression profiles of yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) ferritin heavy chain homologue (HCH) and light chain homologue (LCH) subunits in response to iron and bacterial challenge. In vivo experiments demonstrated tissue-specific regulation of HCH and LCH expression over time post-blood meal (PBM). Transcriptional regulation of HCH and LCH was treatment specific, with differences in regulation for naďve versus mosquitoes challenged with heat-killed bacteria (HKB). Translational regulation by iron regulatory protein (IRP) binding activity for the iron-responsive element (IRE) was tissue-specific and time-dependent PBM. However, mosquitoes challenged with HKB showed little change in IRP/IRE binding activity compared to naďve animals. The changes in ferritin regulation and expression in vivo were confirmed with in vitro studies. We challenged mosquitoes with HKB followed by a blood meal to determine the effects on ferritin expression, and demonstrate a synergistic, time-dependent regulation of expression for HCH and LCH. PMID:23956079

Geiser, Dawn L; Zhou, Guoli; Mayo, Jonathan J; Winzerling, Joy J

2013-10-01

137

Neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

For many insects, including mosquitoes, olfaction is the dominant modality regulating their behavioral repertoire. Many neurochemicals modulate olfactory information in the central nervous system, including the primary olfactory center of insects, the antennal lobe. The most diverse and versatile neurochemicals in the insect nervous system are found in the neuropeptides. In the present study, we analyzed neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a major vector of arboviral diseases. Direct tissue profiling of the antennal lobe by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry indicated the presence of 28 mature products from 10 different neuropeptide genes. In addition, immunocytochemical techniques were used to describe the cellular location of the products of up to seven of these genes within the antennal lobe. Allatostatin A, allatotropin, SIFamide, FMRFamide-related peptides, short neuropeptide F, myoinhibitory peptide, and tachykinin-related peptides were found to be expressed in local interneurons and extrinsic neurons of the antennal lobe. Building on these results, we discuss the possible role of neuropeptide signaling in the antennal lobe of Ae. aegypti. PMID:23897410

Siju, K P; Reifenrath, Anna; Scheiblich, Hannah; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard; Hansson, Bill S; Schachtner, Joachim; Ignell, Rickard

2014-02-15

138

Patterns of a sylvatic yellow fever virus amplification in southeastern Senegal, 2010.  

PubMed

During the wet season of 2010, yellow fever virus (YFV) was detected in field-collected mosquitoes in the Kédougou region in southeastern Senegal. During this outbreak, we studied the association of the abundance of YFV-infected mosquitoes and land cover features to try and understand the dynamics of YFV transmission within the region. In total, 41,234 mosquito females were collected and tested for virus infection in 5,152 pools. YFV was detected in 67 pools; species including Aedes furcifer (52.2% of the infected pools), Ae. luteocephalus (31.3% of the infected pools), Ae. taylori (6.0% of the infected pools) and six other species (10.4% of the infected pools) captured in September (13.4%), October (70.1%), and November (16.4%). Spatially, YFV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes but mainly, forest canopies (49.2%). Human infection is likely mediated by Ae. furcifer, the only species found infected with YFV within villages. Villages containing YFV-infected mosquitoes were significantly closer to large forests (> 2 ha) than villages in which no infected mosquitoes were detected. PMID:24615140

Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A; Diagne, Cheikh T; Faye, Oumar; Hanley, Kathryn A; Buenemann, Michaela; Ba, Yamar; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C; Diallo, Mawlouth

2014-06-01

139

Fever  

MedlinePLUS

A fever is a body temperature that is higher than normal. It is not an illness. It is part of your body's defense against infection. Most bacteria ... cause infections do well at the body's normal temperature (98.6 F). A slight fever can make ...

140

Molecular and immunological characterization of a DNA-launched yellow fever virus 17D infectious clone.  

PubMed

Yellow fever virus (YFV)-17D is an empirically developed, highly effective live-attenuated vaccine that has been administered to human beings for almost a century. YFV-17D has stood as a paradigm for a successful viral vaccine, and has been exploited as a potential virus vector for the development of recombinant vaccines against other diseases. In this study, a DNA-launched YFV-17D construct (pBeloBAC-FLYF) was explored as a new modality to the standard vaccine to combine the commendable features of both DNA vaccine and live-attenuated viral vaccine. The DNA-launched YFV-17D construct was characterized extensively both in cell culture and in mice. High titres of YFV-17D were generated upon transfection of the DNA into cells, whereas a mutant with deletion in the capsid-coding region (pBeloBAC-YF/?C) was restricted to a single round of infection, with no release of progeny virus. Homologous prime-boost immunization of AAD mice with both pBeloBAC-FLYF and pBeloBAC-YF/?C elicited specific dose-dependent cellular immune response against YFV-17D. Vaccination of A129 mice with pBeloBAC-FLYF resulted in the induction of YFV-specific neutralizing antibodies in all vaccinated subjects. These promising results underlined the potential of the DNA-launched YFV both as an alternative to standard YFV-17D vaccination and as a vaccine platform for the development of DNA-based recombinant YFV vaccines. PMID:25516543

Jiang, Xiaohong; Dalebout, Tim J; Lukashevich, Igor S; Bredenbeek, Peter J; Franco, David

2015-04-01

141

Yellow Fever Virus Maintenance in Trinidad and Its Dispersal throughout the Americas? †  

PubMed Central

Trinidad, like many other American regions, experiences repeated epizootics of yellow fever virus (YFV). However, it is unclear whether these result from in situ evolution (enzootic maintenance) or regular reintroduction of YFV from the South American mainland. To discriminate between these hypotheses, we carried out a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis of over 100 prM/E gene sequences sampled from 8 South American countries. These included newly sequenced isolates from the recent 2008-2009 Trinidad epizootic and isolates derived from mainland countries within the last decade. The results indicate that the most recent common ancestor of the 2008-2009 epizootic existed in Trinidad 4.2 years prior to 2009 (95% highest probability density [HPD], 0.5 to 9.0 years). Our data also suggest a Trinidad origin for the progenitor of the 1995 Trinidad epizootic and support in situ evolution of YFV between the 1979 and 1988-1989 Trinidad epizootics. Using the same phylogeographic approach, we also inferred the historical spread of YFV in the Americas. The results suggest a Brazilian origin for YFV in the Americas and an overall dispersal rate of 182 km/year (95% HPD, 52 to 462 km/year), with Brazil as the major source population for surrounding countries. There is also strong statistical support for epidemiological links between four Brazilian regions and other countries. In contrast, while there were well-supported epidemiological links within Peru, the only statistically supported external link was a relatively weak link with neighboring Bolivia. Lastly, we performed a complete analysis of the genome of a newly sequenced Trinidad 2009 isolate, the first complete genome for a genotype I YFV isolate. PMID:20631128

Auguste, Albert J.; Lemey, Philippe; Pybus, Oliver G.; Suchard, Marc A.; Salas, Rosa Alba; Adesiyun, Abiodun A.; Barrett, Alan D.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Carrington, Christine V. F.

2010-01-01

142

Immune activation alters cellular and humoral responses to yellow fever 17D vaccine  

PubMed Central

Background. Defining the parameters that modulate vaccine responses in African populations will be imperative to design effective vaccines for protection against HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and dengue virus infections. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the patient-specific immune microenvironment to the response to the licensed yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) in an African cohort. Methods. We compared responses to YF-17D in 50 volunteers in Entebbe, Uganda, and 50 volunteers in Lausanne, Switzerland. We measured the CD8+ T cell and B cell responses induced by YF-17D and correlated them with immune parameters analyzed by flow cytometry prior to vaccination. Results. We showed that YF-17D–induced CD8+ T cell and B cell responses were substantially lower in immunized individuals from Entebbe compared with immunized individuals from Lausanne. The impaired vaccine response in the Entebbe cohort associated with reduced YF-17D replication. Prior to vaccination, we observed higher frequencies of exhausted and activated NK cells, differentiated T and B cell subsets and proinflammatory monocytes, suggesting an activated immune microenvironment in the Entebbe volunteers. Interestingly, activation of CD8+ T cells and B cells as well as proinflammatory monocytes at baseline negatively correlated with YF-17D–neutralizing antibody titers after vaccination. Additionally, memory T and B cell responses in preimmunized volunteers exhibited reduced persistence in the Entebbe cohort but were boosted by a second vaccination. Conclusion. Together, these results demonstrate that an activated immune microenvironment prior to vaccination impedes efficacy of the YF-17D vaccine in an African cohort and suggest that vaccine regimens may need to be boosted in African populations to achieve efficient immunity. Trial registration. Registration is not required for observational studies. Funding. This study was funded by Canada’s Global Health Research Initiative, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and United States Agency for International Development. PMID:24911151

Muyanja, Enoch; Ssemaganda, Aloysius; Ngauv, Pearline; Cubas, Rafael; Perrin, Helene; Srinivasan, Divya; Canderan, Glenda; Lawson, Benton; Kopycinski, Jakub; Graham, Amanda S.; Rowe, Dawne K.; Smith, Michaela J.; Isern, Sharon; Michael, Scott; Silvestri, Guido; Vanderford, Thomas H.; Castro, Erika; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Singer, Joel; Gillmour, Jill; Kiwanuka, Noah; Nanvubya, Annet; Schmidt, Claudia; Birungi, Josephine; Cox, Josephine; Haddad, Elias K.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Fast, Patricia; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Trautmann, Lydie

2014-01-01

143

Attenuation of Recombinant Yellow Fever 17D Viruses Expressing Foreign Protein Epitopes at the Surface  

PubMed Central

The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is a live attenuated virus. Three-dimensional (3D) homology modeling of the E protein structure from YF 17D virus and its comparison with that from tick-borne encephalitis virus revealed that it is possible to accommodate inserts of different sizes and amino acid compositions in the flavivirus E protein fg loop. This is consistent with the 3D structures of both the dimeric and trimeric forms in which the fg loop lies exposed to solvents. We demonstrate here that YF 17D viruses bearing foreign humoral (17D/8) and T-cell (17D/13) epitopes, which vary in sequence and length, displayed growth restriction. It is hypothesized that interference with the dimer-trimer transition and with the formation of a ring of such trimers in order to allow fusion compromises the capability of the E protein to induce fusion of viral and endosomal membranes, and a slower rate of fusion may delay the extent of virus production. This would account for the lower levels of replication in cultured cells and of viremia in monkeys, as well as for the more attenuated phenotype of the recombinant viruses in monkeys. Testing of both recombinant viruses (17D/8 and 17D/13) for monkey neurovirulence also suggests that insertion at the 17D E protein fg loop does not compromise the attenuated phenotype of YF 17D virus, further confirming the potential use of this site for the development of new live attenuated 17D virus-based vaccines. PMID:15956601

Bonaldo, Myrna C.; Garratt, Richard C.; Marchevsky, Renato S.; Coutinho, Evandro S. F.; Jabor, Alfredo V.; Almeida, Luís F. C.; Yamamura, Anna M. Y.; Duarte, Adriana S.; Oliveira, Prisciliana J.; Lizeu, Jackeline O. P.; Camacho, Luiz A. B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo

2005-01-01

144

Size Heterogeneity in the 3? Noncoding Region of South American Isolates of Yellow Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

The 3? noncoding region (3? NCR) of flaviviruses contains secondary and tertiary structures essential for virus replication. Previous studies of yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus have found that modifications to the 3? NCR are sometimes associated with attenuation in vertebrate and/or mosquito hosts. The 3? NCRs of 117 isolates of South American YFV have been examined, and major deletions and/or duplications of conserved RNA structures have been identified in several wild-type isolates. Nineteen isolates (designated YF-XL isolates) from Brazil, Trinidad, and Venezuela, dating from 1973 to 2001, exhibited a 216-nucleotide (nt) duplication, yielding a tandem repeat of conserved hairpin, stem-loop, dumbbell, and pseudoknot structures. YF-XL isolates were found exclusively within one subclade of South American genotype I YFV. One Brazilian isolate exhibited, in addition to the 216-nt duplication, a deletion of a 40-nt repeated hairpin (RYF) motif (YF-XL-?RYF). To investigate the biological significance of these 3? NCR rearrangements, YF-XL-?RYF and YF-XL isolates, as well as other South American YFV isolates, were evaluated for three phenotypes: growth kinetics in cell culture, neuroinvasiveness in suckling mice, and ability to replicate and produce disseminated infections in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. YF-XL-?RYF and YF-XL isolates showed growth kinetics and neuroinvasive characteristics comparable to those of typical South American YFV isolates, and mosquito infectivity trials demonstrated that both types of 3? NCR variants were capable of replication and dissemination in a laboratory-adapted colony of A. aegypti. PMID:15731274

Bryant, Juliet E.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.; Rijnbrand, Rene C. A.; Mutebi, J. P.; Higgs, Stephen; Barrett, Alan D. T.

2005-01-01

145

Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone functions independently of the insulin receptor in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Most mosquito species must feed on the blood of a vertebrate host to produce eggs. In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, blood feeding triggers medial neurosecretory cells in the brain to release insulin-like peptides (ILPs) and ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH). Theses hormones thereafter directly induce the ovaries to produce ecdysteroid hormone (ECD), which activates the synthesis of yolk proteins in the fat body for uptake by oocytes. ILP3 stimulates ECD production by binding to the mosquito insulin receptor (MIR). In contrast, little is known about the mode of action of OEH, which is a member of a neuropeptide family called neuroparsin. Here we report that OEH is the only neuroparsin family member present in the Ae. aegypti genome and that other mosquitoes also encode only one neuroparsin gene. Immunoblotting experiments suggested that the full-length form of the peptide, which we call long OEH (lOEH), is processed into short OEH (sOEH). The importance of processing, however, remained unclear because a recombinant form of lOEH (rlOEH) and synthetic sOEH exhibited very similar biological activity. A series of experiments indicated that neither rlOEH nor sOEH bound to ILP3 or the MIR. Signaling studies further showed that ILP3 activated the MIR but rlOEH did not, yet both neuropeptides activated Akt, which is a marker for insulin pathway signaling. Our results also indicated that activation of TOR signaling in the ovaries required co-stimulation by amino acids and either ILP3 or rlOEH. Overall, we conclude that OEH activates the insulin signaling pathway independently of the MIR, and that insulin and TOR signaling in the ovaries is coupled. PMID:24076067

Dhara, Animesh; Eum, Jai-Hoon; Robertson, Anne; Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Vogel, Kevin J; Clark, Kevin D; Graf, Rolf; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R

2013-12-01

146

Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito.  

PubMed

Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dactylifera was obtained by hydrodistillation from the spathe, a specialized leaf structure that surrounds the pollinating organs of the palm. The oil was subsequently analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The oil showed promising repellent activity against yellow fever mosquito - Aedes aegypti. Sixteen components were characterized, constituting 99% of the oil. The main components were 3,4-dimethoxytoluene (73.5%), 2,4-dimethoxytoluene (9.5%), ?-caryophyllene (5.5%), p-cresyl methyl ether (3.8%), and caryophyllene oxide (2.4%). The minimum effective dosage (MED) for repellency for the P. dactylifera oil was 0.051mg/cm(2), which had moderately lower potency compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, DEET (0.018mg/cm(2)) in the "cloth patch assay". The five major compounds were individually assayed for repellency to determine to what extent each is responsible for repellency from the oil. 3,4-Dimethoxytoluene and 2,4-dimethoxytoluene showed the best repellent activity with the same MED value of 0.063mg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicate that these two constituents which comprise a large proportion of the P. dactylifera oil (83%) are likely responsible for the observed repellent activity. In this aspect, the P. dactylifera spathe oil is a sustainable, promising new source of natural repellents. PMID:23948523

Demirci, Betül; Tsikolia, Maia; Bernier, Ulrich R; Agramonte, Natasha M; Alqasoumi, Saleh I; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Yusufoglu, Hasan S; Demirci, Fatih; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can; Khan, Ikhlas A; Tabanca, Nurhayat

2013-12-01

147

Enrollment in YFV Vaccine Trial: An Evaluation of Recruitment Outcomes Associated with a Randomized Controlled Double-Blind Trial of a Live Attenuated Yellow Fever Vaccine  

PubMed Central

This investigation evaluated several factors associated with diverse participant enrollment of a clinical trial assessing safety, immunogenicity, and comparative viremia associated with administration of 17-D live, attenuated yellow fever vaccine given alone or in combination with human immune globulin. We obtained baseline participant information (e.g., sociodemographic, medical) and followed recruitment outcomes from 2005 to 2007. Of 355 potential Yellow Fever vaccine study participants, 231 cases were analyzed. Strong interest in study participation was observed among racial and ethnically diverse persons with 36.34% eligible following initial study screening, resulting in 18.75% enrollment. The percentage of white participants increased from 63.66% (prescreened sample) to 81.25% (enrollment group). The regression model was significant with white race as a predictor of enrollment (OR=2.744, 95% CI=1.415-5.320, p=0.003).In addition, persons were more likely to enroll via direct outreach and referral mechanisms compared to mass advertising (OR=2.433, 95% CI=1.102-5.369). The findings indicate that racially diverse populations can be recruited to vaccine clinical trials, yet actual enrollment may not reflect that diversity. PMID:25221781

Frew, Paula M; Shapiro, Eve T; Lu, Lu; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Keyserling, Harry L; Mulligan, Mark J

2014-01-01

148

Enrollment in YFV Vaccine Trial: An Evaluation of Recruitment Outcomes Associated with a Randomized Controlled Double-Blind Trial of a Live Attenuated Yellow Fever Vaccine.  

PubMed

This investigation evaluated several factors associated with diverse participant enrollment of a clinical trial assessing safety, immunogenicity, and comparative viremia associated with administration of 17-D live, attenuated yellow fever vaccine given alone or in combination with human immune globulin. We obtained baseline participant information (e.g., sociodemographic, medical) and followed recruitment outcomes from 2005 to 2007. Of 355 potential Yellow Fever vaccine study participants, 231 cases were analyzed. Strong interest in study participation was observed among racial and ethnically diverse persons with 36.34% eligible following initial study screening, resulting in 18.75% enrollment. The percentage of white participants increased from 63.66% (prescreened sample) to 81.25% (enrollment group). The regression model was significant with white race as a predictor of enrollment (OR=2.744, 95% CI=1.415-5.320, p=0.003).In addition, persons were more likely to enroll via direct outreach and referral mechanisms compared to mass advertising (OR=2.433, 95% CI=1.102-5.369). The findings indicate that racially diverse populations can be recruited to vaccine clinical trials, yet actual enrollment may not reflect that diversity. PMID:25221781

Frew, Paula M; Shapiro, Eve T; Lu, Lu; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Keyserling, Harry L; Mulligan, Mark J

2013-04-15

149

Fever  

PubMed Central

Measurement of body temperature remains one of the most common ways to assess health. An increase in temperature above what is considered to be a normal value is inevitably regarded as a sure sign of disease and referred to with one simple word: fever. In this review, we summarize how research on fever allowed the identification of the exogenous and endogenous molecules and pathways mediating the fever response. We also show how temperature elevation is common to different pathologies and how the molecular components of the fever-generation pathway represent drug targets for antipyretics, such as acetylsalicylic acid, the first “blockbuster drug”. We also show how fever research provided new insights into temperature and energy homeostasis, and into treatment of infection and inflammation. PMID:20305990

Conti, Bruno

2010-01-01

150

Recombinant chimeric virus with wild-type dengue 4 virus premembrane and envelope and virulent yellow fever virus Asibi backbone sequences is dramatically attenuated in nonhuman primates.  

PubMed

Candidate vaccine ChimeriVax viruses are attenuated, efficacious, safe, and highly unlikely to be transmitted by arthropod vectors. Nevertheless, concerns have been raised about the use of these vaccines because of the potential for recombination between vaccine and wild-type (WT) strains. To evaluate the vertebrate pathogenicity of such a worst-case recombinant, ChimeriVax-dengue (DEN) 4 virus was chimerized with the WT Asibi yellow fever virus. In this worst-case scenario, chimeric viruses remained fully attenuated in nonhuman primates. We therefore conclude that, even in the highly unlikely event of "virulent" backbone reversion, the safety of ChimeriVax-DEN vaccines would not be compromised. PMID:18266603

McGee, Charles E; Lewis, Mark G; Claire, Marisa St; Wagner, Wendeline; Lang, Jean; Guy, Bruno; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin; Higgs, Stephen; Decelle, Thierry

2008-03-01

151

Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three gustatory receptor neurons were characterized for contact chemoreceptive sensilla on the labella of female yellow-fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. The neuron with the smallest amplitude spike responded to the feeding deterrent, quinine, as well as N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide and other insect repellents. Two other neurons with differing spikes responded to salt (NaCl) and sucrose. This is the first report of a gustatory receptor neuron specific for insect repellents in mosquitoes and may provide a tool for screening chemicals to discover novel or improved feeding deterrents and repellents for use in the management of arthropod disease vectors.

Sanford, Jillian L.; Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Dickens, Joseph C.

2013-03-01

152

Pathophysiologic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Viscerotropic Yellow Fever in a Rhesus Macaque Model  

PubMed Central

Infection with yellow fever virus (YFV), an explosively replicating flavivirus, results in viral hemorrhagic disease characterized by cardiovascular shock and multi-organ failure. Unvaccinated populations experience 20 to 50% fatality. Few studies have examined the pathophysiological changes that occur in humans during YFV infection due to the sporadic nature and remote locations of outbreaks. Rhesus macaques are highly susceptible to YFV infection, providing a robust animal model to investigate host-pathogen interactions. In this study, we characterized disease progression as well as alterations in immune system homeostasis, cytokine production and gene expression in rhesus macaques infected with the virulent YFV strain DakH1279 (YFV-DakH1279). Following infection, YFV-DakH1279 replicated to high titers resulting in viscerotropic disease with ?72% mortality. Data presented in this manuscript demonstrate for the first time that lethal YFV infection results in profound lymphopenia that precedes the hallmark changes in liver enzymes and that although tissue damage was noted in liver, kidneys, and lymphoid tissues, viral antigen was only detected in the liver. These observations suggest that additional tissue damage could be due to indirect effects of viral replication. Indeed, circulating levels of several cytokines peaked shortly before euthanasia. Our study also includes the first description of YFV-DakH1279-induced changes in gene expression within peripheral blood mononuclear cells 3 days post-infection prior to any clinical signs. These data show that infection with wild type YFV-DakH1279 or live-attenuated vaccine strain YFV-17D, resulted in 765 and 46 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), respectively. DEGs detected after YFV-17D infection were mostly associated with innate immunity, whereas YFV-DakH1279 infection resulted in dysregulation of genes associated with the development of immune response, ion metabolism, and apoptosis. Therefore, WT-YFV infection is associated with significant changes in gene expression that are detectable before the onset of clinical symptoms and may influence disease progression and outcome of infection. PMID:25412185

Engelmann, Flora; Josset, Laurence; Girke, Thomas; Park, Byung; Barron, Alex; Dewane, Jesse; Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Anne; Axthelm, Michael K.; Slifka, Mark K.; Messaoudi, Ilhem

2014-01-01

153

Pathophysiologic and transcriptomic analyses of viscerotropic yellow fever in a rhesus macaque model.  

PubMed

Infection with yellow fever virus (YFV), an explosively replicating flavivirus, results in viral hemorrhagic disease characterized by cardiovascular shock and multi-organ failure. Unvaccinated populations experience 20 to 50% fatality. Few studies have examined the pathophysiological changes that occur in humans during YFV infection due to the sporadic nature and remote locations of outbreaks. Rhesus macaques are highly susceptible to YFV infection, providing a robust animal model to investigate host-pathogen interactions. In this study, we characterized disease progression as well as alterations in immune system homeostasis, cytokine production and gene expression in rhesus macaques infected with the virulent YFV strain DakH1279 (YFV-DakH1279). Following infection, YFV-DakH1279 replicated to high titers resulting in viscerotropic disease with ?72% mortality. Data presented in this manuscript demonstrate for the first time that lethal YFV infection results in profound lymphopenia that precedes the hallmark changes in liver enzymes and that although tissue damage was noted in liver, kidneys, and lymphoid tissues, viral antigen was only detected in the liver. These observations suggest that additional tissue damage could be due to indirect effects of viral replication. Indeed, circulating levels of several cytokines peaked shortly before euthanasia. Our study also includes the first description of YFV-DakH1279-induced changes in gene expression within peripheral blood mononuclear cells 3 days post-infection prior to any clinical signs. These data show that infection with wild type YFV-DakH1279 or live-attenuated vaccine strain YFV-17D, resulted in 765 and 46 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), respectively. DEGs detected after YFV-17D infection were mostly associated with innate immunity, whereas YFV-DakH1279 infection resulted in dysregulation of genes associated with the development of immune response, ion metabolism, and apoptosis. Therefore, WT-YFV infection is associated with significant changes in gene expression that are detectable before the onset of clinical symptoms and may influence disease progression and outcome of infection. PMID:25412185

Engelmann, Flora; Josset, Laurence; Girke, Thomas; Park, Byung; Barron, Alex; Dewane, Jesse; Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Anne; Axthelm, Michael K; Slifka, Mark K; Messaoudi, Ilhem

2014-11-01

154

[Two cases of acute hepatitis associated with Q fever].  

PubMed

Q fever which is caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a worldwide zoonosis. Many species of wild and domestic mammals, birds, and arthropods, are reservoirs of C.burnetii in nature, however farm animals are the most frequent sources of human infection. The most frequent way of transmission is by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. The clinical presentation of Q fever is polymorphic and nonspecific. Q fever may present as acute or chronic disease. In acute cases, the most common clinical syndromes are selflimited febrile illness, granulomatous hepatitis, and pneumonia, but it can also be asymptomatic. Fever with hepatitis associated with Q fever has rarely been described in the literature. Herein we report two cases of C.burnetii hepatitis presented with jaundice. In May 2011, two male cases, who inhabited in Malkara village of Tekirdag province (located at Trace region of Turkey), were admitted to the hospital with the complaints of persistent high grade fever, chills and sweats, icterus, disseminated myalgia and headache. Physical examination revealed fever, icterus and the patient appeared to be mildly ill but had no localizing signs of infection. Radiological findings of the patients were in normal limits. Laboratory findings revealed leukocytosis, increased hepatic and cholestatic enzyme levels, and moderate hyperbilirubinemia- mainly direct bilirubin, whereas serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were found normal. Blood and urine cultures of the patients yielded no bacterial growth. Serological markers for acute viral hepatitis, citomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections, brucellosis, salmonellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis were found negative. Acute Q fever diagnosis of the cases were based on the positive results obtained by C.burnetii Phase II IgM and IgG ELISA (Vircell SL, Spain) test, and the serological diagnosis were confirmed by Phase I and II immunofluorescence (Vircell SL, Spain) method. Both cases were treated with doxycycline for 14 days and became afebrile within four days. These cases were presented to emphasize that C.burnetii infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with fever and elevated serum transaminase levels, irrespective of the presence of abdominal pain and exposure to potentially infected animals. PMID:22951661

Ye?ilyurt, Murat; K?l?ç, Selçuk; Gürsoy, Bensu; Celebi, Bekir; Yerer, Mehmet

2012-07-01

155

RISK ANALYSIS: CASE HISTORY OF PUCCINIA JACEAE ON YELLOW STARTHISTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Risk analysis has five components: Risk awareness, Risk perception, Risk assessment, Risk management, and Risk communication. Using the case with the foreign plant pathogen, Puccinia jaceae, under evaluation for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, YST), approaches and...

156

Hemorrhagic Fevers  

MedlinePLUS

... of viruses. These include the Ebola and Marburg, Lassa fever, and yellow fever viruses. VHFs have common features: they affect many organs, ... the animals that carry them live. For example, Lassa fever is limited to rural ... rats and mice carry the virus. The risk for travelers is low, but you ...

157

Case report of African tick-bite fever from Poland  

PubMed Central

A confirmed case of rickettsiosis acquired in South Africa and recognized in Poland was described. The patient fulfilled clinical criteria highly suggestive of African tick bite fever, such as eschars, regional lymphadenitis, cutaneous rash within 10 days after his return from sub-Saharan Africa. Infection with Rickettsia africae was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. PMID:24494003

Chmielewski, Tomasz; Szymanek, Anna; Fiecek, Beata; Simon, Krzysztof; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanis?awa

2013-01-01

158

Survival and swimming behavior of insecticide-exposed larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is essentially a container-inhabiting species that is closely associated with urban areas. This species is a vector of human pathogens, including dengue and yellow fever viruses, and its control is of paramount importance for disease prevention. Insecticide use against mosquito juvenile stages (i.e. larvae and pupae) is growing in importance, particularly due to the ever-growing problems of resistance to adult-targeted insecticides and human safety concerns regarding such use in human dwellings. However, insecticide effects on insects in general and mosquitoes in particular primarily focus on their lethal effects. Thus, sublethal effects of such compounds in mosquito juveniles may have important effects on their environmental prevalence. In this study, we assessed the survival and swimming behavior of A. aegypti 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae exposed to increasing concentrations of insecticides. We also assessed cell death in the neuromuscular system of juveniles. Methods Third instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of azadirachtin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid and spinosad. Insect survival was assessed for 10 days. The distance swam, the resting time and the time spent in slow swimming were assessed in 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae. Muscular and nervous cells of L4 and pupae exposed to insecticides were marked with the TUNEL reaction. The results from the survival bioassays were subjected to survival analysis while the swimming behavioral data were subjected to analyses of covariance, complemented with a regression analysis. Results All insecticides exhibited concentration-dependent effects on survival of larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito. The pyrethroid deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide followed by spinosad, imidacloprid, and azadirachtin, which exhibited low potency against the juveniles. All insecticides except azadirachtin reduced L4 swimming speed and wriggling movements. A similar trend was also observed for swimming pupa, except for imidacloprid, which increased the swimming activity of pupa. Curiously, the insecticides did not affect cell damage in the neuromuscular system of larvae and pupae. Conclusions Deltamethrin and spinosad were the main compounds to exhibit lethal effects, which allowed the control of A. aegypti larvae and pupae, and impair their swimming potentially compromising foraging and predation likelihood. PMID:24761789

2014-01-01

159

Three Novel Families of Miniature Inverted-Repeat Transposable Elements are Associated with Genes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three novel families of transposable elements, Wukong, Wujin, and Wuneng, are described in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Their copy numbers range from 2,100 to 3,000 per haploid genome. There are high degrees of sequence similarity within each family, and many structural but not sequence similarities between families. The common structural characteristics include small size, no coding potential, terminal

Zhijian Tu

1997-01-01

160

Synthesis and evaluation of imidazole-4,5- and pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxamides targeting dengue and yellow fever virus?  

PubMed Central

The results of a high-throughput screening assay using the dengue virus-2 replicon showed that the imidazole 4,5-dicarboxamide (I45DC) derivative (15a) has a high dengue virus inhibitory activity. Based on 15a as a lead compound, a novel class of both disubstituted I45DCs and the resembling pyrazine 2,3-dicarboxamides (P23DCs) were synthesized. Here, we report on their in vitro inhibitory activity against dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV). Some of these first generation compounds have shown activity against both viruses in the micromolar range. Within this series, compound 15b was observed to display the highest antiviral potency against YFV with an EC50 = 1.85 ?M. In addition, compounds 20a and 20b both potently inhibited replication of DENV (EC50 = 0.93 ?M) in Vero cells. PMID:25285371

Saudi, Milind; Zmurko, Joanna; Kaptein, Suzanne; Rozenski, Jef; Neyts, Johan; Van Aerschot, Arthur

2014-01-01

161

Assessing the Risk of International Spread of Yellow Fever Virus: A Mathematical Analysis of an Urban Outbreak in Asunción, 2008  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever virus (YFV), a mosquito-borne virus endemic to tropical Africa and South America, is capable of causing large urban outbreaks of human disease. With the ease of international travel, urban outbreaks could lead to the rapid spread and subsequent transmission of YFV in distant locations. We designed a stochastic metapopulation model with spatiotemporally explicit transmissibility scenarios to simulate the global spread of YFV from a single urban outbreak by infected airline travelers. In simulations of a 2008 outbreak in Asunción, Paraguay, local outbreaks occurred in 12.8% of simulations and international spread in 2.0%. Using simple probabilistic models, we found that local incidence, travel rates, and basic transmission parameters are sufficient to assess the probability of introduction and autochthonous transmission events. These models could be used to assess the risk of YFV spread during an urban outbreak and identify locations at risk for YFV introduction and subsequent autochthonous transmission. PMID:22302873

Johansson, Michael A.; Arana-Vizcarrondo, Neysarí; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Gallagher, Nancy; Marano, Nina; Staples, J. Erin

2012-01-01

162

Synthesis and evaluation of imidazole-4,5- and pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxamides targeting dengue and yellow fever virus.  

PubMed

The results of a high-throughput screening assay using the dengue virus-2 replicon showed that the imidazole 4,5-dicarboxamide (I45DC) derivative (15a) has a high dengue virus inhibitory activity. Based on 15a as a lead compound, a novel class of both disubstituted I45DCs and the resembling pyrazine 2,3-dicarboxamides (P23DCs) were synthesized. Here, we report on their in vitro inhibitory activity against dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV). Some of these first generation compounds have shown activity against both viruses in the micromolar range. Within this series, compound 15b was observed to display the highest antiviral potency against YFV with an EC50 = 1.85 ?M. In addition, compounds 20a and 20b both potently inhibited replication of DENV (EC50 = 0.93 ?M) in Vero cells. PMID:25285371

Saudi, Milind; Zmurko, Joanna; Kaptein, Suzanne; Rozenski, Jef; Neyts, Johan; Van Aerschot, Arthur

2014-11-24

163

Defining Risk Groups to Yellow Fever Vaccine-Associated Viscerotropic Disease in the Absence of Denominator Data  

PubMed Central

Several risk groups are known for the rare but serious, frequently fatal, viscerotropic reactions following live yellow fever virus vaccine (YEL-AVD). Establishing additional risk groups is hampered by ignorance of the numbers of vaccinees in factor-specific risk groups thus preventing their use as denominators in odds ratios (ORs). Here, we use an equation to calculate ORs using the prevalence of the factor-specific risk group in the population who remain well. The 95% confidence limits and P values can also be calculated. Moreover, if the estimate of the prevalence is imprecise, discrimination analysis can indicate the prevalence at which the confidence interval results in an OR of ?1 revealing if the prevalence might be higher without yielding a non-significant result. These methods confirm some potential risk groups for YEL-AVD and cast doubt on another. They should prove useful in situations in which factor-specific risk group denominator data are not available. PMID:24394480

Seligman, Stephen J.; Cohen, Joel E.; Itan, Yuval; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Pezzullo, John C.

2014-01-01

164

Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant yellow fever vaccine against the murine malarial parasite Plasmodium yoelii  

PubMed Central

The live-attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF17D) is one of the safest and most effective vaccines available today. Here, YF17D was genetically altered to express the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) from the murine malarial parasite Plasmodium yoelii. Reconstituted recombinant virus was viable and exhibited robust CSP expression. Immunization of naďve mice resulted in extensive proliferation of adoptively transferred CSP-specific transgenic CD8+ T cells. A single immunization of naďve mice with recombinant YF17D resulted robust production of IFN-? by CD8+ T cells and IFN-? and IL-2 by CD4+ T cells. A prime-boost regimen consisting of recombinant virus followed by a low dose of irradiated sporozoites conferred protection against challenge with P. yoelii. Taken together, these results show that recombinant YF17D can efficiently express CSP in culture, and prime a protective immune response in vivo. PMID:20451637

Stoyanov, Cristina T.; Boscardin, Silvia B.; Deroubaix, Stephanie; Barba-Spaeth, Giovanna; Franco, David; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.; Nussenzweig, Michel; Rice, Charles M.

2010-01-01

165

9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...processed in a region where African swine fever exists, as listed under §...

2013-01-01

166

9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...processed in a region where African swine fever exists, as listed under §...

2014-01-01

167

Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice.  

PubMed

Yellow fever (YF) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever disease in tropical Africa and Latin America. To develop a novel experimental YF vaccine, we applied iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmid that encodes the full-length RNA genome of 17D vaccine downstream from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The vaccine was designed to transcribe the full-length viral RNA and to launch 17D vaccine virus in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with 10 ng of iDNA plasmid was sufficient to start replication of vaccine virus in vitro. Safety of the parental 17D and iDNA-derived 17D viruses was confirmed in AG129 mice deficient in receptors for IFN-?/?/?. Finally, direct vaccination of BALB/c mice with a single 20 ?g dose of iDNA plasmid resulted in seroconversion and elicitation of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in animals. We conclude that iDNA immunization approach combines characteristics of DNA and attenuated vaccines and represents a promising vaccination strategy for YF. PMID:25129436

Tretyakova, Irina; Nickols, Brian; Hidajat, Rachmat; Jokinen, Jenny; Lukashevich, Igor S; Pushko, Peter

2014-11-01

168

Acta Tropica 104 (2007) 17 Surveillance of dengue fever cases using a novel  

E-print Network

Acta Tropica 104 (2007) 1­7 Surveillance of dengue fever cases using a novel Aedes aegypti 100 suspected dengue fever (DF) cases in county St. Patrick, Trinidad, West Indies. From the 30 that this eradication program initially sup- pressed the vector populations and prevented the spread of dengue fever (DF

Severson, David

169

Pathology Case Study: Severe Headache and Fever  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male transplant patient is suffering severe headaches. Visitors are given the hospital course record, radiographic and histologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology and transplant pathology.

Anhalt, John P.

170

Pathology Case Study: Fever and Hemoptysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 29-year-old woman with chronic myelogenous leukemia has been coughing up blood. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

Geraldino, Nelson

171

Modelling Patterns of Evidence in Bayesian Networks: a Case-study in Classical Swine Fever  

E-print Network

Modelling Patterns of Evidence in Bayesian Networks: a Case-study in Classical Swine Fever Linda C.elbers,willie.loeffen}@wur.nl Abstract. Upon engineering a Bayesian network for the early detection of Classical Swine Fever in pigs, we of an infection with the Classical Swine Fever (CSF) virus in individual pigs. Upon constructing our Bayesian

Utrecht, Universiteit

172

The dissemination of 17D yellow fever vaccine in Africans in Kenya in relation to the interpretation of results of protection-test surveys  

PubMed Central

The extent of dissemination of 17D yellow fever vaccine among the population of Kenya, especially among Africans, is estimated, largely from information in the records of the Kenya Medical Department. The total recorded vaccinations of Africans between 1941 and 1951 amount to about 379,000, representing 7.2% of the African population in 1948; it is, however, possible that the actual number of vaccinations is considerably higher. At Mombasa, 78,000 persons of races other than Africans were given routine inoculation over the same period. After a study of the economy of use of vaccine, the author discusses the protection-test surveys performed before 1951 and during that year in relation to the dissemination of vaccine. It is tentatively concluded that natural infection of man with yellow fever is rare in both Kenya and Tanganyika. PMID:13209303

Lumsden, W. H. R.

1954-01-01

173

Pathology Case Study: Fevers, Cutaneous Nodules and Cerebrovascular Accident  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 58-year-old male diagnosed with leukemia following a motorcycle accident developed pancytopenia with profound neutropenia, fevers, erythematous nodules on the skin during therapy. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Dunn, Jeanette

174

Pathology Case Study: History of Bilateral Back Pain and Fever  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 68-year-old woman with a history of bilateral back pain and fever has been admitted to the hospital with agitation, confusion, and delirium. Visitors are given both the histologic and laboratory findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Chung, Wen-Wei

175

Pathology Case Study: Fever and a Hilar Pulmonary Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 37-year-old man has a recurring fever and swelling in his legs. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, radiological results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Horn, Kevin D.

176

Pathology Case Study: Fever and Severe Rigors During Transfusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer developed fever and severe rigors during a blood. Visitors are given the hospital course record and the blood bank laboratory evaluation, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology.

Aronica, Patricia

177

Pathology Case Study: Fever, Chills, Shortness of Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man experienced fever, chills, and shortness of breath a year after having received a lung transplant. Visitors can view CT images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of pathology and clinical microbiology.

Grant, Maurice R.

178

Pathology Case Study: Recurrent Fevers of Unknown Origin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a renal pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 32-year-old male has recurrent fevers. Visitors are given laboratory data and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology medicine.

Bastacky, Sheldon

179

Comparison of the genomes of the wild-type French viscerotropic strain of yellow fever virus with its vaccine derivative French neurotropic vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The French neurotropic vaccine, or FNV, was used extensively in Africa to control yellow fever (YF). Although efficacious, the vaccine caused an unaccept- able rate of post-vaccinal complications in children and was subsequently replaced by the 17D vaccine. Here we report that the genomes of the wild-type YF virus French viscerotropic virus and its attenuated vaccine derivative, FNV virus from

Eryu Wang; Kate D. Ryman; Alan D. Jennings; David J. Wood; F. Taffs; Philip D. Minor; Peter G. Sanders; Alan D. T. Barrett

1995-01-01

180

Mutagenesis of the N-Linked Glycosylation Sites of the Yellow Fever Virus NS1 Protein: Effects on Virus Replication and Mouse Neurovirulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flavivirus nonstructural glycoprotein NS1 is highly conserved and contains two N-linked glycosylation sites which are both utilized for addition of oligosaccharides during replication in cell culture. NS1 has been shown to contain epitopes for protective antibodies; however, its roles in virus replication and pathogenesis remain unknown. To study the function of NS1 during yellow fever virus replication, six mutant

Isabella R. Muylaert; Thomas J. Chambers; Ricardo Galler; Charles M. Rice

1996-01-01

181

Mutation in a 17D-204 Vaccine Substrain-Specific Envelope Protein Epitope Alters the Pathogenesis of Yellow Fever Virus in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogeneous nature of the yellow fever (YF) 17D-204 vaccine virus population was exploited in this study to isolate virus variants able to escape neutralization by the 17D-204 vaccine-specific MAb 864. The conformational change on the virus surface that resulted in the loss of the MAb 864-defined epitope was effected in each variant by a single amino acid mutation in

Kate D. Ryman; T. Neil Ledger; Gerald A. Campbell; Alan D. T. Barrett

1998-01-01

182

Efficient transformation of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report efficient germ-line transformation in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti accomplished using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm]. Two transgenic lines were established and characterized; each contained the Vg-Defensin A transgene with strong eye-specific expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene regulated by the artificial 3xP3 promoter. Southern blot hybridization and inverse PCR analyses

V. Kokoza; A. Ahmed; E. A. Wimmer; A. S. Raikhel

2001-01-01

183

Neutralizing (54K) and Non-neutralizing (54K and 48K) Monoclonai Antibodies against Structural and Non-structural Yellow Fever Virus Proteins Confer Immunity in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The capacity of monoclonal antibodies to protect mice passively against yellow fever (YF) virus infection was investigated. Both neutralizing (54K-specific) and non- neutralizing (54K- and 48K-specific) antibodies protected mice against challenge with the RMP substrain of YF virus. Average survival times of mice inoculated intracerebrally with a standard lethal dose of YF virus differed according to the strain used:

E. A. GOULD; A. BUCKLEY; A. D. T. BARRETT; N. CAMMACK

184

A Possible Connection between the 1878 Yellow Fever Epidemic in the Southern United States and the 1877-78 El Nińo Episode.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most severe outbreaks of yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, affected the southern United States in the summer of 1878. The economic and human toll was enormous, and the city of Memphis, Tennessee, was one of the most affected. The authors suggest that as a consequence of one of the strongest El Nińo episodes on record-that which occurred in 1877-78-exceptional climate anomalies occurred in the United States (as well as in many other parts of the world), which may have been partly responsible for the widespread nature and severity of the 1878 yellow fever outbreak.This study documents some of the extreme climate anomalies that were recorded in 1877 and 1878 in parts of the eastern United States, with particular emphasis on highlighting the evolution of these anomalies, as they might have contributed to the epidemic. Other years with major outbreaks of yellow fever in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries also occurred during the course of El Nińo episodes, a fact that appears not to have been noted before in the literature.

Diaz, Henry F.; McCabe, Gregory J.

1999-01-01

185

A Possible Connection between the 1878 Yellow Fever Epidemic in the Southern United States and the 1877-78 El Nin??o Episode  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the most severe outbreaks of yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, affected the southern United States in the summer of 1878. The economic and human toll was enormous, and the city of Memphis, Tennessee, was one of the most affected. The authors suggest that as a consequence of one of the strongest El Nin??o episodes on record - that which occurred in 1877-78 - exceptional climate anomalies occurred in the United States (as well as in many other parts of the world), which may have been partly responsible for the widespread nature and severity of the 1878 yellow fever outbreak. This study documents some of the extreme climate anomalies that were recorded in 1877 and 1878 in parts of the eastern United States, with particular emphasis on highlighting the evolution of these anomalies, as they might have contributed to the epidemic. Other years with major outbreaks of yellow fever in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries also occurred during the course of El Nin??o episodes, a fact that appears not to have been noted before in the literature.

Diaz, H.F.; McCabe, G.J.

1999-01-01

186

Quantitative structure-activity relationship of botanical sesquiterpenes: spatial and contact repellency to the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

The plant terpenoids encompass a diversity of structures and have many functional roles in nature, including protection against pest arthropods. Previous studies in this laboratory have identified naturally occurring sesquiterpenes contained in essential oils from two plants, amyris (Amyris balsamifera) and Siam-wood (Fokienia hodginsii), that are significantly repellent to a spectrum of arthropod pests. In efforts to further examine the biological activity of this class of compounds 12 of these plant-derived sesquiterpenes have been isolated, purified, and assayed for spatial and contact repellency against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti . These data were used to develop quantitative structure-activity relationships that identified key properties of the sesquiterpene molecule, including electronic and structural parameters that were used to predict optimal repellent activity. There were notable similarities in the models developed for spatial repellency over five time points and for contact repellency. Vapor pressure was an important component of all repellency models. Initial levels of spatial repellency were also related to polarizability of the molecule and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy, whereas the equation for late spatial repellency was dependent on other electronic features, including Mulliken population and electrotopological state descriptors. The model identified for contact repellency was the best fit and most significant model in this analysis and showed a relationship with vapor pressure, Mulliken population, and total energy. PMID:19645502

Paluch, Gretchen; Grodnitzky, Justin; Bartholomay, Lyric; Coats, Joel

2009-08-26

187

No booster dose for yellow Fever vaccination: what are the consequences for the activity of vaccination in travel clinics?  

PubMed

In April 2013, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization stated that a single dose of yellow fever (YF) vaccine is sufficient in the general population to confer a lifelong protection against YF. When the period of validity of the International Certificate of Vaccination (ICV) will be extended to a lifetime in June 2016, no booster dose will be needed. The objective of this prospective study was to determine the potential impact of the SAGE recommendations on the vaccination activity of our travel clinics. We showed that among 1,037 subjects seen in our three travel clinics for a YF vaccination in 2013, about 32.3% went for a booster dose that is no longer useful according to the SAGE. A drop in vaccination activity has to be expected by travel clinics in the next years, and changes in daily exercise have to be anticipated, as YF vaccination is a large part of the regular work of many healthcare providers specialized in travel medicine. PMID:25384441

Wyplosz, Benjamin; Leroy, Jean-Philippe; Derradji, Ouda; Consigny, Paul-Henri

2015-03-01

188

Initial viral load determines the magnitude of the human CD8 T cell response to yellow fever vaccination.  

PubMed

CD8 T cells are a potent tool for eliminating intracellular pathogens and tumor cells. Thus, eliciting robust CD8 T-cell immunity is the basis for many vaccines under development. However, the relationship between antigen load and the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell response is not well-described in a human immune response. Here we address this issue by quantifying viral load and the CD8 T-cell response in a cohort of 80 individuals immunized with the live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YFV-17D) by sampling peripheral blood at days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 30, and 90. When the virus load was below a threshold (peak virus load < 225 genomes per mL, or integrated virus load < 400 genome days per mL), the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell response correlated strongly with the virus load (R(2) ? 0.63). As the virus load increased above this threshold, the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell responses saturated. Recent advances in CD8 T-cell-based vaccines have focused on replication-incompetent or single-cycle vectors. However, these approaches deliver relatively limited amounts of antigen after immunization. Our results highlight the requirement that T-cell-based vaccines should deliver sufficient antigen during the initial period of the immune response to elicit a large number of CD8 T cells that may be needed for protection. PMID:25713354

Akondy, Rama S; Johnson, Philip L F; Nakaya, Helder I; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Mulligan, Mark J; Lawson, Benton; Miller, Joseph D; Pulendran, Bali; Antia, Rustom; Ahmed, Rafi

2015-03-10

189

Impact of Wolbachia on Infection with Chikungunya and Yellow Fever Viruses in the Mosquito Vector Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Incidence of disease due to dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses is increasing in many parts of the world. The viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a highly domesticated mosquito species that is notoriously difficult to control. When transinfected into Ae. aegypti, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia has recently been shown to inhibit replication of DENVs, CHIKV, malaria parasites and filarial nematodes, providing a potentially powerful biocontrol strategy for human pathogens. Because the extent of pathogen reduction can be influenced by the strain of bacterium, we examined whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia influenced CHIKV and YFV infection in Ae. aegypti. Following exposure to viremic blood meals, CHIKV infection and dissemination rates were significantly reduced in mosquitoes with the wMel strain of Wolbachia compared to Wolbachia-uninfected controls. However, similar rates of infection and dissemination were observed in wMel infected and non-infected Ae. aegypti when intrathoracic inoculation was used to deliver virus. YFV infection, dissemination and replication were similar in wMel-infected and control mosquitoes following intrathoracic inoculations. In contrast, mosquitoes with the wMelPop strain of Wolbachia showed at least a 104 times reduction in YFV RNA copies compared to controls. The extent of reduction in virus infection depended on Wolbachia strain, titer and strain of the virus, and mode of exposure. Although originally proposed for dengue biocontrol, our results indicate a Wolbachia-based strategy also holds considerable promise for YFV and CHIKV suppression. PMID:23133693

van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Frentiu, Francesca D.; McElroy, Kate; Day, Andrew; Higgs, Stephen; O'Neill, Scott L.

2012-01-01

190

Human impacts have shaped historical and recent evolution in Aedes aegypti, the dengue and yellow fever mosquito  

PubMed Central

Though anthropogenic impacts are often considered harmful to species, human modifications to the landscape can actually create novel niches to which other species can adapt. These “domestication” processes are especially important in the context of arthropod disease vectors, where ecological overlap of vector and human populations may lead to epidemics. Here, we present results of a global genetic study of one such species, the dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, whose evolutionary history and current distribution have been profoundly shaped by humans. We used DNA sequences of four nuclear genes and 1504 SNP markers developed with RAD-tag sequencing to test the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti originated in Africa, where a domestic form arose and spread throughout the tropical and subtropical world with human trade and movement. Results confirmed African ancestry of the species, and supported a single subspeciation event leading to the pantropical domestic form. Additionally, genetic data strongly supported the hypothesis that human trade routes first moved domestic Ae. aegypti out of Africa into the New World, followed by a later invasion from the New World into Southeast Asia and the Pacific. These patterns of domestication and invasion are relevant to many species worldwide, as anthropogenic forces increasingly impact evolutionary processes. PMID:24111703

Brown, Julia E.; Evans, Benjamin R.; Zheng, Wei; Obas, Vanessa; Barrera-Martinez, Laura; Egizi, Andrea; Zhao, Hongyu; Caccone, Adalgisa; Powell, Jeffrey R.

2013-01-01

191

First report on invasion of yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, at Narita International Airport, Japan in August 2012.  

PubMed

The invasion of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti at Narita International Airport, Japan was detected for the first time. During the course of routine vector surveillance at Narita International Airport, 27 Ae. aegypti adults emerged from larvae and pupae collected from a single larvitrap placed near No. 88 spot at passenger terminal 2 on August 8, 2012. After the appearance of Ae. aegypti in the larvitrap, we defined a 400-m buffer zone and started an intensive vector survey using an additional 34 larvitraps and 15 CO2 traps. International aircraft and passenger terminal 2 were also inspected, and one Ae. aegypti male was collected from the cargo space of an international aircraft from Darwin via Manila on August 28, 2012. Larvicide treatment with 1.5% fenitrothion was conducted in 64 catch basins and one ditch in the 400-m buffer zone. Twenty-four large water tanks were also treated at least once with 0.5% pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator. No Ae. aegypti eggs or adults were found during the 1-month intensive vector survey after finding larvae and pupae in the larvitrap. We concluded that Ae. aegypti had failed to establish a population at Narita International Airport. PMID:23698478

Sukehiro, Nayu; Kida, Nori; Umezawa, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Arai, Naoko; Jinnai, Tsunesada; Inagaki, Shunichi; Tsuchiya, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Yoshio

2013-01-01

192

Human impacts have shaped historical and recent evolution in Aedes aegypti, the dengue and yellow fever mosquito.  

PubMed

Although anthropogenic impacts are often considered harmful to species, human modifications to the landscape can actually create novel niches to which other species can adapt. These "domestication" processes are especially important in the context of arthropod disease vectors, where ecological overlap of vector and human populations may lead to epidemics. Here, we present results of a global genetic study of one such species, the dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, whose evolutionary history and current distribution have been profoundly shaped by humans. We used DNA sequences of four nuclear genes and 1504 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers developed with restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to test the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti originated in Africa, where a domestic form arose and spread throughout the tropical and subtropical world with human trade and movement. Results confirmed African ancestry of the species, and supported a single subspeciation event leading to the pantropical domestic form. In addition, genetic data strongly supported the hypothesis that human trade routes first moved domestic Ae. aegypti out of Africa into the New World, followed by a later invasion from the New World into Southeast Asia and the Pacific. These patterns of domestication and invasion are relevant to many species worldwide, as anthropogenic forces increasingly impact evolutionary processes. PMID:24111703

Brown, Julia E; Evans, Benjamin R; Zheng, Wei; Obas, Vanessa; Barrera-Martinez, Laura; Egizi, Andrea; Zhao, Hongyu; Caccone, Adalgisa; Powell, Jeffrey R

2014-02-01

193

Development of a SYBR green I based RT-PCR assay for yellow fever virus: application in assessment of YFV infection in Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow Fever virus (YFV) is an important arboviral pathogen in much of sub-Saharan Africa and the tropical Americas. It is the prototype member of the genus Flavivirus and is transmitted primarily by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes. The incidence of human infections in endemic areas has risen in recent years. Prompt and dependable identification of YFV is a critical component of response to suspect cases. Results We developed a one-step SYBR Green I-based real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay targeting the 5'NTR and capsid-gene junction--for rapid detection and quantification of YFV. The detection limit was 1 PFU/mL, 10-fold more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR, and there was no cross-reactivity with closely related flaviviruses or with alphaviruses. Viral load in samples was determined by standard curve plotted from cycle threshold (Ct) values and virus concentration. The efficacy of the assay in mosquitoes was assessed with spiked samples. The utility of the assay for screening of pooled mosquitoes was also confirmed. Replication of a Cameroon isolate of YFV in Ae. aegypti revealed a marked variation in susceptibility among different colonies at different days post infection (pi). Conclusions The SYBR Green-1 based qRT-PCR assay is a faster, simpler, more sensitive and less expensive procedure for detection and quantification of YFV than other currently used methods. PMID:22264275

2012-01-01

194

Fever versus Fever: the role of host and vector susceptibility and interspecific competition in shaping the current and future distributions of the sylvatic cycles of dengue virus and yellow fever virus  

PubMed Central

Two different species of flaviviruses, dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV), that originated in sylvatic cycles maintained in non-human primates and forest-dwelling mosquitoes have emerged repeatedly into sustained human-to-human transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sylvatic cycles of both viruses remain active, and where the two viruses overlap in West Africa they utilize similar suites of monkeys and Aedes mosquitoes. These extensive similarities render the differences in the biogeography and epidemiology of the two viruses all the more striking. First, the sylvatic cycle of YFV originated in Africa and was introduced into the New World, probably as a result of the slave trade, but is absent in Asia; in contrast, sylvatic DENV likely originated in Asia and has spread to Africa but not to the New World. Second, while sylvatic YFV can emerge into extensive urban outbreaks in humans, these invariably die out, whereas four different types of DENV have established human transmission cycles that are ecologically and evolutionarily distinct from their sylvatic ancestors. Finally, transmission of YFV among humans has been documented only in Africa and the Americas, whereas DENV is transmitted among humans across most of the range of competent Aedes vectors, which in the last decade has included every continent save Antarctica. This review summarizes current understanding of sylvatic transmission cycles of YFV and DENV, considers possible explanations for their disjunct distributions, and speculates on the potential consequences of future establishment of a sylvatic cycle of DENV in the Americas. PMID:23523817

Hanley, Kathryn A.; Monath, Thomas P.; Weaver, Scott C.; Rossi, Shannan L.; Richman, Rebecca L.; Vasilakis, Nikos

2013-01-01

195

Fever versus fever: the role of host and vector susceptibility and interspecific competition in shaping the current and future distributions of the sylvatic cycles of dengue virus and yellow fever virus.  

PubMed

Two different species of flaviviruses, dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV), that originated in sylvatic cycles maintained in non-human primates and forest-dwelling mosquitoes have emerged repeatedly into sustained human-to-human transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sylvatic cycles of both viruses remain active, and where the two viruses overlap in West Africa they utilize similar suites of monkeys and Aedes mosquitoes. These extensive similarities render the differences in the biogeography and epidemiology of the two viruses all the more striking. First, the sylvatic cycle of YFV originated in Africa and was introduced into the New World, probably as a result of the slave trade, but is absent in Asia; in contrast, sylvatic DENV likely originated in Asia and has spread to Africa but not to the New World. Second, while sylvatic YFV can emerge into extensive urban outbreaks in humans, these invariably die out, whereas four different types of DENV have established human transmission cycles that are ecologically and evolutionarily distinct from their sylvatic ancestors. Finally, transmission of YFV among humans has been documented only in Africa and the Americas, whereas DENV is transmitted among humans across most of the range of competent Aedes vectors, which in the last decade has included every continent save Antarctica. This review summarizes current understanding of sylvatic transmission cycles of YFV and DENV, considers possible explanations for their disjunct distributions, and speculates on the potential consequences of future establishment of a sylvatic cycle of DENV in the Americas. PMID:23523817

Hanley, Kathryn A; Monath, Thomas P; Weaver, Scott C; Rossi, Shannan L; Richman, Rebecca L; Vasilakis, Nikos

2013-10-01

196

[Clinical case of the month. A rare case of arthritis and fever].  

PubMed

We present the case report ofa 28 year old male presenting with recurrent fever episodes and arthralgia. Based on the presence of an inflammatory syndrome, a hyperferritinemia, a salmon-pink rash and recurrent fever episodes, the diagnosis of an adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) was made. A treatment with corticosteroids was started. During the following years, the corticosteroids could not be tapered. Eventually, a treatment with anakinra, an interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist was started, allowing tapering of the corticosteroids. This case report supports the possible role of IL-1 in the pathogenesis ofAOSD, possibly through the inflammasome. PMID:24053103

Rinkin, C; Van Durme, C; Fautrel, B; Malaise, M

2013-01-01

197

Phylogeographic Reconstruction of African Yellow Fever Virus Isolates Indicates Recent Simultaneous Dispersal into East and West Africa  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is a major public health problem in tropical areas of Africa and South America. There have been detailed studies on YFV ecology in West Africa and South America, but current understanding of YFV circulation on the African continent is incomplete. This inadequacy is especially notable for East and Central Africa, for which the unpredictability of human outbreaks is compounded by limitations in both historical and present surveillance efforts. Sparse availability of nucleotide sequence data makes it difficult to investigate the dispersal of YFV in these regions of the continent. To remedy this, we constructed Bayesian phylogenetic and geographic analyses utilizing 49 partial genomic sequences to infer the structure of YFV divergence across the known range of the virus on the African continent. Relaxed clock analysis demonstrated evidence for simultaneous divergence of YFV into east and west lineages, a finding that differs from previous hypotheses of YFV dispersal from reservoirs located on edges of the endemic range. Using discrete and continuous geographic diffusion models, we provide detailed structure of YFV lineage diversity. Significant transition links between extant East and West African lineages are presented, implying connection between areas of known sylvatic cycling. The results of demographic modeling reinforce the existence of a stably maintained population of YFV with spillover events into human populations occurring periodically. Geographically distinct foci of circulation are reconstructed, which have significant implications for studies of YFV ecology and emergence of human disease. We propose further incorporation of Bayesian phylogeography into formal GIS analyses to augment studies of arboviral disease. PMID:23516640

Beck, Andrew; Guzman, Hilda; Li, Li; Ellis, Brett; Tesh, Robert B.; Barrett, Alan D. T.

2013-01-01

198

Laboratory vector competence experiments with yellow fever virus and five South African mosquito species including Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Three domestic and peridomestic mosquito species, selected because their prevalence, distribution and ecology favoured them as potential urban vectors of yellow fever (YF) in South Africa, were submitted to numerous tests for infectivity [measured as dose needed to infect 50% of the mosquitoes (MID50)], mainly with a Kenyan strain (BC7914) of the virus. Use of a Nigerian virus strain (TVP1617) did not significantly alter infectivity. After artificial infective blood meals with titres of 7.0-8.0 log10MID50/mL, head squash infection rates (HSIRs) determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody test were 0-4% (Eretmapodites quinquevittatus), 0-29% (Aedes simpsoni s. s.) and 0-21% (5 populations of Aedes aegypti). For some populations of Ae. aegypti tests were repeated with blood meals incorporating freshly prepared rather than frozen mouse brain but HSIRs did not increase. HSIRs did increase when a high infecting titre of 9.0 log10MID50/mL was used with the Richards Bay population (67-90%). It is concluded that these 3 mosquito species are potentially poor YF vectors but that Ae. simpsoni and Richards Bay Ae. aegypti are the most susceptible to the virus. However, the latter 2 species could support person-to-person transmission only if they were present at very high densities. This rarely occurs with Ae. simpsoni in South Africa but Ae. aegypti may occur at high densities although only in discrete foci. The feral Ae. furcifer and Ae. cordellieri had HSIRs of 29% and 3% respectively and Ae. furcifer 'transmitted' the virus in vitro at a transmission rate of 25%. This suggests that Ae. furcifer would be more important than Ae. cordellieri in transmission between monkeys in West Africa. PMID:12474475

Jupp, Peter G; Kemp, Alan

2002-01-01

199

Men with Low Vitamin A Stores Respond Adequately to Primary Yellow Fever and Secondary Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination12  

PubMed Central

Current recommendations for vitamin A intake and liver stores (0.07 ?mol/g) are based on maintaining normal vision. Higher levels may be required for maintaining normal immune function. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between total body vitamin A stores in adult men and measures of adaptive immune function. We conducted an 8-wk residential study among 36 healthy Bangladeshi men with low vitamin A stores. Subjects received a standard diet and were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive vitamin A (240 mg) or placebo during wk 2 and 3. Subjects received Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccines during wk 5. Vitamin A stores were estimated by isotopic dilution during wk 8. Vaccine-specific lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production, and serum antibody responses were evaluated before and after vaccination. Vitamin A supplementation increased YFV- and TT-specific lymphocyte proliferation and YFV-specific interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-? production but inhibited development of a TT-specific IL-10 response. Both groups developed protective antibody responses to both vaccines. Some responses correlated positively with vitamin A stores. These findings indicate that the currently recommended vitamin A intake is sufficient to sustain a protective response to YFV and TT vaccination. However, YFV-specific lymphocyte proliferation, some cytokine responses, and neutralizing antibody were positively associated with liver vitamin A stores > 0.084 ?mol/g. Such increases may enhance vaccine protection but raise the question of whether immune-mediated chronic diseases may by exacerbated by high-level dietary vitamin A. PMID:18936231

Ahmad, Shaikh M.; Haskell, Marjorie J.; Raqib, Rubhana; Stephensen, Charles B.

2008-01-01

200

Characterization of the yellow fever mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene and ligand-bound protein structure  

SciTech Connect

The sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene (AeSCP-2L3), a new member of the SCP-2 protein family, is identified from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The predicted molecular weight of AeSCP-2L3 is 13.4 kDa with a calculated pI of 4.98. AeSCP-2L3 transcription occurs in the larval feeding stages and the mRNA levels decrease in pupae and adults. The highest levels of AeSCP-2L3 gene expression are found in the body wall, and possibly originated in the fat body. This is the first report of a mosquito SCP-2-like protein with prominent expression in tissue other than the midgut. The X-ray protein crystal structure of AeSCP-2L3 reveals a bound C16 fatty acid whose acyl tail penetrates deeply into a hydrophobic cavity. Interestingly, the ligand-binding cavity is slightly larger than previously described for AeSCP-2 (Dyer et al. J Biol Chem 278:39085-39091, 2003) and AeSCP-2L2 (Dyer et al. J Lipid Res M700460-JLR200, 2007). There are also an additional 10 amino acids in SCP-2L3 that are not present in other characterized mosquito SCP-2s forming an extended loop between {beta}3 and {beta}4. Otherwise, the protein backbone is exceedingly similar to other SCP-2 and SCP-2-like proteins. In contrast to this observed high structural homology of members in the mosquito SCP2 family, the amino acid sequence identity between the members is less than 30%. The results from structural analysis imply that there have been evolutionary constraints that favor the SCP-2 C{alpha} backbone fold while the specificity of ligand binding can be altered.

Dyer, David H.; Vyazunova, Irina; Lorch, Jeffery M.; Forest, Katrina T.; Lan, Que; (UW)

2009-06-12

201

Functional Characterization of the Octenol Receptor Neuron on the Maxillary Palps of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background 1-Octen-3-ol (octenol) is a common attractant released by vertebrates which in combination with carbon dioxide (CO2) attracts hematophagous arthropods including mosquitoes. A receptor neuron contained within basiconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of adult mosquitoes responds selectively to 1-octen-3-ol. Recently, an odorant receptor (AaegOR8) known to occur on the maxillary palps was expressed in a heterologous system and demonstrated to be selectively sensitive to (R)-(?)-1-octen-3-ol, one of two enantiomeric forms. Lesser responses were elicited by stimulation with the (S)-enantiomer and various structural analogs. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we characterize the specificity of the octenol receptor neuron in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), in vivo using single cell recordings. The octenol neuron is exquisitely sensitive to (R)-(?)-1-octen-3-ol; comparable responses to (S)-(+)-1-octen-3-ol were elicited only at stimulus doses over 100× that required for the (R)-enantiomer. An intermediate response closer to that elicited by the (R)-(?)-enantiomer was elicited by racemic 1-octen-3-ol. Small structural changes in (R)-(?)-1-octen-3-ol resulted in large decreases in responses. Increases in spike activity were also elicited in the octenol neuron by 2-undecanone, a known repellent; other repellents (DEET, IR3535 and picaridin) were inactive. Conclusions/Significance The results of our electrophysiological studies of the octenol receptor neuron in vivo approximates results of a previous study of the octenol receptor (AaegOR8 with its obligate partner Aaeg\\ORco) expressed heterologously in Xenopus oocytes. By comparison of our current results with those of the heterologous expression study, we conclude that specificity of the octenol receptor neuron can be explained largely by characteristics of the OR alone without other associated proteins present in vivo. Our findings show that repellents may have specific stimulatory effects on receptor neurons and support the notion of repellents as modulators of mosquito odorant receptor activity. PMID:21738794

Grant, Alan J.; Dickens, Joseph C.

2011-01-01

202

Diagnosis and management of imported Chikungunya fever in Taiwan: a case report.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne alphavirus, is endemic in Africa and Southeast Asia but is rarely reported in Taiwan. We report the case of a Taiwanese woman who developed Chikungunya fever, which was first diagnosed by a clinician rather than by fever screening at an airport. The woman presented with fever, maculopapular rash, and arthralgia, the triad for the disease, on the day she returned home after a trip to Malaysia. These symptoms are very similar to those of dengue fever, which is endemic in Southern Taiwan. Chikungunya infection was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and seroconversion on paired serum specimens. For approximately 40 years until 2006, no cases of Chikungunya fever had been found in Taiwan. Clinicians in Taiwan should consider Chikungunya fever as a possible diagnosis for a febrile patient with arthralgia, rash, and a history of travel to an endemic area, such as Africa or Southeast Asia. PMID:20466336

Chang, Ko; Hsieh, Hsiao-Chen; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Chen, Yen-Hsu

2010-05-01

203

Rat Bite Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Rat Bite Fever Health Issues Listen Rat Bite Fever Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who ... ingestion of contaminated food or milk products (Haverhill fever). Most cases in the United States are caused ...

204

Two Cases of Q-Fever in Hairy Cell Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder accounting for about 2% of all leukemias. The clinical course is indolent, however HCL patients are particularly susceptible to infections. Here we report two cases of Q-fever as first manifestation of disease in two patients affected by HCL. Both patients described in this report showed an unusually sluggish clinical response to the antibiotic treatment with ciprofloxacin probably because of the marked immunodeficiency. However, treatment of HCL with cladribine administered soon after the resolution of QF pneumonitis was uneventful and led to a complete remission in both cases. Most probably the association of Coxiella burnetii (CB) infection and HCL that we observed in two patients is due to chance. However, a hairy cell resembling transformation of freshly isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes upon CB has been showed. We think that the possibility of CB infection in febrile HCL patient should be always taken in mind, especially in endemic areas. In addition the potential for such infections to become chronic in HCL patients should not be overlooked and the reporting of further cases should be encouraged. PMID:25180111

Iannitto, Emilio; Tick, Lidwine W.; Arents, Nicolaas L. A.; Kuijper, Philip H.; Nijziel, Marten R.

2014-01-01

205

Acute Scrotal Ulcers in Typhoid Fever: Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Background. In developed countries, typhoid fever is a travel-associated disease that is often overlooked. However, as standard blood and stool culture methods have relatively low sensitivity, diagnosis depends heavily on clinical signs and symptoms and on a high level of suspicion. Methods. Reported here is the case of an 18-year-old male who presented with fever and acute scrotal ulcers and whose blood cultures were positive for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. A review of genital ulcers associated with typhoid fever in the literature is discussed. Conclusion. This report suggests that typhoid fever is a differential diagnosis of acute genital ulcers.

Choi, Hil Yin; Nickless, David; Tee, Wennie; Tong, En’en; Aboltins, Craig A.

2015-01-01

206

Cracked mercury dental amalgam as a possible cause of fever of unknown origin: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Sudden fever of unknown origin is quite a common emergency and may lead to hospitalization. A rise in body temperature can be caused by infectious diseases and by other types of medical condition. This case report is of a woman who had fever at night for several days and other clinical signs which were likely related to cracked dental

Fabrizia Bamonti; Gianpaolo Guzzi; Maria Elena Ferrero

2008-01-01

207

Typhoid fever in the neapolitan area: A case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typhoid fever is endemic in the Neapolitan area, where its yearly incidence rate largely exceeds the corresponding national figure. During the period from January to June, 1990, a matched case-control study was carried out in order to identify risk factors of the disease in this area; 51 subjects (mean age 27.2 years) with typhoid fever were compared with 102 controls

T. Stroffolini; G. Manzillo; R. DE SENA; E. Manzillo; P. Pagliano; M. Zaccarelli; M. Russo; M. Soscia; G. Giusti

1992-01-01

208

Child-Invented Health Education Games: A Case Study for Dengue Fever  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study's goal was to demonstrate the ability of an 8-year-old child to create educational games for the topic of dengue fever control. A naturalistic descriptive case study method was employed. The child had two dengue fever educational game creation activities. The study demonstrated that a child could develop functional games related to…

Lennon, Jeffrey L.; Coombs, David W.

2006-01-01

209

Marburg Haemorrhagic Fever  

MedlinePLUS

Marburg haemorrhagic fever Fact sheet November 2012 Key facts The Marburg virus causes severe viral haemorrhagic fever in humans. Case fatality ... environmental controls. Table: Chronology of major Marburg Haemorrhagic Fever outbreaks. Year Country Virus subtype Cases Deaths Case ...

210

9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...processed in a region where African swine fever exists, as listed in § 94.8 of...

2010-01-01

211

9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...processed in a region where African swine fever exists, as listed in § 94.8 of...

2012-01-01

212

9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...processed in a region where African swine fever exists, as listed in § 94.8 of...

2011-01-01

213

A Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease Case Mimicking T Cell Lymphoma with Prolonged Fever  

PubMed Central

Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is a self-limited disease characterized by necrotizing lymphadenitis. Although cervical lymphadenitis in young women is the most familiar clinical presentation, it may take place in the etiology of fever in cases presenting with fever of unknown origin. A 33-year-old male case admitted with fever, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and leukopenia for one month, subsequently developing axillary lymphadenopathy during followup, diagnosed as KFD with typical histopathological findings, and showing full recovery after the excision of lymph node was presented in this report. PMID:25574175

Yadigar, Serap; Balkan, Ilker Inanc; Saltoglu, Nese

2014-01-01

214

A young traveller presenting with typhoid fever after oral vaccination: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Typhoid fever is one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases in travellers returning from tropical destinations. However, immunity and the immune response to infection are barely understood. Case presentation We report a case of tyhoid fever in a 29-year-old Caucasian, previously healthy woman who did not develop protective immunity or seroconversion of H or O antibodies neither after vaccination with the oral Ty21 vaccine, nor after infection with Salmonella typhi. Conclusions This case highlights the insufficiencies of the current vaccination and the lack of a reliable, rapid serologic diagnostic tool for typhoid fever. With this case report, we aim to sensitize the reader that typhoid fever has to be taken into account as a differential diagnosis in patients even after vaccination and with negative serological test results. PMID:24099396

2013-01-01

215

[Investigation of dengue virus and yellow fever virus seropositivities in blood donors from Central/Northern Anatolia, Turkey].  

PubMed

Dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV) are two of the globally prevalent vector-borne flaviviruses. Data on these viruses from Turkey is limited to a single study originating from the western, Aegean region of Turkey, where evidence for DENV exposure had been confirmed in residents and presence of hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against YFV had been revealed. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of seropositivity of DENV and YFV in blood donors from Central/Northern Anatolia, Turkey, for the demonstration of possible human exposure. Serum samples were collected by the Turkish Red Crescent Middle Anatolia Regional Blood Center from donation sites at Ankara, Konya, Eski?ehir and Zonguldak provinces and included in the study after informed consent. Ankara is the capital and second most-populated city in Turkey. All samples were previously evaluated for West Nile and tick-borne encephalitis virus antibodies and found to be negative. A total of 2435 and 1502 sera have been evaluated for IgG antibodies against DENV and YFV, respectively. Commercial enzymelinked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and indirect immunofluorescence tests (IIFTs) were applied (Euroimmun, Germany) for DENV/YFV IgG surveillance. DENV IgG reactive sera were further evaluated for IgM by ELISA and a commercial mosaic IIFT to determine DENV subtypes. IgM positive samples were also analyzed by a commercial NS1 antigen detection assay (Bio-Rad Laboratories, France). YFV IgG reactive samples were evaluated by IIFT for IgM and via mosaic IIFT and antibody specificity were confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Anti-DENV IgGs were demonstrated in repeated assays in 0.9% (21/2435) of the sera. In two samples with borderline IgG results, presence of DENV IgM was detected, one of which was also borderline positive for DENV NS1 antigen. In 14.3% (3/21) of the IgG reactive sera, mosaic IIFT was evaluated as positive and displayed prominent reactivity for DENV-2 in all samples. From five donors with DENV reactivity, new samples were obtained after at least six months which revealed the continuing presence of DENV IgG activity in four. One sample which was initially positive for IgM, borderline for NS1 antigen and borderline for IgG was observed to be positive for IgG and negative for IgM in redonation. IIFT results in three redonation samples also indicated reactivity for DENV-1 and DENV-2 subtypes. Anti-YFV IgGs were detected in 0.6% (9/1502) of the sera. YFV IgM could not be demonstrated in any of the IgG reactive samples and PRNT was evaluated as negative. In conclusion, evidence for DENV exposure, presumably to DENV-2, was identified in residents from Central Anatolian provinces of Ankara and Konya for the first time, however, seroreactivity detected against YFV could not be confirmed by PRNT. These findings indicated that DENV or an antigenically-similar flavivirus was probably present in the study region and sporadic human exposure might have occurred. PMID:21063991

Ergünay, Koray; Saygan, Mehmet B; Aydo?an, Sibel; Litzba, Nadine; Niedrig, Matthias; P?nar, Ahmet; Us, Dürdal

2010-07-01

216

Spatiotemporal analysis of indigenous and imported dengue fever cases in Guangdong province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue fever has been a major public health concern in China since it re-emerged in Guangdong province in 1978. This study aimed to explore spatiotemporal characteristics of dengue fever cases for both indigenous and imported cases during recent years in Guangdong province, so as to identify high-risk areas of the province and thereby help plan resource allocation for dengue interventions. Methods Notifiable cases of dengue fever were collected from all 123 counties of Guangdong province from 2005 to 2010. Descriptive temporal and spatial analysis were conducted, including plotting of seasonal distribution of cases, and creating choropleth maps of cumulative incidence by county. The space-time scan statistic was used to determine space-time clusters of dengue fever cases at the county level, and a geographical information system was used to visualize the location of the clusters. Analysis were stratified by imported and indigenous origin. Results 1658 dengue fever cases were recorded in Guangdong province during the study period, including 94 imported cases and 1564 indigenous cases. Both imported and indigenous cases occurred more frequently in autumn. The areas affected by the indigenous and imported cases presented a geographically expanding trend over the study period. The results showed that the most likely cluster of imported cases (relative risk?=?7.52, p?cases (relative risk?=?153.56, p?cases occurred in one district of the Chao Shan Area (relative risk?=?471.25, p?fever cases has expanded over recent years, and cases were significantly clustered in two heavily urbanised areas of Guangdong province. This provides the foundation for further investigation of risk factors and interventions in these high-risk areas. PMID:22691405

2012-01-01

217

Clinical and virological characterization of imported cases of Chikungunya fever.  

PubMed

A Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic emerged in the Indian Ocean islands of the Comores, Reunion, Mayotte, Mauritius, the Seychelles and Madagascar in 2005 resulting in the infection of about 250.000 inhabitants and travellers in only one year. Beginning in March 2006 increasing numbers of CHIKV-like febrile illnesses were reported from various parts of India. We investigated 70 consecutive German travellers returning from the affected areas and presenting with arthralgia and/or fever suggestive of CHIKV infection. Eleven patients had serological evidence of CHIKV infection. Real-time RT-PCR for CHIKV was positive in two cases, one who returned from Mauritius and the other who came back from Rajasthan, Northern India. In both cases CHIKV was isolated and sequencing of the entire viral genome was performed. The nucleotide sequence data obtained for both CHIKV strains revealed a high level of identity to CHIKV isolates from the ongoing epidemic. In detail, we found only 18 nucleotide exchanges between the isolates from Mauritius and Rajasthan, resulting in only six amino acid changes (nsP1 T128K, T376M, nsP3 S472N, capsid P23S, V27I and E1-protein A226V). Although the excessive dimension of the 2005/2006 outbreak in the Indian Ocean islands was at least in part accounted to the naďve population affected, our results of the Rajasthan isolate support that the emergence of this CHIKV subtype may rather be a result of a better viral fitness. This has been previously accounted to a A226V change in the E1 protein of the new CHIKV variant when compared to other CHIKV data available. This mutation, supposedly resulting in high-titred viremia in humans and/or an enhanced adaptation to the vector population resulting in increased transmission rates, was also found in our CHIKV isolate from Mauritius. The spread of an African CHIKV to Asia further demonstrates how fast viruses can emerge and establish in places where competent vectors are prevalent. PMID:19066782

Pfeffer, Martin; Zöller, Gudrun; Essbauer, Sandra; Tomaso, Herbert; Behrens-Riha, Nicole; Löscher, Thomas; Dobler, Gerhard

2008-01-01

218

Q Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology  

MedlinePLUS

... Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Q Fever in the United States Q fever was first ... Q fever. Figure 1 - Number of U.S. Q Fever cases* reported to CDC, 1998 – 2010. *Numbers presented ...

219

A case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome caused by a novel bunyavirus in Zhejiang, China.  

PubMed

Two typical symptoms of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) are fever and thrombocytopenia. Here we report a laboratory confirmed SFTS case with no fever during the entire hospitalization period, in Daishan County, Zhejiang Province, China. A 77-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with symptoms including nausea, retching, and anorexia. Laboratory tests revealed thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and liver and brain damage. The case was later confirmed as a novel bunyavirus infection. Epidemiological investigations revealed that she had no history of tick bites or skin damage, and no known exposure to persons with a similar illness in the area prior to illness onset. The patient was hospitalized for 15 days, and during the whole admission period, she did not experience any fever. The patient recovered and was discharged. PMID:25677726

Ye, Ling; Shang, Xiaopeng; Wang, Zhongfa; Hu, Fengjiao; Wang, Xinyi; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xuefei; Liu, Shelan; He, Fan; Li, Fudong; Wang, Chengwei; Jiang, Jianmin; Lin, Junfen

2015-04-01

220

Spatial and temporal abundance of three sylvatic yellow fever vectors in the influence area of the Manso hydroelectric power plant, Mato Grosso, Brazil.  

PubMed

Human biting catches of sylvatic yellow fever (SYF) vectors were conducted at eight stations in the influence area of the Manso hydroelectric power plant (Central Brazil) in sampling campaigns every 2 mo from July 2000 to November 2001. In total, 206 individuals were captured and classified as one of three species important for the transmission of SYF in Mato Grosso state: Haemagogus (Haemagogus) janthinomys (Dyar, 1921); Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon, 1924); and Sabethes (Sabethoides) chloropterus (Humboldt, 1819). The highest vector abundance was observed during the rainy season (November through March) and SYF vectors were present in all sampling points throughout the year, mainly in riparian and shadowed transitional forests at shadowed ramps. PMID:22308793

Ribeiro, A L M; Miyazaki, R D; Silva, M; Zeilhofer, P

2012-01-01

221

Samuel Holden Parsons Lee (1772-1863): American physician, entrepreneur and selfless fighter of the 1798 Yellow Fever epidemic of New London, Connecticut.  

PubMed

Samuel Holden Parsons Lee practised medicine at a time when the germ theory of disease had not yet been proposed and antibiotics remained undiscovered. In 1798 he served selflessly as the only physician in town who was willing to battle the Yellow Fever outbreak of New London, Connecticut. Because he practised at the dawn of the age of patent medicine, unfortunately his name also came to be associated with medical quackery. We argue that his contributions have been grossly underestimated. He compounded and vended medications - including bilious pills and bitters - that were gold standards of the day. Moreover, one preparation for treatment of kidney stones led to his sub-specialization in this field and was met with such success that its sale continued for nearly 100 years after his death. While a talented medical man, Lee also had a knack for business, finding success in trading, whaling and real estate. PMID:24585580

Mattie, James K; Desai, Sukumar P

2015-02-01

222

T-cell memory responses elicited by yellow fever vaccine are targeted to overlapping epitopes containing multiple HLA-I and -II binding motifs.  

PubMed

The yellow fever vaccines (YF-17D-204 and 17DD) are considered to be among the safest vaccines and the presence of neutralizing antibodies is correlated with protection, although other immune effector mechanisms are known to be involved. T-cell responses are known to play an important role modulating antibody production and the killing of infected cells. However, little is known about the repertoire of T-cell responses elicited by the YF-17DD vaccine in humans. In this report, a library of 653 partially overlapping 15-mer peptides covering the envelope (Env) and nonstructural (NS) proteins 1 to 5 of the vaccine was utilized to perform a comprehensive analysis of the virus-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses. The T-cell responses were screened ex-vivo by IFN-? ELISPOT assays using blood samples from 220 YF-17DD vaccinees collected two months to four years after immunization. Each peptide was tested in 75 to 208 separate individuals of the cohort. The screening identified sixteen immunodominant antigens that elicited activation of circulating memory T-cells in 10% to 33% of the individuals. Biochemical in-vitro binding assays and immunogenetic and immunogenicity studies indicated that each of the sixteen immunogenic 15-mer peptides contained two or more partially overlapping epitopes that could bind with high affinity to molecules of different HLAs. The prevalence of the immunogenicity of a peptide in the cohort was correlated with the diversity of HLA-II alleles that they could bind. These findings suggest that overlapping of HLA binding motifs within a peptide enhances its T-cell immunogenicity and the prevalence of the response in the population. In summary, the results suggests that in addition to factors of the innate immunity, "promiscuous" T-cell antigens might contribute to the high efficacy of the yellow fever vaccines. PMID:23383350

de Melo, Andréa Barbosa; Nascimento, Eduardo J M; Braga-Neto, Ulisses; Dhalia, Rafael; Silva, Ana Maria; Oelke, Mathias; Schneck, Jonathan P; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Montenegro, Silvia M L; Marques, Ernesto T A

2013-01-01

223

Evaluation of AaDOP2 receptor antagonists reveals antidepressants and antipsychotics as novel lead molecules for control of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, vectors disease-causing agents that adversely affect human health, most notably the viruses causing dengue and yellow fever. The efficacy of current mosquito control programs is challenged by the emergence of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations, suggesting an urgent need for the development of chemical insecticides with new mechanisms of action. One recently identified potential insecticide target is the A. aegypti D1-like dopamine receptor, AaDOP2. The focus of the present study was to evaluate AaDOP2 antagonism both in vitro and in vivo using assay technologies with increased throughput. The in vitro assays revealed AaDOP2 antagonism by four distinct chemical scaffolds from tricyclic antidepressant or antipsychotic chemical classes, and elucidated several structure-activity relationship trends that contributed to enhanced antagonist potency, including lipophilicity, halide substitution on the tricyclic core, and conformational rigidity. Six compounds displayed previously unparalleled potency for in vitro AaDOP2 antagonism, and among these, asenapine, methiothepin, and cis-(Z)-flupenthixol displayed subnanomolar IC50 values and caused rapid toxicity to A. aegypti larvae and/or adults in vivo. Our study revealed a significant correlation between in vitro potency for AaDOP2 antagonism and in vivo toxicity, suggesting viability of AaDOP2 as an insecticidal target. Taken together, this study expanded the repertoire of known AaDOP2 antagonists, enhanced our understanding of AaDOP2 pharmacology, provided further support for rational targeting of AaDOP2, and demonstrated the utility of efficiency-enhancing in vitro and in vivo assay technologies within our genome-to-lead pipeline for the discovery of next-generation insecticides. PMID:25332454

Conley, Jason M; Meyer, Jason M; Nuss, Andrew B; Doyle, Trevor B; Savinov, Sergey N; Hill, Catherine A; Watts, Val J

2015-01-01

224

Scarlet Fever Associated with Hepatitis – A Report of Two Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Infection with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) is the most common bacterial cause of acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis\\u000a beyond infancy. We report on two patients with scarlet fever associated with hepatitis. The patients (boys aged 6 and 7 years)\\u000a both presented with a scarlatiniform rash, dark urine and light-colored stools. Laboratory studies revealed elevated liver\\u000a transaminases and negative antibody

M. Girisch; U. Heininger

2000-01-01

225

A case of vasculitis, retinitis and macular neurosensory detachment presenting post typhoid fever  

PubMed Central

Background Ocular and extraocular immune-mediated phenomena are known to occur following febrile illness. Vasculitis, retinitis and neurosensory detachment are not well-recognized sequelae of typhoid fever. Findings We report a case of vasculitis, retinitis and macular neurosensory detachment presenting post typhoid fever. A 27-year-old female presented with decreased vision in right eye with history of typhoid fever (treated adequately 6 weeks prior). Her best corrected visual acuity in right eye was 20/125, N36. Fundus showed a patch of vasculitis and retinitis superior to the disc associated with macular neurosensory detachment and disc pallor. With oral steroids, the inflammation resolved and visual acuity improved to 20/20 at 6 weeks. Conclusions Immune-mediated vasculitis and retinitis following typhoid fever may respond well to systemic steroids. PMID:25246983

2014-01-01

226

Q fever in the United States: summary of case reports from two national surveillance systems, 2000-2012.  

PubMed

Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis historically associated with exposure to infected livestock. This study summarizes cases of Q fever, a notifiable disease in the United States, reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through two national surveillance systems with onset during 2000-2012. The overall incidence rate during this time was 0.38 cases per million persons per year. The reported case fatality rate was 2.0%, and the reported hospitalization rate was 62%. Most cases (61%) did not report exposure to cattle, goats, or sheep, suggesting that clinicians should consider Q fever even in the absence of livestock exposure. The prevalence of drinking raw milk among reported cases of Q fever (8.4%) was more than twice the national prevalence for the practice. Passive surveillance systems for Q fever are likely impacted by underreporting and underdiagnosis because of the nonspecific presentation of Q fever. PMID:25404080

Dahlgren, F Scott; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Massung, Robert F; Anderson, Alicia D

2015-02-01

227

Pathology Case Study: Intermittent Fevers in a 43-Year-Old Black Male  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help students and instructors. In this particular study the patient is complaining of intermittent fevers. The case provides test results and data as well as microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis as well as treatment.

Dorvault, Christine

228

Fever of unknown origin: report of 107 cases in a university hospital  

PubMed Central

Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is a challenging problem in clinical practice. Evaluation of patient’s characteristics may illustrate the etiologies of FUO. In present study, 107 patients with FUO hospitalized in our inpatient department between 2010 and 2011 were investigated. The median age of the patients was 48 years (15-94). The median fever duration was 8.5 weeks (3-104). The median hospital stay was 8.5 days (1-51). Etiologies of FUO were identified as follows: infectious diseases 32 (29.9%), malignancies 19 (17.8%), inflammatory rheumatic diseases 18 (16.8%), and miscellaneous diseases 15 (14.0%). In 23 (21.5%) patients, the diagnosis remained unclear. Infection group had relative shorter average fever duration and hospital stay than other groups. Shortened mean fever duration was observed in geriatric age group. In conclusion, as the most common cause of FUO in the present study, infectious cases had relative shorter average fever duration and hospital stay, and geriatric patients had shortened average fever duration as well. PMID:25664121

Yu, Kang-Kang; Chen, Sheng-Sen; Ling, Qing-Xia; Huang, Chong; Zheng, Jian-Ming; Cheng, Qi; Li, Ning; Chen, Ming-Quan; Shi, Guang-Feng

2014-01-01

229

[Yellow nail syndrome. Apropos of 2 cases. Review of the literature].  

PubMed

The yellow nail syndrome is a clinical syndrome without specific biological parameters. It is characterized by the following threesome of symptoms: nail abnormalities, primary lymphedema, and pleuropulmonary manifestations. In most cases lymphography shows abnormalities of the lymphatic vessels and spirometry shows a restrictive defect and rarely obstructive disorders. Pathogenesis of this syndrome is still unknown. It is, however, remarkable that the yellow nail syndrome may occur in association with other diseases, the most frequent of which are cancer affections and immune disorders. We report two cases of the yellow nail syndrome which were associated with cancer (neoplasm of the larynx and breast). PMID:7800987

Kianzowa, M; Saraceni, O; Wilhelm, J M; Kieffer, P

1994-01-01

230

Rheumatic fever  

MedlinePLUS

... or scarlet fever ). The disease can affect the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... Rheumatic fever is common worldwide and is responsible for many cases of damaged heart valves. It is not common in the United States, and usually occurs in isolated outbreaks. The ...

231

Pharmacological validation of an inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channel as an insecticide target in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are important disease vectors that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans, including those that cause malaria and dengue fever. Insecticides have traditionally been deployed to control populations of disease-causing mosquitoes, but the emergence of insecticide resistance has severely limited the number of active compounds that are used against mosquitoes. Thus, to improve the control of resistant mosquitoes there is a need to identify new insecticide targets and active compounds for insecticide development. Recently we demonstrated that inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels and small molecule inhibitors of Kir channels offer promising new molecular targets and active compounds, respectively, for insecticide development. Here we provide pharmacological validation of a specific mosquito Kir channel (AeKir1) in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. We show that VU590, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 channels, potently inhibits AeKir1 but not another mosquito Kir channel (AeKir2B) in vitro. Moreover, we show that a previously identified inhibitor of AeKir1 (VU573) elicits an unexpected agonistic effect on AeKir2B in vitro. Injection of VU590 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes significantly inhibits their capacity to excrete urine and kills them within 24 h, suggesting a mechanism of action on the excretory system. Importantly, a structurally-related VU590 analog (VU608), which weakly blocks AeKir1 in vitro, has no significant effects on their excretory capacity and does not kill mosquitoes. These observations suggest that the toxic effects of VU590 are associated with its inhibition of AeKir1. PMID:24959745

Rouhier, Matthew F; Raphemot, Rene; Denton, Jerod S; Piermarini, Peter M

2014-01-01

232

Fever after Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy; a case report from Gorgan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Ectopic pregnancy is a rare condition, and, although its prevalence has decreased in recent years, it is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in women. Cervical ectopic pregnancy is less than 1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Fever is one of signs of infection, and it is necessary to monitor patients closely for other signs of infection. This paper presents and discusses a case of cervical ectopic pregnancy with fever after treatment. The patient had a high fever that became worse after three hospitalizations. The probable cause of her pyelonephritis was a urinary catheter, although it had been removed earlier, and she was receiving antibiotic therapy. Even though cervical ectopic pregnancy is a rare condition, it has certain complications that must be managed appropriately.

Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Besharat, Mahsa

2014-01-01

233

Distinct Gene Expression Profiles in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients Infected with Vaccinia Virus, Yellow Fever 17D Virus, or Upper Respiratory Infections Running Title: PBMC Expression Response to Viral Agents  

PubMed Central

Gene expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was systematically evaluated following smallpox and yellow fever vaccination, and naturally occurring upper respiratory infection (URI). All three infections were characterized by the induction of many interferon stimulated genes, as well as enhanced expression of genes involved in proteolysis and antigen presentation. Vaccinia infection was also characterized by a distinct expression signature composed of up-regulation of monocyte response genes, with repression of genes expressed by B and T-cells. In contrast, the yellow fever host response was characterized by a suppression of ribosomal and translation factors, distinguishing this infection from vaccinia and URI. No significant URI-specific signature was observed, perhaps reflecting greater heterogeneity in the study population and etiological agents. Taken together, these data suggest that specific host gene expression signatures may be identified that distinguish one or a small number of virus agents. PMID:17651872

Scherer, Christina A.; Magness, Charles L.; Steiger, Kathryn V.; Poitinger, Nicholas D.; Caputo, Christine M.; Miner, Douglas G.; Winokur, Patricia L.; Klinzman, Donna; McKee, Janice; Pilar, Christine; Ward, Patricia A.; Gillham, Martha H.; Haulman, N. Jean; Stapleton, Jack T.; Iadonato, Shawn P.

2007-01-01

234

Dengue fever in a liver-transplanted patient: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Dengue fever is one of the commonest mosquito-borne diseases in the tropics, and Sri Lanka is no exception. Despite its commonness, dengue fever has rarely been described among patients who have undergone transplantation. We report the case of a patient with dengue fever after liver transplantation, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first such reported case outside Brazil. Case presentation Our patient was a 46-year-old Sri Lakan man who presented to our institution two years after undergoing an ABO-compatible cadaveric liver transplant. At presentation, he had typical symptoms of dengue fever. He was taking prednisolone 5mg daily and tacrolimus 3mg twice daily as immunosuppression. Initial investigations showed thrombocytopenia and neutropenia that reached a nadir by day 7 of his illness. He had elevated liver enzymes as well. The diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of NS1 antigen detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. His blood cultures and polymerase chain reaction tests for cytomegalovirus were negative. He made an uneventful recovery and was discharged by day 9 of his illness. However, normalization of liver function took nearly two weeks. In three previously reported Brazilian cases of dengue after liver transplantation, the patients presented with dengue shock syndrome, in contrast to the relatively milder presentation of our patient. Because of the lack of case reports in the literature, it is difficult to ascertain the risk factors for severe dengue infection in transplants, but dengue fever reported in renal transplants sheds some light on them. High-dose steroids increase the risk of thrombocytopenia, whereas tacrolimus has been reported to prolong the duration of symptoms. Otherwise, dengue fever is a relatively mild illness in patients who have undergone renal transplantation, and renal allograft survival has been reported to be 86% following dengue fever. Conclusion Dengue is a rarely reported infection in patients who have undergone transplantation. A high degree of suspicion is required for diagnosis. Dengue NS1 antigen detection is a useful addition to the already existing methods of diagnosis. Steroids and tacrolimus have effects on the morbidity of the disease. Graft outcomes following the infection has been excellent in all reported cases. PMID:25412699

2014-01-01

235

Immunogenicity, Genetic Stability, and Protective Efficacy of a Recombinant, Chimeric Yellow Fever-Japanese Encephalitis Virus (ChimeriVax-JE) as a Live, Attenuated Vaccine Candidate against Japanese Encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine virus, having a 60-year history of safe and effective use, is an ideal vector to deliver heterologous genes from other medically important flaviviruses. A chimeric YF\\/Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (ChimeriVax-JE virus) was constructed by insertion of the premembrane and envelope (prME) genes of an attenuated human vaccine strain (SA14–14-2) of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus between

F. Guirakhoo; Z.-X. Zhang; T. J. Chambers; S. Delagrave; J. Arroyo; A. D. T. Barrett; T. P. Monath

1999-01-01

236

Viremia and Immunogenicity in Nonhuman Primates of a Tetravalent Yellow Fever–Dengue Chimeric Vaccine: Genetic Reconstructions, Dose Adjustment, and Antibody Responses against Wild-type Dengue Virus Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chimeric yellow fever (YF)–dengue (DEN) viruses (ChimeriVax–DEN) were reconstructed to correct amino acid substitutions within the envelope genes of original constructs described by Guirakhoo et al. (2001, J. Virol. 75, 7290–7304). Viruses were analyzed and compared to the previous constructs containing mutations in terms of their growth kinetics in Vero cells, neurovirulence in mice, and immunogenicity in monkeys as monovalent

F. Guirakhoo; K. Pugachev; J. Arroyo; C. Miller; Z.-X. Zhang; R. Weltzin; K. Georgakopoulos; J. Catalan; S. Ocran; K. Draper; T. P. Monath

2002-01-01

237

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial of the 17D Yellow Fever Virus Vaccine Given in Combination with Immune Globulin or Placebo: Comparative Viremia and Immunogenicity  

PubMed Central

We evaluated whether coadministration of the yellow fever (YF) virus vaccine with human immunoglobulin (Ig) that contained YF virus-neutralizing antibodies would reduce post-vaccination viremia without compromising immunogenicity and thus, potentially mitigate YF vaccine-associated adverse events. We randomized 80 participants to receive either YF vaccine and Ig or YF vaccine and saline placebo. Participants were followed for 91 days for safety and assessments of viremia and immunogenicity. There were no differences found between the two groups in the proportion of vaccinated participants who developed viremia, seroconversion, cluster of differentiation (CD)-8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses, and cytokine responses. These results argue against one putative explanation for the increased reporting of YF vaccine side effects in recent years (i.e., a change in travel clinic practice after 1996 when hepatitis A prophylaxis with vaccine replaced routine use of pre-travel Ig, thus potentially removing an incidental YF vaccine-attenuating effect of anti-YF virus antibodies present in Ig) (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00254826). PMID:23208880

Edupuganti, Srilatha; Eidex, Rachel B.; Keyserling, Harry; Akondy, Rama S.; Lanciotti, Robert; Orenstein, Walter; del Rio, Carlos; Pan, Yi; Querec, Troy; Lipman, Harvey; Barrett, Alan; Ahmed, Rafi; Teuwen, Dirk; Cetron, Martin; Mulligan, Mark J.

2013-01-01

238

In vitro and in vivo antiviral properties of sulfated galactomannans against yellow fever virus (BeH111 strain) and dengue 1 virus (Hawaii strain).  

PubMed

Two galactomannans, one extracted from seeds of Mimosa scabrella, having a mannose to galactose ratio of 1.1, and another with a 1.4 ratio from seeds of Leucaena leucocephala, were sulfated. The products from M. scabrella (BRS) and L. leucocephala (LLS) had a degree of sulfation of 0.62 and 0.50, and an average molecular weight of 620x10(3) and 574x10(3) gmol(-1), respectively. Their activities against yellow fever virus (YFV; BeH111 strain) and dengue 1 virus (DEN-1; Hawaii strain) were evaluated. This was carried out in young mice following intraperitoneal infection with YFV. At a dose of 49 mgkg(-1), BRS and LLS gave protection against death in 87.7 and 96.5% of the mice, respectively. When challenged with 37.5 LD50 of YFV, mice previously inoculated with BRS+virus or LLS+virus, showed 93.3 and 100% resistance, respectively, with neutralization titers similar to mice injected with 25 LD50 of formaldehyde-inactivated YFV. In vitro experiments with YFV and DEN-1 in C6/36 cell culture assays in 24-well microplates showed that concentrations that produced a 100-fold decrease in virus titer of YFV were 586 and 385 mgl(-1) for BRS and LLS, respectively. For DEN-1 they were 347 and 37 mgl(-1), respectively. Sulfated galactomannans, thus demonstrate in vitro and in vivo activity against flaviviruses. PMID:14638396

Ono, Lucy; Wollinger, Wagner; Rocco, Iray M; Coimbra, Terezinha L M; Gorin, Philip A J; Sierakowski, Maria-Rita

2003-11-01

239

Alboserpin, a Factor Xa Inhibitor from the Mosquito Vector of Yellow Fever, Binds Heparin and Membrane Phospholipids and Exhibits Antithrombotic Activity*  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanism of factor Xa (FXa) inhibition by Alboserpin, the major salivary gland anticoagulant from the mosquito and yellow fever vector Aedes albopictus, has been characterized. cDNA of Alboserpin predicts a 45-kDa protein that belongs to the serpin family of protease inhibitors. Recombinant Alboserpin displays stoichiometric, competitive, reversible and tight binding to FXa (picomolar range). Binding is highly specific and is not detectable for FX, catalytic site-blocked FXa, thrombin, and 12 other enzymes. Alboserpin displays high affinity binding to heparin (KD ? 20 nm), but no change in FXa inhibition was observed in the presence of the cofactor, implying that bridging mechanisms did not take place. Notably, Alboserpin was also found to interact with phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine but not with phosphatidylserine. Further, annexin V (in the absence of Ca2+) or heparin outcompetes Alboserpin for binding to phospholipid vesicles, suggesting a common binding site. Consistent with its activity, Alboserpin blocks prothrombinase activity and increases both prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in vitro or ex vivo. Furthermore, Alboserpin prevents thrombus formation provoked by ferric chloride injury of the carotid artery and increases bleeding in a dose-dependent manner. Alboserpin emerges as an atypical serpin that targets FXa and displays unique phospholipid specificity. It conceivably uses heparin and phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine as anchors to increase protein localization and effective concentration at sites of injury, cell activation, or inflammation. PMID:21673107

Calvo, Eric; Mizurini, Daniella M.; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Andersen, John F.; Mans, Ben J.; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Kotsyfakis, Michail; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

2011-01-01

240

Birth of Three Stowaway-like MITE Families via Microhomology-Mediated Miniaturization of a Tc1/Mariner Element in the Yellow Fever Mosquito  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic genomes contain numerous DNA transposons that move by a cut-and-paste mechanism. The majority of these elements are self-insufficient and dependent on their autonomous relatives to transpose. Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are often the most numerous nonautonomous DNA elements in a higher eukaryotic genome. Little is known about the origin of these MITE families as few of them are accompanied by their direct ancestral elements in a genome. Analyses of MITEs in the yellow fever mosquito identified its youngest MITE family, designated as Gnome, that contains at least 116 identical copies. Genome-wide search for direct ancestral autonomous elements of Gnome revealed an elusive single copy Tc1/Mariner-like element, named as Ozma, that encodes a transposase with a DD37E triad motif. Strikingly, Ozma also gave rise to two additional MITE families, designated as Elf and Goblin. These three MITE families were derived at different times during evolution and bear internal sequences originated from different regions of Ozma. Upon close inspection of the sequence junctions, the internal deletions during the formation of these three MITE families always occurred between two microhomologous sites (6–8 bp). These results suggest that multiple MITE families may originate from a single ancestral autonomous element, and formation of MITEs can be mediated by sequence microhomology. Ozma and its related MITEs are exceptional candidates for the long sought-after endogenous active transposon tool in genetic control of mosquitoes. PMID:24068652

Yang, Guojun; Fattash, Isam; Lee, Chia-Ni; Liu, Kun; Cavinder, Brad

2013-01-01

241

Identification of life-stage and tissue-specific splice variants of an inward rectifying potassium (Kir) channel in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play key roles in nerve, muscle, and epithelial cells in mammals, but their physiological roles in insects remain to be determined. The yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) possesses five different genes encoding Kir channel subunits: Kir1, Kir2A, Kir2B, Kir2B', and Kir3. We have recently cloned and characterized the Kir1, Kir2B, and Kir3 cDNAs in the renal (Malpighian) tubules of adult female Ae. aegypti. Here we characterize the expression of the Kir2A gene in Ae. aegypti, which was not abundantly expressed in Malpighian tubules. We find that the 1) Kir2A gene is expressed primarily in the midgut and hindgut of adult female mosquitoes, and 2) Kir2A mRNAs are alternatively spliced into three distinct variants (Kir2A-a, -b, and -c). The deduced Kir2A proteins from these splice forms share a completely conserved transmembrane domain (a pore-forming domain flanked by two transmembrane-spanning segments), but possess novel NH2-terminal and/or COOH-terminal domains. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicate that the splice variants exhibit both developmental- and tissue-specific expression. Lastly, we provide insights into the conservation of alternative splicing among the Kir2A genes of dipterans, which may add molecular diversity that compensates for the relatively limited number of Kir channel genes in insects compared to mammals. PMID:24657620

Rouhier, Matthew F; Piermarini, Peter M

2014-05-01

242

A Case of Hepatic Fasciolosis Presented with Prolonged Fever in Southern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Human fasciolosis is deemed as an emerging/re-emerging infection, hence making it an important human parasitic disease. In contrast to northern parts of Iran, human cases of fasciolosis in southern Iran are rare and sporadic. We report a sporadic case of fasciolosis in southern Iran (Fars Province) who presented with prolonged fever. Our report could suggest that there might be new foci emerging in the region, which indicates the need for further investigations.

SANAEI DASHTI, Anahita; NASIMFAR, Amir; SHOWRAKI, Alireza; GERAMI-ZADEH, Bita

2015-01-01

243

Stranger's fever in Charleston, South Carolina: a mistaken diagnosis?  

PubMed

George Augustus Clough was a young Englishman who died in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1843. The cause of death, which unusually was given on his gravestone, was Stranger's fever, which is now known to be yellow fever. Stranger's fever first appeared in North America in Florida in 1649, and continued to cause both sporadic cases as well as serious epidemics, mainly in the South and along the Eastern seaboard of the US until the beginning of the twentieth century. It gained its name from its propensity to mainly afflict recent arrivals, and Clough had only been in Charleston for two years before his death. However, a re-examination of the evidence suggests that he may not in fact have died of yellow fever. PMID:18348507

Cohen, J; Cohen, J

2007-06-01

244

Regional dust storm modeling for health services: The case of valley fever  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 5 July 2011, a massive dust storm struck Phoenix, Arizona (USA), raising concerns for increased cases of valley fever (coccidioidomycosis, or, cocci). A quasi-operational experimental airborne dust forecast system predicted the event and provides model output for continuing analysis in collaboration with public health and air quality communities. An objective of this collaboration was to see if a signal in cases of valley fever in the region could be detected and traced to the storm - an American haboob. To better understand the atmospheric life cycle of cocci spores, the DREAM dust model (also herein, NMME-DREAM) was modified to simulate spore emission, transport and deposition. Inexact knowledge of where cocci-causing fungus grows, the low resolution of cocci surveillance and an overall active period for significant dust events complicate analysis of the effect of the 5 July 2011 storm. In the larger context of monthly to annual disease surveillance, valley fever statistics, when compared against PM10 observation networks and modeled airborne dust concentrations, may reveal a likely cause and effect. Details provided by models and satellites fill time and space voids in conventional approaches to air quality and disease surveillance, leading to land-atmosphere modeling and remote sensing that clearly mark a path to advance valley fever epidemiology, surveillance and risk avoidance.

Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Galgiani, John N.; Pejanovic, Goran; Petkovic, Slavko; Vujadinovic, Mirjam; Vukovic, Ana; Dacic, Milan; DiBiase, Scott; Prasad, Anup; El-Askary, Hesham

2014-09-01

245

A Case of Typhoid Fever with Hepatic Granulomas and Enteritis  

PubMed Central

The common histopathologic hepatic manifestations in patients infected with Salmonella include cloudy swelling and balloon degeneration with vacuolation of the hepatocytes and steatosis. Hepatic granulomas are a very rare finding, so far reported in very few cases. We report a 64-year-old patient with Salmonella enteritis who was found to have multiple 1.4 to 1.6?cm hypoechoic liver masses on ultrasound of the abdomen which on biopsy revealed hepatic granulomas. This case highlights the importance of keeping the differential diagnosis of Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) in mind in a patient with hepatic granulomas. PMID:25699196

Narechania, Shraddha; Duran, Marc; Karivedu, Vidhya; Gopalakrishna, K. V.

2015-01-01

246

Live virus vaccines based on a yellow fever vaccine backbone: standardized template with key considerations for a risk/benefit assessment.  

PubMed

The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viruses inserted into the backbone of another virus (so-called "chimeric virus vaccines"). Many viral vector vaccines are in advanced clinical trials. The first such vaccine to be approved for marketing (to date in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines) is a vaccine against the flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis (JE), which employs a licensed vaccine (yellow fever 17D) as a vector. In this vaccine, two envelope proteins (prM-E) of YF 17D virus were exchanged for the corresponding genes of JE virus, with additional attenuating mutations incorporated into the JE gene inserts. Similar vaccines have been constructed by inserting prM-E genes of dengue and West Nile into YF 17D virus and are in late stage clinical studies. The dengue vaccine is, however, more complex in that it requires a mixture of four live vectors each expressing one of the four dengue serotypes. This vaccine has been evaluated in multiple clinical trials. No significant safety concerns have been found. The Phase 3 trials met their endpoints in terms of overall reduction of confirmed dengue fever, and, most importantly a significant reduction in severe dengue and hospitalization due to dengue. However, based on results that have been published so far, efficacy in preventing serotype 2 infection is less than that for the other three serotypes. In the development of these chimeric vaccines, an important series of comparative studies of safety and efficacy were made using the parental YF 17D vaccine virus as a benchmark. In this paper, we use a standardized template describing the key characteristics of the novel flavivirus vaccine vectors, in comparison to the parental YF 17D vaccine. The template facilitates scientific discourse among key stakeholders by increasing the transparency and comparability of information. The Brighton Collaboration V3SWG template may also be useful as a guide to the evaluation of other recombinant viral vector vaccines. PMID:25446819

Monath, Thomas P; Seligman, Stephen J; Robertson, James S; Guy, Bruno; Hayes, Edward B; Condit, Richard C; Excler, Jean Louis; Mac, Lisa Marie; Carbery, Baevin; Chen, Robert T

2015-01-01

247

[A case of imported paratyphoid fever associated with Giardia lamblia and Isospora belli infection].  

PubMed

We report a case of imported paratyphoid fever associated with Giardia lamblia and Isospora belli infection. The patient was a 23-year-old Japanese female with complaints of high grade fever and diarrhea after 10 days traveling to Nepal. Salmonella Paratyphi A was isolated from the blood and fecal cultures on admission and Ciprofloxacin of 200 mg tid was administered for 14 days. Fecal examination revealed cysts of G. lamblia at the same time and metronidazole of 250 mg tid for 7 days was effective for their eradication. During the follow-up studies oocysts of I. belli were found and cotrimoxazole of 960 mg bid for 10 days was effective for their eradication. Fecal examinations on parasites which is rare in Japan such as I. belli are recommended to the cases returning from tropical areas. PMID:9916420

Sakamoto, M; Adachi, T; Sagara, H; Kawata, K; Itoh, A; Izeki, M

1998-12-01

248

Report of nine cases of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever From Iran  

PubMed Central

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an often fatal viral infection described in about 30 countries around the world. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick and by direct contact with blood or tissue from infected humans and livestock. In the following, we report nine cases of CCHF disease. This paper reported nine human CCHF cases, two in Tabas and Bandar Abbas and seven in Yazd. They were 21-, 33-, 28-, 29-, 61, 34, 35, 36 and 52 year-old men. The first, second and third patients were butchers and other patients were farmers. CCHF should be investigated in the patients with fever, bleeding and low platelet counts.

Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein; Mirjalili, Mahmood

2015-01-01

249

Fever as a first manifestation of advanced gastric adenosquamous carcinoma: A case report  

PubMed Central

Gastric adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) is a rare type of gastric cancer. It is a mixed neoplasm, consisting of glandular cells and squamous cells. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, thus carrying a poor prognosis. We describe a case of a 73-year-old male, who presented with refractory fever and an intra-abdominal mass on imaging. He underwent a laparoscopic exploration followed by a successful totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. Postoperative pathology revealed primary gastric ASC (T4aN0M0). The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy with S1 and is alive 20 mo after surgery without recurrence. This is the first case of advanced gastric ASC with fever as the initial presentation treated with totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy reported in the English literature. PMID:25110448

Ajoodhea, Harsha; Zhang, Ren-Chao; Xu, Xiao-Wu; Jin, Wei-Wei; Chen, Ke; He, Yong-Tao; Mou, Yi-Ping

2014-01-01

250

Intrauterine device may trigger typical attacks of familial Mediterranean fever: a case report.  

PubMed

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by episodic, recurrent, self-limited attacks of fever and serositis (sterile peritonitis, pleuritis, arthritis, etc). The insufficiency in restriction of mild inflammation contributes this consequence in FMF.Intrauterine devices (IUDs) have been widely used in the world for contraception by gynecologists as an effective and safe method. Herein, we present a woman with FMF as the first case, whose attacks were triggered by copper-containing IUD. Our hypothesis in the present case was that sterile mild inflammation in the uterus caused by copper-containing IUD may be the initial source of systemic inflammatory response.In our opinion, clinicians should consider that the copper-containing IUDs may be another cause of FMF attacks in women using this contraceptive method. PMID:25398289

Kurultak, Ilhan; Kinalp, Can; Ceri, Mevlut; Evrenkaya, Tevfik R?fk?

2015-01-01

251

Pathology Case Study: Fevers and Mental Status Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman underwent an allogenic bone marrow transplant but did not respond well. Visitors are given the autopsy information and patient history, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Martinez, A. Julio (Augusto Julio)

252

Purified mariner (Mos1) transposase catalyzes the integration of marked elements into the germ-line of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Derivatives of the mariner transposable element, Mos1, from Drosophila mauritiana, can integrate into the germ-line of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Previously, the transposase required to mobilize Mos1 was provided in trans by a helper plasmid expressing the enzyme under the control of the D. psuedoobscura heat-shock protein 82 promoter. Here we tested whether purified recombinant Mos1 transposase could increase the recovery of Ae. aegypti transformants. Mos1 transposase was injected into white-eyed, kh(w)/kh(w), Ae. aegypti embryos with a Mos1 donor plasmid containing a copy of the wild-type allele of the D. melanogaster cinnabar gene. Transformed mosquitoes were recognized by partial restoration of eye color in the G(1) animals and confirmed by Southern analyses of genomic DNA. At Mos1 transposase concentrations approaching 100 nM, the rate of germ-line transformants arising from independent insertions in G(0) animals was elevated 2-fold compared to that seen in experiments with helper plasmids. Furthermore, the recovery of total G(1) transformants was increased 7.5-fold over the frequency seen with co-injected helper plasmid. Southern blot analyses and gene amplification experiments confirmed the integration of the transposons into the mosquito genome, although not all integrations were of the expected cut-and-paste type transposition. The increased frequency of germ-line integrations obtained with purified transposase will facilitate the generation of Mos1 transgenic mosquitoes and the application of transgenic approaches to the biology of this important vector of multiple pathogens. PMID:10989286

Coates, C J; Jasinskiene, N; Morgan, D; Tosi, L R; Beverley, S M; James, A A

2000-11-01

253

The molecular and immunochemical expression of innexins in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti: Insights into putative life stage- and tissue-specific functions of gap junctions.  

PubMed

Gap junctions (GJ) mediate direct intercellular communication by forming channels through which certain small molecules and/or ions can pass. Connexins, the proteins that form vertebrate GJ, are well studied and known to contribute to neuronal, muscular and epithelial physiology. Innexins, the GJ proteins of insects, have only recently received much investigative attention and many of their physiological roles remain to be determined. Here we characterize the molecular expression of six innexin (Inx) genes in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (AeInx1, AeInx2, AeInx3, AeInx4, AeInx7, and AeInx8) and the immunochemical expression of one innexin protein, AeInx3, in the alimentary canal. We detected the expression of no less than four innexin genes in each mosquito life stage (larva, pupa, adult) and tissue/body region from adult males and females (midgut, Malpighian tubules, hindgut, head, carcass, gonads), suggesting a remarkable potential molecular diversity of GJ in mosquitoes. Moreover, the expression patterns of some innexins were life stage and/or tissue specific, suggestive of potential functional specializations. Cloning of the four full-length cDNAs expressed in the Malpighian tubules of adult females (AeInx1, AeInx2, AeInx3, and AeInx7) revealed evidence for 1) alternative splicing of AeInx1 and AeInx3 transcripts, and 2) putative N-glycosylation of AeInx3 and AeInx7. Finally, immunohistochemistry of AeInx3 in the alimentary canal of larval and adult female mosquitoes confirmed localization of this innexin to the intercellular regions of Malpighian tubule and hindgut epithelial cells, suggesting that it is an important component of GJ in these tissues. PMID:25585357

Calkins, Travis L; Woods-Acevedo, Mikal A; Hildebrandt, Oliver; Piermarini, Peter M

2015-05-01

254

Long-lasting stem cell-like memory CD8+ T cells with a naďve-like profile upon yellow fever vaccination.  

PubMed

Efficient and persisting immune memory is essential for long-term protection from infectious and malignant diseases. The yellow fever (YF) vaccine is a live attenuated virus that mediates lifelong protection, with recent studies showing that the CD8(+) T cell response is particularly robust. Yet, limited data exist regarding the long-term CD8(+) T cell response, with no studies beyond 5 years after vaccination. We investigated 41 vaccinees, spanning 0.27 to 35 years after vaccination. YF-specific CD8(+) T cells were readily detected in almost all donors (38 of 41), with frequencies decreasing with time. As previously described, effector cells dominated the response early after vaccination. We detected a population of naďve-like YF-specific CD8(+) T cells that was stably maintained for more than 25 years and was capable of self-renewal ex vivo. In-depth analyses of markers and genome-wide mRNA profiling showed that naďve-like YF-specific CD8(+) T cells in vaccinees (i) were distinct from genuine naďve cells in unvaccinated donors, (ii) resembled the recently described stem cell-like memory subset (Tscm), and (iii) among all differentiated subsets, had profiles closest to naďve cells. Our findings reveal that CD8(+) Tscm are efficiently induced by a vaccine in humans, persist for decades, and preserve a naďveness-like profile. These data support YF vaccination as an optimal mechanistic model for the study of long-lasting memory CD8(+) T cells in humans. PMID:25855494

Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A; Soneson, Charlotte; Cagnon, Laurčne; Gannon, Philippe O; Allard, Mathilde; Maillard, Samia Abed; Montandon, Nicole; Rufer, Nathalie; Waldvogel, Sophie; Delorenzi, Mauro; Speiser, Daniel E

2015-04-01

255

Binding of a fluorescence reporter and a ligand to an odorant-binding protein of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), also named pheromone-binding proteins when the odorant is a pheromone, are essential for insect olfaction. They solubilize odorants that reach the port of entry of the olfactory system, the pore tubules in antennae and other olfactory appendages. Then, OBPs transport these hydrophobic compounds through an aqueous sensillar lymph to receptors embedded on dendritic membranes of olfactory receptor neurons. Structures of OBPs from mosquito species have shed new light on the mechanism of transport, although there is considerable debate on how they deliver odorant to receptors. An OBP from the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, binds the hydrophobic moiety of a mosquito oviposition pheromone (MOP) on the edge of its binding cavity. Likewise, it has been demonstrated that the orthologous protein from the malaria mosquito binds the insect repellent DEET on a similar edge of its binding pocket. A high school research project was aimed at testing whether the orthologous protein from the yellow fever mosquito, AaegOBP1, binds DEET and other insect repellents, and MOP was used as a positive control. Binding assays using the fluorescence reporter N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine (NPN) were inconclusive. However, titration of NPN fluorescence emission in AaegOBP1 solution with MOP led to unexpected and intriguing results. Quenching was observed in the initial phase of titration, but addition of higher doses of MOP led to a stepwise increase in fluorescence emission coupled with a blue shift, which can be explained at least in part by formation of MOP micelles to house stray NPN molecules. PMID:25671088

Leal, Gabriel M; Leal, Walter S

2014-01-01

256

Binding of a fluorescence reporter and a ligand to an odorant-binding protein of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), also named pheromone-binding proteins when the odorant is a pheromone, are essential for insect olfaction. They solubilize odorants that reach the port of entry of the olfactory system, the pore tubules in antennae and other olfactory appendages. Then, OBPs transport these hydrophobic compounds through an aqueous sensillar lymph to receptors embedded on dendritic membranes of olfactory receptor neurons. Structures of OBPs from mosquito species have shed new light on the mechanism of transport, although there is considerable debate on how they deliver odorant to receptors. An OBP from the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, binds the hydrophobic moiety of a mosquito oviposition pheromone (MOP) on the edge of its binding cavity. Likewise, it has been demonstrated that the orthologous protein from the malaria mosquito binds the insect repellent DEET on a similar edge of its binding pocket. A high school research project was aimed at testing whether the orthologous protein from the yellow fever mosquito, AaegOBP1, binds DEET and other insect repellents, and MOP was used as a positive control. Binding assays using the fluorescence reporter N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine (NPN) were inconclusive. However, titration of NPN fluorescence emission in AaegOBP1 solution with MOP led to unexpected and intriguing results. Quenching was observed in the initial phase of titration, but addition of higher doses of MOP led to a stepwise increase in fluorescence emission coupled with a blue shift, which can be explained at least in part by formation of MOP micelles to house stray NPN molecules. PMID:25671088

Leal, Gabriel M.; Leal, Walter S.

2015-01-01

257

A fatal urban case of rocky mountain spotted fever presenting an eschar in San Jose, Costa Rica.  

PubMed

This study reports the first urban human case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, in Costa Rica. An 8-year-old female who died at the National Children's Hospital 4 days after her admission, and an important and significant observation was the presence of an "eschar" (tache noire), which is typical in some rickettsial infections but not frequent in Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases. PMID:22855769

Argüello, Ana Patricia; Hun, Laya; Rivera, Patricia; Taylor, Lizeth

2012-08-01

258

A Fatal Urban Case of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Presenting an Eschar in San José, Costa Rica  

PubMed Central

This study reports the first urban human case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, in Costa Rica. An 8-year-old female who died at the National Children's Hospital 4 days after her admission, and an important and significant observation was the presence of an “eschar” (tache noire), which is typical in some rickettsial infections but not frequent in Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases. PMID:22855769

Argüello, Ana Patricia; Hun, Laya; Rivera, Patricia; Taylor, Lizeth

2012-01-01

259

Acute mercury poisoning presenting as fever of unknown origin in an adult woman: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mercury intoxication may present in a wide range of clinical forms from a simple disease to fatal poisoning. This article presents a case of acute mercury poisoning, a rare condition that presents challenges for diagnosis with fever of unknown origin. Case presentation A 52-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital with high fever, sore throat, a rash over her entire body, itching, nausea, and extensive muscle pain. She had cervical, bilateral axillary and mediastinal lymphadenopathies. We learned that her son and husband had similar symptoms. After excluding infectious pathologies, autoimmune diseases and malignancy were investigated. Multiple organs of our patient were involved and her fever persisted at the fourth week of admission. A repeat medical history elicited that her son had brought mercury home from school and put it on the hot stove, and the family had been exposed to the fumes for a long period of time. Our patient’s serum and urine mercury levels were high. She was diagnosed with mercury poisoning and treated accordingly. Conclusions Mercury vapor is a colourless and odorless substance. Therefore, patients with various unexplained symptoms and clinical conditions should be questioned about possible exposure to mercury. PMID:25084829

2014-01-01

260

[Chikungunya fever in Mexico: confirmed case and notes on the epidemiologic response].  

PubMed

Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is a viral disease transmitted to human beings by the same vector as dengue -the Aedes mosquito. Besides fever and severe pain in the joints, it produces other symptoms such as myalgias, headache, nausea, fatigue and exanthema. There is no specific treatment for it; the therapeutic management of patients focuses on symptom relief. Historically, outbreaks of large proportions have been reported; even since 2010 it was considered to be a potential emerging epidemic. In 2013 it was introduced into the islands of the Caribbean, and it has recently been reported in the American continent. This paper describes the first confirmed case of chikungunya in Mexico -in the municipality of Tlajomulco de Zúńiga, Jalisco, in May, 2014-, which was imported from the Caribbean island of Antigua and Barbuda by a 39 year-old woman. PMID:25604181

Rivera-Ávila, Roberto Carlos

2014-01-01

261

Capacity building permitting comprehensive monitoring of a severe case of Lassa hemorrhagic fever in Sierra Leone with a positive outcome: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Lassa fever is a neglected tropical disease with a significant impact on the health care system of endemic West African nations. To date, case reports of Lassa fever have focused on laboratory characterisation of serological, biochemical and molecular aspects of the disease imported by infected individuals from Western Africa to the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan and Israel. Our report presents the first comprehensive real time diagnosis and characterization of a severe, hemorrhagic Lassa fever case in a Sierra Leonean individual admitted to the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward. Fever, malaise, unresponsiveness to anti-malarial and antibiotic drugs, followed by worsening symptoms and onset of haemorrhaging prompted medical officials to suspect Lassa fever. A recombinant Lassa virus protein based diagnostic was employed in diagnosing Lassa fever upon admission. This patient experienced a severe case of Lassa hemorrhagic fever with dysregulation of overall homeostasis, significant liver and renal system involvement, the interplay of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines during the course of hospitalization and an eventual successful outcome. These studies provide new insights into the pathophysiology and management of this viral illness and outline the improved infrastructure, research and real-time diagnostic capabilities within LASV endemic areas. PMID:21689444

2011-01-01

262

239 cases of high fever in viral upper respiratory infection (URI) treated with xiang shi qing jie (XSQJ) bag tea.  

PubMed

XSQJ bag tea was used to treat 239 cases of high fever caused by viral upper respiratory infection, widely spreading in summer and autumn. For comparison, a control group treated by penicillin combined with Ganmao Qingre Chongji or Banlangen Chongji was set up. The results showed the effect of XSQJ bag tea on the time of abating fever, resolving symptoms and physical signs were significantly better than that of the control group. PMID:9389133

Liu, Z; Li, H; Peng, Z; Sun, B; Zhang, L; Zhao, S; Jiang, H

1996-06-01

263

Immunogenicity of Seven New Recombinant Yellow Fever Viruses 17D Expressing Fragments of SIVmac239 Gag, Nef, and Vif in Indian Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

An effective vaccine remains the best solution to stop the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Cellular immune responses have been repeatedly associated with control of viral replication and thus may be an important element of the immune response that must be evoked by an efficacious vaccine. Recombinant viral vectors can induce potent T-cell responses. Although several viral vectors have been developed to deliver HIV genes, only a few have been advanced for clinical trials. The live-attenuated yellow fever vaccine virus 17D (YF17D) has many properties that make it an attractive vector for AIDS vaccine regimens. YF17D is well tolerated in humans and vaccination induces robust T-cell responses that persist for years. Additionally, methods to manipulate the YF17D genome have been established, enabling the generation of recombinant (r)YF17D vectors carrying genes from unrelated pathogens. Here, we report the generation of seven new rYF17D viruses expressing fragments of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239 Gag, Nef, and Vif. Studies in Indian rhesus macaques demonstrated that these live-attenuated vectors replicated in vivo, but only elicited low levels of SIV-specific cellular responses. Boosting with recombinant Adenovirus type-5 (rAd5) vectors resulted in robust expansion of SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, particularly those targeting Vif. Priming with rYF17D also increased the frequency of CD4+ cellular responses in rYF17D/rAd5-immunized macaques compared to animals that received rAd5 only. The effect of the rYF17D prime on the breadth of SIV-specific T-cell responses was limited and we also found evidence that some rYF17D vectors were more effective than others at priming SIV-specific T-cell responses. Together, our data suggest that YF17D – a clinically relevant vaccine vector – can be used to prime AIDS virus-specific T-cell responses in heterologous prime boost regimens. However, it will be important to optimize rYF17D-based vaccine regimens to ensure maximum delivery of all immunogens in a multivalent vaccine. PMID:23336000

Martins, Mauricio A.; Bonaldo, Myrna C.; Rudersdorf, Richard A.; Piaskowski, Shari M.; Rakasz, Eva G.; Weisgrau, Kim L.; Furlott, Jessica R.; Eernisse, Christopher M.; Veloso de Santana, Marlon G.; Hidalgo, Bertha; Friedrich, Thomas C.; Chiuchiolo, Maria J.; Parks, Christopher L.; Wilson, Nancy A.; Allison, David B.; Galler, Ricardo; Watkins, David I.

2013-01-01

264

Fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in family clusters--three states, 2003.  

PubMed

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a tickborne infection caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and characterized by a rash, has a case-fatality rate as high as 30% in certain untreated patients. Even with treatment, hospitalization rates of 72% and case-fatality rates of 4% have been reported. This report summarizes the clinical course of three fatal cases of RMSF in children and related illness in family members during the summer of 2003. These cases underscore the importance of 1) prompt diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy in patients with RMSF to prevent deaths and 2) consideration of RMSF as a diagnosis in family members and contacts who have febrile illness and share environmental exposures with the patient. PMID:15152183

2004-05-21

265

Pathology Case Study: Intermittent Confusion, Fever of Unknown Origin, and Lower Extremity Weakness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a hematopathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 67-year-old male has intermittent confusion, fever of unknown origin, and lower extremity weakness. Visitors are given microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Chung, Wen-Wei

266

Chapare Virus, a Newly Discovered Arenavirus Isolated from a Fatal Hemorrhagic Fever Case in Bolivia  

PubMed Central

A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF) cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004. Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs. A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá). RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. The virus was shown to be most closely related to Sabiá virus, but with 26% and 30% nucleotide difference in the S and L segments, and 26%, 28%, 15% and 22% amino acid differences for the L, Z, N, and GP proteins, respectively, indicating the virus represents a newly discovered arenavirus, for which we propose the name Chapare virus. In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia. PMID:18421377

Delgado, Simon; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Agudo, Roberto; Blair, Patrick J.; Vallejo, Efrain; Albarińo, César G.; Vargas, Jorge; Comer, James A.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Olson, James G.; Nichol, Stuart T.

2008-01-01

267

Pathologic highlights of dengue hemorrhagic fever in 13 autopsy cases from Myanmar.  

PubMed

Vascular permeability, thrombocytopenia, liver pathology, complement activation, and altered hemostasis accompanying a febrile disease are the hallmarks of the dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, a major arthropod-borne viral disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality throughout tropical countries. We studied tissues from 13 children who died of acute dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome at the Childrens' Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar. Dengue viral RNA from each of the 4 dengue viruses (DENVs) was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in 11 cases, and dengue viral proteins (envelope, NS1, or NS3) were detected in 1 or more tissues from all 13 cases. Formalin-fixed and frozen tissues were studied for evidence of virus infection using monoclonal antibodies against DENV structural and nonstructural antigens (E, NS1, and nonsecreting NS3). In the liver, DENV infection occurred in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells but not in endothelial cells. Liver damage was associated with deposition on hepatocytes of complement components of both classical and alternative pathways. Evidence of dengue viral replication was observed in macrophage-like cells in spleens and lymph nodes. No dengue antigens were detected in endothelial cells in any organ. Germinal centers of the spleen and lymph nodes showed a marked reduction in the number of lymphocytes that were replaced by eosinophilic deposits, which contained dengue antigens as well as immunoglobulins, and complement components (C3, C1q, and C9). The latter findings had previously been reported but overlooked as a diagnostic feature. PMID:24767772

Aye, Khin Saw; Charngkaew, Komgrid; Win, Ne; Wai, Kyaw Zin; Moe, Kyaw; Punyadee, Nuntaya; Thiemmeca, Somchai; Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Sukpanichnant, Sanya; Prida, Malasit; Halstead, Scott B

2014-06-01

268

El Nińo Southern Oscillation and vegetation dynamics as predictors of dengue fever cases in Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are growing health concerns throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. This study focuses on Costa Rica, which experienced over 100 000 cases of DF/DHF from 2003 to 2007. We utilized data on sea-surface temperature anomalies related to the El Nińo Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and two vegetation indices derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) from the Terra satellite to model the influence of climate and vegetation dynamics on DF/DHF cases in Costa Rica. Cross-correlations were calculated to evaluate both positive and negative lag effects on the relationships between independent variables and DF/DHF cases. The model, which utilizes a sinusoid and non-linear least squares to fit case data, was able to explain 83% of the variance in weekly DF/DHF cases when independent variables were shifted backwards in time. When the independent variables were shifted forward in time, consistently with a forecasting approach, the model explained 64% of the variance. Importantly, when five ENSO and two vegetation indices were included, the model reproduced a major DF/DHF epidemic of 2005. The unexplained variance in the model may be due to herd immunity and vector control measures, although information regarding these aspects of the disease system are generally lacking. Our analysis suggests that the model may be used to predict DF/DHF outbreaks as early as 40 weeks in advance and may also provide valuable information on the magnitude of future epidemics. In its current form it may be used to inform national vector control programs and policies regarding control measures; it is the first climate-based dengue model developed for this country and is potentially scalable to the broader region of Latin America and the Caribbean where dramatic increases in DF/DHF incidence and spread have been observed.

Fuller, D. O.; Troyo, A.; Beier, J. C.

2009-01-01

269

Guidance for contact tracing of cases of Lassa fever, Ebola or Marburg haemorrhagic fever on an airplane: results of a European expert consultation  

PubMed Central

Background Travel from countries where viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are endemic has increased significantly over the past decades. In several reported VHF events on airplanes, passenger trace back was initiated but the scale of the trace back differed considerably. The absence of guidance documents to help the decision on necessity and scale of the trace back contributed to this variation. This article outlines the recommendations of an expert panel on Lassa fever, Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever to the wider scientific community in order to advise the relevant stakeholders in the decision and scale of a possible passenger trace back. Method The evidence was collected through review of published literature and through the views of an expert panel. The guidance was agreed by consensus. Results Only a few events of VHF cases during air travel are reported in literature, with no documented infection in followed up contacts, so that no evidence of transmission of VHF during air travel exists to date. Based on this and the expert opinion, it was recommended that passenger trace back was undertaken only if: the index case had symptoms during the flight; the flight was within 21 days after detection of the event; and for Lassa fever if exposure of body fluid has been reported. The trace back should only be done after confirmation of the index case. Passengers and crew with direct contact, seat neighbours (+/? 1 seat), crew and cleaning personal of the section of the index case should be included in the trace back. Conclusion No evidence has been found for the transmission of VHF in airplanes. This information should be taken into account, when a trace back decision has to be taken, because such a measure produces an enormous work load. The procedure suggested by the expert group can guide decisions made in future events, where a patient with suspected VHF infection travelled on a plane. However, the actual decision on start and scale of a trace back always lies in the hands of the responsible people taking all relevant information into account. PMID:23170851

2012-01-01

270

[Low-grade fever of protracted course. Retrospective study of 30 cases and reflections for a low-cost management].  

PubMed

The objects of this paper were the following: 1) to establish in a group of persistent (over four weeks) low grade fever (LGF) patients the percentage of cases in which a definite diagnosis could not be made; 2) where a definite diagnosis could be made, to describe the most commonly occurring diseases; 3) to follow up the uncertain diagnosis cases for at least two years. Thirty cases of persistent LGF were retrospectively studied. They did not include drug hyper-dysthermia and temporary and/or metabolic vasomotor reactions. The data suggest that: 1) two thirds of persistent LGF are likely not to be definitely diagnosed; 2) some certain diagnoses were: dental granulomas, mycobacteria infections, thyroiditis, factitious fever, rheumatic polymyalgia, Hodgkin's lymphoma and pulmonary thromboembolism; 3) in 14/19 undiagnosed cases the fever subsided permanently, without any treatment, within one year, whereas it persisted in 5/19, but no deterioration of the overall clinical status was observed; 4) although some of the undiagnosed cases were examined elsewhere, a certain diagnosis was never achieved in spite of their undergoing sophisticated and expensive clinical, laboratory and X-ray tests. Therefore it is concluded that: 1) persistent LGF should be managed more conservatively than fever of unknown origin so as to preserve resources; 2) some diseases should be included in the differential diagnoses from the beginning of the initial clinical work up; 3) undiagnosed LGF fever either subsides and returns to normal within one year or the fever persists, but no deterioration of the clinical and performance status is likely to occur. PMID:9691731

Campanella, N; Pergolini, M; Morosini, P

1998-01-01

271

Lie integrable cases of the simplified multistrain/two-stream model for tuberculosis and dengue fever  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the techniques of Lie's symmetry analysis to a caricature of the simplified multistrain model of Castillo-Chavez and Feng [C. Castillo-Chavez, Z. Feng, To treat or not to treat: The case of tuberculosis, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 629-656] for the transmission of tuberculosis and the coupled two-stream vector-based model of Feng and Velasco-Hernandez [Z. Feng, J.X. Velasco-Hernandez, Competitive exclusion in a vector-host model for the dengue fever, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 523-544] to identify the combinations of parameters which lead to the existence of nontrivial symmetries. In particular we identify those combinations which lead to the possibility of the linearization of the system and provide the corresponding solutions. Many instances of additional symmetry are analyzed.

Nucci, M. C.; Leach, P. G. L.

2007-09-01

272

Two cases of cellulitis in the course of African tick bite fever: a fortuitous association?  

PubMed

In African tick bite fever (ATBF), inoculation eschar - resulting from disruption of the cutaneous barrier - may be a risk factor for cellulitis. We report 2 cases of ATBF associated with cellulitis. A 77-year-old woman was referred for severe leg cellulitis upon returning from sub-Saharan Africa. She developed erythematous macules. Rickettsia africae was detected by PCR assay from a skin biopsy specimen, and ATBF diagnosis was confirmed. A 75-year-old man was hospitalized after his return from Zimbabwe for a maculopapular exanthema and erysipelas-like rash of the leg. The diagnosis of cellulitis associated with ATBF was confirmed by PCR and serological methods. Both patients were treated for ATBF and cellulitis by a combination of doxycycline and beta-lactam antibiotics, and both had a good recovery. Inoculation eschar may be a risk factor for cellulitis; thus, we hypothesize a non-fortuitous association between ATBF and cellulitis. PMID:18503259

Bouvresse, Sophie; Del Giudice, Pascal; Franck, Nathalie; Buffet, Marc; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Mondain, Véronique; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Dupin, Nicolas

2008-01-01

273

Swine fever virus strains isolated in these atypical cases are virulent only for the foetus and the newborn piglet. In 50 p. ioo of these positive cases, seroneutralization tests showed that iso-  

E-print Network

Swine fever virus strains isolated in these atypical cases are virulent only for the foetus swine fever virus strains were characterized as serological variants. These strains are poorly FOR PREGNANT SOWS OF THE « THIVERVAI,» STRAIN FROM CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS Isolated in tissue culture

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

A Case of Q Fever Prosthetic Joint Infection and Description of an Assay for Detection of Coxiella burnetii  

PubMed Central

We present the first published case of Coxiella burnetii prosthetic joint infection. Diagnosis was established with PCR and culture of periprosthetic tissue and synovial fluid (and serology). A novel PCR assay is described herein. Q fever should be considered in patients with prosthetic joint infection without an identified pathogen. PMID:23077126

Tande, Aaron J.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Raoult, Didier; Sim, Franklin H.; Berbari, Elie F.

2013-01-01

275

Cholestatic hepatitis in a patient with typhoid fever - a case report.  

PubMed

Typhoid fever is a very common infectious disease, particularly in developing countries such as Sri Lanka. Although multiple organs are known to be affected by the disease, hepatic involvement could be considered the most important as studies have showed that it is associated with a higher relapse rate. We report a young patient who presented with fever and jaundice and found to have cholestatic hepatitis secondary to typhoid fever. PMID:21982051

Ratnayake, Eranda C; Shivanthan, Chrishan; Wijesiriwardena, Bandula C

2011-01-01

276

Syndromic surveillance models using Web data: the case of scarlet fever in the UK.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown the potential of Web queries as a source for syndromic surveillance, and existing studies show that these queries can be used as a basis for estimation and prediction of the development of a syndromic disease, such as influenza, using log linear (logit) statistical models. Two alternative models are applied to the relationship between cases and Web queries in this paper. We examine the applicability of using statistical methods to relate search engine queries with scarlet fever cases in the UK, taking advantage of tools to acquire the appropriate data from Google, and using an alternative statistical method based on gamma distributions. The results show that using logit models, the Pearson correlation factor between Web queries and the data obtained from the official agencies must be over 0.90, otherwise the prediction of the peak and the spread of the distributions gives significant deviations. In this paper, we describe the gamma distribution model and show that we can obtain better results in all cases using gamma transformations, and especially in those with a smaller correlation factor. PMID:22360741

Samaras, Loukas; García-Barriocanal, Elena; Sicilia, Miguel-Angel

2012-03-01

277

Q fever  

MedlinePLUS

Query fever ... Q fever is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii . The bacteria infects sheep, ... products Feces Milk Urine Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected ...

278

Dengue Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... help lower the chances of infection. About Dengue Fever Dengue (DEN-gee) fever is caused by four similar viruses spread by ... else, that person can be infected with dengue fever. The virus can't spread directly from person ...

279

Typhoid Fever  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Typhoid Fever Information for adults A A A Typhoid fever is caused by infection with a bacterium known as Salmonella Typhi. The infection causes high fever, diarrhea, and sometimes a rash that causes flat ...

280

A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

2011-01-01

281

Diagnostic value of a single, pre-treatment Widal test in suspected enteric fever cases in the Philippines.  

PubMed

101 patients with a clinical suspicion of typhoid or paratyphoid (enteric) fever admitted to San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, Philippines, were studied by bacteriological culture of blood, rectal swab, urine and duodenal string capsule; 35 also had bacteriological culture of bone marrow aspirate. 44 of the patients were culture-confirmed as having enteric fever; the remainder were classified as non-enteric fever cases. Analysis of the pretreatment Widal agglutination titres of all patients revealed that using as a diagnostic criterion an antibody titre of greater than or equal to 1:80 to the O antigen of Salmonella typhi yielded a test specificity of 100%, although the corresponding sensitivity was only 64%. The sensitivity of the test could be increased to 80% by using different cut-off values for titres to flagellar antigens, but this concomitantly decreased the test specificity from 100 to 82%. The data indicate that a single pretreatment Widal test in suspected enteric fever cases is of definite diagnostic value, but that the results must be interpreted with caution and foreknowledge of the test's shortcomings and limitations. PMID:3450013

Buck, R L; Escamilla, J; Sangalang, R P; Cabanban, A B; Santiago, L T; Ranoa, C P; Cross, J H

1987-01-01

282

A climate-based spatiotemporal prediction for dengue fever epidemics: a case study in southern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dengue Fever (DF) has been identified by the World Health organization (WHO) as one of the most serious vector-borne infectious diseases in tropical and sub-tropical areas. DF has been one of the most important epidemics in Taiwan which occur annually especially in southern Taiwan during summer and autumn. Most DF studies have focused mainly on temporal DF patterns and its close association with climatic covariates, whereas few studies have investigated the spatial DF patterns (spatial dependence and clustering) and composite space-time effects of the DF epidemics. The present study proposes a spatio-temporal DF prediction approach based on stochastic Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) analysis. Core and site-specific knowledge bases are considered, including climate and health datasets under conditions of uncertainty, space-time dependence functions, and a Poisson regression model of climatic variables contributing to DF occurrences in southern Taiwan during 2007, when the highest number of DF cases was recorded in the history of Taiwan epidemics (over 2000). The obtained results show that the DF outbreaks in the study area are highly influenced by climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis can provide the required "one-week-ahead" outbreak warnings based on spatio-temporal predictions of DF distributions. Therefore, the proposed analysis can provide the Taiwan Disease Control Agency with a valuable tool to timely identify, control, and even efficiently prevent DF spreading across space-time.

Yu, H.-L.; Yang, S.-J.; Lin, Y.-C.

2012-04-01

283

Typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Control of typhoid fever relies on clinical information, diagnosis, and an understanding for the epidemiology of the disease. Despite the breadth of work done so far, much is not known about the biology of this human-adapted bacterial pathogen and the complexity of the disease in endemic areas, especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinicians, microbiologists, and epidemiologists worldwide need to be familiar with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow surveillance and to implement control measures. PMID:25458731

Wain, John; Hendriksen, Rene S; Mikoleit, Matthew L; Keddy, Karen H; Ochiai, R Leon

2015-03-21

284

BIOPSY PROVEN ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS DUE TO RHABDOMYOLYSIS IN A DENGUE FEVER PATIENT: A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE  

PubMed Central

Renal histology results are very scarce in dengue-associated rhabdomyolysis patients developing acute kidney injury (AKI). We report a case of dengue fever-induced AKI associated to rhabdomyolysis with a renal biopsy showing acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and renal deposition of myoglobin. A 28-year-old patient who presented dengue fever (DF) complicated by severe AKI and rhabdomyolysis is described. The patient required hemodialysis for three weeks. A renal biopsy revealed ATN with positive staining for myoglobin in the renal tubuli. The patient was discharged with recovered renal function. In conclusion, this case report described a biopsy proven ATN associated to DF-induced rhabdomyolysis, in which renal deposition of myoglobin was demonstrated. We suggest that serum creatine phosphokinase should be monitored in DF patients to allow for an early diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis and the institution of renal protective measures. PMID:24553615

Repizo, Liliany P.; Malheiros, Denise M.; Yu, Luis; Barros, Rui T.; Burdmann, Emmanuel A.

2014-01-01

285

Notes from the field: increase in reported crimean-congo hemorrhagic Fever cases - country of georgia, 2014.  

PubMed

During January-September 2014, Georgia's National Centers for Disease Control and Public Health (NCDC) detected 22 cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in the country. CCHF is caused by infection with a tickborne virus of the Bunyaviridae family. Transmission occurs from the bite of an infected tick or from crushing an infected tick with bare skin. Secondary transmission can result from contact with blood or tissues of infected animals and humans. CCHF initially manifests as a nonspecific febrile illness that progresses to a hemorrhagic phase, marked by rapidly developing symptoms leading to multiorgan failure, shock, and death in severe cases. The clinical severity, transmissibility, and infectiousness of CCHF are responsible for its categorization as a viral hemorrhagic fever high-priority bioterrorism agent. PMID:25742385

Mamuchishvili, Nana; Salyer, Stephanie J; Stauffer, Kendra; Geleishvili, Marika; Zakhashvili, Khatuna; Morgan, Juliette

2015-03-01

286

Clinical considerations, management and treatment of fever of unknown origin caused by urachal cyst: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Urachal cysts are rare congenital anomalies that often prompt referral to the paediatric general surgeon because of their associated complications such as infection, abdominal pain and the young age at presentation. In this report we describe a rare case of fever of unknown origin caused by an urachal cyst which was successfully treated with incision and drainage only. Since the first description of urachal anomalies by Cabriolus in 1550, few cases have been reported and, until now, only one case of infected urachal cyst presenting as fever of unknown origin has been described in the literature. Moreover, the spontaneous resolution of an urachal cyst without excision is extremely rare. Case presentation We report our experience in the management and treatment of an infected urachal cyst that occurred in a 12-year-old Caucasian girl who presented to our Department of Paediatric Surgery with a 30-day history of evening fever. The urachal cyst was treated only with incision and drainage through a minimally invasive laparoscopic approach. Conclusions The incision and drainage of an infected urachal cyst is a simple and safe procedure. It assures a complete recovery and avoids potential surgical complications related to the total excision of the urachal cyst. This report may provide important clues regarding the management of this rare anomaly and we emphasise the importance for paediatricians, who should consider the possibility that a fever of unknown origin can be caused by an urachal cyst, and for surgeons and urologists, because it suggests that conservative treatment of this rare anomaly should be considered when possible. PMID:24661549

2014-01-01

287

Q fever — a review  

PubMed Central

Q or “query” fever is a zoonosis caused by the organism Coxiella burnetii. Cattle, sheep and goats are the most common reservoirs of this organism. The placenta of infected animals contains high numbers (up to 109/g) of C. burnetii. Aerosols occur at the time of parturition and man becomes infected following inhalation of the microorganism. The spectrum of illness in man is wide and consists of acute and chronic forms. Acute Q fever is most often a self-limited flu-like illness but may include pneumonia, hepatitis, or meningoencephalitis. Chronic Q fever almost always means endocarditis and rarely osteomyelitis. Chronic Q fever is not known to occur in animals other than man. An increased abortion and stillbirth rate are seen in infected domestic ungulates. Four provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Alberta) reported cases of Q fever in 1989. A vaccine for Q fever has recently been licensed in Australia. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17423643

Marrie, Thomas J.

1990-01-01

288

[Allergic alveolitis. Humidifier fever].  

PubMed

Among predisposed persons the use of home humidifiers may induce febrile conditions named humidifier fever. The disease is considered to be an extrinsic allergic alveolitis. It may also be induced by modern ultrasound humidifiers. A case is described where an ultrasound humidifier was found to be the cause of humidifier fever. PMID:1853319

Johnsen, B

1991-06-10

289

Eating seeds from the 'be still' tree, yet having lucky nut poisoning: a case of acute yellow oleander poisoning.  

PubMed

A 25-year-old woman was evaluated and treated for ingestion of Thevetia peruviana seeds and flower petals-a natural digoxin cross reacting cardinolide-with intent to cause self-harm. The following case report provides the clinical presentation, treatment and management of acute yellow oleander poisoning. PMID:24898992

Fentanes, Emilio

2014-01-01

290

Hypotension, Syncope, and Fever in Systemic Mastocytosis without Skin Infiltration and Rapid Response to Corticosteroid and Cyclosporin: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Mast cell disorders are defined by an abnormal accumulation of tissue mast cells in one or more organ systems. In systemic mastocytosis, at least one extracutaneous organ is involved by definition. Although, systemic mastocytosis usually represents with skin lesion called urticaria pigmentosa, in a small proportion, there is extracutaneous involvement without skin infiltration. Other manifestations are flushing, tachycardia, dyspepsia, diarrhea, hypotension, syncope, and rarely fever. Various medications have been used but there is not a definite cure for systemic mastocytosis. The principles of treatment include control of symptoms with measures aimed to decrease mast cell activation. We describe a case of systemic mastocytosis presenting with hypotension, syncope attacks, fever, and local flushing. In bone marrow biopsy, increased mast cell infiltration was demonstrated. She had no skin infiltration. A good clinicopathological response was obtained acutely with combination therapy of glucocorticoid and cyclosporine. PMID:21209730

Ozdemir, Didem; Dagdelen, Selcuk; Erbas, Tomris; Agbaht, Kemal; Serefhanoglu, Songul; Aksu, Salih; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel

2010-01-01

291

Recombinant, chimaeric live, attenuated vaccine (ChimeriVax™) incorporating the envelope genes of Japanese encephalitis (SA14-14-2) virus and the capsid and nonstructural genes of yellow fever (17D) virus is safe, immunogenic and protective in non-human primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever 17D virus, a safe and effective live, attenuated vaccine, was used as a vector for genes encoding the protective antigenic determinants of a heterologous member of the genus Flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, the leading cause of acute viral central nervous system infection and death throughout Asia. The viral envelope (prM and E) genes of a full-length cDNA

T. P Monath; K Soike; I Levenbook; Z.-X Zhang; J Arroyo; S Delagrave; G Myers; A. D. T Barrett; R. E Shope; M Ratterree; T. J Chambers; F Guirakhoo

1999-01-01

292

Rheumatic Fever  

MedlinePLUS

Related terms: valve disease, strep throat, streptococcal infection Before antibiotic medicines became widely used, rheumatic fever was the single biggest cause of valve disease . Rheumatic fever is a complication of ...

293

Hay Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... can trigger a type of allergy called hay fever. Symptoms can include Sneezing, often with a runny ... eyes Your health care provider may diagnose hay fever based on a physical exam and your symptoms. ...

294

Q Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... organisms may be required to cause infection. Q Fever Topics Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Signs of illness, ... and Recommendations... Prevention Avoid getting infected... Videos Q Fever: New Guidelines for Patient Management CDC Expert Commentary, ...

295

Valley Fever  

MedlinePLUS

Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

296

Typhoid Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Multistate Foodborne Outbreaks CDC's Role Key Programs Typhoid Fever General Information Frequently Asked Questions How is typhoid ... can take to protect yourself. How is typhoid fever spread? Salmonella Typhi lives only in humans. Persons ...

297

Scarlet fever  

MedlinePLUS

Scarlet fever is a disease caused by an infection with bacteria in the group A Streptococcus (the same bacteria ... Scarlet fever was once a very serious childhood disease, but now it is easy to treat. The streptococcal bacteria ...

298

Dengue fever  

MedlinePLUS

... that is spread by mosquitoes. See also: Dengue hemorrhagic fever ... by the bite of mosquitoes, most commonly the mosquito Aedes aegypti ... hemorrhagic fever , which is a separate disease that is caused ...

299

Trench Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... adults A A A Trench fever is a bacterial disease transmitted by body lice. The symptoms include relapsing ... in the shins. Overview Trench fever is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Bartonella quintana, which is ...

300

A case of Q fever endocarditis treated medically: 9 years of follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocarditis is a rare, severe and often fatal complication of Q fever. It is usually a chronic disease that occurs 1-20 years after the acute infection [111 Previous valvular disease and artificial valves are recognised risk factors and the aortic valve is the one most frequently involved [2]. Its prognosis is poor, with a high mortality rate (31-56%) [2, 3].

D. Dalmau; J. Castańé; L. Ortega; J. Garau; E. Alvarez

1997-01-01

301

Lassa Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... disease on the population of this region. Lassa Fever Topics Transmission How do people get Lassa fever? Signs and Symptoms What are the signs and ... How can it be prevented? Press Release Lassa Fever Reported in U.S. Traveler Returning from West Africa ...

302

Scarlet Fever  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Scarlet Fever A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A This image displays the sandpaper-like appearance on the ... red dots (red strawberry tongue) typical of scarlet fever. Overview Scarlet fever is an infection with a ...

303

Clinical and Pathological Findings on Intoxication by Yellow Phosphorus After Ingesting Firework Cracker: A Rare Case of Autopsy.  

PubMed

Yellow phosphorus is a toxic substance used in the production of firework cracker, fireworks, ammunition and agricultural dung. When ingested, it shows its effects mainly in the liver, the kidneys, and the brain. A four-year-old girl had died as a result of acute hepatic failure caused by ingesting a firework cracker. The case showed high levels of hepatic enzymes, along with non-specific signs such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Autopsy revealed diffuse microvesicular steatosis in the liver and disseminated degeneration in the proximal tubules of the kidneys. In cases with concomitant hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, death is inevitable. However, when only hepatic failure develops, hepatic transplantation may be lifesaving. Although intoxication from ingesting yellow phosphorus has a very high rate of mortality, forensic cases are extremely rare in the literature. PMID:24272931

Samdanci, Emine Türkmen; Cakir, Ebru; Sah?n, Nurhan; Elmali, Candan; Sayin, Sadegül

2013-11-01

304

Case report: Rift Valley Fever with vertical transmission in a pregnant Sudanese woman.  

PubMed

Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral disease transmitted to humans by mosquito bite and contact with animals or their infected tissues. A 29-year old primigravidae presented in early labour with symptoms suggestive of RVF. She delivered baby of 3.2 kg with skin rash, palpable liver and spleen. The two samples from the mother and neonate were found to be positive for RVF-IgM. This report demonstrate that, RVF can be vertically transmitted. PMID:18360907

Adam, Ishag; Karsany, Mubarak S

2008-05-01

305

[An imported Chikungunya fever case from New Delhi, India to Ankara, Turkey: the first imported case of Turkey and review of the literature].  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that causes an acute febrile illness, chikungunya fever. CHIKV virus is geographically distributed in Africa, India, and South-East Asia. Chikungunya fever outbreaks have been reported from India since 2006. The incubation period is 3-7 days, and the disease is characterized by sudden onset of high fever and severe arthralgia. Other symptoms can be rash, headache, fatigue, nausea-vomiting, and myalgias. Here, we report the first Chikungunya case imported from India, New-Delhi to Ankara, Turkey. In December 2010, a 55-year-old female Turkish government employee living in urban area of New Delhi for the last 3 years had sudden onset fever up to 38.4°C for 2 days. Itching rash and arthralgia also developed. Symptomatic treatment was given to patient in New Delhi. She returned to Turkey and was admitted to Hacettepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases Unit, since arthralgia has continued on the 26th day of her complaints. Hepatomegaly and tenosynovitis were detected in her physical examination. Serum sample sent to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Virology Reference and Research Laboratory, yielded negative results for specific IgM and IgG antibodies against Hantavirus and Dengue virus types 1-4; however, the results were positive for CHIKV specific IgM and IgG antibodies by commercial immunofluorescence method (Euroimmun, Germany). CHIKV RNA which was searched by in-house real-time RT-PCR was negative. The second serum sample obtained three weeks later also found positive for CHIKV specific IgM and IgG antibodies. This was the first laboratory confirmed imported Chikungunya case in Turkey. There are predictions regarding the presence of Aedes species mosquitos that can transmit this virus in Turkey. This case report will be an alarming signal for the clinicians in our country to consider Chikungunya fever in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with fever, arthralgia and rash. PMID:22399181

Ya?c? Ça?lay?k, Dilek; Uyar, Yavuz; Korukluo?lu, Gülay; Ertek, Mustafa; Unal, Serhat

2012-01-01

306

Study on the Prevalence of Leptospirosis among Fever Cases Reported from Private Clinics in the Urban areas of Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To know the prevalence of leptospirosis cases reported in private clinics among fever cases in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India to know its real magnitude of the problem and to diagnose Leptospirosis among fever cases from differential diagnosis. Methods 1502 Blood serum samples collected from three urban towns namely Kallakurichi (Latitude: 11° 73? N; Longitude: 78° 97? E), Villupuram (Latitude: 11° 75? N; Longitude: 79° 92? E) and Thindivanam (Latitude: 12° 25? N; Longitude: 79° 65? E) in fifteen clinics based on case definition of leptospirosis delineated by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Government of India. Samples were tested in the laboratory of the Zonal Entomological Team (ZET), Cuddalore with Macroscopic Slide Agglutination Test (MSAT) and Ig-M ELISA. Result There were 65 positive cases detected from 1502 blood serum samples in both MSAT and Ig-M ELISA. It could be known that there was 4% cases contributed from private clinics among fever cases. From this study, further it was known that all age groups of people affected irrespective of sexes based on their living condition associated with the environment prevailed of the disease. Conclusion From this study, it was quantified that 4% of cases reported in private clinics among fever cases and its findings ascertained both the importance of differential diagnosis as well as reports that should be included to the Government for knowing its real magnitude for planning. PMID:24955313

Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Kolandaswamy, Karumana Gounder

2014-01-01

307

Lymphocytic 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity increases prior to the appearance of neutralizing antibodies and immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies after primary and secondary immunization with yellow fever vaccine.  

PubMed Central

Primary and secondary immunizations with live, attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine (17D strain) were performed in order to study the course of appearance of virus-neutralizing antibodies and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies directed against the virus and the interferon-dependent enzyme 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (2',5'AS) activity, determined in homogenates of peripheral B and T lymphocytes. From cellular ATP, this enzyme generates 2',5'-oligoadenylates which mediate degradation of viral mRNA by stimulation of a latent RNase. By day 4 after the first immunization, the earliest and highest 2',5'AS activity was present in the T-lymphocyte fraction. By day 7, the enzyme activity was highest in the B-lymphocyte fraction. Virus-neutralizing antibodies appeared on day 7, and IgM antibodies were present on day 12. After the second immunization, performed 2 years +/- 2 months later, the only significant increase in 2',5'AS activity was observed in the T-lymphocyte fraction. Virus-neutralizing antibodies were present from day 1, whereas no IgM antibodies were detected. By day 12, 80% of the vaccines were IgG positive. In the primary and secondary (memory) immune responses, 2',5'AS activity is expressed in the T-lymphocyte fraction prior to the appearance of antibodies directed against the virus and may serve as an early and sensitive marker of an ongoing virus infection which is otherwise difficult to detect. No change in conventional laboratory analysis parameters, such as in differential blood cell counts or total IgA, IgG, and IgM, disclosed the immune activity in either the primary or the secondary immunization. PMID:7664176

Bonnevie-Nielsen, V; Heron, I; Monath, T P; Calisher, C H

1995-01-01

308

Using Modelling to Disentangle the Relative Contributions of Zoonotic and Anthroponotic Transmission: The Case of Lassa Fever  

PubMed Central

Background Zoonotic infections, which transmit from animals to humans, form the majority of new human pathogens. Following zoonotic transmission, the pathogen may already have, or may acquire, the ability to transmit from human to human. With infections such as Lassa fever (LF), an often fatal, rodent-borne, hemorrhagic fever common in areas of West Africa, rodent-to-rodent, rodent-to-human, human-to-human and even human-to-rodent transmission patterns are possible. Indeed, large hospital-related outbreaks have been reported. Estimating the proportion of transmission due to human-to-human routes and related patterns (e.g. existence of super-spreaders), in these scenarios is challenging, but essential for planned interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we make use of an innovative modeling approach to analyze data from published outbreaks and the number of LF hospitalized patients to Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone to estimate the likely contribution of human-to-human transmission. The analyses show that almost of the cases at KGH are secondary cases arising from human-to-human transmission. However, we found much of this transmission is associated with a disproportionally large impact of a few individuals (‘super-spreaders’), as we found only of human cases result in an effective reproduction number (i.e. the average number of secondary cases per infectious case) , with a maximum value up to . Conclusions/Significance This work explains the discrepancy between the sizes of reported LF outbreaks and a clinical perception that human-to-human transmission is low. Future assessment of risks of LF and infection control guidelines should take into account the potentially large impact of super-spreaders in human-to-human transmission. Our work highlights several neglected topics in LF research, the occurrence and nature of super-spreading events and aspects of social behavior in transmission and detection. PMID:25569707

Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Garry, Robert F.; Grant, Donald S.; Khan, Sheik Humarr; Leach, Melissa; Moses, Lina M.; Schieffelin, John S.; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Webb, Colleen T.; Wood, James L. N.

2015-01-01

309

Identification of Dengue Fever Cases in Houston, Texas, with Evidence of Autochthonous Transmission Between 2003 and 2005  

PubMed Central

Abstract Houston, Texas, maintains an environment conducive to dengue virus (DENV) emergence; however, surveillance is passive and diagnostic testing is not readily available. To determine if DENV is present in the area, we tested 3768 clinical specimens (2138 cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] and 1630 serum) collected from patients with suspected mosquito-borne viral disease between 2003 and 2005. We identified 47 immunoglobulin M (IgM)-positive dengue cases, including two cases that were positive for viral RNA in serum for dengue serotype 2. The majority of cases did not report any history of travel outside the Houston area prior to symptom onset. The epidemic curve suggests an outbreak occurred in 2003 with continued low-level transmission in 2004 and 2005. Chart abstractions were completed for 42 of the 47 cases; 57% were diagnosed with meningitis and/or encephalitis, and 43% met the case definition for dengue fever. Two of the 47 cases were fatal, including one with illness compatible with dengue shock syndrome. Our results support local transmission of DENV during the study period. These findings heighten the need for dengue surveillance in the southern United States. PMID:24107180

Rodriguez, Liliana F.; Herrington, Emily; Kharat, Vineetkumar; Vasilakis, Nikolaos; Walker, Christopher; Turner, Cynthia; Khuwaja, Salma; Arafat, Raouf; Weaver, Scott C.; Martinez, Diana; Kilborn, Cindy; Bueno, Rudy; Reyna, Martin

2013-01-01

310

Scarlet Fever (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Scarlet Fever KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Scarlet Fever ... Fever When to Call the Doctor About Scarlet Fever Scarlet fever is caused by an infection with ...

311

Colorado Tick Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Tick Fever Other Tick-Borne Diseases Colorado Tick Fever What is Colorado Tick Fever? Where is Colorado ... wood tick ( Dermacentor andersoni ) What is Colorado Tick Fever? Colorado tick fever (CTF), also known as Mountain ...

312

Dengue hemorrhagic fever  

MedlinePLUS

Hemorrhagic dengue; Dengue shock syndrome; Philippine hemorrhagic fever; Thai hemorrhagic fever; Singapore hemorrhagic fever ... dengue viruses are known to cause dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue hemorrhagic fever occurs when a person is ...

313

Education Fever and the East Asian Fertility Puzzle: A case study of low fertility in South Korea.  

PubMed

Fertility throughout East Asia has fallen rapidly over the last five decades and is now below the replacement rate of 2.1 in every country in the region. Using South Korea as a case study, we argue that East Asia's ultra-low fertility rates can be partially explained by the steadfast parental drive to have competitive and successful children. Parents throughout the region invest large amounts of time and money to ensure that their children are able to enter prestigious universities and obtain top jobs. Accordingly, childrearing has become so expensive that the average couple cannot afford to have more than just one or two children. The trend of high parental investment in child education, also known as 'education fever', exemplifies the notion of 'quality over quantity' and is an important contributing factor to understanding low-fertility in East Asia. PMID:24883076

Anderson, Thomas; Kohler, Hans-Peter

2013-05-01

314

Education Fever and the East Asian Fertility Puzzle: A case study of low fertility in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Fertility throughout East Asia has fallen rapidly over the last five decades and is now below the replacement rate of 2.1 in every country in the region. Using South Korea as a case study, we argue that East Asia's ultra-low fertility rates can be partially explained by the steadfast parental drive to have competitive and successful children. Parents throughout the region invest large amounts of time and money to ensure that their children are able to enter prestigious universities and obtain top jobs. Accordingly, childrearing has become so expensive that the average couple cannot afford to have more than just one or two children. The trend of high parental investment in child education, also known as ‘education fever’, exemplifies the notion of ‘quality over quantity’ and is an important contributing factor to understanding low-fertility in East Asia. PMID:24883076

Anderson, Thomas; Kohler, Hans-Peter

2014-01-01

315

YELLOW BERRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yellow berry refers to the non-vitreous form of the wheat kernel. Individual kernels may be vitreous, non-vitreous (yellow berry) or have varying proportions of each (“mottled”). Yellow berry, in and of itself, represents no defect of the kernel. As in maize, rice and other cereals, the non-vitre...

316

Q Fever  

PubMed Central

Q fever is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution with the exception of New Zealand. The disease is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a strictly intracellular, gram-negative bacterium. Many species of mammals, birds, and ticks are reservoirs of C. burnetii in nature. C. burnetii infection is most often latent in animals, with persistent shedding of bacteria into the environment. However, in females intermittent high-level shedding occurs at the time of parturition, with millions of bacteria being released per gram of placenta. Humans are usually infected by contaminated aerosols from domestic animals, particularly after contact with parturient females and their birth products. Although often asymptomatic, Q fever may manifest in humans as an acute disease (mainly as a self-limited febrile illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis) or as a chronic disease (mainly endocarditis), especially in patients with previous valvulopathy and to a lesser extent in immunocompromised hosts and in pregnant women. Specific diagnosis of Q fever remains based upon serology. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antiphase II antibodies are detected 2 to 3 weeks after infection with C. burnetii, whereas the presence of IgG antiphase I C. burnetii antibodies at titers of ?1:800 by microimmunofluorescence is indicative of chronic Q fever. The tetracyclines are still considered the mainstay of antibiotic therapy of acute Q fever, whereas antibiotic combinations administered over prolonged periods are necessary to prevent relapses in Q fever endocarditis patients. Although the protective role of Q fever vaccination with whole-cell extracts has been established, the population which should be primarily vaccinated remains to be clearly identified. Vaccination should probably be considered in the population at high risk for Q fever endocarditis. PMID:10515901

Maurin, M.; Raoult, D.

1999-01-01

317

Remote Sensing in a Changing Climate and Environment: the Rift Valley Fever Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate and environment are changing rapidly whilst global population already reached 7 billions people. New public health challenges are posed by new and re-emerging diseases. Innovation is a must i.e., 1) using high resolution remote sensing, 2) re-invent health politics and trans-disciplinary management. The above are part of the 'TransCube Approach' i.e., Transition, Translation, and Transformation. The new concept of Tele-epidemiology includes such approach. A conceptual approach (CA) associated with Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in Senegal is presented. Ponds are detected using high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images and radar data from space. Data on rainfall events obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (NASA/JAXA) are combined with in-situ data. Localization of vulnerable and parked hosts (obtained from QuickBird satellite) is also used. The dynamic spatio-temporal distribution and aggressiveness of RVF mosquitoes, are based on total rainfall amounts, ponds' dynamics and entomological observations. Detailed risks maps (hazards + vulnerability) in real-time are expressed in percentages of parks where animals are potentially at risks. This CA which simply relies upon rainfall distribution from space, is meant to contribute to the implementation of the RVF early warning system (RVFews). It is meant to be applied to other diseases and elsewhere. This is particularly true in new places where new vectors have been rapidly adapting (such as Aedes albopictus) whilst viruses (such as West Nile and Chikungunya,) circulate from constantly moving reservoirs and increasing population.

Tourre, Y. M.; Lacaux, J.-P.; Vignolles, C.; Lafaye, M.

2012-07-01

318

Two autopsy cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in Japan: A pathognomonic histological feature and unique complication of SFTS  

PubMed Central

We report two autopsy cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) with a high fatality rate in aged Japanese patients. Both cases were caused by a tick-bite. The pathognomonic histological feature was necrotizing lymphadenitis of systemic lymphoid tissue with SFTS viruses and SFTSV-RNA copies. Marked fungal infections were also observed in the lungs of both patients. Since cellular immune function may be suppressed in SFTS patients, physicians should be aware of possible fungal infections. PMID:25329676

Hiraki, Tsubasa; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Suzuki, Tadaki; Goto, Yuko; Higashi, Michiyo; Yokoyama, Seiya; Tabuchi, Tomohisa; Futatsuki, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Hideki; Saijo, Masayuki; Kakihana, Yasuyuki; Arima, Naomichi; Yonezawa, Suguru

2014-01-01

319

Valley Fever Center Valley Fever: Arizona's Disease  

E-print Network

Valley Fever Center in Phoenix Valley Fever: Arizona's Disease Valley fever (coccidioidomycosis to valley fever occurs after a spore from the fungus becomes airborne, either by wind or soil disruption requiring medical attention. The elderly are more likely to be diagnosed with valley fever

Arizona, University of

320

[Economic evaluation of cases of dengue fever attributed to the disaster of 2011 in Nova Friburgo (State of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil)].  

PubMed

The prospects outlined in climate scenarios produced for Brazil indicate a probable increase in the number of extreme hydrometeorological events in the coming years. Therefore, a study of the health scourges that may intensify due to these events is important. The scope of this article is to estimate the cost represented by the cases of dengue fever attributed to the 2011 disaster in Nova Friburgo (RJ). There were 1,356 suspected cases of dengue fever, 937 of which were confirmed. The total cost of the disease may have been between R$66,000 and R$499,000 taking the minimum salary as a benchmark, with approximately 70% of this amount being among the confirmed cases. The disaster caused extensive changes in the city's environment which, together with the urban sanitation and clearing up process that occurred in the post-event period, led to an increase in the number of potential mosquito breeding sites, facilitating their proliferation and increasing the number of cases of dengue fever. This was a disease that in the decade prior to the disaster recorded few cases of the disease in the municipality. This illustrates the potential of events like the one that occurred in 2011 in Nova Friburgo may have on the increase in the number of cases, and consequently on the cost of the disease. PMID:25184576

Pereira, Carlos Alexandre Rodrigues; Barata, Martha Macedo de Lima; Hoelz, Melania de Paulo Cariello; Medeiros, Viviane Nunes Lopes Oliveira; Marincola, Felipe de Carvalho Vommaro; Costa Neto, Cristina; Marinho, Diana Pinheiro; Oliveira, Teresa Vieira Dos Santos; Trigo, Aline Guimarăes Monteiro; Medeiros, Thiago Klein de

2014-09-01

321

Spatial clustering by disease severity among reported Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases in the United States, 2001-2005.  

PubMed

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) occurs throughout much of the United States, ranging in clinical severity from moderate to fatal infection. Yet, little is known about possible differences among severity levels across geographic locations. To identify significant spatial clusters of severe and non-severe disease, RMSF cases reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were geocoded by county and classified by severity level. The statistical software program SaTScan was used to detect significant spatial clusters. Of 4,533 RMSF cases reported, 1,089 hospitalizations (168 with complications) and 23 deaths occurred. Significant clusters of 6 deaths (P = 0.05, RR = 11.4) and 19 hospitalizations with complications (P = 0.02, RR = 3.45) were detected in southwestern Tennessee. Two geographic areas were identified in north-central North Carolina with unusually low rates of severity (P = 0.001, RR = 0.62 and P = 0.001, RR = 0.45, respectively). Of all hospitalizations, 20% were clustered in central Oklahoma (P = 0.02, RR = 1.43). Significant geographic differences in severity were observed, suggesting that biologic and/or anthropogenic factors may be impacting RMSF epidemiology in the United States. PMID:19141843

Adjemian, Jennifer Zipser; Krebs, John; Mandel, Eric; McQuiston, Jennifer

2009-01-01

322

Spatio-temporal variations of precipitation in arid and semiarid regions of China: The Yellow River basin as a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily precipitation data from 64 precipitation gauging stations within the Yellow River basin were analyzed by defining 17 precipitation indices with the aim to investigate space and time changes in precipitation characteristics. The modified Mann-Kendall trend test method was used to detect trends in the precipitation series. The influence of Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) on the basin precipitation was also investigated. Results indicate that: (1) the Yellow River basin is dominated by decreasing precipitation and precipitation deficit may further deteriorate the shortage of water resources. The middle Yellow River basin may encounter increasingly serious shortage of water resources and higher risk of floods would be expected in the lower Yellow River basin; (2) a higher risk of droughts can be expected in spring and autumn and precipitation in winter is increasing, which imply evident seasonality and seasonal shifts of precipitation changes within the basin; (3) short-duration consecutive precipitation events are prevalent in the basin and frequency and amount of short-duration consecutive precipitation events are increasing; (4) precipitation extremes are not dominant in the Yellow River basin, except for some regions in the North China Plain and rainstorm events are generally decreasing; and (5) no evident impact of IPO on the precipitation in the Yellow River basin is found. In this case, precipitation deficit would be a major problem the basin-scale water resources management may face in the future.

Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Juntai; Singh, Vijay P.; Li, Jianfeng; Chen, Yongqin David

2014-03-01

323

Metal fume fever  

SciTech Connect

Metal fume fever is an ancient occupational disease still encountered among metal workers. The delay between exposure and onset of non-specific symptoms makes this an elusive diagnosis. We present the case of a patient who developed symptoms several hours after welding. The historical background, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and self-limited course of this common, yet frequently unrecognized illness are discussed.

Offermann, P.V.; Finley, C.J. (Division of Emergency Medicine, Eastern Virginia Graduate School of Medicine, Norfolk (United States))

1992-07-01

324

Fever in a visitor to Canada: a case of mistaken identity.  

PubMed

We report a case of babesiosis in a traveler from India who was diagnosed with malaria on the basis of blood smears. Pan-Plasmodium PCR was positive, though species-specific assays were negative. Reexamination of blood smears and Babesia-specific PCR confirmed babesiosis. We highlight the overlapping clinical and diagnostic features of malaria and babesiosis and the potential cross-reactivity of Plasmodium primers in cases of babesiosis. PMID:25762775

Warren, Thomas; Lau, Rachel; Ralevski, Filip; Rau, Neil; Boggild, Andrea K

2015-05-01

325

The Unfortunate Nurse A Case Study of Dengue Fever and Social Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on an actual incident in which dengue virus was transmitted by an accidental needlestick, this case study introduces students to “emerging pathogens” and other concepts in parasitology, immunology, epidemiology, and public policy. Students also read a primary paper and learn about two modern techniques widely used in medical and research settings (i.e., EIA and Taqman RT-PCR). The case is suitable for general education biology, cell biology, microbiology, immunology, and science and public policy courses.

Karen M. Aguirre

2007-01-01

326

Rat-bite fever  

MedlinePLUS

Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by two different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus , both of which are found in ...

327

Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Valley fever, also called coccidioidomycosis, is an ... fungal topics, visit the fungal diseases homepage. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Topics Definition What is valley fever? Symptoms ...

328

Differential Epidemiology of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A in Kathmandu, Nepal: A Matched Case Control Investigation in a Highly Endemic Enteric Fever Setting  

PubMed Central

Background Enteric fever, a systemic infection caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is endemic in Kathmandu, Nepal. Previous work identified proximity to poor quality water sources as a community-level risk for infection. Here, we sought to examine individual-level risk factors related to hygiene and sanitation to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of enteric fever in this setting. Methodology and principal findings A matched case-control analysis was performed through enrollment of 103 blood culture positive enteric fever patients and 294 afebrile community-based age and gender-matched controls. A detailed questionnaire was administered to both cases and controls and the association between enteric fever infection and potential exposures were examined through conditional logistic regression. Several behavioral practices were identified as protective against infection with enteric fever, including water storage and hygienic habits. Additionally, we found that exposures related to poor water and socioeconomic status are more influential in the risk of infection with S. Typhi, whereas food consumption habits and migration play more of a role in risk of S. Paratyphi A infection. Conclusions and significance Our work suggests that S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A follow different routes of infection in this highly endemic setting and that sustained exposure to both serovars probably leads to the development of passive immunity. In the absence of a polyvalent vaccine against S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, we advocate better systems for water treatment and storage, improvements in the quality of street food, and vaccination with currently available S. Typhi vaccines. PMID:23991240

Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Dongol, Sabina; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Voong Vinh, Phat; Arjyal, Amit; Martin, Laura B.; Rondini, Simona; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Dolecek, Christiane; Basnyat, Buddha; Baker, Stephen

2013-01-01

329

Sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting: a case study for the Yellow River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water Footprint Assessment is a quickly growing field of research, but as yet little attention has been paid to the uncertainties involved. This study investigates the sensitivity of water footprint estimates to changes in important input variables and quantifies the size of uncertainty in water footprint estimates. The study focuses on the green (from rainfall) and blue (from irrigation) water footprint of producing maize, soybean, rice, and wheat in the Yellow River Basin in the period 1996-2005. A grid-based daily water balance model at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution was applied to compute green and blue water footprints of the four crops in the Yellow River Basin in the period considered. The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis focused on the effects on water footprint estimates at basin level (in m3 t-1) of four key input variables: precipitation (PR), reference evapotranspiration (ET0), crop coefficient (Kc), and crop calendar. The one-at-a-time method was carried out to analyse the sensitivity of the water footprint of crops to fractional changes of individual input variables. Uncertainties in crop water footprint estimates were quantified through Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the water footprint of crops is most sensitive to ET0 and Kc, followed by crop calendar and PR. Blue water footprints were more sensitive to input variability than green water footprints. The smaller the annual blue water footprint, the higher its sensitivity to changes in PR, ET0, and Kc. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop due to combined uncertainties in climatic inputs (PR and ET0) were about ±20% (at 95% confidence interval). The effect of uncertainties in ET0 was dominant compared to that of precipitation. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop as a result of combined key input uncertainties were on average ±26% (at 95% confidence level). The sensitivities and uncertainties differ across crop types, with highest sensitivities and uncertainties for soybean.

Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2014-01-01

330

Durable Regression of Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma Following Fever-inducing Mistletoe Treatment: Two Case Reports  

PubMed Central

Background: Mistletoe is a complementary cancer treatment that is widely used, usually in addition to and alongside recommended conventional cancer therapy. However, little is known about its use, effectiveness, and safety in the treatment of cutaneous lymphoma. Case Report: Two patients with primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (pT2bcNxM0 follicle center and pT2ac-NxM0 marginal zone) either declined or postponed recommended conventional treatment and received high-dose, fever-inducing mistletoe treatment; a combination of intratumoral, subcutaneous, and intravenous application was given; and one patient also underwent whole-body hyperthermia. The lymphoma regressed over a period of 12 and 8 months, respectively, and after administration of a cumulative dose of 12.98 g and 4.63 g mistletoe extract, respectively. The patients are in remission to date, 3.5 years after commencement of treatment. Neither patient received conventional cancer treatment during the entire observation period. PMID:24278797

Lace, Aija; Fonseca, Maria P.; von Laue, Broder H.; Geider, Stefan; Kienle, Gunver S.

2012-01-01

331

Aminotransferase changes and acute hepatitis in patients with dengue fever: analysis of 1,585 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Type 3 dengue virus caused an extensive epidemic in the state of Rio de Janeiro in summer 2002. In some of the patients, it was found in an atypical form with increased aminotransferase levels and acute hepatitis. Material and Methods: An analysis was made of 1,585 serologically confirmed dengue cases at the Dengue Reference Center in Campos dos Goytacazes,

Luiz José de Souza; José Galvăo Alves; Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira; Carlos Gicovate Neto; Diogo Assed Bastos; Edno Wallace da Silva Siqueira; Joăo Tadeu Damian Souto Filho; Thiago de Abreu Cezário; Carlos Eduardo Soares; Rodrigo da Costa Carneiro

2004-01-01

332

A Historical Look at the First Reported Cases of Lassa Fever: IgG Antibodies 40 Years After Acute Infection  

PubMed Central

Lassa fever is an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. One important question regarding Lassa fever is the duration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody after infection. We were able to locate three persons who worked in Nigeria dating back to the 1940s, two of whom were integrally involved in the early outbreaks and investigations of Lassa fever in the late 1960s, including the person from whom Lassa virus was first isolated. Two persons had high titers of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibody over 40 years after infection, indicating the potential for long-term duration of these antibodies. One person was likely infected in 1952, 17 years before the first recognized outbreak. We briefly recount the fascinating stories of these three pioneers and their important contribution to our understanding of Lassa fever. PMID:23390223

Bond, Nell; Schieffelin, John S.; Moses, Lina M.; Bennett, Andrew J.; Bausch, Daniel G.

2013-01-01

333

A Historical Look at the First Reported Cases of Lassa Fever: IgG Antibodies 40 Years After Acute Infection.  

PubMed

Lassa fever is an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. One important question regarding Lassa fever is the duration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody after infection. We were able to locate three persons who worked in Nigeria dating back to the 1940s, two of whom were integrally involved in the early outbreaks and investigations of Lassa fever in the late 1960s, including the person from whom Lassa virus was first isolated. Two persons had high titers of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibody over 40 years after infection, indicating the potential for long-term duration of these antibodies. One person was likely infected in 1952, 17 years before the first recognized outbreak. We briefly recount the fascinating stories of these three pioneers and their important contribution to our understanding of Lassa fever. PMID:23277481

Bond, Nell; Schieffelin, John S; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew J; Bausch, Daniel G

2012-12-31

334

A historical look at the first reported cases of Lassa fever: IgG antibodies 40 years after acute infection.  

PubMed

Lassa fever is an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. One important question regarding Lassa fever is the duration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody after infection. We were able to locate three persons who worked in Nigeria dating back to the 1940s, two of whom were integrally involved in the early outbreaks and investigations of Lassa fever in the late 1960s, including the person from whom Lassa virus was first isolated. Two persons had high titers of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibody over 40 years after infection, indicating the potential for long-term duration of these antibodies. One person was likely infected in 1952, 17 years before the first recognized outbreak. We briefly recount the fascinating stories of these three pioneers and their important contribution to our understanding of Lassa fever. PMID:23390223

Bond, Nell; Schieffelin, John S; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew J; Bausch, Daniel G

2013-02-01

335

Orchid Fever  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exotic, captivating, and seductive, orchids have long fascinated plant lovers. They first attracted the attention of Westerners in the 17th century, when explorers brought back samples from South America and Asia. By the mid-1800s, orchid collecting had reached a fever pitch, not unlike that of the Dutch tulip craze of the 1630s, with rich (and…

Oliver, Phillip

2004-01-01

336

Sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting: a case study for the Yellow River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water Footprint Assessment is a fast-growing field of research, but as yet little attention has been paid to the uncertainties involved. This study investigates the sensitivity of and uncertainty in crop water footprint (in m3 t-1) estimates related to uncertainties in important input variables. The study focuses on the green (from rainfall) and blue (from irrigation) water footprint of producing maize, soybean, rice, and wheat at the scale of the Yellow River basin in the period 1996-2005. A grid-based daily water balance model at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution was applied to compute green and blue water footprints of the four crops in the Yellow River basin in the period considered. The one-at-a-time method was carried out to analyse the sensitivity of the crop water footprint to fractional changes of seven individual input variables and parameters: precipitation (PR), reference evapotranspiration (ET0), crop coefficient (Kc), crop calendar (planting date with constant growing degree days), soil water content at field capacity (Smax), yield response factor (Ky) and maximum yield (Ym). Uncertainties in crop water footprint estimates related to uncertainties in four key input variables: PR, ET0, Kc, and crop calendar were quantified through Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the sensitivities and uncertainties differ across crop types. In general, the water footprint of crops is most sensitive to ET0 and Kc, followed by the crop calendar. Blue water footprints were more sensitive to input variability than green water footprints. The smaller the annual blue water footprint is, the higher its sensitivity to changes in PR, ET0, and Kc. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop due to combined uncertainties in climatic inputs (PR and ET0) were about ±20% (at 95% confidence interval). The effect of uncertainties in ET0was dominant compared to that of PR. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop as a result of combined key input uncertainties were on average ±30% (at 95% confidence level).

Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2014-06-01

337

Fungal Pneumonia: A Silent Epidemic Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)  

MedlinePLUS

... Number of reported cases Number of US valley fever cases, 1995-2011 An estimated 150,000 more ... Coccidioidomycosis, a fungal disease called “cocci” or “valley fever,” is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia ...

338

Viral haemorrhagic fever.  

PubMed

Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a range of viral infections with potential to cause life-threatening illness in humans. Apart from Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), they are largely confined to Africa, distribution being dependent on the ecology of reservoir hosts. At present, the largest ever epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD or Ebola) is occurring in West Africa, raising the possibility that cases could be imported into non-endemic countries. Diagnosis and management is challenging due to the non-specificity of early symptoms, limited laboratory facilities in endemic areas, severity of disease, lack of effective therapy, strict infection control requirements and propensity to cause epidemics with secondary cases in healthcare workers. PMID:25650201

Fhogartaigh, Caoimhe Nic; Aarons, Emma

2015-02-01

339

Clinical Manifestations and Case Management of Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever Caused by a Newly Identified Virus Strain, Bundibugyo, Uganda, 2007–2008  

PubMed Central

A confirmed Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak in Bundibugyo, Uganda, November 2007–February 2008, was caused by a putative new species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). It included 93 putative cases, 56 laboratory-confirmed cases, and 37 deaths (CFR?=?25%). Study objectives are to describe clinical manifestations and case management for 26 hospitalised laboratory-confirmed EHF patients. Clinical findings are congruous with previously reported EHF infections. The most frequently experienced symptoms were non-bloody diarrhoea (81%), severe headache (81%), and asthenia (77%). Seven patients reported or were observed with haemorrhagic symptoms, six of whom died. Ebola care remains difficult due to the resource-poor setting of outbreaks and the infection-control procedures required. However, quality data collection is essential to evaluate case definitions and therapeutic interventions, and needs improvement in future epidemics. Organizations usually involved in EHF case management have a particular responsibility in this respect. PMID:23285243

Roddy, Paul; Howard, Natasha; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Lutwama, Julius; Wamala, Joseph; Yoti, Zabulon; Colebunders, Robert; Palma, Pedro Pablo; Sterk, Esther; Jeffs, Benjamin; Van Herp, Michel; Borchert, Matthias

2012-01-01

340

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... more information on enabling JavaScript. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria, which cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Credit: CDC Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ...

341

Chikungunya fever.  

PubMed

Chikungunya fever (CF) is an acute illness caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) belonging to the alphavirus genus of the Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) family. The virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. CF is primarily tropical disease occurring in Africa, Asia and Indian Ocean islands but in the last decade an outbreak of CHIKV autochthonous infections were reported in Italy and France. It is associated with viral genome mutations facilitating transmission of the disease by Aedes albopictus, a mosquito occurring in several European countries. The CF is highly symptomatic, characterized by fever, cutaneuos rash and severe athralgia and arthritis. In some patients severe neurological or hemorrhagic manifestations occur. The disease is self-limiting but a part of the patients suffers from a long-lasting arthritis akin to rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment is only symptomatic. Prevention includes reduction of mosquito bite (mosquito net, repellent) or application of measures against mosquito larvae. Vaccination is not currently available but investigations are in progress. CF presents a significant worldwide health problem affecting in the last decade millions of person, and currently dangerous also for European countries. PMID:22560378

Kucharz, Eugene J; Cebula-Byrska, Ilona

2012-06-01

342

Scenario-based decision making in water resource management: A case study in the Yellow River Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decision making in water resource management encounters difficulties due to uncertainties about the future. Scenarios are useful to explore uncertainties and inform decision makers to take actions. Scenarios are originally used to describe the future states in the form of storylines. These are then supplemented with numerical information from model predictions and expert judgement. Probabilities are attached to scenarios to encourage the specific explanation of the assumptions and expectations behind the storylines, and communicate the possibility of each scenario. Bayesian probability offers a prior probability on the basis of available knowledge and beliefs at the presence of uncertainties, and allows for updating to the posterior probability as new evidence arises. Bayesian rules are also applicable for decision making given the existing probabilistic scenarios. Decisions can be ranked according to their performance on the utility function given each possible scenario. A case study is provided to find an optimal solution to alleviate the water stress problem in the Yellow River Delta for the next 30 years. Scenarios of water availability and water demand are developed for the planning period. In order to make decisions rationally, cost-benefit analysis is used to evaluate the performance of viable decisions given the probabilistic scenarios. Key word: Scenarios, Water Management, Uncertainty, Decision making, Bayesian approach

Dong, Congli; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

2013-04-01

343

Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral  

MedlinePLUS

... fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola virus diseases All information on Ebola virus disease Technical information, publications, situation assessments, feature ...

344

[Rift Valley fever].  

PubMed

Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a zoonotic arbovirosis. Among animals, it mainly affects ruminants, causing abortions in gravid females and mortality among young animals. In humans, RVF virus infection is usually asymptomatic or characterized by a moderate fever. However, in 1 to 3% of cases, more severe forms of the disease (hepatitis, encephalitis, retinitis, hemorrhagic fever) can lead to the death of infected individuals or to major sequels. The RVF virus (Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) was identified for the first time in the 1930s in Kenya. It then spread over almost all African countries, sometimes causing major epizootics/epidemics. In 2000, the virus was carried out of Africa, in the Middle East Arabian Peninsula. In 2007-2008, Eastern-African countries, including Madagascar, reported significant episodes of RVF virus, this was also the case for the Comoros archipelago and the French island of Mayotte. This ability to spread associated with many vectors, including in Europe, and high viral loads in infected animals led the health authorities worldwide to warn about the potential emergence of RVF virus in areas with a temperate climate. The awareness has increased in recent years with climate changes, which may possibly modify the vector distribution and competence, and prompted many RVF virus-free countries to better prepare for a potential implantation of RVF. PMID:21295425

Pépin, M

2011-06-01

345

Ebola haemorrhagic fever  

PubMed Central

Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock. PMID:21084112

Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W

2012-01-01

346

Clinical Profile of Concurrent Dengue Fever and Plasmodium vivax Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon: Case Series of 11 Hospitalized Patients  

PubMed Central

Malaria and dengue fever are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases worldwide. This study aims to describe the clinical profile of patients with molecular diagnosis of concurrent malaria and dengue fever in a tropical-endemic area. Eleven patients with concurrent dengue virus (DENV) and Plasmodium vivax infection are reported. Similar frequencies of DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 were found, including DENV-3/DENV-4 co-infection. In eight patients, the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for severe malaria could be fulfilled (jaundice being the most common). Only one patient met severe dengue criteria, but warning signs were present in 10. Syndromic surveillance systems must be ready to identify this condition to avoid misinterpretation of severity attributed to a single disease. PMID:23033396

Magalhăes, Belisa M. L.; Alexandre, Márcia A. A.; Siqueira, André M.; Melo, Gisely C.; Gimaque, Joăo B. L.; Bastos, Michele S.; Figueiredo, Regina M. P.; Carvalho, Ricardo C.; Tavares, Michel A.; Naveca, Felipe G.; Alonso, Pedro; Bassat, Quique; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Mourăo, Maria P. G.

2012-01-01

347

Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.  

PubMed

We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses. PMID:18385370

Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

2008-04-01

348

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C. P.; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

349

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.  

PubMed

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

350

Case Studies in Vector-borne Diseases Course Number 11:370:401, 16:370:501  

E-print Network

and discussion 4) Feb. 9 a) Yellow fever ­ Historical introduction b) Introduction to the parasite c) Disease domestication (evolution) 5) Feb. 16 a) Yellow fever ­ Student presentations b) Group evaluations and discussion

Wang, Changlu

351

Reduced thrombin formation and excessive fibrinolysis are associated with bleeding complications in patients with dengue fever: a case–control study comparing dengue fever patients with and without bleeding manifestations  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue cases have been classified according to disease severity into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Although DF is considered a non-severe manifestation of dengue, it has been recently demonstrated that DF represents a heterogeneous group of patients with varied clinical complications and grades of severity. Particularly, bleeding complications, commonly associated to DHF, can be detected in half of the patients with DF. Although a frequent complication, the causes of bleedings in DF have not been fully addressed. Thus, the aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of possible pathophysiological mechanisms that could contribute to the bleeding tendency observed in patients with DF. Methods This is a case–control study that enrolled adults with DF without bleeding and adults with DF and bleeding complications during the defervescence period. Healthy controls were also included. Peripheral blood counts, inflammatory, fibrinolysis and endothelial cell activation markers, and thrombin generation were evaluated in patients and controls. Results We included 33 adults with DF without complications, 26 adults with DF and bleeding and 67 healthy controls. Bleeding episodes were mild in 15 (57.6%) and moderate in 11 (42.4%) patients, 8 (30.7%) patients had bleedings in multiple sites. Patients with DF and bleedings had lower platelet counts than DF without bleeding (median?=?19,500 vs. 203,500/mm3, P?

2013-01-01

352

Fusarium Yellows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium yellows, a disease caused by several Fusarium species, but primarily Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. betae, is a common problem in the western United States and also has been reported in several other parts of the world. The disease can cause significant reduction in yield and purity. The fungus...

353

[West Nile fever].  

PubMed

West Nile fever is a mosquito-borne febrile illness seen in Africa, Asia, and Europe, but reported in North America only once. West Nile virus is of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Several West Nile fever outbreaks were reported from Israel in the 1950s and in 1980. Since the mid-1990s, frequency and apparent clinical severity of West Nile virus outbreaks have increased. Outbreaks in Rumania (1996), Russia (1999), and Israel (2000) involved hundreds of persons with severe neurologic disease. In the summer of 1999, West Nile virus was recognized in the among Western Hemisphere for the first time when it caused an epidemic of encephalitis and aseptic meningitis among residents of greater New York City. Other outbreak occurred during the summer of 2000. West Nile fever in humans usually is a febrile, influenza-like illness characterized by abrupt onset. Occasionally (less than 15% of cases) are acute aseptic meningitis or encephalitis. Although human vaccines for West Nile virus are under development, the most effective to way reduce local population of mosquitoes is to eliminate sources of standing water and preventing vector mosquitoes from biting humans by using mosquito repellents and barrier methods. PMID:19753724

Delgado-López, Nancy; Andrade-Zárate, Vicente; Nellen-Hummel, Haiko; Halabe-Cherem, José

2003-01-01

354

Pregnancy Outcome in Relation to Treatment of Murine Typhus and Scrub Typhus Infection: A Fever Cohort and a Case Series Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background There is a paucity of published reports on pregnancy outcome following scrub and murine typhus despite these infections being leading causes of undifferentiated fever in Asia. This study aimed to relate pregnancy outcome with treatment of typhus. Methodology/Principal Findings Data were analyzed from: i) pregnant women with a diagnosis of scrub and/or murine typhus from a fever cohort studies; ii) case series of published studies in PubMed using the search terms “scrub typhus” (ST), “murine typhus” (MT), “Orientia tsutsugamushi”, “Rickettsia tsutsugamushi”, “Rickettsia typhi”, “rickettsiae”, “typhus”, or “rickettsiosis”; and “pregnancy”, until February 2014 and iii) an unpublished case series. Fever clearance time (FCT) and pregnancy outcome (miscarriage and delivery) were compared to treatment. Poor neonatal outcome was a composite measure for pregnancies sustained to 28 weeks or more of gestation ending in stillbirth, preterm birth, or delivery of a growth restricted or low birth weight newborn. Results There were 26 women in the fever cohort. MT and ST were clinically indistinguishable apart from two ST patients with eschars. FCTs (median [range] hours) were 25 [16–42] for azithromycin (n?=?5), 34 [20–53] for antimalarials (n?=?5) and 92 [6–260] for other antibiotics/supportive therapy (n?=?16). There were 36.4% (8/22) with a poor neonatal outcome. In 18 years, 97 pregnancies were collated, 82 with known outcomes, including two maternal deaths. Proportions of miscarriage 17.3% (14/81) and poor neonatal outcomes 41.8% (28/67) were high, increasing with longer FCTs (p?=?0.050, linear trend). Use of azithromycin was not significantly associated with improved neonatal outcomes (p?=?0.610) Conclusion The published ST and MT world literature amounts to less than 100 pregnancies due to under recognition and under diagnosis. Evidence supporting the most commonly used treatment, azithromycin, is weak. Collaborative, prospective clinical trials in pregnant women are urgently required to reduce the burden of adverse maternal and newborn outcomes and to determine the safety and efficacy of antimicrobial treatment. PMID:25412503

McGready, Rose; Prakash, John Antony Jude; Benjamin, Santosh Joseph; Watthanaworawit, Wanitda; Anantatat, Tippawan; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Ling, Clare L.; Tan, Saw Oo; Ashley, Elizabeth A.; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Day, Nicholas P.; Singhasivanon, Pratap; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François; Paris, Daniel H.

2014-01-01

355

Staphylococcal enterotoxins in scarlet fever complicating chickenpox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of scarlet fever are described, both following super-infection of chickenpox. Enterotoxin B and C producing staphylococci were the only pathogens identified. The role of staphylococcal and streptococcal toxins in the pathogenesis of scarlet fever and toxic shock syndrome is discussed.

M. G. Brook; B. A. Bannister

1991-01-01

356

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Argentina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or...

357

Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.  

PubMed

After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas. PMID:24447334

Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

2014-02-01

358

Rheumatic fever in children.  

PubMed

Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are major public health problems in developing countries. A prospective study carried out in a large general hospital showed that carditis was the predominant feature in first attack and also the recurrence of RF but that recurrence was associated with more severe manifestations. Echocardiography picked up cases of subclinical carditis. Presence of congestive cardiac failure in association with carditis always led to chronic RHD. Recurrence occurred only when patient defaulted penicillin prophylaxis. The overall recurrence rate was 0.026 per patient. PMID:10638124

Bavdekar, S B; Soloman, R; Kamat, J R

1999-12-01

359

The importance of molecular tools in classical biological control of weeds: Two case studies with yellow starthistle candidate biological agents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molecular analyses may play a primary role in the process of host-specificity evaluation at species and population levels; here are reported two examples of their application with new candidate biocontrol agents for yellow starthistle (YST). Ceratapion basicorne is a root-crown boring weevil that sh...

360

Raman identification of yellow synthetic organic pigments in modern and contemporary paintings: reference spectra and case studies.  

PubMed

The characterization of the binding media and pigments in modern and contemporary paintings is important for designing safe conservation treatments, as well as for determining suitable environmental conditions for display, storage and transport. Raman spectroscopy is a suitable technique for the in situ non-destructive identification of synthetic organic pigments in the presence of the complex binding media characteristic of synthetic resin paints or colour lithographic inks. The precise identification of a pigment by comparing its spectrum to that of a reference is necessary when conservation treatments with aqueous solutions or organic solvents are being considered for a work of art, since solubility properties can sometimes vary within the same pigment group. The Raman spectra of 21 yellow synthetic organic pigments, belonging to the monoazo, monoazo lakes, diarylide, disazo condensation, benzimidazolone, bisacetoacetarylide, azo-methine metal complex, isoindolinone and isoindoline groups are presented. Since modern artists frequently mixed paint developed for other applications, in addition to colorants developed as artists' paints, other synthetic organic pigments were included in the spectral database. Two monoazo pigments, Pigment Yellow 1 and Pigment Yellow 3, a benzimidazolone, Pigment Yellow 154 and a phthalocynanine, Pigment Green 7, were identified in sample cross-sections from four modern and contemporary paintings in the collection of The Museum of Modern Art in Ljubljana, Slovenia. PMID:17590389

Ropret, Polonca; Centeno, Silvia A; Bukovec, Peter

2008-02-01

361

Frozen soil change and adaptation of animal husbandry: a case of the source regions of Yangtze and Yellow Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the spatial and temporal change of different frozen soil types from 1980s to 2000s, and the impacts of frozen soil change on rangeland productivity and sustainable livelihood in the source regions of Yangtze and Yellow Rivers employed numerical model and GIS technology. Authors use the analytical framework of adaptation of animal husbandry according to national, regional, community

Yiping Fang; Dahe Qin; Yongjian Ding

2011-01-01

362

Raman identification of yellow synthetic organic pigments in modern and contemporary paintings: Reference spectra and case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of the binding media and pigments in modern and contemporary paintings is important for designing safe conservation treatments, as well as for determining suitable environmental conditions for display, storage and transport. Raman spectroscopy is a suitable technique for the in situ non-destructive identification of synthetic organic pigments in the presence of the complex binding media characteristic of synthetic resin paints or colour lithographic inks. The precise identification of a pigment by comparing its spectrum to that of a reference is necessary when conservation treatments with aqueous solutions or organic solvents are being considered for a work of art, since solubility properties can sometimes vary within the same pigment group. The Raman spectra of 21 yellow synthetic organic pigments, belonging to the monoazo, monoazo lakes, diarylide, disazo condensation, benzimidazolone, bisacetoacetarylide, azo-methine metal complex, isoindolinone and isoindoline groups are presented. Since modern artists frequently mixed paint developed for other applications, in addition to colorants developed as artists' paints, other synthetic organic pigments were included in the spectral database. Two monoazo pigments, Pigment Yellow 1 and Pigment Yellow 3, a benzimidazolone, Pigment Yellow 154 and a phthalocynanine, Pigment Green 7, were identified in sample cross-sections from four modern and contemporary paintings in the collection of The Museum of Modern Art in Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Ropret, Polonca; Centeno, Silvia A.; Bukovec, Peter

2008-02-01

363

Integrated community case management of fever in children under five using rapid diagnostic tests and respiratory rate counting: a multi-country cluster randomized trial.  

PubMed

Evidence on the impact of using diagnostic tests in community case management of febrile children is limited. This effectiveness trial conducted in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Uganda, compared a diagnostic and treatment package for malaria and pneumonia with presumptive treatment with anti-malarial drugs; artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). We enrolled 4,216 febrile children between 4 and 59 months of age in 2009-2010. Compliance with the malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) results was high in the intervention arm across the three countries, with only 4.9% (17 of 344) of RDT-negative children prescribed an ACT. Antibiotic overuse was more common: 0.9% (4 of 446) in Uganda, 38.5% (114 of 296) in Burkina Faso, and 44.6% (197 of 442) in Ghana. Fever clearance was high in both intervention and control arms at both Day 3 (97.8% versus 96.9%, P = 0.17) and Day 7 (99.2% versus 98.8%, P = 0.17). The use of diagnostic tests limits overuse of ACTs. Its impact on antibiotic overuse and on fever clearance is uncertain. PMID:23136274

Mukanga, David; Tiono, Alfred B; Anyorigiya, Thomas; Källander, Karin; Konaté, Amadou T; Oduro, Abraham R; Tibenderana, James K; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Cousens, Simon; Barnish, Guy; Pagnoni, Franco

2012-11-01

364

ETIOLOGY OF OROYA FEVER  

PubMed Central

A pure culture of a microorganism resembling in morphology and pathogenic action Bartonella bacilliformis has been obtained from blood taken during life from a case of Oroya fever which ended fatally. The blood taken at Lima into citrate solution and transported to New York at refrigerator temperature yielded positive cultures 28 days after its withdrawal from the patient. The strain of Bartonella bacilliformis thus isolated grows well on the semisolid leptospira medium, and also on slant agar containing animal blood. The initial growth is not readily recognizable to the naked eye, but the presence of the organisms can be determined by means of the dark-field microscope and by Giemsa and Gram staining methods. No growth has been obtained on the more ordinary culture media. The organism is an obligate aerobe, is Gram-negative, and under certain cultural conditions motile. All the forms which have been described as occurring in human red corpuscles may be found in the cultures, and in addition many granular and coarsely irregular forms have been met with. The inoculation of cultures of Bartonella bacilliformis into Macacus rhesus produces infection and gives rise to effects which differ with the mode of inoculation. The intravenous injection of the culture into young macaques induces a prolonged irregularly remittent fever. The organism can be cultivated from the blood over a long period, and it has been detected within the red corpuscles of the monkeys, reproducing the precise appearances observed in human cases of Oroya fever. The intradermal injection of the culture into the eyebrow of young macaques gives rise to nodular formations rich in new blood vessels and showing the bacilliform organism within the endothelial cells. From the experimentally induced nodules cultures of the organism are readily recovered. PMID:19869166

Noguchi, Hideyo; Battistini, Telémaco S.

1926-01-01

365

Spectral analysis based on fast Fourier transformation (FFT) of surveillance data: the case of scarlet fever in China.  

PubMed

Many infectious diseases exhibit repetitive or regular behaviour over time. Time-domain approaches, such as the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model, are often utilized to examine the cyclical behaviour of such diseases. The limitations for time-domain approaches include over-differencing and over-fitting; furthermore, the use of these approaches is inappropriate when the assumption of linearity may not hold. In this study, we implemented a simple and efficient procedure based on the fast Fourier transformation (FFT) approach to evaluate the epidemic dynamic of scarlet fever incidence (2004-2010) in China. This method demonstrated good internal and external validities and overcame some shortcomings of time-domain approaches. The procedure also elucidated the cycling behaviour in terms of environmental factors. We concluded that, under appropriate circumstances of data structure, spectral analysis based on the FFT approach may be applicable for the study of oscillating diseases. PMID:23746087

Zhang, T; Yang, M; Xiao, X; Feng, Z; Li, C; Zhou, Z; Ren, Q; Li, X

2014-03-01

366

[A case of hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) with tumor fever responding to docetaxel plus prednisolone therapy].  

PubMed

We have experienced a patient with tumor fever from hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) who was treated successfully using docetaxel plus prednisolone therapy. A 65-year-old male was diagnosed with prostate cancer (T4 N1 M1b). He received androgen-ablation therapy. But six months later he was confirmed to show failure of the previous hormone therapy and disease progression even after anti-androgen withdrawal. Then docetaxel plus prednisolone therapy was started. After two courses of this therapy, the PSA level decreased by 50% or more, and after ten courses an improvement was seen on the bone scan. The patient has survived for twelve months after starting docetaxel plus prednisolone therapy, without serious adverse events. PMID:16770110

Miura, Noriyoshi; Numata, Kosaku; Azuma, Koji; Hashine, Katsuyoshi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshiteru

2006-06-01

367

Does Climate Control Valley Fever Incidence in California?  

E-print Network

Does Climate Control Valley Fever Incidence in California? Charlie Zender1 , Jorge Talamantes2;Figure 1: Lifecycle of coccidioidomycosis (Courtesy Kent Kuehl, Bakersfield Californian) Valley fever) and total number of reported cases N0 [# yr-1 ] (dashed line) of valley fever in Kern County from 1960

Zender, Charles

368

(Dengue Fever reported in Osceola County) OSCEOLA COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENT  

E-print Network

(Dengue Fever reported in Osceola County) OSCEOLA COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENT ISSUES PUBLIC HEALTH of two cases of dengue fever in Osceola County. Dengue is one of several mosquito-borne illnesses was not acquired locally. Symptoms of dengue fever vary according to the age of the patient. Infants and young

Watson, Craig A.

369

Dengue fever: a Wikipedia clinical review.  

PubMed

Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, which results in bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and leakage of blood plasma, or into dengue shock syndrome, in which dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Treatment of acute dengue fever is supportive, with either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease and use of intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases. Along with attempts to eliminate the mosquito vector, work is ongoing to develop a vaccine and medications targeted directly at the virus. PMID:25426178

Heilman, James M; De Wolff, Jacob; Beards, Graham M; Basden, Brian J

2014-01-01

370

Rheumatic fever in a high incidence population: the importance of monoarthritis and low grade fever  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To describe the clinical features of rheumatic fever and to assess the Jones criteria in a population and setting similar to that in many developing countries.?METHODS—The charts of 555 cases of confirmed acute rheumatic fever in 367 patients (97% Aboriginal) and more than 200 possible rheumatic fever cases from the tropical "Top End" of Australia's Northern Territory were reviewed retrospectively.?RESULTS—Most clinical features were similar to classic descriptions. However, monoarthritis occurred in 17% of confirmed non-chorea cases and 35% of unconfirmed cases, including up to 27 in whom the diagnosis was missed because monoarthritis is not a major manifestation. Only 71% and 25% of confirmed non-chorea cases would have had fever using cut off values of 38°C and 39°C, respectively. In 17% of confirmed non-chorea cases, anti-DNase B titres were raised but antistreptolysin O titres were normal. Although features of recurrences tended to correlate with initial episodes, there were numerous exceptions.?CONCLUSIONS—Monoarthritis and low grade fever are important manifestations of rheumatic fever in this population. Streptococcal serology results may support a possible role for pyoderma in rheumatic fever pathogenesis. When recurrences of rheumatic fever are common, the absence of carditis at the first episode does not reliably predict the absence of carditis with recurrences.?? PMID:11517105

Carapetis, J; Currie, B

2001-01-01

371

Update on acute rheumatic fever  

PubMed Central

Abstract OBJECTIVE To remind physicians who work with aboriginal populations of the ongoing prevalence of acute rheumatic fever and to review the recent evidence on presentation, treatment, and secondary prophylaxis. SOURCES OF INFORMATION The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched from 1996 to 2007 with a focus on prevention, epidemiology, and disease management. Case series data from medical records at the Sioux Lookout Meno Ya Win Health Centre in Ontario were also used. MAIN MESSAGE Acute rheumatic fever is still a clinical entity in aboriginal communities in northwest Ontario. Identification, treatment, and secondary prophylaxis are necessary. CONCLUSION Acute rheumatic fever is not a forgotten disease and still exists in remote areas of Canada. PMID:19439697

Madden, Sharen; Kelly, Len

2009-01-01

372

Allergies and Hay Fever  

MedlinePLUS

Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/F can find information on embargoes, Annual Meeting press registration ...

373

Q fever - early  

MedlinePLUS

Q fever is an infectious disease that is spread by domestic and wild animals and ticks. ... Q fever is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii , which lives in domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, ...

374

Familial Mediterranean fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Recurrent polyserositis; Benign paroxysmal peritonitis; Periodic disease; Periodic fever; FMF ... Familial Mediterranean fever is most often caused by a mutation in the MEFV gene. This gene creates proteins involved in inflammation. ...

375

Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)  

MedlinePLUS

... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Allergies & the Immune System > Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

376

Genetics Home Reference: Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Fever Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome familial Mediterranean fever mevalonate kinase deficiency Muckle-Wells syndrome Nakajo-Nishimura ...

377

Dengue Fever Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Dengue Fever Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... There is no specific treatment for classic dengue fever, and most people recover within 2 weeks. To ...

378

Hay Fever Medications  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources My Membership About the AAAAI Share | Hay Fever Medications This article has been reviewed by Thanai ... MD, FAAAAI Seasonal allergic rhinitis known as hay fever symptoms range from being mildly annoying to seriously ...

379

Colorado tick fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Risk factors are recent outdoor activity and recent tick bite . Colorado tick fever is seen most often in ... start 3 to 6 days after getting the tick bite. A sudden fever continues for 3 days, goes ...

380

Effects of road age and distance on plant biodiversity: a case study in the Yellow River Delta of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A majority of ecological studies of roads have usually focused on their deleterious effect, and these preconceptions have\\u000a hampered a full evaluation of ecological functions of roads. We examined the effect of road disturbance on plant communities\\u000a by investigating roadside vegetation in the protogenic road ecosystem of the Yellow River Delta (YRD), China. Specifically,\\u000a we examined the effect of distance

Sheng-Lan Zeng; Ting-Ting Zhang; Yu Gao; Zu-Tao Ouyang; Jia-Kuan Chen; Bo Li; Bin Zhao

2011-01-01

381

Dengue Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... email updates Order publications Featured Research One small RNA regulates mosquito development, growth, and reproduction. Read more ... the 20th century, many tropical regions of the world saw an increase in dengue cases. Epidemics also ...

382

Clinical and radiological features of imported chikungunya fever in Japan: a study of six cases at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine.  

PubMed

Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is currently distributed in Africa and in South and Southeast Asia; outbreaks have occurred periodically in the region over the past 50 years. After a large outbreak had occurred in countries in the western Indian Ocean region in 2005, several countries reported cases of CHIKF from travelers who had visited affected areas. In Japan, there have been only 15 cases of CHIKF patients so far, according to the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. Therefore, to evaluate the clinical and radiological features associated with the disease, we describe 6 imported cases of CHIKF. All of the patients had had prolonged arthralgia on admission to our hospital, and diagnosis was confirmed with specific antibodies by using an IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunoassay and a plaque reduction neutralizing antibody assay. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of one patient revealed erosive arthritis and tenosynovitis during the convalescence stage. Clinicians should be aware of the late consequences of infection by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and recognize the possible association of subacute and chronic arthritis features. In addition, competent vectors of CHIKV, Aedes aegypti, can now be found in many temperate areas of the eastern and western hemispheres, including Japan. This fact raises concern that the virus could be introduced and become established in these areas. This necessitates an increased awareness of the disease, because imported cases are likely to contribute to the spread of CHIKV infection wherever the competent mosquito vectors are distributed. PMID:20862507

Mizuno, Yasutaka; Kato, Yasuyuki; Takeshita, Nozomi; Ujiie, Mugen; Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kudo, Koichiro; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Takasaki, Tomohiko

2011-06-01

383

Cerebellar ataxia in enteric fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of enteric fever, cerebellar ataxia was found to be the commonest neurological manifestation, second only to toxic delirium. Excluding toxic delirium (found in 25-30% of cases) neurologic deficit was noted in 5.0% of a series of 718 consecutive cases; 2.3% showed cerebellar ataxia, either as an isolated feature or in association with other lesions. The ataxia usually

R S Wadia; N R Ichaporia; R S Kiwalkar; R B Amin; H V Sardesai

1985-01-01

384

Fever: is it beneficial?  

PubMed Central

Data obtained in lizards infected with live bacteria suggest that fever may be beneficial to their survival. An adaptive value of fever has also been inferred in mammals, but the results are equivocal. Findings that certain leukocyte functions are enhanced in vitro at high temperatures have provided a possible explanation for the alleged benefits of fever. However, serious questions exist as to whether results from experiments in ectotherms and in vitro can properly be extrapolated to in vivo endothermic conditions. Indeed, various studies have yielded results inconsistent with the survival benefits attributed to fever, and fever is not an obligatory feature of all infections under all conditions. Certainly, the widespread use of antipyretics, without apparent adverse effects on the course of disease, argues against fever having great benefit to the host. In sum, although fever is a cardinal manifestation of infection, conclusive evidence that it has survival value in mammals is still lacking. PMID:3090790

Blatteis, C. M.

1986-01-01

385

Fitness Fever and Fitness Fever 2.0 Requirements  

E-print Network

1 Fitness Fever and Fitness Fever 2.0 Requirements o Have a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25 or greater Fever program, participants will receive o One Group Training Session and one Group Challenge a week Personal Training session #12;2 Circle one: Fitness Fever or Fitness Fever 2.0 Name Local Address Apt

Weber, David J.

386

Typhoid fever in rural Haiti.  

PubMed

A review was made of the clinical characteristics and evolution of all patients over 14 years old with typhoid fever who were treated at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Haiti from January 1989 through July 1991. Two hundred and seventeen patients were studied. Their most common symptoms were fever (100%), diarrhea (64.1%), and abdominal pain (51.2%). Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were rarely noted. Sixty-eight patients (31.3%) were lost to follow-up, 129 (59.4%) were cured, and 20 (9.2%) died. There was a tendency for patients who were ill longer before seeking medical assistance to experience higher mortality. The data also indicate that patients with central nervous system involvement had a less favorable prognosis than other patients. Overall, the high incidence of hospital-reported cases (74 cases per 100,000 inhabitants) shown by these and other data makes it clear that typhoid fever is a highly prevalent infection in rural Haiti. At present, it appears that the only hope for effectively controlling the disease is by educating the population at risk, not only to prevent the disease but also to seek early medical assistance after becoming infected. Typhoid fever patients with a long history of illness before consultation may have a less favorable prognosis than other patients and should be kept under close observation. In addition, any suspected typhoid fever patient with signs of central nervous system involvement should be treated promptly with high-dose steroids, besides receiving an adequate antibiotic regimen. PMID:8312961

Ollé-Goig, J E; Ruiz, L

1993-01-01

387

Knowledge and behavior in an animal disease outbreak - Evidence from the item count technique in a case of African swine fever in Madagascar.  

PubMed

Pig production in Madagascar is not sufficient for domestic consumption. Unfortunately, African swine fever (ASF), which is a severe disease, is endemic in Madagascar and constitutes a constant threat for farmers. Therefore, ASF must be eradicated in order to guarantee the development of pig production. One of the main strategies in controlling ASF is stamping out which requires the farmers' collaboration in reporting cases or suspected cases. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of farmers who knowingly sell ASF-infected meat without reporting. Since selling ASF-infected meat is prohibited by the government, we used the item count technique (ICT), an indirect questioning technique appropriate for measuring the proportion of people engaged in sensitive behavior, for one subsample, while another subsample was asked directly whether they sell ASF-infected meat. Based on the ICT, approximately 73.2% of farmers who have experienced ASF sell the ASF-infected meat. This estimate was not statistically different from that obtained by direct questioning. In the 28% of interviewed farmers who believe ASF can affect humans, the ICT yielded a higher estimate than did direct questioning, indicating that pig farmers who sell ASF-infected meat hide that fact because of their belief that infected meat might harm human consumers, not because of the law. The ICT was thus a suitable technique to address the problem of sensitive behavior. In the case of ASF outbreaks, the Malagasy government should enforce the law more strictly and provide compensation as incentive for reporting cases. PMID:25591977

Randrianantoandro, Tiana N; Kono, Hiroichi; Kubota, Satoko

2015-03-01

388

Systematic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease presenting as a persistent fever and cough: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease is an extremely rare disorder and classically arises following primary acute or chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. It is characterized by clonal proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus-infected T-cells with an activated cytotoxic phenotype. This disease has a rapid clinical course and is more frequent in Asia and South America, with relatively few cases being reported in Western countries. The clinical and pathological features of the disease overlap with other conditions including infectious mononucleosis, chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and natural killer cell malignancies. We describe the rare case of systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease in a 16-year-old Malay boy. Case presentation He presented with a six-month history of fever and cough, with pulmonary and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and severe pancytopenia. Medium- to large-sized, CD8+ and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA-positive atypical lymphoid cells were present in the bone marrow aspirate. He subsequently developed fatal virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome and died due to sepsis and multiorgan failure. Conclusions Although systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease is a disorder which is rarely encountered in clinical practice, our case report underlines the importance of a comprehensive diagnostic approach in the management of this disease. A high level of awareness of the disease throughout the diagnosis process for young patients who present with systemic illness and hemophagocytic syndrome may be of great help for the clinical diagnosis of this disease. PMID:25163591

2014-01-01

389

Q Fever: An Old but Still a Poorly Understood Disease  

PubMed Central

Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who have been infected for more than 6 months. It usually takes about 20 days after exposure to the bacteria for symptoms to occur. Most cases are mild, yet some severe cases have been reported. Symptoms of acute Q fever may include: chest pain with breathing, cough, fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pains, and shortness of breath. Symptoms of chronic Q fever may include chills, fatigue, night sweats, prolonged fever, and shortness of breath. Q fever is diagnosed with a blood antibody test. The main treatment for the disease is with antibiotics. For acute Q fever, doxycycline is recommended. For chronic Q fever, a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is often used long term. Complications are cirrhosis, hepatitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. People at risk should always: carefully dispose of animal products that may be infected, disinfect any contaminated areas, and thoroughly wash their hands. Pasteurizing milk can also help prevent Q fever. PMID:23213331

Honarmand, Hamidreza

2012-01-01

390

Unusual increase in reported cases of paratyphoid A fever among travellers returning from Cambodia, January to September 2013.  

PubMed

From January to September 2013, a marked increase in notifications of Salmonella Paratyphi A infections among travellers returning from Cambodia occurred in France. An investigation revealed 35 cases without a common source: 21 in France, five in Germany, three in the Netherlands, one in Norway, one in the United Kingdom, four in New-Zealand. Data suggest an ongoing event that should trigger further investigation. Travellers to Cambodia should observe preventive measures including good personal hygiene and food handling practices. PMID:24094059

Tourdjman, M; Le Hello, S; Gossner, C; Delmas, G; Tubiana, S; Fabre, L; Kerléguer, A; Tarantola, A; Fruth, A; Friesema, I; Thorstensen Brandal, L; Lawrence, J; Fisher, I; Dufour, M; Weill, F X; de Valk, H

2013-01-01

391

Male–female differences in the number of reported incident dengue fever cases in six Asian countries  

PubMed Central

Introduction Demographic factors, such as age and sex, are associated with the likelihood of exposure to Aedes aegypti, the vector for dengue. However, dengue data disaggregated by both sex and age are not routinely reported or analysed by national surveillance systems. This study analysed the reported number of incident dengue cases by age and sex for six countries in Asia. Methods Data for the Lao People's Democratic Republic, the Philippines, Singapore and Sri Lanka were obtained from DengueNet; the number of male and female dengue cases was available for four age groups (< 1, 1–4, 5–14 and ? 15 years) over a cumulative period of six to 10 years. Data for Cambodia (2010) and Malaysia (1997–2008) were obtained from their respective ministries of health. Results An excess of males was found among reported dengue cases ? 15 years of age. This pattern was observed consistently over several years across six culturally and economically diverse countries. Discussion These data indicated the importance of reporting data stratified by both sex and age since collapsing the data over all ages would have masked some of the male–female differences. To target preventive measures appropriately, assessment of gender by age is important for dengue because biological or gender-related factors can change over the human lifespan and gender-related factors may differ across countries. PMID:23908884

Anker, Martha

2011-01-01

392

High household economic burden caused by hospitalization of patients with severe dengue fever cases in Can Tho province, Vietnam.  

PubMed

During 2006-2007, a cohort of 144 confirmed dengue cases in Can Tho Province, Vietnam were compared with a matching set of 144 households that had no dengue cases. Approximately 6-9 months after sickness, there were no significant differences in terms of knowledge of the etiology of dengue, mosquito breeding habitats, and prevention measures in respondents from both sets of households. There was also no difference in the abundance of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) adults but the average numbers of late instar and pupal Ae. aegypti per household were greater in the negative control houses. Thus, the risk seemed to be no higher in case households, although it is conceivable that changes may have occurred in either group over the intervening period. The average cost for a dengue patient was 2,798,000 Vietnamese Dong (VND) (US$167.77), 2,154,000 VND for direct costs, and 644,000 VND for indirect costs. There was a 22% difference in cost for those with and without health insurance. In terms of impact on family economies, 47.2% had to borrow money for treatment, and after 6 months, 71.7% had not begun or had only managed part repayments. Approximately 72.9% indicated that the cost of supporting a dengue patient had impacted on the family economy, with the loss averaging 36% of the annual income in the lowest economic quartile. PMID:22826478

Tam, Pham Thi; Dat, Nguyen Tan; Huu, Le Minh; Thi, Xuan Cuc Pham; Duc, Hoang Minh; Tu, Tran Cong; Kutcher, Simon; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

2012-09-01

393

Kid's Guide to Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... is also a good signal to you, your parents, and your doctor that you are sick. Without fever, it's much more difficult to tell if a person has an infection. That's why grown-ups are concerned when you have a fever. Shiver, ...

394

Seir Model for Transmission of Dengue Fever in Selangor Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study a system of differential equations that models the population dynamics of SEIR vector transmission of dengue fever. The model studied breeding value based on the number of reported cases of dengue fever in Selangor because the state had the highest case in Malaysia. The model explains that maximum level of human infection rate of dengue fever achieved in a very short period. It is also revealed that there existed suitability result between theoretical and empirical calculation using the model. The result of SEIR model will hopefully provide an insight into the spread of dengue fever in Selangor Malaysia and basic form for modeling this area.

Syafruddin, S.; Noorani, M. S. M.

395

Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

2011-12-01

396

Travelers' Health: Yellow Book  

MedlinePLUS

... Boxes Updates About Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Yellow Book Homepage Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Explore Travel Health with the 2014 Yellow Book! CDC Health Information for International Travel (commonly called ...

397

Yellow Jackie  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You, the reader, are helping Terry sail a yacht from South America to New Zealand. You are asked to investigate an outbreak of disease on board a second yacht. You interview the crew members, consult a medical reference, and observe other clues to determine what diseases the ill crew members have. The solution involves medical science, sports science, human health, biology, microbiology, infectious diseases, epidemiology, and hygiene. The mystery tests literacy, problem solving skills and deductive reasoning. The mystery has three parts. In the first part, you meet the characters and enter the story. In the second part, you interview the characters, investigate the facts, and attempt to solve the case. When you solve the case, you enter the third part, which concludes the story, and summarizes the scientific analysis needed to solve the case. The narrative is fictional, but the scenario is based on actual events and contemporary science research and discoveries.

Ken Eklund (WriterGuy REV)

2001-06-30

398

Elevated serum zinc levels in metal fume fever  

SciTech Connect

Metal fume fever is not an uncommon syndrome among welders following exposure to oxidized metal fumes (usually zinc). The relationship of serum zinc level to the acute phase of this illness is not known. Two cases of metal fume fever, associated with elevated serum zinc levels, are presented. Further studies are necessary to determine the diagnostic usefulness of serum zinc levels in metal fume fever.

Noel, N.E.; Ruthman, J.C.

1988-11-01

399

Clinical profile of chikungunya fever in patients in a tertiary care centre in Maharashtra, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & objectives: In India a chikungunya fever outbreak started in December 2005 when the country experienced more than 13 lakhs of chikungunya infected cases. We undertook this study to study detailed clinical profile of chikungunya fever in both indoor and outdoor patients in a tertiary care hospital in Nagpur, Maharashtra in 2006. Methods: Suspected cases of chikungunya fever (n=405)

S. D. Suryawanshi; A. H. Dube; R. K. Khadse; S. V. Jalgaonkar; P. S. Sathe; S. D. Zawar; M. P. Holay

400

The data management and visualization of water and sediment for two-dimensional, a case study of the lower reaches of Yellow River  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the lower Yellow River mathematical model features, the paper presents the water and sediment data model based on the object-oriented data modeling method. By anglicizing various data types, defining the properties and their relationship, this model can adapt to the lower Yellow River mathematical model features. Taking the river part from Huayuankou to Lijin as the experimental zone,

Xueyong Yin; Na Li; Ruixun Lai

2011-01-01

401

Lassa fever--an autopsy report from the eastern part of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Autopsy findings of a case of Lassa fever from the Eastern part of Nigeria are presented. The authors suggest that in Lassa fever there is an involvement of the brain in the nature of encephalitis. PMID:702621

Ikerionwu, S E; Sato, K; Katchy, K C; Suseelan, A A

1978-07-01

402

Septic Arthritis and Concern for Osteomyelitis in a Child with Rat Bite Fever  

PubMed Central

Rat bite fever is a rare infection usually caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis. A case of septic arthritis and possible osteomyelitis as sequelae of rat bite fever in a pediatric patient is described. PMID:23554193

Akinboyo, Ibukunoluwa; Ty, Jennifer M.; Averill, Lauren W.; Freedman, Abigail

2013-01-01

403

Is fever beneficial?  

PubMed Central

Fever, the regulation of body temperature at an elevated level, is a common response to infection throughout the vertebrates, as well as in many species of invertebrate animals. It is probable that fever evolved as an adaptive response to infection hundreds of millions of years ago. Many components of the nonspecific and specific host response to infection are enhanced by small elevations in temperature. Perhaps more important, studies of bacterial- and viral-infected animals have shown that, in general, moderate fevers decrease morbidity and increase survival rate. PMID:3488621

Kluger, M. J.

1986-01-01

404

Familial mediterranean Fever.  

PubMed

Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a course of autoinflammation, which is characterized by the episodes of fever and serositis. It affects the populations from Mediterranean basin. Genetic mutation of the disease is on MEFV gene located on short arm of Chromosome 16. The disease is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation. Amyloidosis is the most important complication. The only agent that decreases the development of amyloidosis and the frequency and severity of the episodes is colchicine, which has been used for about 40 years. In this review, we aimed to discuss especially the most recent advances about Familial Mediterranean Fever which is commonly seen in our population. PMID:25649364

Kucuk, Adem; Gezer, Ilknur Albayrak; Ucar, Ramazan; Karahan, Ali Yavuz

2015-01-01

405

Scarlet fever epidemic, Hong Kong, 2011.  

PubMed

More than 900 cases of scarlet fever were recorded in Hong Kong during January-July, 2011. Six cases were complicated by toxic shock syndrome, of which 2 were fatal. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns suggested a multiclonal epidemic; emm12 was the predominant circulating type. We recommend genetic testing of and antimicrobial resistance monitoring for this reportable disease. PMID:23018120

Luk, Emma Y Y; Lo, Janice Y C; Li, Amy Z L; Lau, Michael C K; Cheung, Terence K M; Wong, Alice Y M; Wong, Monica M H; Wong, Christine W; Chuang, Shuk-kwan; Tsang, Thomas

2012-10-01

406

[Metal fume fever, an almost forgotten disease].  

PubMed

Metal fume fever is an ancient and almost forgotten occupational disease found among welders. Diagnosis is made difficult by the frequency and the non-specific flue-like symptomatology. We present the cases of three patients admitted for developing the symptoms after being exposed to welding fumes. Treatment was symptom based. Severe cases have been described after exposure to military fumes. PMID:20378299

Yordanov, Y; Cantin, D; Le Guerroué, G; Pourriat, J-L

2010-05-01

407

Rocky Mountain spotted fever  

MedlinePLUS

... ticks. The bacteria spread to humans through a tick bite. In the western United States, the bacteria are ... develop about 2 to 14 days after the tick bite. They may include: Chills Confusion Fever Headache Muscle ...

408

Hay fever in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Spring and summer can bring misery to millions who suffer from allergic reactions to pollen. Hay fever can cause runny noses, streaming eyes and sore throats. Sadly, many treatments for this distressing condition are not recommended during pregnancy because of fears surrounding the effect on the unborn child. This article presents the causes and treatments of hay fever and explores the alternatives for use during pregnancy which may be able to relieve or minimise the unpleasant symptoms without harming the baby. PMID:24873116

Wiseberg, Max

2014-05-01

409

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an acute febrile illness transmitted to man by ticks infected with Rickettsia rickettsii. Usually sudden in onset, it is characterized by chills, headache, and fever lasting 2 or more weeks. A characteristic rash\\u000a appears on the extremities on about the 4th febrile day and spreads to the trunk. The exanthem and other anatomical manifestations\\u000a result

Aaron Milstone; J. Stephen Dumler

410

[Chikungunya fever - A new global threat.  

PubMed

The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent and the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Islands, Asia and Europe. Due to their epidemiological and biological features and the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace and could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical and epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control and mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas. PMID:25087211

Montero, Antonio

2014-07-30

411

Emergence of Q fever  

PubMed Central

Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis with many acute and chronic manifestations caused by the pathogen Coxiella burnetii. Farm animals and pets are the main reservoirs of infection, and transmission to human beings is mainly accomplished through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Persons at greatest risk are those in contact with farm animals and include farmers, abattoir workers, and veterinarians. The organs most commonly affected during Q fever are the heart, the arteries, the bones and the liver. The most common clinical presentation is an influenza-like illness with varying degrees of pneumonia and hepatitis. Although acute disease is usually self-limiting, people do occasionally die from this condition. Endocarditis is the most serious and most frequent clinical presentation of chronic Q fever. Vascular infection is the second most frequent presentation of Q fever. The diagnosis of Q fever is based on a significant increase in serum antibody titers. The treatment is effective and well tolerated, but must be adapted to the acute or chronic pattern with the tetracyclines to be considered the mainstay of antibiotic therapy. For the treatment of Q fever during pregnancy the use of long-term cotrimoxazole therapy is proposed. PMID:23113081

Angelakis, E; Raoult, D

2011-01-01

412

Omsk haemorrhagic fever.  

PubMed

Omsk haemorrhagic fever is an acute viral disease prevalent in some regions of western Siberia in Russia. The symptoms of this disease include fever, headache, nausea, severe muscle pain, cough, and moderately severe haemorrhagic manifestations. A third of patients develop pneumonia, nephrosis, meningitis, or a combination of these complications. The only treatments available are for control of symptoms. No specific vaccine has been developed, although the vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis might provide a degree of protection against Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus. The virus is transmitted mainly by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, but people are mainly infected after contact with infected muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus). Muskrats are very sensitive to Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus. The introduction of this species to Siberia in the 1930s probably led to viral emergence in this area, which had previously seemed free from the disease. Omsk haemorrhagic fever is, therefore, an example of a human disease that emerged owing to human-mediated disturbance of an ecological niche. We review the biological properties of the virus, and the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Omsk haemorrhagic fever. PMID:20850178

R?žek, Daniel; Yakimenko, Valeriy V; Karan, Lyudmila S; Tkachev, Sergey E

2010-12-18

413

Outbreak of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Córdoba, Colombia.  

PubMed

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Although RMSF was first reported in Colombia in 1937, it remains a neglected disease. Herein, we describe the investigation of a large cluster of cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in a new area of Colombia. PMID:21340366

Hidalgo, Marylin; Miranda, Jorge; Heredia, Damaris; Zambrano, Pilar; Vesga, Juan Fernando; Lizarazo, Diana; Mattar, Salim; Valbuena, Gustavo

2011-02-01

414

Characterisation of inflammatory response, coagulation, and radiological findings in Katayama fever: a report of three cases at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria  

PubMed Central

Background Katayama fever is an acute clinical condition characterised by high fever, dry cough and general malaise occurring during early Schistosoma spp. infection. It is predominantly reported in travellers from non-endemic regions. Whereas the immunological response to Schistosoma infection is well characterised, alterations in inflammatory markers and coagulation in response to acute infection are poorly understood. Methods Here we report the clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics of three returning travellers with Katayama fever. Inflammatory markers and coagulation status were assessed repeatedly during follow-up to characterise the host response to infection. Radiographic findings were correlated with clinical and laboratory markers. Results Clinical symptoms were suggestive of a significant inflammatory response in all patients including high fever (>39°C), cough, and general malaise. Classical inflammatory markers including blood sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A were only moderately elevated. Marked eosinophilia (33–42% of white blood cells) was observed and persisted despite anti-inflammatory and anthelminthic treatment for up to 32 weeks. Analysis of blood coagulation markers indicated increased coagulability reflected by elevated D-dimer values (0.57–1.17 ?g/ml) and high thrombin generating potentials (peak thrombin activity: 311–384 nM). One patient showed particularly high levels of microparticle-associated tissue factor activity at initial presentation (1.64 pg/ml). Multiple pulmonary and hepatic opacities demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) scanning were associated with raised inflammatory markers in one patient. Conclusions The characterisation of the inflammatory response, blood coagulation parameters and radiological findings in three patients adds to our current understanding of Katayama fever and serves as a starting point for further systematic investigations of the pathophysiology of this acute helminthic infection. PMID:24985919

2014-01-01

415

Early results of integrated malaria control and implications for the management of fever in under-five children at a peripheral health facility: a case study of Chongwe rural health centre in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Zambia has taken lead in implementing integrated malaria control so as to attain the National Health Strategic Plan goal of "reducing malaria incidence by 75% and under-five mortality due to malaria by 20% by the year 2010". The strategic interventions include the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying, the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, improving diagnostic capacity (both microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests), use of intermittent presumptive treatment for pregnant women, research, monitoring and evaluation, and behaviour change communication. Financial barriers to access have been removed by providing free malaria prevention and treatment services. Methods Data involving all under-five children reporting at the health facility in the first quarter of 2008 was evaluated prospectively. Malaria morbidity, causes of non-malaria fever, prescription patterns treatment patterns and referral cases were evaluated Results Malaria infection was found only in 0.7% (10/1378), 1.8% (251378) received anti-malarial treatment, no severe malaria cases and deaths occurred among the under-five children with fever during the three months of the study in the high malaria transmission season. 42.5% (586/1378) of the cases were acute respiratory infections (non-pneumonia), while 5.7% (79/1378) were pneumonia. Amoxicillin was the most prescribed antibiotic followed by septrin. Conclusion Malaria related OPD visits have reduced at Chongwe rural health facility. The reduction in health facility malaria cases has led to an increase in diagnoses of respiratory infections. These findings have implications for the management of non-malaria fevers in children under the age of five years. PMID:19292919

Chanda, Pascalina; Hamainza, Busiku; Mulenga, Susan; Chalwe, Victor; Msiska, Charles; Chizema-Kawesha, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

416

Non-destructive identification of green and yellow pigments: the case of some Sicilian Renaissance glazed pottery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected decorated Renaissance ceramic fragments, found during the excavation of a Sicilian archaeological site (Caltagirone, Sicily, South Italy), have been studied by combining scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray absorbance spectroscopy (XAS). The study was aimed at providing microchemical and microstructural characterization of the colored glazed coatings in order to elucidate the nature of the pigments in the decorative layers, and in the glaze itself. From the obtained results, the general perspective has been the identification of information to be used for a reliable recognition of the production techniques. In particular, XAS measurements, performed using synchrotron radiation (SR) as the source at the Cu K-edge, in the case of green decorations, provided structural information of the oxidation states and the local chemical environment of copper (neighboring atoms and bond distances).

Crupi, V.; Majolino, D.; Venuti, V.; Barone, G.; Mazzoleni, P.; Pezzino, A.; La Russa, M. F.; Ruffolo, S. A.; Bardelli, F.

2010-09-01

417

A seroepidemiological study of the risks of Q fever infection in Japanese veterinarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causative agent of Q fever, a widespread zoonotic disease, is the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. Although cases of Q fever have been documented in countries throughout the world, the prevalence of the disease in Japan is not yet known. Q fever is a demonstrated occupational hazard to those employed in zoological professions, but the risk to Japanese veterinarians has not

T. Abe; K. Yamaki; T. Hayakawa; H. Fukuda; Y. Ito; H. Kume; T. Komiya; K. Ishihara; K. Hirai

2001-01-01

418

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Statistical modeling of valley fever data in Kern County,  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Statistical modeling of valley fever data in Kern County, California Jorge October 2006 / Published online: 21 November 2006 # ISB 2006 Abstract Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever of cases in the endemic areas. We present here an attempt at the modeling of valley fever incidence in Kern

Zender, Charles

419

Childbed Fever A Nineteenth-Century Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case describes the pioneering work of Ignaz Semmelweis and his efforts to remedy the problem of childbed fever in mid-19th century Europe.  Its purpose is to teach students about the scientific method by “dissecting” the various steps involved in this important, historical medical breakthrough. The case is an interrupted case, that is, students receive only one piece of information at a time, followed by discussion, before moving on to the next piece of information to solve the mystery.

Christa Colyer

1999-01-01

420

Pathogenesis of Lassa Fever  

PubMed Central

Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host’s immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents. PMID:23202452

Yun, Nadezhda E.; Walker, David H.

2012-01-01

421

Reemergence of Rift Valley fever, Mauritania, 2010.  

PubMed

A Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in humans and animals occurred in Mauritania in 2010. Thirty cases of RVF in humans and 3 deaths were identified. RVFV isolates were recovered from humans, camels, sheep, goats, and Culex antennatus mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates indicated a virus origin from western Africa. PMID:24447381

Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Hampathé; Ba, Yamar; Freire, Caio C M; Faye, Oumar; Ndiaye, Oumar; Elgady, Isselmou O; Zanotto, Paolo M A; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou A

2014-02-01

422

Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature  

MedlinePLUS

... treat them, and when to call your doctor. Fever Facts Fever happens when the body's internal "thermostat" ... place for them. View Survey Continue Causes of Fever It's important to remember that fever by itself ...

423

Texas Fever (Third Report).  

E-print Network

, Texas. Reports and bulletins are sent free upon application to the Director. TEXAS FEVER DUUlt: of hi$ and t tion, . - 7, become that fe occurs If n:als degre by el Tf +hi (Third Report.) BY M. FRANCIS, Veterinarian Twenty years ago... the authorities of the Texas Experiment Station de- cided to take up the Texas Fever problem, and, if possible, work out (.Am - plan by which the discouraging losses that followed the importation gh-class cattle for breeding purposes, could be avoided...

Francis, M. (Mark)

1908-01-01

424

The Pathogenesis of Rift Valley Fever  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonotic disease distributed in sub-Saharan African countries and the Arabian Peninsula. The disease is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) of the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, and virus replication in domestic ruminant results in high rates of mortality and abortion. RVFV infection in humans usually causes a self-limiting, acute and febrile illness; however, a small number of cases progress to neurological disorders, partial or complete blindness, hemorrhagic fever, or thrombosis. This review describes the pathology of RVF in human patients and several animal models, and summarizes the role of viral virulence factors and host factors that affect RVFV pathogenesis. PMID:21666766

Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji

2011-01-01

425

Ebola fever: The African emergency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ebola virus produces one of Africa's most lethal viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) infections. Statistically, Ebola fever is at the bottom of Africa's list of infectious diseases, but the speed with which it induces agonizing death puts Ebola fever at the top of Africa's emergencies. Many aspects of the virus are unknown and have eluded medical scientists for 3 decades.

J. Bruce; P. Brysiewicz

2002-01-01

426

Human Spotted Fever Rickettsial Infections  

PubMed Central

Serum specimens from patients at 4 sites in Peru were tested for evidence of spotted fever group rickettsial infection. Results showed that 30 (18%) of 170 patients had spotted fever group rickettsial infections, which likely caused their illnesses. These findings document laboratory-confirmed spotted fever from diverse areas of Peru. PMID:15829206

Schoeler, George B.; Morón, Cecilia; Richards, Allen; Blair, Patrick J.

2005-01-01

427

Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever  

MedlinePLUS

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever Fact sheet N°208 January 2013 Key facts The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus causes severe viral haemorrhagic ... the principal tick vector. The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in animals and ticks The hosts of ...

428

Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients. PMID:22668446

Tantawichien, Terapong

2012-01-01

429

Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.  

PubMed

Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients. PMID:22668446

Tantawichien, Terapong

2012-05-01

430

Evaluation of dengue fever reports during an epidemic, Colombia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess the validity of dengue fever reports and how they relate to the definition of case and severity. METHODS Diagnostic test assessment was conducted using cross-sectional sampling from a universe of 13,873 patients treated during the fifth epidemiological period in health institutions from 11 Colombian departments in 2013. The test under analyses was the reporting to the National Public Health Surveillance System, and the reference standard was the review of histories identified by active institutional search. We reviewed all histories of patients diagnosed with dengue fever, as well as a random sample of patients with febrile syndromes. The specificity and sensitivity of reports were estimated for this purpose, considering the inverse of the probability of being selected for weighting. The concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search was calculated using Kappa statistics. RESULTS We included 4,359 febrile patients, and 31.7% were classified as compatible with dengue fever (17 with severe dengue fever; 461 with dengue fever and warning signs; 904 with dengue fever and no warning signs). The global sensitivity of reports was 13.2% (95%CI 10.9;15.4) and specificity was 98.4% (95%CI 97.9;98.9). Sensitivity varied according to severity: 12.1% (95%CI 9.3;14.8) for patients presenting dengue fever with no warning signs; 14.5% (95%CI 10.6;18.4) for those presenting dengue fever with warning signs, and 40.0% (95%CI 9.6;70.4) for those with severe dengue fever. Concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search resulted in a Kappa of 10.1%. CONCLUSIONS Low concordance was observed between reporting and the review of clinical histories, which was associated with the low reporting of dengue fever compatible cases, especially milder cases.

Romero-Vega, Liliana; Pacheco, Oscar; de la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando; Díaz-Quijano, Fredi Alexander

2014-01-01

431

Malignant Catarrhal Fever  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal viral disease of ruminant species, particularly cattle, bison, and deer. Clinical signs vary between species. Two major epidemiologic types of MCF exist, and are defined by the ruminant species that serve as natural reservoir hosts for infection...

432

Rift Valley Fever  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning module, students focus on issues related to understanding the nature and transmission of the Rift Valley fever virus, a virus that causes the death of large numbers of livestock in Kenya and in much of sub-Saharan Africa, and can also infect humans. This module is part of Exploring the Environment.

2012-08-03

433

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks in Gabon, 1994–1997: Epidemiologic and Health Control Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the end of 1994 to the beginning of 1995, 49 patients with hemorrhagic symptoms were hospitalized in the Makokou General Hospital in northeastern Gabon. Yellow fever (YF) virus was first diagnosed in serum by use of polymerase chain reaction followed by blotting, and a vaccination campaign was immediately instituted. The epidemic, known as the fall 1994 epidemic, ended 6

Sylvain Baize

1999-01-01

434

Mapping dengue fever transmission risk in the Aburrá Valley, Colombia  

E-print Network

Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in Medellín, the second largest Colombian city, and surrounding municipalities. We used DF case and satellite environmental data to investigate conditions associated with suitable areas for DF occurrence in 2008 in three...

Arboleda, Sair; Jaramillo-O, Nicolas; Peterson, A. Townsend

2009-12-02

435

[Acute rheumatic fever: a report].  

PubMed

Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is still an important disease of the pediatric and adult age. The increased number of cases described in the literature in the last 10 years brought us to evaluate the ARF cases diagnosed in a Pediatric Teaching Hospital in the period 1988-1997. Most of the children with ARF presented with joint involvement even if patients with cardiac disease or chorea minor were numerous. About 50% of our patients with ARF did not refer a history of a febrile tonsillopharyngitis in the 15-60 days before the presentation of ARF. The remaining patients have had a preceding pharyngitis not adequately treated. In none of the subjects a throat swab positive for group A beta hemolytic streptococci was available. These results confirm the importance of the correct diagnosis and treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis but suggest that ARF can develop without any outstanding clinical evidence of streptococcal infection. PMID:12845313

Boccazzi, A; Bellosta, C; Tonelli, P

1997-12-01

436

Chikungunya Fever in Los Angeles, California  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 33-year-old woman returning from Haiti, presenting to our emergency department (ED) with fever, rash and arthralgia. Following a broad workup that included laboratory testing for dengue and malaria, our patient was diagnosed with Chikungunya virus, which was then reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for initiation of infection control. This case demonstrates the importance of the ED for infectious disease case identification and initiation of public health measures. This case also addresses public health implications of Chikungunya virus within the United States, and issues related to the potential for local spread and autochthonous cases. PMID:25493131

Harter, Katherine R.; Bhatt, Sanjay; Kim, Hyung T.; Mallon, William K.

2014-01-01

437

Acute liver failure, multiorgan failure, cerebral oedema, and activation of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in a case of Marburg haemorrhagic fever.  

PubMed

A woman developed Marburg haemorrhagic fever in the Netherlands, most likely as a consequence of being exposed to virus-infected bats in the python cave in Maramagambo Forest during a visit to Uganda. The clinical syndrome was dominated by acute liver failure with secondary coagulopathy, followed by a severe systemic inflammatory response, multiorgan failure, and fatal cerebral oedema. A high blood viral load persisted during the course of the disease. The initial systemic inflammatory response coincided with peaks in interferon-? and tumour necrosis factor-? concentrations in the blood. A terminal rise in interleukin-6, placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGF-R1) seemed to suggest an advanced pathophysiological stage of Marburg haemorrhagic fever associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction and fatal cerebral oedema. The excess of circulating sVEGF-R1 and the high sVEGF-R1:PlGF ratio shortly before death resemble pathophysiological changes thought to play a causative part in pre-eclampsia. Aggressive critical-care treatment with renal replacement therapy and use of the molecular absorbent recirculation system appeared able to stabilise--at least temporarily--the patient's condition. PMID:22394985

van Paassen, Judith; Bauer, Martijn P; Arbous, M Sesmu; Visser, Leo G; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Schilling, Stefan; Ölschläger, Stephan; Rieger, Toni; Emmerich, Petra; Schmetz, Christel; van de Berkmortel, Franchette; van Hoek, Bart; van Burgel, Nathalie D; Osterhaus, Albert D; Vossen, Ann Ctm; Günther, Stephan; van Dissel, Jaap T

2012-08-01

438

Yellow Legged Frog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists found this adult mountain yellow-legged frog on June 10 in Tahquitz Creek, a rediscovered population of the endangered frog in the San Jacinto Wilderness, San Bernardino National Forest, California....

439

Prevention of Typhoid Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typhoid fever, the generalized infection of the reticuloendothelial system (spleen, liver, and bone marrow), gut-associated\\u000a lymphoid tissue, and gall bladder caused by the highly human host restricted pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is the quintessential infectious disease associated with inadequate sanitation and lack of protected drinking water.\\u000a The pediatric (school-age) and young adult populations in endemic areas bear

Myron M. Levine; Philippe Lepage

440

Q fever in the Netherlands: a concise overview and implications of the largest ongoing outbreak.  

PubMed

Two outbreaks of Q fever were reported in the Netherlands in 2007 and 2008. The ongoing 2008 outbreak in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands is the largest community outbreak ever described, with 808 cases reported until August 2008. The changing epidemiology of Q fever is most likely related to intensive goat farming, and has important implications for the clinical care of patients in endemic areas. Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia has to take possible Q fever into account, and the high incidence of Q fever endocarditis and other manifestations of chronic Q fever require a specific diagnostic and therapeutic approach. PMID:18931396

Delsing, C E; Kullberg, B J

2008-10-01

441

Celiac Disease Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune enteropathy that occurs, in affected individuals, with exposure to gluten in the diet and improves with removal of dietary gluten. Although CD is readily considered in patients with classical presentations of the disease, atypical manifestations may be the only presenting symptoms. We present a case of CD in a 16-year-old female presenting as fever of unknown origin, which has not been reported previously. The postulated mechanism for fever in CD and the importance of clinicians having a low threshold for considering CD in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and other enigmatic clinical presentations is discussed. PMID:23970982

Cooney, Megan J.; El-Matary, Wael

2013-01-01

442

[Scarlet fever in Poland in 2009].  

PubMed

After the last outbreak of scarlet fever, when the peak was recorded in 1985, now is observed the visible extension of disease epidemic period and the weakness of the dynamics of the annual changes of incidence. In 2009, as in previous years, the scarlet fever incidence in Poland increased. There were 13,968 cases registered in total and the incidence was 36.6 per 100,000 population ranging from 18.4 in podkarpackie voivodeship to 62.1 in opolskie voivodeship. Cases among children and adolescents of less than 15 years of age accounted for 95.3% of all cases. The highest incidence was observed among 4 years old children (566.5) and 6 years old children (564.70). Incidence in men (41.5) markedly exceeded the incidence in women (32.1) and incidence in urban areas (40.5) and in rural areas (30.6). Approximately 1.1% of all cases were hospitalized. Due to scarlet fever there were no deaths in Poland in 2009. PMID:21913461

Czarkowski, Miros?aw P; Kondej, Barbara; Staszewska, Ewa

2011-01-01

443

Unrecognized spotted fever group rickettsiosis masquerading as dengue fever in Mexico.  

PubMed

Although Rocky Mountain spotted fever was documented in northern Mexico during the 1940s, spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses have subsequently received little attention in Mexico. In this study, sera collected in 1993 from 50 patients from the Mexican states of Yucatan and Jalisco, who were suspected clinically to have dengue fever but had no antibodies to dengue virus, were examined by indirect immunofluorescence for IgM antibodies reactive with Rickettsia rickettsii, R. akari, and R. typhi. Twenty (40%) of the patients' sera contained IgM antibodies to SFG rickettsiae at a titer of 128 or greater. Among five sera reactive only against R. akari, four were from patients in Jalisco where a cluster of cases occurred in June and July. Among five sera reactive only with R. rickettsii, all were from Yucatan patients. Sera of 10 patients contained antibodies reactive with antigens shared by R. rickettsii and R. akari. The clinical signs and symptoms (fever, 100%; myalgia, 95%; headache, 85%; rash, 85%) were similar to those of dengue fever patients identified in this study. However, the incidence of rash was substantially higher than the nondengue, nonrickettsiosis patients. One or more SFG rickettsioses appear to be present in areas of Mexico not previously recognized to harbor these organisms. The etiologic agent or agents are as yet unknown. PMID:8780453

Zavala-Velazquez, J E; Yu, X J; Walker, D H

1996-08-01

444

Water Resources Allocation Considering the Water Use Flexible Limit to Water Shortage—A Case Study in the Yellow River Basin of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources allocation in a river basin is customarily determined based on long-term mean water availability. However,\\u000a inter-annual variability of water resources caused by climate fluctuation should also be considered in order to keep an effective\\u000a and flexible allocation policy. This paper analyzes the historical evolution of the water resources allocation system in the\\u000a Yellow River basin of China. Based

Weiwei Shao; Dawen Yang; Heping Hu; Kenji Sanbongi

2009-01-01

445

Plants animals jha DSN FS-6700-7 (2/98) NOTE: Any yellow text shading or red text annotations have been added by ORNL Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). The annotations have been made  

E-print Network

1 Plants animals jha DSN FS-6700-7 (2/98) NOTE: Any yellow text shading or red text annotations is an especially effector vector. See a physician if unusual fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pains

446

Fever, jaundice and acute renal failure.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is an uncommon infectious disease that has protean clinical manifestations ranging from an innocuous 'flu-like' illness to potentially life-threatening multi-organ failure. Here we describe a case of Weil's disease that presented on the acute medical take with fever, jaundice and acute renal failure. We highlight the importance of careful history taking at the time of admission and how understanding the epidemiology and pathophysiology of leptospirosis enables a definitive diagnosis to be reached. PMID:25650200

O'Toole, Sam M; Pathak, Neha; Toms, Graham C; Gelding, Susan V; Sivaprakasam, Venkat

2015-02-01

447

Unilateral pulmonary edema and acute rheumatic fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the diagnostic criteria for acute rheumatic fever (ARF) are well known, a high index of suspicion is necessary in\\u000a order to assure timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We present a case of an 8-year-old child who presented with unilateral\\u000a pulmonary edema secondary to acute mitral insufficiency due to ARF. ARF should be considered in the differential diagnosis\\u000a of unilateral

John S. Giuliano Jr; Priya Sekar; Catherine L. Dent; William L. Border; Russel Hirsch; Peter B. Manning; Derek S. Wheeler

2008-01-01

448

Temporomandibular joint involvement in familial mediterranean fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case 2. A 15-year-old girl of Jewish Sephardi origin had a history of recurrent cellulitis on the medial aspect of the ankles since 7 years of age. At age 12, she had recurrent episodes of chest pain and\\/or abdominal pain with fever. At age 14 years she underwent laparotomy and appendectomy because of signs of peritonitis. Histologically her appendix was

M. Mukamel; M. Mimouni

1993-01-01

449

Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Diagnosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Pontiac Fever Pontiac fever can be confirmed by urine antigen or paired ... special media) cannot be used to diagnose Pontiac fever. Most people with Legionnaires' disease will have pneumonia ( ...

450

Travelers' Health: Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... of Travelers Chapter 3 - Varicella (Chickenpox) Typhoid & Paratyphoid Fever Anna E. Newton, Eric Mintz INFECTIOUS AGENT Typhoid ... fever Table 3-20. Vaccines to prevent typhoid fever VACCINA- TION AGE (y) DOSE, MODE OF ADMINISTRA- ...

451

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology  

MedlinePLUS

... 2010. Average annual incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever by age-group, 2000 through 2010: This figure ... are reported under a new category called Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis (including Rocky Mountain spotted fever). This change ...

452

Genetics Home Reference: Familial Mediterranean fever  

MedlinePLUS

... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Familial Mediterranean fever On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed June 2014 What is familial Mediterranean fever? Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited condition characterized ...

453

Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)  

MedlinePLUS

... page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) On this Page What ... is HFRS prevented? Suggested Reading What is hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome? Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome ( ...

454

Argentine hemorrhagic fever vaccines.  

PubMed

Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), an acute disease caused by Junin virus (JUNV, Arenaviridae), has been an important issue to public health in Argentina since the early 1950s. The field rodent Calomys musculinus is JUNV natural reservoir and human disease is a consequence of contact with infected rodents. A steady extention of AHF endemic area is being observed since the first reports of the disease. Important achievements have been made in: (a) improvement of methods for the etiological diagnosis; (b) implementation and validation of therapeutical measures; (c) development of vaccines to protect against AHF. Reference is made to different research strategies used to obtain anti-AHF vaccines in the past and anti-arenaviral diseases in the present. Information is updated on features and field performance of Candid #1 vaccine, a live attenuted vaccine currently used to prevent AHF. This vaccine was developed through a joint international effort that envisioned it as an orphan drug. With transferred technology, Argentine government was committed to be Candid #1 manufacturer and to register this vaccine as a novel medical product under the Argentine regulatory authority. Candid #1 vaccine is the first one used to control an arenaviral hemorrhagic fever, the first live viral vaccine to be manufactured and registered in Argentina, reaching its target population through governmental effort. PMID:21451263

Ambrosio, Ana; Saavedra, Maria; Mariani, Mauricio; Gamboa, Graciela; Maiza, Andrea

2011-06-01

455

[Isolation and identification of the W-88 strain of spotted fever group rickettsiae from a human case in Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia].  

PubMed

One strain of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae was isolated from a patient with febrile and headache who was missdiagnosed as common cold. The rickettsia was isolated by inoculation of yolk sacs of embryonated hen eggs with the patient's blood. The isolate was named as W-88 following the initial letter of the patient's name. It is the first time to report the isolation of SFG rickettsiae from human being who lived in city in China. In this study we compared the antigens of W-88 strain with seven prototype strains of SFG rickettsiae and six Chinese strains of SFG rickettsiae with one species-specific monoclonal antibody and one group reactive monoclonal antibody by indirect-immunofluorescence assay. The results demonstrated that W-88 strain and other Chinese strains JH-74, An-84, FT-84, MT-84, Se-85, To-85 of SFG rickettsiae were found identical to Rickettsia sibirica (strains 232 and 246) and differ from other prototypes of SFG rickettsiae. PMID:2225005

Bi, D Z

1990-08-01

456

Effective Vaccine for Lassa Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lassa fever has been estimated to cause 5,000 deaths annually in West Africa. Recently, war in the zone where Lassa fever is hyperendemic has severely impeded control and treatment. Vaccination is the most viable control measure. There is no correlation between antibody levels and outcome in human patients, and inactivated vaccines produce high titers of antibodies to all viral proteins

S. P. Fisher-Hoch; L. Hutwagner; B. Brown; J. B. McCormick

2000-01-01

457

Fever in Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Fever in Infants and Children See complete list of charts. Because young children are not able to hold a thermometer in their ... two months of age or younger with a fever of 100.4° or higher? Yes This may ...

458

Isolation and characterization of Borrelia hermsii associated with two foci of tick-borne relapsing fever in California.  

PubMed

Relapsing fever, caused by the spirochete Borrelia hermsii and transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi, is endemic in many rural mountainous areas of California. Between 1996 and 1998, 12 cases of relapsing fever associated with two exposure sites in northern California were investigated. Follow-up at exposure sites included collection of soft ticks and serum specimens from sylvatic rodents. Attempts to cultivate spirochetes were made through inoculation of patient blood into mice and by feeding Ornithodoros ticks on mice. Three isolates of B. hermsii were recovered from two blood specimens and one pool of ticks. The protein and plasmid profiles of the three isolates were comparable to those of previous B. hermsii isolates from the western United States. Western immunoblotting of patient sera demonstrated an expanding immunologic response to antigens within four distinct molecular weight regions by 3 to 4 weeks postonset. Antibody to B. hermsii was detected in sera from 4 of 11 yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus); no other rodent species collected were seropositive. PMID:15004063

Fritz, Curtis L; Bronson, Lawrence R; Smith, Charles R; Schriefer, Martin E; Tucker, James R; Schwan, Tom G

2004-03-01

459

Isolation and Characterization of Borrelia hermsii Associated with Two Foci of Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in California  

PubMed Central

Relapsing fever, caused by the spirochete Borrelia hermsii and transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi, is endemic in many rural mountainous areas of California. Between 1996 and 1998, 12 cases of relapsing fever associated with two exposure sites in northern California were investigated. Follow-up at exposure sites included collection of soft ticks and serum specimens from sylvatic rodents. Attempts to cultivate spirochetes were made through inoculation of patient blood into mice and by feeding Ornithodoros ticks on mice. Three isolates of B. hermsii wer