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1

First case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902.  

PubMed Central

The first case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902 was reported in March 1998. The yellow fever virus genome was detected in postmortem liver biopsies by seminested polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis showed that this strain was most closely related to strains from Brazil and Ecuador. PMID:10341180

Heraud, J. M.; Hommel, D.; Hulin, A.; Deubel, V.; Poveda, J. D.; Sarthou, J. L.; Talarmin, A.

1999-01-01

2

Yellow Fever Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected ...

3

Yellow Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 1951, Max Theiler (Fig. 10.1), a Rockefeller Foundation scientist, became the only person to be awarded the Nobel Prize\\u000a in Medicine and Physiology for the development of a virus vaccine (Norrby 2007). His live, attenuated 17D vaccine was not\\u000a the first yellow fever vaccine to be tested in humans, but it was by far the most successful one. More

Thomas P. Monath

4

Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... the Geographic Risk of Yellow Fever. Map 3-17. Yellow fever vaccine recommendations in the Americas 1 ... and yellow fever vaccination. Lancet. 2004 Sep 11–17;364(9438):936. Cavalcanti DP, Salomao MA, Lopez- ...

5

Extra Exercises for Chapter 8. Epidemic Dynamics The Case of Yellow Fever  

E-print Network

Extra Exercises for Chapter 8. Epidemic Dynamics The Case of Yellow Fever Yellow Fever has been in System Dynamics. Kalgraf describes the classical (urban) form of yellow fever in which a human contracts live for 18 days and need four blood feeds during their lifetime. This means the average mosquito bites

Ford, Andrew

6

[Yellow fever: new recommendations].  

PubMed

Indication for yellow fever vaccination is not always easy to assess. The decision to immunize is not only based on the actual risk of the disease in a specific location, but also on public health considerations in the visited country (in order to respectively avoid epidemics in endemic countries or the introduction of the virus in zones where the vectors mosquitoes are present) and on travelers' risk factors for severe or even fatal vaccine adverse events. WHO has recently published new recommendations regarding vaccination against yellow fever after concluding that one dose of vaccine generates a life-long protection. This article tends to clarify the strategy to adopt in 2013 using cases frequently encountered in the practice of travel medicine. PMID:24908746

Rochat, L; Genton, B

2014-05-01

7

A case suspected for yellow Fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most successful vaccines ever developed. Since 2001, 56 cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we report a new case suspected for YEL-AVD in the Netherlands. Further research is needed to determine the true incidence of YEL-AVD and to clarify host and vaccine-associated factors in the pathogenesis of YEL-AVD. Because of the potential adverse events, healthcare providers should carefully consider vaccination only in people who are truly at risk for YF infection, especially in primary vaccine recipients. PMID:24920138

van de Pol, Eva M; Gisolf, Elizabeth H; Richter, Clemens

2014-11-01

8

Neurologic disease associated with 17D-204 yellow fever vaccination: A report of 15 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever (YF), can be prevented by an attenuated vaccine (YEL). We reviewed neurologic adverse events (AE) following YEL that were reported to the national Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS). VAERS is a passive reporting system with inherent limitations for causality assessment. Based on defined criteria, five cases of encephalitis were classified as ‘definitely’ and one of acute disseminated

Ann W. McMahon; Rachel B. Eidex; Anthony A. Marfin; Michelle Russell; James J. Sejvar; Lewis Markoff; Edward B. Hayes; Robert T. Chen; Robert Ball; M. Miles Braun; Martin Cetron

2007-01-01

9

ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER  

PubMed Central

By the employment of methods designed to promote the growth both of aerobic and anaerobic organisms, particularly those belonging to the class of spirochetes, it was possible to obtain a pure culture of a delicate organism, the morphological features of which place it in the genus Leptospira. On three occasions, that is, from three out of eleven cases of yellow fever, the organism was directly cultivated. These three strains were found to induce the characteristic symptoms and lesions when tested on guinea pigs. The organism was designated Leptospira icteroides. Leptospira icteroides was also obtained in pure culture from the blood of guinea pigs which succumbed to infection after being inoculated with the blood or organ emulsions from patients suffering from yellow fever. These cultures also proved to be virulent when tested on susceptible animals. The morphological characteristics and certain biological properties of the organism were considered in detail. It is invisible under translucent illumination and is difficult to stain by most aniline dyes. It is highly sensitive to the presence of bacteria and is rapidly destroyed in a medium in which certain other organisms are present. The presence of blood serum (man, sheep, horse, rabbit, etc.) seems to be essential for its growth. It grows well at a temperature of about 25–26°C. and more quickly at 37°C., though at the latter temperature it dies out within a few weeks. At 25°C. under favorable conditions and in suitable culture media it remains viable for several months without losing its virulence. Leptospira icteroides multiplies by transverse division. The virulence attained by some strains was such that 0.00001 cc. of a culture could induce typical fatal infection in guinea pigs. There exists a considerable variation among guinea pigs in their susceptibility to Leptospira icteroides. The organism is killed within 10 minutes at a temperature of 55°C. and is also destroyed by complete desiccation or freezing and thawing. Bile and bile salts dissolve it in certain concentrations, but not saponin. Leptospira icteroides passes through the pores of Berkefeld filters V and N, and there is a possibility of its having a granular phase of life under certain conditions. PMID:19868342

Noguchi, Hideyo

1919-01-01

10

Imported yellow fever in a United States citizen.  

PubMed

The last imported case of yellow fever seen in this country was in 1924. We report a case of yellow fever acquired by an American tourist who visited the jungles of Brazil along the Rio Negro and Amazon Rivers. The patient died 6 days after hospital admission and 10 days after his first symptoms appeared. Yellow fever virus was recovered from clinical specimens, and the isolate was genetically similar to the E genotype IIB of South American yellow fever viruses. This patient's illness represents a case of vaccine-preventable death since he failed to be immunized with a recommended preexposure yellow fever vaccine. PMID:9402373

McFarland, J M; Baddour, L M; Nelson, J E; Elkins, S K; Craven, R B; Cropp, B C; Chang, G J; Grindstaff, A D; Craig, A S; Smith, R J

1997-11-01

11

Experimental therapies for yellow fever  

PubMed Central

A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

Julander, Justin G.

2013-01-01

12

Yellow Fever Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

A sequential and quantitative survey of brain and liver of suckling mice for infective virus and complement-fixing antigen, after infection with yellow fever virus, showed that while there was progressive increase of infective virus content in both organs, only the brain showed a corresponding rise in CF antigen. Histopathological examination revealed that the liver was not significantly involved. The target organ was the brain, where the progressive pathological changes culminated in an acute encephalitis by the 3rd day of experiment. Organ destruction began with the molecular layer of the grey matter. But by the 4th day after infection the entire cerebral cortex was involved. At the initial stages the hippocampus was particularly affected. Tissue damage did not appear to be entirely due to the differential quantitative localization of infective virus. It was hypothesized that the CF antigen acting singly or in conjunction with some hypothetical proteins may be principally involved in the pathological outcome of the disease. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6 PMID:5582071

David-West, Tam. S.; Smith, J. A.

1971-01-01

13

Neurologic disease associated with 17D-204 yellow fever vaccination: a report of 15 cases.  

PubMed

Yellow fever (YF), can be prevented by an attenuated vaccine (YEL). We reviewed neurologic adverse events (AE) following YEL that were reported to the national Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS). VAERS is a passive reporting system with inherent limitations for causality assessment. Based on defined criteria, five cases of encephalitis were classified as 'definitely' and one of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) as 'probably' caused by YEL. Six cases of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS), one of encephalitis, and two of ADEM, were classified as 'suspect' vaccine-associated disease. Laboratory and epidemiological evidence suggests that YEL caused encephalitis. Additional studies will be required to confirm whether YEL can rarely result in GBS and/or ADEM. PMID:17240001

McMahon, Ann W; Eidex, Rachel B; Marfin, Anthony A; Russell, Michelle; Sejvar, James J; Markoff, Lewis; Hayes, Edward B; Chen, Robert T; Ball, Robert; Braun, M Miles; Cetron, Martin

2007-02-26

14

Anaphylaxis from yellow fever vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are very few reports of anaphylactic reactions to yellow fever (YF) vaccine in the literature, and these date from the 1940s. Objective: We sought to estimate the rate of YF vaccine–related anaphylaxis. Methods: All reports of adverse reactions to YF vaccine submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System between 1990 and 1997 were reviewed for those meeting

John M. Kelso; Gina T. Mootrey; Theodore F. Tsai

1999-01-01

15

Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease.  

PubMed

Yellow fever is a mosquito-transmitted hemorrhagic viral disease that is endemic to tropical regions in South America and Africa. It remains a significant health concern for deploying military personnel, accordingly vaccination is frequently performed on troops. Although the vaccine is generally administered with only minor complications, rare severe complications are also reported. Herein, we report a mild case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease 4 days after administration of the vaccine. The various complications of the vaccine and their pathogenesis are also reviewed. PMID:22594140

Rowland, Michael; Plackett, Timothy P; Smith, Richard

2012-04-01

16

Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.  

PubMed

Until recently, urban yellow fever had not been reported from the Americas since 1954, but jungle yellow fever increasingly affects forest dwellers in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The reinvasion by Aedes aegypti of cities in the Americas now threatens to urbanize yellow fever. After yellow fever infection was identified in a resident of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December 1997, all subsequent suspected cases were investigated. Active surveillance of yellow fever was introduced in the Santa Cruz area, with hospitals and selected urban and rural health centers reporting all suspected cases. Patients were serologically screened for yellow fever, dengue, hepatitis A and B, and leptospirosis; clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients' records and through interviews; and a population-based serosurvey was conducted in the neighborhood of one case. Between December 1997 and June 1998, symptomatic yellow fever infection was confirmed in 6 residents of Santa Cruz, of whom 5 died. 5 lived in the southern sector of the city. 2 cases did not leave the city during their incubation period, and 1 had visited only an area in which sylvatic transmission was deemed impossible. Of the 281 people covered in the serosurvey, 16 (6%) were positive for IgM antibody to yellow fever. Among 5 people for whom that result could not be explained by recent vaccination, there were 2 pairs of neighbors. This instance of urban yellow fever transmission was limited in both time and space. PMID:10334253

Van der Stuyft, P; Gianella, A; Pirard, M; Cespedes, J; Lora, J; Peredo, C; Pelegrino, J L; Vorndam, V; Boelaert, M

1999-05-01

17

Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008-2009  

PubMed Central

Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. PMID:24625634

Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valeria de Sa; de Almeida, Marco Antonio Barreto; Vettorello, Katia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

2014-01-01

18

Epidemiological aspects of the 1969 yellow fever epidemic in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The Virus Research Laboratory of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, was notified on 23 October 1969 that cases of suspected yellow fever had occurred in the Jos area. The diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolation and the existence of a widespread outbreak on the Jos Plateau and adjacent areas was established. This was the first recognized epidemic of yellow fever in Nigeria since 1953. Between September and the end of December 1969, an estimated total of 252 patients with yellow fever were hospitalized. The case—fatality ratio for hospitalized patients was approximately 40%. The diagnosis of yellow fever was confirmed by virus isolation, serology, or pathology in 55 patients. It is estimated that up to 100 000 cases of yellow fever may have occurred during the epidemic. PMID:4538037

Carey, D. E.; Kemp, G. E.; Troup, J. M.; White, H. A.; Smith, E. A.; Addy, R. F.; Fom, A. L. M. D.; Pifer, J.; Jones, E. M.; Bres, P.; Shope, R. E.

1972-01-01

19

Epidemiological aspects of the 1969 yellow fever epidemic in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The Virus Research Laboratory of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, was notified on 23 October 1969 that cases of suspected yellow fever had occurred in the Jos area. The diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolation and the existence of a widespread outbreak on the Jos Plateau and adjacent areas was established. This was the first recognized epidemic of yellow fever in Nigeria since 1953. Between September and the end of December 1969, an estimated total of 252 patients with yellow fever were hospitalized. The case-fatality ratio for hospitalized patients was approximately 40%. The diagnosis of yellow fever was confirmed by virus isolation, serology, or pathology in 55 patients. It is estimated that up to 100 000 cases of yellow fever may have occurred during the epidemic. PMID:4538037

Carey, D E; Kemp, G E; Troup, J M; White, H A; Smith, E A; Addy, R F; Fom, A L; Pifer, J; Jones, E M; Brès, P; Shope, R E

1972-01-01

20

Assessing yellow Fever risk in the ecuadorian Amazon.  

PubMed

This study reports results of a cross-sectional study based on interviews and seroepidemiological methods to identify risk factors for yellow fever infection among personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. Clinical symptoms and signs observed among yellow fever cases are also described. Humoral immune response to yellow fever, Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche, and dengue 2 infection was assessed by evaluating IgM and IgG specific antibodies. A yellow fever attack rate of 13% (44/341, with 3 fatal cases) was observed among military personnel. Signs of digestive track bleeding (14.6%) and hematuria (4.9%) were observed among the yellow fever cases. In 32.2% of the cases, we measured high levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase with maximum levels of 6,830 and 3,500, respectively. Signs of bleeding or jaundice were observed in some cases, and high levels of transaminases were seen. The epidemiological and laboratory investigations demonstrated that the military personnel were affected by a yellow fever outbreak. The association between clearing the rainforest and also being at the detachments with yellow fever infection confirms that clearing is the main factor in the jungle model of transmission, which takes place deep in the Amazonian rainforest. PMID:20300380

Izurieta, Ricardo O; Macaluso, Maurizio; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B; Guerra, Bolivar; Cruz, Ligia M; Galwankar, Sagar; Vermund, Sten H

2009-01-01

21

Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.  

PubMed Central

Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:822563

Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

1976-01-01

22

429Vol. 5, No. 3, MayJune 1999 Emerging Infectious Diseases Yellow fever (YF) is a serious public health  

E-print Network

429Vol. 5, No. 3, MayJune 1999 Emerging Infectious Diseases Dispatches Yellow fever (YF Tonate and Mayaro), and a new world First Case of Yellow Fever in French Guiana since 1902 J.M. Heraud@pasteur-cayenne.fr. The first case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902 was reported in March 1998. The yellow fever

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

History of Epidemiological Aspects of Yellow Fever  

PubMed Central

This review attempts to follow the trail of the development of epidemiological aspects and concepts of yellow fever and yellow fever transmission (vectors, vertebrate hosts, spacing of epidemic outbreaks) with less emphasis on well-documented early history and more emphasis on epidemiological problems still remaining, plus discussion of possible means of resolving certain of these problems. PMID:6758368

Downs, Wilbur G.

1982-01-01

24

[Entomological investigations conducted around ten cases of yellow fever in 2009 in the Denguélé sanitary region, Côte-d'Ivoire].  

PubMed

In November 2009, ten suspicious cases of yellow fever, including six deaths, were notified in the region of Denguélé, in the northwest of Côte-d'Ivoire. In order to evaluate the extent of yellow fever virus circulation and the risk for local people, a mission of entomological investigation was carried out by the Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene of Côte-d'Ivoire. Entomological investigations were conducted in the villages of confirmed cases (Banakoro and Tron-Touba) and the centers of consultation and hospitalization of cases during illness. Breteau index and recipient index were quasi nil. Aedes aegypti was absent among the captured mosquitoes. On the other hand, Aedes luteocephalus and Aedes opok were present at Banakoro and Tron-Touba with respective average biting rates of 0.8 and 0.6 bite/man/twilight. This situation of epidemic in the northwest of Côte-d'Ivoire could be explained by the deterioration of Denguélé region's health system which is a consequence of the war started in the country in 2002 and which has lowered the immunity of the population. PMID:21293956

Konan, Y L; Fofana, D; Coulibaly, Z I; Diallo, A; Koné, A B; Doannio, J M C; Ekra, K D; Odéhouri-Koudou, P

2011-10-01

25

A clinicopathological study of human yellow fever*  

PubMed Central

During an epidemic of yellow fever in the Jos Plateau area of Nigeria, 9 adult males with clinically diagnosed yellow fever were studied by haematological, biochemical, virological, serological, and liver biopsy methods. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 55 years and the duration of illness was 3-62 days. No virus was isolated from any patient but all patients should biochemical evidence of severe hepatocellular damage. Leucopenia was a feature of the late acute stage of the disease. Five sera had antibodies to yellow fever at titres greater than 1: 32, 3 of them being monospecific for yellow fever. The classical histological features of yellow fever were present only in the acute or late acute stages, when complement-fixation tests may be negative. With convalescence and the production of complement-fixing antibodies in high titres, the histological features resembled those of a persisting nonspecific hepatitis. In an endemic area, the histological features of yellow fever will depend on the stage of the disease and a picture of nonspecific hepatitis would not exclude yellow fever in the absence of confirmation from serological tests. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2AFig. 2BFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4538039

Francis, T. I.; Moore, D. L.; Edington, G. M.; Smith, J. A.

1972-01-01

26

A clinicopathological study of human yellow fever.  

PubMed

During an epidemic of yellow fever in the Jos Plateau area of Nigeria, 9 adult males with clinically diagnosed yellow fever were studied by haematological, biochemical, virological, serological, and liver biopsy methods. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 55 years and the duration of illness was 3-62 days. No virus was isolated from any patient but all patients should biochemical evidence of severe hepatocellular damage. Leucopenia was a feature of the late acute stage of the disease. Five sera had antibodies to yellow fever at titres greater than 1: 32, 3 of them being monospecific for yellow fever. The classical histological features of yellow fever were present only in the acute or late acute stages, when complement-fixation tests may be negative. With convalescence and the production of complement-fixing antibodies in high titres, the histological features resembled those of a persisting nonspecific hepatitis. In an endemic area, the histological features of yellow fever will depend on the stage of the disease and a picture of nonspecific hepatitis would not exclude yellow fever in the absence of confirmation from serological tests. PMID:4538039

Francis, T I; Moore, D L; Edington, G M; Smith, J A

1972-01-01

27

Lost Trust: A Yellow Fever Patient Response  

PubMed Central

In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care. PMID:24348220

Runge, John S.

2013-01-01

28

Timeliness of yellow fever surveillance, Central African Republic.  

PubMed

During January 2007-July 2012, a total of 3,220 suspected yellow fever cases were reported in the Central African Republic; 55 were confirmed and 11 case-patients died. Mean delay between onset of jaundice and case confirmation was 16.6 days. Delay between disease onset and blood collection could be reduced by increasing awareness of the population. PMID:24857597

Rachas, Antoine; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Bouscaillou, Julie; Paireau, Juliette; Selekon, Benjamin; Senekian, Dominique; Fontanet, Arnaud; Kazanji, Mirdad

2014-06-01

29

Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti with Drosophila melanogaster aegypti, and Culex pipiens, the primary vectors for malaria, yellow fever and dengue, and lymphatic 103

Severson, David

30

Aedes aegypti in Brazil: genetically differentiated populations with high susceptibility to dengue and yellow fever viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aedes aegypti was eliminated from Brazil in 1955, but re-infested the country in the 1970s. Dengue outbreaks have occurred since 1981 and became endemic in several cities in Brazil after 1986. Urban yellow fever has not occurred since 1942, and only jungle yellow fever cases have been reported. A population genetic analysis using isoenzyme variation combined with an evaluation of

R Lourenço-de-Oliveira; M Vazeille; A. M. B de Filippis; A. B Failloux

2004-01-01

31

Anamnestic immune response to dengue and decreased severity of yellow Fever.  

PubMed

A protective immunity against yellow fever, from cross-reactive dengue antibodies, has been hypothesized as an explanation for the absence of yellow fever in Southern Asia where dengue immunity is almost universal. This study evaluates the association between protective immunity from cross-reactive dengue antibodies with yellow fever infection and severity of the disease. The study population consisted of military personnel of a jungle garrison and its detachments located in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rainforest. The cross-sectional study employed interviews as well as seroepidemiological methods. Humoral immune response to yellow fever, Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche, and dengue 2 infections was assessed by evaluating IgM and IgG specific antibodies. Log-linear regression analysis was used to evaluate age and presence of antibodies, against dengue type 2 virus, as predictors of yellow fever infection or severe disease. During the seroepidemiological survey, presence of dengue antibodies among yellow fever cases were observed in 77.3% cases from the coastal region, where dengue is endemic, 14.3% cases from the Amazon and 16.7 % cases from the Andean region. Dengue cross-reactive antibodies were not significantly associated with yellow fever infection but significantly associated with severity of the disease. The findings of this study suggest that previous exposure to dengue infection may have induced an anamnestic immune response that did not prevent yellow fever infection but greatly reduced the severity of the disease. PMID:20300401

Izurieta, Ricardo O; Macaluso, Maurizio; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B; Guerra, Bolivar; Cruz, Ligia M; Galwankar, Sagar; Vermund, Sten H

2009-07-01

32

The Yellow Fever Vaccine: A History  

PubMed Central

After failed attempts at producing bacteria-based vaccines, the discovery of a viral agent causing yellow fever and its isolation in monkeys opened new avenues of research. Subsequent advances were the attenuation of the virus in mice and later in tissue culture; the creation of the seed lot system to avoid spontaneous mutations; the ability to produce the vaccine on a large scale in eggs; and the removal of dangerous contaminants. An important person in the story is Max Theiler, who was Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health at Yale from 1964-67, and whose work on virus attenuation created the modern vaccine and earned him the Nobel Prize. PMID:20589188

Frierson, J. Gordon

2010-01-01

33

Longitudinal myelitis associated with yellow fever vaccination.  

PubMed

Severe adverse reaction to yellow fever (YF) vaccine includes the yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease. This terminology includes postvaccinal encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The objective of this communication is to report a patient who received a YF vaccine in Argentina and subsequently developed longitudinal myelitis with a symptom that had previously gone unreported in the literature. A 56-year-old man began with progressive paraparesia, urinary retention, and constipation 48 h previous to admission. The patient received YF vaccine 45 days prior to the onset of the symptoms. There was no history of other immunization or relevant condition. MR of the spine showed longitudinal intramedullary hyperintense signal (D5-12) without gadolinium enhancement. A high concentration of YFV-specific IgM vaccine antibody was found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Serological tests for other flavivirus were negative. A diagnosis of longitudinal myelitis without encephalitis associated with YF vaccine was performed and symptoms improved 5 days later. This is the first report dealing with longitudinal myelitis as a serious adverse event associated with YF vaccination in which confirmation of the presence of antibodies in CSF was found. To date, it is also the first report with serological confirmation in Argentina and in South America. We consider that the present investigation will raise awareness in the region in the reporting of adverse events related to YF vaccine and improve our knowledge of adverse reactions to the vaccine. PMID:19579072

Chaves, M; Riccio, P; Patrucco, L; Rojas, J I; Cristiano, E

2009-07-01

34

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

2012-10-01

35

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

2011-10-01

36

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

2010-10-01

37

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

2013-10-01

38

Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

2002-01-01

39

Genomic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Brazilian Yellow Fever Virus Strains  

PubMed Central

Globally, yellow fever virus infects nearly 200,000 people, leading to 30,000 deaths annually. Although the virus is endemic to Latin America, only a single genome from this region has been sequenced. Here, we report 12 Brazilian yellow fever virus complete genomes, their genetic traits, phylogenetic characterization, and phylogeographic dynamics. Variable 3? noncoding region (3?NCR) patterns and specific mutations throughout the open reading frame altered predicted secondary structures. Our findings suggest that whereas the introduction of yellow fever virus in Brazil led to genotype I-predominant dispersal throughout South and Central Americas, genotype II remained confined to Bolivia, Peru, and the western Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23015713

Palacios, Gustavo; Cardoso, Jedson F.; Martins, Livia C.; Sousa, Edivaldo C.; de Lima, Clayton P. S.; Medeiros, Daniele B. A.; Savji, Nazir; Desai, Aaloki; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Carvalho, Valeria L.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2012-01-01

40

Yellow fever vaccine: an effective vaccine for travelers.  

PubMed

Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral communicable disease transmitted by an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus. It is primarily a zoonotic disease, especially the monkeys. Worldwide, an estimated 200,000 cases of yellow fever occurred each year, and the case-fatality rate is ~15%. Forty-five endemic countries in Africa and Latin America, with a population of close to 1 billion, are at risk. Up to 50% of severely affected persons from YF die without treatment. During 2009, 55 cases and 18 deaths were reported from Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. Brazil reported the maximum number of cases and death, i.e., 42 cases with 11 deaths. From January 2010 to March 2011, outbreaks of YF were reported to the WHO by Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Senegal, and Uganda. Cases were also reported in three northern districts of Abim, Agago, and Kitugun near the border with South Sudan. YF usually causes fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. Most patients improve, and their symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 d. Half of the patients who enter the toxic phase die within 10-14 d, while the rest recover without significant organ damage. Vaccination has been the single most important measure for preventing YF. The 17D-204 YF vaccine is a freeze-dried, live attenuated, highly effective vaccine. It is available in single-dose or multi-dose vials and should be stored at 2-8 °C. It is reconstituted with normal saline and should be used within 1 h of reconstitution. The 0.5 mL dose is delivered subcutaneously. Revaccination is recommended every 10 y for people at continued risk of exposure to yellow fever virus (YFV). This vaccine is available worldwide. Travelers, especially to Africa or Latin America from Asia, must have a certificate documenting YF vaccination, which is required by certain countries for entry under the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the WHO. PMID:24056028

Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

2014-01-01

41

RESEARCH ARTICLE Nucleotide Sequence of Yellow Fever  

E-print Network

related human or veterinary pathogens causing many serious illness- es, including dengue fever, Japanese en- cephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, Mur- ray Valley encephalitis, tick-borne en- cephalitis

Eddy, Sean

42

Recombinant Chimeric Yellow Fever-Dengue Type 2 Virus Is Immunogenic and Protective in Nonhuman Primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chimeric yellow fever (YF)-dengue type 2 (dengue-2) virus (ChimeriVax-D2) was constructed using a re- combinant cDNA infectious clone of a YF vaccine strain (YF 17D) as a backbone into which we inserted the premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes of dengue-2 virus (strain PUO-218 from a case of dengue fever in Bangkok, Thailand). The chimeric virus was recovered from

F. Guirakhoo; R. Weltzin; T. J. Chambers; Z.-X. Zhang; K. Soike; M. Ratterree; J. Arroyo; K. Georgakopoulos; J. Catalan; T. P. Monath

2000-01-01

43

58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, presented to the Portsmouth Naval Hospital by the Town Council of Portsmouth, 1856. (Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Museum, Portsmouth, VA) - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

44

The changing epidemiology of yellow fever and dengue, 1900 to 2003: full circle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever and dengue are old diseases, having caused major epidemics in centuries past. Both were effectively controlled in the mid 1900s, yellow fever in Francophone Africa by vaccination and yellow fever and dengue in the Americas by effective control of the principal urban vector of both viruses, Aedes aegypti. In the last 25 years of the 20th century, however,

D. J. Gubler

2004-01-01

45

Antibody-dependent Enhancement of Yellow Fever and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Neurovirulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Antibody-dependent enhancement of yellow fever virus neurovirulence, as measured by a reduction in the average survival time of groups of mice, was demonstrated with wild-type or vaccine strains of yellow fever virus and with Japanese encephalitis virus using intraperitoneally administered monoclonal antibodies specific for the viral E glycoprotein of yellow fever virus. Enhancement of virulence could be induced by

E. A. Gould; A. Buckley

1989-01-01

46

Pathology Case Study: Fevers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors in the health sciences field. In this case, a 68-year-old male patient experiencing fevers, chills, an associated non-productive cough, and weight loss was admitted to the hospital for examination. The âÂÂGross Description,â âÂÂMicroscopic Description,â and â Microbiologyâ sections provide key information and images that contributed to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. Clicking on the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment from the contributing doctors.

Kulich, Scott; Pasculle, A. W.

2007-12-17

47

Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

2002-01-01

48

Viscerotropic and neurotropic disease following vaccination with the 17D yellow fever vaccine, ARILVAX.  

PubMed

Yellow fever vaccine associated viscerotropic (YFV-AVD) and neurotropic (YFV-AND) diseases have been recently identified in various countries. Previously post-vaccination multiple organ system failure was recognised as a rare serious adverse event of yellow fever vaccination and 21 cases of post-vaccinal (YFV) encephalitis had been recorded. Incidence data is not available. On investigation of vaccine surveillance reports from Europe following distribution of more than 3 million doses of ARILVAX trade mark, four cases each of YFV-AVD and YFV-AND were found (each 1.3 cases per million doses distributed) for the period 1991 to 2003. The incidence for each is higher after 1996 (2.5 cases per million doses distributed). The incidence of these adverse events appears to be very low with ARILVAX trade mark. Similar incidence data is required from other countries for comparison. PMID:15149765

Kitchener, Scott

2004-06-01

49

Aedes aegypti, Dengue and Re-urbanization of Yellow Fever in Brazil and other South American Countries - Past and Present Situation and Future Perspectives By  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue (DEN) and yellow fever (YF) viruses are two important arboviruses causing human disease. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF\\/DHF) reemerged in the Americas after Aedes aegypti had reinfested most tropical and subtropical regions in the hemisphere. The number of DF\\/DHF cases being reported are increasing each year; and in South America only Chile and Uruguay have not reported

Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos; Amélia P. A. T. Rosa; Francisco P. Pinheiro; Sueli G. Rodrigues; Ana C. R. Cruz; Jorge F. S. T. Rosa

50

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria*  

PubMed Central

Serological surveys undertaken to define the geographic limits of the 1970 rural yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that surrounding areas of Benue Plateau State and East Central State were not involved. However, the surveys uncovered a separate focus of unrecognized, recent epidemic yellow fever in Mbawsi, in southern East Central State. The highest proportions of yellow-fever-immune sera outside the Okwoga and Mbawsi foci were found in zones of Guinea savannah in the Benue River basin. PMID:4545319

Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Stroh, G.; Lee, V. H.; Smith, E. A.

1973-01-01

51

The risk of yellow fever in a dengue-infested area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever and dengue are viral infections that in urban centres are transmitted by the same arthropod vector, a mosquito of the genus Aedes. In order to estimate the risk of an epidemic of urban yellow fever in a dengue-infested area we calculated the threshold in the basic reproduction number, R0, of dengue, above which any single sylvatic yellow fever-infected

Eduardo Massad; Francisco Antonio Bezerra Coutinho; Marcelo Nascimento Burattini; Luiz Fernandes Lopez

2001-01-01

52

SHORT REPORT Open Access Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in  

E-print Network

SHORT REPORT Open Access Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African fever virus (YFV) represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre-and Post-Blood Meal  

E-print Network

The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22573. doi@nmsu.edu Introduction The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for dengue fever, several

Houde, Peter

54

Collaborative study to assess the suitability of a candidate International Standard for yellow fever vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever vaccines are routinely assayed by plaque assay. However, the results of these assays are then converted into mouse LD50 using correlations\\/conversion factors which, in many cases, were established many years ago. The minimum required potency in WHO Recommendations is 103 LD50\\/dose. Thirteen participants from 8 countries participated in a collaborative study whose aim was to assess the suitability

Morag Ferguson; Alan Heath

2004-01-01

55

Yellow Fever Virus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes serratus Mosquitoes, Southern Brazil, 2008  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosquitoes were collected at ground level, identified, and processed for virus isolation and molecular analyses. Eight YFV strains were isolated (7 from pools of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes and another from Aedes serratus mosquitoes); 6 were sequenced, and they grouped in the YFV South American genotype I. The results confirmed the role of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes as the main YFV vector in southern Brazil and suggest that Ae. serratus mosquitoes may have a potential role as a secondary vector. PMID:21122222

Cardoso, Jader da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valeria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.

2010-01-01

56

[The "plague" of Barcelona. Yellow fever epidemic of 1821].  

PubMed

The outbreak of yellow fever that struck Barcelona in 1821 followed a typical pattern for the times: a brick from Cuba introduced the disease in the port docks; the epidemic first reached the poor suburbs, and finally the center of the city. It was assumed that at least 20,000 inhabitants died from the scourge, that is a sixth of the total population of the city estimated 120,000. French authorities promptly took emergency measures at land and maritime borders by locking French ports to Catalan vessels and defining a quarantine line along the Pyrenean border controlled by an army 15,000 strong. French medical team including six physicians and two nuns was sent to Barcelona to provide assistance. Long after the epidemic had receded, the Pyrenean quarantine line was maintained by the French authorities for a hidden political purpose: Paris wished to contain Spanish Liberalism, a "revolutionary pest". French troops engaged in the so-called quarantine line were used in 1823 for invading the Spanish kingdom, while French physicians returning to Paris were celebrated as heroes and benefactors of the mankind although they had not provided any serious contribution to the therapeutics or the epidemiology of yellow fever. They were glorified in publications of the time without reserve. This unexpected manifestation of nationalism was welcomed and encouraged by the government of Louis XVIII who felt himself threatened by the liberal opposition. PMID:11000949

Chastel, C

1999-12-01

57

Nucleotide Sequence Variation of the Envelope Protein Gene Identifies Two Distinct Genotypes of Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of yellow fever virus over 67 years was investigated by comparing the nucleotide sequences of the envelope (E) protein genes of 20 viruses isolated in Africa, the Caribbean, and South America. Uniformly weighted parsimony algorithm analysis defined two major evolutionary yellow fever virus lineages designated E genotypes I and II. E genotype I contained viruses isolated from East

GWONG-JEN J. CHANG; BRUCE C. CROPP; RICHARD M. KINNEY; DENNIS W. TRENT; ANDDUANE J. GUBLER

1995-01-01

58

Yellow Fever in Africa: Estimating the Burden of Disease and Impact of Mass Vaccination from Outbreak and Serological Data  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the 1940s to 1960s reduced yellow fever incidence for several decades. However, after a period of low vaccination coverage, yellow fever has resurged in the continent. Since 2006 there has been substantial funding for large preventive mass vaccination campaigns in the most affected countries in Africa to curb the rising burden of disease and control future outbreaks. Contemporary estimates of the yellow fever disease burden are lacking, and the present study aimed to update the previous estimates on the basis of more recent yellow fever occurrence data and improved estimation methods. Methods and Findings Generalised linear regression models were fitted to a dataset of the locations of yellow fever outbreaks within the last 25 years to estimate the probability of outbreak reports across the endemic zone. Environmental variables and indicators for the surveillance quality in the affected countries were used as covariates. By comparing probabilities of outbreak reports estimated in the regression with the force of infection estimated for a limited set of locations for which serological surveys were available, the detection probability per case and the force of infection were estimated across the endemic zone. The yellow fever burden in Africa was estimated for the year 2013 as 130,000 (95% CI 51,000–380,000) cases with fever and jaundice or haemorrhage including 78,000 (95% CI 19,000–180,000) deaths, taking into account the current level of vaccination coverage. The impact of the recent mass vaccination campaigns was assessed by evaluating the difference between the estimates obtained for the current vaccination coverage and for a hypothetical scenario excluding these vaccination campaigns. Vaccination campaigns were estimated to have reduced the number of cases and deaths by 27% (95% CI 22%–31%) across the region, achieving up to an 82% reduction in countries targeted by these campaigns. A limitation of our study is the high level of uncertainty in our estimates arising from the sparseness of data available from both surveillance and serological surveys. Conclusions With the estimation method presented here, spatial estimates of transmission intensity can be combined with vaccination coverage levels to evaluate the impact of past or proposed vaccination campaigns, thereby helping to allocate resources efficiently for yellow fever control. This method has been used by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI Alliance) to estimate the potential impact of future vaccination campaigns. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24800812

Garske, Tini; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Yactayo, Sergio; Ronveaux, Olivier; Lewis, Rosamund F.; Staples, J. Erin; Perea, William; Ferguson, Neil M.

2014-01-01

59

THE TITRATION OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS IN STEGOMYIA MOSQUITOES  

PubMed Central

Titrations were made of yellow fever virus in stegomyia mosquitoes, using rhesus monkeys as test animals. It was found that: (a) The average mosquito immediately after engorging on highly infectious blood contained between 1 and 2 million lethal doses of virus. The titer of freshly ingested blood was as high as 1 billion lethal doses of virus per cubic centimeter. (b) During the fortnight succeeding a meal on infectious blood there occurred a reduction of titratable virus to not more than 1 per cent of that present in the freshly fed insects. (c) The titer was somewhat higher at later periods. This rise in titer signified possibly not a multiplication, but merely an increase of extracellular virus and of that easily freed by grinding to a titratable form. (d) At no later stage did the quantity of titratable virus equal that demonstrable in freshly fed insects. PMID:19870190

Davis, Nelson C.; Frobisher, Martin; Lloyd, Wray

1933-01-01

60

[Yellow fever vaccination in non-immunocompetent patients].  

PubMed

Any person travelling in countries where yellow fever (YF) is endemic and without presenting contra-indication for the vaccination against YF may be vaccinated. This vaccination can very rarely induce a potentially lethal neurotropic or viscerotropic disease. In severely immunodeficient patients, the vaccination is contra-indicated because postvaccinal encephalitis may occur after the vaccination, due to vaccine strain pathogenecity. It is important to evaluate the general health status in elderly individuals before vaccinating because of the increased risk of viscerotropic disease in people of 60 years of age and over. Pregnant women should not be vaccinated, except if departure to an endemic zone is unavoidable. YF vaccinatio is contra-indicated for newborns under six months of age. Solid organ grafts, congenital immunodeficiency, leukemia, lymphoma, cancer, and immunosuppressive treatments are contra-indications for this vaccination. Nevertheless, YF immunization is possible after a bone marrow graft and a two-year period without graft-versus-host disease or immunosuppressive treatment. There is no data to support that immunization of the dono prior to the graft could confer protection against yellow fever to the recipient. Low doses, short courses of corticosteroids either as systemic treatment or intra-articular injections are not contra-indications for YF vaccination. Patients infected with HIV with stable clinical status and T CD4-cel count above 200 cells per millimetre cube may be vaccinated. Thymic diseases, including thymoma and thymectomy, are contra-indications for YF vaccination. Finally, a substantial residual level of antibodies beyond 10 years after the latest vaccination could confer protection, thus avoiding a new vaccination when it is an issue. PMID:18715730

Bruyand, M; Receveur, M C; Pistone, T; Verdière, C H; Thiebaut, R; Malvy, D

2008-10-01

61

Detection of Anti-Yellow Fever Virus Immunoglobulin M Antibodies at 3-4 Years Following Yellow Fever Vaccination  

PubMed Central

The duration of anti-yellow fever (YF) virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies following YF vaccination is unknown, making it difficult to interpret positive IgM antibody results in previously vaccinated travelers. We evaluated the frequency and predictors of YF IgM antibody positivity 3–4 years following YF vaccination. Twenty-nine (73%) of 40 participants had YF IgM antibodies 3–4 years postvaccination. No demographic or exposure variables were predictive of YF IgM positivity. However, persons who were YF IgM positive at 3–4 years postvaccination had earlier onset viremia and higher neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers at 1 month and 3–4 years postvaccination compared with persons who were YF IgM negative. Detection of YF IgM antibodies several years postvaccination might reflect remote YF vaccination rather than recent YF vaccination or YF virus infection. PMID:23109371

Gibney, Katherine B.; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Panella, Amanda J.; Kosoy, Olga I.; Delorey, Mark J.; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin

2012-01-01

62

Occurrence of Autoimmune Diseases Related to the Vaccine against Yellow Fever  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever is an infectious disease, endemic in South America and Africa. This is a potentially serious illness, with lethality between 5 and 40% of cases. The most effective preventive vaccine is constituted by the attenuated virus strain 17D, developed in 1937. It is considered safe and effective, conferring protection in more than 90% in 10 years. Adverse effects are known as mild reactions (allergies, transaminases transient elevation, fever, headache) and severe (visceral and neurotropic disease related to vaccine). However, little is known about its potential to induce autoimmune responses. This systematic review aims to identify the occurrence of autoinflammatory diseases related to 17D vaccine administration. Six studies were identified describing 13 possible cases. The diseases were Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, multiple points evanescent syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and Kawasaki disease. The data suggest that 17D vaccination may play a role in the mechanism of loss of self-tolerance.

Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Maria Henrique da Mota, Licia; dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz; De Carvalho, Jozelio Freire; Caldas, Iramaya Rodrigues; Martins Filho, Olindo Assis; Tauil, Pedro Luis

2014-01-01

63

Risk groups for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD).  

PubMed

Although previously considered as the safest of the live virus vaccines, reports published since 2001 indicate that live yellow fever virus vaccine can cause a severe, often fatal, multisystemic illness, yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD), that resembles the disease it was designed to prevent. This review was prompted by the availability of a listing of the cumulative cases of YEL-AVD, insights from a statistical method for analyzing risk factors and re-evaluation of previously published data. The purpose of this review is to identify and analyze risk groups based on gender, age, outcome and predisposing illnesses. Using a passive surveillance system in the US, the incidence was reported as 0.3 to 0.4 cases per 100,000. However, other estimates range from 0 to 12 per 100,000. Identified and potential risk groups for YEL-AVD include elderly males, women between the ages of 19 and 34, people with a variety of autoimmune diseases, individuals who have been thymectomized because of thymoma, and infants and children ?11 years old. All but the last group are supported by statistical analysis. The confirmed risk groups account for 77% (49/64) of known cases and 76% (32/42) of the deaths. The overall case fatality rate is 66% (42/64) with a rate of 80% (12/15) in young women, in contrast to 50% (13/26) in men ?56 years old. Recognition of YEL-AVD raises the possibility that similar reactions to live chimeric flavivirus vaccines that contain a yellow fever virus vaccine backbone could occur in susceptible individuals. Delineation of risk groups focuses the search for genetic mutations resulting in immune defects associated with a given risk group. Lastly, identification of risk groups encourages concentration on measures to decrease both the incidence and the severity of YEL-AVD. PMID:25192973

Seligman, Stephen J

2014-10-01

64

Using Local History To Understand National Themes: The Yellow Fever Epidemic in Philadelphia in 1793.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information for a local history project about the 1793 Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) yellow fever outbreak. Offers potential project topics to help students learn about local history and understand life in the eighteenth century United States. (CMK)

Westbury, Susan

2003-01-01

65

Antibody response to 17D yellow fever vaccine in Ghanaian infants.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess the seroresponses to yellow fever vaccination at 6 and 9 months of age; assess any possible adverse effects of immunization with the 17D yellow fever vaccine in infants, particularly at 6 months of age. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty infants who had completed BCG, OPV and DPT immunizations were randomized to receive yellow fever immunization at either 6 or 9 months. A single dose of 0.5 ml of the reconstituted vaccine was administered to each infant by subcutaneous injection. To determine the yellow fever antibody levels of the infants, each donated 1 ml whole blood prior to immunization and 3 months post-immunization. Each serum sample was titred on Vero cells against the vaccine virus. FINDINGS: The most common adverse reactions reported were fever, cough, diarrhoea and mild reactions at the inoculation site. The incidences of adverse reactions were not statistically different in both groups. None of the pre-immunization sera in both age groups had detectable yellow fever antibodies. Infants immunized at 6 months recorded seroconversion of 98.6% and those immunized at 9 months recorded 98% seroconversion. The GMT of their antibodies were 158.5 and 129.8, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that seroresponses to yellow fever immunization at 6 and 9 months as determined by seroconversion and GMTs of antibodies are similar. The findings of good seroresponses at 6 months without significant adverse effects would suggest that the 17D yellow fever vaccine could be recommended for use in children at 6 months in outbreak situations or in high risk endemic areas. PMID:11731813

Osei-Kwasi, M.; Dunyo, S. K.; Koram, K. A.; Afari, E. A.; Odoom, J. K.; Nkrumah, F. K.

2001-01-01

66

Use of the yellow fever virus vaccine strain 17D for the study of strategies for the treatment of yellow fever virus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have employed the attenuated vaccine strain 17D of yellow fever virus (YFV) to evaluate the inhibitory effect of a selected series of compounds on YFV in Vero cells. Use of the vaccine strain does not require high-level microbiological containment facilities and should allow extensive screening. In addition, YFV may serve as a model for other flaviviruses including hepatitis C

J. Neyts; A. Meerbach; P. McKenna; E. De Clercq

1996-01-01

67

Risk of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease among the elderly: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) is a rare and serious adverse event of the yellow fever (YF) vaccine that mimics wild-type YF. Research shows there may be an increased risk of YEL-AVD among the elderly population (? 60-65 years old), however this research has yet to be accumulated and reviewed in order to make policy recommendations to countries currently administering the YF vaccine. This paper systematically reviewed all information available on YEL-AVD to determine if there is an increased risk among the elderly, for both travelers and endemic populations. Age-specific reporting rates (RRs) were re-calculated from the literature using the Brighton Collaboration case definition for YEL-AVD and were then analyzed to determine if there was a significant difference between the RRs of younger and older age groups. Two out of the five studies found a significantly higher rate of YEL-AVD among the elderly population. Our findings suggest unexposed elders may be at an increased risk of developing YEF-AVD, however the evidence remains limited. Therefore, our findings for YF vaccination of elderly populations support the recommendations made by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) in their April 2013 meeting, mainly vaccination of the elderly should be based on a careful risk-benefit analysis. PMID:24079979

Rafferty, Ellen; Duclos, Philippe; Yactayo, Sergio; Schuster, Melanie

2013-12-01

68

VACCINATION AGAINST YELLOW FEVER WITH IMMUNE SERUM AND VIRUS FIXED FOR MICE  

PubMed Central

1. After preliminary experiments in monkeys, 15 persons were actively immunized by a single injection of a dried mixture of living yellow fever virus, fixed for mice, and human immune serum, with separate injections of enough additional serum to make up the amount required for protection. 2. One person was similarly immunized by injecting immune serum and dried virus separately. 3. By titration of the sera of vaccinated persons in mice, it was shown that the immunity rose in a few weeks to a height comparable to that reached after an attack of yellow fever, and remained there throughout an observation period of 6 months. 4. Yellow fever virus could not be recovered from the blood of vaccinated persons or monkeys, except when the latter had received less than the minimal effective amount of immune serum. 5. Neutralization of yellow fever virus by immune serum took place very slowly in vitro at room temperature in our experiments, and could not have been an appreciable factor in vaccination with the serum virus mixtures. 6. A mixture of fixed virus and immune serum retained its immunizing power for 8 months when dried in the frozen state and sealed in glass. 7. It appears that the immunizing reaction after yellow fever vaccination was a part of a true infectious process, as was also the observed leucopenia. PMID:19870044

Sawyer, W. A.; Kitchen, S. F.; Lloyd, Wray

1932-01-01

69

Advanced Yellow Fever Virus Genome Detection in Point-of-Care Facilities and Reference Laboratories  

PubMed Central

Reported methods for the detection of the yellow fever viral genome are beset by limitations in sensitivity, specificity, strain detection spectra, and suitability to laboratories with simple infrastructure in areas of endemicity. We describe the development of two different approaches affording sensitive and specific detection of the yellow fever genome: a real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and an isothermal protocol employing the same primer-probe set but based on helicase-dependent amplification technology (RT-tHDA). Both assays were evaluated using yellow fever cell culture supernatants as well as spiked and clinical samples. We demonstrate reliable detection by both assays of different strains of yellow fever virus with improved sensitivity and specificity. The RT-qPCR assay is a powerful tool for reference or diagnostic laboratories with real-time PCR capability, while the isothermal RT-tHDA assay represents a useful alternative to earlier amplification techniques for the molecular diagnosis of yellow fever by field or point-of-care laboratories. PMID:23052311

Patel, Pranav; Yillah, Jasmin; Weidmann, Manfred; Mendez, Jairo A.; Nakoune, Emmanuel Rivalyn; Niedrig, Matthias

2012-01-01

70

Safety of the yellow fever vaccine during the September 2001 mass vaccination campaign in Abidjan, Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, a vaccination campaign against yellow fever was carried out in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. During the campaign and 4 weeks after an active surveillance system for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) was set up.More then 2.6 million doses were administered and 87 AEFI were notified. Eight suspected YF cases were reported after vaccination and considered as AEFI. However, none

Julia Fitzner; Daouda Coulibaly; Daniel Ekra Kouadio; Jean Claude Yavo; Yao Guillaume Loukou; Paul Odehouri Koudou; Denis Coulombier

2004-01-01

71

Yellow fever vaccine: An updated assessment of advanced age as a risk factor for serious adverse events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1996, the scientific community has become aware of 14 reports of yellow fever vaccine (YEL)-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) cases and four reports of YEL-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND) worldwide, changing our understanding of the risks of the vaccine. Based on 722 adverse event reports after YEL submitted to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System in 1990–2002, we updated the

Alena Y. Khromava; Rachel Barwick Eidex; Leisa H. Weld; Katrin S. Kohl; Robert D. Bradshaw; Robert T. Chen; Martin S. Cetron

2005-01-01

72

THE ADAPTATION OF UNMODIFIED STRAINS OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS TO CULTIVATION IN VITRO.  

PubMed

1. In a search for suitable tissues for the cultivation of yellow fever virus in vitro, mouse embryos were inoculated with this virus in utero. A titration for virus content of the various organs of the embryos indicated that the virus was present in the brain in greatest concentration. 2. Unmodified strains of yellow fever virus were readily adapted to cultivation in vitro in a medium consisting of minced mouse embryo brain tissue and Tyrode solution containing 10 per cent normal monkey serum. 3. After a continued cultivation in mouse embryo brain tissue cultures for twenty to twenty-five subcultures, these strains were readily adapted to cultivation in whole mouse embryo tissue medium. 4. There is evidence to indicate that a prolonged cultivation of the virus in mouse embryo brain medium increases its neurotropic properties. 5. Attempts to employ monkey tissues for in vitro cultivation of yellow fever virus gave entirely negative results. PMID:19870635

Smith, H H; Theiler, M

1937-05-31

73

THE ADAPTATION OF UNMODIFIED STRAINS OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS TO CULTIVATION IN VITRO  

PubMed Central

1. In a search for suitable tissues for the cultivation of yellow fever virus in vitro, mouse embryos were inoculated with this virus in utero. A titration for virus content of the various organs of the embryos indicated that the virus was present in the brain in greatest concentration. 2. Unmodified strains of yellow fever virus were readily adapted to cultivation in vitro in a medium consisting of minced mouse embryo brain tissue and Tyrode solution containing 10 per cent normal monkey serum. 3. After a continued cultivation in mouse embryo brain tissue cultures for twenty to twenty-five subcultures, these strains were readily adapted to cultivation in whole mouse embryo tissue medium. 4. There is evidence to indicate that a prolonged cultivation of the virus in mouse embryo brain medium increases its neurotropic properties. 5. Attempts to employ monkey tissues for in vitro cultivation of yellow fever virus gave entirely negative results. PMID:19870635

Smith, Hugh H.; Theiler, Max

1937-01-01

74

Lethal 17D Yellow Fever Encephalitis in Mice. I. Passive Protection by Monoclonal Antibodies to the Envelope Proteins of 17D Yellow Fever and Dengue 2 Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Monoclonal antibodies to the envelope proteins (E) of the 17D vaccine strain of yellow fever virus (17D YF) and to dengue 2 virus were examined for their ability to confer passive protection against lethal 17D YF encephalitis in mice. All 13 IgG anti- 17D YF antibodies, regardless of neutralizing capacity, conferred solid protection when given in a relatively high

MICHAEL W. BRANDRISS; JACOB J. SCHLESINGER; EDWARD E. WALSH; MICHAEL BRISELLI

1986-01-01

75

[Serologic survey for yellow fever and other arboviruses among inhabitants of Rio Branco, Brazil, before and three months after receiving the yellow fever 17D vaccine].  

PubMed

During a yellow fever vaccination campaign among residents of Rio Branco (Acre State), the frequency of HI antibodies to the most prevalent arboviruses in the Amazon region and to yellow fever virus was determined before and three months after immunization with YF 17D vaccine. From 390 inhabitants included in the first phase of serologic survey (August 1999), only 190 provided a second serum sample, after the use of 17D vaccine (January 2000). Among first phase samples, the frequency of HI antibodies was: 17D (27.2%); Ilheus (5.9%); Mayaro (5.4%); Caraparu (4.9%); Dengue-2 (4.1%); Oropouche (2.3%); and Dengue-1 (0.3%). In the second study phase, the serologic conversion to YF reached 89.7% among previously negative persons. Serologic conversions were also observed to Ilheus (6.2%); Dengue-3 (3.2%); Mayaro (1.1%); and Oropouche (1.1%) viruses. In conclusion, considering the high YF antibody rate after vaccination, the risk of urban yellow fever seems insignificant, although the lower prevalence of HI antibodies to dengue viruses, is of concern and inhabitants are under high risk of dengue outbreaks, especially to DEN-3 recently introduced in Brazil, as was observed in 2000 and 2001 with DEN-1 and DEN-2. PMID:15042172

Tavares-Neto, José; Freitas-Carvalho, Juliano; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Rocha, Grace; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Damasceno, Edilândio; Darub, Recleides; Viana, Sebastião; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2004-01-01

76

Phenotypic and Molecular Analyses of Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Viruses Associated with Serious Adverse Events in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yellow fever (YF) 17D virus is one of the most successful vaccines developed to date. Its use has been estimated to be over 400 million doses with an excellent record of safety. In the past 3 years, yellow fever vaccination was intensified in Brazil in response to higher risk of urban outbreaks of the disease. Two fatal adverse events

R. Galler; K. V. Pugachev; C. L. S. Santos; S. W. Ocran; A. V. Jabor; S. G. Rodrigues; R. S. Marchevsky; M. S. Freire; L. F. C. Almeida; A. C. R. Cruz; A. M. Y. Yamamura; I. M. Rocco; E. S. Travassos da Rosa; L. T. M. Souza; P. F. C. Vasconcelos; F. Guirakhoo; T. P. Monath

2001-01-01

77

Inhibitory effect of essential oils obtained from plants grown in Colombia on yellow fever virus replication in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An antiviral drug is needed for the treatment of patients suffering from yellow fever. Several compounds present in plants can inactive in vitro a wide spectrum of animal viruses. AIM: In the present study the inhibitory effect of essential oils of Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Oreganum vulgare and Artemisia vulgaris on yellow fever virus (YFV) replication was investigated. METHODS:

Rocío Meneses; Raquel E Ocazionez; Jairo R Martínez; Elena E Stashenko

2009-01-01

78

Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African Republic, 2006-2010  

PubMed Central

Background The causative agent of yellow fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly in Africa. In the Central African Republic since 2006, cases have been notified in the provinces of Ombella-Mpoko, Ouham-Pende, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto and in Bangui the capital. As the presence of a vector of yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations at these sites to identify potential vectors of YFV and their abundance. Findings Between 2006 and 2010, 5066 mosquitoes belonging to six genera and 43 species were identified. The 20 species of the Aedes genus identified included Ae. aegypti, the main vector of YFV in urban settings, and species found in tropical forests, such as Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. luteocephalus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. opok. These species were not distributed uniformly in the various sites studied. Thus, the predominant Aedes species was Ae. aegypti in Bangui (90.7?%) and Basse-Kotto (42.2?%), Ae. africanus in Ombella-Mpoko (67.4?%) and Haute-Kotto (77.8?%) and Ae. vittatus in Ouham-Pende (62.2?%). Ae. albopictus was also found in Bangui. The distribution of these dominant species differed significantly according to study site (P?

2012-01-01

79

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria. I. Epidemiological observations.  

PubMed

A focal epidemic of yellow fever occurred in late 1970 in southern Benue Plateau State, Nigeria, 1 year after a much larger outbreak in northern Nigeria. Like its predecessor, the 1970 epidemic was associated with virus transmission by wild-breeding Stegomyia mosquitos. Epidemiological data on the outbreak are reported in this paper. PMID:4545318

Monath, T P; Wilson, D C; Lee, V H; Stroh, G; Kuteyi, K; Smith, E A

1973-01-01

80

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A focal epidemic of yellow fever occurred in late 1970 in southern Benue Plateau State, Nigeria, 1 year after a much larger outbreak in northern Nigeria. Like its predecessor, the 1970 epidemic was associated with virus transmission by wild-breeding Stegomyia mosquitos. Epidemiological data on the outbreak are reported in this paper. PMID:4545318

Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Lee, V. H.; Stroh, G.; Kuteyi, K.; Smith, E. A.

1973-01-01

81

Genetic Variation in Yellow Fever Virus: Duplication in the 3? Noncoding Region of Strains from Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequences of three regions of the genomes of 13 yellow fever (YF) virus isolates were determined to define genetic variation and evolution of the virus. Phylogenetic trees generated from sequences of either the 5? terminal 1320 nucleotides of the genome, 754 nucleotides from the NS4A and NS4B genes, or the 3? terminal 511 nucleotides were very similar and

Eryu Wang; Scott C. Weaver; Robert E. Shope; Robert B. Tesh; Douglas M. Watts; Alan D. T. Barrett

1996-01-01

82

Detection of yellow fever virus: a comparison of quantitative real-time PCR and plaque assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever virus quantitation is performed routinely by cultivation of virus containing samples using susceptible cells. Counting of the resulting plaques provides a marker for the number of infectious particles present in the sample. This assay usually takes up to 5 days before results are obtained and must be carried out under L2 or L3 laboratory conditions, depending on the

Hi-Gung Bae; Andreas Nitsche; Anette Teichmann; Stefan S. Biel; Matthias Niedrig

2003-01-01

83

FIRST RECORDED OUTBREAK OF YELLOW FEVER IN KENYA, 1992-1993. II. ENTOMOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first recorded outbreak of yellow fever in Kenya occurred from mid-1992 through March 1993 in the south Kerio Valley, Rift Valley Province. We conducted entomologic studies in February-March 1993 to identify the likely vectors and determine the potential for transmission in the surrounding rural and urban areas. Mosquitoes were collected by landing capture and processed for virus isolation. Container

PAUL REITER; ROGER CORDELLIER; JOHN O. OUMA; C. BRUCE CROPP; HARRY M. SAVAGE; EDUARD J. SANDERS; ANTHONY A. MARFIN; PETER M. TUKEI; NAFTALI N. AGATA; LEWIS G. GITAU; BETH A. RAPUODA; DUANE J. GUBLER

84

Complete nucleotide sequence of yellow fever virus vaccine strains 17DD and 17D-213  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome from two yellow fever (YF) virus vaccine strains, 17DD and 17D-213, has been determined. Comparison of these sequences with those of other YF viruses including the parental virulent Asibi strain allowed the identification of 48 nucleotide sequence differences which are common to all 17D substrains. This is a significant reduction from the 67

Claudia N. Duarte dos Santos; Paulo R. Post; Ricardo Carvalho; Idevaldo I. Ferreira; Charles M. Rice; Ricardo Galler

1995-01-01

85

Investigations into yellow fever virus and other arboviruses in the northern regions of Kenya  

PubMed Central

Previous studies having shown an appreciable level of yellow fever immunity to exist in northern Kenya, further epidemiological and serological surveys were carried out there in 1968 in an attempt to define more clearly the distribution of yellow fever and to locate possible vector and reservoir hosts of the disease; these surveys also provided information on a number of other arboviruses. Altogether 436 sera from 5 areas in northern Kenya were screened by haemagglutination-inhibition tests with 8 antigens, and 107 of these sera by neutralization tests for Group-B arboviruses. Small numbers of yellow-fever-immune adults were found in Ileret, Garissa, Loglogo and Mikona. At Marsabit high proportions of immune adults and children were found among the Burgi tribe. As the Burgi are permanent agricultural workers on Marsabit Mountain, an entomological investigation was made, over 15 000 mosquitos being collected. From these, 13 strains of Pongola virus, 1 strain of Semliki Forest virus and an unidentified virus were isolated, but no yellow fever strains. Aedes africanus and Aedes simpsoni were not found at Marsabit; small numbers of Aedes aegypti were collected biting man. The vector potential of other mosquitos collected (particularly Mansonia africana, which is present throughout the year) is discussed. PMID:4393661

Henderson, B. E.; Metselaar, D.; Kirya, G. B.; Timms, G. L.

1970-01-01

86

Safety of the yellow fever vaccine during the September 2001 mass vaccination campaign in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.  

PubMed

In 2001, a vaccination campaign against yellow fever was carried out in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. During the campaign and 4 weeks after an active surveillance system for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) was set up. More then 2.6 million doses were administered and 87 AEFI were notified. Eight suspected YF cases were reported after vaccination and considered as AEFI. However, none had IgM for YF and all recovered without sequels. This surveillance system provided reassuring data about the safety of the YF vaccine and proved that it is feasible to set up an active surveillance system during a mass campaign. PMID:15531032

Fitzner, Julia; Coulibaly, Daouda; Kouadio, Daniel Ekra; Yavo, Jean Claude; Loukou, Yao Guillaume; Koudou, Paul Odehouri; Coulombier, Denis

2004-11-25

87

The Safety of Yellow Fever Vaccine 17D or 17DD in Children, Pregnant Women, HIV+ Individuals, and Older Persons: Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting immunity. Rare serious adverse events after vaccination include neurologic or viscerotropic syndromes or anaphylaxis. We conducted a systematic review of adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccination in vulnerable populations. Nine electronic bibliographic databases and reference lists of included articles were searched. Electronic databases identified 2,415 abstracts for review, and 32 abstracts were included in this review. We identified nine studies of adverse events in infants and children, eight studies of adverse events in pregnant women, nine studies of adverse events in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, five studies of adverse events in persons 60 years and older, and one study of adverse events in individuals taking immunosuppressive medications. Two case studies of maternal–neonate transmission resulted in serious adverse events, and the five passive surveillance databases identified very small numbers of cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease, yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease, and anaphylaxis in persons ? 60 years. No other serious adverse events were identified in the other studies of vulnerable groups. PMID:22302874

Thomas, Roger E.; Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Spragins, Wendy; Jackson, Dave; Williamson, Tyler

2012-01-01

88

The Molecular Characterization of a Diuretic Hormone Receptor (GPRdih1) From Females of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.)  

E-print Network

In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), hemolymph-circulating diuretic hormones act upon the renal organs (Malpighian tubules) to regulate primary urine composition and secretion rate; however, the molecular endocrine mechanisms underlying...

Jagge, Christopher Lloyd

2011-02-22

89

Mariner Transposition and Transformation of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mariner transposable element is capable of interplasmid transposition in the embryonic soma of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. To determine if this demonstrated mobility could be utilized to genetically transform the mosquito, a modified mariner element marked with a wild-type allele of the Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar gene was microinjected into embryos of a kynurenine hydroxylase-deficient, white-eyed recipient strain.

Craig J. Coates; Nijole Jasinskiene; Linda Miyashiro; Anthony A. James

1998-01-01

90

Simultaneous administration of smallpox, measles, yellow fever, and diphtheria--pertussis--tetanus antigens to Nigerian children*  

PubMed Central

Children receiving smallpox, measles, and yellow fever vaccines simultaneously at separate sites responded adequately to all three vaccines. In those children, 9 months of age and older, who received these three vaccines in addition to diphtheria—pertussis—tetanus vaccine, there was a decrease in measles seroconversion rates from 89% to 70%. Possible interactions between live and killed vaccines should be considered when the administration of multiple antigens is planned. PMID:4541683

Ruben, F. L.; Smith, E. A.; Foster, S. O.; Casey, H. L.; Pifer, J. M.; Wallace, R. B.; Atta, A. I.; Jones, W. L.; Arnold, R. B.; Teller, B. E.; Shaikh, Z. Q.; Lourie, B.; Eddins, D. L.; Doko, S. M.; Foege, W. H.

1973-01-01

91

Simultaneous administration of smallpox, measles, yellow fever, and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus antigens to Nigerian children.  

PubMed

Children receiving smallpox, measles, and yellow fever vaccines simultaneously at separate sites responded adequately to all three vaccines. In those children, 9 months of age and older, who received these three vaccines in addition to diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine, there was a decrease in measles seroconversion rates from 89% to 70%. Possible interactions between live and killed vaccines should be considered when the administration of multiple antigens is planned. PMID:4541683

Ruben, F L; Smith, E A; Foster, S O; Casey, H L; Pifer, J M; Wallace, R B; Atta, A I; Jones, W L; Arnold, R B; Teller, B E; Shaikh, Z Q; Lourie, B; Eddins, D L; Doko, S M; Foege, W H

1973-01-01

92

Yellow fever disease: density equalizing mapping and gender analysis of international research output  

PubMed Central

Background A number of scientific papers on yellow fever have been published but no broad scientometric analysis on the published research of yellow fever has been reported. The aim of the article based study was to provide an in-depth evaluation of the yellow fever field using large-scale data analysis and employment of bibliometric indicators of production and quantity. Methods Data were retrieved from the Web of Science database (WoS) and analyzed as part of the NewQis platform. Then data were extracted from each file, transferred to databases and visualized as diagrams. Partially by means of density-equalizing mapping makes the findings clear and emphasizes the output of the analysis. Results In the study period from 1900 to 2012 a total of 5,053 yellow fever-associated items were published by 79 countries. The United States (USA) having the highest publication rate at 42% (n?=?751) followed by far from Brazil (n?=?203), France (n?=?149) and the United Kingdom (n?=?113). The most productive journals are the “Public Health Reports”, the “American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene” and the “Journal of Virology”. The gender analysis showed an overall steady increase of female authorship from 1950 to 2011. Brazil is the only country of the five most productive countries with a higher proportion of female scientists. Conclusions The present data shows an increase in research productivity over the entire study period, in particular an increase of female scientists. Brazil shows a majority of female authors, a fact that is confirmed by other studies. PMID:24245856

2013-01-01

93

Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining molecular-biological techniques with our increased understanding of the effect of gene sequence modification on viral function, yellow fever 17D, a positive-strand RNA virus vaccine, has been manipulated to induce a protective immune response against viruses of the same family (e.g. Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses). Triggered by the emergence of West Nile virus infections in the New World

Juan Arroyo; Charles A Miller; John Catalan; Thomas P Monath

2001-01-01

94

Neutralization of Yellow Fever Virus Studied Using Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies with known specificity for either the 54K envelope glycoprotein or the 48K non-structural glycoprotein of yellow fever (YF) virus-infected cells were studied in plaque reduction neutralization tests. Viruses employed in the tests comprised wild-type and vaccine strains of YF and a selection of other flaviviruses. Of 17 monoclonal antibodies examined, six of the 54K-specific antibodies

A. Buckley; E. A. Gould

1985-01-01

95

The In Vivo Differentiation of Strains of Yellow Fever Virus in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Strains of yellow fever virus isolated since I927 in Africa and the Americas, and strains derived from them, have been differentiated by the responses of mice of different ages to intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intracerebral (i.c.) infection. Infection, antibody conversion, protection and death have been presented on age-dose response phase diagrams that serve as in vivo 'fingerprints' for the differentiation

R. Fitzgeorge; C. J. Bradish

1980-01-01

96

Systems biology approach predicts immunogenicity of the yellow fever vaccine in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge in vaccinology is to prospectively determine vaccine efficacy. Here we have used a systems biology approach to identify early gene 'signatures' that predicted immune responses in humans vaccinated with yellow fever vaccine YF-17D. Vaccination induced genes that regulate virus innate sensing and type I interferon production. Computational analyses identified a gene signature, including complement protein C1qB and

Troy D Querec; Rama S Akondy; Eva K Lee; Weiping Cao; Helder I Nakaya; Dirk Teuwen; Ali Pirani; Kim Gernert; Jiusheng Deng; Bruz Marzolf; Kathleen Kennedy; Haiyan Wu; Soumaya Bennouna; Herold Oluoch; Joseph Miller; Ricardo Z Vencio; Mark Mulligan; Alan Aderem; Rafi Ahmed; Bali Pulendran

2008-01-01

97

Human Effector and Memory CD8 + T Cell Responses to Smallpox and Yellow Fever Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY ToexplorethehumanTcellresponsetoacuteviralin- fection, we performed a longitudinal analysis of CD8+ T cells responding to the live yellow fever virus and smallpox vaccines—two highly successful human vaccines. Our results show that both vaccines gener- ated a brisk primary effector CD8+ T cell response of substantial magnitude that could be readily quanti- tated with a simple set of four phenotypic markers. Secondly,

Joseph D. Miller; Robbert G. van der Most; Rama S. Akondy; John T. Glidewell; Sophia Albott; David Masopust; Kaja Murali-Krishna; Patryce L. Mahar; Srilatha Edupuganti; Susan Lalor; Stephanie Germon; Carlos Del Rio; Silvija I. Staprans; John D. Altman; Mark B. Feinberg; Rafi Ahmed

2008-01-01

98

Yellow fever vaccination in Malaya by subcutaneous injection and multiple puncture  

PubMed Central

In view of the risk of introduction of yellow fever into South-East Asia, comparative studies have been made of yellow fever vaccination in Malayan volunteers with a high prevalence of antibody to related viruses and in volunteers without related antibody. In a previous paper the neutralizing antibody responses of these volunteers were reported. The present paper describes the haemagglutinin-inhibiting (HI) antibody responses of the same groups of volunteers and discusses the relationship of these responses to the neutralizing antibody responses. The HI responses to yellow fever following vaccination closely paralleled the neutralizing antibody responses whether vaccination was subcutaneous or by multiple puncture. Volunteers with a high level of YF HI antibody due to infection with other group B viruses were found to be less likely to show a significant YF HI response than those without antibody. 90% of HI responses could be detected by the 21st day after vaccination. As with neutralizing antibody responses, volunteers given vaccine doses of 50-500 mouse intracerebral LD50 subcutaneously gave greater responses than those given higher doses. PMID:14043754

Smith, C. E. Gordon; McMahon, Dolores A.; Turner, L. H.

1963-01-01

99

Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 28 (1998) 915925 Vitelline envelope genes of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes  

E-print Network

Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 28 (1998) 915­925 Vitelline envelope genes of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Marten J. Edwards a,* , David W. Severson b , Henry H. Hagedorn c: Aedes aegypti; Vitelline envelope; 20-hydroxyecdysone 1. Introduction Eggshell development in the yellow

Severson, David

100

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District Benue Plateau State, Nigeria. 2. Immunity survey to determine geographic limits and origins of the epidemic.  

PubMed

Serological surveys undertaken to define the geographic limits of the 1970 rural yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that surrounding areas of Benue Plateau State and East Central State were not involved. However, the surveys uncovered a separate focus of unrecognized, recent epidemic yellow fever in Mbawsi, in southern East Central State. The highest proportions of yellow-fever-immune sera outside the Okwoga and Mbawsi foci were found in zones of Guinea savannah in the Benue River basin. PMID:4545319

Monath, T P; Wilson, D C; Stroh, G; Lee, V H; Smith, E A

1973-01-01

101

Electrophoretic variability in the phosphatase system of the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Alkaline and acid phosphatases in five inbred strains of the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, were compared by vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 1. Polymorphic and monomorphic zones of enzyme activity were observed among both alkaline and acid phosphatases. 2. In the alkaline phosphatase system, seven electrophoretic zones of enzyme activity were detected; all but two of the seven zones showed electrophoretic variability. 3. In the acid phosphatase system, four electrophoretic zones of enzyme activity were detected; all but one of the four zones showed electrophoretic variability. 4. Absence of enzyme activity was observed in some zones and strains among both alkaline and acid phosphatases. PMID:7151398

Igbokwe, E C; Mills, M

1982-01-01

102

Development of a membrane adsorber based capture step for the purification of yellow fever virus.  

PubMed

Yellow fever (YF) is an endemic disease in some tropical areas of South America and Africa that presents lethality rate between 20 and 50%. There is no specific treatment and to control this disease a highly effective live-attenuated egg based vaccine is widely used for travelers and residents of areas where YF is endemic. However, recent reports of rare, sometimes fatal, adverse events post-vaccination have raised concerns. In order to increase safety records, alternative strategies should be considered, such as developing a new inactivated vaccine using a cell culture based technology, capable of meeting the demands in cases of epidemic. With this goal, the production of YF virus in Vero cells grown on microcarriers and its subsequent purification by chromatographic techniques was studied. In this work we investigate the capture step of the purification process of the YF virus. At first, virus stability was studied over a wide pH range, showing best results for the alkaline region. Considering this result and the pI of the envelope protein previously determined in silico, a strong anion exchanger was considered most suitable. Due to the easy scalability, simplicity to handle, absence of diffusional limitations and suitability for virus handling of membrane adsorbers, a Q membrane was evaluated. The amount of antigen adsorbed onto the membrane was investigated within the pH range for virus stability, and the best pH for virus adsorption was considered to be 8.5. Finally, studies on gradient and step elution allowed to determine the most adequate salt concentration for washing (0.15M) and virus elution (0.30 M). Under these operating conditions, it was shown that this capture step is quite efficient, showing high product recovery (93.2±30.3%) and efficient DNA clearance (0.9±0.3 ng/dose). PMID:24631080

Pato, Tânia P; Souza, Marta Cristina O; Silva, Andréa N M R; Pereira, Renata C; Silva, Marlon V; Caride, Elena; Gaspar, Luciane P; Freire, Marcos S; Castilho, Leda R

2014-05-19

103

Yellow fever vaccination in Malaya by subcutaneous injection and multiple puncture  

PubMed Central

Because of the risk of introduction of yellow fever to South-East Asia, comparative studies were made of yellow fever vaccination in Malayans who had a high prevalence of antibody to related viruses and in volunteers without related antibody. The proportions of positive neutralizing antibody responses to subcutaneous vaccination with 17D vaccine were not significantly different between volunteers with and without heterologous antibody but the degree of antibody response was greater in those without. The ID50 of 17D in both groups was about 5 mouse intracerebral LD50. Multiple puncture vaccination with 17D gave a much lower response rate than subcutaneous vaccination in volunteers with heterologous antibody. In both groups subcutaneous doses of about 50 mouse intracerebral LD50 gave larger antibody responses than higher doses. The neutralizing indices and analysis of results were calculated by a method based on the survival time of the mice. This method, which has advantages over that of Reed & Muench, is fully described in an annex to this paper. PMID:13993152

Smith, C. E. Gordon; Turner, L. H.; Armitage, P.

1962-01-01

104

THE USE OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS MODIFIED BY IN VITRO CULTIVATION FOR HUMAN IMMUNIZATION  

PubMed Central

The response of rhesus monkeys to a subcutaneous inoculation with varying amounts of virus modified by prolonged cultivation in vitro has been studied. The tissue components of the medium consisted of chick embryo tissue containing minimal amounts of nervous tissue. The immunity produced in monkeys, as measured by the antibody titer developed, has no relation to the amount of virus inoculated. Monkeys inoculated subcutaneously with the tissue culture virus are rendered immune to a subsequent injection of a highly virulent yellow fever virus. This resistance is already present 7 days after vaccination. The subcutaneous inoculation of the culture virus into immune persons leads to a substantial increase of the serum antibody titer. The results of vaccinating eight normal persons with culture virus are presented. The reactions were minimal. The highest temperature recorded following vaccination was 37.4°C. The sera taken from the eight vaccinated persons 2 to 4 weeks after inoculation with the tissue culture virus showed the presence of yellow fever antibodies. PMID:19870634

Theiler, Max; Smith, Hugh H.

1937-01-01

105

THE USE OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS MODIFIED BY IN VITRO CULTIVATION FOR HUMAN IMMUNIZATION.  

PubMed

The response of rhesus monkeys to a subcutaneous inoculation with varying amounts of virus modified by prolonged cultivation in vitro has been studied. The tissue components of the medium consisted of chick embryo tissue containing minimal amounts of nervous tissue. The immunity produced in monkeys, as measured by the antibody titer developed, has no relation to the amount of virus inoculated. Monkeys inoculated subcutaneously with the tissue culture virus are rendered immune to a subsequent injection of a highly virulent yellow fever virus. This resistance is already present 7 days after vaccination. The subcutaneous inoculation of the culture virus into immune persons leads to a substantial increase of the serum antibody titer. The results of vaccinating eight normal persons with culture virus are presented. The reactions were minimal. The highest temperature recorded following vaccination was 37.4 degrees C. The sera taken from the eight vaccinated persons 2 to 4 weeks after inoculation with the tissue culture virus showed the presence of yellow fever antibodies. PMID:19870634

Theiler, M; Smith, H H

1937-05-31

106

Sowing the seeds of neo-imperialism: the Rockefeller Foundation's yellow fever campaign in Mexico.  

PubMed

The Rockefeller Foundation's campaign against yellow fever in Mexico sought to advance the economic and political interests of U.S. capitalism. The campaign was implemented at a time of strong anti-American sentiments on the part of the Mexican people. With no diplomatic relationships between Mexico and the United States, the Rockefeller Foundation presented its campaign as an international commitment. Thus, Foundation doctors became the most salient U.S. diplomats. At the same time they made sure that the Mexican yellow fever would not spread to the United States through the southern border. The by-products of the campaign went beyond the political arena. Special techniques to combat the vectors allowed the Rockefeller Foundation's brigades to change the anti-American sentiments of the people. When the campaign ended, the Foundation had already set in place the foundation for the modern Mexican health care system. Benefits from the campaign also accrued to President Obregón, who used the campaign to strengthen his position of power. Mexican doctors adopting a pro-American attitude also allied with the Rockefeller Foundation to gain reputation and power within the emerging Mexican State. PMID:1644514

Solórzano, A

1992-01-01

107

Rapid detection and quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg viruses, Lassa virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus by real-time reverse transcription-PCR.  

PubMed

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in suspected cases. We have established six one-step, real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays for these pathogens based on the Superscript reverse transcriptase-Platinum Taq polymerase enzyme mixture. Novel primers and/or 5'-nuclease detection probes were designed for RVFV, DENV, YFV, and CCHFV by using the latest DNA database entries. PCR products were detected in real time on a LightCycler instrument by using 5'-nuclease technology (RVFV, DENV, and YFV) or SybrGreen dye intercalation (MBGV/EBOV, LASV, and CCHFV). The inhibitory effect of SybrGreen on reverse transcription was overcome by initial immobilization of the dye in the reaction capillaries. Universal cycling conditions for SybrGreen and 5'-nuclease probe detection were established. Thus, up to three assays could be performed in parallel, facilitating rapid testing for several pathogens. All assays were thoroughly optimized and validated in terms of analytical sensitivity by using in vitro-transcribed RNA. The >or=95% detection limits as determined by probit regression analysis ranged from 1,545 to 2,835 viral genome equivalents/ml of serum (8.6 to 16 RNA copies per assay). The suitability of the assays was exemplified by detection and quantification of viral RNA in serum samples of VHF patients. PMID:12089242

Drosten, Christian; Göttig, Stephan; Schilling, Stefan; Asper, Marcel; Panning, Marcus; Schmitz, Herbert; Günther, Stephan

2002-07-01

108

Aedes FADD: A novel death domain-containing protein required for antibacterial immunity in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Dawn M. Cooper*,1 , Ciara M. Chamberlain 1 , Carl Lowenberger 1 September 2008 Keywords: Mosquito Aedes aegypti FADD adaptor Antibacterial immunity IMD signaling AMP research in mosquitoes, the regulation of the pathways required for AMP expression remains largely unknown

Lowenberger, Carl

109

Geographic distribution and evolution of yellow fever viruses based on direct sequencing of genomic cDNA fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared the nucleotide sequence of an envelope protein gene fragment encoding amino acids 291 to 406 of 22 yellow fever (YF) virus strains of diverse geographic and host origins isolated over a 63 year time span. The nucleotide fragment of viral RNA was examined by direct sequencing ofa PCR product derived from complementary DNA. Alignment with the proto-

Loic Lepiniec; Lynn Dalgarno; V. T. Q. Huong; T. P. Monath; J.-P. Digoutte; V. Deubel

1994-01-01

110

Assessment of Yellow Fever Epidemic Risk: An Original Multi-criteria Modeling Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow fever (YF) virtually disappeared in francophone West African countries as a result of YF mass vaccination campaigns carried out between 1940 and 1953. However, because of the failure to continue mass vaccination campaigns, a resurgence of the deadly disease in many African countries began in the early 1980s. We developed an original modeling approach to assess YF epidemic risk (vulnerability) and to prioritize the populations to be vaccinated. Methods and Findings We chose a two-step assessment of vulnerability at district level consisting of a quantitative and qualitative assessment per country. Quantitative assessment starts with data collection on six risk factors: five risk factors associated with “exposure” to virus/vector and one with “susceptibility” of a district to YF epidemics. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) modeling method was specifically adapted to reduce the five exposure variables to one aggregated exposure indicator. Health districts were then projected onto a two-dimensional graph to define different levels of vulnerability. Districts are presented on risk maps for qualitative analysis in consensus groups, allowing the addition of factors, such as population migrations or vector density, that could not be included in MCA. The example of rural districts in Burkina Faso show five distinct clusters of risk profiles. Based on this assessment, 32 of 55 districts comprising over 7 million people were prioritized for preventive vaccination campaigns. Conclusion This assessment of yellow fever epidemic risk at the district level includes MCA modeling and consensus group modification. MCA provides a standardized way to reduce complexity. It supports an informed public health decision-making process that empowers local stakeholders through the consensus group. This original approach can be applied to any disease with documented risk factors. PMID:19597548

Briand, Sylvie; Beresniak, Ariel; Nguyen, Tim; Yonli, Tajoua; Duru, Gerard; Kambire, Chantal; Perea, William

2009-01-01

111

An Integrated Linkage, Chromosome, and Genome Map for the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, is an efficient vector of arboviruses and a convenient model system for laboratory research. Extensive linkage mapping of morphological and molecular markers localized a number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to the mosquito's ability to transmit various pathogens. However, linking the QTLs to Ae. aegypti chromosomes and genomic sequences has been challenging because of the poor quality of polytene chromosomes and the highly fragmented genome assembly for this species. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on the approach developed in our previous study, we constructed idiograms for mitotic chromosomes of Ae. aegypti based on their banding patterns at early metaphase. These idiograms represent the first cytogenetic map developed for mitotic chromosomes of Ae. aegypti. One hundred bacterial artificial chromosome clones carrying major genetic markers were hybridized to the chromosomes using fluorescent in situ hybridization. As a result, QTLs related to the transmission of the filarioid nematode Brugia malayi, the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum, and the dengue virus, as well as sex determination locus and 183 Mbp of genomic sequences were anchored to the exact positions on Ae. aegypti chromosomes. A linear regression analysis demonstrated a good correlation between positions of the markers on the physical and linkage maps. As a result of the recombination rate variation along the chromosomes, 12 QTLs on the linkage map were combined into five major clusters of QTLs on the chromosome map. Conclusion This study developed an integrated linkage, chromosome, and genome map—iMap—for the yellow fever mosquito. Our discovery of the localization of multiple QTLs in a few major chromosome clusters suggests a possibility that the transmission of various pathogens is controlled by the same genomic loci. Thus, the iMap will facilitate the identification of genomic determinants of traits responsible for susceptibility or refractoriness of the mosquito to diverse pathogens. PMID:23459230

Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A.; Severson, David W.; deBruyn, Becky S.; Black, William C.; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Sharakhova, Maria V.

2013-01-01

112

BCX4430, a Novel Nucleoside Analog, Effectively Treats Yellow Fever in a Hamster Model.  

PubMed

No effective antiviral therapies are currently available to treat disease after infection with yellow fever virus (YFV). A Syrian golden hamster model of yellow fever (YF) was used to characterize the effect of treatment with BCX4430, a novel adenosine nucleoside analog. Significant improvement in survival was observed after treatment with BCX4430 at 4 mg/kg of body weight per day dosed intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice daily (BID). Treatment with BCX4430 at 12.5 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days offered complete protection from mortality and also resulted in significant improvement of other YF disease parameters, including weight loss, serum alanine aminotransferase levels (6 days postinfection [dpi]), and viremia (4 dpi). In uninfected hamsters, BCX4430 at 200 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days was well tolerated and did not result in mortality or weight loss, suggesting a potentially wide therapeutic index. Treatment with BCX4430 at 12 mg/kg/day i.p. remained effective when administered once daily and for only 4 days. Moreover, BCX4430 dosed at 200 mg/kg/day i.p. BID for 7 days effectively treated YF, even when treatment was delayed up to 4 days after virus challenge, corresponding with peak viral titers in the liver and serum. BCX4430 treatment did not preclude a protective antibody response, as higher neutralizing antibody (nAb) concentrations corresponded with increasing delays of treatment initiation, and greater nAb responses resulted in the protection of animals from a secondary challenge with YFV. In summary, BCX4430 is highly active in a hamster model of YF, even when treatment is initiated at the peak of viral replication. PMID:25155605

Julander, Justin G; Bantia, Shanta; Taubenheim, Brian R; Minning, Dena M; Kotian, Pravin; Morrey, John D; Smee, Donald F; Sheridan, William P; Babu, Yarlagadda S

2014-11-01

113

Dengue Fever with rectus sheath hematoma: a case report.  

PubMed

Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the Dengue virus. It is associated with a number of complications, which are well documented. However, Dengue fever associated with rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a very rare complication. Only one case report has been published prior supporting the association of Dengue fever with RSH. We report a case of Dengue fever who presented with RSH and was successfully treated conservatively. RSH is also an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear. PMID:25161976

Sharma, Anurag; Bhatia, Sonia; Singh, Rajendra Pratap; Malik, Gaurav

2014-04-01

114

Pathology Case Study: Fever, Purpura and Hypotension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. In this case, a 20 year old male college student is admitted to the emergency room with "general malaise, low-grade fever, and purplish discoloration on his face. Using the information provided, which includes patient and social history, images and descriptions from his physical exam, the hospital course and microscopic images, students are encouraged to test their knowledge of pathology and diagnose the patient's medical condition. You can check your diagnosis against the official conclusions in the "Final Diagnosis" section. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Anhalt, John P.; Aronica, Patricia; Pasculle, A. W.; Richert, Charles A.

2007-11-22

115

Elderly Subjects Have a Delayed Antibody Response and Prolonged Viraemia following Yellow Fever Vaccination: A Prospective Controlled Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow fever vaccination (YF-17D) can cause serious adverse events (SAEs). The mechanism of these SAEs is poorly understood. Older age has been identified as a risk factor. We tested the hypothesis that the humoral immune response to yellow fever vaccine develops more slowly in elderly than in younger subjects. Method We vaccinated young volunteers (18–28 yrs, N?=?30) and elderly travelers (60–81 yrs, N?=?28) with YF-17D and measured their neutralizing antibody titers and plasma YF-17D RNA copy numbers before vaccination and 3, 5, 10, 14 and 28 days after vaccination. Results Ten days after vaccination seroprotection was attained by 77% (23/30) of the young participants and by 50% (14/28) of the elderly participants (p?=?0.03). Accordingly, the Geometric Mean Titer of younger participants was higher than the GMT of the elderly participants. At day 10 the difference was +2.9 IU/ml (95% CI 1.8–4.7, p?=?0.00004) and at day 14 +1.8 IU/ml (95% CI 1.1–2.9, p?=?0.02, using a mixed linear model. Viraemia was more common in the elderly (86%, 24/28) than in the younger participants (60%, 14/30) (p?=?0.03) with higher YF-17D RNA copy numbers in the elderly participants. Conclusions We found that elderly subjects had a delayed antibody response and higher viraemia levels after yellow fever primovaccination. We postulate that with older age, a weaker immune response to yellow fever vaccine allows the attenuated virus to cause higher viraemia levels which may increase the risk of developing SAEs. This may be one piece in the puzzle of the pathophysiology of YEL-AVD. Trial Registration Trialregitser.nl NTR1040 PMID:22163273

Roukens, Anna H.; Soonawala, Darius; Joosten, Simone A.; de Visser, Adriette W.; Jiang, Xiaohong; Dirksen, Kees; de Gruijter, Marjolein; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Bredenbeek, Peter J.; Visser, Leo G.

2011-01-01

116

Experimental Yellow Fever Virus Infection in the Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). I. Virologic, Biochemical, and Immunologic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the clinical laboratory findings in golden hamsters experimentally infected with yellow fever (YF) virus. An accompanying paper describes the pathologic find- ings. Following intraperitoneal inoculation of a virulent strain of YF virus, hamsters developed a high-titered viremia (up to 109\\/mL) lasting 5-6 days and abnormal liver function tests. YF hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies appeared 4 or 5 days after

Hilda Guzman; Hui Zhang

2001-01-01

117

Construction, Safety, and Immunogenicity in Nonhuman Primates of a Chimeric Yellow Fever-Dengue Virus Tetravalent Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported construction of a chimeric yellow fever-dengue type 2 virus (YF\\/DEN2) and deter- mined its safety and protective efficacy in rhesus monkeys (F. Guirakhoo et al., J. Virol. 74:5477-5485, 2000). In this paper, we describe construction of three additional YF\\/DEN chimeras using premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes of wild-type (WT) clinical isolates: DEN1 (strain PUO359, isolated in

F. Guirakhoo; J. Arroyo; K. V. Pugachev; C. Miller; Z.-X. Zhang; R. Weltzin; K. Georgakopoulos; J. Catalan; S. Ocran; K. Soike; M. Ratterree; T. P. Monath

2001-01-01

118

Cell surface expression of yellow fever virus non-structural glycoprotein NS1: consequences of interaction with antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among antibodies to flaviviral proteins only those directed at the virion envelope protein (E) or the non- structural glycoprotein NS1 are known to confer protection. To investigate the possible role of comple- ment-mediated cytolysis (CMC) in protection we measured the capacity of anti-NS 1, or E monospecific serum or monoclonal antibodies to bind to yellow fever virus (YFV)-infected cells and

Jacob J. Schlesinger; Michael W. Brandriss; J. Robert Putnak; Edward E. Walsh

1990-01-01

119

Heterogeneous nature of the genome of the ARILVAX yellow fever 17D vaccine revealed by consensus sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consensus sequencing of the genome of the ARILVAX live attenuated yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine was performed directly on reconstituted virus from a vial of the vaccine secondary seed (without plaque-purification or cloning of cDNA). The genome of ARILVAX was identical in organization and size (10,862 nucleotides (nt)) to other published YF 17D sequences. A total of 12 nt heterogeneities

Konstantin V Pugachev; Simeon W Ocran; Farshad Guirakhoo; Dean Furby; Thomas P Monath

2002-01-01

120

Identification of Monoclonal Antibodies that Distinguish Between 17D-204 and other Strains of Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) prepared against the flaviviruses Saint Louis encephalitis, dengue 2 and dengue 3 viruses all recognized epitopes on the envelope protein of the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever (YF) virus. Three of these MAbs with flavivirus group-common specificity and two MAbs with a flavivirus-subgroup specificity were found to distin- guish wild-type YF viruses from YF 17D-204 vaccine virus,

A. D. T. Barrett; J. H. Mathews; B. R. Miller; A. R. Medlen; T. N. Ledger; J. T. Roehrig

1990-01-01

121

Dynamic Viral Dissemination in Mice Infected with Yellow Fever Virus Strain 17D  

PubMed Central

Arboviruses such as yellow fever virus (YFV) are transmitted between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. While barriers limiting arbovirus population diversity have been observed in mosquitoes, whether barriers exist in vertebrate hosts is unclear. To investigate whether arboviruses encounter bottlenecks during dissemination in the vertebrate host, we infected immunocompetent mice and immune-deficient mice lacking alpha/beta interferon (IFN-?/?) receptors (IFNAR?/? mice) with a pool of genetically marked viruses to evaluate dissemination and host barriers. We used the live attenuated vaccine strain YFV-17D, which contains many mutations compared with virulent YFV. We found that intramuscularly injected immunocompetent mice did not develop disease and that viral dissemination was restricted. Conversely, 32% of intramuscularly injected IFNAR?/? mice developed disease. By following the genetically marked viruses over time, we found broad dissemination in IFNAR?/? mice followed by clearance. The patterns of viral dissemination were similar in mice that developed disease and mice that did not develop disease. Unlike our previous results with poliovirus, these results suggest that YFV-17D encounters no major barriers during dissemination within a vertebrate host in the absence of the type I IFN response. PMID:24027319

Erickson, Andrea K.

2013-01-01

122

Patterns of a sylvatic yellow fever virus amplification in southeastern Senegal, 2010.  

PubMed

During the wet season of 2010, yellow fever virus (YFV) was detected in field-collected mosquitoes in the Kédougou region in southeastern Senegal. During this outbreak, we studied the association of the abundance of YFV-infected mosquitoes and land cover features to try and understand the dynamics of YFV transmission within the region. In total, 41,234 mosquito females were collected and tested for virus infection in 5,152 pools. YFV was detected in 67 pools; species including Aedes furcifer (52.2% of the infected pools), Ae. luteocephalus (31.3% of the infected pools), Ae. taylori (6.0% of the infected pools) and six other species (10.4% of the infected pools) captured in September (13.4%), October (70.1%), and November (16.4%). Spatially, YFV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes but mainly, forest canopies (49.2%). Human infection is likely mediated by Ae. furcifer, the only species found infected with YFV within villages. Villages containing YFV-infected mosquitoes were significantly closer to large forests (> 2 ha) than villages in which no infected mosquitoes were detected. PMID:24615140

Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A; Diagne, Cheikh T; Faye, Oumar; Hanley, Kathryn A; Buenemann, Michaela; Ba, Yamar; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C; Diallo, Mawlouth

2014-06-01

123

Description of a Prospective 17DD Yellow Fever Vaccine Cohort in Recife, Brazil  

PubMed Central

From September 2005 to March 2007, 238 individuals being vaccinated for the first time with the yellow fever (YF) -17DD vaccine were enrolled in a cohort established in Recife, Brazil. A prospective study indicated that, after immunization, anti-YF immunoglobulin M (IgM) and anti-YF IgG were present in 70.6% (IgM) and 98.3% (IgG) of the vaccinated subjects. All vaccinees developed protective immunity, which was detected by the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) with a geometric mean titer of 892. Of the 238 individuals, 86.6% had IgG antibodies to dengue virus; however, the presence of anti-dengue IgG did not interfere significantly with the development of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies. In a separate retrospective study of individuals immunized with the 17DD vaccine, the PRNT values at 5 and 10 years post-vaccination remained positive but showed a significant decrease in neutralization titer (25% with PRNT titers < 100 after 5 years and 35% after 10 years). PMID:21976581

de Melo, Andrea Barbosa; da Silva, Maria da Paz C.; Magalhaes, Maria Cecilia F.; Gonzales Gil, Laura Helena Vega; Freese de Carvalho, Eduardo M.; Braga-Neto, Ulisses M.; Bertani, Giovani Rota; Marques, Ernesto T. A.; Cordeiro, Marli Tenorio

2011-01-01

124

YELLOW FEVER PREVENTION STRATEGIES AWARENESS AMONG HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS IN S?O PAULO, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Vaccination is the main preventive strategy against Yellow Fever (YF), which is a public health concern in Brazil. However, HIV-infected patients might have insufficient knowledge regarding YF, YF prevention, and vaccines in general. Methods: In this questionnaire-based study, data from 158 HIV-infected individuals were addressed in three distinct outpatient clinics in São Paulo. Information was collected on demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as patients' knowledge of vaccines, YF and YF preventive strategies. In addition, individual YF vaccine recommendations and vaccine status were investigated. Results: Although most participants adequately ascertain the vaccine as the main prevention strategy against YF, few participants were aware of the severity and lack of specific treatment for YF. Discrepancy in YF vaccine (patients who should have taken the vaccine, but did not) was observed in 18.8% of participants. Conclusion: YF is an important and preventable public health concern, and these results demonstrate that more information is necessary for the HIV-infected population. PMID:25229222

Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Francelino, Hilario Sousa; Kallas, Esper Georges

2014-01-01

125

Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... medicine to lower a fever: Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help reduce fever in children and ... works by turning down the brain's thermostat. Take ibuprofen every 6 - 8 hours. DO NOT use ibuprofen ...

126

Identification of inhibitors of yellow fever virus replication using a replicon-based high-throughput assay.  

PubMed

Flaviviruses cause severe disease in humans and are a public health priority worldwide. However, no effective therapies or drugs are commercially available yet. Several flavivirus replicon-based assays amenable to high-throughput screening of inhibitors have been reported recently. We developed and performed a replicon-based high-throughput assay for screening small-molecule inhibitors of yellow fever virus (YFV) replication. This assay utilized packaged pseudoinfectious particles containing a YFV replicon that expresses Renilla luciferase in a replication-dependent manner. Several small-molecule compounds with inhibitory activity at micromolar concentrations were identified in the high-throughput screen. These compounds were subsequently tested for their inhibitory activities against YFV replication and propagation in low-throughput assays. Furthermore, YFV mutants that escaped inhibition by two of the compounds were isolated, and in both cases, the mutations were mapped to the NS4B coding region, suggesting a novel inhibitory target for these compounds. This study opens up new avenues for pursuing the nonenzymatic nonstructural proteins as targets for antivirals against YFV and other flaviviruses. PMID:19651907

Patkar, Chinmay G; Larsen, Martha; Owston, Michael; Smith, Janet L; Kuhn, Richard J

2009-10-01

127

Identification of Inhibitors of Yellow Fever Virus Replication Using a Replicon-Based High-Throughput Assay?  

PubMed Central

Flaviviruses cause severe disease in humans and are a public health priority worldwide. However, no effective therapies or drugs are commercially available yet. Several flavivirus replicon-based assays amenable to high-throughput screening of inhibitors have been reported recently. We developed and performed a replicon-based high-throughput assay for screening small-molecule inhibitors of yellow fever virus (YFV) replication. This assay utilized packaged pseudoinfectious particles containing a YFV replicon that expresses Renilla luciferase in a replication-dependent manner. Several small-molecule compounds with inhibitory activity at micromolar concentrations were identified in the high-throughput screen. These compounds were subsequently tested for their inhibitory activities against YFV replication and propagation in low-throughput assays. Furthermore, YFV mutants that escaped inhibition by two of the compounds were isolated, and in both cases, the mutations were mapped to the NS4B coding region, suggesting a novel inhibitory target for these compounds. This study opens up new avenues for pursuing the nonenzymatic nonstructural proteins as targets for antivirals against YFV and other flaviviruses. PMID:19651907

Patkar, Chinmay G.; Larsen, Martha; Owston, Michael; Smith, Janet L.; Kuhn, Richard J.

2009-01-01

128

Dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis: A case report?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Dengue fever is an acute viral disease, which usually presents as a mild febrile illness. Patients with severe disease present with dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue toxic shock syndrome. Rarely, it presents with abdominal symptoms mimicking acute appendicitis. We present a case of a male patient presenting with right iliac fossa pain and suspected acute appendicitis that was later diagnosed with dengue fever following a negative appendicectomy. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 13-year old male patient presented with fever, localized right-sided abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound was not helpful and appendicectomy was performed due to worsening abdominal signs and an elevated temperature. A normal appendix with enlarged mesenteric nodes was found at surgery. Complete blood count showed thrombocytopenia with leucopenia. Dengue fever was now suspected and confirmed by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against dengue virus. DISCUSSION This unusual presentation of dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis should be suspected during viral outbreaks and in patients with atypical symptoms and cytopenias on blood evaluation in order to prevent unnecessary surgery. CONCLUSION This case highlights the occurrence of abdominal symptoms and complications that may accompany dengue fever. Early recognition of dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis will avoid non-therapeutic operation and the diagnosis may be aided by blood investigations indicating a leucopenia, which is uncommon in patients with suppurative acute appendicitis. PMID:24096347

Mcfarlane, M.E.C.; Plummer, J.M.; Leake, P.A.; Powell, L.; Chand, V.; Chung, S.; Tulloch, K.

2013-01-01

129

Attenuation of Recombinant Yellow Fever 17D Viruses Expressing Foreign Protein Epitopes at the Surface  

PubMed Central

The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is a live attenuated virus. Three-dimensional (3D) homology modeling of the E protein structure from YF 17D virus and its comparison with that from tick-borne encephalitis virus revealed that it is possible to accommodate inserts of different sizes and amino acid compositions in the flavivirus E protein fg loop. This is consistent with the 3D structures of both the dimeric and trimeric forms in which the fg loop lies exposed to solvents. We demonstrate here that YF 17D viruses bearing foreign humoral (17D/8) and T-cell (17D/13) epitopes, which vary in sequence and length, displayed growth restriction. It is hypothesized that interference with the dimer-trimer transition and with the formation of a ring of such trimers in order to allow fusion compromises the capability of the E protein to induce fusion of viral and endosomal membranes, and a slower rate of fusion may delay the extent of virus production. This would account for the lower levels of replication in cultured cells and of viremia in monkeys, as well as for the more attenuated phenotype of the recombinant viruses in monkeys. Testing of both recombinant viruses (17D/8 and 17D/13) for monkey neurovirulence also suggests that insertion at the 17D E protein fg loop does not compromise the attenuated phenotype of YF 17D virus, further confirming the potential use of this site for the development of new live attenuated 17D virus-based vaccines. PMID:15956601

Bonaldo, Myrna C.; Garratt, Richard C.; Marchevsky, Renato S.; Coutinho, Evandro S. F.; Jabor, Alfredo V.; Almeida, Luis F. C.; Yamamura, Anna M. Y.; Duarte, Adriana S.; Oliveira, Prisciliana J.; Lizeu, Jackeline O. P.; Camacho, Luiz A. B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo

2005-01-01

130

Transfusion-related transmission of yellow fever vaccine virus--California, 2009.  

PubMed

In the United States, yellow fever (YF) vaccination is recommended for travelers and active duty military members visiting endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa and Central/South America. The American Red Cross recommends that recipients of YF vaccine defer blood product donation for 2 weeks because of the theoretical risk for transmission from a viremic donor. On April 10, 2009, a hospital blood bank supervisor learned that, on March 27, blood products had been collected from 89 U.S. active duty trainees who had received YF vaccine 4 days before donation. This report summarizes the subsequent investigation by the hospital and CDC to identify lapses in donor deferral and to determine whether transfusion-related transmission of YF vaccine virus occurred. The investigation found that a recent change in the timing of trainee vaccination had occurred and that vaccinees had not reported recent YF vaccination status at time of donation. Despite a prompt recall, six units of blood products were transfused into five patients. No clinical evidence or laboratory abnormalities consistent with a serious adverse reaction were identified in four recipients within the first month after transfusion; the fifth patient, who had prostate cancer and end-stage, transfusion-dependent, B-cell lymphoma, died while in hospice care. Three of the four surviving patients had evidence of serologic response to YF vaccine virus. This report provides evidence that transfusion-related transmission of YF vaccine virus can occur and underscores the need for careful screening and deferral of recently vaccinated blood donors. PMID:20094025

2010-01-22

131

Subdoses of 17DD yellow fever vaccine elicit equivalent virological/immunological kinetics timeline  

PubMed Central

Background The live attenuated 17DD Yellow Fever vaccine is one of the most successful prophylactic interventions for controlling disease expansion ever designed and utilized in larger scale. However, increase on worldwide vaccine demands and manufacturing restrictions urge for more detailed dose sparing studies. The establishment of complementary biomarkers in addition to PRNT and Viremia could support a secure decision-making regarding the use of 17DD YF vaccine subdoses. The present work aimed at comparing the serum chemokine and cytokine kinetics triggered by five subdoses of 17DD YF Vaccine. Methods Neutralizing antibody titers, viremia, cytokines and chemokines were tested on blood samples obtained from eligible primary vaccinees. Results and discussion The results demonstrated that a fifty-fold lower dose of 17DD-YF vaccine (587 IU) is able to trigger similar immunogenicity, as evidenced by significant titers of anti-YF PRNT. However, only subdoses as low as 3,013 IU elicit viremia kinetics with an early peak at five days after primary vaccination equivalent to the current dose (27,476 IU), while other subdoses show a distinct, lower in magnitude and later peak at day 6 post-vaccination. Although the subdose of 587 IU is able to trigger equivalent kinetics of IL-8/CXCL-8 and MCP-1/CCL-2, only the subdose of 3,013 IU is able to trigger similar kinetics of MIG/CXCL-9, pro-inflammatory (TNF, IFN-? and IL-2) and modulatory cytokines (IL-5 and IL-10). Conclusions The analysis of serum biomarkers IFN-? and IL-10, in association to PRNT and viremia, support the recommendation of use of a ten-fold lower subdose (3,013 IU) of 17DD-YF vaccine. PMID:25022840

2014-01-01

132

Immune activation alters cellular and humoral responses to yellow fever 17D vaccine  

PubMed Central

Background. Defining the parameters that modulate vaccine responses in African populations will be imperative to design effective vaccines for protection against HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and dengue virus infections. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the patient-specific immune microenvironment to the response to the licensed yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) in an African cohort. Methods. We compared responses to YF-17D in 50 volunteers in Entebbe, Uganda, and 50 volunteers in Lausanne, Switzerland. We measured the CD8+ T cell and B cell responses induced by YF-17D and correlated them with immune parameters analyzed by flow cytometry prior to vaccination. Results. We showed that YF-17D–induced CD8+ T cell and B cell responses were substantially lower in immunized individuals from Entebbe compared with immunized individuals from Lausanne. The impaired vaccine response in the Entebbe cohort associated with reduced YF-17D replication. Prior to vaccination, we observed higher frequencies of exhausted and activated NK cells, differentiated T and B cell subsets and proinflammatory monocytes, suggesting an activated immune microenvironment in the Entebbe volunteers. Interestingly, activation of CD8+ T cells and B cells as well as proinflammatory monocytes at baseline negatively correlated with YF-17D–neutralizing antibody titers after vaccination. Additionally, memory T and B cell responses in preimmunized volunteers exhibited reduced persistence in the Entebbe cohort but were boosted by a second vaccination. Conclusion. Together, these results demonstrate that an activated immune microenvironment prior to vaccination impedes efficacy of the YF-17D vaccine in an African cohort and suggest that vaccine regimens may need to be boosted in African populations to achieve efficient immunity. Trial registration. Registration is not required for observational studies. Funding. This study was funded by Canada’s Global Health Research Initiative, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and United States Agency for International Development. PMID:24911151

Muyanja, Enoch; Ssemaganda, Aloysius; Ngauv, Pearline; Cubas, Rafael; Perrin, Helene; Srinivasan, Divya; Canderan, Glenda; Lawson, Benton; Kopycinski, Jakub; Graham, Amanda S.; Rowe, Dawne K.; Smith, Michaela J.; Isern, Sharon; Michael, Scott; Silvestri, Guido; Vanderford, Thomas H.; Castro, Erika; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Singer, Joel; Gillmour, Jill; Kiwanuka, Noah; Nanvubya, Annet; Schmidt, Claudia; Birungi, Josephine; Cox, Josephine; Haddad, Elias K.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Fast, Patricia; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Trautmann, Lydie

2014-01-01

133

Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito.  

PubMed

Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dactylifera was obtained by hydrodistillation from the spathe, a specialized leaf structure that surrounds the pollinating organs of the palm. The oil was subsequently analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The oil showed promising repellent activity against yellow fever mosquito - Aedes aegypti. Sixteen components were characterized, constituting 99% of the oil. The main components were 3,4-dimethoxytoluene (73.5%), 2,4-dimethoxytoluene (9.5%), ?-caryophyllene (5.5%), p-cresyl methyl ether (3.8%), and caryophyllene oxide (2.4%). The minimum effective dosage (MED) for repellency for the P. dactylifera oil was 0.051mg/cm(2), which had moderately lower potency compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, DEET (0.018mg/cm(2)) in the "cloth patch assay". The five major compounds were individually assayed for repellency to determine to what extent each is responsible for repellency from the oil. 3,4-Dimethoxytoluene and 2,4-dimethoxytoluene showed the best repellent activity with the same MED value of 0.063mg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicate that these two constituents which comprise a large proportion of the P. dactylifera oil (83%) are likely responsible for the observed repellent activity. In this aspect, the P. dactylifera spathe oil is a sustainable, promising new source of natural repellents. PMID:23948523

Demirci, Betül; Tsikolia, Maia; Bernier, Ulrich R; Agramonte, Natasha M; Alqasoumi, Saleh I; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Yusufoglu, Hasan S; Demirci, Fatih; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can; Khan, Ikhlas A; Tabanca, Nurhayat

2013-12-01

134

Evaluation of chimeric yellow fever 17D/dengue viral replication in ticks.  

PubMed

Chimeric yellow fever 17D/DENV-1-4 viruses (CYD-1-4) have been developed as a tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate which is currently being evaluated in efficacy trials in Asia and America. While YF 17D and DENV are mosquito-borne flaviviruses, it has been shown that CYD-1-4 do not replicate after oral infection in mosquitoes and are not transmitted to new hosts. To further document the risk of environmental dissemination of these viruses, we evaluated the replication of CYD-1-4 in ticks, the vector of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), another member of the flavivirus family. Females of two hard tick species, Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, were inoculated intracoelomically with CYD-1-4 viruses and parent viruses (DENV-1-4 and YF 17D). Virus persistence and replication was assessed 2, 16, and 44 days post-inoculation by plaque titration and qRT-PCR. CYD-1-4 viruses were detected in I. ricinus ticks at early time points post-inoculation, but with infectious titers at least 100-fold lower than those observed in TBEV-infected ticks. Unlike TBEV, complete viral clearance occurred by day 44 in most ticks except for CYD-2, which had a tendency to decline. In addition, while about 70% of TBEV-infected I. ricinus nymphs acquired infection by co-feeding with infected tick females on non-viremic hosts, no co-feeding transmission of CYD-2 virus was detected. Based on these results, we conclude that the risk of dissemination of the candidate vaccine viruses by tick bite is highly unlikely. PMID:22925017

Kazimírová, Mária; Mantel, Nathalie; Raynaud, Sandrine; Slovák, Mirko; Ustaniková, Katarína; Lang, Jean; Guy, Bruno; Barban, Veronique; Labuda, Milan

2012-11-01

135

Hemorrhagic Fevers  

MedlinePLUS

... families of viruses. These include the Ebola and Marburg, Lassa fever, and yellow fever viruses. VHFs have ... cause mild disease, but some, like Ebola or Marburg, cause severe disease and death. VHFs are found ...

136

THE EFFECT OF PROLONGED CULTIVATION IN VITRO UPON THE PATHOGENICITY OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.  

PubMed

1. Experimental evidence is presented to show that prolonged cultivation of yellow fever virus in vitro results in a change in its pathogenicity, and that this change varies with the type of tissues used for the cultivation. 2. In the tissue cultures used for the propagation of the virus, three different types of tissues were used. They included whole mouse embryo, chick embryo from which the head and spinal cord had been removed, and testicular tissues of mice and guinea pigs. 3. The changes in the pathogenicity of the virus cultivated for a period of over 3 years in a medium containing the tissues of whole mouse embryo were not striking. The viscerotropic virulence of the virus appeared somewhat diminished, in that when injected subcutaneously into rhesus monkeys or hedgehogs it failed to produce a fatal infection, although there is evidence to indicate that a generalized infection takes place as demonstrated by the appearance of virus in the circulating blood in relatively high concentration during infection. The neurotropic virulence of the virus remained unaltered during the cultivation in this medium. 4. The changes in the pathogenicity of the virus cultivated in medium containing tissues of chick embryo from which the head and spinal cord had been removed were very pronounced. The viscerotropic virulence of the virus was lost to a large extent. When injected subcutaneously into monkeys there was as a rule a very mild generalized infection, as demonstrated by the minimal quantities of virus found in the circulating blood. Its neurotropism was also much diminished. When injected into monkeys intracerebrally, it no longer produced a fatal encephalitis but only a moderate febrile reaction, followed by recovery and solid immunity to reinoculation with a highly virulent strain of virus. When injected intracerebrally into mice, the mortality ratio was not diminished but the incubation period was markedly prolonged. 5. The changes in the pathogenicity of the virus cultivated in medium containing testicular tissues were somewhat similar to those observed after cultivation in chick embryo medium which contained only a minimal amount of nervous tissue. Its viscerotropic affinity had been largely lost and only very small amounts of virus were found in the circulating blood of monkeys inoculated subcutaneously. Given intracerebrally, it produced death from encephalitis in monkeys. The incubation period in mice inoculated intracerebrally with this virus was also prolonged but somewhat less so than with the virus grown in chick embryo tissues without the central nervous system. PMID:19870633

Theiler, M; Smith, H H

1937-05-31

137

THE EFFECT OF PROLONGED CULTIVATION IN VITRO UPON THE PATHOGENICITY OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS  

PubMed Central

1. Experimental evidence is presented to show that prolonged cultivation of yellow fever virus in vitro results in a change in its pathogenicity, and that this change varies with the type of tissues used for the cultivation. 2. In the tissue cultures used for the propagation of the virus, three different types of tissues were used. They included whole mouse embryo, chick embryo from which the head and spinal cord had been removed, and testicular tissues of mice and guinea pigs. 3. The changes in the pathogenicity of the virus cultivated for a period of over 3 years in a medium containing the tissues of whole mouse embryo were not striking. The viscerotropic virulence of the virus appeared somewhat diminished, in that when injected subcutaneously into rhesus monkeys or hedgehogs it failed to produce a fatal infection, although there is evidence to indicate that a generalized infection takes place as demonstrated by the appearance of virus in the circulating blood in relatively high concentration during infection. The neurotropic virulence of the virus remained unaltered during the cultivation in this medium. 4. The changes in the pathogenicity of the virus cultivated in medium containing tissues of chick embryo from which the head and spinal cord had been removed were very pronounced. The viscerotropic virulence of the virus was lost to a large extent. When injected subcutaneously into monkeys there was as a rule a very mild generalized infection, as demonstrated by the minimal quantities of virus found in the circulating blood. Its neurotropism was also much diminished. When injected into monkeys intracerebrally, it no longer produced a fatal encephalitis but only a moderate febrile reaction, followed by recovery and solid immunity to reinoculation with a highly virulent strain of virus. When injected intracerebrally into mice, the mortality ratio was not diminished but the incubation period was markedly prolonged. 5. The changes in the pathogenicity of the virus cultivated in medium containing testicular tissues were somewhat similar to those observed after cultivation in chick embryo medium which contained only a minimal amount of nervous tissue. Its viscerotropic affinity had been largely lost and only very small amounts of virus were found in the circulating blood of monkeys inoculated subcutaneously. Given intracerebrally, it produced death from encephalitis in monkeys. The incubation period in mice inoculated intracerebrally with this virus was also prolonged but somewhat less so than with the virus grown in chick embryo tissues without the central nervous system. PMID:19870633

Theiler, Max; Smith, Hugh H.

1937-01-01

138

Pathophysiologic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Viscerotropic Yellow Fever in a Rhesus Macaque Model  

PubMed Central

Infection with yellow fever virus (YFV), an explosively replicating flavivirus, results in viral hemorrhagic disease characterized by cardiovascular shock and multi-organ failure. Unvaccinated populations experience 20 to 50% fatality. Few studies have examined the pathophysiological changes that occur in humans during YFV infection due to the sporadic nature and remote locations of outbreaks. Rhesus macaques are highly susceptible to YFV infection, providing a robust animal model to investigate host-pathogen interactions. In this study, we characterized disease progression as well as alterations in immune system homeostasis, cytokine production and gene expression in rhesus macaques infected with the virulent YFV strain DakH1279 (YFV-DakH1279). Following infection, YFV-DakH1279 replicated to high titers resulting in viscerotropic disease with ?72% mortality. Data presented in this manuscript demonstrate for the first time that lethal YFV infection results in profound lymphopenia that precedes the hallmark changes in liver enzymes and that although tissue damage was noted in liver, kidneys, and lymphoid tissues, viral antigen was only detected in the liver. These observations suggest that additional tissue damage could be due to indirect effects of viral replication. Indeed, circulating levels of several cytokines peaked shortly before euthanasia. Our study also includes the first description of YFV-DakH1279-induced changes in gene expression within peripheral blood mononuclear cells 3 days post-infection prior to any clinical signs. These data show that infection with wild type YFV-DakH1279 or live-attenuated vaccine strain YFV-17D, resulted in 765 and 46 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), respectively. DEGs detected after YFV-17D infection were mostly associated with innate immunity, whereas YFV-DakH1279 infection resulted in dysregulation of genes associated with the development of immune response, ion metabolism, and apoptosis. Therefore, WT-YFV infection is associated with significant changes in gene expression that are detectable before the onset of clinical symptoms and may influence disease progression and outcome of infection. PMID:25412185

Engelmann, Flora; Josset, Laurence; Girke, Thomas; Park, Byung; Barron, Alex; Dewane, Jesse; Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Anne; Axthelm, Michael K.; Slifka, Mark K.; Messaoudi, Ilhem

2014-01-01

139

Clinical and Immunological Insights on Severe, Adverse Neurotropic and Viscerotropic Disease following 17D Yellow Fever Vaccination?  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever (YF) vaccines (17D-204 and 17DD) are well tolerated and cause very low rates of severe adverse events (YEL-SAE), such as serious allergic reactions, neurotropic adverse diseases (YEL-AND), and viscerotropic diseases (YEL-AVD). Viral and host factors have been postulated to explain the basis of YEL-SAE. However, the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of YEL-SAE remain unknown. The present report provides a detailed immunological analysis of a 23-year-old female patient. The patient developed a suspected case of severe YEL-AVD with encephalitis, as well as with pancreatitis and myositis, following receipt of a 17D-204 YF vaccination. The patient exhibited a decreased level of expression of Fc-?R in monocytes (CD16, CD32, and CD64), along with increased levels of NK T cells (an increased CD3+ CD16+/? CD56+/?/CD3+ ratio), activated T cells (CD4+ and CD8+ cells), and B lymphocytes. Enhanced levels of plasmatic cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-17, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) as well as an exacerbated ex vivo intracytoplasmic cytokine pattern, mainly observed within NK cells (gamma interferon positive [IFN-?+], tumor necrosis factor alpha positive [TNF-?+], and IL-4 positive [IL-4+]), CD8+ T cells (IL-4+ and IL-5+), and B lymphocytes (TNF-?+, IL-4+, and IL-10+). The analysis of CD4+ T cells revealed a complex profile that consisted of an increased frequency of IL-12+ and IFN-?+ cells and a decreased percentage of TNF-?+, IL-4+, and IL-5+ cells. Depressed cytokine synthesis was observed in monocytes (TNF-?+) following the provision of antigenic stimuli in vitro. These results support the hypothesis that a strong adaptive response and abnormalities in the innate immune system may be involved in the establishment of YEL-AND and YEL-AVD. PMID:19906894

Silva, Maria Luiza; Espírito-Santo, Luçandra Ramos; Martins, Marina Angela; Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Caminha, Ricardo Carvalho; de Andrade Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Galler, Ricardo; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Marcovistz, Rugimar; Homma, Akira; Teuwen, Dirk E.; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

2010-01-01

140

Yellow fever outbreak affecting Alouatta populations in southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State), 2008-2009.  

PubMed

The natural transmission cycle of Yellow Fever (YF) involves tree hole breeding mosquitoes and a wide array of nonhuman primates (NHP), including monkeys and apes. Some Neotropical monkeys (howler monkeys, genus Alouatta) develop fatal YF virus (YFV) infections similar to those reported in humans, even with minimum exposure to the infection. Epizootics in wild primates may be indicating YFV circulation, and the surveillance of such outbreaks in wildlife is an important tool to help prevent human infection. In 2001, surveillance activities successfully identified YF-related death in a black-and-gold howler monkey (Alouatta caraya), Rio Grande do Sul State (RGS) in southern Brazil, and the YFV was isolated from a species of forest-dwelling mosquito (Haemagogus leucocelaenus). These findings led the State Secretariat of Health to initiate a monitoring program for YF and other 18 arboviral infections in Alouatta monkeys. The monitoring program included monkey captures, reporting of monkey casualties by municipalities, and subsequent investigations. If monkey carcasses were found in forests, samples were collected in a standardized manner and this practice resulted in increased reporting of outbreaks. In October 2008, a single howler monkey in a northwestern RGS municipality was confirmed to have died from YF. From October 2008 to June 2009, 2,013 monkey deaths were reported (830 A. caraya and 1,183 A. guariba clamitans). Viruses isolation in blood, viscera, and/or immunohistochemistry led to the detection of YF in 204 of 297 (69%) (154 A. g. clamitans and 50 A. caraya) dead Alouatta monkeys tested. The number of municipalities with confirmed YFV circulation in howlers increased from 2 to 67 and 21 confirmed human cases occurred. This surveillance system was successful in identifying the largest YF outbreak affecting wild NHP ever recorded. PMID:22020690

de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Dos Santos, Edmilson; da Cruz Cardoso, Jader; da Fonseca, Daltro Fernandes; Noll, Carlos Alberto; Silveira, Vivian Regina; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Kanamura, Cristina; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo

2012-01-01

141

Immune correlates of protection against yellow fever determined by passive immunization and challenge in the hamster model  

PubMed Central

Live, attenuated yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is highly efficacious but causes rare, serious adverse events resulting from active replication in the host and direct viral injury to vital organs. We recently reported development of a potentially safer ?-propiolactone-inactivated whole virion YF vaccine (XRX-001) which was highly immunogenic in mice, hamsters, monkeys, and humans (Vaccine 2010; 28:3827–40; New Engl J Med 2011;364:1326–33). To characterize the protective efficacy of neutralizing antibodies stimulated by the inactivated vaccine, graded doses of serum from hamsters immunized with inactivated XRX-001 or live 17D vaccine were transferred to hamsters by the intraperitoneal (IP) route 24 hours prior to virulent, viscerotropic YF virus challenge. Neutralizing antibody (PRNT50) titers were determined in the sera of treated animals 4 hours before challenge and 4 and 21 days after challenge. Neutralizing antibodies were shown to mediate protection. Animals having 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50) titers of ?40 four hours before challenge were completely protected from disease as evidenced by viremia, liver enzyme elevation, and protection against illness (weight change) and death. Passive titers of 10–20 were partially protective. Immunization with the XRX-001 vaccine stimulated YF neutralizing antibodies that were equally effective (based on dose response) as antibodies stimulated by live 17D vaccine. The results will be useful in defining the level of seroprotection in clinical studies of new yellow fever vaccines. PMID:21718741

Julander, Justin G.; Trent, Dennis W.; Monath, Thomas P.

2011-01-01

142

Defining travel-associated cases of enteric fever.  

PubMed

There is no internationally recognized case-definition for travel-associated enteric fever in non-endemic countries. This study describes the patterns of case reporting between 2007 and 2011 as travel-associated or not from the surveillance data in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (EWNI), before and after a change in the time component of the case-definition in January 2011. It examines in particular the role of a time frame based on the reported typical incubation period in defining a case of travel-associated enteric fever. The results showed no significant differences in the distribution of cases of enteric fever in regards to the interval between the onset and UK arrival in 2011 compared to 2007-2010 (p=0.98 for typhoid and paratyphoid A); the distribution for paratyphoid B was also similar in both time periods. During 2007-2010, 93% (1730/1853) of all of the cases were classified as travel-associated compared to 94% (448/477) in 2011. This difference was not statistically significant. Changing the time component of the definition of travel-associated enteric fever did not make a significant difference to the proportion of travel-associated cases reported by investigators. Our analysis suggests that time might be subordinate to other considerations when investigators classify a case as travel-associated. PMID:24602772

Freedman, Joanne; Lighton, Lorraine; Jones, Jane

2014-01-01

143

The First Case of Imported Relapsing Fever in Japan  

PubMed Central

Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is endemic in discrete areas throughout the world; however, a domestic or imported case of relapsing fever has not been reported in Japan. Here, we report the first imported case. A previously healthy 20-year-old woman presented to our hospital on October 8, 2010, because of recurrent fever and lower leg pain. Before consultation, she had experienced four febrile episodes at 10–12-day intervals after returning from her stay in Uzbekistan from 1 to 8 September. Giemsa stain of peripheral blood showed Borrelia spirochetes. The spirochete was identified as Borrelia persica by sequencing of the amplicons of flaB using polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis. The patient was diagnosed with TBRF, and she completed a 10-day course of minocycline 100 mg twice daily. After treatment, her periodic fever subsided. Physicians should be aware of TBRF in patients with recurrent fever who have returned from TBRF-endemic countries, including areas of the former USSR. PMID:23857020

Kutsuna, Satoshi; Kawabata, Hiroki; Kasahara, Kei; Takano, Ai; Mikasa, Keiichi

2013-01-01

144

Yellow fever virus envelope protein expressed in insect cells is capable of syncytium formation in lepidopteran cells and could be used for immunodetection of YFV in human sera  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow fever is an haemorrhagic disease caused by a virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus (Flaviviridae family) and is transmitted by mosquitoes. Among the viral proteins, the envelope protein (E) is the most studied one, due to its high antigenic potencial. Baculovirus are one of the most popular and efficient eukaryotic expression system. In this study a recombinant baculovirus (vSynYFE) containing the envelope gene (env) of the 17D vaccine strain of yellow fever virus was constructed and the recombinant protein antigenicity was tested. Results Insect cells infected with vSynYFE showed syncytium formation, which is a cytopathic effect characteristic of flavivirus infection and expressed a polypeptide of around 54 kDa, which corresponds to the expected size of the recombinant E protein. Furthermore, the recombinant E protein expression was also confirmed by fluorescence microscopy of vSynYFE-infected insect cells. Total vSynYFE-infected insect extracts used as antigens detected the presence of antibodies for yellow fever virus in human sera derived from yellow fever-infected patients in an immunoassay and did not cross react with sera from dengue virus-infected patients. Conclusions The E protein expressed by the recombinant baculovirus in insect cells is antigenically similar to the wild protein and it may be useful for different medical applications, from improved diagnosis of the disease to source of antigens for the development of a subunit vaccine. PMID:21619598

2011-01-01

145

Fine Mapping of a cis-Acting Sequence Element in Yellow Fever Virus RNA That Is Required for RNA Replication and Cyclization  

PubMed Central

We present fine mapping of a cis-acting nucleotide sequence found in the 5? region of yellow fever virus genomic RNA that is required for RNA replication. There is evidence that this sequence interacts with a complementary sequence in the 3? region of the genome to cyclize the RNA. Replicons were constructed that had various deletions in the 5? region encoding the capsid protein and were tested for their ability to replicate. We found that a sequence of 18 nucleotides (residues 146 to 163 of the yellow fever virus genome, which encode amino acids 9 to 14 of the capsid protein) is essential for replication of the yellow fever virus replicon and that a slightly longer sequence of 21 nucleotides (residues 146 to 166, encoding amino acids 9 to 15) is required for full replication. This region is larger than the core sequence of 8 nucleotides conserved among all mosquito-borne flaviviruses and contains instead the entire sequence previously proposed to be involved in cyclization of yellow fever virus RNA. PMID:12525663

Corver, Jeroen; Lenches, Edith; Smith, Kayla; Robison, R. Aaron; Sando, Trisha; Strauss, Ellen G.; Strauss, James H.

2003-01-01

146

Fine mapping of a cis-acting sequence element in yellow fever virus RNA that is required for RNA replication and cyclization.  

PubMed

We present fine mapping of a cis-acting nucleotide sequence found in the 5' region of yellow fever virus genomic RNA that is required for RNA replication. There is evidence that this sequence interacts with a complementary sequence in the 3' region of the genome to cyclize the RNA. Replicons were constructed that had various deletions in the 5' region encoding the capsid protein and were tested for their ability to replicate. We found that a sequence of 18 nucleotides (residues 146 to 163 of the yellow fever virus genome, which encode amino acids 9 to 14 of the capsid protein) is essential for replication of the yellow fever virus replicon and that a slightly longer sequence of 21 nucleotides (residues 146 to 166, encoding amino acids 9 to 15) is required for full replication. This region is larger than the core sequence of 8 nucleotides conserved among all mosquito-borne flaviviruses and contains instead the entire sequence previously proposed to be involved in cyclization of yellow fever virus RNA. PMID:12525663

Corver, Jeroen; Lenches, Edith; Smith, Kayla; Robison, R Aaron; Sando, Trisha; Strauss, Ellen G; Strauss, James H

2003-02-01

147

Three Novel Families of Miniature Inverted-Repeat Transposable Elements are Associated with Genes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three novel families of transposable elements, Wukong, Wujin, and Wuneng, are described in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Their copy numbers range from 2,100 to 3,000 per haploid genome. There are high degrees of sequence similarity within each family, and many structural but not sequence similarities between families. The common structural characteristics include small size, no coding potential, terminal

Zhijian Tu

1997-01-01

148

Synthesis and evaluation of imidazole-4,5- and pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxamides targeting dengue and yellow fever virus?  

PubMed Central

The results of a high-throughput screening assay using the dengue virus-2 replicon showed that the imidazole 4,5-dicarboxamide (I45DC) derivative (15a) has a high dengue virus inhibitory activity. Based on 15a as a lead compound, a novel class of both disubstituted I45DCs and the resembling pyrazine 2,3-dicarboxamides (P23DCs) were synthesized. Here, we report on their in vitro inhibitory activity against dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV). Some of these first generation compounds have shown activity against both viruses in the micromolar range. Within this series, compound 15b was observed to display the highest antiviral potency against YFV with an EC50 = 1.85 ?M. In addition, compounds 20a and 20b both potently inhibited replication of DENV (EC50 = 0.93 ?M) in Vero cells. PMID:25285371

Saudi, Milind; Zmurko, Joanna; Kaptein, Suzanne; Rozenski, Jef; Neyts, Johan; Van Aerschot, Arthur

2014-01-01

149

Efficacy and Duration of Immunity after Yellow Fever Vaccination: Systematic Review on the Need for a Booster Every 10 Years  

PubMed Central

Current regulations stipulate a yellow fever (YF) booster every 10 years. We conducted a systematic review of the protective efficacy and duration of immunity of YF vaccine in residents of disease-endemic areas and in travelers to assess the need for a booster in these two settings and in selected populations (human immunodeficiency virus–infected persons, infants, children, pregnant women, and severely malnourished persons). Thirty-six studies and 22 reports were included. We identified 12 studies of immunogenicity, 8 of duration of immunity, 8 of vaccine response in infants and children, 7 of human-immunodeficiency virus–infected persons, 2 of pregnant women, and 1 of severely malnourished children. Based on currently available data, a single dose of YF vaccine is highly immunogenic and confers sustained life-long protective immunity against YF. Therefore, a booster dose of YF vaccine is not needed. Special considerations for selected populations are detailed. PMID:24006295

Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Yactayo, Sergio; Córdova, Erika

2013-01-01

150

Familial Mediterranean Fever: The First Adult Case in Korea  

PubMed Central

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is known to be a genetic disorder that prevalent among populations surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. Since Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV) was discovered at 1997, some cases have been reported in countries not related or close to this area like Japan. In addition it has been generally accepted that the clinical onset of FMF begins before 20 yr of age in most patients. Onset of the disease at an older age may occur but is rare. Adult-onset FMF may be a form of disease with distinct clinical, demographic and molecular characteristics. We describe a case of adult-onset FMF confirmed by DNA analysis of the MEFV gene in a Korean patient. A 32-yr-old man, who has no family history of FMF, presented with periodic fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. Though several various tests were thoroughly performed to evaluate the cause of his symptoms, there was no evidence of infectious, autoimmune or neoplastic diseases. Several gene analysis of periodic fever syndrome was finally performed and two point mutations (p.Leu110Pro, p.Glu148Gln) were identified. We confirmed the first adult case of FMF through detection of MEFV gene mutations in Korea and describe his clinical characteristics. PMID:23166428

Lim, Ah Leum; Han, Jung Wan; Song, Yong Keun; Song, Won Jun; Woo, Heung Jung; Jung, Young Ok; Kae, Sea Hyub; Lee, Jin

2012-01-01

151

Pathology Case Study: Fever and Hemoptysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 29-year-old woman with chronic myelogenous leukemia has been coughing up blood. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

Geraldino, Nelson; Nine, Jeff S.

2007-11-30

152

Identification of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever cases at presentation in outpatient clinics in Jakarta, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In Jakarta, Indonesia, over 80% of patients with typhoid fever or paraty- phoid fever are treated in outpatient settings. In a community-based prospec- tive passive surveillance study, we identified 59 typhoid, 23 paratyphoid fever and 259 non-enteric fever outpatients, all blood culture-confirmed. We compared their symptoms with the aim of developing a clinical prediction rule that may help direct

Albert M. Vollaard; Soegianto Ali; Suwandhi Widjaja; Henri A. G. H. van Asten; Leo G. Visser; Charles Surjadi; Jaap T. van Dissel

2005-01-01

153

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in children: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus (SFTSV) in China. Humans of all ages living in endemic areas have high risk of acquiring SFTS. Most clinical data so far have been from adults and no clinical study was available from children yet. The present study identified four SFTSV infected children through hospital based surveillance. A prospective observational study was performed to obtain their clinical and laboratory characteristics. Case presentation The patients’ age ranged from 4–15 years old and two were male. On hospitalization, fever, malaise and gastrointestinal syndromes were the most commonly presenting symptoms. Hemorrhagic symptoms or neurological manifestation was not recorded in any of the four pediatric patients. Hematological abnormalities at admission into hospital included leucopenia (4 cases), thrombocytopenia (1 case) and bicytopenia (1 case). The abnormal parameters included elevated aminotransferase (1 case), alanine transaminase (2 case), and lactate dehydrogenase (3 case). Laboratory parameters indicative of renal damage was not observed during the hospitalization. All the patients recovered well without sequelae being observed. Conclusion Compared with adults, pediatric patients with SFTSV infection seem to have less vague subjective complaints and less aggressive clinical course. Thrombocytopenia is suggested to be used less rigorously in recognizing SFTSV infection in pediatric patients, especially at early phase of disease. PMID:24993119

2014-01-01

154

[Q fever - an occupational disease leading to disability - case report].  

PubMed

Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The infection results from inhalation of infected droplets or aerosols. The most frequent sources in the Czech Republic are sheep, horses, cattles, goats, and pigs. Frequently, the disease is deemed occupational, with male sex being a risk factor for its symptomatic form. Presented is a case of a 27-year-old male diagnosed with a chronic form of Q fever after six months of worsening symptoms. Even years later, his condition is manifested as osteoarthritis, granulomatous hepatitis, and microcytic hypochromic anemia. The source of infection was probably animal food stored in a facility where the patient was employed. He was recognized as having an occupational disease and being disabled, especially due to his severely impaired mobility. PMID:25025682

Nakládalová, M; Pastorková, R; Landecká, I

2014-06-01

155

Response to Imported Case of Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

On July 10, 2008, Marburg hemorrhagic fever was confirmed in a Dutch patient who had vacationed recently in Uganda. Exposure most likely occurred in the Python Cave (Maramagambo Forest), which harbors bat species that elsewhere in Africa have been found positive for Marburg virus. A multidisciplinary response team was convened to perform a structured risk assessment, perform risk classification of contacts, issue guidelines for follow-up, provide information, and monitor the crisis response. In total, 130 contacts were identified (66 classified as high risk and 64 as low risk) and monitored for 21 days after their last possible exposure. The case raised questions specific to international travel, postexposure prophylaxis for Marburg virus, and laboratory testing of contacts with fever. We present lessons learned and results of the follow-up serosurvey of contacts and focus on factors that prevented overreaction during an event with a high public health impact. PMID:19751577

Koopmans, Marion P.G.; Vossen, Ann C.T.M.; van Doornum, Gerard J.J.; Gunther, Stephan; van den Berkmortel, Franchette; Verduin, Kees M.; Dittrich, Sabine; Emmerich, Petra; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Coutinho, Roel A.

2009-01-01

156

Use of a Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Wild-type Yellow Fever Virus to Identify a Wild-type Antigenic Variant in 17D Vaccine Pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the Asibi wild-type strain of yellow fever (YF) virus were prepared and characterized. One of the MAbs (designated MAb 117) was shown, by cross-immunofluorescence tests with flaviviruses, to be specific for wild- type YF virus. This MAb was used in indirect immunofluorescence tests to identify wild-type antigenic variants in several different YF vaccine pools. Simultaneously,

E. A. Gould; A. Buckley; P. A. Cane; S. Higgs; N. Cammack

1989-01-01

157

Efficient transformation of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report efficient germ-line transformation in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti accomplished using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm]. Two transgenic lines were established and characterized; each contained the Vg-Defensin A transgene with strong eye-specific expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene regulated by the artificial 3xP3 promoter. Southern blot hybridization and inverse PCR analyses

V. Kokoza; A. Ahmed; E. A. Wimmer; A. S. Raikhel

2001-01-01

158

Mutagenesis of the N-Linked Glycosylation Sites of the Yellow Fever Virus NS1 Protein: Effects on Virus Replication and Mouse Neurovirulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flavivirus nonstructural glycoprotein NS1 is highly conserved and contains two N-linked glycosylation sites which are both utilized for addition of oligosaccharides during replication in cell culture. NS1 has been shown to contain epitopes for protective antibodies; however, its roles in virus replication and pathogenesis remain unknown. To study the function of NS1 during yellow fever virus replication, six mutant

Isabella R. Muylaert; Thomas J. Chambers; Ricardo Galler; Charles M. Rice

1996-01-01

159

Comparison of the genomes of the wild-type French viscerotropic strain of yellow fever virus with its vaccine derivative French neurotropic vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The French neurotropic vaccine, or FNV, was used extensively in Africa to control yellow fever (YF). Although efficacious, the vaccine caused an unaccept- able rate of post-vaccinal complications in children and was subsequently replaced by the 17D vaccine. Here we report that the genomes of the wild-type YF virus French viscerotropic virus and its attenuated vaccine derivative, FNV virus from

Eryu Wang; Kate D. Ryman; Alan D. Jennings; David J. Wood; F. Taffs; Philip D. Minor; Peter G. Sanders; Alan D. T. Barrett

1995-01-01

160

Neutralizing (54K) and Non-neutralizing (54K and 48K) Monoclonai Antibodies against Structural and Non-structural Yellow Fever Virus Proteins Confer Immunity in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The capacity of monoclonal antibodies to protect mice passively against yellow fever (YF) virus infection was investigated. Both neutralizing (54K-specific) and non- neutralizing (54K- and 48K-specific) antibodies protected mice against challenge with the RMP substrain of YF virus. Average survival times of mice inoculated intracerebrally with a standard lethal dose of YF virus differed according to the strain used:

E. A. GOULD; A. BUCKLEY; A. D. T. BARRETT; N. CAMMACK

161

Identification of a Chemosensory Receptor from the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, that is Highly Conserved and Expressed in Olfactory and Gustatory Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aedes aegypti is a highly anthropophilic mosquito responsible for the transmission of dengue and yellow fever around the world. Like other mosquitoes, the biting and host preference behaviors of this disease vector are largely influenced by its sense of smell, which is presumably facilitated by G protein-coupled receptor signaling cascades. Here, we report the identification and characterization of AaOr7, the

A. C. A. Melo; Michael Rützler; R. Jason Pitts; Laurence J. Zwiebel

2004-01-01

162

COMPARATIVE SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF TWO YELLOW FEVER 17D VACCINES (ARILVAX AND YF-VAX) IN A PHASE III MULTICENTER, DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL TRIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever (YF) is a significant health problem in South America and Africa. Travelers to these areas require immunization. The United States, infested with Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, is at risk of introduction of this disease. There is only a single U.S. manufacturer of YF 17D vaccine, and supplies may be insufficient in an emergency. A randomized, double-blind outpatient study was

THOMAS P. MONATH; RICHARD NICHOLS; W. TAD ARCHAMBAULT; LINDA MOORE; RON MARCHESANI; JASON TIAN; ROBERT E. SHOPE; NICOLA THOMAS; ROBERT SCHRADER; DEAN FURBY; PHILIP BEDFORD

163

Mutation in a 17D-204 Vaccine Substrain-Specific Envelope Protein Epitope Alters the Pathogenesis of Yellow Fever Virus in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogeneous nature of the yellow fever (YF) 17D-204 vaccine virus population was exploited in this study to isolate virus variants able to escape neutralization by the 17D-204 vaccine-specific MAb 864. The conformational change on the virus surface that resulted in the loss of the MAb 864-defined epitope was effected in each variant by a single amino acid mutation in

Kate D. Ryman; T. Neil Ledger; Gerald A. Campbell; Alan D. T. Barrett

1998-01-01

164

Short Communication Characterization of an infectious clone of the wild-type yellow fever virus Asibi strain that is able to infect and disseminate in mosquitoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious clone technology provides an opportunity to study the molecular basis of arthropod-virus interactions in detail. This study describes the development of an infectious clone of the prototype yellow fever virus Asibi strain (YFV-As) with the purpose of identifying sequences or domains that influence infection dynamics in the mosquito vector. The full-length cDNA of YFV-As virus was produced from RT-PCR

Kate L. McElroy; Konstantin A. Tsetsarkin; Dana L. Vanlandingham; Stephen Higgs

165

The interferon signaling antagonist function of yellow fever virus NS5 protein is activated by type I interferon.  

PubMed

To successfully establish infection, flaviviruses have to overcome the antiviral state induced by type I interferon (IFN-I). The nonstructural NS5 proteins of several flaviviruses antagonize IFN-I signaling. Here we show that yellow fever virus (YFV) inhibits IFN-I signaling through a unique mechanism that involves binding of YFV NS5 to the IFN-activated transcription factor STAT2 only in cells that have been stimulated with IFN-I. This NS5-STAT2 interaction requires IFN-I-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and the K63-linked polyubiquitination at a lysine in the N-terminal region of YFV NS5. We identified TRIM23 as the E3 ligase that interacts with and polyubiquitinates YFV NS5 to promote its binding to STAT2 and trigger IFN-I signaling inhibition. Our results demonstrate the importance of YFV NS5 in overcoming the antiviral action of IFN-I and offer a unique example of a viral protein that is activated by the same host pathway that it inhibits. PMID:25211074

Laurent-Rolle, Maudry; Morrison, Juliet; Rajsbaum, Ricardo; Macleod, Jesica M Levingston; Pisanelli, Giuseppe; Pham, Alissa; Ayllon, Juan; Miorin, Lisa; Martínez-Romero, Carles; tenOever, Benjamin R; García-Sastre, Adolfo

2014-09-10

166

Impact of Wolbachia on Infection with Chikungunya and Yellow Fever Viruses in the Mosquito Vector Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Incidence of disease due to dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses is increasing in many parts of the world. The viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a highly domesticated mosquito species that is notoriously difficult to control. When transinfected into Ae. aegypti, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia has recently been shown to inhibit replication of DENVs, CHIKV, malaria parasites and filarial nematodes, providing a potentially powerful biocontrol strategy for human pathogens. Because the extent of pathogen reduction can be influenced by the strain of bacterium, we examined whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia influenced CHIKV and YFV infection in Ae. aegypti. Following exposure to viremic blood meals, CHIKV infection and dissemination rates were significantly reduced in mosquitoes with the wMel strain of Wolbachia compared to Wolbachia-uninfected controls. However, similar rates of infection and dissemination were observed in wMel infected and non-infected Ae. aegypti when intrathoracic inoculation was used to deliver virus. YFV infection, dissemination and replication were similar in wMel-infected and control mosquitoes following intrathoracic inoculations. In contrast, mosquitoes with the wMelPop strain of Wolbachia showed at least a 104 times reduction in YFV RNA copies compared to controls. The extent of reduction in virus infection depended on Wolbachia strain, titer and strain of the virus, and mode of exposure. Although originally proposed for dengue biocontrol, our results indicate a Wolbachia-based strategy also holds considerable promise for YFV and CHIKV suppression. PMID:23133693

van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Frentiu, Francesca D.; McElroy, Kate; Day, Andrew; Higgs, Stephen; O'Neill, Scott L.

2012-01-01

167

Heterogeneous nature of the genome of the ARILVAX yellow fever 17D vaccine revealed by consensus sequencing.  

PubMed

Consensus sequencing of the genome of the ARILVAX live attenuated yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine was performed directly on reconstituted virus from a vial of the vaccine secondary seed (without plaque-purification or cloning of cDNA). The genome of ARILVAX was identical in organization and size (10,862 nucleotides (nt)) to other published YF 17D sequences. A total of 12 nt heterogeneities were detected indicating that the vaccine is a heterogeneous population. Some of these indicated the presence of quasispecies with residues not reported previously for other sequenced YF 17D strains. A number of nts clearly differed from some YF vaccine strain sequences but coincided with the others, which could be due to the use of consensus sequencing approach in this study. Most (but not all) of the heterogeneities and nt differences were silent (i.e. did not result in an amino acid change). The differences are inconsequential to safety and effectiveness of ARILVAX. Other YF 17D vaccines are undoubtedly also heterogeneous and need to be re-examined using the consensus approach. PMID:11803058

Pugachev, Konstantin V; Ocran, Simeon W; Guirakhoo, Farshad; Furby, Dean; Monath, Thomas P

2002-01-15

168

YELLOW FEVER VACCINATION IN MALAYA BY SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION AND MULTIPLE PUNCTURE. HAEMAGGLUTININ-INHIBITING ANTIBODY RESPONSES IN PERSONS WITH AND WITHOUT PRE-EXISTING ANTIBODY.  

PubMed

In view of the risk of introduction of yellow fever into South-East Asia, comparative studies have been made of yellow fever vaccination in Malayan volunteers with a high prevalence of antibody to related viruses and in volunteers without related antibody. In a previous paper the neutralizing antibody responses of these volunteers were reported. The present paper describes the haemagglutinin-inhibiting (HI) antibody responses of the same groups of volunteers and discusses the relationship of these responses to the neutralizing antibody responses.The HI responses to yellow fever following vaccination closely paralleled the neutralizing antibody responses whether vaccination was subcutaneous or by multiple puncture. Volunteers with a high level of YF HI antibody due to infection with other group B viruses were found to be less likely to show a significant YF HI response than those without antibody. 90% of HI responses could be detected by the 21st day after vaccination.As with neutralizing antibody responses, volunteers given vaccine doses of 50-500 mouse intracerebral LD(50) subcutaneously gave greater responses than those given higher doses. PMID:14043754

SMITH, C E; MCMAHON, D A; TURNER, L H

1963-01-01

169

A Possible Connection between the 1878 Yellow Fever Epidemic in the Southern United States and the 1877-78 El Nin??o Episode  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the most severe outbreaks of yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, affected the southern United States in the summer of 1878. The economic and human toll was enormous, and the city of Memphis, Tennessee, was one of the most affected. The authors suggest that as a consequence of one of the strongest El Nin??o episodes on record - that which occurred in 1877-78 - exceptional climate anomalies occurred in the United States (as well as in many other parts of the world), which may have been partly responsible for the widespread nature and severity of the 1878 yellow fever outbreak. This study documents some of the extreme climate anomalies that were recorded in 1877 and 1878 in parts of the eastern United States, with particular emphasis on highlighting the evolution of these anomalies, as they might have contributed to the epidemic. Other years with major outbreaks of yellow fever in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries also occurred during the course of El Nin??o episodes, a fact that appears not to have been noted before in the literature.

Diaz, H.F.; McCabe, G.J.

1999-01-01

170

Development of a SYBR green I based RT-PCR assay for yellow fever virus: application in assessment of YFV infection in Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow Fever virus (YFV) is an important arboviral pathogen in much of sub-Saharan Africa and the tropical Americas. It is the prototype member of the genus Flavivirus and is transmitted primarily by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes. The incidence of human infections in endemic areas has risen in recent years. Prompt and dependable identification of YFV is a critical component of response to suspect cases. Results We developed a one-step SYBR Green I-based real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay targeting the 5'NTR and capsid-gene junction--for rapid detection and quantification of YFV. The detection limit was 1 PFU/mL, 10-fold more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR, and there was no cross-reactivity with closely related flaviviruses or with alphaviruses. Viral load in samples was determined by standard curve plotted from cycle threshold (Ct) values and virus concentration. The efficacy of the assay in mosquitoes was assessed with spiked samples. The utility of the assay for screening of pooled mosquitoes was also confirmed. Replication of a Cameroon isolate of YFV in Ae. aegypti revealed a marked variation in susceptibility among different colonies at different days post infection (pi). Conclusions The SYBR Green-1 based qRT-PCR assay is a faster, simpler, more sensitive and less expensive procedure for detection and quantification of YFV than other currently used methods. PMID:22264275

2012-01-01

171

Pathology Case Study: Fever and a Hilar Pulmonary Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 37-year-old man has a recurring fever and swelling in his legs. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, radiological results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Horn, Kevin D.; Pasculle, A. W.

2008-12-01

172

A case of crimean-congo hemorrhagic Fever in oman.  

PubMed

In the summer of June 2011, the first case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was observed in Oman since the last fifteen years. The first blood sample using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test were sent looking for CCHF, tick-borne encephalitis, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Chikungunya and West Nile. All resulted as negative. The repeated serology for CCHF came strongly positive after five days from the initial negative test, and accordingly patient started on ribavirin and he responded to it. His condition improved dramatically. PMID:23772290

Al-Zadjali, Matllooba; Al-Hashim, Hakeem; Al-Ghilani, Mohammad; Balkhiar, Abdullah

2013-05-01

173

Pathology Case Study: Fevers, Cutaneous Nodules and Cerebrovascular Accident  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 58-year-old male diagnosed with leukemia following a motorcycle accident developed pancytopenia with profound neutropenia, fevers, erythematous nodules on the skin during therapy. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Dunn, Jeanette; Graur, Octavia; Nichols, Larry

2009-02-19

174

Pathology Case Study: Recurrent Fevers of Unknown Origin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a renal pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 32-year-old male has recurrent fevers. Visitors are given laboratory data and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology medicine.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Hanchett, James; Torbenson, Michael

2009-09-03

175

Pathology Case Study: History of Bilateral Back Pain and Fever  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 68-year-old woman with a history of bilateral back pain and fever has been admitted to the hospital with agitation, confusion, and delirium. Visitors are given both the histologic and laboratory findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Chung, Wen-Wei; Fernandes, Shaila; Pasculle, A. W.; Wang, Jianzhou

2008-11-27

176

Pathology Case Study: Fever, Chills, Shortness of Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man experienced fever, chills, and shortness of breath a year after having received a lung transplant. Visitors can view CT images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of pathology and clinical microbiology.

Grant, Maurice R.; Pasculle, A. W.; Shaeffer, James

2008-11-14

177

[Viral hemorrhagic fever].  

PubMed

Viral haemorrhagic fevers, such as Lassa fever and yellow fever, cause tens of thousands of deaths annually outside the Netherlands. The viruses are mostly transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks or via excreta of rodents. Important to travellers are yellow fever, dengue and Lassa and Ebola fever. For yellow fever there is an efficacious vaccine. Dengue is frequently observed in travellers; prevention consists in avoiding mosquito bites, the treatment is symptomatic. Lassa and Ebola fever are extremely rare among travellers; a management protocol can be obtained from the Netherlands Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports. Diagnostics of a patient from the tropics with fever and haemorrhagic diathesis should be aimed at treatable disorders such as malaria, typhoid fever, rickettsiosis or bacterial sepsis, because the probability of such a disease is much higher than that of Lassa or Ebola fever. PMID:9562757

Kager, P A

1998-02-28

178

Fever versus Fever: the role of host and vector susceptibility and interspecific competition in shaping the current and future distributions of the sylvatic cycles of dengue virus and yellow fever virus  

PubMed Central

Two different species of flaviviruses, dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV), that originated in sylvatic cycles maintained in non-human primates and forest-dwelling mosquitoes have emerged repeatedly into sustained human-to-human transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sylvatic cycles of both viruses remain active, and where the two viruses overlap in West Africa they utilize similar suites of monkeys and Aedes mosquitoes. These extensive similarities render the differences in the biogeography and epidemiology of the two viruses all the more striking. First, the sylvatic cycle of YFV originated in Africa and was introduced into the New World, probably as a result of the slave trade, but is absent in Asia; in contrast, sylvatic DENV likely originated in Asia and has spread to Africa but not to the New World. Second, while sylvatic YFV can emerge into extensive urban outbreaks in humans, these invariably die out, whereas four different types of DENV have established human transmission cycles that are ecologically and evolutionarily distinct from their sylvatic ancestors. Finally, transmission of YFV among humans has been documented only in Africa and the Americas, whereas DENV is transmitted among humans across most of the range of competent Aedes vectors, which in the last decade has included every continent save Antarctica. This review summarizes current understanding of sylvatic transmission cycles of YFV and DENV, considers possible explanations for their disjunct distributions, and speculates on the potential consequences of future establishment of a sylvatic cycle of DENV in the Americas. PMID:23523817

Hanley, Kathryn A.; Monath, Thomas P.; Weaver, Scott C.; Rossi, Shannan L.; Richman, Rebecca L.; Vasilakis, Nikos

2013-01-01

179

Transcellular and Paracellular Pathways of Transepithelial Fluid Secretion in Malpighian (renal) Tubules of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Isolated Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito secrete NaCl and KCl from the peritubular bath to the tubule lumen via active transport of Na+ and K+ by principal cells. Lumen-positive transepithelial voltages are the result. The counter-ion Cl? follows passively by electrodiffusion through the paracellular pathway. Water follows by osmosis, but specific routes for water across the epithelium are unknown. Remarkably, the transepithelial secretion of NaCl, KCl and water is driven by a H+ V-ATPase located in the apical brush border membrane of principal cells and not the canonical Na/K ATPase. A hypothetical cation/H+ exchanger moves Na+ and K+ from the cytoplasm to the tubule lumen. Also remarkable is the dynamic regulation of the paracellular permeability with switch-like speed which mediates in part the post-blood-meal diuresis in mosquitoes. For example, the blood meal the female mosquito takes to nourish her eggs triggers the release of kinin diuretic peptides that 1) increases the Cl? conductance of the paracellular pathway, and 2) assembles V1 and V0 complexes to activate the H+ V-ATPase and cation/H+ exchange close by. Thus, transcellular and paracellular pathways are both stimulated to quickly rid the mosquito of the unwanted salts and water of the blood meal. Stellate cells of the tubule appear to serve a metabolic support role, exporting the HCO3? generated during stimulated transport activity. Septate junctions define the properties of the paracellular pathway in Malpighian tubules, but the proteins responsible for the permselectivity and barrier functions of the septate junction are unknown. PMID:20946239

Beyenbach, Klaus W.; Piermarini, Peter M.

2010-01-01

180

Yellow Fever, as seen by the Medical Officers of the Royal Navy in the Nineteenth Century  

PubMed Central

A critical review of old Naval Reports, showing how some difficulties in the epidemiology vanished when the mosquito means of transmission was discovered. Data are abstracted to show that the fatality, while generally exaggerated by missed cases, was often as high as recorded—also that latent immunization accounts for some types of immunity, and that the disease was always more virulent in Africa—where it probably originated—rather than in the New World. PMID:19989150

Dudley, Sheldon F.

1933-01-01

181

Yellow fever vaccine-associated adverse events following extensive immunization in Argentina.  

PubMed

As a consequence of YF outbreaks that hit Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay in 2008-2009, a significant demand for YF vaccination was subsequently observed in Argentina, a country where the usual vaccine recommendations are restricted to provinces that border Brazil, Paraguay, and Bolivia. The goal of this paper is to describe the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) against YF in Argentina during the outbreak in the northeastern province of Misiones, which occurred from January 2008 to January 2009. During this time, a total of nine cases were reported, almost two million doses of vaccine were administered, and a total of 165 AEFI were reported from different provinces. Case study analyses were performed using two AEFI classifications. Forty-nine events were classified as related to the YF vaccine (24 serious and 1 fatal case), and 12 events were classified as inconclusive. As the use of the YF 17D vaccine can be a challenge to health systems of countries with different endemicity patterns, a careful clinical and epidemiological evaluation should be performed before its prescription to minimize serious adverse events. PMID:24456625

Biscayart, Cristián; Carrega, María Eugenia Pérez; Sagradini, Sandra; Gentile, Angela; Stecher, Daniel; Orduna, Tomás; Bentancourt, Silvia; Jiménez, Salvador García; Flynn, Luis Pedro; Arce, Gabriel Pirán; Uboldi, María Andrea; Bugna, Laura; Morales, María Alejandra; Digilio, Clara; Fabbri, Cintia; Enría, Delia; Diosque, Máximo; Vizzotti, Carla

2014-03-01

182

Epidemiological Characteristics of Serologically Confirmed Q Fever Cases in South Korea, 2006–2011  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Q fever has been reported worldwide; however, there was almost no official report of Q fever in Korea. In this study, we describe the current status of human Q fever occurrence in Korea. Methods: Demographic data of Q fever patients were collected from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System from 2006 to 2011. Case investigation reports from regional public health departments were used for additional information, like risk factors and clinical manifestation, of the patients since 2008. Results: There were 65 serologically confirmed cases during the study period. The annual notification rate of Q fever was 0.22 cases per million persons. The majority of cases were men (87.7%), adults (98.5%), and urban inhabitants (67.7%). Relevant exposures to risk factors were identified in 45.7% of patients. The most common symptoms of acute Q fever were fever (89.3%), myalgia (67.9%) and asthenia (53.6%). Two cases with endocarditis were identified in chronic Q fever. Conclusion: This study suggests that Q fever has a low endemicity in Korea. However, management and research at national level is required for prevention of a future epidemic. PMID:24159527

Kwak, Wooseok; Chu, Hyuk; Hwang, Seondo; Park, Ji-Hyuk; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Gwack, Jin; Choi, Young-Sil; Youn, Seung-Ki; Park, Mi-Yeoun

2013-01-01

183

Two cases of q-Fever in hairy cell leukemia.  

PubMed

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder accounting for about 2% of all leukemias. The clinical course is indolent, however HCL patients are particularly susceptible to infections. Here we report two cases of Q-fever as first manifestation of disease in two patients affected by HCL. Both patients described in this report showed an unusually sluggish clinical response to the antibiotic treatment with ciprofloxacin probably because of the marked immunodeficiency. However, treatment of HCL with cladribine administered soon after the resolution of QF pneumonitis was uneventful and led to a complete remission in both cases. Most probably the association of Coxiella burnetii (CB) infection and HCL that we observed in two patients is due to chance. However, a hairy cell resembling transformation of freshly isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes upon CB has been showed. We think that the possibility of CB infection in febrile HCL patient should be always taken in mind, especially in endemic areas. In addition the potential for such infections to become chronic in HCL patients should not be overlooked and the reporting of further cases should be encouraged. PMID:25180111

Ammatuna, Emanuele; Iannitto, Emilio; Tick, Lidwine W; Arents, Nicolaas L A; Kuijper, Philip H; Nijziel, Marten R

2014-01-01

184

Yellow fever vaccination in Malaya by subcutaneous injection and multiple puncture. Neutralizing antibody responses in persons with and without pre-existing antibody to related viruses.  

PubMed

Because of the risk of introduction of yellow fever to South-East Asia, comparative studies were made of yellow fever vaccination in Malayans who had a high prevalence of antibody to related viruses and in volunteers without related antibody. The proportions of positive neutralizing antibody responses to subcutaneous vaccination with 17D vaccine were not significantly different between volunteers with and without heterologous antibody but the degree of antibody response was greater in those without. The ID(50) of 17D in both groups was about 5 mouse intracerebral LD(50). Multiple puncture vaccination with 17D gave a much lower response rate than subcutaneous vaccination in volunteers with heterologous antibody. In both groups subcutaneous doses of about 50 mouse intracerebral LD(50) gave larger antibody responses than higher doses. The neutralizing indices and analysis of results were calculated by a method based on the survival time of the mice. This method, which has advantages over that of Reed & Muench, is fully described in an annex to this paper. PMID:13993152

SMITH, C E; TURNER, L H; ARMITAGE, P

1962-01-01

185

Child-Invented Health Education Games: A Case Study for Dengue Fever  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study's goal was to demonstrate the ability of an 8-year-old child to create educational games for the topic of dengue fever control. A naturalistic descriptive case study method was employed. The child had two dengue fever educational game creation activities. The study demonstrated that a child could develop functional games related to…

Lennon, Jeffrey L.; Coombs, David W.

2006-01-01

186

Yellow fever 17D-vectored vaccines expressing Lassa virus GP1 and GP2 glycoproteins provide protection against fatal disease in guinea pigs  

PubMed Central

Yellow Fever (YF) and Lassa Fever (LF) are two prevalent hemorrhagic fevers co-circulating in West Africa and responsible for thousands of deaths annually. The YF vaccine 17D has been used as a vector for the Lassa virus glycoprotein precursor (LASV-GPC) or their subunits, GP1 (attachment glycoprotein) and GP2 (fusion glycoprotein). Cloning shorter inserts, LASV GP1 and GP2, between YF17D E and NS1 genes enhanced genetic stability of recombinant viruses, YF17D/LASV-GP1 and –GP2, in comparison with YF17D/LASV-GPC recombinant. The recombinant viruses were replication competent and properly processed YF and LASV GP proteins in infected cells. YF17D/LASV-GP1&GP2 induced specific CD8+ T cell responses in mice and protected strain 13 guinea pigs against fatal LF. Unlike immunization with live attenuated reassortant vaccine ML29, immunization with YF17D/LASV-GP1&GP2 did not provide sterilizing immunity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of YF17D-based vaccine to control LF in West Africa. PMID:21145373

Jiang, Xiaohong; Dalebout, Tim J.; Bredenbeek, Peter J.; Carrion, Ricardo; Brasky, Kathleen; Patterson, Jean; Goicochea, Marco; Bryant, Joseph; Salvato, Maria S.; Lukashevich, Igor S.

2010-01-01

187

[Case of typhoid fever in 43 old male].  

PubMed

The disease of 43 years old man, who was being taken in internal ward to diagnosis because of fever, was presented. In bacteriological culture Salmonella Typhi were kept. For reason the isolation was impossible on internal department, patient was conveyed to contagious department. As a result of carried out epidemiological inquiry, it turned out the man's infectious was coused by permanent carrier of typhoid fever. PMID:16433316

B?udzin, Wies?awa; Kowalska, Beata; Wysota, Janusz

2005-01-01

188

Spatial and temporal abundance of three sylvatic yellow fever vectors in the influence area of the Manso hydroelectric power plant, Mato Grosso, Brazil.  

PubMed

Human biting catches of sylvatic yellow fever (SYF) vectors were conducted at eight stations in the influence area of the Manso hydroelectric power plant (Central Brazil) in sampling campaigns every 2 mo from July 2000 to November 2001. In total, 206 individuals were captured and classified as one of three species important for the transmission of SYF in Mato Grosso state: Haemagogus (Haemagogus) janthinomys (Dyar, 1921); Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon, 1924); and Sabethes (Sabethoides) chloropterus (Humboldt, 1819). The highest vector abundance was observed during the rainy season (November through March) and SYF vectors were present in all sampling points throughout the year, mainly in riparian and shadowed transitional forests at shadowed ramps. PMID:22308793

Ribeiro, A L M; Miyazaki, R D; Silva, M; Zeilhofer, P

2012-01-01

189

Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in virus infected cells: SARS corona virus, Yellow fever virus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus and Cytomegalovirus infections  

PubMed Central

Ten potential reference genes were compared for their use in experiments investigating cellular mRNA expression of virus infected cells. Human cell lines were infected with Cytomegalovirus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus, SARS coronavirus or Yellow fever virus. The expression levels of these genes and the viral replication were determined by real-time PCR. Genes were ranked by the BestKeeper tool, the GeNorm tool and by criteria we reported previously. Ranking lists of the genes tested were tool dependent. However, over all, ?-actin is an unsuitable as reference gene, whereas TATA-Box binding protein and peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase A are stable reference genes for expression studies in virus infected cells. PMID:15705200

Radonic, Aleksandar; Thulke, Stefanie; Bae, Hi-Gung; Muller, Marcel A; Siegert, Wolfgang; Nitsche, Andreas

2005-01-01

190

Evaluation of AaDOP2 Receptor Antagonists Reveals Antidepressants and Antipsychotics as Novel Lead Molecules for Control of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, vectors disease-causing agents that adversely affect human health, most notably the viruses causing dengue and yellow fever. The efficacy of current mosquito control programs is challenged by the emergence of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations, suggesting an urgent need for the development of chemical insecticides with new mechanisms of action. One recently identified potential insecticide target is the A. aegypti D1-like dopamine receptor, AaDOP2. The focus of the present study was to evaluate AaDOP2 antagonism both in vitro and in vivo using assay technologies with increased throughput. The in vitro assays revealed AaDOP2 antagonism by four distinct chemical scaffolds from tricyclic antidepressant or antipsychotic chemical classes, and elucidated several structure-activity relationship trends that contributed to enhanced antagonist potency, including lipophilicity, halide substitution on the tricyclic core, and conformational rigidity. Six compounds displayed previously unparalleled potency for in vitro AaDOP2 antagonism, and among these, asenapine, methiothepin, and cis-(Z)-flupenthixol displayed subnanomolar IC50 values and caused rapid toxicity to A. aegypti larvae and/or adults in vivo. Our study revealed a significant correlation between in vitro potency for AaDOP2 antagonism and in vivo toxicity, suggesting viability of AaDOP2 as an insecticidal target. Taken together, this study expanded the repertoire of known AaDOP2 antagonists, enhanced our understanding of AaDOP2 pharmacology, provided further support for rational targeting of AaDOP2, and demonstrated the utility of efficiency-enhancing in vitro and in vivo assay technologies within our genome-to-lead pipeline for the discovery of next-generation insecticides. PMID:25332454

Conley, Jason M; Meyer, Jason M; Nuss, Andrew B; Doyle, Trevor B; Savinov, Sergey N; Hill, Catherine A; Watts, Val J

2015-01-01

191

First case of Q fever endocarditis in Croatia and a short review.  

PubMed

We present a 70-year-old man from Dalmatia, Croatia, with a history of prolonged high fever diagnosed as Q fever endocarditis. As far as we know, this is the first case of chronic Q fever in Croatia. The treatment was started as for culture-negative endocarditis, but was without clinical response. After significantly high anti-phase I IgG plus IgA antibodies titers to Coxiella burnetii were shown, the initial treatment with doxycycline was changed and ciprofloxacin was started with good clinical response. PMID:20977118

Zekanovi?, Drazen; Morovi?, Miro; Borcilo, Marina Neki?; Rode, Oktavija Dakovi?

2010-09-01

192

Hanta hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: a case report and review.  

PubMed

Hantavirus infection is seldom reported in Taiwan. The spectrum of clinical severity ranges from mild to severe and may cover Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). We report a case of HFRS in a 24-year-old soldier presenting with fever, chills, abdominal pain and generalized myalgia. His clinical course progressed through febrile, hypotensive, oliguria and polyuria phases. Hantavirus infection was proven by serology at the second hospital week. The patient was successfully treated with supportive management. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of HFRS when examining patients with symptoms of fever, renal function impairment, hemorrhagic tendency and with rural exposure in Taiwan. PMID:15986074

Tai, Pei-Wen; Chen, Li-Ching; Huang, Cheng-Hua

2005-06-01

193

Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever in Kosova : a fatal case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an often fatal viral infection described in about 30 countries around the world. The authors report a fatal case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) observed in a patient from Kosova. The diagnosis of CCHF was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR. Late diagnosis decreased the efficacy of treatment and patient died due to severe complications of infection.

Salih Ahmeti; Lul Raka

2006-01-01

194

Inactivation of classical swine fever virus in porcine casing preserved in salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pig intestines used for the production of natural sausage casings may carry classical swine fever (CSF) virus. Feeding pigs with human food waste that contains pig casings may then spread the virus to CSF-free animals. Casings derived from a pig experimentally infected with CSF by dosing with 106 tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50) of the highly virulent CSF virus strain

J. J. Wijnker; K. R. Depner; B. R. Berends

2008-01-01

195

Seek and ye shall find: a case of Q fever in an elderly woman.  

PubMed

This case report concerns an elderly woman referred with a 6-month history of rising and falling fever in the range 38-40°C. She was examined repeatedly by her family doctor and given various antibiotic treatments before being hospitalized in our geriatric unit. Laboratory tests and microbiological studies led to a diagnosis of chronic Q fever, a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram-negative obligate intracellular coccobacillus; humans usually become infected by inhaling infectious airborne particles. The diagnosis of Q fever relies on serology with enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The main feature of Q fever is its clinical polymorphism: clinical signs may be aspecific and, in chronic cases, patients often do not recall having had the acute infection. As the most frequent and severe manifestation of Q fever is endocarditis, severe consequences may ensue. In our patient, broad-spectrum antibiotics were given before the serology results were available and rapid clinical improvement was achieved. This unusual disease should therefore also be considered in differential diagnosis of fever in the elderly, and age should not be considered as a contraindication for not performing all studies, because timely and adequate treatment is important partly to preserve elderly patients' self-sufficiency and to prevent them from becoming bedridden. PMID:22170110

Ruggiero, Elena; Inelmen, Emine Meral; Grosso, Giorgia; Manzato, Enzo

2012-10-01

196

Pathology Case Study: Intermittent Fevers in a 43-Year-Old Black Male  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help students and instructors. In this particular study the patient is complaining of intermittent fevers. The case provides test results and data as well as microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis as well as treatment.

Dorvault, Christine; Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-12

197

Pharmacological validation of an inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channel as an insecticide target in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are important disease vectors that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans, including those that cause malaria and dengue fever. Insecticides have traditionally been deployed to control populations of disease-causing mosquitoes, but the emergence of insecticide resistance has severely limited the number of active compounds that are used against mosquitoes. Thus, to improve the control of resistant mosquitoes there is a need to identify new insecticide targets and active compounds for insecticide development. Recently we demonstrated that inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels and small molecule inhibitors of Kir channels offer promising new molecular targets and active compounds, respectively, for insecticide development. Here we provide pharmacological validation of a specific mosquito Kir channel (AeKir1) in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. We show that VU590, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 channels, potently inhibits AeKir1 but not another mosquito Kir channel (AeKir2B) in vitro. Moreover, we show that a previously identified inhibitor of AeKir1 (VU573) elicits an unexpected agonistic effect on AeKir2B in vitro. Injection of VU590 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes significantly inhibits their capacity to excrete urine and kills them within 24 h, suggesting a mechanism of action on the excretory system. Importantly, a structurally-related VU590 analog (VU608), which weakly blocks AeKir1 in vitro, has no significant effects on their excretory capacity and does not kill mosquitoes. These observations suggest that the toxic effects of VU590 are associated with its inhibition of AeKir1. PMID:24959745

Rouhier, Matthew F; Raphemot, Rene; Denton, Jerod S; Piermarini, Peter M

2014-01-01

198

Viral hemorrhagic fever hazards for travelers in Africa.  

PubMed

This short review covers 6 viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) that are known to occur in Africa: yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, Marburg virus disease, and Ebola hemorrhagic fever. All of these have at one time or another affected travelers, often the adventurous kind who are "roughing it" in rural areas, who should therefore be made aware by their physicians or travel health clinics about their potential risk of exposure to any VHF along their travel route and how to minimize the risk. A significant proportion of VHF cases involving travelers have affected expatriate health care workers who were nosocomially exposed in African hospitals or clinics. The VHFs are associated with a high case-fatality rate but are readily prevented by well-known basic precautions. PMID:11595975

Isaäcson, M

2001-11-15

199

Case definition for Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fevers: a complex challenge for epidemiologists and clinicians.  

PubMed

Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) represent a challenge for public health because of their epidemic potential, and their possible use as bioterrorism agents poses particular concern. In 1999 the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a case definition for VHFs, subsequently adopted by other international institutions with the aim of early detection of initial cases/outbreaks in western countries. We applied this case definition to reports of Ebola and Marburg virus infections to estimate its sensitivity to detect cases of the disease. We analyzed clinical descriptions of 795 reported cases of Ebola haemorrhagic fever: only 58.5% of patients met the proposed case definition. A similar figure was obtained reviewing 169 cases of Marburg diseases, of which only 64.5% were in accordance with the case definition. In conclusion, the WHO case definition for hemorrhagic fevers is too specific and has poor sensitivity both for case finding during Ebola or Marburg outbreaks, and for early detection of suspected cases in western countries. It can lead to a hazardous number of false negatives and its use should be discouraged for early detection of cases. PMID:20128442

Pittalis, Silvia; Fusco, Francesco Maria; Lanini, Simone; Nisii, Carla; Puro, Vincenzo; Lauria, Francesco Nicola; Ippolito, Giuseppe

2009-10-01

200

Distinct Gene Expression Profiles in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients Infected with Vaccinia Virus, Yellow Fever 17D Virus, or Upper Respiratory Infections Running Title: PBMC Expression Response to Viral Agents  

PubMed Central

Gene expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was systematically evaluated following smallpox and yellow fever vaccination, and naturally occurring upper respiratory infection (URI). All three infections were characterized by the induction of many interferon stimulated genes, as well as enhanced expression of genes involved in proteolysis and antigen presentation. Vaccinia infection was also characterized by a distinct expression signature composed of up-regulation of monocyte response genes, with repression of genes expressed by B and T-cells. In contrast, the yellow fever host response was characterized by a suppression of ribosomal and translation factors, distinguishing this infection from vaccinia and URI. No significant URI-specific signature was observed, perhaps reflecting greater heterogeneity in the study population and etiological agents. Taken together, these data suggest that specific host gene expression signatures may be identified that distinguish one or a small number of virus agents. PMID:17651872

Scherer, Christina A.; Magness, Charles L.; Steiger, Kathryn V.; Poitinger, Nicholas D.; Caputo, Christine M.; Miner, Douglas G.; Winokur, Patricia L.; Klinzman, Donna; McKee, Janice; Pilar, Christine; Ward, Patricia A.; Gillham, Martha H.; Haulman, N. Jean; Stapleton, Jack T.; Iadonato, Shawn P.

2007-01-01

201

Viremia and Immunogenicity in Nonhuman Primates of a Tetravalent Yellow Fever–Dengue Chimeric Vaccine: Genetic Reconstructions, Dose Adjustment, and Antibody Responses against Wild-type Dengue Virus Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chimeric yellow fever (YF)–dengue (DEN) viruses (ChimeriVax–DEN) were reconstructed to correct amino acid substitutions within the envelope genes of original constructs described by Guirakhoo et al. (2001, J. Virol. 75, 7290–7304). Viruses were analyzed and compared to the previous constructs containing mutations in terms of their growth kinetics in Vero cells, neurovirulence in mice, and immunogenicity in monkeys as monovalent

F. Guirakhoo; K. Pugachev; J. Arroyo; C. Miller; Z.-X. Zhang; R. Weltzin; K. Georgakopoulos; J. Catalan; S. Ocran; K. Draper; T. P. Monath

2002-01-01

202

Immunogenicity, Genetic Stability, and Protective Efficacy of a Recombinant, Chimeric Yellow Fever-Japanese Encephalitis Virus (ChimeriVax-JE) as a Live, Attenuated Vaccine Candidate against Japanese Encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine virus, having a 60-year history of safe and effective use, is an ideal vector to deliver heterologous genes from other medically important flaviviruses. A chimeric YF\\/Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (ChimeriVax-JE virus) was constructed by insertion of the premembrane and envelope (prME) genes of an attenuated human vaccine strain (SA14–14-2) of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus between

F. Guirakhoo; Z.-X. Zhang; T. J. Chambers; S. Delagrave; J. Arroyo; A. D. T. Barrett; T. P. Monath

1999-01-01

203

Birth of Three Stowaway-like MITE Families via Microhomology-Mediated Miniaturization of a Tc1/Mariner Element in the Yellow Fever Mosquito  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic genomes contain numerous DNA transposons that move by a cut-and-paste mechanism. The majority of these elements are self-insufficient and dependent on their autonomous relatives to transpose. Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are often the most numerous nonautonomous DNA elements in a higher eukaryotic genome. Little is known about the origin of these MITE families as few of them are accompanied by their direct ancestral elements in a genome. Analyses of MITEs in the yellow fever mosquito identified its youngest MITE family, designated as Gnome, that contains at least 116 identical copies. Genome-wide search for direct ancestral autonomous elements of Gnome revealed an elusive single copy Tc1/Mariner-like element, named as Ozma, that encodes a transposase with a DD37E triad motif. Strikingly, Ozma also gave rise to two additional MITE families, designated as Elf and Goblin. These three MITE families were derived at different times during evolution and bear internal sequences originated from different regions of Ozma. Upon close inspection of the sequence junctions, the internal deletions during the formation of these three MITE families always occurred between two microhomologous sites (6–8 bp). These results suggest that multiple MITE families may originate from a single ancestral autonomous element, and formation of MITEs can be mediated by sequence microhomology. Ozma and its related MITEs are exceptional candidates for the long sought-after endogenous active transposon tool in genetic control of mosquitoes. PMID:24068652

Yang, Guojun; Fattash, Isam; Lee, Chia-Ni; Liu, Kun; Cavinder, Brad

2013-01-01

204

Production of yellow fever 17DD vaccine virus in primary culture of chicken embryo fibroblasts: yields, thermo and genetic stability, attenuation and immunogenicity.  

PubMed

While a good vaccine against yellow fever (YF) virus has been available for decades, the basic technology for the production of YF vaccine in chicken embryos has remained substantially unchanged since the 1940s. Here we describe the highly efficient and economic production of the 17DD strain of YF virus in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell cultures with viral titers ranging from 6.3 to 6.7 log10PFU/mL. Thermostability of two different formulations (5 and 50-dose vials) of the CEF vaccine virus was found to be as high as the current vaccines retaining the minimal titer required for YF 17D vaccines. The production passage in CEF did not lead to the selection of genetic variants as shown by nucleotide sequence analyses of the CEF-derived vaccine lots or the sequence of viruses recovered from monkeys experimentally inoculated with the CEF virus. YF 17DD virus produced in CEF was also indistinguishable from its seed lot virus parent in terms of plaque size and immunogenicity in mice and monkeys. Comparison of the CEF virus and the seed lot virus made in chicken embryo in the internationally accepted monkey neurovirulence test (MNVT) revealed a higher clinical score for the former. The differences in central nervous system (CNS) histological scores for monkeys inoculated with the chicken embryo and experimental CEF vaccines were at the borderline level of statistical significance. These data warrant further studies on the monkey attenuation of other batches of CEF-derived vaccines. PMID:15752837

Freire, Marcos S; Mann, George F; Marchevsky, Renato S; Yamamura, Anna M Y; Almeida, Luiz F C; Jabor, Alfredo V; Malachias, José M N; Coutinho, Evandro S F; Galler, Ricardo

2005-03-31

205

Flight height preference for oviposition of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of sylvatic yellow fever virus near the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, the oviposition behavior of mosquito species exhibiting acrodendrophilic habits was investigated. The study was conducted near the Simplicio Hydroelectic Reservoir (SHR) located on the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected using oviposition traps installed in forest vegetation cover between 1.70 and 4.30 m above ground level during the months of April, June, August, October, and December of 2011. Haemagogus janthinomys (Dyar), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), and Aedes terrens (Walker) specimens were present among the collected samples, the first two of which being proven vectors of sylvatic yellow fever (SYF) in Brazil and the latter is a vector of dengue in mainland Asia. As the data set was zero-inflated, a specific Poisson-based model was used for the statistical analysis. When all four species were considered in the model, only heights used for egg laying and months of sampling were explaining the distribution. However, grouping the species under the genera Haemagogus Williston and Aedes Meigen showed a significant preference for higher traps of the former. Considering the local working population of SHR is very large, fluctuating, and potentially exposed to SYF, and that this virus occurs in almost all Brazilian states, monitoring of Culicidae in Brazil is essential for assessing the risk of transmission of this arbovirus. PMID:23926776

Alencar, Jeronimo; Morone, Fernanda; De Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Dégallier, Nicolas; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; de Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

2013-07-01

206

Analysis of the wild-type and mutant genes encoding the enzyme kynurenine monooxygenase of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) catalyses the hydroxylation of kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. KMO has a key role in tryptophan catabolism and synthesis of ommochrome pigments in mosquitoes. The gene encoding this enzyme in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is called kynurenine hydroxylase (kh) and a mutant allele that produces white eyes has been designated khw. A number of cDNA clones representative of wild-type and mutant genes were isolated. Sequence analyses of the wild-type and mutant cDNAs revealed a deletion of 162 nucleotides in the mutant gene near the 3?-end of the deduced coding region. RT-PCR analyses confirm the transcription of a truncated mRNA in the mutant strain. The in-frame deletion results in a loss of 54 amino acids, which disrupts a major ?-helix and which probably accounts for the loss of activity of the enzyme. Recombinant Ae. aegypti KMO showed high substrate specificity for kynurenine with optimum activity at 40 °C and pH = 7.5. Kinetic parameters and inhibition of KMO activity by Cl? and pyridoxal-5-phosphate were determined. PMID:12974953

Han, Q.; Calvo, E.; Marinotti, O.; Fang, J.; Rizzi, M.; James, A. A.; Li, J.

2008-01-01

207

Chimeric Yellow Fever/Dengue Virus as a Candidate Dengue Vaccine: Quantitation of the Dengue Virus-Specific CD8 T-Cell Response  

PubMed Central

We have constructed a chimeric yellow fever/dengue (YF/DEN) virus, which expresses the premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes from DEN type 2 (DEN-2) virus in a YF virus (YFV-17D) genetic background. Immunization of BALB/c mice with this chimeric virus induced a CD8 T-cell response specific for the DEN-2 virus prM and E proteins. This response protected YF/DEN virus-immunized mice against lethal dengue encephalitis. Control mice immunized with the parental YFV-17D were not protected against DEN-2 virus challenge, indicating that protection was mediated by the DEN-2 virus prM- and E-specific immune responses. YF/DEN vaccine-primed CD8 T cells expanded and were efficiently recruited into the central nervous systems of DEN-2 virus challenged mice. At 5 days after challenge, 3 to 4% of CD8 T cells in the spleen were specific for the prM and E proteins, and 34% of CD8 T cells in the central nervous system recognized these proteins. Depletion of either CD4 or CD8 T cells, or both, strongly reduced the protective efficacy of the YF/DEN virus, stressing the key role of the antiviral T-cell response. PMID:10933719

van der Most, Robbert G.; Murali-Krishna, Kaja; Ahmed, Rafi; Strauss, James H.

2000-01-01

208

Nosocomial infection of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in eastern Iran: case report.  

PubMed

An outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever occurred in the county of Birjand in eastern Iran in November 2011. Four cases were involved in this outbreak. Two patients died after admission to hospital, one of whom was a nurse who acquired the infection nosocomially, and the others were treated successfully. PMID:23266037

Chinikar, Sadegh; Shayesteh, Majid; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Jalali, Tahmineh; Rasi Varaie, Fereshteh Sadat; Rafigh, Mahboubeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman

2013-01-01

209

Double filtration plasmapheresis for a case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), is a fatal viral infection transmitted to humans through a tick bite or exposure to blood or tissues of viremic hosts. The clinical presentation is characterized by sudden onset high fever, headache, myalgia, abdominal pain and nausea-vomiting followed by gastrointestinal, urinary, respiratory tract and brain hemorrhage. Laboratory findings include leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes, prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. We report a case of CCHF who was treated with a combination of DFPP and ribavirin therapy. As a result of this multimodal treatment, patient's clinical symptoms and laboratory findings improved gradually. PMID:23619328

Meço, Ba?ak C; Memiko?lu, Osman; Ilhan, Osman; Ayy?ld?z, Erol; Gunt, Ceren; Unal, Necmettin; Oral, Mehmet; Tulunay, Melek

2013-06-01

210

Clinical and Epidemiological Features of Typhoid Fever in Pemba, Zanzibar: Assessment of the Performance of the WHO Case Definitions  

PubMed Central

Background The gold standard for diagnosis of typhoid fever is blood culture (BC). Because blood culture is often not available in impoverished settings it would be helpful to have alternative diagnostic approaches. We therefore investigated the usefulness of clinical signs, WHO case definition and Widal test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants with a body temperature ?37.5°C or a history of fever were enrolled over 17 to 22 months in three hospitals on Pemba Island, Tanzania. Clinical signs and symptoms of participants upon presentation as well as blood and serum for BC and Widal testing were collected. Clinical signs and symptoms of typhoid fever cases were compared to other cases of invasive bacterial diseases and BC negative participants. The relationship of typhoid fever cases with rainfall, temperature, and religious festivals was explored. The performance of the WHO case definitions for suspected and probable typhoid fever and a local cut off titre for the Widal test was assessed. 79 of 2209 participants had invasive bacterial disease. 46 isolates were identified as typhoid fever. Apart from a longer duration of fever prior to admission clinical signs and symptoms were not significantly different among patients with typhoid fever than from other febrile patients. We did not detect any significant seasonal patterns nor correlation with rainfall or festivals. The sensitivity and specificity of the WHO case definition for suspected and probable typhoid fever were 82.6% and 41.3% and 36.3 and 99.7% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of the Widal test was 47.8% and 99.4 both forfor O-agglutinin and H- agglutinin at a cut-off titre of 1?80. Conclusions/Significance Typhoid fever prevalence rates on Pemba are high and its clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific. The sensitivity of the Widal test is low and the WHO case definition performed better than the Widal test. PMID:23284780

Thriemer, Kamala; Ley, Benedikt B.; Ame, Shaali S.; Deen, Jaqueline L.; Pak, Gi Deok; Chang, Na Yoon; Hashim, Ramadhan; Schmied, Wolfgang Hellmut; Busch, Clara Jana-Lui; Nixon, Shanette; Morrissey, Anne; Puri, Mahesh K.; Ochiai, R. Leon; Wierzba, Thomas; Clemens, John D.; Ali, Mohammad; Jiddawi, Mohammad S.; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Ali, Said M.

2012-01-01

211

[Haemorrhagic fever viruses, possible bioterrorist use].  

PubMed

The majority of haemorrhagic fever viruses are responsible for various clinical manifestations, the mutual characteristics of which are fever and haemorrhage in 5 to 70% of cases. All degrees of severity can be observed, ranging from isolated fever to multi-organ failure and death. These viruses belong to one of the following families: filoviridae, arenaviridae, bunyaviridae, and flaviviridae. They must be considered as dangerous biological weapons that could potentially be used. Most of the viruses responsible for haemorrhagic fever can be transmitted to humans through the air in spray form, except the dengue virus and the agents of haemorrhagic fever from the Congo Crimea and the haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome that are difficult to handle in cell culture. In the event of a bioterrorist act, the management of persons infected or suspected of being so will be made by the referent departments of infectious diseases, defined by the French Biotox plan. Management includes isolation, confirmation or invalidation of the diagnosis and rapid initiation of treatment with ribavirin. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment and prophylaxis of arenavirus and bunyavirus infections; it is not effective for the other families of virus. Except for yellow fever, there is no vaccination for the other forms of viral haemorrhagic fever. PMID:15687968

Rigaudeau, Sophie; Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe

2005-01-29

212

Regional dust storm modeling for health services: The case of valley fever  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 5 July 2011, a massive dust storm struck Phoenix, Arizona (USA), raising concerns for increased cases of valley fever (coccidioidomycosis, or, cocci). A quasi-operational experimental airborne dust forecast system predicted the event and provides model output for continuing analysis in collaboration with public health and air quality communities. An objective of this collaboration was to see if a signal in cases of valley fever in the region could be detected and traced to the storm - an American haboob. To better understand the atmospheric life cycle of cocci spores, the DREAM dust model (also herein, NMME-DREAM) was modified to simulate spore emission, transport and deposition. Inexact knowledge of where cocci-causing fungus grows, the low resolution of cocci surveillance and an overall active period for significant dust events complicate analysis of the effect of the 5 July 2011 storm. In the larger context of monthly to annual disease surveillance, valley fever statistics, when compared against PM10 observation networks and modeled airborne dust concentrations, may reveal a likely cause and effect. Details provided by models and satellites fill time and space voids in conventional approaches to air quality and disease surveillance, leading to land-atmosphere modeling and remote sensing that clearly mark a path to advance valley fever epidemiology, surveillance and risk avoidance.

Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Galgiani, John N.; Pejanovic, Goran; Petkovic, Slavko; Vujadinovic, Mirjam; Vukovic, Ana; Dacic, Milan; DiBiase, Scott; Prasad, Anup; El-Askary, Hesham

2014-09-01

213

Activity of T-705 in a hamster model of yellow fever virus infection in comparison with that of a chemically related compound, T-1106.  

PubMed

Treatment with the nucleoside analog T-1106 was previously shown to be effective in a hamster model of yellow fever virus (YFV) disease, even though it had only slight activity in cell culture. In the study described in this report, the activity of T-705, a chemically related compound currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of influenza (FDANews 4:1, 2007), was tested against YFV in cell culture and in the hamster model. The antiviral efficacy of T-705 in cell culture occurred at a concentration of 330 microM, which was more than threefold lower than the concentration at which T-1106 had antiviral efficacy, as determined by a virus yield reduction assay and confirmed by a luciferase-based ATP detection assay. Time-of-addition studies revealed that addition of T-705, T-1106, or ribavirin at 0, 4, 8, or 12 h after virus challenge was effective in inhibiting virus in Vero cells, suggesting that these three agents have similar mechanisms of action in cell culture. Because of its more potent activity in cell culture, it was anticipated that T-705 treatment of hamsters infected with YFV would result in protection from disease. Significant improvements in survival and disease parameters were seen in infected animals when T-705 was administered orally at a dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg of body weight per day when it was given twice a day for 8 days. Significant improvements were also observed with a dose of 400 mg/kg/day when treatment initiation was delayed as late as 3 days after virus inoculation. Although the dose of T-705 required for efficacy in hamsters is higher than that of T-1106 required for efficacy, T-705 treatment is effective in significantly improving disease parameters in YFV-infected hamsters, which may indicate its potential utility in the treatment of YFV disease in humans. PMID:18955536

Julander, Justin G; Shafer, Kristiina; Smee, Donald F; Morrey, John D; Furuta, Yousuke

2009-01-01

214

Purified mariner (Mos1) transposase catalyzes the integration of marked elements into the germ-line of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Derivatives of the mariner transposable element, Mos1, from Drosophila mauritiana, can integrate into the germ-line of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Previously, the transposase required to mobilize Mos1 was provided in trans by a helper plasmid expressing the enzyme under the control of the D. psuedoobscura heat-shock protein 82 promoter. Here we tested whether purified recombinant Mos1 transposase could increase the recovery of Ae. aegypti transformants. Mos1 transposase was injected into white-eyed, kh(w)/kh(w), Ae. aegypti embryos with a Mos1 donor plasmid containing a copy of the wild-type allele of the D. melanogaster cinnabar gene. Transformed mosquitoes were recognized by partial restoration of eye color in the G(1) animals and confirmed by Southern analyses of genomic DNA. At Mos1 transposase concentrations approaching 100 nM, the rate of germ-line transformants arising from independent insertions in G(0) animals was elevated 2-fold compared to that seen in experiments with helper plasmids. Furthermore, the recovery of total G(1) transformants was increased 7.5-fold over the frequency seen with co-injected helper plasmid. Southern blot analyses and gene amplification experiments confirmed the integration of the transposons into the mosquito genome, although not all integrations were of the expected cut-and-paste type transposition. The increased frequency of germ-line integrations obtained with purified transposase will facilitate the generation of Mos1 transgenic mosquitoes and the application of transgenic approaches to the biology of this important vector of multiple pathogens. PMID:10989286

Coates, C J; Jasinskiene, N; Morgan, D; Tosi, L R; Beverley, S M; James, A A

2000-11-01

215

Dengue fever triggering systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis: a case report  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of dengue fever triggering systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis. The patient presented herself during a large outbreak of dengue fever in December 2012 in Maharashtra, India. The diagnosis of dengue fever was confirmed by the presence of NS-1 antigen during the first few days of febrile illness. Eight weeks later, kidney tissue biopsy studies revealed evidence of lupus nephritis on microscopic examination and immunofluorescence. The report interpreted it as focal proliferative glomerulonephritis and segmental sclerosis (Stage IIIC). The case was also found positive for perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay. An active and effective management of a case essentially calls for clear perception of differentiating dengue-induced lupus flare, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-related nephropathy, and/or dengue-induced de-novo lupus disease. Dengue viremia may be the trigger for immune complex formation in patients who are predisposed to developing autoimmune diseases. The present case explains the importance of considering the diagnosis of dengue-related lupus nephritis as an atypical occurrence in appropriate situations, as in this case. It would not be improper to regard this escalating disease as an expanded feature of dengue. PMID:24204176

Talib, SH; Bhattu, SR; Bhattu, R; Deshpande, SG; Dahiphale, DB

2013-01-01

216

Impact of road networks on the distribution of dengue fever cases in Trinidad, West Indies.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of road networks on the distribution of dengue fever cases in Trinidad, West Indies. All confirmed cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) observed during 1998 were georeferenced and spatially located on a road map of Trinidad using Geographic Information Systems software. A new digital geographic layer representing these cases was created and the distances from these cases to the nearest classified road category (5 classifications based on a functional utility system) were examined. The distance from each spatially located DHF case to the nearest road in each of the 5 road subsets was determined and then subjected to an ANOVA and t-test to determine levels of association between minor road networks (especially 3rd and 4th class roads) and DHF cases and found DHF cases were located away from forests, especially 5th class roads). The frequency of DHF cases to different road classes was: 0% (1st class roads), 7% (2nd class roads), 32% (3rd class roads), 57% (4th class roads) and 4% (5th class road). The data clearly demonstrated that both class 3 and class 4 roads account for 89% of nearby dengue cases. These results represent the first evidence of dengue cases being found restricted between forested areas and major highways and would be useful when planning and implementing control strategies for dengue and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. PMID:22609547

Mahabir, R S; Severson, D W; Chadee, D D

2012-09-01

217

Pathology Case Study: Fevers and Mental Status Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman underwent an allogenic bone marrow transplant but did not respond well. Visitors are given the autopsy information and patient history, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Martinez, A. Julio (Augusto Julio); Nichols, Larry; Torbenson, Michael

2008-05-13

218

Case management of malaria fever at community pharmacies in Pakistan: a threat to rational drug use  

PubMed Central

Objective To document the case management of uncomplicated malaria fever at community pharmacies located in the two major cities of Pakistan; Islamabad (national capital) and Rawalpindi (twin city). Methods A comparative, cross-sectional study was designed to document the management of uncomplicated malaria fever at community pharmacies in twin cities of Pakistan through simulated patient visits. Visits were conducted in 238 randomly selected pharmacies to request advice for a simulated patient case of malaria. The pharmacy’s management was scored on a checklist including history taking and provision of advice and information. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare management of uncomplicated malaria fever by different types of dispensers working at community pharmacies situated at different locations in the twin cities. Results The simulated patients were handled by salesmen (74.8%, n=178), pharmacist (5.4%, n=13) and diploma holders (19.8 %, n=47). Medication was dispensed in 83.1 % (n=198) of the visits, but only few of the treated cases were in accordance to standard treatment guidelines for malaria. However, in 14.8% (n=35) of the cases the simulated patients were directly referred to a physician. There was a significant difference observed in the process of history taking performed by different dispensers (e.g. pharmacist, pharmacy assistant, pharmacy diploma holders and salesman) while no significant differences in the provision of advice by these dispensers was observed. Pharmacists were seen more frequently involved in the process of history taking if available at the community pharmacies. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed in the case management (history taking and provision of advice) for the treatment of malaria fever among community pharmacies situated at different locations (e.g. near hospital/super market/small market) in the twin cities. Conclusions The results of the study revealed that the overall process of disease management of uncomplicated malaria fever at community pharmacies was not in accordance with the national standard treatment guidelines for malaria. Patients were being treated by untrained personnel’s at community pharmacies without any understanding of referral. However, pharmacists were more frequently involved in history taking, though their availability was low at community pharmacies. PMID:24155844

Malik, Madeeha; Hassali, Mohamed A.; Shafie, Asrul A.; Hussain, Azhar; Aljadhey, Hisham; Saleem, Fahad

219

Fever of unknown origin attributable to haematocolpos infected with Salmonella enterica Serotypetyphi resistant to nalidixic acid: a case report.  

PubMed

The prevalence of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella Typhi (NARST) infection is increasing worldwide. We are reporting an unusual case of infected haematocolpos presenting as urinary obstruction in a patient with fever of unknown origin (FUO). This case report highlights the importance of quinolone-resistant typhoid fever in the differential diagnosis of any acute febrile illness in countries, like India, where Salmonella infection is endemic. PMID:24288955

Saxena, Sonal; Dwivedi, Mayank; Batra, Priyam; Dutta, Renu

2013-09-01

220

Acute mercury poisoning presenting as fever of unknown origin in an adult woman: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mercury intoxication may present in a wide range of clinical forms from a simple disease to fatal poisoning. This article presents a case of acute mercury poisoning, a rare condition that presents challenges for diagnosis with fever of unknown origin. Case presentation A 52-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital with high fever, sore throat, a rash over her entire body, itching, nausea, and extensive muscle pain. She had cervical, bilateral axillary and mediastinal lymphadenopathies. We learned that her son and husband had similar symptoms. After excluding infectious pathologies, autoimmune diseases and malignancy were investigated. Multiple organs of our patient were involved and her fever persisted at the fourth week of admission. A repeat medical history elicited that her son had brought mercury home from school and put it on the hot stove, and the family had been exposed to the fumes for a long period of time. Our patient’s serum and urine mercury levels were high. She was diagnosed with mercury poisoning and treated accordingly. Conclusions Mercury vapor is a colourless and odorless substance. Therefore, patients with various unexplained symptoms and clinical conditions should be questioned about possible exposure to mercury. PMID:25084829

2014-01-01

221

Comparative safety and immunogenicity of two yellow fever 17D vaccines (ARILVAX and YF-VAX) in a phase III multicenter, double-blind clinical trial.  

PubMed

Yellow fever (YF) is a significant health problem in South America and Africa. Travelers to these areas require immunization. The United States, infested with Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, is at risk of introduction of this disease. There is only a single U.S. manufacturer of YF 17D vaccine, and supplies may be insufficient in an emergency. A randomized, double-blind outpatient study was conducted in 1,440 healthy individuals, half of whom received the U.S. vaccine (YF-VAX) and half the vaccine manufactured in the United Kingdom (ARILVAX). A randomly selected subset of approximately 310 individuals in each treatment group was tested for YF neutralizing antibodies 30 days after vaccination. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of individuals who developed a log neutralization index (LNI) of 0.7 or higher. Seroconversion occurred in 98.6% of individuals in the ARILVAX group and 99.3% of those in the YF-VAX group. Statistically, ARILVAX was equivalent to YF-VAX (P = .001). Both vaccines elicited mean antibody responses well above the minimal level (LNI 0.7) protective against wild-type YF virus. The mean LNI in the YF-VAX group was higher (2.21) than in the ARILVAX group (2.06; P = .010) possibly because of the higher dose contained in YF-VAX. Male gender, Caucasian race, and smoking were associated with higher antibody responses. Both vaccines were well tolerated. Overall, the treatment groups were comparable with respect to safety except that individuals in the ARILVAX group experienced significantly less edema, inflammation, and pain at the injection site than those in the YF-VAX group. No serious adverse events were attributable to either vaccine. YF-VAX participants (71.9%) experienced one or more nonserious adverse events than ARILVAX individuals (65.3%; P = .008). The difference was due to a higher rate of injection site reactions in the YF-VAX group. Mild systemic reactions (headache, myalgia, malaise, asthenia) occurred in roughly 10% to 30% of participants during the first few days after vaccination, with no significant difference across treatment groups. Adverse events were less frequent in individuals with preexisting immunity to YF, indicating a relationship to virus replication. PMID:12201587

Monath, Thomas P; Nichols, Richard; Archambault, W Tad; Moore, Linda; Marchesani, Ron; Tian, Jason; Shope, Robert E; Thomas, Nicola; Schrader, Robert; Furby, Dean; Bedford, Philip

2002-05-01

222

Immunogenicity of Seven New Recombinant Yellow Fever Viruses 17D Expressing Fragments of SIVmac239 Gag, Nef, and Vif in Indian Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

An effective vaccine remains the best solution to stop the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Cellular immune responses have been repeatedly associated with control of viral replication and thus may be an important element of the immune response that must be evoked by an efficacious vaccine. Recombinant viral vectors can induce potent T-cell responses. Although several viral vectors have been developed to deliver HIV genes, only a few have been advanced for clinical trials. The live-attenuated yellow fever vaccine virus 17D (YF17D) has many properties that make it an attractive vector for AIDS vaccine regimens. YF17D is well tolerated in humans and vaccination induces robust T-cell responses that persist for years. Additionally, methods to manipulate the YF17D genome have been established, enabling the generation of recombinant (r)YF17D vectors carrying genes from unrelated pathogens. Here, we report the generation of seven new rYF17D viruses expressing fragments of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239 Gag, Nef, and Vif. Studies in Indian rhesus macaques demonstrated that these live-attenuated vectors replicated in vivo, but only elicited low levels of SIV-specific cellular responses. Boosting with recombinant Adenovirus type-5 (rAd5) vectors resulted in robust expansion of SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, particularly those targeting Vif. Priming with rYF17D also increased the frequency of CD4+ cellular responses in rYF17D/rAd5-immunized macaques compared to animals that received rAd5 only. The effect of the rYF17D prime on the breadth of SIV-specific T-cell responses was limited and we also found evidence that some rYF17D vectors were more effective than others at priming SIV-specific T-cell responses. Together, our data suggest that YF17D – a clinically relevant vaccine vector – can be used to prime AIDS virus-specific T-cell responses in heterologous prime boost regimens. However, it will be important to optimize rYF17D-based vaccine regimens to ensure maximum delivery of all immunogens in a multivalent vaccine. PMID:23336000

Martins, Mauricio A.; Bonaldo, Myrna C.; Rudersdorf, Richard A.; Piaskowski, Shari M.; Rakasz, Eva G.; Weisgrau, Kim L.; Furlott, Jessica R.; Eernisse, Christopher M.; Veloso de Santana, Marlon G.; Hidalgo, Bertha; Friedrich, Thomas C.; Chiuchiolo, Maria J.; Parks, Christopher L.; Wilson, Nancy A.; Allison, David B.; Galler, Ricardo; Watkins, David I.

2013-01-01

223

A case of person-to-person transmission of Q fever from an active duty serviceman to his spouse.  

PubMed

Coxiella burnetii has recently gained military relevance given its potential as a bioterrorism agent, and the multiple cases reported among U.S. military personnel deployed to the Middle East. Sexual transmission of Q fever is rare but has been reported in the literature. We describe the possible sexual transmission of Q fever from a returning serviceman from Iraq to his wife. In a recent editorial commentary, Dr. Raoult wrote about the reemergence of Q fever after September 11, 2001 (Raoult 2009). Indeed, C. burnetii has gained military relevance given its potential as a bioterrorism agent and the multiple cases reported among military personnel deployed in Southwest/Central Asia and North Africa (Botros et al. 1995 , Meskini et al. 1995 , Leung-Shea and Danaher 2006 ). Human serosurveys in these geographic areas have reported prevalence rates for Q fever ranging from 10% to 37% in contrast to the United States, which has an estimated Q fever seroprevalence of 3.1% (Botros et al. 1995, Meskini et al. 1995, Anderson et al. 2009). There is no data available for Q fever seroprevalence in Iraq. As a consequence, native populations in these regions may be more likely to possess immunity, and newcomers, such as U.S. military personnel, would be vulnerable to acute infection (Derrick 1973). We report on the possible sexual transmission of C. burnetii from a serviceman in the late recovery of acute Q fever to his wife. PMID:20020811

Miceli, Marisa H; Veryser, Andrea Kay; Anderson, Alicia D; Hofinger, Diedre; Lee, Samuel A; Tancik, Corey

2010-06-01

224

Capacity building permitting comprehensive monitoring of a severe case of Lassa hemorrhagic fever in Sierra Leone with a positive outcome: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Lassa fever is a neglected tropical disease with a significant impact on the health care system of endemic West African nations. To date, case reports of Lassa fever have focused on laboratory characterisation of serological, biochemical and molecular aspects of the disease imported by infected individuals from Western Africa to the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan and Israel. Our report presents the first comprehensive real time diagnosis and characterization of a severe, hemorrhagic Lassa fever case in a Sierra Leonean individual admitted to the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward. Fever, malaise, unresponsiveness to anti-malarial and antibiotic drugs, followed by worsening symptoms and onset of haemorrhaging prompted medical officials to suspect Lassa fever. A recombinant Lassa virus protein based diagnostic was employed in diagnosing Lassa fever upon admission. This patient experienced a severe case of Lassa hemorrhagic fever with dysregulation of overall homeostasis, significant liver and renal system involvement, the interplay of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines during the course of hospitalization and an eventual successful outcome. These studies provide new insights into the pathophysiology and management of this viral illness and outline the improved infrastructure, research and real-time diagnostic capabilities within LASV endemic areas. PMID:21689444

2011-01-01

225

Pathology Case Study: Intermittent Confusion, Fever of Unknown Origin, and Lower Extremity Weakness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a hematopathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 67-year-old male has intermittent confusion, fever of unknown origin, and lower extremity weakness. Visitors are given microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Chung, Wen-Wei; Contis, Lydia C.; Gollin, Susanne M.; Martinez, A. Julio (Augusto Julio); Shekhter-Levin, Sofia

2009-08-06

226

A case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever with normal laboratory findings.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by Nairovirus, of the family Bunyaviridae. This is the first case report of a confirmed CCHF case without laboratory abnormality. A 36-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with the complaints of fever, chills, myalgia and vomiting. She was living in a CCHF-endemic region and had received a tick bite ten days previously. Her complaints had started five days after the tick bite, and bleeding of the nose and vagen followed. Under laboratory analysis, serum white blood cell (WBC) was 7300/mm3, haemoglobin (Hb)11.9 gr/dL, platelet (Plt) count 293000/mm3, aspartate transaminase (AST) was 23 U/L, alanine transaminase (ALT) 14 U/L, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 139 U/L, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) 39 U/L, INR 0.8 and APTT 26.2 seconds. Based on these clinical and epidemiological findings, a diagnosis of CCHF infection was suspected, and the diagnosis of CCHF was confirmed with a blood sample tested by TaqMan-based one-step RT-PCR positivity and IgM antibody positivity. We suggest that patients from an endemic region who have typical epidemiological and clinical findings should be evaluated as a possible case for CCHF even if the laboratory findings are not compatible. PMID:25269965

Sari, Tugba; Hatipoglu, Cigdem Ataman

2014-09-01

227

Typhoid fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typhoid fever is caused by infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The completion of the genome sequence of two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates is leading to new insights into the biology of this pathogen. Approximately 16 million cases occur\\u000a worldwide each year. The lack of culture facilities in endemic areas and the poor performance of the Widal test means

Christopher M. Parry

2004-01-01

228

Inactivation of classical swine fever virus in porcine casing preserved in salt.  

PubMed

Pig intestines used for the production of natural sausage casings may carry classical swine fever (CSF) virus. Feeding pigs with human food waste that contains pig casings may then spread the virus to CSF-free animals. Casings derived from a pig experimentally infected with CSF by dosing with 10(6) tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50) of the highly virulent CSF virus strain "Koslov", were treated with phosphate supplemented or citrate supplemented NaCl, instead of with NaCl alone, which is the standard preservation treatment for casings. Treated casings were stored for 30 days at either 4 degrees C or 20 degrees C. After storage the casings were fed to 16 susceptible pigs. CSF infection was confirmed in the four animals that had been fed casings treated with citrate supplemented salt and stored at 4 degrees C. All other animals remained healthy. It is therefore possible to avoid the inadvertent spread of CSF virus via porcine sausage casings by treating casings with phosphate supplemented salt and storing them for 30 days at temperatures over 4 degrees C. PMID:18947894

Wijnker, J J; Depner, K R; Berends, B R

2008-12-10

229

Neurological Involvement in Acute Q Fever A Report of 29 Cases and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Q fever is characterized by its clinical polymorphism; neurological involvement has occasion- ally been described. In the course of acute Q fever, neu- rological manifestations may include aseptic meningi- tis, encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, and peripheral neuropathy.

Emmanuelle Bernit; Jean Pouget; Francois Janbon; Philippe Martinez; Philippe Brouqui; Didier Raoult

2002-01-01

230

Review of cases of nosocomial Lassa fever in Nigeria: the high price of poor medical practice.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To investigate two hospital outbreaks of Lassa fever in southern central Nigeria. SETTING--Hospitals and clinics in urban and rural areas of Imo State, Nigeria. DESIGN--Medical records were reviewed in hospitals and clinics in both areas. Patients with presumed and laboratory confirmed Lassa fever were identified and contracts traced. Hospital staff, patients, and local residents were questioned, records were carefully reviewed, and serum samples were taken. Serum samples were assayed for antibody specific to Lassa virus, and isolates of Lassa virus were obtained. RESULTS--Among 34 patients with Lassa fever, including 20 patients, six nurses, two surgeons, one physician, and the son of a patient, there were 22 deaths (65% fatality rate). Eleven cases were laboratory confirmed, five by isolation of virus. Most patients had been exposed in hospitals (attack rate in patients in one hospital 55%). Both outbreak hospitals were inadequately equipped and staffed, with poor medical practice. Compelling, indirect evidence revealed that parenteral drug rounds with sharing of syringes, conducted by minimally educated and supervised staff, fuelled the epidemic among patients. Staff were subsequently infected during emergency surgery and while caring for nosocomially infected patients. CONCLUSION--This outbreak illustrates the high price exacted by the practice of modern medicine, particularly use of parenteral injections and surgery, without due attention to good medical practice. High priority must be given to education of medical staff in developing countries and to guidelines for safe operation of clinics and hospitals. Failure to do so will have far reaching, costly, and ultimately devastating consequences. PMID:7580496

Fisher-Hoch, S. P.; Tomori, O.; Nasidi, A.; Perez-Oronoz, G. I.; Fakile, Y.; Hutwagner, L.; McCormick, J. B.

1995-01-01

231

El Niño Southern Oscillation and vegetation dynamics as predictors of dengue fever cases in Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are growing health concerns throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. This study focuses on Costa Rica, which experienced over 100 000 cases of DF/DHF from 2003 to 2007. We utilized data on sea-surface temperature anomalies related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and two vegetation indices derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) from the Terra satellite to model the influence of climate and vegetation dynamics on DF/DHF cases in Costa Rica. Cross-correlations were calculated to evaluate both positive and negative lag effects on the relationships between independent variables and DF/DHF cases. The model, which utilizes a sinusoid and non-linear least squares to fit case data, was able to explain 83% of the variance in weekly DF/DHF cases when independent variables were shifted backwards in time. When the independent variables were shifted forward in time, consistently with a forecasting approach, the model explained 64% of the variance. Importantly, when five ENSO and two vegetation indices were included, the model reproduced a major DF/DHF epidemic of 2005. The unexplained variance in the model may be due to herd immunity and vector control measures, although information regarding these aspects of the disease system are generally lacking. Our analysis suggests that the model may be used to predict DF/DHF outbreaks as early as 40 weeks in advance and may also provide valuable information on the magnitude of future epidemics. In its current form it may be used to inform national vector control programs and policies regarding control measures; it is the first climate-based dengue model developed for this country and is potentially scalable to the broader region of Latin America and the Caribbean where dramatic increases in DF/DHF incidence and spread have been observed.

Fuller, D. O.; Troyo, A.; Beier, J. C.

2009-01-01

232

A Reassortant Bunyavirus Isolated from Acute Hemorrhagic Fever Cases in Kenya and Somalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 1997 and early 1998, a large outbreak of hemorrhagic fever occurred in East Africa. Clinical samples were collected in Kenya and southern Somalia, and 27 of 115 (23%) hemorrhagic fever patients tested showed evidence of acute infection with Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus as determined by IgM detection, virus isolation, detection of virus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain

Michael D. Bowen; Sam G. Trappier; Angela J. Sanchez; Richard F. Meyer; Cynthia S. Goldsmith; Sherif R. Zaki; Lee M. Dunster; C. J. Peters; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Stuart T. Nichol

2001-01-01

233

Guidance for contact tracing of cases of Lassa fever, Ebola or Marburg haemorrhagic fever on an airplane: results of a European expert consultation  

PubMed Central

Background Travel from countries where viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are endemic has increased significantly over the past decades. In several reported VHF events on airplanes, passenger trace back was initiated but the scale of the trace back differed considerably. The absence of guidance documents to help the decision on necessity and scale of the trace back contributed to this variation. This article outlines the recommendations of an expert panel on Lassa fever, Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever to the wider scientific community in order to advise the relevant stakeholders in the decision and scale of a possible passenger trace back. Method The evidence was collected through review of published literature and through the views of an expert panel. The guidance was agreed by consensus. Results Only a few events of VHF cases during air travel are reported in literature, with no documented infection in followed up contacts, so that no evidence of transmission of VHF during air travel exists to date. Based on this and the expert opinion, it was recommended that passenger trace back was undertaken only if: the index case had symptoms during the flight; the flight was within 21 days after detection of the event; and for Lassa fever if exposure of body fluid has been reported. The trace back should only be done after confirmation of the index case. Passengers and crew with direct contact, seat neighbours (+/? 1 seat), crew and cleaning personal of the section of the index case should be included in the trace back. Conclusion No evidence has been found for the transmission of VHF in airplanes. This information should be taken into account, when a trace back decision has to be taken, because such a measure produces an enormous work load. The procedure suggested by the expert group can guide decisions made in future events, where a patient with suspected VHF infection travelled on a plane. However, the actual decision on start and scale of a trace back always lies in the hands of the responsible people taking all relevant information into account. PMID:23170851

2012-01-01

234

Non-choroidal yellow melanoma showing positive staining with Sudan Black consistent with the presence of lipofuscin: a case report  

PubMed Central

A case of a predominantly yellow primary superficial spreading melanoma arising on the back of a 44-year-old woman is presented. Possible causes of the clinical and dermatoscopic yellow color are discussed. Staining with the histochemical stain, Sudan Black, revealed a differential uptake compared to a closely matched control melanoma. We speculate that the clinical and dermatoscopic yellow color could be due to the presence of increased amounts of the pigment lipofuscin, which is known to produce subtle orange color in some choroidal melanomas. PMID:24855574

Penouil, Marie Helene Jegou; Gourhant, Jean-Yves; Segretin, Catherine; Weedon, David; Rosendahl, Cliff

2014-01-01

235

Acute appendicitis complicated by mass formation occurring simultaneously with serologically proven dengue fever: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute abdomen and acute appendicitis are unusual clinical presentations that occur in dengue infection–caused illness. Lymphoid hyperplasia and mesenteric adenitis are possible explanations, although vasculitis in the pathology of dengue infection has not been reported. Authors of previous case reports have described mimicking of acute appendicitis discovered upon surgical treatment. Dengue virus has not been proven to cause acute appendicitis. Case presentation We report a case of an 8-year-old Sinhalese boy who developed acute appendicitis during the acute phase of serologically confirmed dengue fever. Although abdominal pain, vomiting and right-sided tenderness were present at the time of admission, a diagnosis of acute appendicitis was considered only 18 hours later, when abdominal guarding and a well-defined mass in the right iliac fossa were detected clinically and ultrasonographically. Conservative management with intravenous antibiotics was successful. Conclusion In areas where dengue is endemic, awareness of dengue viral infection as a non-surgical cause of acute abdomen, as well as its ability to mimic acute appendicitis, is important because unnecessary surgery-related morbidity can be decreased. However, delaying or missing the diagnosis of acute appendicitis can result in serious complications. This message is particularly relevant to clinicians, especially pediatricians and surgeons, who encounter large numbers of patients during dengue epidemics and run the risk of missing the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Likewise, delaying or missing the diagnosis of dengue hemorrhagic fever can lead to dengue shock syndrome and even death. This case highlights the need for careful evaluation of each patient who presents with acute abdomen and dengue infection. PMID:24708584

2014-01-01

236

[Viral haemorrhagic fever].  

PubMed

Viral haemorrhagic fever denotes various kinds of febrile illness caused by certain viruses which often presents with bleeding tendency and occasionally shock. Out of these, the four maladies, Lassa fever, Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Marburg haemorrhagic fever and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever which are endemically present in Africa or eastern Europe, are known to be such diseases with high man-to-man communicability. These four haemorrhagic fevers are, therefore, designated as special conditions requiring isolation during the period when the infected patients are shedding the viruses, not only in Japan but also in many other countries. We have so far only one such case of Lassa fever who returned to Japan from Sierra Leone in 1987. Some haemorrhagic fevers including dengue (haemorrhagic) fever and hantavirus infections (e.g. haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) are not known to be man-to-man transmissible and requiring no isolation. We have a number of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fevers here in Japan today among imported febrile cases from tropical or subtropical countries. Every physician should take viral haemorrhagic fevers into consideration as one of the possibilities in diagnosing patients returning from overseas travel. PMID:9283226

Masuda, G

1997-08-01

237

Acute and probable chronic Q fever during anti-TNF? and anti B-cell immunotherapy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Q fever is caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Initial infection can present as acute Q fever, while a minority of infected individuals develops chronic Q fever endocarditis or vascular infection months to years after initial infection. Serology is an important diagnostic tool for both acute and chronic Q fever. However, since immunosuppressive drugs may hamper the humoral immune response, diagnosis of Q fever might be blurred when these drugs are used. Case presentation A 71-year-old Caucasian male was diagnosed with symptomatic acute Q fever (based on positive C. burnetii PCR followed by seroconversion) while using anti-tumor necrosis factor-? (anti-TNF?) drugs for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). He was treated for two weeks with moxifloxacin. After 24 months of follow-up, the diagnosis of probable chronic Q fever was established based on increasing anti-C. burnetii phase I IgG antibody titres in a immunocompromised patient combined with clinical suspicion of endocarditis. At the time of chronic Q fever diagnosis, he had been treated with anti B-cell therapy for 16 months. Antibiotic therapy consisting of 1.5 years doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine was started and successfully completed and no signs of relapse were seen after more than one year of follow-up. Conclusion The use of anti-TNF? agents for RA in the acute phase of Q fever did not hamper the C. burnetii-specific serological response as measured by immunofluorescence assay. However, in the presented case, an intact humoral response did not prevent progression to probable chronic C. burnetii infection, most likely because essential cellular immune responses were suppressed during the acute phase of the infection. Despite the start of anti-B-cell therapy with rituximab after the acute Q fever episode, an increase in anti-C. burnetii phase I IgG antibodies was observed, supporting the notion that C. burnetii specific CD20-negative memory B-cells are responsible for this rise in antibody titres. PMID:24931640

2014-01-01

238

Capacity building permitting comprehensive monitoring of a severe case of Lassa hemorrhagic fever in Sierra Leone with a positive outcome: Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lassa fever is a neglected tropical disease with a significant impact on the health care system of endemic West African nations.\\u000a To date, case reports of Lassa fever have focused on laboratory characterisation of serological, biochemical and molecular\\u000a aspects of the disease imported by infected individuals from Western Africa to the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan and\\u000a Israel. Our report

Jessica N Grove; Luis M Branco; Matt L Boisen; Ivana J Muncy; Lee A Henderson; John S Schieffellin; James E Robinson; James J Bangura; Mbalu Fonnie; Randal J Schoepp; Lisa E Hensley; Alhassan Seisay; Joseph N Fair; Robert F Garry

2011-01-01

239

Imported viral haemorrhagic fever with a potential for person-to-person transmission: review and recommendations for initial management of a suspected case in Belgium.  

PubMed

Viral haemorrhagic fevers are caused by a wide range of viruses. There are 4 types of viruses well known to spread from person to person and able to cause nosocomial outbreaks with a high case fatality rate: an arenavirus (Lassa fever and more exceptionally the Junin and Machupo virus), a bunyavirus (Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever) and the Filoviridae (Ebola and Marburg viruses). So far there have been only a limited number of imported cases of viral haemorrhagic fever in industrialized countries. In recent years an increasing number of outbreaks of filovirus infections have occurred in Africa and in 2000 5 cases of Lassa fever were brought from Sierra Leone to Europe. Therefore European physicians should consider the possibility of a viral haemorrhagic fever in an acutely ill patient just returning from Africa or South-America with fever for which there is no obvious cause. Such patients should be questioned for risk factors for viral haemorrhagic fever. Using universal precautions for handling blood and body fluids and barrier nursing techniques there is little risk that if a patient with viral haemorrhagic fever arrives in Belgium there will be secondary cases. PMID:12534129

Colebunders, R; Van Esbroeck, M; Moreau, M; Borchert, M

2002-01-01

240

Relapsing fever  

MedlinePLUS

... weeks of infection. In LBRF, the fever usually lasts 3-6 days and is usually followed by a ... multiple episodes of fever occur and each may last up to 3 days. Individuals may be free of fever for ...

241

First attack of rheumatic fever in an adult: the case for greater awareness.  

PubMed Central

A 40 year old white woman presenting with rash, fever, and migratory polyarthralgia developed a symmetrical polyarthropathy and remained unwell for 10 weeks. Fulfilment of the revised Jones criteria reinforced the clinical diagnosis of rheumatic fever. Antistreptococcal antibodies peaked four to six weeks into the illness and declined thereafter. PMID:2125407

Farrell, A J; Zaphiropoulos, G C

1990-01-01

242

A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

2011-01-01

243

A climate-based spatiotemporal prediction for dengue fever epidemics: a case study in southern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dengue Fever (DF) has been identified by the World Health organization (WHO) as one of the most serious vector-borne infectious diseases in tropical and sub-tropical areas. DF has been one of the most important epidemics in Taiwan which occur annually especially in southern Taiwan during summer and autumn. Most DF studies have focused mainly on temporal DF patterns and its close association with climatic covariates, whereas few studies have investigated the spatial DF patterns (spatial dependence and clustering) and composite space-time effects of the DF epidemics. The present study proposes a spatio-temporal DF prediction approach based on stochastic Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) analysis. Core and site-specific knowledge bases are considered, including climate and health datasets under conditions of uncertainty, space-time dependence functions, and a Poisson regression model of climatic variables contributing to DF occurrences in southern Taiwan during 2007, when the highest number of DF cases was recorded in the history of Taiwan epidemics (over 2000). The obtained results show that the DF outbreaks in the study area are highly influenced by climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis can provide the required "one-week-ahead" outbreak warnings based on spatio-temporal predictions of DF distributions. Therefore, the proposed analysis can provide the Taiwan Disease Control Agency with a valuable tool to timely identify, control, and even efficiently prevent DF spreading across space-time.

Yu, H.-L.; Yang, S.-J.; Lin, Y.-C.

2012-04-01

244

A Case Report of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Ostriches in Iran  

PubMed Central

Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonosis, which is usually transmitted via tick bites or close contact with infected blood or tissue. This disease can cause a case fatality rate of up to 25%-30% in humans. CCHF Infection in birds is less documented. An ostrich can reproduce viruses and can also play the role of a mechanical vector, by transporting infected ticks without becoming ill. In March 2007, three butchers and one worker in an ostrich farm were infected with CCHF in central part of Iran. Considering the role ostriches play in transmitting the disease, serum samples from five ostriches of that farm were taken and sent to the laboratory for CCHF ELISA tests. The result of the IgG test was positive for one (20%) of the ostriches. At the same time, serum samples of eight sheep from the same farm were sent for IgG testing, two (25%) of which were positive. This was the first report of CCHF infection of an ostrich in Iran and tracing CCHF IgG against this ostrich and the afore-mentioned sheep may have revealed that the disease in the worker was the cause of transmission of this disease from these animals or their ticks. PMID:24015162

Mostafavi, Ehsan; Chinikar, Sadegh; Moradi, Maryam; Bayat, Neda; Meshkat, Mohsen; Fard, Mohammad Khalili; Ghiasi, Seyyed Mojtaba

2013-01-01

245

Eating seeds from the 'be still' tree, yet having lucky nut poisoning: a case of acute yellow oleander poisoning.  

PubMed

A 25-year-old woman was evaluated and treated for ingestion of Thevetia peruviana seeds and flower petals-a natural digoxin cross reacting cardinolide-with intent to cause self-harm. The following case report provides the clinical presentation, treatment and management of acute yellow oleander poisoning. PMID:24898992

Fentanes, Emilio

2014-01-01

246

BIOPSY PROVEN ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS DUE TO RHABDOMYOLYSIS IN A DENGUE FEVER PATIENT: A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE  

PubMed Central

Renal histology results are very scarce in dengue-associated rhabdomyolysis patients developing acute kidney injury (AKI). We report a case of dengue fever-induced AKI associated to rhabdomyolysis with a renal biopsy showing acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and renal deposition of myoglobin. A 28-year-old patient who presented dengue fever (DF) complicated by severe AKI and rhabdomyolysis is described. The patient required hemodialysis for three weeks. A renal biopsy revealed ATN with positive staining for myoglobin in the renal tubuli. The patient was discharged with recovered renal function. In conclusion, this case report described a biopsy proven ATN associated to DF-induced rhabdomyolysis, in which renal deposition of myoglobin was demonstrated. We suggest that serum creatine phosphokinase should be monitored in DF patients to allow for an early diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis and the institution of renal protective measures. PMID:24553615

Repizo, Liliany P.; Malheiros, Denise M.; Yu, Luis; Barros, Rui T.; Burdmann, Emmanuel A.

2014-01-01

247

Q fever — a review  

PubMed Central

Q or “query” fever is a zoonosis caused by the organism Coxiella burnetii. Cattle, sheep and goats are the most common reservoirs of this organism. The placenta of infected animals contains high numbers (up to 109/g) of C. burnetii. Aerosols occur at the time of parturition and man becomes infected following inhalation of the microorganism. The spectrum of illness in man is wide and consists of acute and chronic forms. Acute Q fever is most often a self-limited flu-like illness but may include pneumonia, hepatitis, or meningoencephalitis. Chronic Q fever almost always means endocarditis and rarely osteomyelitis. Chronic Q fever is not known to occur in animals other than man. An increased abortion and stillbirth rate are seen in infected domestic ungulates. Four provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Alberta) reported cases of Q fever in 1989. A vaccine for Q fever has recently been licensed in Australia. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17423643

Marrie, Thomas J.

1990-01-01

248

A case of adult periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome associated with endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PFAPA is an acronym for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis. This syndrome has been usually\\u000a described in pediatric patients and it generally resolves spontaneously. The endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis\\u000a (EPG) is a glomerular injury characterized by hypercellularity in glomerular lumen and is caused by post-infectious or autoimmune\\u000a diseases. In this paper, we describe the case of a 35-year-old

Massimiliano Cazzato; Rossella Neri; Niccolo Possemato; Rodolfo Puccini; Stefano Bombardieri

249

Chloramphenicol resistant enteric fever.  

PubMed

In recent times there have been several reports of chloramphenicol resistant enteric fever necessitating the use of other antimicrobial agents. Clinical profile of 15 chloramphenicol resistant patients of enteric fever was studied. Three such patients (20%) responded to chloramphenicol despite in vitro resistance to the drug. Hence chloramphenicol still remains the drug of first choice in enteric fever as a majority (68.4%--26 out of 38) of our bacteriologically proven enteric fever patients were cured by the drug. The remaining 12 cases responded satisfactorily to ciprofloxacin (46.7%), gentamicin (20%), and ofloxacin (13.3%). There was an increased incidence of complications among the 15 drug resistant cases as compared to 23 cases of chloramphenicol sensitive enteric fever observed during the same period. PMID:8491971

Chakravorty, B; Jain, N; Gupta, B; Rajvanshi, P; Sen, M K; Krishna, A

1993-01-01

250

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typhoid fever is estimated to have caused 21·6 million illnesses and 216 500 deaths globally in 2000, affecting all ages. There is also one case of paratyphoid fever for every four of typhoid. The global emergence of multidrug- resistant strains and of strains with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones is of great concern. We discuss the occurrence of poor clinical response

MK Bhan; Rajiv Bahl; Shinjini Bhatnagar

2005-01-01

251

[Symptomatic intermittent fever of inflammatory diseases].  

PubMed

Intermittent fever has a wide variety of causes such as infectious, cancers, or inflammatory disease. Intermittent fever is sometimes a diagnostic challenge when fever appears as the first and isolated sign of the disease. Adult onset Still disease and juvenile chronic arthritis are mainly the most common cause of intermittent inflammatory fever. Some frequent diseases gives intermittent fever in few cases like ankylosing spondylitis, pulmonary embolism, sarcoidosis or Crohn's disease. Some rare inflammatory disease gives typical intermittent fever like genetic periodic fever. Other rare diseases give sometimes intermittent fever like vasculitis, polychondritis, Castleman disease, etc. Drug fever and factitious fever are other classical causes of intermittent fever. Diagnosis of inflammatory intermittent fever is frequently based on the clinical course but some biological tests and computerized tomographic scans are worthwhile tools. Follow-up of undiagnosed cases is needed. PMID:11915560

Hachulla, Eric

2002-01-15

252

Erysipelas-like erythema of familial Mediterranean fever syndrome: a case report with emphasis on histopathologic diagnostic clues.  

PubMed

We report histopathological findings in a case of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) syndrome with an erysipelas-like erythema (ELE). ELE is the only pathognomic cutaneous manifestation of FMF. ELE is characterized by well-demarcated, tender, erythematous and infiltrated plaques recurring on the same site and resolving spontaneously within 48-72 h. FMF is a monogenic autoinflammatory syndrome highlighted by recurrent fever associated with polyserositis involving mainly the peritoneum, synovium and pleura. FMF results from a mutation of the MEFV gene, which encodes for pyrin, leading to Il-1? activation and promoting neutrophil migration into the dermis. Histopathological findings in our case showed a sparse superficial perivascular and interstitial lymphocytic infiltrate admixed with some neutrophils, no eosinophils and mild papillary dermal edema. Venules and lymphatics were dilated, though no vasculitis was identified. Neutrophils are the most common cutaneous marker of autoinflammation, and cutaneous manifestations of monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes are represented by the spectrum of aseptic neutrophilic dermatoses. Neutrophils in the presence of recurrent fever and in the correct clinical context of recurrent erysipelas in the same site are a diagnostic clue for FMF. PMID:23521609

Kolivras, Athanassios; Provost, Philippe; Thompson, Curtis T

2013-06-01

253

Viral hemorrhagic fever cases in the country of Georgia: Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance Study results.  

PubMed

Minimal information is available on the incidence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus and hantavirus infections in Georgia. From 2008 to 2011, 537 patients with fever ? 38°C for ? 48 hours without a diagnosis were enrolled into a sentinel surveillance study to investigate the incidence of nine pathogens, including CCHF virus and hantavirus. Of 14 patients with a hemorrhagic fever syndrome, 3 patients tested positive for CCHF virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Two of the patients enrolled in the study had acute renal failure. These 2 of 537 enrolled patients were the only patients in the study positive for hantavirus IgM antibodies. These results suggest that CCHF virus and hantavirus are contributing causes of acute febrile syndromes of infectious origin in Georgia. These findings support introduction of critical diagnostic approaches and confirm the need for additional surveillance in Georgia. PMID:24891463

Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Imnadze, Paata; Chokheli, Maiko; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Endeladze, Marina; Mshvidobadze, Ketevan; Clark, Danielle V; Bautista, Christian T; Abdel Fadeel, Moustafa; Pimentel, Guillermo; House, Brent; Hepburn, Matthew J; Wölfel, Silke; Wölfel, Roman; Rivard, Robert G

2014-08-01

254

Hemorrhagic fever viruses.  

PubMed

This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management of patients with suspected or confirmed viral hemorrhagic fever infection. The focus is on clinical management based on case series from naturally occuring outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever infection as well as imported cases of viral hemorrhagic fever encountered in industrialized nations. The potential risk of bioterrorism involving these agents is discussed as well as emergency department and critical care management of isolated cases or larger outbreaks. Important aspects of management, including recognition of infected patients, isolation and decontamination procedures, as well as available vaccines and therapies are emphasized. PMID:16168314

Pigott, David C

2005-10-01

255

Q fever.  

PubMed

Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the pathogen Coxiella burnetii causing acute and chronic clinical manifestations. The name "Q fever" derives from "Query fever" and was given in 1935 following an outbreak of febrile illness in an abattoir in Queensland, Australia. C burnetii is considered a potential agent of bioterrorism (class B by the Centers for Disease Control). PMID:18755387

Tissot-Dupont, Hervé; Raoult, Didier

2008-09-01

256

Bio-optical properties of high chlorophyll Case 1 waters and of yellow-substance-dominated Case 2 waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Case 1 waters with high chlorophyll content can be encountered as soon as the nutrient availability is high enough and the terrestrial influence by land drainage is negligible. Offshore oceanic blooms and upwelling zones along arid coasts are instances of such waters. Their bio-optical properties are less documented compared to those of mesotrophic or oligotrophic waters. A coherent set of measurements of bio-geochemical properties (algal pigments, suspended particulate matter), inherent optical properties (absorption and scattering by water bodies and by particulate material), and apparent optical properties (hyperspectral reflectance and diffuse attenuation coefficients) was obtained within the Benguela Current, i.e. in an upwelling area with arid climate and no runoff. These data allow the bio-optical relationships in eutrophic Case 1 waters to be analyzed, and their natural variability to be compared with that previously observed in less productive waters. In addition, a comparison between eutrophic Case 1 waters and yellow substance dominated Case 2 waters can be made, since such waters are also present in the area under investigation. The coherence between the inherent and apparent optical properties is also analyzed via inversion. Despite some deficiencies in their parameterization, the existing bio-optical models for Case 1 waters were proven to be valid such that they can be extended without significant discontinuities toward the domain of high concentration (up to 30 mg m -3). In particular, those models in use for the interpretation of remotely sensed ocean color continue to apply, even if the sensitivity of current algorithms for the chlorophyll retrieval weakens owing to inescapable physical limitations in the case of high concentrations.

Morel, André; Gentili, Bernard; Chami, Malik; Ras, Joséphine

2006-09-01

257

Surgical Treatment of Intractable Intestinal Hemorrhage in Typhoid Fever: Report of a Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Intestinal hemorrhage is one of the major causes of death in typhoid and paratyphoid fevers, accounting for about 20% of the deaths. Death occurs when the intestinal hemorrhage cannot be controlled by medical measures including the administration of hemostatic agents, blood vessel wall strengtheners, blood transfusion and even corticosteroids. Search of available literature failed to reveal any report of

Elpidio L. Gamboa; Teodoro Nuguid; Antonio A. Celis; Bun Yok; O. Dy; Manuel Chua Chiaco

258

Fever of undetermined origin in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Brazil: report on 55 cases.  

PubMed

The medical records of patients with AIDS admitted to a general hospital in Brazil from 1989 to 1997 were reviewed retrospectively with the aim at defining the frequency and etiology of fever of undetermined origin (FUO) in HIV-infected patients of a tropical country and to evaluate the usefulness of the main diagnostic procedures. 188 (58.4%) out of 322 patients reported fever at admission to hospital and 55 (17.1%) had FUO. Those with FUO had a mean CD4+ cell count of 98/ml. A cause of fever was identified for 45 patients (81.8%). Tuberculosis (32.7%), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (10.9%), and Mycobacterium avium complex (9.1%) were the most frequent diagnoses. Other infectious diseases are also of note, such as cryptococcal meningitis (5.5%), sinusitis (3.6%), Salmonella-S. mansoni association (3.6%), disseminated histoplasmosis (3.6%), neurosyphilis (1.8%), and isosporiasis (1.8%). Four patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (7.3%). We conclude that an initial aggressive diagnostic approach should be always considered because biopsies (lymph node, liver and bone marrow) produced the highest yield in the diagnosis of FUO and the majority of the diagnosed diseases are treatable. The association of diseases is common and have contributed to delay the final diagnosis of FUO in most cases. In our study area the routine request of hemocultures for Salmonella infection and the investigation of cryptococcal antigen in the serum should be considered. PMID:10436667

Lambertucci, J R; Rayes, A A; Nunes, F; Landazuri-Palacios, J E; Nobre, V

1999-01-01

259

Hemophagocytosis in a case with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and an overview of possible pathogenesis with current evidence.  

PubMed

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a clinicopathologic condition characterized by high fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia, hyperferritinemia, and increased hemophagocytic macrophage proliferation and activation in the reticuloendothelial system. Primary HLH is familial and is a fatal disease that begins during early childhood. Secondary HLH may be acquired after intense activation of the immune system due to infection. Clinical and biologic symptoms result from cytokines secreted by T-lymphocytes and macrophages. Subtypes of primary HLH are caused by genetic defects in several cell types, including perforin-dependent cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. Secondary HLH is often associated with intracellular pathogen infections. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by a tick-borne virus, Nairovirus, from the Bunyaviridae family. It is characterized by a poor prognosis and has a high mortality. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy living in a CCHF-endemic area with no history of tick exposure. He presented with fever, and laboratory tests showed bicytopenia and hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow aspiration. Blood samples were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-negative for CCFH but immunoglobulin (Ig)M-positive. In conclusion, patients with hemophagocytosis should be assessed for CCHF during the evaluation of cytopenia. PMID:24217086

B?çakç?, Zafer; Tavil, Betül; Tezer, Hasan; Olcay, Lale

2013-01-01

260

Combined transcatheter managements of a huge spontaneous iliac pseudoaneurysm presenting with fever of unknown origin: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction We present a successful combined endovascular repair of a rare huge spontaneous pseudoaneurysm in a patient troubled solely with fever of unknown origin. Case presentation A 79-year-old Chinese man complained of repeated episodes of fever for 10 days. His medical history, physical examination and laboratory tests were not significant. Routine antibiotics were given for suspected sepsis lasting 4 weeks without clinical improvement. Finally, an 81.9×61.6mm iliac pseudoaneurysm was found. The pseudoaneurysm originated from his left iliac arteries and covered the bifurcation of the left common iliac artery and proximal ends of both internal and external iliac arteries. A combination of endovascular repair with coil embolization and stent graft implantation was successfully performed. He underwent an uneventful recovery. Conclusions Spontaneous pseudoaneurysm with fever of unknown origin should not be ignored, especially for patients with a high risk for atherosclerosis. Combined transcatheter managements might be an alternative approach to deal with complex pseudoaneurysms, effectively and safely. PMID:24708630

2014-01-01

261

A case of adult periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome associated with endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis.  

PubMed

PFAPA is an acronym for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis. This syndrome has been usually described in pediatric patients and it generally resolves spontaneously. The endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis (EPG) is a glomerular injury characterized by hypercellularity in glomerular lumen and is caused by post-infectious or autoimmune diseases. In this paper, we describe the case of a 35-year-old man affected by PFAPA and EPG. To our knowledge this association has never been reported in the literature before. PMID:20225048

Cazzato, Massimiliano; Neri, Rossella; Possemato, Niccolo; Puccini, Rodolfo; Bombardieri, Stefano

2013-03-01

262

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: case series from a medical center in Golestan province, Northeast of Iran (2004).  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widely distributed lethal disease, worldwide. Humans are usually infected with CCHF virus through a tick bite or close contact with viral contaminated tissues or with blood of domestic animals or of infected patients. The present study reports six cases of CCHF, who were in contact with both infected tissues and blood from sheep. In some regions like Golestan province (North of Iran), clinician suspicion may have an important role in early diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Conservative therapy (intensive monitoring) and prescription of antiviral medication (Ribavirin) accompanied with corticosteroids, was useful at the early stage of CCHF. PMID:16864919

Jabbari, Ali; Besharat, Sima; Abbasi, Abdollah; Moradi, Abdolvahhab; Kalavi, Khodaberdi

2006-08-01

263

Study on the Prevalence of Leptospirosis among Fever Cases Reported from Private Clinics in the Urban areas of Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To know the prevalence of leptospirosis cases reported in private clinics among fever cases in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India to know its real magnitude of the problem and to diagnose Leptospirosis among fever cases from differential diagnosis. Methods 1502 Blood serum samples collected from three urban towns namely Kallakurichi (Latitude: 11° 73? N; Longitude: 78° 97? E), Villupuram (Latitude: 11° 75? N; Longitude: 79° 92? E) and Thindivanam (Latitude: 12° 25? N; Longitude: 79° 65? E) in fifteen clinics based on case definition of leptospirosis delineated by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Government of India. Samples were tested in the laboratory of the Zonal Entomological Team (ZET), Cuddalore with Macroscopic Slide Agglutination Test (MSAT) and Ig-M ELISA. Result There were 65 positive cases detected from 1502 blood serum samples in both MSAT and Ig-M ELISA. It could be known that there was 4% cases contributed from private clinics among fever cases. From this study, further it was known that all age groups of people affected irrespective of sexes based on their living condition associated with the environment prevailed of the disease. Conclusion From this study, it was quantified that 4% of cases reported in private clinics among fever cases and its findings ascertained both the importance of differential diagnosis as well as reports that should be included to the Government for knowing its real magnitude for planning. PMID:24955313

Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Kolandaswamy, Karumana Gounder

2014-01-01

264

Characteristics of human sperm chromatin structure following an episode of influenza and high fever: a case study.  

PubMed

Semen samples from a fertile patient presenting with influenza and a 1-day fever of 39.9 degrees C were obtained and analyzed at 18-66 days postfever (dpf) for sperm nuclear proteins, DNA stainability, free thiols (-SH), and susceptibility to DNA denaturation in situ. At 18 dpf, 36% of sperm demonstrated denatured DNA as measured by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), and decreased to 23% by 39 dpf. Samples at 33 and 39 dpf contained 49% and 30%, respectively, of cells with increased DNA stainability (HIGRN). A unique sperm nuclear protein band migrating between histones and protamines on acid-urea gels appeared at 33 and 39 dpf and nearly disappeared by 52 dpf. Amino acid sequencing of the first 8 N-terminal residues identified this protein as the precursor to protamine 2. The protamine P1 and P2 ratio remained normal, whereas the histone to protamine ratio increased slightly at 33 to 39 dpf. Flow cytometric measurements of nuclear -SH groups revealed the greatest reduction in free nuclear thiols at 33 dpf, and returned to normal by 45 dpf. The time of appearance of the unprocessed protamine 2 precursor and the relative increase in histone suggest a fever-related disruption of the synthesis of mRNA that codes for a P2 processing enzyme or enzymes. Increased DNA staining is likely due to the increased histone/protamine ratio. This case study demonstrates that fever/influenza can have latent effects on sperm chromatin structure and may result in transient release of abnormal sperm. PMID:10975421

Evenson, D P; Jost, L K; Corzett, M; Balhorn, R

2000-01-01

265

Improving the power to detect risk variants for allergic disease by defining case-control status based on both asthma and hay Fever.  

PubMed

Asthma and hay fever are likely to share hundreds if not thousands of genetic risk variants. Despite this, the extent to which the power to identify shared risk variants could be improved by considering information from both diseases when designing or analyzing genetic studies has not been studied in detail. Simulations were performed to quantify the power to detect an association between case-control status and a bi-allelic risk variant shared between asthma and hay fever across a range of disease and genetic models, as well as different ascertainment and analytical strategies. For a fixed sample size, when designing a new genome-wide association study (GWAS), selecting for genotyping cases with both asthma and hay fever (A+H+), and controls with neither disease (A-H-) was the study design that provided the greatest power to identify a shared risk variant. On the other hand, when analyzing an existing GWAS, power was greatest across a wide range of scenarios, when cases were defined as individuals who suffered from either disease (A+ or H+) and controls as those who suffered from neither (A-H-). Bivariate analysis of asthma and hay fever provided comparable but slightly decreased power. In conclusion, new GWAS can be designed and existing GWAS reanalyzed more efficiently to identify risk variants for allergic disease by using ascertainment or analytical strategies that consider both asthma and hay fever information. PMID:25296694

Ferreira, Manuel A R

2014-12-01

266

Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern sierra leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report  

PubMed Central

Lassa fever (LF) is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW) in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and real time characterization of an acute hemorrhagic LF case at KGH LFW. This case report focuses on a third trimester pregnant Sierra Leonean woman from the historically non-endemic Northern district of Tonkolili who survived the illness despite fetal demise. Employed in this study were newly developed recombinant LASV Antigen Rapid Test cassettes and dipstick lateral flow immunoassays (LFI) that enabled the diagnosis of LF within twenty minutes of sample collection. Deregulation of overall homeostasis, significant hepatic and renal system involvement, and immunity profiles were extensively characterized during the course of hospitalization. Rapid diagnosis, prompt treatment with a full course of intravenous (IV) ribavirin, IV fluids management, and real time monitoring of clinical parameters resulted in a positive maternal outcome despite admission to the LFW seven days post onset of symptoms, fetal demise, and a natural still birth delivery. These studies solidify the growing rapid diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance capabilities at the KGH LF Laboratory, and the potential to significantly improve the current high mortality rate caused by LF. As a result of the growing capacity, we were also able to isolate Lassa virus (LASV) RNA from the patient and perform Sanger sequencing where we found significant genetic divergence from commonly circulating Sierra Leonean strains, showing potential for the discovery of a newly emerged LASV strain with expanded geographic distribution. Furthermore, recent emergence of LF cases in Northern Sierra Leone highlights the need for superior diagnostics to aid in the monitoring of LASV strain divergence with potentially increased geographic expansion. PMID:21843352

2011-01-01

267

Pathogenesis of the viral hemorrhagic fevers.  

PubMed

Four families of enveloped RNA viruses, filoviruses, flaviviruses, arenaviruses, and bunyaviruses, cause hemorrhagic fevers. These viruses are maintained in specific natural cycles involving nonhuman primates, bats, rodents, domestic ruminants, humans, mosquitoes, and ticks. Vascular instability varies from mild to fatal shock, and hemorrhage ranges from none to life threatening. The pathogenic mechanisms are extremely diverse and include deficiency of hepatic synthesis of coagulation factors owing to hepatocellular necrosis, cytokine storm, increased permeability by vascular endothelial growth factor, complement activation, and disseminated intravascular coagulation in one or more hemorrhagic fevers. The severity of disease caused by these agents varies tremendously; there are extremely high fatality rates in Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, and asymptomatic infection predominates in yellow fever and dengue viral infections. Although ineffective immunity and high viral loads are characteristic of several viral hemorrhagic fevers, severe plasma leakage occurs at the time of viral clearance and defervescence in dengue hemorrhagic fever. PMID:23121052

Paessler, Slobodan; Walker, David H

2013-01-24

268

Acupuncture therapy for fever induced by viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in military medical service: a case series.  

PubMed

We report the cases of eight military patients with fever (?38°C) induced by viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) who requested treatment with acupuncture in the military medical service room. All patients were treated immediately after diagnosis with classical acupuncture (GV14, GB20, TE8 points) and a new type of acupuncture, equilibrium acupuncture (Feibing and Ganmao points). After one treatment session (20?min), reduction of body temperature was confirmed in all patients. Accompanying symptoms such as headache, myalgia and nasal obstruction also showed a tendency to decrease. Within 3?days of treatment, six of the eight patients had recovered from the URTI. No adverse effects of acupuncture treatment were reported. PMID:25267729

Kwon, SeungWon; Shin, KyoungHo; Jung, WooSang; Moon, SangKwan; Cho, KiHo

2014-12-01

269

Case management of malaria fever in Cambodia: results from national anti-malarial outlet and household surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Continued progress towards global reduction in morbidity and mortality due to malaria requires scale-up of effective case management with artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT). The first case of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum was documented in western Cambodia. Spread of artemisinin resistance would threaten recent gains in global malaria control. As such, the anti-malarial market and malaria case management practices in Cambodia have global significance. Methods Nationally-representative household and outlet surveys were conducted in 2009 among areas in Cambodia with malaria risk. An anti-malarial audit was conducted among all public and private outlets with the potential to sell anti-malarials. Indicators on availability, price and relative volumes sold/distributed were calculated across types of anti-malarials and outlets. The household survey collected information about management of recent "malaria fevers." Case management in the public versus private sector, and anti-malarial treatment based on malaria diagnostic testing were examined. Results Most public outlets (85%) and nearly half of private pharmacies, clinics and drug stores stock ACT. Oral artemisinin monotherapy was found in pharmacies/clinics (9%), drug stores (14%), mobile providers (4%) and grocery stores (2%). Among total anti-malarial volumes sold/distributed nationally, 6% are artemisinin monotherapies and 72% are ACT. Only 45% of people with recent "malaria fever" reportedly receive a diagnostic test, and the most common treatment acquired is a drug cocktail containing no identifiable anti-malarial. A self-reported positive diagnostic test, particularly when received in the public sector, improves likelihood of receiving anti-malarial treatment. Nonetheless, anti-malarial treatment of reportedly positive cases is low among people who seek treatment exclusively in the public (61%) and private (42%) sectors. Conclusions While data on the anti-malarial market shows favourable progress towards replacing artemisinin monotherapies with ACT, the widespread use of drug cocktails to treat malaria is a barrier to effective case management. Significant achievements have been made in availability of diagnostic testing and effective treatment in the public and private sectors. However, interventions to improve case management are urgently required, particularly in the private sector. Evidence-based interventions that target provider and consumer behaviour are needed to support uptake of diagnostic testing and treatment with full-course first-line anti-malarials. PMID:22039922

2011-01-01

270

Rheumatic fever  

MedlinePLUS

... or warmth Nosebleeds ( epistaxis ) Skin nodules Skin rash (erythema marginatum) Skin eruption on the trunk and upper ... Rapid, jerky movements (chorea, Sydenham chorea ) Skin rash (erythema marginatum) The minor criteria include: Fever High ESR ...

271

Hay Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... and throat. This can trigger a type of allergy called hay fever. Symptoms can include Sneezing, often ... to use distilled or sterilized water with saline. Allergy shots can help make you less sensitive to ...

272

Q fever  

MedlinePLUS

... the bacteria Coxiella burnetii . The bacteria infects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks , as well as some other animals. Infected animals shed this bacteria in: Birth products Feces Milk Urine Humans usually get Q fever by breathing ...

273

Typhoid fever in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the reports of salmonellosis by investigators in different parts of Ethiopia, in particular focusing on the levels of typhoid fever. Many of the reports are published in local journals that are not available online. There have been seven studies which diagnosed typhoid fever by laboratory culture and there is no coordinated epidemiological surveillance. All conducted research and reports from different health institutions in Ethiopia indicate that typhoid fever was still a common problem up to the most recent study in 2000 and that the extensive use of first-line drugs has led to the development of multiple drug resistance. In the sites covered by this review, the total number of published cases of typhoid fever dropped over time reflecting the decline in research capacity in the country. Data on the proportion of patients infected by different serovars of Salmonella suggest that the non-Typhi serovars of Salmonella are increasing. The published evidence suggests that typhoid fever is a current public health problem in Ethiopia although population based surveys, based on good microbiological diagnosis, are urgently needed. Only then can the true burden of enteric fever be estimated and the benefit of public health control measures, such as health education, safe water provision, improved food hygienic practices and eventually vaccination, be properly assessed. PMID:19745522

Beyene, Getenet; Asrat, Daniel; Mengistu, Yohannes; Aseffa, Abrham; Wain, John

2008-01-01

274

Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of haemorrhagic fever viruses and bioterrorism-related haemorrhagic fever viruses.  

PubMed

Haemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are a diverse group of viruses that cause a clinical disease associated with fever and bleeding disorder. HFVs that are associated with a potential biological threat are Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), Lassa fever and New World arenaviruses (Machupo, Junin, Guanarito and Sabia viruses) (Arenaviridae), Rift Valley fever (Bunyaviridae) and yellow fever, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, and Kyanasur Forest disease (Flaviviridae). In terms of biological warfare concerning dengue, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and Hantaviruses, there is not sufficient knowledge to include them as a major biological threat. Dengue virus is the only one of these that cannot be transmitted via aerosol. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and the agents of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome appear difficult to weaponise. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment and the prophylaxis of the arenaviruses and the bunyaviruses, but is not effective for the other families. All patients must be isolated and receive intensive supportive therapy. PMID:15677844

Bossi, Philippe; Tegnell, Anders; Baka, Agoritsa; Van Loock, Frank; Hendriks, Jan; Werner, Albrecht; Maidhof, Heinrich; Gouvras, Georgios

2004-12-01

275

Q Fever  

PubMed Central

Q fever is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution with the exception of New Zealand. The disease is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a strictly intracellular, gram-negative bacterium. Many species of mammals, birds, and ticks are reservoirs of C. burnetii in nature. C. burnetii infection is most often latent in animals, with persistent shedding of bacteria into the environment. However, in females intermittent high-level shedding occurs at the time of parturition, with millions of bacteria being released per gram of placenta. Humans are usually infected by contaminated aerosols from domestic animals, particularly after contact with parturient females and their birth products. Although often asymptomatic, Q fever may manifest in humans as an acute disease (mainly as a self-limited febrile illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis) or as a chronic disease (mainly endocarditis), especially in patients with previous valvulopathy and to a lesser extent in immunocompromised hosts and in pregnant women. Specific diagnosis of Q fever remains based upon serology. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antiphase II antibodies are detected 2 to 3 weeks after infection with C. burnetii, whereas the presence of IgG antiphase I C. burnetii antibodies at titers of ?1:800 by microimmunofluorescence is indicative of chronic Q fever. The tetracyclines are still considered the mainstay of antibiotic therapy of acute Q fever, whereas antibiotic combinations administered over prolonged periods are necessary to prevent relapses in Q fever endocarditis patients. Although the protective role of Q fever vaccination with whole-cell extracts has been established, the population which should be primarily vaccinated remains to be clearly identified. Vaccination should probably be considered in the population at high risk for Q fever endocarditis. PMID:10515901

Maurin, M.; Raoult, D.

1999-01-01

276

Polyarteritis nodosa and Henoch–Schönlein purpura nephritis in a child with familial Mediterranean fever: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent self-limited attacks of fever accompanied\\u000a by peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis. Approximately 5% of individuals with familial Mediterranean fever have been reported\\u000a to have Henoch–Schonlein purpura and about 1% to have polyarteritis nodosa. A 7-year-old girl presenting with complaints of\\u000a purpuric rash, abdominal pain, arthritis, hematuria, and proteinuria and having

Ilknur Girisgen; Ferah Sonmez; Kutsi Koseoglu; Seda Erisen; Dilek Y?lmaz

277

Genome Sequence of Ex-Afghanistan Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus SCT Strain, from an Imported United Kingdom Case in October 2012.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a serious human pathogen causing severe hemorrhagic disease with a fatality rate of up to approximately 30%. We have determined the viral genomic sequence from an isolate that caused a fatal case of imported CCHF in the United Kingdom in October 2012. PMID:23682136

Chamberlain, John; Atkinson, Barry; Logue, Christopher H; Latham, Jennie; Newman, Edmund N C; Hewson, Roger

2013-01-01

278

Spatio-temporal variations of precipitation in arid and semiarid regions of China: The Yellow River basin as a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily precipitation data from 64 precipitation gauging stations within the Yellow River basin were analyzed by defining 17 precipitation indices with the aim to investigate space and time changes in precipitation characteristics. The modified Mann-Kendall trend test method was used to detect trends in the precipitation series. The influence of Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) on the basin precipitation was also investigated. Results indicate that: (1) the Yellow River basin is dominated by decreasing precipitation and precipitation deficit may further deteriorate the shortage of water resources. The middle Yellow River basin may encounter increasingly serious shortage of water resources and higher risk of floods would be expected in the lower Yellow River basin; (2) a higher risk of droughts can be expected in spring and autumn and precipitation in winter is increasing, which imply evident seasonality and seasonal shifts of precipitation changes within the basin; (3) short-duration consecutive precipitation events are prevalent in the basin and frequency and amount of short-duration consecutive precipitation events are increasing; (4) precipitation extremes are not dominant in the Yellow River basin, except for some regions in the North China Plain and rainstorm events are generally decreasing; and (5) no evident impact of IPO on the precipitation in the Yellow River basin is found. In this case, precipitation deficit would be a major problem the basin-scale water resources management may face in the future.

Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Juntai; Singh, Vijay P.; Li, Jianfeng; Chen, Yongqin David

2014-03-01

279

Rift Valley fever outbreak--Kenya, November 2006-January 2007.  

PubMed

In mid-December 2006, several unexplained fatalities associated with fever and generalized bleeding were reported to the Kenya Ministry of Health (KMOH) from Garissa District in North Eastern Province (NEP). By December 20, a total of 11 deaths had been reported. Of serum samples collected from the first 19 patients, Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus RNA or immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against RVF virus were found in samples from 10 patients; all serum specimens were negative for yellow fever, Ebola, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and dengue viruses. The outbreak was confirmed by isolation of RVF virus from six of the specimens. Humans can be infected with RVF virus from bites of mosquitoes or other arthropod vectors that have fed on animals infected with RVF virus, or through contact with viremic animals, particularly livestock. Reports of livestock deaths and unexplained animal abortions in NEP provided further evidence of an RVF outbreak. On December 20, an investigation was launched by KMOH, the Kenya Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), the Walter Reed Project of the U.S. Army Medical Research Unit, CDC-Kenya's Global Disease Detection Center, and other partners, including the World Health Organization (WHO) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). This report describes the findings from that initial investigation and the control measures taken in response to the RVF outbreak, which spread to multiple additional provinces and districts, resulting in 404 cases with 118 deaths as of January 25, 2007. PMID:17268404

2007-02-01

280

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia  

PubMed Central

We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae. PMID:18214179

Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P.; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David

2007-01-01

281

Sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting: a case study for the Yellow River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water Footprint Assessment is a quickly growing field of research, but as yet little attention has been paid to the uncertainties involved. This study investigates the sensitivity of water footprint estimates to changes in important input variables and quantifies the size of uncertainty in water footprint estimates. The study focuses on the green (from rainfall) and blue (from irrigation) water footprint of producing maize, soybean, rice, and wheat in the Yellow River Basin in the period 1996-2005. A grid-based daily water balance model at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution was applied to compute green and blue water footprints of the four crops in the Yellow River Basin in the period considered. The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis focused on the effects on water footprint estimates at basin level (in m3 t-1) of four key input variables: precipitation (PR), reference evapotranspiration (ET0), crop coefficient (Kc), and crop calendar. The one-at-a-time method was carried out to analyse the sensitivity of the water footprint of crops to fractional changes of individual input variables. Uncertainties in crop water footprint estimates were quantified through Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the water footprint of crops is most sensitive to ET0 and Kc, followed by crop calendar and PR. Blue water footprints were more sensitive to input variability than green water footprints. The smaller the annual blue water footprint, the higher its sensitivity to changes in PR, ET0, and Kc. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop due to combined uncertainties in climatic inputs (PR and ET0) were about ±20% (at 95% confidence interval). The effect of uncertainties in ET0 was dominant compared to that of precipitation. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop as a result of combined key input uncertainties were on average ±26% (at 95% confidence level). The sensitivities and uncertainties differ across crop types, with highest sensitivities and uncertainties for soybean.

Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2014-01-01

282

[Economic evaluation of cases of dengue fever attributed to the disaster of 2011 in Nova Friburgo (State of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil)].  

PubMed

The prospects outlined in climate scenarios produced for Brazil indicate a probable increase in the number of extreme hydrometeorological events in the coming years. Therefore, a study of the health scourges that may intensify due to these events is important. The scope of this article is to estimate the cost represented by the cases of dengue fever attributed to the 2011 disaster in Nova Friburgo (RJ). There were 1,356 suspected cases of dengue fever, 937 of which were confirmed. The total cost of the disease may have been between R$66,000 and R$499,000 taking the minimum salary as a benchmark, with approximately 70% of this amount being among the confirmed cases. The disaster caused extensive changes in the city's environment which, together with the urban sanitation and clearing up process that occurred in the post-event period, led to an increase in the number of potential mosquito breeding sites, facilitating their proliferation and increasing the number of cases of dengue fever. This was a disease that in the decade prior to the disaster recorded few cases of the disease in the municipality. This illustrates the potential of events like the one that occurred in 2011 in Nova Friburgo may have on the increase in the number of cases, and consequently on the cost of the disease. PMID:25184576

Pereira, Carlos Alexandre Rodrigues; Barata, Martha Macedo de Lima; Hoelz, Melania de Paulo Cariello; Medeiros, Viviane Nunes Lopes Oliveira; Marincola, Felipe de Carvalho Vommaro; Costa Neto, Cristina; Marinho, Diana Pinheiro; Oliveira, Teresa Vieira Dos Santos; Trigo, Aline Guimarães Monteiro; Medeiros, Thiago Klein de

2014-09-01

283

[A fever of finally known origin].  

PubMed

We present the case of a 77 year old man with fever of unknown origin. Despite a thorough assessment in hospital the diagnosis could only be made after discharge when positive results for C. burnetii serology revealed acute Q-fever. However, retrospectively history and clinical findings matched well with acute Q-fever. PMID:24846891

Jenni, Stefan; Kositz, Christian; Diethelm, Markus; Albrich, Werner

2014-05-21

284

The Unfortunate Nurse A Case Study of Dengue Fever and Social Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on an actual incident in which dengue virus was transmitted by an accidental needlestick, this case study introduces students to “emerging pathogens” and other concepts in parasitology, immunology, epidemiology, and public policy. Students also read a primary paper and learn about two modern techniques widely used in medical and research settings (i.e., EIA and Taqman RT-PCR). The case is suitable for general education biology, cell biology, microbiology, immunology, and science and public policy courses.

Aguirre, Karen M.

2007-01-01

285

Dengue fever (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Dengue fever, or West Nile fever, is a mild viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes which causes fever, ... second exposure to the virus can result in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening illness.

286

Orchid Fever  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exotic, captivating, and seductive, orchids have long fascinated plant lovers. They first attracted the attention of Westerners in the 17th century, when explorers brought back samples from South America and Asia. By the mid-1800s, orchid collecting had reached a fever pitch, not unlike that of the Dutch tulip craze of the 1630s, with rich (and…

Oliver, Phillip

2004-01-01

287

Fever of Unknown Origin: A Case of Post Obstructive Pneumonia Complicating Mature Teratoma  

PubMed Central

Mediastinal teratomas are rare germ cell tumors in children accounting for only 4.3% of all germ cell tumours. Here, we describe a three year old child who was misdiagnosed as a case of pulmonary tuberculosis at periphery despite of his chest X ray showing large homogenous opacification of left hemithorax with areas of calcifications and subsequently diagnosed as a case of benign mature teratoma with post obstructive pneumonia. Our case highlights the need for careful evaluation of chest X-ray (CXR) by the treating physicians, especially when CXR had a large homogenous opacity with shifting of mediastinum and presence of a few calcified shadows, which may clinch a rare diagnosis of an uncommon disorder. PMID:24116336

Bhatt, GC; Nandan, D; Sen, A; Kanaujia, P

2013-01-01

288

Differential Epidemiology of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A in Kathmandu, Nepal: A Matched Case Control Investigation in a Highly Endemic Enteric Fever Setting  

PubMed Central

Background Enteric fever, a systemic infection caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is endemic in Kathmandu, Nepal. Previous work identified proximity to poor quality water sources as a community-level risk for infection. Here, we sought to examine individual-level risk factors related to hygiene and sanitation to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of enteric fever in this setting. Methodology and principal findings A matched case-control analysis was performed through enrollment of 103 blood culture positive enteric fever patients and 294 afebrile community-based age and gender-matched controls. A detailed questionnaire was administered to both cases and controls and the association between enteric fever infection and potential exposures were examined through conditional logistic regression. Several behavioral practices were identified as protective against infection with enteric fever, including water storage and hygienic habits. Additionally, we found that exposures related to poor water and socioeconomic status are more influential in the risk of infection with S. Typhi, whereas food consumption habits and migration play more of a role in risk of S. Paratyphi A infection. Conclusions and significance Our work suggests that S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A follow different routes of infection in this highly endemic setting and that sustained exposure to both serovars probably leads to the development of passive immunity. In the absence of a polyvalent vaccine against S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, we advocate better systems for water treatment and storage, improvements in the quality of street food, and vaccination with currently available S. Typhi vaccines. PMID:23991240

Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Dongol, Sabina; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Voong Vinh, Phat; Arjyal, Amit; Martin, Laura B.; Rondini, Simona; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Dolecek, Christiane; Basnyat, Buddha; Baker, Stephen

2013-01-01

289

Aminotransferase changes and acute hepatitis in patients with dengue fever: analysis of 1,585 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Type 3 dengue virus caused an extensive epidemic in the state of Rio de Janeiro in summer 2002. In some of the patients, it was found in an atypical form with increased aminotransferase levels and acute hepatitis. Material and Methods: An analysis was made of 1,585 serologically confirmed dengue cases at the Dengue Reference Center in Campos dos Goytacazes,

Luiz José de Souza; José Galvão Alves; Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira; Carlos Gicovate Neto; Diogo Assed Bastos; Edno Wallace da Silva Siqueira; João Tadeu Damian Souto Filho; Thiago de Abreu Cezário; Carlos Eduardo Soares; Rodrigo da Costa Carneiro

2004-01-01

290

Durable Regression of Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma Following Fever-inducing Mistletoe Treatment: Two Case Reports  

PubMed Central

Background: Mistletoe is a complementary cancer treatment that is widely used, usually in addition to and alongside recommended conventional cancer therapy. However, little is known about its use, effectiveness, and safety in the treatment of cutaneous lymphoma. Case Report: Two patients with primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (pT2bcNxM0 follicle center and pT2ac-NxM0 marginal zone) either declined or postponed recommended conventional treatment and received high-dose, fever-inducing mistletoe treatment; a combination of intratumoral, subcutaneous, and intravenous application was given; and one patient also underwent whole-body hyperthermia. The lymphoma regressed over a period of 12 and 8 months, respectively, and after administration of a cumulative dose of 12.98 g and 4.63 g mistletoe extract, respectively. The patients are in remission to date, 3.5 years after commencement of treatment. Neither patient received conventional cancer treatment during the entire observation period. PMID:24278797

Lace, Aija; Fonseca, Maria P.; von Laue, Broder H.; Geider, Stefan; Kienle, Gunver S.

2012-01-01

291

[Fever and jaundice... and if it was a leptospirosis. About a case of L. interrogans icterohaemorrhagiae in Northern France].  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is an anthropozoonose, an animal disease transmissible to humans, caused by a spirochete of the genus Leptospira that lives mainly among rodents but also in wetlands. It occurs worldwide, particularly in Asia, Latin America and Africa. In Europe, the incidence is small (except in France and Great Britain, where its frequency has increased in recent years) but the frequency may be underestimated. Some areas overseas are particularly affected. In France, the potential epidemic of leptospirosis is subject to climatic variations, justifying a constant monitoring of the disease provided by the National Reference Centre (CNR) of leptospires. Transmission to humans primarily occurs through contact with environments contaminated by the urine of infected animals. The disease can affect the liver and kidneys (hepatonephritis) as cytolysis, cholestasis and renal failure associated with fever. A coagulopathy usually accompanies the clinical table. Its diagnosis is difficult because of the clinical polymorphism. Early diagnosis of leptospirosis allows effective medical care, improving patient outcomes. This is currently based on gene amplification (PCR) or serology positive by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), which is the reference method. Its evolution is usually favorable with appropriate antibiotic treatment (aminopenicillin). However 5-10% of symptomatic patients have a severe multisystem defaillance. Nearly a century after the discovery of the causative agent, this zoonosis remains a public health problem, zoonosis priority in terms of virulence, its reporting is mandatory in our country. We report the case of a severe form of hepatonephritis due to water contaminated with Leptospira observed in Northern France. PMID:23702161

Assez, N; Mauriaucourt, P; Cuny, J; Goldstein, P; Wiel, E

2013-06-01

292

Distribution of phthalate esters in topsoil: a case study in the Yellow River Delta, China.  

PubMed

The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is a typical agricultural and petrochemical industrial area of China. To assess the current status of phthalate esters (PAEs) of soil residues, soil samples (0?20 cm) (n?=?82) were collected in Bincheng District, at the geographic center of the YRD. PAEs were detected in all topsoil samples analyzed, which indicated that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Concentrations of 11 PAEs are in the range of 0.794?19.504 ?g g(-1), with an average value of 2.975 ?g g(-1). It was presented that PAEs pollution in this area was weak and monotonously increasing along the rural-urban gradient. Higher concentrations were observed from roadsides (and/or gutters), densely anthropogenic activities areas (such as the urbanization and industrialization), and agriculture influence district, which mainly originated from construction waste, municipal sewage, agricultural waste and pesticide, discarded plastic effusion and atmospheric depositions. Concentrations of PAEs were weakly positivity correlated with soil organic carbon content and pH, which suggested both of them can affect the distribution of PAEs. The concentration of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate dominated in the 11 PAEs, with the average values of 0.735 and 1.915 ?g g(-1), respectively, and accounted for 92.1 % of the whole PAEs' concentrations. No significant differences of PAE congeneric profiles were observed between our work and others previously reported, which is consistent with the use of similar commercial PAEs around the world. PMID:23609921

Hongjun, Yang; Wenjun, Xie; Qing, Liu; Jingtao, Liu; Hongwen, Yu; Zhaohua, Lu

2013-10-01

293

Non-fatal case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever imported into the United Kingdom (ex Bulgaria), June 2014.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was diagnosed in a United Kingdom traveller who returned from Bulgaria in June 2014. The patient developed a moderately severe disease including fever, headaches and petechial rash. CCHF was diagnosed following identification of CCHF virus (CCHFV) RNA in a serum sample taken five days after symptom onset. Sequence analysis of the CCHFV genome showed that the virus clusters within the Europe 1 clade, which includes viruses from eastern Europe. PMID:25108534

Lumley, S; Atkinson, B; Dowall, Sd; Pitman, Jk; Staplehurst, S; Busuttil, J; Simpson, Aj; Aarons, Ej; Petridou, C; Nijjar, M; Glover, S; Brooks, Tj; Hewson, R

2014-01-01

294

[Thyphoid fever in Tananarive (Madagascar): a review of 20o cases (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A clinical and biological study of 200 cases in Tananarive. The conventional clinical form is still frequent because patients have no immunity and report too late to the hospital. The main complications concern the heart and the digestive tract. Hemoculture is the main clue for the diagnosis. Biochemical and specially enzymatic unconventional data whichs have been recently reported are frequently observed. No resistance to chloramphenicol has yet been detected in Tananarive. PMID:537487

Valmary, J; Capdevielle, P; Thonnier, C; Coignard, A; Boudon, A; Delprat, J

1979-01-01

295

Review of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Fatal Cases Seen Among Adults: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease endemic in many countries in the tropics and sub-tropics. The disease affects mainly children, but in recent years it is becoming more of an adult disease. Malaysia experienced a large dengue outbreak in 2006 to 2007, involving mostly adults, with a high number of deaths. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook a retrospective study to examine dengue death cases in our hospital from June 2006 to October 2007 with a view to determine if there have been changes in the presentation of severe to fatal dengue. Nine of ten fatal cases involved adult females with a median age of 32 years. All had secondary dengue infection. The mean duration of illness prior to hospitalization was 4.7 days and deaths occurred at an average of 2.4 days post-admission. Gastrointestinal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, intravascular leakages and bleeding occurred in the majority of cases. DSS complicated with severe bleeding, multi-organ failure and coagulopathy were the primary causes of deaths. Seven patients presented with thrombocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia, five of which had hemoconcentration and increased ALT and AST indicative of liver damage. Co-morbidities particularly diabetes mellitus was common in our cohort. Prominent unusual presentations included acute renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocarditis with pericarditis, and hemorrhages over the brain and heart. Conclusions In our cohort, dengue fatalities are seen primarily in adult females with secondary dengue infection. The majority of the patients presented with common clinical and laboratory warning signs of severe dengue. Underlying co-morbidities may contribute to the rapid clinical deterioration in severe dengue. The uncommon presentations of dengue are likely a reflection of the changing demographics where adults are now more likely to contract dengue in dengue endemic regions. PMID:23658849

Sam, Sing-Sin; Omar, Sharifah Faridah Syed; Teoh, Boon-Teong; Abd-Jamil, Juraina; AbuBakar, Sazaly

2013-01-01

296

Use of retailer fidelity card schemes in the assessment of food additive intake: Sunset Yellow a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated using the Swiss retailer MIGROS's Cumulus Card and the example of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E 110). Information held within the card scheme was used to identify a sample of households purchasing foods containing Sunset Yellow over a 15 day period. A sample

M. Sardi; Y. Haldemann; H. Nordmann; B. Bottex; B. Safford; B. Smith; D. Tennant; J. Howlett; P. R. Jasti

2010-01-01

297

Q fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Q fever is the illness in man due to infection with the microorganism Coxiella burnetii. It is a zoonosis and its epidemiology is closely linked to the animal reservoirs of the causative microorganism, C. burnetii. Important elements of the epidemiology of this infection can be learned from the history of its discovery and early investigations;\\u000a a consideration of the macro-epidemiology

Thomas J. Marrie

298

Use of retailer fidelity card schemes in the assessment of food additive intake: Sunset Yellow a case study.  

PubMed

The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated using the Swiss retailer MIGROS's Cumulus Card and the example of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E 110). Information held within the card scheme was used to identify a sample of households purchasing foods containing Sunset Yellow over a 15 day period. A sample of 1204 households was selected for interview, of which 830 households were retained in the study following interview. Interviews were conducted to establish household structure, patterns of consumption by different individuals within the household, and the proportion of foods containing Sunset Yellow habitually purchased at the retailer and/or consumed outside the home. Information provided by the retailer on levels of Sunset Yellow in the foods was combined with the information obtained at interview to calculate the per-capita intake of Sunset Yellow by members of participating households. More than 99% of consumers (n = 1902) of foods containing Sunset Yellow were estimated to consume less than 1 mg Sunset Yellow kg(-1) body weight day(-1). The method proved to be a simple and resource-efficient approach to estimate food additive intake on the basis of actual consumer behaviour and thus reports results more closely related to the actual consumption of foods by individuals. PMID:20672203

Sardi, M; Haldemann, Y; Nordmann, H; Bottex, B; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tennant, D; Howlett, J; Jasti, P R

2010-11-01

299

Close contact precautions could prevent an outbreak of crimean-congo hemorrhagic Fever: a case series report from southern part of tehran.  

PubMed

Between the end of June and the middle of July 2011, an outbreak of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever occurred in southern part of Tehran, Iran. This study reports clinical, laboratory findings and outcome of six cases, who were all consanguine. Index case who was livestock-worker died with hemorrhagic manifestations; thereafter his pregnant wife, three brothers, mother-in-law and his pregnant sister-in-law were admitted and except for the latter, ribavirin was administered. The brother with close contact with body fluids and blood of index case, died with hemorrhage. Low platelet, high aminotransferases and elevated PT, PTT were detected in this case. Skin manifestations were present in five cases. Only in one case RT-PCR and IgM serology were reported as positive for CCHF virus by reference laboratory. In endemic areas, high index of suspicion should be kept in mind in successfully finding and treating cases in early phase of the disease. PMID:23930191

Mardani, Masoud; Namazee, Najmeh

2013-06-01

300

Close Contact Precautions Could Prevent an Outbreak of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: A Case Series Report from Southern Part of Tehran  

PubMed Central

Between the end of June and the middle of July 2011, an outbreak of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever occurred in southern part of Tehran, Iran. This study reports clinical, laboratory findings and outcome of six cases, who were all consanguine. Index case who was livestock-worker died with hemorrhagic manifestations; thereafter his pregnant wife, three brothers, mother-in-law and his pregnant sister-in-law were admitted and except for the latter, ribavirin was administered. The brother with close contact with body fluids and blood of index case, died with hemorrhage. Low platelet, high aminotransferases and elevated PT, PTT were detected in this case. Skin manifestations were present in five cases. Only in one case RT-PCR and IgM serology were reported as positive for CCHF virus by reference laboratory. In endemic areas, high index of suspicion should be kept in mind in successfully finding and treating cases in early phase of the disease. PMID:23930191

Mardani, Masoud; Namazee, Najmeh

2013-01-01

301

Scenario-based decision making in water resource management: A case study in the Yellow River Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decision making in water resource management encounters difficulties due to uncertainties about the future. Scenarios are useful to explore uncertainties and inform decision makers to take actions. Scenarios are originally used to describe the future states in the form of storylines. These are then supplemented with numerical information from model predictions and expert judgement. Probabilities are attached to scenarios to encourage the specific explanation of the assumptions and expectations behind the storylines, and communicate the possibility of each scenario. Bayesian probability offers a prior probability on the basis of available knowledge and beliefs at the presence of uncertainties, and allows for updating to the posterior probability as new evidence arises. Bayesian rules are also applicable for decision making given the existing probabilistic scenarios. Decisions can be ranked according to their performance on the utility function given each possible scenario. A case study is provided to find an optimal solution to alleviate the water stress problem in the Yellow River Delta for the next 30 years. Scenarios of water availability and water demand are developed for the planning period. In order to make decisions rationally, cost-benefit analysis is used to evaluate the performance of viable decisions given the probabilistic scenarios. Key word: Scenarios, Water Management, Uncertainty, Decision making, Bayesian approach

Dong, Congli; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

2013-04-01

302

Typhoid fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

http:\\/\\/proquest.umi.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca\\/pqdweb?did=252411801&sid=1&Fmt=4&cli entId=12520&RQT=309&VName=PQD Abstract (Document Summary) In 1948 chloramphenicol became the standard antibiotic for treating typhoid.5 Although resistance emerged within two years after its introduction, it was not until 1972 that chloramphenicol-resistant typhoid fever became a major problem.6 Outbreaks occurred in Mexico, India, Vietnam, Thailand, Korea, and Peru.6 Chloramphenicol resistance was associated with high-molecular-weight, self-transferable, IncHI plasmids. Full Text (8258 words)

Christopher M Parry; Tran Tinh Hien; Gordon Dougan; Nicholas J White; Jeremy J Farrar

2006-01-01

303

[Bolivian hemorrhagic fever].  

PubMed

Analysis of data of the available literature on epidemiology of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, manifestations of human disease, biological properties of the causative agent and development carried out abroad of means and methods of diagnostics, prophylaxis and therapy of this infection that presents a potential threat for the population and economy of the Russian Federation in case of introduction of the causative agent is presented. PMID:24000605

Markin, V A; Pantiukhov, V B; Markov, V I; Bondarev, V P

2013-01-01

304

Clinical Manifestations and Case Management of Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever Caused by a Newly Identified Virus Strain, Bundibugyo, Uganda, 2007-2008  

PubMed Central

A confirmed Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak in Bundibugyo, Uganda, November 2007–February 2008, was caused by a putative new species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). It included 93 putative cases, 56 laboratory-confirmed cases, and 37 deaths (CFR?=?25%). Study objectives are to describe clinical manifestations and case management for 26 hospitalised laboratory-confirmed EHF patients. Clinical findings are congruous with previously reported EHF infections. The most frequently experienced symptoms were non-bloody diarrhoea (81%), severe headache (81%), and asthenia (77%). Seven patients reported or were observed with haemorrhagic symptoms, six of whom died. Ebola care remains difficult due to the resource-poor setting of outbreaks and the infection-control procedures required. However, quality data collection is essential to evaluate case definitions and therapeutic interventions, and needs improvement in future epidemics. Organizations usually involved in EHF case management have a particular responsibility in this respect. PMID:23285243

Roddy, Paul; Howard, Natasha; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Lutwama, Julius; Wamala, Joseph; Yoti, Zabulon; Colebunders, Robert; Palma, Pedro Pablo; Sterk, Esther; Jeffs, Benjamin; Van Herp, Michel; Borchert, Matthias

2012-01-01

305

Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral  

MedlinePLUS

... fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola virus diseases All information on Ebola virus disease Technical information, publications, situation assessments, feature ...

306

Q Fever in Canada  

PubMed Central

A Canada-wide survey of Q fever was begun in 1958 in co-operation with public health and veterinary laboratories to determine the presence and prevalence of the disease so that medical practitioners might be alerted to the potential dangers existing. Serologic evidence obtained indicated that the Q fever rickettsia now exists in cattle in all provinces of Canada except New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. Isolations of the rickettsia were obtained from bovine milk samples from Ontario and Quebec. The data suggest that the etiologic agent was not present in the western provinces during the early 1950's but since having been introduced into that area it has established itself successfully, particularly in Alberta. The ease with which the disease in man may be missed is illustrated by a previously unreported case which occurred in 1960 in the Eastern Townships of Quebec. PMID:14175873

McKiel, J. A.

1964-01-01

307

Ebola haemorrhagic fever  

PubMed Central

Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock. PMID:21084112

Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W

2012-01-01

308

Risk factors for typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Jakarta, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT: The proportion of paratyphoid fever cases to typhoid fever cases may change due to urbanization and increased dependency on food purchased from street vendors. For containment of paratyphoid a different strategy may be needed than for typhoid, because risk factors for disease may not coincide and current typhoid vaccines do not protect against paratyphoid fever. OBJECTIVE: To determine risk

A. M. Vollaard; S. Ali; H. A. G. H. van Asten; S. Widjaja; L. G. Visser; C. Surjadi; J. T. van Dissel

2004-01-01

309

Investigation of a Q-fever outbreak in Northern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: A study was conducted to evaluate the extent of a Q-fever epidemic through active case finding in the area of Vicenza (northeastern Italy), and to identify risk factors for Q-fever in this outbreak.

T. Manfredi Selvaggi; G. Rezza; M. Scagnelli; R. Rigoli; M. Rassu; F. De Lalla; G. P. Pellizzer; A. Tramarin; C. Bettini; L. Zampieri; M. Belloni; E. Dalla Pozza; S. Marangon; N. Marchiorettos; G. Togni; M. Giacobbo; A. Todescato; N. Binkin

1996-01-01

310

Beyond the superficial: Coccidioides immitis fungaemia in a man with fever, fatigue and skin nodules: a case of an emerging and evolving pathogen.  

PubMed

Coccidioidomycosis is an insidious fungal disease, endemic to arid regions of the Americas, which is becoming more frequently recognised worldwide. While most infections resemble a mild respiratory illness, a subset of cases progress to severe pneumonia or systemic dissemination. Here, we describe a case of disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a 54-year-old immunocompetent African-American man with geographic and demographic risk factors for Coccidiodes acquisition who presented with 2?months of fevers, fatigue, weight loss and painful skin lesions. Blood count and serum chemistry studies initially demonstrated leukocytosis, anaemia, hyponatraemia and acute renal failure. Chest imaging revealed numerous small pulmonary nodules and skin biopsy, serological studies and blood cultures eventually confirmed disseminated infection with Coccidioides immitis. This case highlights important features regarding the risk factors, spectrum of clinical findings, evaluation and treatment of coccidioidomycosis relevant to providers in endemic areas and throughout the world. PMID:25228676

Langelier, Charles; Baxi, Sanjiv M; Iribarne, Daniela; Chin-Hong, Peter

2014-01-01

311

Raman identification of yellow synthetic organic pigments in modern and contemporary paintings: Reference spectra and case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of the binding media and pigments in modern and contemporary paintings is important for designing safe conservation treatments, as well as for determining suitable environmental conditions for display, storage and transport. Raman spectroscopy is a suitable technique for the in situ non-destructive identification of synthetic organic pigments in the presence of the complex binding media characteristic of synthetic resin paints or colour lithographic inks. The precise identification of a pigment by comparing its spectrum to that of a reference is necessary when conservation treatments with aqueous solutions or organic solvents are being considered for a work of art, since solubility properties can sometimes vary within the same pigment group. The Raman spectra of 21 yellow synthetic organic pigments, belonging to the monoazo, monoazo lakes, diarylide, disazo condensation, benzimidazolone, bisacetoacetarylide, azo-methine metal complex, isoindolinone and isoindoline groups are presented. Since modern artists frequently mixed paint developed for other applications, in addition to colorants developed as artists' paints, other synthetic organic pigments were included in the spectral database. Two monoazo pigments, Pigment Yellow 1 and Pigment Yellow 3, a benzimidazolone, Pigment Yellow 154 and a phthalocynanine, Pigment Green 7, were identified in sample cross-sections from four modern and contemporary paintings in the collection of The Museum of Modern Art in Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Ropret, Polonca; Centeno, Silvia A.; Bukovec, Peter

2008-02-01

312

Pregnancy Outcome in Relation to Treatment of Murine Typhus and Scrub Typhus Infection: A Fever Cohort and a Case Series Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background There is a paucity of published reports on pregnancy outcome following scrub and murine typhus despite these infections being leading causes of undifferentiated fever in Asia. This study aimed to relate pregnancy outcome with treatment of typhus. Methodology/Principal Findings Data were analyzed from: i) pregnant women with a diagnosis of scrub and/or murine typhus from a fever cohort studies; ii) case series of published studies in PubMed using the search terms “scrub typhus” (ST), “murine typhus” (MT), “Orientia tsutsugamushi”, “Rickettsia tsutsugamushi”, “Rickettsia typhi”, “rickettsiae”, “typhus”, or “rickettsiosis”; and “pregnancy”, until February 2014 and iii) an unpublished case series. Fever clearance time (FCT) and pregnancy outcome (miscarriage and delivery) were compared to treatment. Poor neonatal outcome was a composite measure for pregnancies sustained to 28 weeks or more of gestation ending in stillbirth, preterm birth, or delivery of a growth restricted or low birth weight newborn. Results There were 26 women in the fever cohort. MT and ST were clinically indistinguishable apart from two ST patients with eschars. FCTs (median [range] hours) were 25 [16–42] for azithromycin (n?=?5), 34 [20–53] for antimalarials (n?=?5) and 92 [6–260] for other antibiotics/supportive therapy (n?=?16). There were 36.4% (8/22) with a poor neonatal outcome. In 18 years, 97 pregnancies were collated, 82 with known outcomes, including two maternal deaths. Proportions of miscarriage 17.3% (14/81) and poor neonatal outcomes 41.8% (28/67) were high, increasing with longer FCTs (p?=?0.050, linear trend). Use of azithromycin was not significantly associated with improved neonatal outcomes (p?=?0.610) Conclusion The published ST and MT world literature amounts to less than 100 pregnancies due to under recognition and under diagnosis. Evidence supporting the most commonly used treatment, azithromycin, is weak. Collaborative, prospective clinical trials in pregnant women are urgently required to reduce the burden of adverse maternal and newborn outcomes and to determine the safety and efficacy of antimicrobial treatment. PMID:25412503

McGready, Rose; Prakash, John Antony Jude; Benjamin, Santosh Joseph; Watthanaworawit, Wanitda; Anantatat, Tippawan; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Ling, Clare L.; Tan, Saw Oo; Ashley, Elizabeth A.; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Day, Nicholas P.; Singhasivanon, Pratap; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François; Paris, Daniel H.

2014-01-01

313

Elderly kidney transplant recipient with intermittent Fever: a case report of leishmaniasis with acute kidney injury during liposomal amphotericin B therapy.  

PubMed

We present a case report of visceral leishmaniasis in an elderly kidney transplant recipient (age, 73 years) with high intermittent fever in the 2 months before admission. Symptoms started 16 years after transplant. The patient received appropriate treatment with liposomal amphotericin and experienced transient increases in serum creatinine levels. Progression to dialysis was avoided with short duration of therapy (5 consecutive days, plus 1 more dose 1 week apart, a schedule alternative to 15-21 days [supported by the literature]) and a temporary reduction in tacrolimus exposure. After 4 months, recurrence of symptoms without other explanation required a second bone marrow aspirate; it revealed the persistence of amastigote forms. Visceral leishmaniasis is a potentially life-threatening infection; to the best of our knowledge, this is the oldest transplanted patient with a case of leishmaniasis described in the literature. PMID:25242789

Pedroso, J A; Paola Salerno, M; Spagnoletti, G; Bertucci-Zoccali, M; Zaccone, G; Bianchi, V; Romagnoli, J; Citterio, F

2014-09-01

314

Acute infectious purpura fulminans due to probable spotted fever.  

PubMed

Purpura fulminans (PF) is associated with several infections, most notably with meningococcus, staphylococcus, and streptococcus infections. However, there are few reports of association of this entity with spotted fever from India. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with fever, headache, and myalgia. On the seventh day of fever he developed nonblanching purple hemorrhagic purpura on the trunk and most prominently on the extremities consistent with purpura fulminans. Immunofluorescent assay confirmed the diagnosis of spotted fever. PF though common with rocky mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is rarely seen in association with Indian tick typhus, the usual cause of spotted fever in India. PMID:24823524

Kundavaram, A; Francis, N R; Jude, A P J; Varghese, G N

2014-01-01

315

Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital: Case 5-2014: 2014: A 59-year-old man with fever, confusion, thrombocytopenia, rash, and renal failure.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old man was admitted to this hospital because of fever, confusion, rash, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure, 10 days after a hunting trip in the Nevada valley. Diagnostic procedures were performed, and diagnostic test results were received from another hospital. PMID:24521112

Baggett, Meridale V; Turbett, Sarah E; Schwartzenberg, Shmuel S; Stone, James R

2014-02-13

316

Integrated community case management of fever in children under five using rapid diagnostic tests and respiratory rate counting: a multi-country cluster randomized trial.  

PubMed

Evidence on the impact of using diagnostic tests in community case management of febrile children is limited. This effectiveness trial conducted in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Uganda, compared a diagnostic and treatment package for malaria and pneumonia with presumptive treatment with anti-malarial drugs; artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). We enrolled 4,216 febrile children between 4 and 59 months of age in 2009-2010. Compliance with the malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) results was high in the intervention arm across the three countries, with only 4.9% (17 of 344) of RDT-negative children prescribed an ACT. Antibiotic overuse was more common: 0.9% (4 of 446) in Uganda, 38.5% (114 of 296) in Burkina Faso, and 44.6% (197 of 442) in Ghana. Fever clearance was high in both intervention and control arms at both Day 3 (97.8% versus 96.9%, P = 0.17) and Day 7 (99.2% versus 98.8%, P = 0.17). The use of diagnostic tests limits overuse of ACTs. Its impact on antibiotic overuse and on fever clearance is uncertain. PMID:23136274

Mukanga, David; Tiono, Alfred B; Anyorigiya, Thomas; Källander, Karin; Konaté, Amadou T; Oduro, Abraham R; Tibenderana, James K; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Cousens, Simon; Barnish, Guy; Pagnoni, Franco

2012-11-01

317

[Ebola and Marburg fever--outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fever].  

PubMed

With an increasing frequency of traveling and tourism to exotic countries, a new threat-import of rare, very dangerous infections-emerges in humane medicine. Ebola fever and Marburg fever, whose agents come from the same group of Filoviridae family, belong among these diseases. The natural reservoir of these viruses has not yet been precisely determined. The pathogenesis of the diseases is not absolutely clear, there is neither a possibility of vaccination, nor an effective treatment. Fever and haemorrhagic diathesis belong to the basic symptoms of the diseases. Most of the infected persons die, the death rate is 70-88 %. The history of Ebola fever is relatively short-30 years, Marburg fever is known almost 40 years. Hundreds of people have died of these diseases so far. The study involves epidemics recorded in the world and their epidemiological relations. Not a single case has been recorded in the Czech Republic, nevertheless a sick traveler or infected animals are the highest risk of import these diseases. In our conditions, the medical staff belong to a highly endangered group of people because of stringent isolation of patients, strict rules of barrier treatment regime and high infectivity of the diseases. For this reason, the public should be prepared for possible contact with these highly virulent infections. PMID:17230375

Chlíbek, R; Smetana, J; Vacková, M

2006-12-01

318

Typhoid Fever in Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fifty cases of typhoid in infants and young children are reported. In children over 5 years of age the features resembled those in adults, but in those under this age they were often nonspecific including fever, convulsions, diarrhoea, and vomiting. Attention is drawn to the importance of a blood culture in anaemic afebrile children who develop rigors

T. O. Mulligan

1971-01-01

319

Dengue Fever Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Dengue Fever Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... Treatment There is no specific treatment for classic dengue fever, and most people recover within 2 weeks. ...

320

[Autoinflammatory syndromes/fever syndromes].  

PubMed

Hereditary periodic (fever) syndromes, also called autoinflammatory syndromes, are characterized by relapsing fever and additional manifestations such as skin rashes, mucosal manifestations, or joint symptoms. Some of these disorders present with organ involvement and serological signs of inflammation without fever. There is a strong serological inflammatory response with an elevation of serum amyloid A (SAA), resulting in an increased risk of secondary amyloidosis. There are monogenic disorders (familial mediterranean fever (FMF), hyper-IgD-syndrome (HIDS), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), "pyogenic arthritis, acne, pyoderma gangrenosum" (PAPA), and "pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA) where mutations in genes have been described, which in part by influencing the function of the inflammasome, in part by other means, lead to the induction of the production of IL-1?. In "early-onset of enterocolitis (IBD)", a functional IL-10 receptor is lacking. Therapeutically, above all, the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra is used. In case of TRAPS and PGA, TNF-antagonists (etanercept) may also be used; in FMF colchicine is first choice. As additional possible autoinflammatory syndromes, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis), Schnitzler syndrome, Still's disease of adult and pediatric onset, Behçet disease, gout, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and Crohn's disease also are mentioned. PMID:21541834

Schedel, J; Bach, B; Kümmerle-Deschner, J B; Kötter, I

2011-05-01

321

Update on acute rheumatic fever  

PubMed Central

Abstract OBJECTIVE To remind physicians who work with aboriginal populations of the ongoing prevalence of acute rheumatic fever and to review the recent evidence on presentation, treatment, and secondary prophylaxis. SOURCES OF INFORMATION The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched from 1996 to 2007 with a focus on prevention, epidemiology, and disease management. Case series data from medical records at the Sioux Lookout Meno Ya Win Health Centre in Ontario were also used. MAIN MESSAGE Acute rheumatic fever is still a clinical entity in aboriginal communities in northwest Ontario. Identification, treatment, and secondary prophylaxis are necessary. CONCLUSION Acute rheumatic fever is not a forgotten disease and still exists in remote areas of Canada. PMID:19439697

Madden, Sharen; Kelly, Len

2009-01-01

322

Current trends in typhoid Fever.  

PubMed

Typhoid fever, a systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica serotype typhi, remains an important worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality. Endemic cases in the United States are unusual, with most following foreign travel to the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Asia, or Latin America. The classic findings of typhoid fever include rose spots, relative bradycardia, and stepwise fevers, but unfortunately these signs are frequently absent. Gastrointestinal manifestations may include diffuse abdominal pain, bleeding, perforation, cholecystitis, and cholangitis. The diagnosis should be suspected after collection of the appropriate clinical and travel history with confirmation by blood or bone marrow culture. Novel methods are in development to establish the diagnosis when cultures are negative or unavailable. Multidrug resistance has increased worldwide, and decisions on antimicrobial therapy must take such resistance into account. The empiric treatment of choice is a fluoroquinolone drug; ceftriaxone and azithromycin are alternatives. Preventive strategies include good sanitation and food handling practices along with vaccination of selected groups. PMID:12864957

Crum, Nancy F

2003-08-01

323

Favorable outcomes for both mother and baby are possible in pregnant women with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever disease: a case series and literature review.  

PubMed

To assess the impact of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) infection during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes, we present the clinical and laboratory findings and outcomes of 5 pregnant women with CCHF infection as well as fetal outcomes. We also reviewed previously reported cases with CCHF infection in pregnant women. All pregnant women with CCHF infection who had been hospitalized between August 2007 and September 2011 were included. The gestational ages at the time of CCHF infection were 8, 18, 20, 21 and 32 weeks. CCHF infection was acquired during the 1st trimester in only 1 case and resulted in spontaneous abortion. The other 4 pregnant women completely recovered, all reached a healthy full-term gestation and 4 term babies were born. All infants had normal birth weight and were found to be healthy on their first examination and follow-up. In the literature concerning CCHF infection in pregnancy, 8 published articles including case reports or case series and 1 poster presentation including 1 case could be accessed. In conclusion, there is a risk of vertical transmission of CCHF infection, and infections acquired early in gestation had a poor prognosis for the fetus. PMID:24732981

Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Elaldi, Nazif; Engin, Aynur; Akkar, Ozlem Bozoklu; Bolat, Fatih; Celik, Cem

2014-01-01

324

Cumulative sediment trapping by reservoirs in large river basins: A case study of the Yellow River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reservoir sedimentation has been a serious problem for reservoir operation and watershed management worldwide, which highlights the importance of accurate estimate of the deposited sediment amount. With reservoir information derived from remote sensing dataset and observed hydrological records of water and sediment, this paper is concerned with the cumulative reservoir sediment trapping in the Yellow River basin. The river basin was divided into 12 sub-basins, upon which the reservoirs' sediment trapping efficiency (TE) and their interception effects on inflowing sediment were estimated with sediment records extracted from 179 field sampling stations. The results show that, with the sediment TE greater than 80% for all the sub-basins, theoretically the basin-wide reservoirs are able to trap most sediment. For the whole river basin, the sediment TE averages 95.2%, which indicates that the reservoirs can collectively make a significant anthropogenic signature on basin-wide sediment delivery. A basin-wide sediment yield map was generated to estimate the reservoir sedimentation amount. During 1950-1970, annually about 2.483 Gt of sediment was transported into channels from sloping lands. Taking into account the actual water storage changes and the reservoir construction history, the actual reservoir sedimentation rate was estimated at 0.59 Gt/yr after corrections, which represents 47.6% of the river basin's total sediment load reduction. Globally, reservoir sedimentation in the Yellow River basin represents about 12-15% of the global mean rate. Up to 2010, approximately 19.32 Gt of sediment has been trapped by Yellow River reservoirs, and totally about 40.32 Gt of sediment has been artificially fixed if silt check dams are also considered. With huge amounts of sediment deposited, these reservoirs have been losing their storage capacity to sedimentation at a rate of 0.6% per year. The magnitude is expected to enhance in future following new reservoir completions. Thus, more efforts are strongly needed to explore the associated responses.

Ran, Lishan; Lu, X. X.; Xin, Zhongbao; Yang, Xiankun

2013-01-01

325

Rheumatic fever in a high incidence population: the importance of monoarthritis and low grade fever  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To describe the clinical features of rheumatic fever and to assess the Jones criteria in a population and setting similar to that in many developing countries.?METHODS—The charts of 555 cases of confirmed acute rheumatic fever in 367 patients (97% Aboriginal) and more than 200 possible rheumatic fever cases from the tropical "Top End" of Australia's Northern Territory were reviewed retrospectively.?RESULTS—Most clinical features were similar to classic descriptions. However, monoarthritis occurred in 17% of confirmed non-chorea cases and 35% of unconfirmed cases, including up to 27 in whom the diagnosis was missed because monoarthritis is not a major manifestation. Only 71% and 25% of confirmed non-chorea cases would have had fever using cut off values of 38°C and 39°C, respectively. In 17% of confirmed non-chorea cases, anti-DNase B titres were raised but antistreptolysin O titres were normal. Although features of recurrences tended to correlate with initial episodes, there were numerous exceptions.?CONCLUSIONS—Monoarthritis and low grade fever are important manifestations of rheumatic fever in this population. Streptococcal serology results may support a possible role for pyoderma in rheumatic fever pathogenesis. When recurrences of rheumatic fever are common, the absence of carditis at the first episode does not reliably predict the absence of carditis with recurrences.?? PMID:11517105

Carapetis, J; Currie, B

2001-01-01

326

Chronic Q fever endocarditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight patients with chronic Q fever endocarditis were treated with tetracycline for up to 40 months. In addition, five of these patients received co-trimoxazole. Six patients had prosthetic valves. Two patients who had Q fever endocarditis on their native valves required valve replacement because of haemodynamic difficulties: in only one did the Q fever endocarditis contribute to the haemodynamic difficulty.

M P Varma; A A Adgey; J H Connolly

1980-01-01

327

Viral hemorrhagic fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a severe, often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (e.g., monkeys and chimpanzees). The two main causes of VHF are Marburg and Ebola virus infection. Lassa fever and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever occur less commonly. Marburg and Ebola viruses are RNA filoviruses. Filoviruses first emerged as the cause of significant clinical outbreaks of VHF in

Amy Boardman

2003-01-01

328

Viral haemorrhagic fevers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral haemorrhagic fevers are viral infections that can cause shock, haemorrhage and multi-organ dysfunction. Their geographical distribution is limited by the ecology of their vectors, and many of them exist in tropical zones. The most common viral haemorrhagic fevers are not transmissible from person to person, and no viral haemorrhagic fevers are a threat to casual contacts. However, four viruses

Barbara Bannister

2005-01-01

329

Rickettsioses and Q fever in travelers (2004-2013).  

PubMed

Rickettsioses (also called typhus) are associated with arthropods, including ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, although Q fever is more frequently acquired through the inhalation of contaminated aerosols or the consumption of milk. These zoonoses first emerged in the field of travel medicine 20 years ago. Here, we review rickettsioses and Q fever in travelers, highlighting cases reported in the past decade. African tick bite fever and Mediterranean spotted fever are the two most frequent spotted fevers. While the presentation of these fevers is typically benign, cardiac and neurological complications due to African tick bite fever have been reported, and Mediterranean spotted fever has been complicated by multi-organ failure and death in a few cases. Murine typhus and Q fever remain difficult to recognize and diagnose because these illnesses often present with only fever. New molecular tools, particularly when deployed with samples obtained from eschar swabs, might be easily implemented in laboratories with PCR facilities. Doxycycline must be introduced upon clinical suspicion of rickettsioses or Q fever and should be considered in cases of fever of unknown origin in travelers who are returning from at-risk geographic areas. PMID:25262433

Delord, Marion; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe

2014-01-01

330

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever.  

PubMed

Typhoid fever is estimated to have caused 21.6 million illnesses and 216,500 deaths globally in 2000, affecting all ages. There is also one case of paratyphoid fever for every four of typhoid. The global emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and of strains with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones is of great concern. We discuss the occurrence of poor clinical response to fluoroquinolones despite disc sensitivity. Developments are being made in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, and genomic and proteomic studies reveal the possibility of new targets for diagnosis and treatment. Further, we review guidelines for use of diagnostic tests and for selection of antimicrobials in varying clinical situations. The importance of safe water, sanitation, and immunisation in the presence of increasing antibiotic resistance is paramount. Routine immunisation of school-age children with Vi or Ty21a vaccine is recommended for countries endemic for typhoid. Vi vaccine should be used for 2-5 year-old children in highly endemic settings. PMID:16125594

Bhan, M K; Bahl, Rajiv; Bhatnagar, Shinjini

331

Yellow Jackie  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You, the reader, are helping Terry sail a yacht from South America to New Zealand. You are asked to investigate an outbreak of disease on board a second yacht. You interview the crew members, consult a medical reference, and observe other clues to determine what diseases the ill crew members have. The solution involves medical science, sports science, human health, biology, microbiology, infectious diseases, epidemiology, and hygiene. The mystery tests literacy, problem solving skills and deductive reasoning. The mystery has three parts. In the first part, you meet the characters and enter the story. In the second part, you interview the characters, investigate the facts, and attempt to solve the case. When you solve the case, you enter the third part, which concludes the story, and summarizes the scientific analysis needed to solve the case. The narrative is fictional, but the scenario is based on actual events and contemporary science research and discoveries.

Ken Eklund (WriterGuy REV)

2001-06-30

332

Tweeting Fever: Are Tweet Extracts a Valid Surrogate Data Source for Dengue Fever?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether Twitter data contains information on dengue-like illness and whether the temporal trend of such data correlates with the incidence dengue or dengue-like illness as identified by city and national health authorities. Introduction Dengue fever is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the Republic of the Philippines (RP) and across the world. Early identification of geographic outbreaks can help target intervention campaigns and mitigate the severity of outbreaks. Electronic disease surveillance can improve early identification but, in most dengue endemic areas data pre-existing digital data are not available for such systems. Data must be collected and digitized specifically for electronic disease surveillance. Twitter, however, is heavily used in these areas; for example, the RP is among the top 20 producers of tweets in the world. If social media could be used as a surrogate data source for electronic disease surveillance, it would provide an inexpensive pre-digitized data source for resource-limited countries. This study investigates whether Twitter extracts can be used effectively as a surrogate data source to monitor changes in the temporal trend of dengue fever in Cebu City and the National Capitol Region surrounding Manila (NCR) in the RP. Methods We obtained two sources of ground truth incidence for dengue. The first was daily dengue fever incidence for Cebu City and the NCR taken from the Philippines Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System (PIDSR). The second ground truth source was fever incidence from Cebu City for 2011. The Cebu City Health Office (CCHO) has monitored fever incidence as a surrogate for dengue fever since the 1980s. Tweets from Cebu City, and the NCR were collected prospectively thru Twitter’s public application program interface. The Cebu City fever ground truth data set was smoothed with a seven day moving average to facilitate comparison to the PIDSR and Twitter data. A vocabulary of words and phrases describing fever and dengue fever in the tweets collected were identified and used to mark relevant tweets. A subset of these ‘fever’ tweets that mentioned fever related to a medical situation were identified. The incidence and the temporal pattern of these medically-relevant tweets were compared with the incidence and pattern of fever and dengue fever in the two ground truth data sets. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to compare the correlation among the different data sets. Noted lag periods were adjusted by moving the data in time and re-computing the correlation coefficient. Results 26,023,103 tweets were collected from the two geographic regions: 10,303,366 from Cebu City and 15,719,767 tweets from the NCR. 8,814 (0.02%) Tweets contained the word fever and 4099 (0.01% of total) mentioned fever in a medically-relevant context, for example. “…I have a fever…” vs. “…football fever….” The medically-relevant tweets were compared with both ground truth data sets. The correlation between the Tweets and each of the incidence data sets is shown below. Conclusions Tweets containing medically-relevant fever references were correlated (p<0.0001) with both fever and dengue fever incidence in the ground truth data sets. The signal indicating fever in the medically-related tweets led the incidence data significantly: by 6 days for the Cebu City fever incidence; and by 12 days for the PIDSR dengue fever incidence. Temporal adjustment to account for observed lag periods increased the correlation coefficient by about one-third in both cases. This was a limited pilot study, but it suggests that Twitter extracts may provide a valid and timely surrogate data source to monitor dengue fever in this population. Further study of the correlation of Twitter and dengue in other areas, and of Twitter with other illnesses is warranted.

Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Fink, Clayton R.; Elbert, Eugene; Yoon, In-Kyu; Velasco, John M.; Tomayo, Agnes; Roque, V.; Ygano, S.; Macasoco, Durinda; Lewis, Sheri

2013-01-01

333

Q Fever: An Old but Still a Poorly Understood Disease  

PubMed Central

Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who have been infected for more than 6 months. It usually takes about 20 days after exposure to the bacteria for symptoms to occur. Most cases are mild, yet some severe cases have been reported. Symptoms of acute Q fever may include: chest pain with breathing, cough, fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pains, and shortness of breath. Symptoms of chronic Q fever may include chills, fatigue, night sweats, prolonged fever, and shortness of breath. Q fever is diagnosed with a blood antibody test. The main treatment for the disease is with antibiotics. For acute Q fever, doxycycline is recommended. For chronic Q fever, a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is often used long term. Complications are cirrhosis, hepatitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. People at risk should always: carefully dispose of animal products that may be infected, disinfect any contaminated areas, and thoroughly wash their hands. Pasteurizing milk can also help prevent Q fever. PMID:23213331

Honarmand, Hamidreza

2012-01-01

334

Management of dengue fever in ICU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus infection can cause a wide spectrum of illness. Thrombocytopenia with concurrent haemoconcentration differentiates\\u000a dengue haemorrhagic fever from classical dengue fever. Only cases with shock or unstable vitals signs need admission in the\\u000a pediatric intensive care. The management is essentially supportive and symptomatic. The key to success is frequent monitoring\\u000a and changing strategies. A rise in hematocrit of 20%

Arun Soni; Krishan Chugh; Anil Sachdev; Dhiren Gupta

2001-01-01

335

Chronic Q fever in the Netherlands 5 years after the start of the Q fever epidemic: results from the Dutch chronic Q fever database.  

PubMed

Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever, a zoonosis, which has acute and chronic manifestations. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands experienced a large Q fever outbreak, which has offered a unique opportunity to analyze chronic Q fever cases. In an observational cohort study, baseline characteristics and clinical characteristics, as well as mortality, of patients with proven, probable, or possible chronic Q fever in the Netherlands, were analyzed. In total, 284 chronic Q fever patients were identified, of which 151 (53.7%) had proven, 64 (22.5%) probable, and 69 (24.3%) possible chronic Q fever. Among proven and probable chronic Q fever patients, vascular infection focus (56.7%) was more prevalent than endocarditis (34.9%). An acute Q fever episode was recalled by 27.0% of the patients. The all-cause mortality rate was 19.1%, while the chronic Q fever-related mortality rate was 13.0%, with mortality rates of 9.3% among endocarditis patients and 18% among patients with a vascular focus of infection. Increasing age (P=0.004 and 0.010), proven chronic Q fever (P=0.020 and 0.002), vascular chronic Q fever (P=0.024 and 0.005), acute presentation with chronic Q fever (P=0.002 and P<0.001), and surgical treatment of chronic Q fever (P=0.025 and P<0.001) were significantly associated with all-cause mortality and chronic Q fever-related mortality, respectively. PMID:24599987

Kampschreur, Linda M; Delsing, Corine E; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Wegdam-Blans, Marjolijn C A; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P; de Jager-Leclercq, Monique G L; Hoepelman, Andy I M; van Kasteren, Marjo E; Buijs, Jacqueline; Renders, Nicole H M; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Wever, Peter C

2014-05-01

336

Chronic Q Fever in the Netherlands 5 Years after the Start of the Q Fever Epidemic: Results from the Dutch Chronic Q Fever Database  

PubMed Central

Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever, a zoonosis, which has acute and chronic manifestations. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands experienced a large Q fever outbreak, which has offered a unique opportunity to analyze chronic Q fever cases. In an observational cohort study, baseline characteristics and clinical characteristics, as well as mortality, of patients with proven, probable, or possible chronic Q fever in the Netherlands, were analyzed. In total, 284 chronic Q fever patients were identified, of which 151 (53.7%) had proven, 64 (22.5%) probable, and 69 (24.3%) possible chronic Q fever. Among proven and probable chronic Q fever patients, vascular infection focus (56.7%) was more prevalent than endocarditis (34.9%). An acute Q fever episode was recalled by 27.0% of the patients. The all-cause mortality rate was 19.1%, while the chronic Q fever-related mortality rate was 13.0%, with mortality rates of 9.3% among endocarditis patients and 18% among patients with a vascular focus of infection. Increasing age (P = 0.004 and 0.010), proven chronic Q fever (P = 0.020 and 0.002), vascular chronic Q fever (P = 0.024 and 0.005), acute presentation with chronic Q fever (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001), and surgical treatment of chronic Q fever (P = 0.025 and P < 0.001) were significantly associated with all-cause mortality and chronic Q fever-related mortality, respectively. PMID:24599987

Delsing, Corine E.; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Wegdam-Blans, Marjolijn C. A.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.; de Jager-Leclercq, Monique G. L.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; van Kasteren, Marjo E.; Buijs, Jacqueline; Renders, Nicole H. M.; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Wever, Peter C.

2014-01-01

337

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Yellow rocket  

E-print Network

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Yellow rocket Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Life cycle Erect winter annual, gradually becoming smaller toward the top. Yellow rocket seedling. Yellow rocket flowers. Back in cross-section. Reproduction Seeds. Yellow rocket lower leaf. Yellow rocket rosette. Yellow rocket

338

Clinical aspects of African viral hemorrhagic fevers.  

PubMed

Three hemorrhagic fevers occur in southern Africa: Rift Valley fever, Marburg virus disease, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. The patient's history of travel in Africa, visits to rural areas, contact with sick animals or their carcasses, or contact with a tick-infested environment or tick bites is important. Rift Valley fever is characterized by an incubation period of approximately 3 or 4 days, sudden onset of fever with a biphasic course, and signs and symptoms of liver and kidney disorder. The commonest complication is retinitis with a central scotoma. Severe cases may develop a hemorrhagic state, which may be fatal. Marburg virus disease was studied in two Australian students after a tour of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and in a nurse who cared for them. The incubation period of approximately 7 days is followed by sudden onset of fever (typically lasting 7 days) and the appearance of a maculopapular petechial rash on the 5th day. A hemorrhagic state develops about the same time and may be fatal. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is widespread in South Africa; it may be transmitted by tick bite of the species Hyalomma, by contact with the tissues of animals, or by contact with infected patients. PMID:2665013

Gear, J H

1989-01-01

339

Groundwater flow and geochemistry in the lower reaches of the Yellow River: a case study in Shandang Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water samples were collected from the Yellow River and from wells for chemical and isotopic measurement in the counties of Yucheng and Qihe, to which 6-9×108 m3 of water is diverted annually from the Yellow River. A zone of high electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater corresponds well on the regional scale with a ridge in groundwater level, which is the main flow path through the region, but has a low gradient. The zone of highest EC along this ridge occurs at a position with the lowest ground altitude in the study area. The unique characteristic of the groundwater is the linear relationship among the principal anions as the result of mixing. The mixing effect is confirmed by its isotopic signature, which was then used to calculate the contributions from three sources: rainfall, old water, and diverted water with an average mixing rate of 18, 17, and 65%, respectively. As an indicator of water movement, Cl- content varies across a wide range in the profile from 30-10 m with a maximum concentration at about 1.2 m depth. Concentrations are relatively stable at about 2 m, which is the average boundary of the saturated and unsaturated zone. The water from the Yellow River has proved to be dominant in mixing in the aquifer in terms of groundwater flow and geochemistry. Résumé. En vue d'analyses chimiques et isotopiques, des échantillons d'eau ont été prélevés sur le Fleuve Jaune et dans des puits des comtés de Yucheng et Qihe, où l'on prélève sur le fleuve 6-9×108 m3. Une zone de forte conductivité électrique dans la nappe correspond bien, à l'échelle régionale, avec une crête piézométrique liée au principal canal traversant la région, mais avec une faible pente. La zone de plus fortes conductivités le long de cette crête se situe là où l'altitude est la plus basse dans la région. La caractéristique remarquable de la nappe est la relation linéaire entre les principaux anions, résultant d'un mélange. L'effet de mélange est confirmé par la signature isotopique, qui a alors été utilisée pour calculer les contributions des trois sources: la pluie, l'eau ancienne et l'eau prélevée dans le fleuve, avec un taux moyen de mélange respectivement de 18, 17 et 65%. Comme indicateur de l'écoulement de l'eau, la concentration en Cl- varie dans une large gamme, dans un profil de 30 cm à 10 m en profondeur, avec une concentration maximale à une profondeur d'environ 1,2 m. Les concentrations sont relativement stables à partir de 2 m, profondeur de la limite entre les zones non saturée et saturée. On a ainsi montré que l'eau du Fleuve Jaune est prédominante dans le mélange, au sein de l'aquifère en termes d'écoulement de la nappe et de composition chimique. Resumen. Se ha recogido muestras de agua del Río Amarillo y de pozos para obtener medidas químicas e isotópicas en los condados de Yucheng y Qihe, que se abastecen con 6-9×108 m3 anuales de aguas de dicho río. Hay una zona de conductividad eléctrica (CE) elevada en las aguas subterráneas, la cual se corresponde bien a escala regional con una divisoria en el nivel piezométrico que representa la vía principal de flujo a través de la región, pero con un gradiente bajo. La zona de mayor CE a lo largo de la divisoria está localizada en el punto con la menor cota topográfica en el ámbito de estudio. La característica principal de las aguas subterráneas es la relación lineal que existe entre los aniones principales como resultado de un proceso de mezcla. Este efecto se confirma mediante la huella isotópica, que se utilizó para calcular las contribuciones de tres orígenes distintos: precipitación, aguas antiguas y aguas derivadas del río, obteniéndose porcentajes respectivos del 18, 17, y 65%. Como trazador del agua, la concentración de cloruro varía ampliamente en el perfil del suelo de 0,3-10 m, con un máximo a una profundidad aproximada de 1,2 m. Las concentraciones son relativamente estables hacia 2 m de profundidad, que es la cota promedio del nivel freático. El agua del Río Amarillo domina en la mezcla de aguas

Chen, J. Y.; Tang, C. Y.; Sakura, Y.; Kondoh, A.; Shen, Y. J.

2002-08-01

340

Influence of warming tendency on Culex pipiens population abundance and on the probability of West Nile fever outbreaks (Israeli Case Study: 2001-2005).  

PubMed

Climate change and West Nile fever (WNV) are both subjects of global importance. Many mosquitoes and the diseases they carry, including West Nile virus (WNV), are sensitive to temperature increase. The current study analyzes the lag correlations between weather conditions (especially air temperature) and 1) Culex pipiens mosquito population abundance, and 2) WNF frequency in humans, between 2001 and 2005 in Israel. These 5 years follow a long period with a documented tendency for temperature increase in the hot season in the country. Monthly anomalies of minimum and maximum temperatures, relative seasonal rainfall contribution, mosquito samplings (hazard level), and WNF cases (hospital admission dates and patients' addresses) were analyzed. Logistic regression was calculated between the climatic data and the mosquito samples, as Spearman correlations and Pearson cross-correlations were calculated between daily temperature values (or daily precipitation amounts) and the hospital admission dates. It was found that the disease appearance reflects the population distribution, while the risk tends to escalate around the metropolis characterized by an urban heat island. Positive anomalies of the temperature during the study period appear to have facilitated the mosquito abundance and, consequently, the disease emergence in humans. An important finding is the potential influence of extreme heat in the early spring on the vector population increase and on the disease's appearance weeks later. Awareness of such situations at the beginning of the spring may help authorities to reduce the disease risk before it becomes a real danger. PMID:18648796

Paz, Shlomit; Albersheim, Iris

2008-03-01

341

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... tick species which is a North, Central, and South American carrier of Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria, which cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Credit: CDC Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tickborne disease first recognized in 1896 in the Snake River Valley of Idaho. It was originally called “black ...

342

Vaccines against typhoid fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of high infectivity and significant disease burden, typhoid fever constitutes a major global health problem. Implementation of adequate food handling practices and establishment of safe water supplies are the cornerstone for the development of an effective prevention program. However, vaccination against typhoid fever remains an essential tool for the effective management of this disease. Currently, there are two well

Carlos A. Guzman; Stefan Borsutzky; Monika Griot-Wenk; Ian C. Metcalfe; Jon Pearman; Andre Collioud; Didier Favre; Guido Dietrich

2006-01-01

343

Neonatal typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Three infants of Pakistani immigrant mothers developed typhoid fever in the neonatal period. All three survived, but two became chronic excretors of Salmonella typhi. The risk of an outbreak of typhoid fever in a maternity unit or special care baby unit is emphasized. PMID:3813617

Chin, K C; Simmonds, E J; Tarlow, M J

1986-12-01

344

Unusual increase in reported cases of paratyphoid A fever among travellers returning from Cambodia, January to September 2013.  

PubMed

From January to September 2013, a marked increase in notifications of Salmonella Paratyphi A infections among travellers returning from Cambodia occurred in France. An investigation revealed 35 cases without a common source: 21 in France, five in Germany, three in the Netherlands, one in Norway, one in the United Kingdom, four in New-Zealand. Data suggest an ongoing event that should trigger further investigation. Travellers to Cambodia should observe preventive measures including good personal hygiene and food handling practices. PMID:24094059

Tourdjman, M; Le Hello, S; Gossner, C; Delmas, G; Tubiana, S; Fabre, L; Kerléguer, A; Tarantola, A; Fruth, A; Friesema, I; Thorstensen Brandal, L; Lawrence, J; Fisher, I; Dufour, M; Weill, F X; de Valk, H

2013-01-01

345

High Household Economic Burden Caused by Hospitalization of Patients with Severe Dengue Fever Cases in Can Tho Province, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

During 2006–2007, a cohort of 144 confirmed dengue cases in Can Tho Province, Vietnam were compared with a matching set of 144 households that had no dengue cases. Approximately 6–9 months after sickness, there were no significant differences in terms of knowledge of the etiology of dengue, mosquito breeding habitats, and prevention measures in respondents from both sets of households. There was also no difference in the abundance of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) adults but the average numbers of late instar and pupal Ae. aegypti per household were greater in the negative control houses. Thus, the risk seemed to be no higher in case households, although it is conceivable that changes may have occurred in either group over the intervening period. The average cost for a dengue patient was 2,798,000 Vietnamese Dong (VND) (US$167.77), 2,154,000 VND for direct costs, and 644,000 VND for indirect costs. There was a 22% difference in cost for those with and without health insurance. In terms of impact on family economies, 47.2% had to borrow money for treatment, and after 6 months, 71.7% had not begun or had only managed part repayments. Approximately 72.9% indicated that the cost of supporting a dengue patient had impacted on the family economy, with the loss averaging 36% of the annual income in the lowest economic quartile. PMID:22826478

Tam, Pham Thi; Dat, Nguyen Tan; Huu, Le Minh; Thi, Xuan Cuc Pham; Duc, Hoang Minh; Tu, Tran Cong; Kutcher, Simon; Ryan, Peter A.; Kay, Brian H.

2012-01-01

346

Role of ultrasound in dengue fever.  

PubMed

This study was performed to find out whether ultrasound is an important adjunct to clinical and laboratory profile in diagnosing dengue fever or dengue haemorrhagic fever and to further determine whether ultrasound is useful in predicting the severity of the disease. Ultrasound was performed on 128 patients (2-9 years) with clinical suspicion of dengue fever. Serological tests were performed to confirm the diagnosis. 40 patients were serologically negative for dengue fever and later excluded from the study. Of the remaining 88 serologically positive cases, 32 patients underwent ultrasound on second to third day, repeated on fifth to seventh day of fever and in 56 patients ultrasound was done only on fifth to seventh day of fever. Of the 32 patients who underwent the study on second to third day of fever, all showed gall bladder wall thickening and pericholecystic fluid, 21% had hepatomegaly, 6.25% had splenomegaly and right minimal pleural effusion. Follow-up ultrasound on fifth to seventh day revealed ascites in 53% left pleural effusion in 22% and pericardial effusion in 28%. Of the 56 patients who underwent the study on fifth to seventh day of fever for the first time all had gall bladder wall thickening, 21% had hepatomegaly, 7% had splenomegaly, 96% had ascites, 87.5% had right pleural effusion, 66% had left pleural effusion and 28.5% had pericardial fluid. To conclude, in an epidemic of dengue, ultrasound features of thickened gall bladder wall, pleural effusion and ascites should strongly favour the diagnosis of dengue fever. PMID:15845934

Venkata Sai, P M; Dev, B; Krishnan, R

2005-05-01

347

Development and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Sudan.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus (CCHFV) activity has been detected in Kordufan region of the Sudan in 2008 with high case-fatality rates in villages and rural hospitals in the region. Therefore, in the present study, a reverse transcription (RT) loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed and compared to nested RT-PCR for rapid detection of CCHFV targeting the small (S) RNA segment. A set of RT-LAMP primers, designed from a highly conserved region of the S segment of the viral genome, was employed to identify all the Sudanese CCHFV strains. The sensitivity studies indicated that the RT-LAMP detected 10fg of CCHFV RNA as determined by naked eye turbidity read out, which is more likely the way it would be read in a resource-poor setting. This level of sensitivity is good enough to detect most acute cases. Using agarose gel electrophoresis, the RT-LAMP assay detected as little as 0.1fg of viral RNA (equivalent to 50 viral particle). There was 100% agreement between results of the RT-LAMP and the nested PCR when testing 10-fold serial dilution of CCHFV RNA. The specificity studies indicated that there was no cross-reactivity with other related hemorrhagic fever viruses circulating in Sudan including, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Dengue fever virus, and yellow fever virus. The RT-LAMP was performed under isothermal conditions at 63°C and no special apparatus was needed, which rendered the assay more economical and practical than real-time PCR in such developing countries, like Sudan. In addition, the RT-LAMP provides a valuable tool for rapid detection and differentiation of CCHFV during an outbreak of the disease in remote areas and in rural hospitals with resource-poor settings. PMID:23542058

Osman, Hana A M; Eltom, Kamal H; Musa, Nasreen O; Bilal, Nasreldin M; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

2013-06-01

348

Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

2011-12-01

349

Seir Model for Transmission of Dengue Fever in Selangor Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study a system of differential equations that models the population dynamics of SEIR vector transmission of dengue fever. The model studied breeding value based on the number of reported cases of dengue fever in Selangor because the state had the highest case in Malaysia. The model explains that maximum level of human infection rate of dengue fever achieved in a very short period. It is also revealed that there existed suitability result between theoretical and empirical calculation using the model. The result of SEIR model will hopefully provide an insight into the spread of dengue fever in Selangor Malaysia and basic form for modeling this area.

Syafruddin, S.; Noorani, M. S. M.

350

Tropical fevers: Management guidelines.  

PubMed

Tropical fevers were defined as infections that are prevalent in, or are unique to tropical and subtropical regions. Some of these occur throughout the year and some especially in rainy and post-rainy season. Concerned about high prevalence and morbidity and mortality caused by these infections, and overlapping clinical presentations, difficulties in arriving at specific diagnoses and need for early empiric treatment, Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM) constituted an expert committee to develop a consensus statement and guidelines for management of these diseases in the emergency and critical care. The committee decided to focus on most common infections on the basis of available epidemiologic data from India and overall experience of the group. These included dengue hemorrhagic fever, rickettsial infections/scrub typhus, malaria (usually falciparum), typhoid, and leptospira bacterial sepsis and common viral infections like influenza. The committee recommends a 'syndromic approach' to diagnosis and treatment of critical tropical infections and has identified five major clinical syndromes: undifferentiated fever, fever with rash / thrombocytopenia, fever with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), fever with encephalopathy and fever with multi organ dysfunction syndrome. Evidence based algorithms are presented to guide critical care specialists to choose reliable rapid diagnostic modalities and early empiric therapy based on clinical syndromes. PMID:24678147

Singhi, Sunit; Chaudhary, Dhruva; Varghese, George M; Bhalla, Ashish; Karthi, N; Kalantri, S; Peter, J V; Mishra, Rajesh; Bhagchandani, Rajesh; Munjal, M; Chugh, T D; Rungta, Narendra

2014-02-01

351

Tropical fevers: Management guidelines  

PubMed Central

Tropical fevers were defined as infections that are prevalent in, or are unique to tropical and subtropical regions. Some of these occur throughout the year and some especially in rainy and post-rainy season. Concerned about high prevalence and morbidity and mortality caused by these infections, and overlapping clinical presentations, difficulties in arriving at specific diagnoses and need for early empiric treatment, Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM) constituted an expert committee to develop a consensus statement and guidelines for management of these diseases in the emergency and critical care. The committee decided to focus on most common infections on the basis of available epidemiologic data from India and overall experience of the group. These included dengue hemorrhagic fever, rickettsial infections/scrub typhus, malaria (usually falciparum), typhoid, and leptospira bacterial sepsis and common viral infections like influenza. The committee recommends a ‘syndromic approach’ to diagnosis and treatment of critical tropical infections and has identified five major clinical syndromes: undifferentiated fever, fever with rash / thrombocytopenia, fever with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), fever with encephalopathy and fever with multi organ dysfunction syndrome. Evidence based algorithms are presented to guide critical care specialists to choose reliable rapid diagnostic modalities and early empiric therapy based on clinical syndromes. PMID:24678147

Singhi, Sunit; Chaudhary, Dhruva; Varghese, George M.; Bhalla, Ashish; Karthi, N.; Kalantri, S.; Peter, J. V.; Mishra, Rajesh; Bhagchandani, Rajesh; Munjal, M.; Chugh, T. D.; Rungta, Narendra

2014-01-01

352

The exanthem of dengue fever: Clinical features of two US tourists traveling abroad  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue fever is the most common identifiable cause of acute febrile illness among travelers returning from South America, South Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Caribbean. Although the characteristic exanthem of dengue fever occurs in up to 50% of patients, few descriptions of it are found in the dermatology literature, and discussions of how to distinguish the dengue exanthem from other infectious disease entities are rare. Chikungunya fever is an emerging infectious disease now seen in returning US tourists and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dengue fever in the appropriate patient. Objective The purpose of our study was to report two cases of dengue fever among returning US tourists, provide a review of dengue fever, offer an extensive differential diagnosis of dengue fever, and raise awareness among dermatologists of chikungunya fever. Methods This study includes clinical findings of two returning travelers, one who traveled to Mexico and the other to Thailand, complemented by a discussion of both dengue fever and its differential diagnosis. Limitations Limited to 2 case reports. Conclusion Dengue fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fever and rash in the returning traveler. Dermatologists should be aware of the distinctive exanthem of dengue fever. Recognition of the dengue fever rash permits a rapid and early diagnosis, which is critical, as dengue fever can progress to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. PMID:17959270

Pincus, Laura B.; Grossman, Marc E.; Fox, Lindy P.

2014-01-01

353

An inhalation model of acute Q fever in guinea pigs  

E-print Network

include malaise, myalgia, fatigue, non-productive cough, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. Most cases of Q fever are not recognized or diagnosed since acute illness often falls within the group of ?fever of unknown origin? syndromes (37... Q fever and a chronic fatigue-like syndrome (93, 96, 122, 177). Chronic infections appear to be associated with a suppression of the cell-mediated immune system (126), and patients with HIV are known to be at particular risk (131...

Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi Elizabeth

2009-05-15

354

Rift Valley Fever, Mayotte, 2007-2008  

PubMed Central

After the 2006–2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, Francois; Collet, Louis; D'Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

2009-01-01

355

[Metal fume fever, an almost forgotten disease].  

PubMed

Metal fume fever is an ancient and almost forgotten occupational disease found among welders. Diagnosis is made difficult by the frequency and the non-specific flue-like symptomatology. We present the cases of three patients admitted for developing the symptoms after being exposed to welding fumes. Treatment was symptom based. Severe cases have been described after exposure to military fumes. PMID:20378299

Yordanov, Y; Cantin, D; Le Guerroué, G; Pourriat, J-L

2010-05-01

356

STUDIES ON TYPHUS FEVER  

PubMed Central

1. The blood of guinea pigs convalescent from Old World and New World typhus infection develops agglutinating properties for the tunica and rat Rickettsiae of the New World diseases and for the louse Rickettsia of the Old World disease. 2. The two microorganisms are closely related, though probably not identical. 3. Human convalescents of both varieties of typhus develop agglutinins for both types of Rickettsiae. Such Rickettsia-agglutinating properties are parallel with the Weil-Felix reaction in the human sera. 4. Rabbits immunized with Weigl louse vaccines develop agglutinins for our X-ray rat vaccines and vice versa. In both cases the rabbit sera develop agglutinins for Proteus X-19. 5. These experiments furnish a further and, we believe, conclusive proof of the etiological rôle, in New World typhus fever, of the Rickettsia bodies first seen in the tunica cells of inoculated guinea pigs by Mooser, and obtained in massive amounts by ourselves. 6. The serum reactions also provide a further logical basis for experiments in prophylactic vaccination with these Rickettsiae. PMID:19870078

Zinsser, Hans; Castaneda, M. Ruiz

1932-01-01

357

Colorado Tick Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Ixodes ricinus , has been reported in parts of Western Europe. Where is Colorado Tick Fever Prevalent? Colorado ... primarily in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States as well as the Canadian provinces ...

358

Dengue Fever Testing  

MedlinePLUS

... Sample , provides a glimpse at the collection and processing of a blood sample and throat culture. Is ... Confirmed in Florida (2013), New CDC Test Can Speed Up Diagnosis of Dengue Fever (2012), FDA Approves ...

359

[Periodic fever syndromes].  

PubMed

Periodic fever syndromes comprise a group of disorders characterized by attacks of seemingly unprovoked inflammation. The genetic causes of five hereditary autoinflammatory syndromes have been identified in the last few years: familial Mediterranean fever, the cryopyrinopathies [Muckle-Wells, chronic infantile neurological, cutaneous, articular syndrome (CINCA) and familial autoinflammatory syndromes], TNF-receptor associated periodic syndrome, cyclic neutropenia syndrome and periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome. The study of periodic fever syndromes has progressed from clinical characterization to genetic analysis and to the definition of the functional defects linking genes or domains to apoptotic proteins and signal transduction pathways. This new research opens the way for more specific treatment options with a further improvement in prognosis and outcome. PMID:17072571

Huemer, C; Huemer, M

2006-11-01

360

Hay fever in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Spring and summer can bring misery to millions who suffer from allergic reactions to pollen. Hay fever can cause runny noses, streaming eyes and sore throats. Sadly, many treatments for this distressing condition are not recommended during pregnancy because of fears surrounding the effect on the unborn child. This article presents the causes and treatments of hay fever and explores the alternatives for use during pregnancy which may be able to relieve or minimise the unpleasant symptoms without harming the baby. PMID:24873116

Wiseberg, Max

2014-05-01

361

Periodic Fever Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The periodic syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that can be very difficult for practicing physicians to\\u000a diagnosis and treat. This article presents an orderly approach to hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome; tumor necrosis factor receptor-1\\u000a periodic syndrome; familial Mediterranean fever; periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis syndrome;\\u000a and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes by highlighting the disease presentation, diagnosis, pathogenesis,

Zachary Jacobs; Christina E. Ciaccio

2010-01-01

362

Omsk haemorrhagic fever.  

PubMed

Omsk haemorrhagic fever is an acute viral disease prevalent in some regions of western Siberia in Russia. The symptoms of this disease include fever, headache, nausea, severe muscle pain, cough, and moderately severe haemorrhagic manifestations. A third of patients develop pneumonia, nephrosis, meningitis, or a combination of these complications. The only treatments available are for control of symptoms. No specific vaccine has been developed, although the vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis might provide a degree of protection against Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus. The virus is transmitted mainly by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, but people are mainly infected after contact with infected muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus). Muskrats are very sensitive to Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus. The introduction of this species to Siberia in the 1930s probably led to viral emergence in this area, which had previously seemed free from the disease. Omsk haemorrhagic fever is, therefore, an example of a human disease that emerged owing to human-mediated disturbance of an ecological niche. We review the biological properties of the virus, and the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Omsk haemorrhagic fever. PMID:20850178

R?žek, Daniel; Yakimenko, Valeriy V; Karan, Lyudmila S; Tkachev, Sergey E

2010-12-18

363

Emergence of Q fever  

PubMed Central

Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis with many acute and chronic manifestations caused by the pathogen Coxiella burnetii. Farm animals and pets are the main reservoirs of infection, and transmission to human beings is mainly accomplished through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Persons at greatest risk are those in contact with farm animals and include farmers, abattoir workers, and veterinarians. The organs most commonly affected during Q fever are the heart, the arteries, the bones and the liver. The most common clinical presentation is an influenza-like illness with varying degrees of pneumonia and hepatitis. Although acute disease is usually self-limiting, people do occasionally die from this condition. Endocarditis is the most serious and most frequent clinical presentation of chronic Q fever. Vascular infection is the second most frequent presentation of Q fever. The diagnosis of Q fever is based on a significant increase in serum antibody titers. The treatment is effective and well tolerated, but must be adapted to the acute or chronic pattern with the tetracyclines to be considered the mainstay of antibiotic therapy. For the treatment of Q fever during pregnancy the use of long-term cotrimoxazole therapy is proposed. PMID:23113081

Angelakis, E; Raoult, D

2011-01-01

364

Enteric fever: an Israeli perspective.  

PubMed

Typhoid fever is no longer endemic to most developed countries, including Israel. When encountered, it usually occurs in travelers returning from endemic countries. Worldwide, the disease is far from being eradicated. It is still highly prevalent in some popular travel destinations such as India. With the continued increase in Israelis traveling to (and in migrant workers arriving from) endemic regions, physicians in Israel should be well acquainted with the disease. Unfortunately, with the limited efficacy of the current typhoid vaccinations and the increase in multidrug-resistant strains, cases among travelers are expected to continue to increase and become ever challenging to treat. PMID:17987764

Meltzer, Eyal; Schwartz, Eli

2007-10-01

365

Characterisation of inflammatory response, coagulation, and radiological findings in Katayama fever: a report of three cases at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria  

PubMed Central

Background Katayama fever is an acute clinical condition characterised by high fever, dry cough and general malaise occurring during early Schistosoma spp. infection. It is predominantly reported in travellers from non-endemic regions. Whereas the immunological response to Schistosoma infection is well characterised, alterations in inflammatory markers and coagulation in response to acute infection are poorly understood. Methods Here we report the clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics of three returning travellers with Katayama fever. Inflammatory markers and coagulation status were assessed repeatedly during follow-up to characterise the host response to infection. Radiographic findings were correlated with clinical and laboratory markers. Results Clinical symptoms were suggestive of a significant inflammatory response in all patients including high fever (>39°C), cough, and general malaise. Classical inflammatory markers including blood sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A were only moderately elevated. Marked eosinophilia (33–42% of white blood cells) was observed and persisted despite anti-inflammatory and anthelminthic treatment for up to 32 weeks. Analysis of blood coagulation markers indicated increased coagulability reflected by elevated D-dimer values (0.57–1.17 ?g/ml) and high thrombin generating potentials (peak thrombin activity: 311–384 nM). One patient showed particularly high levels of microparticle-associated tissue factor activity at initial presentation (1.64 pg/ml). Multiple pulmonary and hepatic opacities demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) scanning were associated with raised inflammatory markers in one patient. Conclusions The characterisation of the inflammatory response, blood coagulation parameters and radiological findings in three patients adds to our current understanding of Katayama fever and serves as a starting point for further systematic investigations of the pathophysiology of this acute helminthic infection. PMID:24985919

2014-01-01

366

Hyperendemic Focus of Q Fever Related to Sheep and Wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis which is caused by Coxiella burnetii and presents as both acute or chronic cases. The disease can be transmitted from animal reservoirs to humans by the inhalation of infected aerosols. The authors investigated the epidemiology of Q fever in the Bouches-du-Rhone district of southern France. The study area was centered around the small town

Herve Tissot-Dupont; Sylvie Torres; Meyer Nezri; Didier Raoult

367

`Periodical Visitations': Yellow Fever as Yellow Journalism in Charles Brockden Brown's Arthur Mervyn  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to historians of American journalism, during the 1790s, which was a period of intense political debate, it became standard practice for American politicians to subsidize and manipulate newspapers. As historian Carol Sue Humphrey puts it, \\

Louis Kirk McAuley

2007-01-01

368

Pathogenesis of Lassa Fever  

PubMed Central

Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host’s immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents. PMID:23202452

Yun, Nadezhda E.; Walker, David H.

2012-01-01

369

Familial Mediterranean Fever  

PubMed Central

The success of colchicine therapy in the management of familial Mediterranean fever has provided new direction to investigations into the pathogenesis of this disease. Examination of HLA antigen frequencies in 53 patients with familial Mediterranean fever and appropriate controls, as well as various immunologic studies have yielded no significant differences. However, B lymphocyte typing and assays for immune complexes, lymphokines and prostaglandins may be of potential interest. Preliminary studies indicate that leukocytes of patients with familial Mediterranean fever release increased amounts of lysozyme (P<0.01), when subjected to high temperatures, and of both lysozyme and myeloperoxidase at low osmotic concentrations. The known and potential effects of colchicine on leukocyte and cellular metabolism, and the current status of colchicine prophylaxis are reviewed. In patients receiving an optimum colchicine dose of 1.5 to 1.8 mg per day, side effects have been minimal and the frequency of attacks has been decreased significantly. PMID:878470

Schwabe, Arthur D.; Terasaki, Paul I.; Barnett, Eugene V.; Territo, Mary C.; Klinenberg, James R.; Peters, Robert S.

1977-01-01

370

Pathogenesis of Lassa fever.  

PubMed

Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host's immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents. PMID:23202452

Yun, Nadezhda E; Walker, David H

2012-10-01

371

Texas Fever (Third Report).  

E-print Network

, Texas. Reports and bulletins are sent free upon application to the Director. TEXAS FEVER DUUlt: of hi$ and t tion, . - 7, become that fe occurs If n:als degre by el Tf +hi (Third Report.) BY M. FRANCIS, Veterinarian Twenty years ago... the authorities of the Texas Experiment Station de- cided to take up the Texas Fever problem, and, if possible, work out (.Am - plan by which the discouraging losses that followed the importation gh-class cattle for breeding purposes, could be avoided...

Francis, M. (Mark)

1908-01-01

372

Influence of Warming Tendency on Culex pipiens Population Abundance and on the Probability of West Nile Fever Outbreaks (Israeli Case Study: 2001–2005)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change and West Nile fever (WNV) are both subjects of global importance. Many mosquitoes and the diseases they carry,\\u000a including West Nile virus (WNV), are sensitive to temperature increase. The current study analyzes the lag correlations between\\u000a weather conditions (especially air temperature) and 1) Culex pipiens mosquito population abundance, and 2) WNF frequency in humans, between 2001 and 2005

Shlomit Paz; Iris Albersheim

2008-01-01

373

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Greece  

PubMed Central

Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is high in some regions of Greece, but only 1 case of disease has been reported. We used 4 methods to test 118 serum samples that were positive for CCHFV IgG by commercial ELISA and confirmed the positive results. A nonpathogenic or low-pathogenicity strain may be circulating. PMID:24447877

Sidira, Persefoni; Larichev, Victor; Gavrilova, Ludmila; Kuzmina, Ksenia; Mousavi-Jazi, Mehrdad; Mirazimi, Ali; Stroher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart

2014-01-01

374

Clinical and Pathologic Changes in a Guinea Pig Aerosol Challenge Model of Acute Q Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii and can manifest as a flu-like illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. A need exists in Q fever research for animal models mimicking both the typical route of infection (inhalation) and the clinical illness seen in human cases of Q fever. A guinea pig aerosol challenge model

K. E. Russell-Lodrigue; G. Q. Zhang; D. N. McMurray; J. E. Samuel

2006-01-01

375

A seroepidemiological study of the risks of Q fever infection in Japanese veterinarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causative agent of Q fever, a widespread zoonotic disease, is the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. Although cases of Q fever have been documented in countries throughout the world, the prevalence of the disease in Japan is not yet known. Q fever is a demonstrated occupational hazard to those employed in zoological professions, but the risk to Japanese veterinarians has not

T. Abe; K. Yamaki; T. Hayakawa; H. Fukuda; Y. Ito; H. Kume; T. Komiya; K. Ishihara; K. Hirai

2001-01-01

376

[Fever of unknown origin in adults].  

PubMed

Fever of unknown origin has been defined as axillary temperature higher than 37.8 degrees C on several occasions, persisting without diagnosis for at least 3 weeks in spite of at least 1 week's investigation in hospital. Lately, the definition has been modified and extended to reflect evolutionary changes in clinical practice. In response to this new evolving environment, cases of fever of unknown origin are currently classified as: classic, nosocomial, in neutropenia, and human immunodeficiency virus-related. The objective of our review was to try and define and to update the information on the subject. PMID:16410928

Lambertucci, José Roberto; Avila, Renata Eliane de; Voieta, Izabela

2005-01-01

377

The Pathogenesis of Rift Valley Fever  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonotic disease distributed in sub-Saharan African countries and the Arabian Peninsula. The disease is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) of the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, and virus replication in domestic ruminant results in high rates of mortality and abortion. RVFV infection in humans usually causes a self-limiting, acute and febrile illness; however, a small number of cases progress to neurological disorders, partial or complete blindness, hemorrhagic fever, or thrombosis. This review describes the pathology of RVF in human patients and several animal models, and summarizes the role of viral virulence factors and host factors that affect RVFV pathogenesis. PMID:21666766

Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji

2011-01-01

378

[Fever of unknown origin caused by anaplasmosis].  

PubMed

A 74-year-old man in good clinical condition presented with complaints of recurrent fever up to 38 degrees C and diffuse thoracic pain, both present for several weeks. Antibiotic therapy did not result in disappearance of the symptoms. Except for a picture of chronic inflammation and a positive Anaplasma IgM antibody titre, serology yielded no indication ofthe diagnosis. Further investigation, including imaging, showed no convincing cause. 'Anaplasma infection' remained the working diagnosis. One month after hospitalisation, the patient was free of fever without any type of therapy. Control blood tests revealed seroconversion to Anaplasma IgG antibodies, constituting serological evidence of a recent infection. The prevalence ofanaplasmosis is increasing. Mice are the principal reservoir for the intracellular bacteria and the infection is transmitted by ticks. In case of fever of unknown origin, since the transmission takes place in the same manner, one should consider both Borrelia and an infection with Anaplasma. PMID:17225790

Verheyen, J; Govaert, K; Eykens, L; De Cauwer, H

2006-12-16

379

The pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever.  

PubMed

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonotic disease distributed in sub-Saharan African countries and the Arabian Peninsula. The disease is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) of the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, and virus replication in domestic ruminant results in high rates of mortality and abortion. RVFV infection in humans usually causes a self-limiting, acute and febrile illness; however, a small number of cases progress to neurological disorders, partial or complete blindness, hemorrhagic fever, or thrombosis. This review describes the pathology of RVF in human patients and several animal models, and summarizes the role of viral virulence factors and host factors that affect RVFV pathogenesis. PMID:21666766

Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji

2011-05-01

380

Yellow Legged Frog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists found this adult mountain yellow-legged frog on June 10 in Tahquitz Creek, a rediscovered population of the endangered frog in the San Jacinto Wilderness, San Bernardino National Forest, California....

2009-07-23

381

Ebola haemorrhagic fever.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the management of a patient who was admitted to The Aga Khan Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, with suspected Ebola haemorrhagic fever (Ebola HF). It defines the disease, symptoms and how it is spread, diagnosed, treated and prevented. Recommendations are made for management of Ebola HF in a hospital setting. PMID:12216182

Walker, L

382

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks in Gabon, 1994–1997: Epidemiologic and Health Control Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the end of 1994 to the beginning of 1995, 49 patients with hemorrhagic symptoms were hospitalized in the Makokou General Hospital in northeastern Gabon. Yellow fever (YF) virus was first diagnosed in serum by use of polymerase chain reaction followed by blotting, and a vaccination campaign was immediately instituted. The epidemic, known as the fall 1994 epidemic, ended 6

Sylvain Baize

1999-01-01

383

Altered mental status and fever.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) is still the most common cause of neuroinvasive arboviral disease in the USA with a case death of 10-30%. We are reporting a case of a 61-year-old woman with a history of Crohn's disease, fibromyalgia treated with chronic steroid therapy that presented with a day history of fever, confusion and lethargy. She had a lumbar puncture which was notable for lymphocytosis and was positive for WNV. She initially was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which were subsequently discontinued when the diagnosis of WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND) was made. A high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose WNND, and this should be suspected in elderly immunocompromised patient presenting with altered mental status and lumbar puncture suggestive of aseptic meningitis. Recent study has showed that there is genetic variation in the interferon response pathway which is associated with both risk for symptomatic WNV infection and disease progression. PMID:23813996

Ajayi, Tokunbo; Bhatia, Ashmeet; Lambl, Barbara; Altamimi, Sarah

2013-01-01

384

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with acute rheumatic fever.  

PubMed

An 8-year-old boy developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, 2 weeks after an episode of acute rheumatic fever. The disease was succesfully treated with high-dose methylprednisolone. A wide range of neurologic disorders is associated with streptococcal disease. Poststreptococcal acute disseminated encephalomyelitis was previously reported in children, but to our knowledge, this is the first case report of rheumatic fever complicated by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. This case supports the hypothesis that rheumatic fever, a late complication of streptococcal infections, may be associated with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. PMID:21310343

Sayg?, Semra; Olgaç, Asburçe; Üçkarde?, Yasemin; Alehan, Füsun; Varan, Birgül

2011-03-01

385

"Trap" the diagnosis: a man with recurrent episodes of febrile peritonitis, not just familial Mediterranean fever.  

PubMed

Monogenic periodic fever syndromes are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, accompanied by localized inflammatory manifestations. Among them, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most studied and is by far the most prevalent periodic fever syndrome in Israel. We present a diagnostic workup of a patient suffering from a periodic fever syndrome, initially thought to be FMF and characterized by attacks of fever, severe abdominal pain, a migratory erythematous rash and conjunctivitis. The development of periorbital edema presenting as diplopia led to consideration of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS). Genetic tests confirmed the diagnosis. This case should alert us that even in Israel, a patient with periodic fever not fully consistent with the typical features of FMF, should be evaluated for other periodic fever syndromes. PMID:22675839

Arad, Uri; Niv, Eva; Caspi, Dan; Elkayam, Ori

2012-04-01

386

Yellow nail syndrome: a rarity in Indians?  

PubMed

Reports of yellow nail syndrome have been few and far between. The classical triad of the syndrome has not been reported in Indian literature. We report a case of yellow nail syndrome in a forty-year-old male, who had yellowish-brown nails from birth. He developed lymphoedema of the legs at the age of twenty years and presented with pleural effusion at the age of forty years. Although a case of yellow nail syndrome has been reported from India, the classical triad of the syndrome is yet to be documented from our country. The condition may be missed because of the long time difference in presentation of different components of the syndrome and also because of the dark skin colour of Indians. PMID:16892747

Nair, V K; Sukumaran, P

1996-01-01

387

Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus screening in patients with fever and flu-like symptoms in a tertiary hospital in an area with confirmed cases.  

PubMed

Novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was isolated in fatal patients in Yangtze River Delta of China in March 2013. We aimed to screen the virus in febrile patients in a tertiary hospital in an area with confirmed cases. Throat-swab specimens collected from consecutive patients with fever (?38°C) and flu-like symptoms from April 15 to April 25, 2013 were subjected to detect novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus with real-time PCR. The clinical outcomes in the patients and close contacts were followed up. Of total 200 patients screened, one (0.5%) was positive for avian influenza A(H7N9) virus and 199 others were negative. The infected patient experienced respiratory failure and had diffuse infiltrates in the right lower lobe in chest CT images. He received symptomatic and antibacterial treatments as well as oseltamivir. His condition was substantially improved within three days after admission; avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was not detected after 5 days' antiviral therapy. The hemagglutinin inhibition test showed that the serum titers against avian influenza A(H7N9) virus increased from <1?20 at the early phase to 1?80 at the convalescent phase. Follow-up of 23 close contacts showed that none of them developed fever and other symptoms within two weeks. Our findings suggest that although the infection rate of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in patients with fever and flu-like symptoms is rare, the screening is valuable to rapidly define the infection, which will be critical to improve the clinical outcomes. PMID:24367529

Wu, Chao; Huang, Rui; Chen, Jianjun; Gu, Qin; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Kui; Chen, Quanjiao; Xiong, Chaochao; Liu, Yong; Li, Jiequan; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Ding, Yitao

2013-01-01

388

Pontiac fever: an operational definition for epidemiological studies  

PubMed Central

Background Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. Methods A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. Results The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days). 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122–0.127]). A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 104.L-1 (FISH method) was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04). Conclusion Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of Legionella. PMID:16646972

Tossa, Paul; Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Hartemann, Philippe; Mathieu, Laurence

2006-01-01

389

Vaccine Platforms to Control Arenaviral Hemorrhagic Fevers  

PubMed Central

Arenaviruses are rodent-borne emerging human pathogens. Diseases caused by these viruses, e.g., Lassa fever (LF) in West Africa and South American hemorrhagic fevers (HFs), are serious public health problems in endemic areas. We have employed replication-competent and replication-deficient strategies to design vaccine candidates potentially targeting different groups “at risk”. Our leader LF vaccine candidate, the live reassortant vaccine ML29, is safe and efficacious in all tested animal models including non-human primates. In this study we showed that treatment of fatally infected animals with ML29 two days after Lassa virus (LASV) challenge protected 80% of the treated animals. In endemic areas, where most of the target population is poor and many live far from health care facilities, a single-dose vaccination with ML29 would be ideal solution. Once there is an outbreak, a fast-acting vaccine or post-exposure prophylaxis would be best. The 2nd vaccine technology is based on Yellow Fever (YF) 17D vaccine. We designed YF17D-based recombinant viruses expressing LASV glycoproteins (GP) and showed protective efficacy of these recombinants. In the current study we developed a novel technology to clone LASV nucleocapsid within YF17D C gene. Low immunogenicity and stability of foreign inserts must be addressed to design successful LASV/YFV bivalent vaccines to control LF and YF in overlapping endemic areas of West Africa. The 3rd platform is based on the new generation of alphavirus replicon virus-like-particle vectors (VLPV). Using this technology we designed VLPV expressing LASV GP with enhanced immunogenicity and bivalent VLPV expressing cross-reactive GP of Junin virus (JUNV) and Machupo virus (MACV), causative agents of Argentinian and Bolivian HF, respectively. A prime-boost regimen required for VLPV immunization might be practical for medical providers, military, lab personnel, and visitors in endemic areas. PMID:23420494

Carrion, Ricardo; Bredenbeek, Peter; Jiang, Xiaohong; Tretyakova, Irina; Pushko, Peter; Lukashevich, Igor S.

2013-01-01

390

Prevention of Typhoid Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typhoid fever, the generalized infection of the reticuloendothelial system (spleen, liver, and bone marrow), gut-associated\\u000a lymphoid tissue, and gall bladder caused by the highly human host restricted pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is the quintessential infectious disease associated with inadequate sanitation and lack of protected drinking water.\\u000a The pediatric (school-age) and young adult populations in endemic areas bear

Myron M. Levine; Philippe Lepage

391

Bovine ephemeral fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Thermal and pH stability of ephemeral fever virus (EFV) were studied. Infectivity of EFV was inactivated within 10 minutes at 56°C, by 18 hours at 37°C, and within 120 hours at 25°C. Infected mouse-brain virus had little titer loss after 30 days' storage at 4°C. Infected culture fluids stored at -35°C lost about 0.04 log units of virus per

W. P. Heuschele

1970-01-01

392

Treatment of enteric fever.  

PubMed

Enteric fever is systemic illness caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, B and C. It is believed to be a readily treatable illness by many clinicians in the developing world where it is endemic; however, with the emergence of drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, treatment is becoming increasingly difficult. While drugs such as cefixime, previously believed to be effective, have been proven otherwise, new agents such as gatifloxacin and azithromycin have proven to be promising. Re-emergence of chloramphenicol sensitive strains in previously resistant areas points towards the concept of antibiotic recycling, preserving the use of older antibiotics. Antibiotic recycling has been used successfully in hospital settings. However, its usefulness in community settings, where the main burden of enteric fever resides, is challenging to manage due to logistics and a lack of infrastructure. Nalidixic acid resistance used to be a marker for clinical response to flouroquinolones; however, recent studies highlight the importance of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility as a better marker. Enteric fever, as a public health problem, has been tackled by protection of food and water supplies in the industrialised countries of the world. Nonetheless, that goal seems too far-fetched in the developing world where there are hundreds of villages, towns and cities without adequate infrastructures. Perhaps the key to solving this problem is combining point-of-use-purification of water (by chlorination) with the treatment of illness in the community. Treatment of chronic carriers is also necessary in order to halt the cycles of transmission. PMID:19745518

Arjyal, Amit; Pandit, Anil

2008-01-01

393

Acute gingival bleeding as a complication of dengue hemorrhagic fever  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever is mosquito borne disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) of Flaviviridae family. The clinical manifestations range from fever to severe hemorrhage, shock and death. Here, we report a case of 20-year-old male patient undergoing orthodontic treatment presenting with acute gingival bleeding with a history of fever, weakness, backache, retro orbital pain and ecchymosis over his right arm. The hematological investigations revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia and positive dengue non-structural protein-1 antigen and also positive immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies for DENV. Patient was diagnosed as a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever and was immediately referred for appropriate management. This case report emphasizes the importance of taking correct and thorough medical history. PMID:24174736

Khan, Saif; Gupta, N. D.; Maheshwari, Sandhya

2013-01-01

394

Community Case Management of Fever Due to Malaria and Pneumonia in Children Under Five in Zambia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Pneumonia and malaria, two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children under five in Zambia, often have overlapping clinical manifestations. Zambia is piloting the use of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) by community health workers (CHWs) to treat uncomplicated malaria. Valid concerns about potential overuse of AL could be addressed by the use of malaria rapid diagnostics employed at the community level. Currently, CHWs in Zambia evaluate and treat children with suspected malaria in rural areas, but they refer children with suspected pneumonia to the nearest health facility. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of using CHWs to manage nonsevere pneumonia and uncomplicated malaria with the aid of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Methods and Findings Community health posts staffed by CHWs were matched and randomly allocated to intervention and control arms. Children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years were managed according to the study protocol, as follows. Intervention CHWs performed RDTs, treated test-positive children with AL, and treated those with nonsevere pneumonia (increased respiratory rate) with amoxicillin. Control CHWs did not perform RDTs, treated all febrile children with AL, and referred those with signs of pneumonia to the health facility, as per Ministry of Health policy. The primary outcomes were the use of AL in children with fever and early and appropriate treatment with antibiotics for nonsevere pneumonia. A total of 3,125 children with fever and/or difficult/fast breathing were managed over a 12-month period. In the intervention arm, 27.5% (265/963) of children with fever received AL compared to 99.1% (2066/2084) of control children (risk ratio 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.14–0.38). For children classified with nonsevere pneumonia, 68.2% (247/362) in the intervention arm and 13.3% (22/203) in the control arm received early and appropriate treatment (risk ratio 5.32, 95% confidence interval 2.19–8.94). There were two deaths in the intervention and one in the control arm. Conclusions The potential for CHWs to use RDTs, AL, and amoxicillin to manage both malaria and pneumonia at the community level is promising and might reduce overuse of AL, as well as provide early and appropriate treatment to children with nonsevere pneumonia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00513500 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20877714

Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Pilingana, Portipher; Macleod, William B.; Semrau, Katherine; Siazeele, Kazungu; Kalesha, Penelope; Hamainza, Busiku; Seidenberg, Phil; Mazimba, Arthur; Sabin, Lora; Kamholz, Karen; Thea, Donald M.; Hamer, Davidson H.

2010-01-01

395

Outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by dengue virus type 3 in Al-Mukalla, Yemen  

PubMed Central

Background Investigations were conducted by the authors to explore an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) reported in 2010 from Al-Mukalla city, the capital of Hadramout in Yemen. Methods From 15–17 June 2010, the outbreak investigation period, specimens were obtained within 7?days after onset of illness of 18 acutely ill patients hospitalized with VHF and 15 household asymptomatic contacts of 6 acute cases. Additionally, 189 stored sera taken from acutely ill patients with suspected VHF hospitalized in the preceding 12?months were obtained from the Ministry of Health of Yemen. Thus, a total of 222 human specimens were collected; 207 specimens from acute cases and 15 specimens from contacts. All samples were tested with RT-PCR for dengue (DENV), Alkhumra (ALKV), Rift Valley Fever (RVFV), Yellow Fever (YFV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. Samples were also tested for DENV IgM, IgG, and NS1-antigen. Medical records of patients were reviewed and demographic, clinical, and laboratory data was collected. Results Of 207 patients tested, 181 (87.4%) patients were confirmed to have acute dengue with positive dengue NS1-antigen (97 patients, 46.9%) and/or IgM (163 patients, 78.7%). Of the 181 patients with confirmed dengue, 100 (55.2%) patients were IgG-positive. DENV RNA was detected in 2 (1%) patients with acute symptoms; both samples were molecularly typed as DENV type 3. No other VHF viruses were detected. For the 15 contacts tested, RT-PCR tests for the five viruses were negative, one contact was dengue IgM positive, and another one was dengue IgG positive. Of the 181 confirmed dengue patients, 120 (66.3%) patients were males and the median age was 24?years. The most common manifestations included fever (100%), headache (94.5%), backache (93.4%), malaise (88.4%), arthralgia (85.1%), myalgia (82.3%), bone pain (77.9%), and leukopenia (76.2%). Two (1.1%) patients died. Conclusions DENV-3 was confirmed to be the cause of an outbreak of VHF in Al-Mukalla. It is important to use both IgM and NS1-antigen tests to confirm acute dengue particularly under the adverse field conditions, where proper storage and transportation of specimens are missing, which substantially reduce the sensitivity of the RT-PCR for detecting DENV RNA. PMID:23497142

2013-01-01

396

[Relapsing borrelioses fevers: forgotten and new ones].  

PubMed

Relapsing fever borrelioses are widely spread in the endemic regions of Eurasia, Africa, and America as before and account for significant morbidity and mortality; however, these infections have been recently underestimated. The pathogens of the fevers are the Borrelia species transmitted by ticks of the Ornithodoros genus; they genetically differ from the pathogens of Lyme borreliosis--Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato transmitted by Ixodes ticks. The species Borrelia miyamotoi belongs to the genetic species of Borrelia, the causative agents of relapsing fevers. The authors found Borrelia of this species in the Ixodes ticks of Russia and first showed that B. miyamotoi were able to induce multiple cases in man, which had been earlier diagnosed as erythema-free Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis. The review considers the pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, and treatment of "old" relapsing fever borrelioses versus the available data on the "new" infection caused by B. miyamotoi. This must assist Russian physicians and scientists both to treat "old" and new tick-borne relapsing borrelioses and to schedule studies of the "new" B. myamotoi infection. PMID:21381356

Platonov, A E; Maleev, V V; Karan', L S

2010-01-01

397

Emergence of larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in South Dakota lakes: potential implications for  

E-print Network

Emergence of larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in South Dakota lakes: potential implications and hatch dates were described for larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), captured in surface larval yellow perch were collected in four of six lakes during 2002, suggesting that in some cases

398

Typhoid fever with caecal ulcer bleed: managed conservatively.  

PubMed

Typhoid fever is caused by enteroinvasive Gram-negative organism Salmonella typhi. The well-known complications of typhoid fever are intestinal haemorrhage and perforation. In the pre-antibiotic era, these complications were quite common, but in the current antibiotic era the incidence of these complications is on the decline. We report a case of a patient with typhoid fever who developed haematochezia during the hospital stay and was found to have caecal ulcer with an adherent clot on colonoscopy. He was managed successfully with conservative measures without endotherapy and there was no rebleed. PMID:24686806

Boopathy, Vinoth; Periyasamy, Sivakumar; Alexander, Thomas; Balasubramanian, Padhmini

2014-01-01

399

Media Online Yellow Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Media Online Yellow Pages is another good place (along with the Big List and Newslink mentioned last week) to find media sources on the Internet. Does not appear to be searchable but the index is well-organized for browsing.

400

Photo yellowing of human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white,

A. C. S. Nogueira; M. Richena; L. E. Dicelio; I. Joekes

2007-01-01

401

Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.  

PubMed

Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspe-cific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers. PMID:25344714

Burnett, Mark W

2014-01-01

402

Lime-yellow color as related to reduction of serious fire apparatus accidents--the case for visibility in emergency vehicle accident avoidance.  

PubMed

Fire departments have long used red as the traditional color for fire apparatus and have been reluctant to change. Optometric research and literature offers ample proof that red is a poorly detected color. This paper views the shortcomings of red. Simultaneously, it reports that the ancillary equipment and markings used to make fire vehicles detectable are not as effective as previously thought. These safety measures include flashing lights, strobe lights, retroreflective material, and audible alarms. Lime-yellow has been found to be a distinctive, highly visible safety color. Research reveals it can reduce or prevent serious fire apparatus accidents through early detection. PMID:2081824

Solomon, S S

1990-11-01

403

Cardiovascular effects of yellow oleander ingestion.  

PubMed

Yellow oleander (Thevetia neriifolia) is a commonly grown tree found widely in Eastern India. The seeds of yellow oleander are highly poisonous and contain three glycosides--thevetin, thevetoxin and peruvoside. Yellow oleander seed ingestion is usually with suicidal intent in Eastern India. Manifestations range from mild to potentially fatal. It has significant cardiovascular effects with varying rhythm abnormalities. Effects of yellow oleander seed ingestion (YOI) were studied in 300 patients from 1986 to 1990 at BS Medical College, Bankura. Majority i.e., 246 (82%) were females and 226 (75.33%) were young in the age group 11-20 years. Most reported for treatment 6 to 8 hours after ingestion of seeds. The number of seeds swallowed varied from half to fifteen. Two hundred and ninety-two (97.33%) ingested seeds in the crushed form; 156 (52%) were asymptomatic, 92 (30.66%) had vomiting and 36 (12%) had palpitation. In electrocardiogram (ECG), 138 (46%) revealed varying types of arrhythmias including sinus bradycardia in 68 cases (49.27%). Ischaemic changes were present in 118 cases (39.33%). Number of seeds ingested did not bear any relationship with ECG changes in YOI. All 14 cases of death were autopsied. Subendocardial and perivascular haemorrhage with focal myocardial oedema was present in all. Median hospital stay was 5 days (range 2 to 24). During discharge, 256 (85.33%) had normal ECG, 14 (4.66%) had sinus bradycardia and 16 (5.33%) demonstrated ischaemic changes. PMID:10638101

Bose, T K; Basu, R K; Biswas, B; De, J N; Majumdar, B C; Datta, S

1999-10-01

404

Q Fever with Unusual Exposure History: A Classic Presentation of a Commonly Misdiagnosed Disease  

PubMed Central

We describe the case of a man presumptively diagnosed and treated for Rocky Mountain spotted fever following exposure to multiple ticks while riding horses. The laboratory testing of acute and convalescent serum specimens led to laboratory confirmation of acute Q fever as the etiology. This case represents a potential tickborne transmission of Coxiella burnetii and highlights the importance of considering Q fever as a possible diagnosis following tick exposures. PMID:22848855

Nett, Randall J.; Book, Earl; Anderson, Alicia D.

2012-01-01

405

Dengue fever and bone marrow myelofibrosis.  

PubMed

Myelofibrosis is characterized by reticulin and/or collagen fibrosis in the bone marrow stroma resulting in secondary cytopenia. In addition to clonal hematologic neoplasms, myelofibrosis may also develop in association with other clinical conditions, including hematological disorders, solid malignancies, Down syndrome, autoimmune diseases and others. We report the first case to our knowledge of myelofibrosis associated with dengue fever. We briefly describe dengue infections and hypothesize the causes of myelofibrosis in this condition. PMID:25016180

Qing, Xin; Sun, Nora; Yeh, James; Yue, Changjun; Cai, Junchao

2014-10-01

406

Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 35-2014: a 31-year-old woman with fevers, chest pain, and a history of HCV infection and substance-use disorder.  

PubMed

A 31-year-old woman with substance-use disorder was admitted to this hospital because of fevers and chest pain. CT of the chest revealed multiple thick-walled nodular opacities throughout both lungs. Diagnostic tests were performed, and management decisions were made. PMID:25390743

Wakeman, Sarah E; Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Dudzinski, David M; Wilens, Timothy; Slavin, Peter L

2014-11-13

407

Drug Fever due to a Single Dose of Pantoprazole.  

PubMed

Although proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are generally well tolerated, with most adverse effects being minor and self-limiting, there are singular reports on hypersensitivity immune reactions triggered by a PPI or its metabolites. Here we report a case of acute drug-induced fever with leukocytosis and a transient increase in CRP due to pantoprazole. This was apparently an idiosyncratic reaction (inflammatory fever), showing no cross-sensitivity towards esomeprazole. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25228460

Schiller, Dietmar; Maieron, Andreas; Schöfl, Rainer; Donnerer, Josef

2014-01-01

408

Childbed Fever A Nineteenth-Century Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case describes the pioneering work of Ignaz Semmelweis and his efforts to remedy the problem of childbed fever in mid-19th century Europe.  Its purpose is to teach students about the scientific method by “dissecting” the various steps involved in this important, historical medical breakthrough. The case is an interrupted case, that is, students receive only one piece of information at a time, followed by discussion, before moving on to the next piece of information to solve the mystery.

Colyer, Christa

1999-01-01

409

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which is a member of the Nairovirus genus (family Bunyaviridae). CCHF was first recognized during a large outbreak among ...

C. A. Whitehouse

2004-01-01

410

Fever in various rheumatic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000aIn many rheumatic diseases fever may occur. This review presents data about the frequency of fever in rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, crystal induced arthritis, various vasculitides and sarcoidosis. The mechanism by which body temperature rises in these situations is discussed.

A. Weinberger; A. Kesler; J. Pinkhas

1985-01-01

411

Bovine ephemeral fever: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine ephemeral fever is a viral disease of cattle and buffaloes besides subclinical involvement of a variety of ruminant species. The subtropical and temperate regions of Africa, Asia and Australia have experienced the major epidemic of the bovine ephemeral fever but the occurrence in the tropics can not be overlooked. Although the substantial role played by the vectors viz., mosquitoes

S Nandi; B. S Negi

1999-01-01

412

Q fever: epidemiology, clinical features and prognosis. A study from 1983 to 1999 in the South of Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Clinical polymorphism is a main feature of Q fever and, depending upon the geographic location, differences in its clinical picture have been described. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiology, clinical features and prognosis of acute Q fever in our area.Methods. From 1985 to 1999, consecutive cases of Q fever, presented as febrile syndrome and attended

Ar??stides de Alarcón; Jose Luis Villanueva; Pompeyo Viciana; Luis López-Cortés; Rafael Torronteras; Máximo Bernabeu; Elisa Cordero; Jerónimo Pachón

2003-01-01

413

Isolation and Characterization of Borrelia hermsii Associated with Two Foci of Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in California  

PubMed Central

Relapsing fever, caused by the spirochete Borrelia hermsii and transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi, is endemic in many rural mountainous areas of California. Between 1996 and 1998, 12 cases of relapsing fever associated with two exposure sites in northern California were investigated. Follow-up at exposure sites included collection of soft ticks and serum specimens from sylvatic rodents. Attempts to cultivate spirochetes were made through inoculation of patient blood into mice and by feeding Ornithodoros ticks on mice. Three isolates of B. hermsii were recovered from two blood specimens and one pool of ticks. The protein and plasmid profiles of the three isolates were comparable to those of previous B. hermsii isolates from the western United States. Western immunoblotting of patient sera demonstrated an expanding immunologic response to antigens within four distinct molecular weight regions by 3 to 4 weeks postonset. Antibody to B. hermsii was detected in sera from 4 of 11 yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus); no other rodent species collected were seropositive. PMID:15004063

Fritz, Curtis L.; Bronson, Lawrence R.; Smith, Charles R.; Schriefer, Martin E.; Tucker, James R.; Schwan, Tom G.

2004-01-01

414

Isolation and characterization of Borrelia hermsii associated with two foci of tick-borne relapsing fever in California.  

PubMed

Relapsing fever, caused by the spirochete Borrelia hermsii and transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi, is endemic in many rural mountainous areas of California. Between 1996 and 1998, 12 cases of relapsing fever associated with two exposure sites in northern California were investigated. Follow-up at exposure sites included collection of soft ticks and serum specimens from sylvatic rodents. Attempts to cultivate spirochetes were made through inoculation of patient blood into mice and by feeding Ornithodoros ticks on mice. Three isolates of B. hermsii were recovered from two blood specimens and one pool of ticks. The protein and plasmid profiles of the three isolates were comparable to those of previous B. hermsii isolates from the western United States. Western immunoblotting of patient sera demonstrated an expanding immunologic response to antigens within four distinct molecular weight regions by 3 to 4 weeks postonset. Antibody to B. hermsii was detected in sera from 4 of 11 yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus); no other rodent species collected were seropositive. PMID:15004063

Fritz, Curtis L; Bronson, Lawrence R; Smith, Charles R; Schriefer, Martin E; Tucker, James R; Schwan, Tom G

2004-03-01

415

The Yellow River basin becomes wetter or drier? The case as indicated by mean precipitation and extremes during 1961-2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yellow River basin could be divided into three sub-regions, which makes it as the ideal target for studying regional climate change. On the basis of daily precipitation at 62 meteorological stations in the Yellow River basin, spatial distribution and temporal trends of annual and monthly mean precipitation and extremes were analyzed during 1961-2012. The Mann-Kendall trend test and linear least-square method were used to detect trends and magnitudes in annual and monthly mean precipitation and extremes. The results indicate that mean precipitation and extremes have different trends, and the three sub-regions also have distinct trends. Annual average precipitation shows a slight decrease in the whole basin with a trend of -8.8 mm/decade, a significant decrease in the eastern monsoon sub-region with trends of -14.4 mm/decade but increases in the high-elevation sub-region with trends of 1.3 mm/decade. Monthly precipitation in the Yellow River basin shows a different seasonality, December and June have largest positive trends, while November and October have largest negative trends. The change degree of annual precipitation extremes in the whole Yellow River basin decreased, reflected by seven indices (CWD, SDII, R10, R95p, R99p, Rx1day, and Rx5day) having negative trends but significantly different in the three sub-regions. Specifically, trends of all the ten annual precipitation extremes indices in the eastern monsoon sub-region were dominant negative, while mainly positive in the arid and semi-arid sub-region and high-elevation sub-region. The four monthly precipitation indices (PRCPTOT, SDII, Rx1day, and Rx5day) have main positive trends in February, May, June, and December, while negative trends in April, August, September, October, and November, in which the months having the most dominant positive trends are distinctly different (in February or June or December), while months with the most dominant negative trends are the same (in November). In the whole basin, eight indices (PRCPTOT, SDII, R10, R20, R95p, R99p, Rx1day, and Rx5day) have positive relations with elevation, while two indices (CDD and CWD) have negative relationship with elevation, but in the three sub-regions, relations between the ten indices and elevation are not significant. Relationship between extremes indices and large-scale atmospheric circulations show that, in the whole basin, all the ten annual indices have little relationship with Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High (NHSH) and Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex (NHPV). But for the four monthly precipitation indices (i.e., Rx1day, Rx5day, PRCPTOT, and SDII), there were significant positive relationships with NHSH but significant negative relationships with NHPV. The results of this study are useful to master change rule of local mean precipitation and extremes change, which will help to prevent natural hazards caused by precipitation extremes.

Liang, Kang; Liu, Sheng; Bai, Peng; Nie, Rong

2014-04-01

416

Enteric fever in Mediterranean north Africa.  

PubMed

Typhoid fever is endemic in the Mediterranean North African countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) with an estimated incidence of 10-100 cases per 100,000 persons. Outbreaks caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi are common and mainly due to the consumption of untreated or sewage-contaminated water. Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B is more commonly involved in nosocomial cases of enteric fever in North Africa than expected and leads to high mortality rates among infants with congenital anomalies. Prevalence among travellers returning from this region is low, with an estimate of less than one per 100,000. Although multidrug resistant strains of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi are prevalent in this region, the re-emergence of chloramphenicol- and ampicillin-susceptible strains has been observed. In order to better understand the epidemiology of enteric fever in the Mediterranean North African region, population-based studies are needed. These will assist the health authorities in the region in preventing and controlling this important disease. PMID:20009276

Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Franka, Ezzedin; Tawil, Khaled; Wasfy, Momtaz O; Ahmed, Salwa F; Rubino, Salvatore; Klena, John D

2009-01-01

417

Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever  

PubMed Central

Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

Lukashevich, Igor S.

2012-01-01

418

Infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic Fever outbreaks.  

PubMed

Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg) hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website. PMID:22529631

Raabea, Vanessa N; Borcherta, Matthias

2012-01-01

419

Pharyngoconjunctival fever caused by adenovirus type 11.  

PubMed

Among a group of hospitalized children in Fukuoka, southern Japan, an epidemic of pharyngoconjunctival fever-like disease caused by adenovirus type 11 was observed in the autumn of 1988. Of the 47 children studied 38 were seronegative in neutralizing antibody for adenovirus type 11 before the epidemic, and seroconversion occurred in 16 (42%) including 5 subclinical cases. Of the 11 symptomatic patients the incidences of conjunctivitis, pharyngitis and fever were 91, 64 and 46%, respectively. Four patients (36%) had all three symptoms. Fifteen patients (94%) were boys. The sex predominance and high incidence of conjunctivitis suggested that infection may have been transmitted in the large bathroom where boys took baths together. PMID:1549418

Nakayama, M; Miyazaki, C; Ueda, K; Kusuhara, K; Yoshikawa, H; Nishima, S; Shibata, R; Tokugawa, K

1992-01-01

420

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Tajikistan.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a pathogenic tick-borne disease caused by a single-stranded negative-sense RNA virus classified within the Nairovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae. Cases of CCHF have been registered in Tajikistan since the disease was first brought to medical attention in 1944. However, historical Tajik manuscripts describe the features of hemorrhagic fever associated with ticks, indicating that the disease might have been known in this region for many years before it was officially characterized. Here we review the historical context of CCHF in Tajikistan, much of which has been described over several decades in the Russian literature, and include reports of recent outbreaks in Tajikistan. PMID:22217164

Tishkova, Farida H; Belobrova, Evgeniya A; Valikhodzhaeva, Matlyuba; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger; Mullojonova, Manija

2012-09-01