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Sample records for yellow fever cases

  1. Yellow Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Yellow Fever Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Yellow fever virus is found in tropical and subtropical areas ...

  2. Yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Monath, Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease occurs in tropical areas of South America and Africa. It is a disease of major historical importance, but remains a threat to travelers to and residents of endemic areas despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 70 years. An important aspect is the receptivity of many non-endemic areas to introduction and spread of yellow fever. This paper reviews the clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of yellow fever, with an emphasis on recent changes in the distribution and incidence of the disease. Recent knowledge about yellow fever 17D vaccine mechanism of action and safety are discussed. PMID:25453327

  3. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... failure death (20 to 50% of serious cases) Yellow fever vaccine is a live, weakened virus. It is given ... a booster dose is recommended every 10 years.Yellow fever vaccine may be given at the same time as ...

  4. Yellow fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the heart, liver, and kidney. Bleeding disorders, seizures, coma, and delirium may also occur. Symptoms may include: Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) Bleeding (may progress to hemorrhage) Coma Decreased urination Delirium Fever Headache Yellow skin and ...

  5. [Yellow fever: new recommendations].

    PubMed

    Rochat, L; Genton, B

    2014-05-01

    Indication for yellow fever vaccination is not always easy to assess. The decision to immunize is not only based on the actual risk of the disease in a specific location, but also on public health considerations in the visited country (in order to respectively avoid epidemics in endemic countries or the introduction of the virus in zones where the vectors mosquitoes are present) and on travelers' risk factors for severe or even fatal vaccine adverse events. WHO has recently published new recommendations regarding vaccination against yellow fever after concluding that one dose of vaccine generates a life-long protection. This article tends to clarify the strategy to adopt in 2013 using cases frequently encountered in the practice of travel medicine. PMID:24908746

  6. Yellow fever in the Americas.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    In 1983 the total number of jungle yellow fever cases in the Americas was one of the lowest in recent years. There were 2 outstanding occurrences during the year, representing the end of an epidemic that had taken place in the Santa Cruz region of Bolivia in 1981 and 1982. The small number of cases, in contrast with previous epidemics, was the result of an increasing number of vaccinations in the affected regions. At a Pan American Health Organization Seminar on the treatment and laboratory diagnosis of yellow fever held in Brazil in 1984, participants reviewed the epidemiologic situation in places where yellow fever poses a serious and ongoing public health problem. At this time, the general yellow fever situation in each of the affected countries of the Americas--Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru--is as follows. Yellow fever is endemic in 2/3 of Bolivia, primarily in the south. Males are affected more often (78%) than females (22%). Generally, the patients are adults, but during a recent epidemic in the Rincon del Tigre area 14.5% of the cases occurred in children under age 4 and 11.6% in children 5-9 years. In Brazil, the endemic zone comprises states in the northern, central, and western regions and also in the western strips of the State of Maranhao. The disease occurs rarely among children under age 11, and 70% of the victims are men ranging in age from 15-40 years who are working in the jungle; only 15% of the cases occur among women. Colombia's last urban yellow fever case occurred in 1929. At this time yellow fever is endemic in the eastern plains, which form part of the Amazone and Orinoco basins. It spreads in the form of epizootic and epidemic waves through the forests at the foot of the eastern cordillera. Yellow fever is endemo-epidemic in the northern and central jungle of Peru. Over 600 cases were reported from 1960-82. These cases occurred during the rainy season of January to May. Vaccination campaigns have been intensified during the last 3 years. Yellow fever is enzootic in the gallery forests of the tropical plain of the Orinoco Basin, Venezuela. The 15-55 age group is the group usually at risk, but 2% of the cases occur in children under age 5 and 2.8% in children under age 10. Between 1965-84, the countries of the Americas reported 2238 cases to the Pan American Health Organization, but this figure provides an incomplete idea of the real incidence of yellow fever. PMID:4052698

  7. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to-human) transmission occurring. There are 3 transmission cycles for yellow fever: sylvatic (jungle), intermediate (savannah), and urban. The sylvatic (jungle) cycle involves transmission of the virus between nonhuman primates ...

  8. Yellow fever vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral communicable disease transmitted by an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus. It is primarily a zoonotic disease, especially the monkeys. Worldwide, an estimated 200 000 cases of yellow fever occurred each year, and the case-fatality rate is ~15%. Forty-five endemic countries in Africa and Latin America, with a population of close to 1 billion, are at risk. Up to 50% of severely affected persons from YF die without treatment. During 2009, 55 cases and 18 deaths were reported from Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. Brazil reported the maximum number of cases and death, i.e., 42 cases with 11 deaths. From January 2010 to March 2011, outbreaks of YF were reported to the WHO by Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Senegal, and Uganda. Cases were also reported in three northern districts of Abim, Agago, and Kitugun near the border with South Sudan. YF usually causes fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. Most patients improve, and their symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 d. Half of the patients who enter the toxic phase die within 10–14 d, while the rest recover without significant organ damage. Vaccination has been the single most important measure for preventing YF. The 17D-204 YF vaccine is a freeze-dried, live attenuated, highly effective vaccine. It is available in single-dose or multi-dose vials and should be stored at 2–8 °C. It is reconstituted with normal saline and should be used within 1 h of reconstitution. The 0.5 mL dose is delivered subcutaneously. Revaccination is recommended every 10 y for people at continued risk of exposure to yellow fever virus (YFV). This vaccine is available worldwide. Travelers, especially to Africa or Latin America from Asia, must have a certificate documenting YF vaccination, which is required by certain countries for entry under the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the WHO. PMID:24056028

  9. A case suspected for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van de Pol, Eva M; Gisolf, Elizabeth H; Richter, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most successful vaccines ever developed. Since 2001, 56 cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we report a new case suspected for YEL-AVD in the Netherlands. Further research is needed to determine the true incidence of YEL-AVD and to clarify host and vaccine-associated factors in the pathogenesis of YEL-AVD. Because of the potential adverse events, healthcare providers should carefully consider vaccination only in people who are truly at risk for YF infection, especially in primary vaccine recipients. PMID:24920138

  10. Adverse events following yellow fever immunization: Report and analysis of 67 neurological cases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Reinaldo de Menezes; Pavo, Ana Luiza Braz; de Oliveira, Patrcia Mouta Nunes; dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Carvalho, Sandra Maria D; Mohrdieck, Renate; Fernandes, Alexandre Ribeiro; Sato, Helena Keico; de Figueiredo, Patricia Mandali; von Doellinger, Vanessa Dos Reis; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S

    2014-11-20

    Neurological adverse events following administration of the 17DD substrain of yellow fever vaccine (YEL-AND) in the Brazilian population are described and analyzed. Based on information obtained from the National Immunization Program through passive surveillance or intensified passive surveillance, from 2007 to 2012, descriptive analysis, national and regional rates of YFV associated neurotropic, neurological autoimmune disease, and reporting rate ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for first time vaccinees stratified on age and year. Sixty-seven neurological cases were found, with the highest rate of neurological adverse events in the age group from 5 to 9 years (2.66 per 100,000 vaccine doses in Rio Grande do Sul state, and 0.83 per 100,000 doses in national analysis). Two cases had a combination of neurotropic and autoimmune features. This is the largest sample of YEL-AND already analyzed. Rates are similar to other recent studies, but on this study the age group from 5 to 9 years of age had the highest risk. As neurological adverse events have in general a good prognosis, they should not contraindicate the use of yellow fever vaccine in face of risk of infection by yellow fever virus. PMID:24837504

  11. [Investigation surrounding a fatal case of yellow fever in Cte d'Ivoire in 1999].

    PubMed

    Akoua-Koffi, C; Diarrassouba, S; Bni, V B; Ngbichi, J M; Bozoua, T; Bosson, A; Akran, V; Carnevale, P; Ehouman, A

    2001-08-01

    Cte d'Ivoire is an endemic country for yellow fever, but no case was officially notified in recent years. In July 1999, however, one fatal case was reported. A German citizen was infected in the national park of Comoe, in the north eastern area of the country. In order to evaluate the extent of amaril virus circulation and the risk for local people, a virological, entomological and epidemiological investigation was carried out by the ministry of health, the OCCGE, the Cte d'Ivoire Pasteur Institute (IPCI) and the World Health Organisation in the area where the fatal case had been staying. 18 suspected and 24 confirmed mosquito catchers were identified by interview and a blood specimen was collected from each of them. In addition, 159 batches of mosquitoes from which 94 batches of potential vectors were collected; among the suspected cases, 22% were immunised against yellow fever. Serological and virological analyses were made at IPCI and the Paris Pasteur Institute by ELISA technique and isolation on cells cultures and newborn mice. All the suspicious sera and 87.5% of the catchers were positive for IgG anti-amaril virus. One catcher's serum was positive for IgM anti-amaril virus. 11 suspected sera were positive for IgG anti-dengue virus with 1 positive for IgM. 1 strain of amaril virus and 3 strains of Zika virus were isolated from mosquitoes at IPCI and confirmed by CRORA in Dakar. These results indicated that there is a yellow fever and dengue virus are prevalent among the human and vector populations in the study area. Preventive measures must be adopted to protect human beings at risk for amaril infection. PMID:11681215

  12. Experimental therapies for yellow fever

    PubMed Central

    Julander, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

  13. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    We have carried out a meticulous time-space-analysis of the incidence of yellow fever in humans in Brazil from 1954 to 1972 and especially from 1973 to 1999. This study has added to our knowledge of the epidemiology of yellow fever and enabled us to redefine epidemiological zones and determine their geographical limits. The endemic area is located within the Amazon basin; here cases are scattered and generally limited in number. However, there are also "foci of endemic emergence" within this area, where cases are less rare, although occurrence remains irregular. The epidemic area is for the most part situated outside the Amazon basin, to the north east and particularly to the south. It has been divided into two parts according to whether the occurrence of yellow fever is cyclic or sporadic. The epidemics, which are all sylvatic, follow either a circular path (in the forest area) or a linear path (in forest-galleries of the savannah area). The study of the development of the 3 main epidemics (1972-74; 1979-82; 1986-92) in the cyclic emergence area showed that, on each occasion, the yellow fever virus appeared at a particularly active outbreak site located in the "serra dos Carajás", and from there, it followed the courses of the Tocantins and Araguaia rivers upstream, moving southwards during the "pre-epidemic phase" which may be visible due to the occurrence of a few cases, or may remain invisible. Subsequently the virus reached the emergence area, where it appeared in the form of epidemics. In this zone, it also followed privileged south-western pathways, moving from one hydraulic basin to another along the upstream courses of the rivers. Almost exactly the same pathways have been identified for each of the 3 epidemics studied. The distances travelled by the virus over a period of one year--when it goes rapidly--can reach several hundred kilometers. On the other hand, it may be stationary for a period of one or two consecutive years, occasionally three, remaining present in the area but infecting humans only rarely if at all. The virus occasionally leaves the cyclic emergence area and appears in the sporadic emergence area to the east, in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and, as a consequence, moving onto other hydraulic basins. The small river basins in Maranhão and NorthWest states, as well as in the northern part of the state of Roraima also form part of the sporadic emergence area. The epidemics that occur here are directly linked to the endemic area and are only preceded by sometimes indiscernible epizootics and can consequently not be foreseen. Again the virus appears to use privileged pathways to reach the sporadic emergence areas where human and monkey populations are generally only partially immunised against yellow fever and where contact with mosquitoes is intense despite the fact it is limited in space and time, being restricted to the often narrow strip of trees along the water courses. Other routes used by the virus may be the Madeira, Xingu and Tapajós rivers, the scene of outbreaks observed in the state of Rondônia and in the north of Mato Grosso, where ongoing environmental changes are likely to result in an increasing number of outbreaks in the coming years. Since the discovery of the sylvatic cycle of yellow fever in 1933, not only the extent of the epidemiological areas has changed, but also their limits. Ecological modifications that are currently taking place in the Amazon basin, which is an endemic reservoir of the virus, will inevitably facilitate an increase the contact between humans and vectors. While more and more urban areas harbour populations of Aedes aegypti, the domestic and urban vector of yellow fever, it is particularly important to try to protect human populations living in emergence zones and epidemic areas and thus to prevent the arrival of the virus in towns via humans with viremia--in other words the much feared urbanisation of yellow fever in Brazil. PMID:11681224

  14. Yellow Fever: A Reemerging Threat

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Christina L.; Ryman, Kate D.

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a viral disease, endemic to tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. YF principally affects humans and nonhuman primates, and is transmitted via the bite of infected mosquitoes. The agent of YF, yellow fever virus (YFV), can cause devastating epidemics of potentially fatal, hemorrhagic disease. We rely on mass vaccination campaigns to prevent and control these outbreaks. However, the risk of major YF epidemics, especially in densely populated, poor urban settings, both in Africa and South America, has greatly increased due to: (1) reinvasion of urban settings by the mosquito vector of YF, Aedes aegypti; (2) rapid urbanization, particularly in parts of Africa, with populations shifting from rural to predominantly urban; and (3) waning immunization coverage. Consequently, YF is considered an emerging, or reemerging disease of considerable importance. PMID:20513550

  15. [Yellow fever: study of an outbreak].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Mirtes; Antunes, Carlos Maurício de Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    This study had the aim of describing an outbreak of yellow fever that occurred in the municipalities under the jurisdiction of the Regional Healthcare Administration of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, between 2002 and 2003, in which 36 cases were notified. This was an autochthonous outbreak of wild-type yellow fever. Failure of vaccinal coverage and low levels of detection of mild cases were found. Among the cases, 33 (91.7%) were male and the age range was from 16 to 67 years. Nineteen (52.8%) of the cases were classified as severe and 12 men (33.3%) died of the disease. All of the cases came from rural areas and presented fever, headache, vomiting, jaundice, myalgia, oliguria and signs of hemorrhage. Surveillance through laboratory tests was the determining factor in diagnosing the outbreak. By describing the epidemiological and clinic findings, this study contributes towards diagnosing and classifying this disease. It was deduced that there is a relationship between deforestation, and outbreaks, and that there is a potential regional risk of yellow fever because of the local development of tourism. PMID:19967234

  16. Yellow Fever outbreaks in unvaccinated populations, Brazil, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valria de S; Almeida, Marco Antnio Barreto de; Vettorello, Ktia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-03-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. PMID:24625634

  17. Assessing yellow Fever risk in the ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Izurieta, Ricardo O; Macaluso, Maurizio; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B; Guerra, Bolivar; Cruz, Ligia M; Galwankar, Sagar; Vermund, Sten H

    2009-01-01

    This study reports results of a cross-sectional study based on interviews and seroepidemiological methods to identify risk factors for yellow fever infection among personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. Clinical symptoms and signs observed among yellow fever cases are also described. Humoral immune response to yellow fever, Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche, and dengue 2 infection was assessed by evaluating IgM and IgG specific antibodies. A yellow fever attack rate of 13% (44/341, with 3 fatal cases) was observed among military personnel. Signs of digestive track bleeding (14.6%) and hematuria (4.9%) were observed among the yellow fever cases. In 32.2% of the cases, we measured high levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase with maximum levels of 6,830 and 3,500, respectively. Signs of bleeding or jaundice were observed in some cases, and high levels of transaminases were seen. The epidemiological and laboratory investigations demonstrated that the military personnel were affected by a yellow fever outbreak. The association between clearing the rainforest and also being at the detachments with yellow fever infection confirms that clearing is the main factor in the jungle model of transmission, which takes place deep in the Amazonian rainforest. PMID:20300380

  18. Assessing Yellow Fever Risk in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Izurieta, Ricardo O; Macaluso, Maurizio; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B; Guerra, Bolivar; Cruz, Ligia M; Galwankar, Sagar; Vermund, Sten H

    2009-01-01

    This study reports results of a cross-sectional study based on interviews and seroepidemiological methods to identify risk factors for yellow fever infection among personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. Clinical symptoms and signs observed among yellow fever cases are also described. Humoral immune response to yellow fever, Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche, and dengue 2 infection was assessed by evaluating IgM and IgG specific antibodies. A yellow fever attack rate of 13% (44/341, with 3 fatal cases) was observed among military personnel. Signs of digestive track bleeding (14.6%) and hematuria (4.9%) were observed among the yellow fever cases. In 32.2% of the cases, we measured high levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase with maximum levels of 6,830 and 3,500, respectively. Signs of bleeding or jaundice were observed in some cases, and high levels of transaminases were seen. The epidemiological and laboratory investigations demonstrated that the military personnel were affected by a yellow fever outbreak. The association between clearing the rainforest and also being at the detachments with yellow fever infection confirms that clearing is the main factor in the jungle model of transmission, which takes place deep in the Amazonian rainforest. PMID:20300380

  19. Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:822563

  20. The whole iceberg: estimating the incidence of yellow fever virus infection from the number of severe cases

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Michael A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.; Staples, J. Erin

    2015-01-01

    Background Like many infectious agents, yellow fever (YF) virus only causes disease in a proportion of individuals it infects and severe illness only represents the tip of the iceberg relative to the total number of infections, the more critical factor for virus transmission. Methods We compiled data on asymptomatic infections, mild disease, severe disease (fever with jaundice or hemorrhagic symptoms) and fatalities from 11 studies in Africa and South America between 1969 and 2011. We used a Bayesian model to estimate the probability of each infection outcome. Results For YF virus infections, the probability of being asymptomatic was 0.55 (95% credible interval [CI] 0.37 0.74), mild disease 0.33 (95% CI 0.130.52) and severe disease 0.12 (95% CI 0.050.26). The probability of death for people experiencing severe disease was 0.47 (95% CI 0.310.62). Conclusions In outbreak situations where only severe cases may initially be detected, we estimated that there may be between one and seventy infections that are either asymptomatic or cause mild disease for every severe case identified. As it is generally only the most severe cases that are recognized and reported, these estimates will help improve the understanding of the burden of disease and the estimation of the potential risk of spread during YF outbreaks. PMID:24980556

  1. Lost Trust: A Yellow Fever Patient Response

    PubMed Central

    Runge, John S.

    2013-01-01

    In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care. PMID:24348220

  2. Yellow fever vaccination in the Americas.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for yellow fever vaccine. PMID:6207882

  3. Timeliness of Yellow Fever Surveillance, Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Rachas, Antoine; Nakoun, Emmanuel; Bouscaillou, Julie; Paireau, Juliette; Selekon, Benjamin; Senekian, Dominique; Fontanet, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    During January 2007July 2012, a total of 3,220 suspected yellow fever cases were reported in the Central African Republic; 55 were confirmed and 11 case-patients died. Mean delay between onset of jaundice and case confirmation was 16.6 days. Delay between disease onset and blood collection could be reduced by increasing awareness of the population. PMID:24857597

  4. Mapping the risk of yellow Fever infection.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization coordinated a comprehensive, systematic review of the countries and areas at risk for yellow fever (YF) virus transmission. The review applied the following evidence to each country and area considered: human and non-human YF cases, human serology for anti-YF antibody obtained prior to widespread YF vaccination, altitude, vegetation, and vector distribution. The result was the categorization of countries or areas as endemic, transitional, low potential for infection, or no risk. This information was adapted to create a map that defined the areas where vaccination against YF may be recommended. Travel health professionals, countries, and public health bodies can use this information as they determine recommendations and requirements for vaccination. This paper reviews the process and outcomes of the review of YF risk, and places it in the context of providing YF vaccination. PMID:22477086

  5. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... traveling to or living in an area where risk of yellow fever is known to exist, or traveling to a ... postpone travel to an area where there is risk of yellow fever. If travel cannot be avoided, discuss vaccination with ...

  6. Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Auguste, Albert J.; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A.; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morn, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. PMID:25531105

  7. [Paul-Louis Simond and yellow fever].

    PubMed

    Lwy, I; Rodhain, F

    1999-12-01

    P.L. Simond participated in the Pasteur Institute mission sent to Rio de Janeiro from 1901 to 1905 to investigate yellow fever and was to make an important contribution to the knowledge of the disease. At that time, the aetiologic agent of yellow fever was still unknown, and its transmission by mosquitoes was controversial. Several authors had observed apparent differences in the susceptibility to the illness between African and European populations. Otherwise, the soundness of epidemic control measures then being administered was often called into question. As such, many points needed to be definitely clarified. During the four years they spent in Brazil, the Pasteur Institute scientists--and particularly Simond--achieved important results. They confirmed the viral aetiology of yellow fever, were able to define several pathological aspects of the disease and conduct various serotherapeutic tests. The role of Aedes aegypti (known at the time as Stegomyia fasciata) was also confirmed and the bionomics of the mosquito began to be studied. This research laid the ground for classical measures of controlling the vector and preventing outbreaks of the disease. Furthermore, Marchoux and Simond observed the vertical transmission of yellow fever virus in Ae. aegypti; this phenomenon of major epidemiological importance remained controversial until it was confirmed in the field as recently as 1997. The French scientists were also able to specify many aspects of the epidemiology of yellow fever, particularly its apparent low pathogenicity in young children--a possible explanation for the fact that local residents of endemic zones often had a certain level of immunity as a result of benign infection contracted in childhood. P.L. Simond later spent several months in Martinique where he set up a successful yellow fever vector control programme. Clearly Simond, who had already acquired much expertise in the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases, played a key role in the success of the mission sent by Institute Pasteur to Brazil, and, more generally, in the scientific advances of yellow fever prevention. PMID:11000946

  8. Investigation of a possible yellow fever epidemic and serosurvey for flavivirus infections in northern Cameroon, 1984

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, T. F.; Lazuick, J. S.; Ngah, R. W.; Mafiamba, P. C.; Quincke, G.; Monath, T. P.

    1987-01-01

    A cluster of fatal hepatitis cases in northern Cameroon in 1984 stimulated a field investigation to rule out an epidemic of yellow fever. A serosurvey of villages in the extreme north of the country, in a Sudan savanna (SS) phytogeographical zone, disclosed no evidence of recent yellow fever infection. However, further south, in a Guinea savanna (GS) phytogeographical zone, serological evidence was found of endemic yellow fever virus transmission. The results indicate a potential for epidemic spread of yellow fever virus from the southern GS zone to the nothern SS zone of Cameroon, where immunity in the population was low. PMID:3501739

  9. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Imatong, Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ofula, Victor O.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Konongoi, Samson L.; Sow, Abdourahmane; De Cock, Kevin M.; Tukei, Peter M.; Okoth, Fredrick A.; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J.; Waters, Norman C.; Coldren, Rodney L.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, the World Health Organization received reports about a possible outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease of unknown cause in the Imatong Mountains of southern Sudan. Laboratory investigations were conducted on 28 serum samples collected from patients in the Imatong region. Serum samples from 13 patients were positive for immunoglobulin M antibody to flavivirus, and serum samples from 5 patients were positive by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction with both the genus Flavivirus–reactive primers and yellow fever virus–specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons obtained with the genus Flavivirus oligonucleotide primers confirmed yellow fever virus as the etiologic agent. Isolation attempts in newborn mice and Vero cells from the samples yielded virus isolates from five patients. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis enabled an interagency emergency task force to initiate a targeted vaccination campaign to control the outbreak. PMID:15207058

  10. [Should yellow fever vaccination be recommended during pregnancy or breastfeeding?].

    PubMed

    Imbert, P; Moulin, F; Mornand, P; Méchaï, F; Rapp, C

    2010-08-01

    Yellow fever vaccine is produced from a live attenuated virus that is contraindicated in case of immunodeficiency and subject to restrictions for pregnant or breastfeeding women. The purpose of this review of available information on yellow fever vaccination during pregnancy and breastfeeding is to assist physicians in making recommendations prior to departure to yellow-fever endemic zones. Regarding pregnancy, there is no evidence to support a major risk of yellow-fever-vaccine-related complications in mothers or children. Although this finding is reassuring, it should be underlined that most reported series have been small. Regarding breastfeeding, the risk was recently confirmed by a report describing vaccine-induced encephalitis occurring in an infant 8 days after primary vaccination of the mother. The final decision to vaccinate depends on whether or not the trip can be postponed. If travel is mandatory, vaccination may be recommended in pregnant women preferably during the first trimester since the immunological response appears to be better at that time. Antibody titer should be checked following delivery. During breastfeeding, vaccination may be performed but breastfeeding must be stopped during the postvaccinal viremia phase. Breastfeeding can be resumed after a 10-day period of formula feeding. PMID:22368925

  11. Persistent seropositivity for yellow fever in a previously vaccinated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Tsunemine, Hiroko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Mawatari, Momoko; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Kei; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-08-01

    The duration of a protective level of yellow fever antibodies after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a previously vaccinated person is unclear. The case of a patient who had previously been vaccinated for yellow fever and who remained seropositive for 22 months after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma is described herein. PMID:26068870

  12. Anamnestic immune response to dengue and decreased severity of yellow Fever.

    PubMed

    Izurieta, Ricardo O; Macaluso, Maurizio; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B; Guerra, Bolivar; Cruz, Ligia M; Galwankar, Sagar; Vermund, Sten H

    2009-07-01

    A protective immunity against yellow fever, from cross-reactive dengue antibodies, has been hypothesized as an explanation for the absence of yellow fever in Southern Asia where dengue immunity is almost universal. This study evaluates the association between protective immunity from cross-reactive dengue antibodies with yellow fever infection and severity of the disease. The study population consisted of military personnel of a jungle garrison and its detachments located in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rainforest. The cross-sectional study employed interviews as well as seroepidemiological methods. Humoral immune response to yellow fever, Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche, and dengue 2 infections was assessed by evaluating IgM and IgG specific antibodies. Log-linear regression analysis was used to evaluate age and presence of antibodies, against dengue type 2 virus, as predictors of yellow fever infection or severe disease. During the seroepidemiological survey, presence of dengue antibodies among yellow fever cases were observed in 77.3% cases from the coastal region, where dengue is endemic, 14.3% cases from the Amazon and 16.7 % cases from the Andean region. Dengue cross-reactive antibodies were not significantly associated with yellow fever infection but significantly associated with severity of the disease. The findings of this study suggest that previous exposure to dengue infection may have induced an anamnestic immune response that did not prevent yellow fever infection but greatly reduced the severity of the disease. PMID:20300401

  13. The Yellow Fever Vaccine: A History

    PubMed Central

    Frierson, J. Gordon

    2010-01-01

    After failed attempts at producing bacteria-based vaccines, the discovery of a viral agent causing yellow fever and its isolation in monkeys opened new avenues of research. Subsequent advances were the attenuation of the virus in mice and later in tissue culture; the creation of the seed lot system to avoid spontaneous mutations; the ability to produce the vaccine on a large scale in eggs; and the removal of dangerous contaminants. An important person in the story is Max Theiler, who was Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health at Yale from 1964-67, and whose work on virus attenuation created the modern vaccine and earned him the Nobel Prize. PMID:20589188

  14. Yellow Fever Vaccination of a Primary Vaccinee During Adalimumab Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nash, Esther R; Brand, Myron; Chalkias, Spyridon

    2015-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a 63-year-old female with Crohn's disease since age 16 years, and on adalimumab therapy, who inadvertently received a yellow fever vaccine (YFV) 4 days before her next dose of adalimumab. She had never received YFV. Her next dose of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist was held. She did not report any adverse effects referable to the vaccine. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for yellow fever (YF) viral RNA on days 12 and 18 postvaccination was negative. Neutralizing antibody to YF virus vaccine was immunoprotective on day 18 following vaccination, which further increased by day 26. A neutralizing antibody obtained 2 years following vaccination also remained immunoprotective. PMID:25922988

  15. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  16. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  17. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  18. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  19. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  20. Advances and controversies in yellow fever vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Emile F. F.; Visser, Leonardus G.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since its development in 1937, the live-attenuated 17D yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been one of the most effective vaccines available to man. In this review we highlight the major steps in the development of 17D YF vaccine. We discuss the use of neutralizing antibodies as a surrogate marker for protection, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of the current plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), a technique developed in the 1960s that continues to be superior to every modern test in both sensitivity and specificity. The neutralizing antibodies demonstrated by the PRNT can be detected for several decades after vaccination, possibly even for the remainder of the recipients natural life. We review the available evidence on the duration of protection after primary vaccination, a topic that has been the subject of controversy over the last few months. For persons who are immunocompromised due to disease, medication or advancing age, the duration of protection may be shorter: they should always have their vaccine response checked by PRNT. Due to the higher risk of severe adverse events after vaccination with 17D YF in this group, the development of a new, inactivated vaccine will have substantial benefits in this population. PMID:24757521

  1. Advances and controversies in yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Emile F F; Visser, Leonardus G; Roukens, Anna H

    2013-11-01

    Ever since its development in 1937, the live-attenuated 17D yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been one of the most effective vaccines available to man. In this review we highlight the major steps in the development of 17D YF vaccine. We discuss the use of neutralizing antibodies as a surrogate marker for protection, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of the current plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), a technique developed in the 1960s that continues to be superior to every modern test in both sensitivity and specificity. The neutralizing antibodies demonstrated by the PRNT can be detected for several decades after vaccination, possibly even for the remainder of the recipient's natural life. We review the available evidence on the duration of protection after primary vaccination, a topic that has been the subject of controversy over the last few months. For persons who are immunocompromised due to disease, medication or advancing age, the duration of protection may be shorter: they should always have their vaccine response checked by PRNT. Due to the higher risk of severe adverse events after vaccination with 17D YF in this group, the development of a new, inactivated vaccine will have substantial benefits in this population. PMID:24757521

  2. Yellow fever vaccine: an effective vaccine for travelers.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral communicable disease transmitted by an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus. It is primarily a zoonotic disease, especially the monkeys. Worldwide, an estimated 200,000 cases of yellow fever occurred each year, and the case-fatality rate is ~15%. Forty-five endemic countries in Africa and Latin America, with a population of close to 1 billion, are at risk. Up to 50% of severely affected persons from YF die without treatment. During 2009, 55 cases and 18 deaths were reported from Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. Brazil reported the maximum number of cases and death, i.e., 42 cases with 11 deaths. From January 2010 to March 2011, outbreaks of YF were reported to the WHO by Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Senegal, and Uganda. Cases were also reported in three northern districts of Abim, Agago, and Kitugun near the border with South Sudan. YF usually causes fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. Most patients improve, and their symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 d. Half of the patients who enter the toxic phase die within 10-14 d, while the rest recover without significant organ damage. Vaccination has been the single most important measure for preventing YF. The 17D-204 YF vaccine is a freeze-dried, live attenuated, highly effective vaccine. It is available in single-dose or multi-dose vials and should be stored at 2-8 C. It is reconstituted with normal saline and should be used within 1 h of reconstitution. The 0.5 mL dose is delivered subcutaneously. Revaccination is recommended every 10 y for people at continued risk of exposure to yellow fever virus (YFV). This vaccine is available worldwide. Travelers, especially to Africa or Latin America from Asia, must have a certificate documenting YF vaccination, which is required by certain countries for entry under the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the WHO. PMID:24056028

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP OF YELLOW FEVER OF THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE TO THAT OF AFRICA AND TO LEPTOSPIRAL JAUNDICE.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, W A; Kitchen, S F; Frobisher, M; Lloyd, W

    1930-02-28

    1. The yellow fever now in South America, the present yellow fever of Africa and the historic yellow fever of Panama and other American countries are the same disease. This conclusion is based on cross immunity tests in monkeys with strains of yellow fever virus from Africa and Brazil and on tests of sera from 25 persons, who had recovered from yellow fever in various places and at various times, for the power to protect monkeys against African or Brazilian virus strains. 2. Cases of leptospiral jaundice (Weil's disease) were present among those diagnosed as yellow fever in the recent epidemic in Rio de Janeiro. This is shown by the isolation of cultures of leptospirae from the blood of two patients by H. R. Muller and E. B. Tilden of The Rockefeller Institute, and by the demonstration by us of protective power against leptospirae and absence of protective power against yellow fever virus in the sera from two persons after recovery. The isolation of leptospirae by Noguchi and other investigators from the blood of occasional patients in past epidemics of yellow fever in a number of American countries indicates that leptospiral jaundice was present then as well and was diagnosed clinically as yellow fever. 3. The absence of protective power against leptospirae shown by the Brazilian sera which protected against yellow fever virus and the absence of protective power against yellow fever virus in the sera that protected against leptospirae point to the probability that American yellow fever is not the combined effect of leptospirae and yellow fever virus. The position of L. icteroides, isolated by Noguchi during yellow fever epidemics, now appears to be not that of a secondary invading microorganism in cases of virus yellow fever, but that of the incitant of a form of infectious jaundice, sometimes fatal, often coincident in its appearance with typical yellow fever and apparently indistinguishable from it clinically. This leptospiral disease has not hitherto been separated from true yellow fever. Noguchi's discoveries become; therefore, of the greatest significance in respect to the epidemiology and causation of yellow fever and of infectious jaundice, previously confused one with the other. In all outbreaks of supposed yellow fever hereafter the existence of the two kinds of jaundice, one due to yellow fever virus and the other to leptospirae will have to be taken into account. Only the former probably is spread by mosquitoes and requires anti-mosquito measures for its control. 4. The only difference observed by us between the American and African strains of yellow fever virus was a pronounced difference in virulence for monkeys. The virulence of the two African strains studied was very high while that of the one American strain was highly variable and usually low. PMID:19869707

  4. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    PubMed

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity. PMID:24743951

  5. The Global Distribution of Yellow Fever and Dengue

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, D.J.; Wilson, A.J.; Hay, S.I.; Graham, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Yellow fever has been subjected to partial control for decades, but there are signs that case numbers are now increasing globally, with the risk of local epidemic outbreaks. Dengue case numbers have also increased dramatically during the past 40 years and different serotypes have invaded new geographical areas. Despite the temporal changes in these closely related diseases, and their enormous public health impact, few attempts have been made to collect a comprehensive dataset of their spatial and temporal distributions. For this review, records of the occurrence of both diseases during the 20th century have been collected together and are used to define their climatic limits using remotely sensed satellite data within a discriminant analytical model framework. The resulting risk maps for these two diseases identify their different environmental requirements, and throw some light on their potential for co-occurrence in Africa and South East Asia. PMID:16647971

  6. Current status and future prospects of yellow fever vaccines.

    PubMed

    Beck, Andrew S; Barrett, Alan D T

    2015-11-01

    Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized historically for its immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be lifelong. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease. PMID:26366673

  7. Yellow fever risk assessment in the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Ramos Junior, Alberto Novaes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-04-01

    Yellow fever still causes high burden in several areas of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. There are few well-designed epidemiological studies and limited data about yellow fever in Africa. Staples et al., in a recently published paper in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, performed a nationwide study in the Central African Republic (CAR) assessing infection risk and the operational impact of preventive measures. The rapid assessment of human, non-human and mosquito data call attention to the potential risk of future yellow fever outbreaks in the CAR and elsewhere. The study reinforces the need for intensified applied and operational research to address problems and human capacity needs in the realm of neglected tropical diseases in the post-2015 agenda. PMID:25732754

  8. South Carolina's last yellow fever epidemic: Manning Simons at Port Royal, 1877.

    PubMed

    Newsom, E Y

    1995-07-01

    Throughout the 19th century, yellow fever was the scourge of southern coastal cities. Because of primitive diagnostic tools, differential diagnosis during epidemics was often difficult. Many patients were diagnosed with "malarial fever," breakbone fever, "the prevailing fever," and "mild yellow fever," to name a few. Dr. Manning Simon's opportunity to study an almost "pure" epidemic of yellow fever among an "unacclimated" population was a breakthrough in diagnostic medicine. Fortunately, his findings were not to be needed again in South Carolina, since this was the last outbreak of yellow fever in the state. PMID:7658684

  9. Serious adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccine

    PubMed Central

    de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; da Luz Fernandes Leal, Maria; Homma, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine was considered one of the safest vaccines, but in recent years it was found that it could rarely cause invasive and disseminated disease in some otherwise healthy individuals, with high lethality. After extensive studies, although some risk factors have been identified, the real cause of causes of this serious adverse event are largely unknown, but findings point to individual host factors. Meningoencephalitis, once considered to happen only in children less than 6 months of age, has also been identified in older children and adults, but with good prognosis. Efforts are being made to develop a safer yellow fever vaccine, and an inactivated vaccine or a vaccine prepared with the vaccine virus envelope produced in plants are being tested. Even with serious and rare adverse events, yellow fever vaccine is the best way to avoid yellow fever, a disease of high lethality and should be used routinely in endemic areas, and on people from non-endemic areas that could be exposed, according to a careful risk-benefit analysis. PMID:26090855

  10. Serious adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccine.

    PubMed

    de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Fernandes Leal, Maria da Luz; Homma, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine was considered one of the safest vaccines, but in recent years it was found that it could rarely cause invasive and disseminated disease in some otherwise healthy individuals, with high lethality. After extensive studies, although some risk factors have been identified, the real cause of causes of this serious adverse event are largely unknown, but findings point to individual host factors. Meningoencephalitis, once considered to happen only in children less than 6 months of age, has also been identified in older children and adults, but with good prognosis. Efforts are being made to develop a safer yellow fever vaccine, and an inactivated vaccine or a vaccine prepared with the vaccine virus envelope produced in plants are being tested. Even with serious and rare adverse events, yellow fever vaccine is the best way to avoid yellow fever, a disease of high lethality and should be used routinely in endemic areas, and on people from non-endemic areas that could be exposed, according to a careful risk-benefit analysis. PMID:26090855

  11. 58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, presented to the Portsmouth Naval Hospital by the Town Council of Portsmouth, 1856. (Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Museum, Portsmouth, VA) - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  12. Yellow fever risk assessment in the Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Staples, J. Erin; Diallo, Mawlouth; Janusz, Kristen B.; Manengu, Casimir; Lewis, Rosamund F.; Perea, William; Yactayo, Sergio; Sall, Amadou A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Starting in 2008, the Central African Republic (CAR) experienced an unprecedented number of reported yellow fever (YF) cases. A risk assessment of YF virus (YFV) activity was conducted to estimate potential disease risk and vaccine needs. Methods A multistage cluster sampling design was used to sample humans, non-human primates, and mosquitoes in distinct ecologic zones. Humans and non-human primates were tested for YFV-specific antibodies; mosquitoes were tested for YFV RNA. Results Overall, 13.3% (125/938) of humans were found to have naturally-acquired YFV antibodies. Antibody levels were higher in zones in the southern and south central regions of CAR. All sampled non-human primates (n=56) were known YFV reservoirs; one tested positive for YFV antibodies. Several known YF vectors were identified including Aedes africanus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. luteocephalus, and Ae. simpsoni. Several more urban locations were found to have elevated Breateau and Container indices for Ae. aegypti. Conclusions A country-wide assessment of YF risk found YFV to be endemic in CAR. The potential for future YF cases and outbreaks, however, varied by ecologic zone. Improved vaccination coverage through mass campaign and childhood immunization was recommended to mitigate the YF risk. PMID:24947520

  13. Protective and immunological behavior of chimeric yellow fever dengue vaccine.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B; Russell, Philip K

    2016-03-29

    Clinical observations from the third year of the Sanofi Pasteur chimeric yellow fever dengue tetravalent vaccine (CYD) trials document both protection and vaccination-enhanced dengue disease among vaccine recipients. Children who were 5 years-old or younger when vaccinated experienced a DENV disease resulting in hospitalization at 5 times the rate of controls. On closer inspection, hospitalized cases among vaccinated seropositives, those at highest risk to hospitalized disease accompanying a dengue virus (DENV) infection, were greatly reduced by vaccination. But, seronegative individuals of all ages after being vaccinated were only modestly protected from mild to moderate disease throughout the entire observation period despite developing neutralizing antibodies at high rates. Applying a simple epidemiological model to the data, vaccinated seronegative individuals of all ages were at increased risk of developing hospitalized disease during a subsequent wild type DENV infection. The etiology of disease in placebo and vaccinated children resulting in hospitalization during a DENV infection, while clinically similar are of different origin. The implications of the observed mixture of DENV protection and enhanced disease in CYD vaccinees are discussed. PMID:26873054

  14. [YEL-AND meningoencephalitis in a 4-year-old boy consecutive to a yellow-fever vaccine].

    PubMed

    Gerin, M; Wroblewski, I; Bost-Bru, C; N'guyen, M-A; Debillon, T

    2014-04-01

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease transmitted by an endemic mosquito in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America. It causes fever and possibly liver and renal failure with hemorrhagic signs, which may be fatal. The yellow-fever vaccine is an attenuated vaccine that is recommended for all travelers over the age of 9 months in high-risk areas. Adverse effects have been reported: minor symptoms (such as viral syndrome), hypersensitivity reactions, and major symptoms such as viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) and neurotropic disease (YEL-AND). The yellow-fever vaccine-associated autoimmune disease with central nervous system involvement (such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) associates fever and headaches, neurologic dysfunction, seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, and elevated protein, with neuroimaging consistent with multifocal areas of demyelization. The presence of antibodies or virus in CSF, within 1-30 days following vaccination, and the exclusion of other causes is necessary for diagnosis. We describe herein the case of a 4-year-old child who presented with severe encephalitis consecutive to a yellow-fever vaccine, with favorable progression. Diagnosis is based on the chronology of clinical and paraclinical signs and the presence of yellow-fever-specific antibodies in CSF. The treatment consists of symptomatic treatment and immunoglobulin injection. PMID:24630625

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON YELLOW FEVER IN NORTHERN PERU.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Kligler, I J

    1921-01-31

    Fourteen typical cases of yellow fever were studied in northern Peru during an epidemic occurring in 1920, nine in Payta in March and April, and five in Morropon and Piura in April and May. The method of investigation was similar to that previously employed, but as the laboratory facilities were very meager certain changes were required. Although in Payta the work was handicapped by the lack of electric light, the scarcity of water and animal food, the unsuitability of the guinea pigs for inoculation, and the changes in culture media due to age, the results obtained under these adverse conditions were by no means negative. While in no instance was there a typical infection produced in animals, either by direct inoculation of blood or with culture materials, yet certain guinea pigs in each series showed temporary febrile reactions or definite hemorrhagic lesions of the lungs indicative of a mild leptospira infection. Direct search for Leptospira icteroides in the blood of patients or in culture materials was not made because the dark-field microscope could not be used. Subsequently, at Piura, the laboratory facilities were vastly, improved, the use of the dark-field microscope was made possible by means of a storage battery, and a fresh stock of young healthy guinea pigs was received from New York, and fresh rabbit serum obtained in Piura. In the study of the materials obtained from five cases of yellow fever in Morropon all these added facilities were taken advantage of, with the result that the outcome was positive and convincing. Cultures from the five cases were examined after 11, 12, and 13 days, and in those from three cases living leptospiras were found. By inoculation into suitable guinea pigs of culture material from these five cases, irrespective of whether or not leptospiras were detected under the dark-field microscope, a typical Leptospira icteroides infection was produced from four of the five cases. In one of these no leptospira had been detected in the culture tubes. Thus one case only yielded negative results, in that no leptospiras were found under the dark-field microscope and the animal inoculation was negative. The leptospira was demonstrated in the blood or organ emulsions of the infected guinea pigs, and further transmission of each strain to other guinea pigs was obtained and pure cultures were secured. A few points of practical significance appeared in the course of the present investigation. One is the importance of using fresh rabbit serum for culture media. Old rabbit serum, whether in pure form or incorporated with agar, etc., which had been kept for several months in a tropical climate, proved to be unsatisfactory for obtaining a growth of Leptospira icteroides. A second point of interest is the variation in susceptibility of guinea pigs to infection with Leptospira icteroides. In two of four series of positive animal inoculations with the Morropon culture materials only one-half of the guinea pigs inoculated with given materials developed typical symptoms. The other half either suffered from a transient mild infection, as evidenced by a few hemorrhagic foci in the lungs, or escaped infection altogether. From these facts it is highly probable that the lung lesions and febrile reactions observed in certain guinea pigs inoculated with the Payta materials were due to a mild leptospira infection. In a comparative experiment the native guinea pigs procured in Payta were found to be more resistant to the leptospira infection than those recently brought from New York. In fact, only a small portion of the former succumbed to typical infection even when inoculated with a virulent strain of Leptospira icteroides obtained from the Morropon epidemic. In conclusion it may be stated that of fourteen cases of yellow fever studied in Peru, a typical leptospira infection, together with the demonstration of the organism in experimentally infected guinea pigs, was obtained in four, while in the majority of instances indications of a mild, non-fatal leptospira infection were observed. In a few cases only were th

  16. Yellow Fever Vaccine Booster Doses: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    PubMed

    Staples, J Erin; Bocchini, Joseph A; Rubin, Lorry; Fischer, Marc

    2015-06-19

    On February 26, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted that a single primary dose of yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting protection and is adequate for most travelers. ACIP also approved recommendations for at-risk laboratory personnel and certain travelers to receive additional doses of yellow fever vaccine (Box). The ACIP Japanese Encephalitis and Yellow Fever Vaccines Workgroup evaluated published and unpublished data on yellow fever vaccine immunogenicity and safety. The evidence for benefits and risks associated with yellow fever vaccine booster doses was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. This report summarizes the evidence considered by ACIP and provides the updated recommendations for yellow fever vaccine booster doses. PMID:26086636

  17. "Venerate the Lancet": Benjamin Rush's yellow fever therapy in context.

    PubMed

    Kopperman, Paul E

    2004-01-01

    In 1793, during a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia, Benjamin Rush adopted a therapy that centered on rapid depletion through purgation and bleeding. His method, especially his reliance on copious bloodletting, was at first widely condemned, but many American practitioners eventually adopted it. Although the therapy struck many observers as being radical, in large part it grew from premises that had substantial support. Rush was convinced that it worked and that heroic methods were the key to conquering disease. In particular, massive bleeding became central to his therapeutics. PMID:15356370

  18. Yellow fever vaccination: is one dose always enough?

    PubMed

    Patel, Dipti; Simons, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    In March 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunisation (SAGE) considered a number of issues in order to update the WHO Position Paper on Yellow Fever (2003). A key conclusion of this review was that a single dose of yellow fever (YF) vaccine appears to confer life-long protection against YF disease, and that a booster dose of YF vaccine is not needed to maintain immunity. While the efficacy of YF vaccine in the majority of vaccine recipients is not in doubt, the WHO announcement is somewhat surprising as there are some limitations in the evidence base, but more importantly, this announcement is not accompanied by any imminent change in the International Health Regulations 2005. The tension between what is considered best clinical practice and the law will be difficult to reconcile for many health professionals, travellers, and the travel industry, in an area of travel medicine that is already subject to debate and confusion. This commentary reviews the recent WHO announcement, and considers the practical implications for health professionals providing YF vaccine to international travellers. PMID:24074827

  19. Yellow Fever in Africa: Estimating the Burden of Disease and Impact of Mass Vaccination from Outbreak and Serological Data

    PubMed Central

    Garske, Tini; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Yactayo, Sergio; Ronveaux, Olivier; Lewis, Rosamund F.; Staples, J. Erin; Perea, William; Ferguson, Neil M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the 1940s to 1960s reduced yellow fever incidence for several decades. However, after a period of low vaccination coverage, yellow fever has resurged in the continent. Since 2006 there has been substantial funding for large preventive mass vaccination campaigns in the most affected countries in Africa to curb the rising burden of disease and control future outbreaks. Contemporary estimates of the yellow fever disease burden are lacking, and the present study aimed to update the previous estimates on the basis of more recent yellow fever occurrence data and improved estimation methods. Methods and Findings Generalised linear regression models were fitted to a dataset of the locations of yellow fever outbreaks within the last 25 years to estimate the probability of outbreak reports across the endemic zone. Environmental variables and indicators for the surveillance quality in the affected countries were used as covariates. By comparing probabilities of outbreak reports estimated in the regression with the force of infection estimated for a limited set of locations for which serological surveys were available, the detection probability per case and the force of infection were estimated across the endemic zone. The yellow fever burden in Africa was estimated for the year 2013 as 130,000 (95% CI 51,000380,000) cases with fever and jaundice or haemorrhage including 78,000 (95% CI 19,000180,000) deaths, taking into account the current level of vaccination coverage. The impact of the recent mass vaccination campaigns was assessed by evaluating the difference between the estimates obtained for the current vaccination coverage and for a hypothetical scenario excluding these vaccination campaigns. Vaccination campaigns were estimated to have reduced the number of cases and deaths by 27% (95% CI 22%31%) across the region, achieving up to an 82% reduction in countries targeted by these campaigns. A limitation of our study is the high level of uncertainty in our estimates arising from the sparseness of data available from both surveillance and serological surveys. Conclusions With the estimation method presented here, spatial estimates of transmission intensity can be combined with vaccination coverage levels to evaluate the impact of past or proposed vaccination campaigns, thereby helping to allocate resources efficiently for yellow fever control. This method has been used by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI Alliance) to estimate the potential impact of future vaccination campaigns. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24800812

  20. Structure of Yellow Fever Virus Envelope Protein Domain III

    PubMed Central

    Volk, David E.; May, Fiona J.; Gandham, Sai H. A.; Anderson, Anjenique; Von Lindern, Jana J.; Beasley, David W. C.; Barrett, Alan D. T.; Gorenstein, David G.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of recombinant domain III of the envelope protein (rED3) of yellow fever virus (YFV), containing the major neutralization site, was determined using NMR spectroscopy. The amino acid sequence and structure of the YFV-rED3 shows differences from ED3s of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses; in particular, the partially surface-exposed BC loop where methionine-304 and valine-324 were identified as being critical for the structure of the loop. Variations in the structure and surface chemistry of ED3 between flaviviruses affect neutralization sites and may affect host cell receptor interactions and play a role in the observed variations in viral pathogenesis and tissue tropism. PMID:19818466

  1. Risk groups for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD).

    PubMed

    Seligman, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Although previously considered as the safest of the live virus vaccines, reports published since 2001 indicate that live yellow fever virus vaccine can cause a severe, often fatal, multisystemic illness, yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD), that resembles the disease it was designed to prevent. This review was prompted by the availability of a listing of the cumulative cases of YEL-AVD, insights from a statistical method for analyzing risk factors and re-evaluation of previously published data. The purpose of this review is to identify and analyze risk groups based on gender, age, outcome and predisposing illnesses. Using a passive surveillance system in the US, the incidence was reported as 0.3 to 0.4 cases per 100,000. However, other estimates range from 0 to 12 per 100,000. Identified and potential risk groups for YEL-AVD include elderly males, women between the ages of 19 and 34, people with a variety of autoimmune diseases, individuals who have been thymectomized because of thymoma, and infants and children ?11 years old. All but the last group are supported by statistical analysis. The confirmed risk groups account for 77% (49/64) of known cases and 76% (32/42) of the deaths. The overall case fatality rate is 66% (42/64) with a rate of 80% (12/15) in young women, in contrast to 50% (13/26) in men ?56 years old. Recognition of YEL-AVD raises the possibility that similar reactions to live chimeric flavivirus vaccines that contain a yellow fever virus vaccine backbone could occur in susceptible individuals. Delineation of risk groups focuses the search for genetic mutations resulting in immune defects associated with a given risk group. Lastly, identification of risk groups encourages concentration on measures to decrease both the incidence and the severity of YEL-AVD. PMID:25192973

  2. Occurrence of Autoimmune Diseases Related to the Vaccine against Yellow Fever.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Maria Henrique da Mota, Licia; Dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz; De Carvalho, Jozlio Freire; Caldas, Iramaya Rodrigues; Martins Filho, Olindo Assis; Tauil, Pedro Luis

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever is an infectious disease, endemic in South America and Africa. This is a potentially serious illness, with lethality between 5 and 40% of cases. The most effective preventive vaccine is constituted by the attenuated virus strain 17D, developed in 1937. It is considered safe and effective, conferring protection in more than 90% in 10 years. Adverse effects are known as mild reactions (allergies, transaminases transient elevation, fever, headache) and severe (visceral and neurotropic disease related to vaccine). However, little is known about its potential to induce autoimmune responses. This systematic review aims to identify the occurrence of autoinflammatory diseases related to 17D vaccine administration. Six studies were identified describing 13 possible cases. The diseases were Guillain-Barr syndrome, multiple sclerosis, multiple points evanescent syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and Kawasaki disease. The data suggest that 17D vaccination may play a role in the mechanism of loss of self-tolerance. PMID:25405025

  3. Occurrence of Autoimmune Diseases Related to the Vaccine against Yellow Fever

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Maria Henrique da Mota, Licia; dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz; De Carvalho, Jozlio Freire; Caldas, Iramaya Rodrigues; Martins Filho, Olindo Assis; Tauil, Pedro Luis

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever is an infectious disease, endemic in South America and Africa. This is a potentially serious illness, with lethality between 5 and 40% of cases. The most effective preventive vaccine is constituted by the attenuated virus strain 17D, developed in 1937. It is considered safe and effective, conferring protection in more than 90% in 10 years. Adverse effects are known as mild reactions (allergies, transaminases transient elevation, fever, headache) and severe (visceral and neurotropic disease related to vaccine). However, little is known about its potential to induce autoimmune responses. This systematic review aims to identify the occurrence of autoinflammatory diseases related to 17D vaccine administration. Six studies were identified describing 13 possible cases. The diseases were Guillain-Barr syndrome, multiple sclerosis, multiple points evanescent syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and Kawasaki disease. The data suggest that 17D vaccination may play a role in the mechanism of loss of self-tolerance. PMID:25405025

  4. Using Local History To Understand National Themes: The Yellow Fever Epidemic in Philadelphia in 1793.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbury, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information for a local history project about the 1793 Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) yellow fever outbreak. Offers potential project topics to help students learn about local history and understand life in the eighteenth century United States. (CMK)

  5. Yellow fever immunity surveys in northern Uganda and Kenya and eastern Somalia, 1966-67

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, B. E.; Metselaar, D.; Cahill, K.; Timms, G. L.; Tukei, P. M.; Williams, M. C.

    1968-01-01

    Recent epidemics of yellow fever in eastern Africa have stimulated serological surveys in the Karamoja district of Uganda, the northern frontier district of Kenya and the Giohar district of Somalia. All sera collected in the surveys were screened for group B arbovirus antibody using the HI test. Yellow fever immunity was confirmed by the mouse-protection test. No yellow fever immunity was found in sera collected from a residential tribal group at Karamoja but a small number of samples from persons who had previously lived outside the district showed immunity. Immunity was detected in sera from areas of the Northern Frontier district of Kenya. It is thought that this immunity may, in some areas, have resulted from extensions of the Ethiopian epidemic of 1960-62 into the region, but in another area of the district the immunity seems to have arisen from continuing focal transmission within Kenya. Yellow fever immunity was also detected in Somalia. PMID:5302299

  6. Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Yuko; Chen, Angela M.; Tsuruda, Jennifer M.; Cornel, Anthon J.; Debboun, Mustapha; Leal, Walter S.

    2004-09-01

    Four antennae-specific proteins (AaegOBP1, AaegOBP2, AaegOBP3, and AaegASP1) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and their full-length cDNAs were cloned. RT-PCR indicated that they are expressed in female and, to a lesser extent, in male antennae, but not in control tissues (legs). AaegOBP1 and AaegOBP3 showed significant similarity to previously identified mosquito odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in cysteine spacing pattern and sequence. Two of the isolated proteins have a total of eight cysteine residues. The similarity of the spacing pattern of the cysteine residues and amino acid sequence to those of previously identified olfactory proteins suggests that one of the cysteine-rich proteins (AaegOBP2) is an OBP. The other (AaegASP1) did not belong to any group of known OBPs. Structural analyses indicate that six of the cysteine residues in AaegOBP2 are linked in a similar pattern to the previously known cysteine pairing in OBPs, i.e., Cys-24 Cys-55, Cys-51 Cys-104, Cys-95 Cys-113. The additional disulfide bridge, Cys-38 Cys-125, knits the extended C-terminal segment of the protein to a predicted α2-helix. As indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, the extra rigidity seems to prevent the predicted formation of a C-terminal α-helix at low pH.

  7. Yellow fever and Zika virus epizootics and enzootics in Uganda.

    PubMed

    McCrae, A W; Kirya, B G

    1982-01-01

    Data of monkey serology are presented which, together with past evidence, support the view that yellow fever (YF) virus circulates in its primary sylvan host populations, i.e., forest monkeys, in an enzootic state in Bwamba County in western Uganda but as series of epizootics in the forest-savanna mosaic zone of central Uganda. Evidence of an epizootic of Zika virus at the Zika Forest near Entebbe is described which occurred in two episodes, the first (in 1969) apparently following the build-up of non-immune monkey populations since a previous epizootic of 1962-63 and the second (in 1970) when Aedes africanus biting densities rose. This was followed only 18 months later by an intensive epizootic of YF virus, contradictory to the hypothesis that Zika virus alone would suppress subsequent epizootics of YF virus in nature, at least when redtail monkeys are involved. Conclusions are finally reviewed in the light of more recent evidence of transovarial flavivirus transmission in mosquitoes, pointing out that phlebotomine sandflies also require fresh attention. PMID:6304948

  8. Equilibrium analysis of a yellow Fever dynamical model with vaccination.

    PubMed

    Martorano Raimundo, Silvia; Amaku, Marcos; Massad, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We propose an equilibrium analysis of a dynamical model of yellow fever transmission in the presence of a vaccine. The model considers both human and vector populations. We found thresholds parameters that affect the development of the disease and the infectious status of the human population in the presence of a vaccine whose protection may wane over time. In particular, we derived a threshold vaccination rate, above which the disease would be eradicated from the human population. We show that if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is greater than a given threshold, then the disease is naturally (without intervention) eradicated from the population. In contrast, if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is less than that threshold, then the disease is eradicated from the populations only when the growing rate of humans is less than another threshold; otherwise, the disease is eradicated only if the reproduction number of the infection after vaccination is less than 1. When this reproduction number is greater than 1, the disease will be eradicated from the human population if the vaccination rate is greater than a given threshold; otherwise, the disease will establish itself among humans, reaching a stable endemic equilibrium. The analysis presented in this paper can be useful, both to the better understanding of the disease dynamics and also for the planning of vaccination strategies. PMID:25834634

  9. [Blackwater fever: a case report].

    PubMed

    Olga, Pomier Surez; Correa, Daniel F Pe?ez

    2003-01-01

    The first case of blackwater fever was reported in Cuban medical literature. It is an uncommon complication of paludism due to Plasmodium falciparum, characterized by fever, hemoglobinuria, and kidney failure, with dramatic development and high mortality. The patient came from the People's Republic of Angola, where he stayed 7 years, with history of various episodes of malaria. He was admitted with fever, icterus and thick film test positive for P. falciparum. Treatment with quinine was started, but dark red urine and an increase of icterus were observed 12 hours later. Treatment with quinine was suspended. Red blood cells and platelets were transfused and hemodialysis and plasmapheresis were performed. The patient was discharged 2 weeks later asymptomatic and with negative thick film test. The pathogeny of this disease was discussed, specially kidney failure, making emphasis on the importance of the symptomatic and maintenance treatment in the patient's evolution. PMID:15849955

  10. Antibody response to 17D yellow fever vaccine in Ghanaian infants.

    PubMed Central

    Osei-Kwasi, M.; Dunyo, S. K.; Koram, K. A.; Afari, E. A.; Odoom, J. K.; Nkrumah, F. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the seroresponses to yellow fever vaccination at 6 and 9 months of age; assess any possible adverse effects of immunization with the 17D yellow fever vaccine in infants, particularly at 6 months of age. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty infants who had completed BCG, OPV and DPT immunizations were randomized to receive yellow fever immunization at either 6 or 9 months. A single dose of 0.5 ml of the reconstituted vaccine was administered to each infant by subcutaneous injection. To determine the yellow fever antibody levels of the infants, each donated 1 ml whole blood prior to immunization and 3 months post-immunization. Each serum sample was titred on Vero cells against the vaccine virus. FINDINGS: The most common adverse reactions reported were fever, cough, diarrhoea and mild reactions at the inoculation site. The incidences of adverse reactions were not statistically different in both groups. None of the pre-immunization sera in both age groups had detectable yellow fever antibodies. Infants immunized at 6 months recorded seroconversion of 98.6% and those immunized at 9 months recorded 98% seroconversion. The GMT of their antibodies were 158.5 and 129.8, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that seroresponses to yellow fever immunization at 6 and 9 months as determined by seroconversion and GMTs of antibodies are similar. The findings of good seroresponses at 6 months without significant adverse effects would suggest that the 17D yellow fever vaccine could be recommended for use in children at 6 months in outbreak situations or in high risk endemic areas. PMID:11731813

  11. Yellow fever vaccination coverage following massive emergency immunization campaigns in rural Uganda, May 2011: a community cluster survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Following an outbreak of yellow fever in northern Uganda in December 2010, Ministry of Health conducted a massive emergency vaccination campaign in January 2011. The reported vaccination coverage in Pader District was 75.9%. Administrative coverage though timely, is affected by incorrect population estimates and over or under reporting of vaccination doses administered. This paper presents the validated yellow fever vaccination coverage following massive emergency immunization campaigns in Pader district. Methods A cross sectional cluster survey was carried out in May 2011 among communities in Pader district and 680 respondents were indentified using the modified World Health Organization (WHO) 40??17 cluster survey sampling methodology. Respondents were aged nine months and above. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect data on demographic characteristics, vaccination status and reasons for none vaccination. Vaccination status was assessed using self reports and vaccination card evidence. Our main outcomes were measures of yellow fever vaccination coverage in each age-specific stratum, overall, and disaggregated by age and sex, adjusting for the clustered design and the size of the population in each stratum. Results Of the 680 survey respondents, 654 (96.1%, 95% CI 94.9 97.8) reported being vaccinated during the last campaign but only 353 (51.6%, 95% CI 47.2 56.1) had valid yellow fever vaccination cards. Of the 280 children below 5 years, 269 (96.1%, 95% CI 93.7 98.7) were vaccinated and nearly all males 299 (96.9%, 95% CI 94.3 99.5) were vaccinated. The main reasons for none vaccination were; having travelled out of Pader district during the campaign period (40.0%), lack of transport to immunization posts (28.0%) and, sickness at the time of vaccination (16.0%). Conclusions Our results show that actual yellow fever vaccination coverage was high and satisfactory in Pader district since it was above the desired minimum threshold coverage of 80% according to World Health Organization. Massive emergency vaccination done following an outbreak of Yellow fever achieved high population coverage in Pader district. Active surveillance is necessary for early detection of yellow fever cases. PMID:23497254

  12. A DNA Vaccine against Yellow Fever Virus: Development and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Milton; Cruz, Fábia da Silva Pereira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; da Motta, Márcia Archer; Cassemiro, Klécia Marília Soares de Melo; Maia, Rita de Cássia Carvalho; de Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; Galler, Ricardo; Freire, Marcos da Silva; August, Joseph Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T. A.; Dhalia, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Attenuated yellow fever (YF) virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE) or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE), aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies. PMID:25875109

  13. A DNA vaccine against yellow fever virus: development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Milton; Cruz, Fábia da Silva Pereira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; da Motta, Márcia Archer; Cassemiro, Klécia Marília Soares de Melo; Maia, Rita de Cássia Carvalho; de Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; Galler, Ricardo; Freire, Marcos da Silva; August, Joseph Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T A; Dhalia, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Attenuated yellow fever (YF) virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE) or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE), aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies. PMID:25875109

  14. The 1802 Saint-Domingue yellow fever epidemic and the Louisiana Purchase.

    PubMed

    Marr, John S; Cathey, John T

    2013-01-01

    Epidemics have been pivotal in the history of the world as exemplified by a yellow fever epidemic in the Caribbean that clearly altered New World geopolitics. By the end of the 18th century, yellow fever--then an "emerging disease"--was widespread throughout the Caribbean and particularly lethal in Saint-Domingue (present day Haiti). From 1793 to 1798, case fatality rates among British troops in the West Indies (including Saint-Domingue) were as high as 70%. A worse fate befell newly arrived French armed forces in 1802, ostensibly sent by Napoleon to suppress a rebellion and to reestablish slavery. Historians have disagreed on why Napoleon initially dispatched nearly 30,000 soldiers and sailors to the island. Evidence suggests the troops were actually an expeditionary force with intensions to invade North America through New Orleans and to establish a major holding in the Mississippi valley. However, lacking knowledge of basic prevention and control measures, mortality from the disease left only a small and shattered fraction of his troops alive, thwarting his secret ambition to colonize and hold French-held lands, which later became better known as the Louisiana Purchase. If an event of the magnitude of France's experience were to occur in the 21st century, it might also have profound unanticipated consequences. PMID:23169407

  15. Risk of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease among the elderly: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Ellen; Duclos, Philippe; Yactayo, Sergio; Schuster, Melanie

    2013-12-01

    Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) is a rare and serious adverse event of the yellow fever (YF) vaccine that mimics wild-type YF. Research shows there may be an increased risk of YEL-AVD among the elderly population (? 60-65 years old), however this research has yet to be accumulated and reviewed in order to make policy recommendations to countries currently administering the YF vaccine. This paper systematically reviewed all information available on YEL-AVD to determine if there is an increased risk among the elderly, for both travelers and endemic populations. Age-specific reporting rates (RRs) were re-calculated from the literature using the Brighton Collaboration case definition for YEL-AVD and were then analyzed to determine if there was a significant difference between the RRs of younger and older age groups. Two out of the five studies found a significantly higher rate of YEL-AVD among the elderly population. Our findings suggest unexposed elders may be at an increased risk of developing YEF-AVD, however the evidence remains limited. Therefore, our findings for YF vaccination of elderly populations support the recommendations made by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) in their April 2013 meeting, mainly vaccination of the elderly should be based on a careful risk-benefit analysis. PMID:24079979

  16. Functional characterization of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Lisa L.; Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2015-01-01

    After taking vertebrate blood, female mosquitoes quickly shed excess water and ions while retaining and concentrating the mostly proteinaceous nutrients. Aquaporins (AQPs) are an evolutionary conserved family of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the flow of water and in some cases glycerol and other small molecules across cellular membranes. In a previous study, we found six putative AQP genes in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, Ae. aegypti, and demonstrated the involvement of three of them in the blood meal-induced diuresis. Here we characterized AQP expression in different tissues before and after a blood meal, explored the substrate specificity of AQPs expressed in the Malpighian tubules and performed RNAi-mediated knockdown and tested for changes in mosquito desiccation resistance. We found that AQPs are generally down-regulated 24 hrs after a blood meal. Ae. aegypti AQP 1 strictly transports water, AQP 2 and 5 demonstrate limited solute transport, but primarily function as water transporters. AQP 4 is an aquaglyceroporin with multiple substrates. Knockdown of AQPs expressed in the MTs increased survival of Ae. aegypti under dry conditions. We conclude that Malpighian tubules of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes utilize three distinct AQPs and one aquaglyceroporin in their osmoregulatory functions. PMID:25589229

  17. Advanced Yellow Fever Virus Genome Detection in Point-of-Care Facilities and Reference Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pranav; Yillah, Jasmin; Weidmann, Manfred; Mndez, Jairo A.; Nakoun, Emmanuel Rivalyn; Niedrig, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Reported methods for the detection of the yellow fever viral genome are beset by limitations in sensitivity, specificity, strain detection spectra, and suitability to laboratories with simple infrastructure in areas of endemicity. We describe the development of two different approaches affording sensitive and specific detection of the yellow fever genome: a real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and an isothermal protocol employing the same primer-probe set but based on helicase-dependent amplification technology (RT-tHDA). Both assays were evaluated using yellow fever cell culture supernatants as well as spiked and clinical samples. We demonstrate reliable detection by both assays of different strains of yellow fever virus with improved sensitivity and specificity. The RT-qPCR assay is a powerful tool for reference or diagnostic laboratories with real-time PCR capability, while the isothermal RT-tHDA assay represents a useful alternative to earlier amplification techniques for the molecular diagnosis of yellow fever by field or point-of-care laboratories. PMID:23052311

  18. Yellow fever and Max Theiler: the only Nobel Prize for a virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Norrby, Erling

    2007-11-26

    In 1951, Max Theiler of the Rockefeller Foundation received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of an effective vaccine against yellow fever--a discovery first reported in the JEM 70 years ago. This was the first, and so far the only, Nobel Prize given for the development of a virus vaccine. Recently released Nobel archives now reveal how the advances in the yellow fever vaccine field were evaluated more than 50 years ago, and how this led to a prize for Max Theiler. PMID:18039952

  19. [Control discourses and power relations of yellow fever: Philadelphia in 1793].

    PubMed

    Kim, Seohyung

    2014-12-01

    1793 Yellow fever in Philadelphia was the most severe epidemics in the late 18th century in the United States. More than 10% of the population in the city died and many people fled to other cities. The cause of yellow fever in the United States had close relationship with slaves and sugar in Philadelphia. Sugarcane plantation had needed many labors to produce sugar and lots of Africans had to move to America as slaves. In this process, Aëdes aegypti, the vector of yellow fever had migrated to America and the circumstances of ships or cities provided appropriate conditions for its breeding. In this period, the cause of yellow fever could not be established exactly, so suggestions of doctors became entangled in political and intellectual discourses in American society. There was a critical conflict between Jeffersonian Republicanism and Federalism about the origin and treatment of yellow fever. Benjamin Rush, a Jeffersonian Republican, suggested urban sanitation reform and bloodletting. He believed the infectious disease happened because of unsanitary city condition, so he thought the United States could be a healthy nation by improvement of the public health and sanitation. He would like to cope with national crisis and develop American society on the basis of republicanism. While Rush suggested the improvement of public health and sanitation, the city government of Philadelphia suggested isolation of yellow fever patients and quarantine. City government isolated the patients from healthy people and it reconstructed space of hospital. Also, it built orphanages to take care of children who lost their parents during the epidemic and implemented power to control people put in the state of exception. Of course, city government tried to protect the city and nation by quarantine of every ship to Philadelphia. Control policies of yellow fever in 1793 showed different conflicts and interactions. Through the yellow fever, Jeffersonian Republicanism and Federalism had conflicted in politically, but they had interactions for control of the infectious disease. And with these kinds of infectious diseases policies, we can see interactions in local, national and global level. PMID:25608507

  20. An inactivated yellow fever 17DD vaccine cultivated in Vero cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Renata C; Silva, Andrea N M R; Souza, Marta Cristina O; Silva, Marlon V; Neves, Patrícia P C C; Silva, Andrea A M V; Matos, Denise D C S; Herrera, Miguel A O; Yamamura, Anna M Y; Freire, Marcos S; Gaspar, Luciane P; Caride, Elena

    2015-08-20

    Yellow fever is an acute infectious disease caused by prototype virus of the genus Flavivirus. It is endemic in Africa and South America where it represents a serious public health problem causing epidemics of hemorrhagic fever with mortality rates ranging from 20% to 50%. There is no available antiviral therapy and vaccination is the primary method of disease control. Although the attenuated vaccines for yellow fever show safety and efficacy it became necessary to develop a new yellow fever vaccine due to the occurrence of rare serious adverse events, which include visceral and neurotropic diseases. The new inactivated vaccine should be safer and effective as the existing attenuated one. In the present study, the immunogenicity of an inactivated 17DD vaccine in C57BL/6 mice was evaluated. The yellow fever virus was produced by cultivation of Vero cells in bioreactors, inactivated with β-propiolactone, and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide (alum). Mice were inoculated with inactivated 17DD vaccine containing alum adjuvant and followed by intracerebral challenge with 17DD virus. The results showed that animals receiving 3 doses of the inactivated vaccine (2 μg/dose) with alum adjuvant had neutralizing antibody titers above the cut-off of PRNT50 (Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test). In addition, animals immunized with inactivated vaccine showed survival rate of 100% after the challenge as well as animals immunized with commercial attenuated 17DD vaccine. PMID:25862300

  1. [Serologic survey for yellow fever and other arboviruses among inhabitants of Rio Branco, Brazil, before and three months after receiving the yellow fever 17D vaccine].

    PubMed

    Tavares-Neto, Jos; Freitas-Carvalho, Juliano; Nunes, Mrcio Roberto Teixeira; Rocha, Grace; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Damasceno, Edilndio; Darub, Recleides; Viana, Sebastio; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2004-01-01

    During a yellow fever vaccination campaign among residents of Rio Branco (Acre State), the frequency of HI antibodies to the most prevalent arboviruses in the Amazon region and to yellow fever virus was determined before and three months after immunization with YF 17D vaccine. From 390 inhabitants included in the first phase of serologic survey (August 1999), only 190 provided a second serum sample, after the use of 17D vaccine (January 2000). Among first phase samples, the frequency of HI antibodies was: 17D (27.2%); Ilheus (5.9%); Mayaro (5.4%); Caraparu (4.9%); Dengue-2 (4.1%); Oropouche (2.3%); and Dengue-1 (0.3%). In the second study phase, the serologic conversion to YF reached 89.7% among previously negative persons. Serologic conversions were also observed to Ilheus (6.2%); Dengue-3 (3.2%); Mayaro (1.1%); and Oropouche (1.1%) viruses. In conclusion, considering the high YF antibody rate after vaccination, the risk of urban yellow fever seems insignificant, although the lower prevalence of HI antibodies to dengue viruses, is of concern and inhabitants are under high risk of dengue outbreaks, especially to DEN-3 recently introduced in Brazil, as was observed in 2000 and 2001 with DEN-1 and DEN-2. PMID:15042172

  2. Risk Assessment for Yellow Fever in Western and North-Western Provinces of Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Babaniyi, Olusegun A.; Mwaba, Peter; Mulenga, David; Monze, Mwaka; Songolo, Peter; Mazaba-Liwewe, Mazyanga L.; Mweene-Ndumba, Idah; Masaninga, Freddie; Chizema, Elizabeth; Eshetu-Shibeshi, Messeret; Malama, Costantine; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter

    2015-01-01

    Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0%) samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1%) for Dengue, 370 (10.2%) for West Nile and 217 (6.0%) for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation. PMID:25722614

  3. Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African Republic, 20062010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The causative agent of yellow fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly in Africa. In the Central African Republic since 2006, cases have been notified in the provinces of Ombella-Mpoko, Ouham-Pende, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto and in Bangui the capital. As the presence of a vector of yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations at these sites to identify potential vectors of YFV and their abundance. Findings Between 2006 and 2010, 5066 mosquitoes belonging to six genera and 43 species were identified. The 20 species of the Aedes genus identified included Ae. aegypti, the main vector of YFV in urban settings, and species found in tropical forests, such as Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. luteocephalus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. opok. These species were not distributed uniformly in the various sites studied. Thus, the predominant Aedes species was Ae. aegypti in Bangui (90.7?%) and Basse-Kotto (42.2?%), Ae. africanus in Ombella-Mpoko (67.4?%) and Haute-Kotto (77.8?%) and Ae. vittatus in Ouham-Pende (62.2?%). Ae. albopictus was also found in Bangui. The distribution of these dominant species differed significantly according to study site (P?

  4. Notes from the field: fatal yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease--Oregon, September 2014.

    PubMed

    DeSilva, Malini; Sharma, Arun; Staples, Erin; Arndt, Byron; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Shames, Jim; Cieslak, Paul

    2015-03-20

    In September 2014, a previously healthy Oregon woman in her 60s went to a hospital emergency department with malaise, dyspnea, vomiting, and diarrhea of 3-5 days' duration. She reported no recent travel, ill contacts, or dietary changes. Six days earlier, she had received a single dose of yellow fever vaccine and typhoid vaccine before planned travel to South America. PMID:25789744

  5. Human Genetic Variation and Yellow Fever Mortality during 19th Century U.S. Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We calculated the incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates for Caucasians and non-Caucasians during 19th century yellow fever (YF) epidemics in the United States and determined statistical significance for differences in the rates in different populations. We evaluated nongenetic host factors, including socioeconomic, environmental, cultural, demographic, and acquired immunity status that could have influenced these differences. While differences in incidence rates were not significant between Caucasians and non-Caucasians, differences in mortality and case fatality rates were statistically significant for all epidemics tested (P < 0.01). Caucasians diagnosed with YF were 6.8 times more likely to succumb than non-Caucasians with the disease. No other major causes of death during the 19th century demonstrated a similar mortality skew toward Caucasians. Nongenetic host factors were examined and could not explain these large differences. We propose that the remarkably lower case mortality rates for individuals of non-Caucasian ancestry is the result of human genetic variation in loci encoding innate immune mediators. PMID:24895309

  6. The Safety of Yellow Fever Vaccine 17D or 17DD in Children, Pregnant Women, HIV+ Individuals, and Older Persons: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roger E.; Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Spragins, Wendy; Jackson, Dave; Williamson, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting immunity. Rare serious adverse events after vaccination include neurologic or viscerotropic syndromes or anaphylaxis. We conducted a systematic review of adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccination in vulnerable populations. Nine electronic bibliographic databases and reference lists of included articles were searched. Electronic databases identified 2,415 abstracts for review, and 32 abstracts were included in this review. We identified nine studies of adverse events in infants and children, eight studies of adverse events in pregnant women, nine studies of adverse events in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, five studies of adverse events in persons 60 years and older, and one study of adverse events in individuals taking immunosuppressive medications. Two case studies of maternal–neonate transmission resulted in serious adverse events, and the five passive surveillance databases identified very small numbers of cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease, yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease, and anaphylaxis in persons ≥ 60 years. No other serious adverse events were identified in the other studies of vulnerable groups. PMID:22302874

  7. Yellow fever disease: density equalizing mapping and gender analysis of international research output

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of scientific papers on yellow fever have been published but no broad scientometric analysis on the published research of yellow fever has been reported. The aim of the article based study was to provide an in-depth evaluation of the yellow fever field using large-scale data analysis and employment of bibliometric indicators of production and quantity. Methods Data were retrieved from the Web of Science database (WoS) and analyzed as part of the NewQis platform. Then data were extracted from each file, transferred to databases and visualized as diagrams. Partially by means of density-equalizing mapping makes the findings clear and emphasizes the output of the analysis. Results In the study period from 1900 to 2012 a total of 5,053 yellow fever-associated items were published by 79 countries. The United States (USA) having the highest publication rate at 42% (n = 751) followed by far from Brazil (n = 203), France (n = 149) and the United Kingdom (n = 113). The most productive journals are the “Public Health Reports”, the “American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene” and the “Journal of Virology”. The gender analysis showed an overall steady increase of female authorship from 1950 to 2011. Brazil is the only country of the five most productive countries with a higher proportion of female scientists. Conclusions The present data shows an increase in research productivity over the entire study period, in particular an increase of female scientists. Brazil shows a majority of female authors, a fact that is confirmed by other studies. PMID:24245856

  8. SATELLITE-BASED RIFT VALLEY FEVER FORECASTS PREDICT A LARGE YELLOW FEVER EPIDEMIC IN SUDAN, 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustained, heavy East African rainfall is associated with Aedes spp. breeding in Kenyan grasslands and Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics. Validated RVF forecasts use satellite measurements of vegetation greenness (which increases after heavy rains) and other eco-climate indicators. These models may ...

  9. Mutual interference on the immune response to yellow fever vaccine and a combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella.

    PubMed

    Nascimento Silva, Juliana Romualdo; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B; Siqueira, Marilda M; Freire, Marcos de Silva; Castro, Yvone P; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S; Yamamura, Anna Maya Y; Martins, Reinaldo M; Leal, Maria de Luz F

    2011-08-26

    A randomized trial was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of yellow fever vaccines (YFV) given either simultaneously in separate injections, or 30 days or more after a combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Volunteers were also randomized to YFV produced from 17DD and WHO-17D-213 substrains. The study group comprised 1769 healthy 12-month-old children brought to health care centers in Brasilia for routine vaccination. The reactogenicity was of the type and frequency expected for the vaccines and no severe adverse event was associated to either vaccine. Seroconversion and seropositivity 30 days or more after vaccination against yellow fever was similar across groups defined by YFV substrain. Subjects injected YFV and MMR simultaneously had lower seroconversion rates--90% for rubella, 70% for yellow fever and 61% for mumps--compared with those vaccinated 30 days apart--97% for rubella, 87% for yellow fever and 71% for mumps. Seroconversion rates for measles were higher than 98% in both comparison groups. Geometric mean titers for rubella and for yellow fever were approximately three times higher among those who got the vaccines 30 days apart. For measles and mumps antibodies GMTs were similar across groups. MMR's interference in immune response of YFV and YFV's interference in immune response of rubella and mumps components of MMR had never been reported before but are consistent with previous observations from other live vaccines. These results may affect the recommendations regarding primary vaccination with yellow fever vaccine and MMR. PMID:21640779

  10. Yellow fever virus: genetic and phenotypic diversity and implications for detection, prevention and therapy.

    PubMed

    Beasley, David W C; McAuley, Alexander J; Bente, Dennis A

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) is the prototypical hemorrhagic fever virus, yet our understanding of its phenotypic diversity and any molecular basis for observed differences in disease severity and epidemiology is lacking, when compared to other arthropod-borne and haemorrhagic fever viruses. This is, in part, due to the availability of safe and effective vaccines resulting in basic YFV research taking a back seat to those viruses for which no effective vaccine occurs. However, regular outbreaks occur in endemic areas, and the spread of the virus to new, previously unaffected, areas is possible. Analysis of isolates from endemic areas reveals a strong geographic association for major genotypes, and recent epidemics have demonstrated the emergence of novel sequence variants. This review aims to outline the current understanding of YFV genetic and phenotypic diversity and its sources, as well as the available animal models for characterizing these differences in vivo. The consequences of genetic diversity for detection and diagnosis of yellow fever and development of new vaccines and therapeutics are discussed. PMID:25545072

  11. Mariner transposition and transformation of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Coates, C J; Jasinskiene, N; Miyashiro, L; James, A A

    1998-03-31

    The mariner transposable element is capable of interplasmid transposition in the embryonic soma of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. To determine if this demonstrated mobility could be utilized to genetically transform the mosquito, a modified mariner element marked with a wild-type allele of the Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar gene was microinjected into embryos of a kynurenine hydroxylase-deficient, white-eyed recipient strain. Three of 69 fertile male founders resulting from the microinjected embryos produced families with colored-eyed progeny individuals, a transformation rate of 4%. The transgene-mediated complementation of eye color was observed to segregate in a Mendelian manner, although one insertion segregates with the recessive allele (female-determining) of the sex-determining locus, and a separate insertion is homozygous lethal. Molecular analysis of selected transformed families demonstrated that a single complete copy of the construct had integrated independently in each case and that it had done so in a transposase-mediated manner. The availability of a mariner transformation system greatly enhances our ability to study and manipulate this important vector species. PMID:9520438

  12. Advanced age a risk factor for illness temporally associated with yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, M.; Weld, L. H.; Tsai, T. F.; Mootrey, G. T.; Chen, R. T.; Niu, M.; Cetron, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was notified of severe illnesses and one death, temporally associated with yellow fever (YF) vaccination, in two elderly U.S. residents. Because the cases were unusual and adverse events following YF vaccination had not been studied, we estimated age-related reporting rates for systemic illness following YF vaccination. We found that the rate of reported adverse events among elderly vaccinees was higher than among vaccinees 25 to 44 years of age. We also found two additional deaths among elderly YF vaccinees. These data signal a potential problem but are not sufficient to reliably estimate incidence rates or to understand potential underlying mechanisms; therefore, enhanced surveillance is needed. YF remains an important cause of severe illness and death, and travel to disease-endemic regions is increasing. For elderly travelers, the risk for severe illness and death due to YF infection should be balanced against the risk for systemic illness due to YF vaccine. PMID:11747720

  13. Epizootics of yellow fever in Venezuela (2004-2005): an emerging zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Rifakis, Pedro M; Benitez, Jesus A; De-la-Paz-Pineda, Jose; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2006-10-01

    Epidemics and epizootics of yellow fever (YF) have been occurring in the border area of eastern Colombia and western Venezuela since 2003; for this reason many epidemiological control measures were adopted by the Ministry of Health (MOH) trying to prevent their spreading. These activities included monkey deaths surveillance as well as immunization of susceptible individuals with YF vaccine. In this setting, we analyzed epidemiological and epizootical issues related to YF in Venezuela during 2004-2005. In this period, YF epizootics occurred initially without geographical links to the 2003 outbreaks (which occurred at the Southern Maracaibo lake epizootic wave), but in relation with the Guayana epizootic wave; beginning in Monagas state and then affecting Anzotegui, Gurico, and Sucre states. Just months later, Apure was also affected. Mrida and Tchira also report epizootics for the end of 2004. This year concluded with 15 human deaths due to YF and more than 100 howler monkey deaths. In the same year, 715 suspected cases were investigated confirming YF in 0.7% of them. For these reasons, between 2002 and 2004, Venezuela's MOH has vaccinated approximately 1.9 million people in areas considered to be enzootic. The country's goal for 2006 is to have 7 million people residing in high-risk cities and towns vaccinated, and in this way, preventing and controlling this emerging zoonotic disease. PMID:17135494

  14. [Q fever. Description of a case].

    PubMed

    Pea-Irn, ; Gonzlez Santamara, A R; Mungua Rozadilla, F; Herrero Gonzlez, J L

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis of global distribution with an incidence of 3 cases per 100,000 inhabitants/year. A variety of animals can be the coxiella reservoir which always must be taken into account when faced with a fever process in a compatible context. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are essential to improve the prognosis, and prevent the development of chronic infection or other potential complications associated with the coxelliosis. PMID:23834984

  15. Vaccinating in disease-free regions: a vaccine model with application to yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Codeço, Claudia T; Luz, Paula M; Coelho, Flavio; Galvani, Alison P; Struchiner, Claudio

    2007-12-22

    Concerns regarding natural or induced emergence of infectious diseases have raised a debate on the pros and cons of pre-emptive vaccination of populations under uncertain risk. In the absence of immediate risk, ethical issues arise because even smaller risks associated with the vaccine are greater than the immediate disease risk (which is zero). The model proposed here seeks to formalize the vaccination decision process looking from the perspective of the susceptible individual, and results are shown in the context of the emergence of urban yellow fever in Brazil. The model decomposes the individual's choice about vaccinating or not into uncertain components. The choice is modelled as a function of (i) the risk of a vaccine adverse event, (ii) the risk of an outbreak and (iii) the probability of receiving the vaccine or escaping serious disease given an outbreak. Additionally, we explore how this decision varies as a function of mass vaccination strategies of varying efficiency. If disease is considered possible but unlikely (risk of outbreak less than 0.1), delay vaccination is a good strategy if a reasonably efficient campaign is expected. The advantage of waiting increases as the rate of transmission is reduced (low R0) suggesting that vector control programmes and emergency vaccination preparedness work together to favour this strategy. The opposing strategy, vaccinating pre-emptively, is favoured if the probability of yellow fever urbanization is high or if expected R0 is high and emergency action is expected to be slow. In summary, our model highlights the nonlinear dependence of an individual's best strategy on the preparedness of a response to a yellow fever outbreak or other emergent infectious disease. PMID:17442650

  16. [Stegomyian indices and epidemiological status of yellow fever in a rural area of the Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Zeze, D G; Koffi, A A

    1994-01-01

    The M'bahiakro region, located in the center of Ivory Coast and inhabited by the N'gain, has been the scene of a yellow fever epidemic since 1982. This region reunites all the conditions for cyclic emergence of the flavivirus given the current epidemiologic pattern of yellow fever in Africa. In view of this situation ORSTOM, in collaboration with the Pasteur Institute of Ivory Coast, has created a pilot zone for epidemiologic surveillance of yellow fever in this region. The N'gain region which has a total population of 12,000 living in 20 villages with between 100 and 2000 inhabitants is located in a preforest area with an attenuated transitional climate characterized by a dry season and a rainy season with two peak periods of precipitation (May and October) but a low mean annual rainfall (1172 mm). There are few springs, wells and rivers and maintaining water supplies is difficult. As a result villagers stockpile rainwater in various types of containers. Inspections were carried out from February to July in the 20 villages of the region. Each room of every dwelling was registered and visited. Water reserves were inspected and those containing pre-imaginal stage Culicidae were counted as positive. Nymphs and larva were sometimes collected. Nymphs were raised and larva preserved. Species identification by the laboratory was based on these larva and imagos obtained by raising the nymphs. Correspondence tables established by the World Health Organization between stegomiyan indices (dwelling), container, BRETEAU) and flavivirus in the population were used to exploit the results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7746124

  17. Severe post-vaccination reaction to 17D yellow fever vaccine in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyelami, S A; Olaleye, O D; Oyejide, C O; Omilabu, S A; Fatunla, B A

    1994-01-01

    An unusual outbreak of post-vaccination reactions to 17D yellow fever vaccine occurred at Shaki, Nigeria, in May 1987. Twenty-five of the affected people were treated at the Baptist Hospital Shaki. The patients presented with rapidly progressing swelling of the left arm with associated fever and other constitutional symptoms few hours after inoculation with the vaccine. Some of the patients developed gangrene of the affected limb, five of them went into coma and died. Poor hygiene and improper handling of vaccine as well as contamination of vaccine from the source are possible causes. A review of vaccine delivery strategies especially at local community levels; sound training, supervision of vaccinators and health education are strongly recommended to prevent reoccurrence of similar reactions. PMID:7756161

  18. Guiding dengue vaccine development using knowledge gained from the success of the yellow fever vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Huabin; Lee, Min; Jin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Flaviviruses comprise approximately 70 closely related RNA viruses. These include several mosquito-borne pathogens, such as yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue virus (DENV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which can cause significant human diseases and thus are of great medical importance. Vaccines against both YFV and JEV have been used successfully in humans for decades; however, the development of a DENV vaccine has encountered considerable obstacles. Here, we review the protective immune responses elicited by the vaccine against YFV to provide some insights into the development of a protective DENV vaccine. PMID:26435066

  19. Unto the least of these: the Howard Association and yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Newsom, E Y

    1992-06-01

    Epidemics of yellow fever in mid-19th century America caused, in the port cities of the South, devastation and death almost unequalled in this country's history. In response to this horror, a benevolent organization of young men was formed to minister to the unfortunate victims through visitations, nursing care, supplies, and compassion. The group adopted the name Howard Association in honor of the British philanthropist and reformer, John Howard. This paper is an attempt to introduce this little-known society to 20th century readers by taking a brief look at some of the records of Howard Associations in several southern cities: New Orleans, Memphis, Norfolk, and Charleston. PMID:1604393

  20. Guiding dengue vaccine development using knowledge gained from the success of the yellow fever vaccine.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huabin; Lee, Min; Jin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Flaviviruses comprise approximately 70 closely related RNA viruses. These include several mosquito-borne pathogens, such as yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue virus (DENV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which can cause significant human diseases and thus are of great medical importance. Vaccines against both YFV and JEV have been used successfully in humans for decades; however, the development of a DENV vaccine has encountered considerable obstacles. Here, we review the protective immune responses elicited by the vaccine against YFV to provide some insights into the development of a protective DENV vaccine. PMID:26435066

  1. A yellow fever epizootic in Zika forest, Uganda, during 1972: Part 1: Virus isolation and sentinel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kirya, B G

    1977-01-01

    The results of the yellow fever immunity survey of Central and East Africa reported by SAWYER & WHITMAN in 1936 prompted scientists to undertake well-planned epidemiological studies on yellow fever in eastern Africa. A Yellow Fever Research Institute (the present East African Virus Research Institute) was established at Entebbe in 1936 for this purpose. One of the areas where much work has been carried out is a strip of typical tropical forest, the Zika Forest, 12 kilometres from the Institute. Routine surveillance work, particularly on the biting activity of the yellow fever vector mosquitoes, has been going on since 1946. It was during one of these studies in 1972 that the first yellow fever virus strain was isolated from Aedes africanus collected from the Zika and Sisa forests and one strain was isolated from Coquillettidia fuscopennata, also from the Zika Forest. Three sentinel rhesus monkeys, nomimmune to YF, which were kept in the Zika Forest during the time of the epizootic died of YF disease. The present observations indicate that YF is still present in Africa, and as such it still remains a potential menace to the human population. The epidemiological implications are discussed. PMID:407675

  2. A curious case of yellow nail syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cri?an-Dabija, Radu; Mih?escu, Traian

    2015-01-01

    The Yellow Nail Syndrome is a rare clinical entity, first described in 1967 by P.D. Samman and W.F. White. The triad slow-growing dystrophic yellow nails, lymphedema and chronic respiratory disorders is the typical manifestation of the disease but some variations have been described as well as associations with chylothorax, chylous ascites, intestinal lymphangiectasia, thyroid abnormalities, malignancies and immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency. We present a case of a 55-years-old woman that had an insidious onset of respiratory disorders and chronic sinusitis, suspected to be infectious throughout the hospitalizations, associated with therapeutically neglected autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:26016054

  3. Evaluation of two yellow fever vaccines for routine immunization programs in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Carlos; Ponce, Amalia; Wilson, Mario M; Sharif, Norma; Vides, Jos B; Armoni, Judith; Teuwen, Dirk E

    2008-01-01

    Although highly effective vaccines have been available for almost 70 years, an estimated 200,000 cases of YF, including 30,000 deaths, still occur annually. This study evaluated the safety of two yellow fever (YF) vaccines [Stamaril and Vacina Contra Febre Amarela (VCFA)]. A total of 2,514 subjects were randomized equally to receive Stamaril or VCFA. Immediate reactions occurring within 30 minutes after vaccination, and solicited local and systemic reactions occurring within eight days, were monitored. Unsolicited local, systemic adverse events and serious adverse events (SAE) were recorded for 21 days after vaccination. Solicited local and systemic adverse reactions were reported by 15.3-17.6% and 30.4-31.6% of the Stamaril and VCFA groups, respectively. Only 56 of the 2,514 study subjects (2.2%) reported a severe solicited adverse reaction, 25 in the Stamaril group (1.99%) and 31 in the VFCA group (2.49%), (p=0.403). Ten subjects (0.8%) in each group reported at least one severe solicited local reaction (p = 0.988). A total of 18 Stamaril subjects (1.43%) and 21 VCFA subjects (1.68%) reported at least one severe solicited systemic reaction (p = 0.617) One SAE considered related to vaccination occurred, polymyalgia in the VCFA group. No immediate reactions to vaccination were seen. Vaccine-related unsolicited events were infrequent, 1.4% in the Stamaril group and 2.0% VCFA group, generally of mild or moderate intensity. We conclude that the safety profiles of Stamaril and VCFA support routine vaccination to prevent YF in residents of and travelers to endemic areas of South America and Africa. PMID:18382132

  4. Development of a membrane adsorber based capture step for the purification of yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Pato, Tânia P; Souza, Marta Cristina O; Silva, Andréa N M R; Pereira, Renata C; Silva, Marlon V; Caride, Elena; Gaspar, Luciane P; Freire, Marcos S; Castilho, Leda R

    2014-05-19

    Yellow fever (YF) is an endemic disease in some tropical areas of South America and Africa that presents lethality rate between 20 and 50%. There is no specific treatment and to control this disease a highly effective live-attenuated egg based vaccine is widely used for travelers and residents of areas where YF is endemic. However, recent reports of rare, sometimes fatal, adverse events post-vaccination have raised concerns. In order to increase safety records, alternative strategies should be considered, such as developing a new inactivated vaccine using a cell culture based technology, capable of meeting the demands in cases of epidemic. With this goal, the production of YF virus in Vero cells grown on microcarriers and its subsequent purification by chromatographic techniques was studied. In this work we investigate the capture step of the purification process of the YF virus. At first, virus stability was studied over a wide pH range, showing best results for the alkaline region. Considering this result and the pI of the envelope protein previously determined in silico, a strong anion exchanger was considered most suitable. Due to the easy scalability, simplicity to handle, absence of diffusional limitations and suitability for virus handling of membrane adsorbers, a Q membrane was evaluated. The amount of antigen adsorbed onto the membrane was investigated within the pH range for virus stability, and the best pH for virus adsorption was considered to be 8.5. Finally, studies on gradient and step elution allowed to determine the most adequate salt concentration for washing (0.15M) and virus elution (0.30 M). Under these operating conditions, it was shown that this capture step is quite efficient, showing high product recovery (93.2±30.3%) and efficient DNA clearance (0.9±0.3 ng/dose). PMID:24631080

  5. A case of ADEM following Chikungunya fever.

    PubMed

    Maity, Pranab; Roy, Pinaki; Basu, Arindam; Das, Biman; Ghosh, U S

    2014-05-01

    Chikungunya most often is a self-limiting febrile illness with polyarthritis and the virus is not known to be neurotropic. We are reporting a case of chikugunya fever presenting as acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis(ADEM) which is very rare. PMID:25438499

  6. Mortality and Morbidity Among Military Personnel and Civilians During the 1930s and World War II From Transmission of Hepatitis During Yellow Fever Vaccination: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Spragins, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    During World War II, nearly all US and Allied troops received yellow fever vaccine. Until May 1942, it was both grown and suspended in human serum. In April 1942, major epidemics of hepatitis occurred in US and Allied troops who had received yellow fever vaccine. A rapid and thorough investigation by the US surgeon general followed, and a directive was issued discontinuing the use of human serum in vaccine production. The large number of cases of hepatitis caused by the administration of this vaccine could have been avoided. Had authorities undertaken a thorough review of the literature, they would have discovered published reports, as early as 1885, of postvaccination epidemics of hepatitis in both men and horses. It would take 4 additional decades of experiments and epidemiological research before viruses of hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E were identified, their modes of transmission understood, and their genomes sequenced. PMID:23327242

  7. Yellow fever: ecology, epidemiology, and role in the collapse of the Classic lowland Maya civilization.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, R L

    1995-07-01

    Mystery has long surrounded the collapse of the Classic lowland Mayan civilization of the Peten region in Guatemala. Recent population reconstructions derived from archaeological evidence from the central lowlands show population declines from urban levels of between 2.5 and 3.5 million to around 536,000 in the two hundred year interval between 800 A.D. and 1000 A.D., the period known as the Classic Maya Collapse. A steady, but lesser rate of population decline continued until the time of European contact. When knowledge of the ecology and epidemiology of yellow fever and its known mosquito vectors are compared with what is known of the ecological conditions of lowland Guatemala as modified by the Classic Maya, provocative similarities are observed. When infection and mortality patterns of more recent urban yellow fever epidemics are used as models for a possible series of Classic Maya epidemics, a correlation is noted between the modeled rate of population decline for a series of epidemics, and population decline figures reconstructed from archaeological evidence. PMID:8643025

  8. Sowing the seeds of neo-imperialism: the Rockefeller Foundation's yellow fever campaign in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Solrzano, A

    1992-01-01

    The Rockefeller Foundation's campaign against yellow fever in Mexico sought to advance the economic and political interests of U.S. capitalism. The campaign was implemented at a time of strong anti-American sentiments on the part of the Mexican people. With no diplomatic relationships between Mexico and the United States, the Rockefeller Foundation presented its campaign as an international commitment. Thus, Foundation doctors became the most salient U.S. diplomats. At the same time they made sure that the Mexican yellow fever would not spread to the United States through the southern border. The by-products of the campaign went beyond the political arena. Special techniques to combat the vectors allowed the Rockefeller Foundation's brigades to change the anti-American sentiments of the people. When the campaign ended, the Foundation had already set in place the foundation for the modern Mexican health care system. Benefits from the campaign also accrued to President Obregn, who used the campaign to strengthen his position of power. Mexican doctors adopting a pro-American attitude also allied with the Rockefeller Foundation to gain reputation and power within the emerging Mexican State. PMID:1644514

  9. A curious case of Fever and hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia as a cause of pyrexia is a rare entity. Similarly, hyperpigmentation of skin has rarely been reported as the presenting manifestation of folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency. The author reports the case of a patient who presented with fever and hyperpigmentation and was diagnosed to have megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency after other infective, inflammatory/autoimmune, endocrine causes of pyrexia and hyperpigmentation were excluded by appropriate investigations. The patient responded remarkably well to the treatment with vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation. Although presentation of megaloblastic anaemia as isolated fever or hyperpigmentation are noted in literature, simultaneous fever and hyperpigmentation as its initial presentation is exceedingly rare. PMID:25738019

  10. Infection of Mosquito Cells (C6/36) by Dengue-2 Virus Interferes with Subsequent Infection by Yellow Fever Virus.

    PubMed

    Abrao, Emiliana Pereira; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is one of the most important diseases caused by arboviruses in the world. Yellow fever is another arthropod-borne disease of great importance to public health that is endemic to tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. Both yellow fever and dengue viruses are flaviviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and then, it is reasonable to consider that in a given moment, mosquito cells could be coinfected by both viruses. Therefore, we decided to evaluate if sequential infections of dengue and yellow fever viruses (and vice-versa) in mosquito cells could affect the virus replication patterns. Using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR-based replication assays in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells with single or sequential infections with both viruses, we demonstrated the occurrence of viral interference, also called superinfection exclusion, between these two viruses. Our results show that this interference pattern is particularly evident when cells were first infected with dengue virus and subsequently with yellow fever virus (YFV). Reduction in dengue virus replication, although to a lower extent, was also observed when C6/36 cells were initially infected with YFV followed by dengue virus infection. Although the importance that these findings have on nature is unknown, this study provides evidence, at the cellular level, of the occurrence of replication interference between dengue and yellow fever viruses and raises the question if superinfection exclusion could be a possible explanation, at least partially, for the reported lack of urban yellow fever occurrence in regions where a high level of dengue transmission occurs. PMID:26808727

  11. Travel characteristics and yellow fever vaccine usage among US Global TravEpiNet travelers visiting countries with risk of yellow fever virus transmission, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Jentes, Emily S; Han, Pauline; Gershman, Mark D; Rao, Sowmya R; LaRocque, Regina C; Staples, J Erin; Ryan, Edward T

    2013-05-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated serious adverse events and changing YF epidemiology have challenged healthcare providers to vaccinate only travelers whose risk of YF during travel is greater than their risk of adverse events. We describe the travel characteristics and YF vaccine use among US travelers visiting Global TravEpiNet clinics from January of 2009 to March of 2011. Of 16,660 travelers, 5,588 (34%) had itineraries to areas with risk of YF virus transmission. Of those travelers visiting one country with YF risk (N = 4,517), 71% were vaccinated at the visit, and 20% were presumed to be immune from prior vaccination. However, travelers visiting friends and relatives (odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.27-5.22) or going to Nigeria (OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.37-6.62) were significantly more likely to decline vaccination. To optimize YF vaccine use, clinicians should discuss an individual's risk-benefit assessment of vaccination and close knowledge gaps regarding vaccine use among at-risk populations. PMID:23458961

  12. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 1-undec-10-enoyl-piperidines as adulticides against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), is considered the primary vector for both dengue and yellow fever. Using insecticide is one of the major ways to control this medically important insect pest. However, few new insecticides have been developed for mosquito control. As part of our collabo...

  13. Lewis W. Hackett and the early years of the International Health Board's Yellow Fever Program in Brazil, 1917-1924.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, D H

    2005-12-01

    Lewis W. Hackett joined the staff of the International Health Board (IHB) in 1914. He was sent to Brazil in 1916, where his original responsibility was hookworm control, but he was gradually and inevitably drawn into combating other diseases. Hackett had a strong influence on public health in Brazil. In 1922 he instituted grass-roots (local) health units and programs. The next year, he negotiated with the federal government a cooperative yellow fever control program, which was described in the IHB's 1923 annual report as the "new and final campaign against yellow fever" in Brazil. Eleven offices were established in northern Brazil, where it was expected that yellow fever would quickly be eradicated. Just as the new program got underway Hackett was reassigned to Italy, where he remained until the beginning of World War II. Nonetheless, Hackett had done a classic job of developing the IHB program in Brazil, moving carefully but authoritatively from the initial focus on hookworm, to the development of a more comprehensive public health program, and then to the strategic thrust toward yellow fever. PMID:16866041

  14. The single kinin receptor signals to separate and independent physiological pathways in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past we have used the leucokinins, the kinins of the cockroach Leucophaea, to evaluate the mechanism of diuretic action of kinin peptides in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Now using aedeskinins, the kinins of Aedes, are available, we find that in isolated Aede...

  15. Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gustatory receptor neurons were characterized for contact chemoreceptive sensilla on the labella of female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. The neuron with the smallest amplitude spike responded to the feeding deterrent, quinine, as well as DEET and other insect repellents. Two other ...

  16. Safety profile of the yellow fever vaccine Stamaril: a 17-year review.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Pascale; Niedrig, Matthias; Domingo, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Since the creation by the manufacturer in 1993, of an electronic pharmacovigilance database for all spontaneous, voluntary reports of adverse events (AEs) after vaccination, 276 million doses of Stamaril have been distributed worldwide. We review this database for the safety of Stamaril with emphasis on yellow fever (YF) vaccine associated acute viscerotropic and neurotropic diseases, anaphylaxis and on specific at risk groups: elderly adults, pregnant and lactating women and the immunosuppressed. Findings confirm that the vaccine's safety profile in routine practice is favorable and consistent with the summary of product characteristics. Estimated reporting rates of serious adverse events associated after Stamaril vaccination are lower than the previously published and widely cited estimates of the worldwide reporting rate for YF vaccines in general. These data provide important additional information for the prescribers in assessing the risks and benefits associated with the use of Stamaril in individuals exposed to YF virus. PMID:24066727

  17. Improved genetic stability of recombinant yellow fever 17D virus expressing a lentiviral Gag gene fragment

    PubMed Central

    Veloso de Santana, Marlon G.; Neves, Patrcia C.C.; dos Santos, Juliana Ribeiro; Lima, Noemia S.; dos Santos, Alexandre A. C.; Watkins, David I.; Galler, Ricardo; Bonaldo, Myrna C.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously designed a method to construct viable recombinant Yellow Fever (YF) 17D viruses expressing heterologous polypeptides including part of the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Gag protein. However, the expressed region, encompassing amino acid residues from 45 to 269, was genetically unstable. In this study, we improved the genetic stability of this recombinant YF 17D virus by introducing mutations in the IRES element localized at the 5? end of the SIV gag gene. The new stable recombinant virus elicited adaptive immune responses similar to those induced by the original recombinant virus. It is, therefore, possible to increase recombinant stability by removing functional motifs from the insert that may have deleterious effects on recombinant YF viral fitness. PMID:24606697

  18. Efficient, trans-complementing packaging systems for chimeric, pseudoinfectious dengue 2/yellow fever viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Shustov, Alexandr V.

    2010-04-25

    In our previous studies, we have stated to build a new strategy for developing defective, pseudoinfectious flaviviruses (PIVs) and applying them as a new type of vaccine candidates. PIVs combined the efficiency of live vaccines with the safety of inactivated or subunit vaccines. The results of the present work demonstrate further development of chimeric PIVs encoding dengue virus 2 (DEN2V) glycoproteins and yellow fever virus (YFV)-derived replicative machinery as potential vaccine candidates. The newly designed PIVs have synergistically functioning mutations in the prM and NS2A proteins, which abolish processing of the latter proteins and make the defective viruses capable of producing either only noninfectious, immature and/or subviral DEN2V particles. The PIV genomes can be packaged to high titers into infectious virions in vitro using the NS1-deficient YFV helper RNAs, and both PIVs and helpers can then be passaged as two-component genome viruses at an escalating scale.

  19. BCX4430, a Novel Nucleoside Analog, Effectively Treats Yellow Fever in a Hamster Model

    PubMed Central

    Bantia, Shanta; Taubenheim, Brian R.; Minning, Dena M.; Kotian, Pravin; Morrey, John D.; Smee, Donald F.; Sheridan, William P.; Babu, Yarlagadda S.

    2014-01-01

    No effective antiviral therapies are currently available to treat disease after infection with yellow fever virus (YFV). A Syrian golden hamster model of yellow fever (YF) was used to characterize the effect of treatment with BCX4430, a novel adenosine nucleoside analog. Significant improvement in survival was observed after treatment with BCX4430 at 4 mg/kg of body weight per day dosed intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice daily (BID). Treatment with BCX4430 at 12.5 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days offered complete protection from mortality and also resulted in significant improvement of other YF disease parameters, including weight loss, serum alanine aminotransferase levels (6 days postinfection [dpi]), and viremia (4 dpi). In uninfected hamsters, BCX4430 at 200 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days was well tolerated and did not result in mortality or weight loss, suggesting a potentially wide therapeutic index. Treatment with BCX4430 at 12 mg/kg/day i.p. remained effective when administered once daily and for only 4 days. Moreover, BCX4430 dosed at 200 mg/kg/day i.p. BID for 7 days effectively treated YF, even when treatment was delayed up to 4 days after virus challenge, corresponding with peak viral titers in the liver and serum. BCX4430 treatment did not preclude a protective antibody response, as higher neutralizing antibody (nAb) concentrations corresponded with increasing delays of treatment initiation, and greater nAb responses resulted in the protection of animals from a secondary challenge with YFV. In summary, BCX4430 is highly active in a hamster model of YF, even when treatment is initiated at the peak of viral replication. PMID:25155605

  20. Rapid Molecular Assays for the Detection of Yellow Fever Virus in Low-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Escadafal, Camille; Faye, Oumar; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Faye, Ousmane; Weidmann, Manfred; Strohmeier, Oliver; von Stetten, Felix; Drexler, Josef; Eberhard, Michael; Niedrig, Matthias; Patel, Pranav

    2014-01-01

    Background Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The causative agent, the yellow fever virus (YFV), is found in tropical and subtropical areas of South America and Africa. Although a vaccine is available since the 1930s, YF still causes thousands of deaths and several outbreaks have recently occurred in Africa. Therefore, rapid and reliable diagnostic methods easy to perform in low-resources settings could have a major impact on early detection of outbreaks and implementation of appropriate response strategies such as vaccination and/or vector control. Methodology The aim of this study was to develop a YFV nucleic acid detection method applicable in outbreak investigations and surveillance studies in low-resource and field settings. The method should be simple, robust, rapid and reliable. Therefore, we adopted an isothermal approach and developed a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay which can be performed with a small portable instrument and easy-to-use lyophilized reagents. The assay was developed in three different formats (real-time with or without microfluidic semi-automated system and lateral-flow assay) to evaluate their application for different purposes. Analytical specificity and sensitivity were evaluated with a wide panel of viruses and serial dilutions of YFV RNA. Mosquito pools and spiked human plasma samples were also tested for assay validation. Finally, real-time RPA in portable format was tested under field conditions in Senegal. Conclusion/Significance The assay was able to detect 20 different YFV strains and demonstrated no cross-reactions with closely related viruses. The RPA assay proved to be a robust, portable method with a low detection limit (<21 genome equivalent copies per reaction) and rapid processing time (<20 min). Results from real-time RPA field testing were comparable to results obtained in the laboratory, thus confirming our method is suitable for YFV detection in low-resource settings. PMID:24603874

  1. Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

    2014-01-01

    The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

  2. Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of viruses. These include the Ebola and Marburg, Lassa fever, and yellow fever viruses. VHFs have common features: ... the animals that carry them live. For example, Lassa fever is limited to rural areas of West Africa ...

  3. Dengue Fever With Rectus Sheath Hematoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Bhatia, Sonia; Singh, Rajendra Pratap; Malik, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the Dengue virus. It is associated with a number of complications, which are well documented. However, Dengue fever associated with rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a very rare complication. Only one case report has been published prior supporting the association of Dengue fever with RSH. We report a case of Dengue fever who presented with RSH and was successfully treated conservatively. RSH is also an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear. PMID:25161976

  4. Dengue Fever with rectus sheath hematoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anurag; Bhatia, Sonia; Singh, Rajendra Pratap; Malik, Gaurav

    2014-04-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the Dengue virus. It is associated with a number of complications, which are well documented. However, Dengue fever associated with rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a very rare complication. Only one case report has been published prior supporting the association of Dengue fever with RSH. We report a case of Dengue fever who presented with RSH and was successfully treated conservatively. RSH is also an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear. PMID:25161976

  5. A Single 17D Yellow Fever Vaccination Provides Lifelong Immunity; Characterization of Yellow-Fever-Specific Neutralizing Antibody and T-Cell Responses after Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Ester M. M.; Remmerswaal, Ester B. M.; ten Berge, Ineke J. M.; de Visser, Adriëtte W.; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Goorhuis, Abraham; Visser, Leo G.; Grobusch, Martin P.; de Bree, Godelieve J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prompted by recent amendments of Yellow Fever (YF) vaccination guidelines from boost to single vaccination strategy and the paucity of clinical data to support this adjustment, we used the profile of the YF-specific CD8+ T-cell subset profiles after primary vaccination and neutralizing antibodies as a proxy for potentially longer lasting immunity. Methods and Findings PBMCs and serum were collected in six individuals on days 0, 3, 5, 12, 28 and 180, and in 99 individuals >10 years after YF-vaccination. Phenotypic characteristics of YF- tetramer+ CD8+ T-cells were determined using class I tetramers. Antibody responses were measured using a standardized plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Also, characteristics of YF-tetramer positive CD8+ T-cells were compared between individuals who had received a primary- and a booster vaccination. YF-tetramer+ CD8+ T-cells were detectable on day 12 (median tetramer+ cells as percentage of CD8+ T-cells 0.2%, range 0.07–3.1%). On day 180, these cells were still present (median 0.06%, range 0.02–0.78%). The phenotype of YF-tetramer positive CD8+ T-cells shifted from acute phase effector cells on day 12, to late differentiated or effector memory phenotype (CD45RA-/+CD27-) on day 28. Two subsets of YF-tetramer positive T-cells (CD45RA+CD27- and CD45RA+CD27+) persisted until day 180. Within all phenotypic subsets, the T-bet: Eomes ratio tended to be high on day 28 after vaccination and shifted towards predominant Eomes expression on day 180 (median 6.0 (day 28) vs. 2.2 (day 180) p = 0.0625), suggestive of imprinting compatible with long-lived memory properties. YF-tetramer positive CD8+ T-cells were detectable up to 18 years post vaccination, YF-specific antibodies were detectable up to 40 years after single vaccination. Booster vaccination did not increase titers of YF-specific antibodies (mean 12.5 vs. 13.1, p = 0.583), nor induce frequencies or alter phenotypes of YF-tetramer+ CD8+ T-cells. Conclusion The presence of a functionally competent YF-specific memory T-cell pool 18 years and sufficient titers of neutralizing antibodies 35–40 years after first vaccination suggest that single vaccination may be sufficient to provide long-term immunity. PMID:26977808

  6. Theories about the propagation of yellow fever: the scientific debate in the So Paulo press between 1895 and 1903.

    PubMed

    Ldola, Soraya; Gis Junior, Edivaldo

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the debate over theories about the propagation of yellow fever in the So Paulo press. Our time span was defined as the period between 1895 and 1903, a time that saw high indices of the disease in Brazil. Documentary research involved mass circulation newspapers in So Paulo and medical journals of the period. The empirical data was collected from the Public Archives of the State of So Paulo and from the library of the Faculdade de Sade Pblica at Universidade de So Paulo. It was observed a clash between theories as to the propagation of yellow fever that revealed a symbolic dispute for influence in the formation of the scientific field. PMID:26331639

  7. Is There a Risk of Yellow Fever Virus Transmission in South Asian Countries with Hyperendemic Dengue?

    PubMed Central

    Agampodi, Suneth B.; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2013-01-01

    The fact that yellow fever (YF) has never occurred in Asia remains an “unsolved mystery” in global health. Most countries in Asia with high Aedes aegypti mosquito density are considered “receptive” for YF transmission. Recently, health officials in Sri Lanka issued a public health alert on the potential spread of YF from a migrant group from West Africa. We performed an extensive review of literature pertaining to the risk of YF in Sri Lanka/South Asian region to understand the probability of actual risk and assist health authorities to form evidence informed public health policies/practices. Published data from epidemiological, historical, biological, molecular, and mathematical models were harnessed to assess the risk of YF in Asia. Using this data we examine a number of theories proposed to explain lack of YF in Asia. Considering the evidence available, we conclude that the probable risk of local transmission of YF is extremely low in Sri Lanka and for other South Asian countries despite a high Aedes aegypti density and associated dengue burden. This does not however exclude the future possibility of transmission in Asia, especially considering the rapid influx travelers from endemic areas, as we report, arriving in Sri Lanka. PMID:24367789

  8. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos.

    PubMed

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C E P; de Sequeira, Patrcia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor Jos; Caputo, Luzia Ftima Gonalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-09-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874

  9. Characterization of an Enantioselective Odorant Receptor in the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Bohbot, Jonathan D.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    Enantiomers differ only in the left or right handedness (chirality) of their orientations and exhibit identical chemical and physical properties. In chemical communication systems, enantiomers can be differentially active at the physiological and behavioral levels. Only recently were enantioselective odorant receptors demonstrated in mammals while their existence in insects has remained hypothetical. Using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp of Xenopus oocytes, we show that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, odorant receptor 8 (AaOR8) acts as a chiral selective receptor for the (R)-()-enantiomer of 1-octen-3-ol, which in the presence of other kairomones is an attractant used by blood-sucking insects to locate their hosts. In addition to steric constraints, chain length and degree of unsaturation play important roles in this recognition process. This is the first characterization of an enantioselective odorant receptor in insects and the results demonstrate that an OR alone, without helper proteins, can account for chiral specificity exhibited by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). PMID:19753115

  10. Stable transformation of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, with the Hermes element from the housefly.

    PubMed

    Jasinskiene, N; Coates, C J; Benedict, M Q; Cornel, A J; Rafferty, C S; James, A A; Collins, F H

    1998-03-31

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the world's most important vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses. Work is currently in progress to control the transmission of these viruses by genetically altering the capacity of wild Ae. aegypti populations to support virus replication. The germ-line transformation system reported here constitutes a major advance toward the implementation of this control strategy. A modified Hermes transposon carrying a 4.7-kb fragment of genomic DNA that includes a wild-type allele of the Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar (cn) gene was used to transform a white-eyed recipient strain of Ae. aegypti. Microinjection of preblastoderm mosquito embryos with this construct resulted in 50% of the emergent G0 adults showing some color in their eyes. Three transformed families were recovered, each resulting from an independent insertion event of the cn+-carrying transposon. The cn+ gene functioned as a semidominant transgene and segregated in Mendelian ratios. Hermes shows great promise as a vector for efficient, heritable, and stable transformation of this important mosquito vector species. PMID:9520437

  11. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C. E. P.; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874

  12. Patterns of a Sylvatic Yellow Fever Virus Amplification in Southeastern Senegal, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A.; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Ba, Yamar; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C.; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    During the wet season of 2010, yellow fever virus (YFV) was detected in field-collected mosquitoes in the Kdougou region in southeastern Senegal. During this outbreak, we studied the association of the abundance of YFV-infected mosquitoes and land cover features to try and understand the dynamics of YFV transmission within the region. In total, 41,234 mosquito females were collected and tested for virus infection in 5,152 pools. YFV was detected in 67 pools; species including Aedes furcifer (52.2% of the infected pools), Ae. luteocephalus (31.3% of the infected pools), Ae. taylori (6.0% of the infected pools) and six other species (10.4% of the infected pools) captured in September (13.4%), October (70.1%), and November (16.4%). Spatially, YFV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes but mainly, forest canopies (49.2%). Human infection is likely mediated by Ae. furcifer, the only species found infected with YFV within villages. Villages containing YFV-infected mosquitoes were significantly closer to large forests (> 2 ha) than villages in which no infected mosquitoes were detected. PMID:24615140

  13. Development and characterization of polyclonal peptide antibodies for the detection of Yellow fever virus proteins.

    PubMed

    Stock, N K; Escadafal, C; Achazi, K; Ciss, M; Niedrig, M

    2015-09-15

    There is still a considerable need for development of new tools and methods detecting specific viral proteins for the diagnosis and pathogenesis study of the Yellow fever virus (YFV). This study aimed to develop and characterize polyclonal peptide antisera for detection of YFV-C and -NS1 proteins. The antisera were used further to investigate NS1 protein expression during YFV infection in mammalian cells. YFV target proteins were detected by all antisera in western blot and immunofluorescence assays. No cross-reactivity was observed with Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus and Japanese encephalitis virus. Nuclear localization of the YFV-C protein was demonstrated for the first time. Experiments investigating NS1 expression suggested a potential use of the YFV-NS1 antisera for development of diagnostic approaches targeting the secreted form of the NS1 protein. The antisera described in this study offer new possibilities for use in YFV research and for the development of novel diagnostic tests. PMID:26086983

  14. Neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Siju, KP; Reifenrath, Anna; Scheiblich, Hannah; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard; Hansson, Bill S; Schachtner, Joachim; Ignell, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    For many insects, including mosquitoes, olfaction is the dominant modality regulating their behavioral repertoire. Many neurochemicals modulate olfactory information in the central nervous system, including the primary olfactory center of insects, the antennal lobe. The most diverse and versatile neurochemicals in the insect nervous system are found in the neuropeptides. In the present study, we analyzed neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a major vector of arboviral diseases. Direct tissue profiling of the antennal lobe by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry indicated the presence of 28 mature products from 10 different neuropeptide genes. In addition, immunocytochemical techniques were used to describe the cellular location of the products of up to seven of these genes within the antennal lobe. Allatostatin A, allatotropin, SIFamide, FMRFamide-related peptides, short neuropeptide F, myoinhibitory peptide, and tachykinin-related peptides were found to be expressed in local interneurons and extrinsic neurons of the antennal lobe. Building on these results, we discuss the possible role of neuropeptide signaling in the antennal lobe of Ae. aegypti. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:592608, 2014. PMID:23897410

  15. Genetic selection of a flavivirus-refractory strain of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Miller, B R; Mitchell, C J

    1991-10-01

    Two inbred (isofemale) Aedes aegypti mosquito lines were derived that manifested a resistant or susceptible phenotype following ingestion of yellow fever virus; lack of virus movement from the midgut defined the resistant phenotype. Other flaviviruses, including dengue 1-4, Uganda S, and Zika, viruses behaved in a similar fashion in the two mosquito lines. Crosses between the two lines produced progeny that were of intermediate susceptibility, indicating codominance; F2 backcrosses to the parents yielded results consistent with a major controlling genetic locus and provide evidence of a second locus capable of modulating the phenotype of the major gene. The rapid selection necessary to fix the susceptible and refractory phenotypes support the hypothesis of a single major controlling locus. Viral movement across the midgut is likely to be governed by a single major gene and modifying minor genes or a group of closely linked genes. These inbred mosquito lines will be useful in discovering the molecular basis for flavivirus resistance in Ae. aegypti. PMID:1659238

  16. CD8+ T cells complement antibodies in protecting against yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Maria R; Kongsgaard, Michael; Steffensen, Maria A; Fenger, Christina; Rasmussen, Michael; Skjødt, Karsten; Finsen, Bente; Stryhn, Anette; Buus, Søren; Christensen, Jan P; Thomsen, Allan R

    2015-02-01

    The attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine (YF-17D) was developed in the 1930s, yet little is known about the protective mechanisms underlying its efficiency. In this study, we analyzed the relative contribution of cell-mediated and humoral immunity to the vaccine-induced protection in a murine model of YF-17D infection. Using different strains of knockout mice, we found that CD4(+) T cells, B cells, and Abs are required for full clinical protection of vaccinated mice, whereas CD8(+) T cells are dispensable for long-term survival after intracerebral challenge. However, by analyzing the immune response inside the infected CNS, we observed an accelerated T cell influx into the brain after intracerebral challenge of vaccinated mice, and this T cell recruitment correlated with improved virus control in the brain. Using mice deficient in B cells we found that, in the absence of Abs, YF vaccination can still induce some antiviral protection, and in vivo depletion of CD8(+) T cells from these animals revealed a pivotal role for CD8(+) T cells in controlling virus replication in the absence of a humoral response. Finally, we demonstrated that effector CD8(+) T cells also contribute to viral control in the presence of circulating YF-specific Abs. To our knowledge, this is the first time that YF-specific CD8(+) T cells have been demonstrated to possess antiviral activity in vivo. PMID:25539816

  17. Pressure-inactivated yellow fever 17DD virus: implications for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Luciane P; Mendes, Ygara S; Yamamura, Anna M Y; Almeida, Luiz F C; Caride, Elena; Gonalves, Rafael B; Silva, Jerson L; Oliveira, Andra C; Galler, Ricardo; Freire, Marcos S

    2008-06-01

    The successful Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine consists of the live attenuated 17D-204 or 17DD viruses. Despite its excellent record of efficacy and safety, serious adverse events have been recorded and influenced extensive vaccination in endemic areas. Therefore, alternative strategies should be considered, which may include inactivated whole virus. High hydrostatic pressure has been described as a method for viral inactivation and vaccine development. The present study evaluated whether high hydrostatic pressure would inactivate the YF 17DD virus. YF 17DD virus was grown in Vero cells in roller bottle cultures and subjected to 310MPa for 3h at 4 degrees C. This treatment abolished YF infectivity and eliminated the ability of the virus to cause disease in mice. Pressure-inactivated virus elicited low level of neutralizing antibody titers although exhibited complete protection against an otherwise lethal challenge with 17DD virus in the murine model. The data warrant further development of pressure-inactivated vaccine against YF. PMID:18420285

  18. Persistence of neutralizing antibody 30-35 years after immunization with 17D yellow fever vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Poland, J. D.; Calisher, C. H.; Monath, T. P.; Downs, W. G.; Murphy, K.

    1981-01-01

    Previous studies on the duration of antibody following vaccination with 17D yellow fever (17D YF) virus vaccine have indicated that immunity persists for at least 17 years and suggest that the vaccine may provide lifelong immunity. We studied sera obtained from 149 veterans of the Second World War, 30 - 35 years after military service during which YF vaccination was required for defined groups. A significantly high proportion of vaccinated subjects was found to be seropositive to 17D YF virus. The highest proportion of seropositive vaccinated veterans (97%) was among navy and air corps personnel, while only 60% of vaccinated army personnel and 19% of unvaccinated personnel were seropositive. This study suggests that (i) antibody to 17D YF virus, as measured by the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT), persists for 30 years or more following administration of a potent vaccine; (ii) army personnel often had not received potent vaccine, even though their service history indicated that they should have been vaccinated; (iii) some personnel were vaccinated, although their service did not include vaccination-designated areas; and (iv) 88% of veterans with persistent PRNT antibody to 17D YF virus also had mouse-protective antibody against French neurotropic YF virus. PMID:6978196

  19. Is there a risk of yellow fever virus transmission in South Asian countries with hyperendemic dengue?

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2013-01-01

    The fact that yellow fever (YF) has never occurred in Asia remains an "unsolved mystery" in global health. Most countries in Asia with high Aedes aegypti mosquito density are considered "receptive" for YF transmission. Recently, health officials in Sri Lanka issued a public health alert on the potential spread of YF from a migrant group from West Africa. We performed an extensive review of literature pertaining to the risk of YF in Sri Lanka/South Asian region to understand the probability of actual risk and assist health authorities to form evidence informed public health policies/practices. Published data from epidemiological, historical, biological, molecular, and mathematical models were harnessed to assess the risk of YF in Asia. Using this data we examine a number of theories proposed to explain lack of YF in Asia. Considering the evidence available, we conclude that the probable risk of local transmission of YF is extremely low in Sri Lanka and for other South Asian countries despite a high Aedes aegypti density and associated dengue burden. This does not however exclude the future possibility of transmission in Asia, especially considering the rapid influx travelers from endemic areas, as we report, arriving in Sri Lanka. PMID:24367789

  20. A Flow Cytometry-Based Assay for Quantifying Non-Plaque Forming Strains of Yellow Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hammarlund, Erika; Amanna, Ian J.; Dubois, Melissa E.; Barron, Alex; Engelmann, Flora; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Slifka, Mark K.

    2012-01-01

    Primary clinical isolates of yellow fever virus can be difficult to quantitate by standard in vitro methods because they may not form discernable plaques or induce a measurable cytopathic effect (CPE) on cell monolayers. In our hands, the Dakar strain of yellow fever virus (YFV-Dakar) could not be measured by plaque assay (PA), focus-forming assay (FFA), or by measurement of CPE. For these reasons, we developed a YFV-specific monoclonal antibody (3A8.B6) and used it to optimize a highly sensitive flow cytometry-based tissue culture limiting dilution assay (TC-LDA) to measure levels of infectious virus. The TC-LDA was performed by incubating serial dilutions of virus in replicate wells of C6/36 cells and stained intracellularly for virus with MAb 3A8.B6. Using this approach, we could reproducibly quantitate YFV-Dakar in tissue culture supernatants as well as from the serum of viremic rhesus macaques experimentally infected with YFV-Dakar. Moreover, the TC-LDA approach was >10-fold more sensitive than standard plaque assay for quantitating typical plaque-forming strains of YFV including YFV-17D and YFV-FNV (French neurotropic vaccine). Together, these results indicate that the TC-LDA technique is effective for quantitating both plaque-forming and non-plaque-forming strains of yellow fever virus, and this methodology may be readily adapted for the study and quantitation of other non-plaque-forming viruses. PMID:23028428

  1. Viral haemorrhagic fevers of man*

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, D. I. H.

    1978-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge on the viral haemorrhagic fevers that infect man, namely smallpox, chikungunya fever, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, Crimean haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Argentinian haemorrhagic fever (Junin virus), Bolivian haemorrhagic fever (Machupo virus), Lassa fever, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, and Marburg and Ebola virus diseases. PMID:310725

  2. Viral haemorrhagic fevers of man.

    PubMed

    Simpson, D I

    1978-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge on the viral haemorrhagic fevers that infect man, namely smallpox, chikungunya fever, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, Crimean haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Argentinian haemorrhagic fever (Junin virus), Bolivian haemorrhagic fever (Machupo virus), Lassa fever, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, and Marburg and Ebola virus diseases. PMID:310725

  3. Surveillance for yellow Fever virus in non-human primates in southern Brazil, 2001-2011: a tool for prioritizing human populations for vaccination.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marco A B; Cardoso, Jader da C; Dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F; Cruz, Laura L; Faraco, Fernando J C; Bercini, Marilina A; Vettorello, Ktia C; Porto, Mariana A; Mohrdieck, Renate; Ranieri, Tani M S; Schermann, Maria T; Sperb, Aletha F; Paz, Francisco Z; Nunes, Zenaida M A; Romano, Alessandro P M; Costa, Zouraide G; Gomes, Silvana L; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-03-01

    In Brazil, epizootics among New World monkey species may indicate circulation of yellow fever (YF) virus and provide early warning of risk to humans. Between 1999 and 2001, the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul initiated surveillance for epizootics of YF in non-human primates to inform vaccination of human populations. Following a YF outbreak, we analyzed epizootic surveillance data and assessed YF vaccine coverage, timeliness of implementation of vaccination in unvaccinated human populations. From October 2008 through June 2009, circulation of YF virus was confirmed in 67 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State; vaccination was recommended in 23 (34%) prior to the outbreak and in 16 (24%) within two weeks of first epizootic report. In 28 (42%) municipalities, vaccination began more than two weeks after first epizootic report. Eleven (52%) of 21 laboratory-confirmed human YF cases occurred in two municipalities with delayed vaccination. By 2010, municipalities with confirmed YF epizootics reported higher vaccine coverage than other municipalities that began vaccination. In unvaccinated human populations timely response to epizootic events is critical to prevent human yellow fever cases. PMID:24625681

  4. Surveillance for Yellow Fever Virus in Non-Human Primates in Southern Brazil, 2001–2011: A Tool for Prioritizing Human Populations for Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Marco A. B.; Cardoso, Jader da C.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Cruz, Laura L.; Faraco, Fernando J. C.; Bercini, Marilina A.; Vettorello, Kátia C.; Porto, Mariana A.; Mohrdieck, Renate; Ranieri, Tani M. S.; Schermann, Maria T.; Sperb, Alethéa F.; Paz, Francisco Z.; Nunes, Zenaida M. A.; Romano, Alessandro P. M.; Costa, Zouraide G.; Gomes, Silvana L.; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, epizootics among New World monkey species may indicate circulation of yellow fever (YF) virus and provide early warning of risk to humans. Between 1999 and 2001, the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul initiated surveillance for epizootics of YF in non-human primates to inform vaccination of human populations. Following a YF outbreak, we analyzed epizootic surveillance data and assessed YF vaccine coverage, timeliness of implementation of vaccination in unvaccinated human populations. From October 2008 through June 2009, circulation of YF virus was confirmed in 67 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State; vaccination was recommended in 23 (34%) prior to the outbreak and in 16 (24%) within two weeks of first epizootic report. In 28 (42%) municipalities, vaccination began more than two weeks after first epizootic report. Eleven (52%) of 21 laboratory-confirmed human YF cases occurred in two municipalities with delayed vaccination. By 2010, municipalities with confirmed YF epizootics reported higher vaccine coverage than other municipalities that began vaccination. In unvaccinated human populations timely response to epizootic events is critical to prevent human yellow fever cases. PMID:24625681

  5. Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Betl; Tsikolia, Maia; Bernier, Ulrich R; Agramonte, Natasha M; Alqasoumi, Saleh I; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Yusufoglu, Hasan S; Demirci, Fatih; Ba?er, K Hsn Can; Khan, Ikhlas A; Tabanca, Nurhayat

    2013-12-01

    Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dactylifera was obtained by hydrodistillation from the spathe, a specialized leaf structure that surrounds the pollinating organs of the palm. The oil was subsequently analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The oil showed promising repellent activity against yellow fever mosquito - Aedes aegypti. Sixteen components were characterized, constituting 99% of the oil. The main components were 3,4-dimethoxytoluene (73.5%), 2,4-dimethoxytoluene (9.5%), ?-caryophyllene (5.5%), p-cresyl methyl ether (3.8%), and caryophyllene oxide (2.4%). The minimum effective dosage (MED) for repellency for the P. dactylifera oil was 0.051mg/cm(2), which had moderately lower potency compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, DEET (0.018mg/cm(2)) in the "cloth patch assay". The five major compounds were individually assayed for repellency to determine to what extent each is responsible for repellency from the oil. 3,4-Dimethoxytoluene and 2,4-dimethoxytoluene showed the best repellent activity with the same MED value of 0.063mg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicate that these two constituents which comprise a large proportion of the P. dactylifera oil (83%) are likely responsible for the observed repellent activity. In this aspect, the P. dactylifera spathe oil is a sustainable, promising new source of natural repellents. PMID:23948523

  6. The Aquaporin Gene Family of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Lisa L.; Boudko, Dmitri Y.; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Carpenter, Victoria K.; Dawe, Angus L.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the principal vector of the Dengue and yellow fever viruses. During feeding, an adult female can take up more than its own body weight in vertebrate blood. After a blood meal females excrete large amounts of urine through their excretion system, the Malpighian tubules (MT). Diuresis starts within seconds after the mosquito starts feeding. Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of membrane transporters that regulate the flow of water, glycerol and other small molecules across cellular membranes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Our aim was to identify aquaporins that function as water channels, mediating transcellular water transport in MTs of adult female Ae. aegypti. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a bioinformatics approach we screened genome databases and identified six putative AQPs in the genome of Ae. aegypti. Phylogenetic analysis showed that five of the six Ae. aegypti AQPs have high similarity to classical water-transporting AQPs of vertebrates. Using microarray, reverse transcription and real time PCR analysis we found that all six AQPs are expressed in distinct patterns in mosquito tissues/body parts. AaAQP1, 4, and 5 are strongly expressed in the adult female MT. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the MT-expressed mosquito AQPs resulted in significantly reduced diuresis. Conclusions/Significance Our results support the notion that AQP1, 4, and 5 function as water transporters in the MTs of adult female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate the importance of these AQPs for mosquito diuresis after blood ingestion and highlight their potential as targets for the development of novel vector control strategies. PMID:21249121

  7. ATon, abundant novel nonautonomous mobile genetic elements in yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are important pathogen vectors affecting human and other animals. Studies on genetic control of mosquito mediated disease transmission gained traction recently due to mosquito transgenesis technology. Active transposons are considered valuable tools to propagate pathogen resistance transgenes among mosquitoes, rendering the whole population recalcitrant to diseases. A major hurdle in this approach is the inefficient remobilization activity after the integration of heterologous transposon vectors bearing transgenes into chromosomes. Therefore, endogenous active transposons in mosquito genomes are highly desirable. Results Starting with the transposable element database of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti genome, detailed analyses of the members of each TE family were performed to identify sequences with multiple identical copies, an indicator of their latest or current transposition activity. Among a dozen of potentially active TE families, two DNA elements (TF000728 and TF000742 in TEfam) are short and nonautonomous. Close inspection of the elements revealed that these two families were previously mis-categorized and, unlike other known TEs, insert specifically at dinucleotide “AT”. These two families were therefore designated as ATon-I and ATon-II. ATon-I has a total copy number of 294, among which three elements have more than 10 identical copies (146, 61 and 17). ATon-II has a total copy number of 317, among which three elements have more than 10 identical copies (84, 15 and 12). Genome wide searches revealed additional 24 ATon families in A. aegypti genome with nearly 6500 copies in total. Transposon display analysis of ATon-1 family using different A. aegypti strains suggests that the elements are similarly abundant in the tested mosquito strains. Conclusion ATons are novel mobile genetic elements bearing terminal inverted repeats and insert specifically at dinucleotide “AT”. Five ATon families contain elements existing at more than 10 identical copies, suggesting very recent or current transposition activity. A total of 24 new TE families with nearly 6000 copies were identified in this study. PMID:22738224

  8. Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone functions independently of the insulin receptor in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Dhara, Animesh; Eum, Jai-Hoon; Robertson, Anne; Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Vogel, Kevin J.; Clark, Kevin D.; Graf, Rolf; Brown, Mark R.; Strand, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Most mosquito species must feed on the blood of a vertebrate host to produce eggs. In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, blood feeding triggers medial neurosecretory cells in the brain to release insulin-like peptides (ILPs) and ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH). Theses hormones thereafter directly induce the ovaries to produce ecdysteroid hormone (ECD), which activates the synthesis of yolk proteins in the fat body for uptake by oocytes. ILP3 stimulates ECD production by binding to the mosquito insulin receptor (MIR). In contrast, little is known about the mode of action of OEH, which is a member of a neuropeptide family called neuroparsin. Here we report that OEH is the only neuroparsin family member present in the Ae. aegypti genome and that other mosquitoes also encode only one neuroparsin gene. Immunoblotting experiments suggested that the full-length form of the peptide, which we call long OEH (lOEH), is processed into short OEH (sOEH). The importance of processing, however, remained unclear because a recombinant form of lOEH (rlOEH) and synthetic sOEH exhibited very similar biological activity. A series of experiments indicated that neither rlOEH nor sOEH bound to ILP3 or the MIR. Signaling studies further showed that ILP3 activated the MIR but rlOEH did not, yet both neuropeptides activated Akt, which is a marker for insulin pathway signaling. Our results also indicated that activation of TOR signaling in the ovaries required co-stimulation by amino acids and either ILP3 or rlOEH. Overall, we conclude that OEH activates the insulin signaling pathway independently of the MIR, and that insulin and TOR signaling in the ovaries is coupled. PMID:24076067

  9. Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Relationships among Yellow Fever Virus Isolates in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mutebi, John-Paul; Wang, Heiman; Li, Li; Bryant, Juliet E.; Barrett, Alan D. T.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies with a limited number of strains have indicated that there are two genotypes of yellow fever (YF) virus in Africa, one in west Africa and the other in east and central Africa. We have examined the prM/M and a portion of the E protein for a panel of 38 wild strains of YF virus from Africa representing different countries and times of isolation. Examination of the strains revealed a more complex genetic relationship than previously reported. Overall, nucleotide substitutions varied from 0 to 25.8% and amino acid substitutions varied from 0 to 9.1%. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony and neighbor-joining algorithms identified five distinct genotypes: central/east Africa, east Africa, Angola, west Africa I, and west Africa II. Extensive variation within genotypes was observed. Members of west African genotype II and central/east African genotype differed by 2.8% or less, while west Africa genotype I varied up to 6.8% at the nucleotide level. We speculate that the former two genotypes exist in enzootic transmission cycles, while the latter is genetically more heterogeneous due to regular human epidemics. The nucleotide sequence of the Angola genotype diverged from the others by 15.7 to 23.0% but only 0.4 to 5.6% at the amino acid level, suggesting that this genotype most likely diverged from a progenitor YF virus in east/central Africa many years ago, prior to the separation of the other east/central African strains analyzed in this study, and has evolved independently. These data demonstrate that there are multiple genotypes of YF virus in Africa and suggest independent evolution of YF virus in different areas of Africa. PMID:11435580

  10. Stability of yellow fever virus under recombinatory pressure as compared with chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    McGee, Charles E; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Guy, Bruno; Lang, Jean; Plante, Kenneth; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Recombination is a mechanism whereby positive sense single stranded RNA viruses exchange segments of genetic information. Recent phylogenetic analyses of naturally occurring recombinant flaviviruses have raised concerns regarding the potential for the emergence of virulent recombinants either post-vaccination or following co-infection with two distinct wild-type viruses. To characterize the conditions and sequences that favor RNA arthropod-borne virus recombination we constructed yellow fever virus (YFV) 17D recombinant crosses containing complementary deletions in the envelope protein coding sequence. These constructs were designed to strongly favor recombination, and the detection conditions were optimized to achieve high sensitivity recovery of putative recombinants. Full length recombinant YFV 17D virus was never detected under any of the experimental conditions examined, despite achieving estimated YFV replicon co-infection levels of ?2.4 x 10? in BHK-21 (vertebrate) cells and ?1.05 x 10? in C?10 (arthropod) cells. Additionally YFV 17D superinfection resistance was observed in vertebrate and arthropod cells harboring a primary infection with wild-type YFV Asibi strain. Furthermore recombination potential was also evaluated using similarly designed chikungunya virus (CHIKV) replicons towards validation of this strategy for recombination detection. Non-homologus recombination was observed for CHIKV within the structural gene coding sequence resulting in an in-frame duplication of capsid and E3 gene. Based on these data, it is concluded that even in the unlikely event of a high level acute co-infection of two distinct YFV genomes in an arthropod or vertebrate host, the generation of viable flavivirus recombinants is extremely unlikely. PMID:21826243

  11. Immune activation alters cellular and humoral responses to yellow fever 17D vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Muyanja, Enoch; Ssemaganda, Aloysius; Ngauv, Pearline; Cubas, Rafael; Perrin, Helene; Srinivasan, Divya; Canderan, Glenda; Lawson, Benton; Kopycinski, Jakub; Graham, Amanda S.; Rowe, Dawne K.; Smith, Michaela J.; Isern, Sharon; Michael, Scott; Silvestri, Guido; Vanderford, Thomas H.; Castro, Erika; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Singer, Joel; Gillmour, Jill; Kiwanuka, Noah; Nanvubya, Annet; Schmidt, Claudia; Birungi, Josephine; Cox, Josephine; Haddad, Elias K.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Fast, Patricia; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Trautmann, Lydie

    2014-01-01

    Background. Defining the parameters that modulate vaccine responses in African populations will be imperative to design effective vaccines for protection against HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and dengue virus infections. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the patient-specific immune microenvironment to the response to the licensed yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) in an African cohort. Methods. We compared responses to YF-17D in 50 volunteers in Entebbe, Uganda, and 50 volunteers in Lausanne, Switzerland. We measured the CD8+ T cell and B cell responses induced by YF-17D and correlated them with immune parameters analyzed by flow cytometry prior to vaccination. Results. We showed that YF-17D–induced CD8+ T cell and B cell responses were substantially lower in immunized individuals from Entebbe compared with immunized individuals from Lausanne. The impaired vaccine response in the Entebbe cohort associated with reduced YF-17D replication. Prior to vaccination, we observed higher frequencies of exhausted and activated NK cells, differentiated T and B cell subsets and proinflammatory monocytes, suggesting an activated immune microenvironment in the Entebbe volunteers. Interestingly, activation of CD8+ T cells and B cells as well as proinflammatory monocytes at baseline negatively correlated with YF-17D–neutralizing antibody titers after vaccination. Additionally, memory T and B cell responses in preimmunized volunteers exhibited reduced persistence in the Entebbe cohort but were boosted by a second vaccination. Conclusion. Together, these results demonstrate that an activated immune microenvironment prior to vaccination impedes efficacy of the YF-17D vaccine in an African cohort and suggest that vaccine regimens may need to be boosted in African populations to achieve efficient immunity. Trial registration. Registration is not required for observational studies. Funding. This study was funded by Canada’s Global Health Research Initiative, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and United States Agency for International Development. PMID:24911151

  12. Subdoses of 17DD yellow fever vaccine elicit equivalent virological/immunological kinetics timeline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The live attenuated 17DD Yellow Fever vaccine is one of the most successful prophylactic interventions for controlling disease expansion ever designed and utilized in larger scale. However, increase on worldwide vaccine demands and manufacturing restrictions urge for more detailed dose sparing studies. The establishment of complementary biomarkers in addition to PRNT and Viremia could support a secure decision-making regarding the use of 17DD YF vaccine subdoses. The present work aimed at comparing the serum chemokine and cytokine kinetics triggered by five subdoses of 17DD YF Vaccine. Methods Neutralizing antibody titers, viremia, cytokines and chemokines were tested on blood samples obtained from eligible primary vaccinees. Results and discussion The results demonstrated that a fifty-fold lower dose of 17DD-YF vaccine (587IU) is able to trigger similar immunogenicity, as evidenced by significant titers of anti-YF PRNT. However, only subdoses as low as 3,013IU elicit viremia kinetics with an early peak at five days after primary vaccination equivalent to the current dose (27,476IU), while other subdoses show a distinct, lower in magnitude and later peak at day 6 post-vaccination. Although the subdose of 587IU is able to trigger equivalent kinetics of IL-8/CXCL-8 and MCP-1/CCL-2, only the subdose of 3,013IU is able to trigger similar kinetics of MIG/CXCL-9, pro-inflammatory (TNF, IFN-? and IL-2) and modulatory cytokines (IL-5 and IL-10). Conclusions The analysis of serum biomarkers IFN-? and IL-10, in association to PRNT and viremia, support the recommendation of use of a ten-fold lower subdose (3,013IU) of 17DD-YF vaccine. PMID:25022840

  13. Molecular and immunological characterization of a DNA-launched yellow fever virus 17D infectious clone.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaohong; Dalebout, Tim J; Lukashevich, Igor S; Bredenbeek, Peter J; Franco, David

    2015-04-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV)-17D is an empirically developed, highly effective live-attenuated vaccine that has been administered to human beings for almost a century. YFV-17D has stood as a paradigm for a successful viral vaccine, and has been exploited as a potential virus vector for the development of recombinant vaccines against other diseases. In this study, a DNA-launched YFV-17D construct (pBeloBAC-FLYF) was explored as a new modality to the standard vaccine to combine the commendable features of both DNA vaccine and live-attenuated viral vaccine. The DNA-launched YFV-17D construct was characterized extensively both in cell culture and in mice. High titres of YFV-17D were generated upon transfection of the DNA into cells, whereas a mutant with deletion in the capsid-coding region (pBeloBAC-YF/ΔC) was restricted to a single round of infection, with no release of progeny virus. Homologous prime-boost immunization of AAD mice with both pBeloBAC-FLYF and pBeloBAC-YF/ΔC elicited specific dose-dependent cellular immune response against YFV-17D. Vaccination of A129 mice with pBeloBAC-FLYF resulted in the induction of YFV-specific neutralizing antibodies in all vaccinated subjects. These promising results underlined the potential of the DNA-launched YFV both as an alternative to standard YFV-17D vaccination and as a vaccine platform for the development of DNA-based recombinant YFV vaccines. PMID:25516543

  14. Enrollment in YFV Vaccine Trial: An Evaluation of Recruitment Outcomes Associated with a Randomized Controlled Double-Blind Trial of a Live Attenuated Yellow Fever Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M; Shapiro, Eve T; Lu, Lu; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Keyserling, Harry L; Mulligan, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    This investigation evaluated several factors associated with diverse participant enrollment of a clinical trial assessing safety, immunogenicity, and comparative viremia associated with administration of 17-D live, attenuated yellow fever vaccine given alone or in combination with human immune globulin. We obtained baseline participant information (e.g., sociodemographic, medical) and followed recruitment outcomes from 2005 to 2007. Of 355 potential Yellow Fever vaccine study participants, 231 cases were analyzed. Strong interest in study participation was observed among racial and ethnically diverse persons with 36.34% eligible following initial study screening, resulting in 18.75% enrollment. The percentage of white participants increased from 63.66% (prescreened sample) to 81.25% (enrollment group). The regression model was significant with white race as a predictor of enrollment (OR=2.744, 95% CI=1.415-5.320, p=0.003).In addition, persons were more likely to enroll via direct outreach and referral mechanisms compared to mass advertising (OR=2.433, 95% CI=1.102-5.369). The findings indicate that racially diverse populations can be recruited to vaccine clinical trials, yet actual enrollment may not reflect that diversity. PMID:25221781

  15. Hawaii Facing Rise in Dengue Fever Cases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is facing an outbreak of dengue fever -- a mosquito-borne virus that can cause terrible headache and ... seven days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. Dengue is not transmitted person-to-person. There ...

  16. A Case of Relapsing Polychondritis Initiating with Unexplained Fever

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Kosuke; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Yoshimura, Satoshi; Kurohama, Kazuhiro; Yamashita, Mai; Takahata, Taichi; Oku, Ryuta; Ito, Masahiro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune disease affecting the multiple organ system. Here, we describe a case of RP initially presenting with high fever. The patient was referred to our hospital for further examination of fever of unknown origin (FUO). On admission, the patient reported dry cough in addition to fever. On physical examination, her red, swollen ears were noted, attributed on histology to inflammation with auricular perichondritis. She was diagnosed with RP and treated with oral prednisone (50 mg/day); her fever and auricular inflammation resolved. The patient no longer reported cough and body temperature returned to normal and the elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were normalized. In this case, identification of the origin of fever was a challenge because of unspecific symptoms; however, awareness of the systemic manifestations of RP may lead to the prompt diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. PMID:26981127

  17. RISK ANALYSIS: CASE HISTORY OF PUCCINIA JACEAE ON YELLOW STARTHISTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Risk analysis has five components: Risk awareness, Risk perception, Risk assessment, Risk management, and Risk communication. Using the case with the foreign plant pathogen, Puccinia jaceae, under evaluation for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, YST), approaches and...

  18. Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Jillian L.; Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2013-03-01

    Three gustatory receptor neurons were characterized for contact chemoreceptive sensilla on the labella of female yellow-fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. The neuron with the smallest amplitude spike responded to the feeding deterrent, quinine, as well as N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide and other insect repellents. Two other neurons with differing spikes responded to salt (NaCl) and sucrose. This is the first report of a gustatory receptor neuron specific for insect repellents in mosquitoes and may provide a tool for screening chemicals to discover novel or improved feeding deterrents and repellents for use in the management of arthropod disease vectors.

  19. Increasing Vero viable cell densities for yellow fever virus production in stirred-tank bioreactors using serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Diogo A; Silva, Marlon V; Gaspar, Luciane P; Castilho, Leda R

    2015-08-20

    In this work, changes in Vero cell cultivation methods have been employed in order to improve cell growth conditions to obtain higher viable cell densities and to increase viral titers. The propagation of the 17DD yellow fever virus (YFV) in Vero cells grown on Cytodex I microcarriers was evaluated in 3-L bioreactor vessels. Prior to the current changes, Vero cells were repeatedly displaying insufficient microcarrier colonization. A modified cultivation process with four changes has resulted in higher cell densities and higher virus titers than previously observed for 17DD YFV. PMID:25930117

  20. Clinical and immunological insights on severe, adverse neurotropic and viscerotropic disease following 17D yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Luiza; Esprito-Santo, Luandra Ramos; Martins, Marina Angela; Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Peruhype-Magalhes, Vanessa; Caminha, Ricardo Carvalho; de Andrade Maranho-Filho, Pricles; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Galler, Ricardo; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Marcovistz, Rugimar; Homma, Akira; Teuwen, Dirk E; Eli-Santos, Silvana Maria; Andrade, Marilia Chaves; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andra; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2010-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccines (17D-204 and 17DD) are well tolerated and cause very low rates of severe adverse events (YEL-SAE), such as serious allergic reactions, neurotropic adverse diseases (YEL-AND), and viscerotropic diseases (YEL-AVD). Viral and host factors have been postulated to explain the basis of YEL-SAE. However, the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of YEL-SAE remain unknown. The present report provides a detailed immunological analysis of a 23-year-old female patient. The patient developed a suspected case of severe YEL-AVD with encephalitis, as well as with pancreatitis and myositis, following receipt of a 17D-204 YF vaccination. The patient exhibited a decreased level of expression of Fc-gammaR in monocytes (CD16, CD32, and CD64), along with increased levels of NK T cells (an increased CD3(+) CD16(+/-) CD56(+/-)/CD3(+) ratio), activated T cells (CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells), and B lymphocytes. Enhanced levels of plasmatic cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-17, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) as well as an exacerbated ex vivo intracytoplasmic cytokine pattern, mainly observed within NK cells (gamma interferon positive [IFN-gamma(+)], tumor necrosis factor alpha positive [TNF-alpha(+)], and IL-4 positive [IL-4(+)]), CD8(+) T cells (IL-4(+) and IL-5(+)), and B lymphocytes (TNF-alpha(+), IL-4(+), and IL-10(+)). The analysis of CD4(+) T cells revealed a complex profile that consisted of an increased frequency of IL-12(+) and IFN-gamma(+) cells and a decreased percentage of TNF-alpha(+), IL-4(+), and IL-5(+) cells. Depressed cytokine synthesis was observed in monocytes (TNF-alpha(+)) following the provision of antigenic stimuli in vitro. These results support the hypothesis that a strong adaptive response and abnormalities in the innate immune system may be involved in the establishment of YEL-AND and YEL-AVD. PMID:19906894

  1. Clinical and Immunological Insights on Severe, Adverse Neurotropic and Viscerotropic Disease following 17D Yellow Fever Vaccination▿

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maria Luiza; Espírito-Santo, Luçandra Ramos; Martins, Marina Angela; Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Caminha, Ricardo Carvalho; de Andrade Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Galler, Ricardo; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Marcovistz, Rugimar; Homma, Akira; Teuwen, Dirk E.; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2010-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccines (17D-204 and 17DD) are well tolerated and cause very low rates of severe adverse events (YEL-SAE), such as serious allergic reactions, neurotropic adverse diseases (YEL-AND), and viscerotropic diseases (YEL-AVD). Viral and host factors have been postulated to explain the basis of YEL-SAE. However, the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of YEL-SAE remain unknown. The present report provides a detailed immunological analysis of a 23-year-old female patient. The patient developed a suspected case of severe YEL-AVD with encephalitis, as well as with pancreatitis and myositis, following receipt of a 17D-204 YF vaccination. The patient exhibited a decreased level of expression of Fc-γR in monocytes (CD16, CD32, and CD64), along with increased levels of NK T cells (an increased CD3+ CD16+/− CD56+/−/CD3+ ratio), activated T cells (CD4+ and CD8+ cells), and B lymphocytes. Enhanced levels of plasmatic cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-17, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) as well as an exacerbated ex vivo intracytoplasmic cytokine pattern, mainly observed within NK cells (gamma interferon positive [IFN-γ+], tumor necrosis factor alpha positive [TNF-α+], and IL-4 positive [IL-4+]), CD8+ T cells (IL-4+ and IL-5+), and B lymphocytes (TNF-α+, IL-4+, and IL-10+). The analysis of CD4+ T cells revealed a complex profile that consisted of an increased frequency of IL-12+ and IFN-γ+ cells and a decreased percentage of TNF-α+, IL-4+, and IL-5+ cells. Depressed cytokine synthesis was observed in monocytes (TNF-α+) following the provision of antigenic stimuli in vitro. These results support the hypothesis that a strong adaptive response and abnormalities in the innate immune system may be involved in the establishment of YEL-AND and YEL-AVD. PMID:19906894

  2. Pre-Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Experimental Vaccines Based on Non-Replicating Vaccinia Vectors against Yellow Fever

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Birgit; Holzer, Georg W.; Joachimsthaler, Alexandra; Coulibaly, Sogue; Schwendinger, Michael; Crowe, Brian A.; Kreil, Thomas R.; Barrett, P. Noel; Falkner, Falko G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently existing yellow fever (YF) vaccines are based on the live attenuated yellow fever virus 17D strain (YFV-17D). Although, a good safety profile was historically attributed to the 17D vaccine, serious adverse events have been reported, making the development of a safer, more modern vaccine desirable. Methodology/Principal Findings A gene encoding the precursor of the membrane and envelope (prME) protein of the YFV-17D strain was inserted into the non-replicating modified vaccinia virus Ankara and into the D4R-defective vaccinia virus. Candidate vaccines based on the recombinant vaccinia viruses were assessed for immunogenicity and protection in a mouse model and compared to the commercial YFV-17D vaccine. The recombinant live vaccines induced γ-interferon-secreting CD4- and functionally active CD8-T cells, and conferred full protection against lethal challenge already after a single low immunization dose of 105 TCID50. Surprisingly, pre-existing immunity against wild-type vaccinia virus did not negatively influence protection. Unlike the classical 17D vaccine, the vaccinia virus-based vaccines did not cause mortality following intracerebral administration in mice, demonstrating better safety profiles. Conclusions/Significance The non-replicating recombinant YF candidate live vaccines induced a broad immune response after single dose administration, were effective even in the presence of a pre-existing immunity against vaccinia virus and demonstrated an excellent safety profile in mice. PMID:21931732

  3. Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    A fever is a body temperature that is higher than normal. It is not an illness. It is part of your body's defense against infection. Most bacteria ... cause infections do well at the body's normal temperature (98.6 F). A slight fever can make ...

  4. Fever

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of body temperature remains one of the most common ways to assess health. An increase in temperature above what is considered to be a normal value is inevitably regarded as a sure sign of disease and referred to with one simple word: fever. In this review, we summarize how research on fever allowed the identification of the exogenous and endogenous molecules and pathways mediating the fever response. We also show how temperature elevation is common to different pathologies and how the molecular components of the fever-generation pathway represent drug targets for antipyretics, such as acetylsalicylic acid, the first blockbuster drug. We also show how fever research provided new insights into temperature and energy homeostasis, and into treatment of infection and inflammation. PMID:20305990

  5. A public health risk assessment for yellow fever vaccination: a model exemplified by an outbreak in the state of So Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Tengan, Cila; Sato, Helena Keico; Spinola, Roberta; Mascheretti, Melissa; Frana, Ana Cecilia Costa; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Pereira, Mariza; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Amaku, Marcos; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Massad, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to analyse the 2009 outbreak in the region of Botucatu in the state of So Paulo (SP), Brazil, when 28 yellow fever (YF) cases were confirmed, including 11 deaths. At the time of the outbreak, the Secretary of Health of the State of So Paulo vaccinated one million people, causing the death of five individuals, an unprecedented number of YF vaccine-induced fatalities. We apply a mathematical model described previously to optimise the proportion of people who should be vaccinated to minimise the total number of deaths. The model was used to calculate the optimum proportion that should be vaccinated in the remaining, vaccine-free regions of SP, considering the risk of vaccine-induced fatalities and the risk of YF outbreaks in these regions. PMID:25946247

  6. A public health risk assessment for yellow fever vaccination: a model exemplified by an outbreak in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Tengan, Ciléa; Sato, Helena Keico; Spinola, Roberta; Mascheretti, Melissa; França, Ana Cecilia Costa; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Pereira, Mariza; Souza, Renato Pereira de; Amaku, Marcos; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Massad, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    We propose a method to analyse the 2009 outbreak in the region of Botucatu in the state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, when 28 yellow fever (YF) cases were confirmed, including 11 deaths. At the time of the outbreak, the Secretary of Health of the State of São Paulo vaccinated one million people, causing the death of five individuals, an unprecedented number of YF vaccine-induced fatalities. We apply a mathematical model described previously to optimise the proportion of people who should be vaccinated to minimise the total number of deaths. The model was used to calculate the optimum proportion that should be vaccinated in the remaining, vaccine-free regions of SP, considering the risk of vaccine-induced fatalities and the risk of YF outbreaks in these regions. PMID:25946247

  7. Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tretyakova, Irina; Nickols, Brian; Hidajat, Rachmat; Jokinen, Jenny; Lukashevich, Igor S.; Pushko, Peter

    2014-11-15

    Yellow fever (YF) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever disease in tropical Africa and Latin America. To develop a novel experimental YF vaccine, we applied iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmid that encodes the full-length RNA genome of 17D vaccine downstream from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The vaccine was designed to transcribe the full-length viral RNA and to launch 17D vaccine virus in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with 10 ng of iDNA plasmid was sufficient to start replication of vaccine virus in vitro. Safety of the parental 17D and iDNA-derived 17D viruses was confirmed in AG129 mice deficient in receptors for IFN-α/β/γ. Finally, direct vaccination of BALB/c mice with a single 20 μg dose of iDNA plasmid resulted in seroconversion and elicitation of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in animals. We conclude that iDNA immunization approach combines characteristics of DNA and attenuated vaccines and represents a promising vaccination strategy for YF. - Highlights: • The iDNA{sup ®} platform combines advantages of DNA and live attenuated vaccines. • Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine was launched from iDNA plasmid in vitro and in vivo. • Safety of iDNA-generated 17D virus was confirmed in AG129 mice. • BALB/c mice seroconverted after a single-dose vaccination with iDNA. • YF virus-neutralizing response was elicited in iDNA-vaccinated mice.

  8. Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of charts. A fever is defined as a temperature 1° or more above the normal 98.6°. Minor infections may cause mild or short-term temperature elevations. Temperatures of 103° and above are considered ...

  9. Survival and swimming behavior of insecticide-exposed larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is essentially a container-inhabiting species that is closely associated with urban areas. This species is a vector of human pathogens, including dengue and yellow fever viruses, and its control is of paramount importance for disease prevention. Insecticide use against mosquito juvenile stages (i.e. larvae and pupae) is growing in importance, particularly due to the ever-growing problems of resistance to adult-targeted insecticides and human safety concerns regarding such use in human dwellings. However, insecticide effects on insects in general and mosquitoes in particular primarily focus on their lethal effects. Thus, sublethal effects of such compounds in mosquito juveniles may have important effects on their environmental prevalence. In this study, we assessed the survival and swimming behavior of A. aegypti 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae exposed to increasing concentrations of insecticides. We also assessed cell death in the neuromuscular system of juveniles. Methods Third instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of azadirachtin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid and spinosad. Insect survival was assessed for 10 days. The distance swam, the resting time and the time spent in slow swimming were assessed in 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae. Muscular and nervous cells of L4 and pupae exposed to insecticides were marked with the TUNEL reaction. The results from the survival bioassays were subjected to survival analysis while the swimming behavioral data were subjected to analyses of covariance, complemented with a regression analysis. Results All insecticides exhibited concentration-dependent effects on survival of larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito. The pyrethroid deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide followed by spinosad, imidacloprid, and azadirachtin, which exhibited low potency against the juveniles. All insecticides except azadirachtin reduced L4 swimming speed and wriggling movements. A similar trend was also observed for swimming pupa, except for imidacloprid, which increased the swimming activity of pupa. Curiously, the insecticides did not affect cell damage in the neuromuscular system of larvae and pupae. Conclusions Deltamethrin and spinosad were the main compounds to exhibit lethal effects, which allowed the control of A. aegypti larvae and pupae, and impair their swimming potentially compromising foraging and predation likelihood. PMID:24761789

  10. Travelers' Health: Dengue Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Zika risk at high elevations Find a Clinic Yellow Fever Vaccinations Clinics FAQ Disease Directory Resources Resources for ... potentially cross-reactive flaviviruses (such as West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses) are not a risk. ...

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-01

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. PMID:22863660

  12. A Case of Pediatric Q Fever Osteomyelitis Managed Without Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Khatami, Ameneh; Sparks, Rebecca T; Marais, Ben J

    2015-12-01

    Q fever osteomyelitis, caused by infection with Coxiella burnetti, is rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis of children with culture-negative osteomyelitis, particularly if there is a history of contact with farm animals, and/or granulomatous change on histologic examination of a bone biopsy specimen. We describe a case of Q fever osteomyelitis in a 6-year-old boy in which a decision was made not to treat the patient with combination antimicrobial agents, balancing possible risks of recurrence against potential side effects of prolonged antibiotic treatment. The patient had undergone surgical debridement of a single lesion and was completely asymptomatic after recovery from surgery. This case suggests that a conservative approach of watchful waiting in an asymptomatic patient with chronic Q fever osteomyelitis may be warranted in select cases when close follow-up is possible. PMID:26574586

  13. Efficacy and duration of immunity after yellow fever vaccination: systematic review on the need for a booster every 10 years.

    PubMed

    Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Yactayo, Sergio; Crdova, Erika

    2013-09-01

    Abstract. Current regulations stipulate a yellow fever (YF) booster every 10 years. We conducted a systematic review of the protective efficacy and duration of immunity of YF vaccine in residents of disease-endemic areas and in travelers to assess the need for a booster in these two settings and in selected populations (human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons, infants, children, pregnant women, and severely malnourished persons). Thirty-six studies and 22 reports were included. We identified 12 studies of immunogenicity, 8 of duration of immunity, 8 of vaccine response in infants and children, 7 of human-immunodeficiency virus-infected persons, 2 of pregnant women, and 1 of severely malnourished children. Based on currently available data, a single dose of YF vaccine is highly immunogenic and confers sustained life-long protective immunity against YF. Therefore, a booster dose of YF vaccine is not needed. Special considerations for selected populations are detailed. PMID:24006295

  14. Defining risk groups to yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in the absence of denominator data.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Stephen J; Cohen, Joel E; Itan, Yuval; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Pezzullo, John C

    2014-02-01

    Several risk groups are known for the rare but serious, frequently fatal, viscerotropic reactions following live yellow fever virus vaccine (YEL-AVD). Establishing additional risk groups is hampered by ignorance of the numbers of vaccinees in factor-specific risk groups thus preventing their use as denominators in odds ratios (ORs). Here, we use an equation to calculate ORs using the prevalence of the factor-specific risk group in the population who remain well. The 95% confidence limits and P values can also be calculated. Moreover, if the estimate of the prevalence is imprecise, discrimination analysis can indicate the prevalence at which the confidence interval results in an OR of ?1 revealing if the prevalence might be higher without yielding a non-significant result. These methods confirm some potential risk groups for YEL-AVD and cast doubt on another. They should prove useful in situations in which factor-specific risk group denominator data are not available. PMID:24394480

  15. Efficacy and Duration of Immunity after Yellow Fever Vaccination: Systematic Review on the Need for a Booster Every 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Yactayo, Sergio; Córdova, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Current regulations stipulate a yellow fever (YF) booster every 10 years. We conducted a systematic review of the protective efficacy and duration of immunity of YF vaccine in residents of disease-endemic areas and in travelers to assess the need for a booster in these two settings and in selected populations (human immunodeficiency virus–infected persons, infants, children, pregnant women, and severely malnourished persons). Thirty-six studies and 22 reports were included. We identified 12 studies of immunogenicity, 8 of duration of immunity, 8 of vaccine response in infants and children, 7 of human-immunodeficiency virus–infected persons, 2 of pregnant women, and 1 of severely malnourished children. Based on currently available data, a single dose of YF vaccine is highly immunogenic and confers sustained life-long protective immunity against YF. Therefore, a booster dose of YF vaccine is not needed. Special considerations for selected populations are detailed. PMID:24006295

  16. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant yellow fever vaccine against the murine malarial parasite Plasmodium yoelii.

    PubMed

    Stoyanov, Cristina T; Boscardin, Silvia B; Deroubaix, Stephanie; Barba-Spaeth, Giovanna; Franco, David; Nussenzweig, Ruth S; Nussenzweig, Michel; Rice, Charles M

    2010-06-23

    The live-attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF17D) is one of the safest and most effective vaccines available today. Here, YF17D was genetically altered to express the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) from the murine malarial parasite Plasmodium yoelii. Reconstituted recombinant virus was viable and exhibited robust CSP expression. Immunization of nave mice resulted in extensive proliferation of adoptively transferred CSP-specific transgenic CD8(+) T-cells. A single immunization of nave mice with recombinant YF17D resulted in robust production of IFN-gamma by CD8(+) T-cells and IFN-gamma and IL-2 by CD4(+) T-cells. A prime-boost regimen consisting of recombinant virus followed by a low-dose of irradiated sporozoites conferred protection against challenge with P. yoelii. Taken together, these results show that recombinant YF17D can efficiently express CSP in culture, and prime a protective immune response in vivo. PMID:20451637

  17. FATAL RHABDOMYOLYSIS IN DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER: A CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Siriyakorn, Nirada; Insiripong, Somchai

    2015-01-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever is caused by dengue virus infection. The classical manifestations consist of fever, thrombocytopenia, and hemoconcentration. However, its unusual complications may be fatal, such as prolong shock, massive bleeding, volume overload, and unusual manifestations, for example, severe rhabdomyolysis. Here we report a case of 17-year old Thai man who was referred to our hospital because of 7-day fever with thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration and right pleural effusion. The serology tests confirmed to be dengue infection. He developed various complications: severe hepatitis, coagulopathy, and heavy proteinuria; encephalopathy that needed a respiratory ventilator. On day 12 of fever, he had myalgia and passed dark urine. Serum creatinine and serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) were found abnormally high. He was diagnosed as severe rhabdomyolysis with acute kidney injury, and immediate hemodialysis was performed. He did not respond to treatment and expired within three hours. Although the mechanism of severe rhabdomyolysis in dengue fever is not clearly known, it may theoretically be proposed such as direct muscle cell injury leading to myositis by dengue virus, myotoxic cytokines which are produced in response to viral infection, dehydration or hypophosphatemia. PMID:26506741

  18. The first case of Lassa fever imported from Mali to the United Kingdom, February 2009.

    PubMed

    Atkin, S; Anaraki, S; Gothard, P; Walsh, A; Brown, D; Gopal, R; Hand, J; Morgan, D

    2009-03-12

    This is the first case of Lassa fever to be imported from Mali to the United Kingdom. This paper discusses the investigations, the virological analysis, the surveillance and management of contacts undertaken following a case of Lassa fever. PMID:19317988

  19. Chikungunya fever: Atypical and lethal cases in the Western hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Jaime R.; Leopoldo Cdova G.; Castro, Julio S.; Rodrguez, Libsen; Saravia, Vctor; Arvelaez, Joanne; Ros-Fabra, Antonio; Longhi, Mara A.; Marcano, Melania

    2014-01-01

    A large epidemic of Chikungunya fever currently affects the Caribbean, Central and South America. Despite a high number of reported cases, little is known on the occurrence of severe clinical complications. We describe four Venezuelan patients with a severe and/or lethal course who exhibit unusual manifestations of the disease. Case 1 describes a 75 year-old man with rapid onset of septic shock and multi-organ failure. Cases 2 and 3 describe two patients with rapid aggressive clinical course who developed shock, severe purpuric lesions and a distinct area large of necrosis in the nasal region. Case 4 depicts a splenectomized woman with shock, generalized purpuric lesions, bullous dermatosis and acronecrosis of an upper limb. Chikungunya fever in the Western hemisphere may also associate with atypical and severe manifestations. Some patients experience a life-threatening, aggressive clinical course, with rapid deterioration and death due to multisystem failure.

  20. Q fever and lymphadenopathy: report of four new cases and review.

    PubMed

    Foucault, C; Lepidi, H; Poujet-Abadie, J F; Granel, B; Roblot, F; Ariga, T; Raoult, D

    2004-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is responsible for various clinical syndromes, but lymphadenitis has been described during Q fever in only three recent case reports. Four new cases of acute Q fever associated with lymphadenopathy are reported here, and these cases are discussed along with the three previously reported cases. Coxiella burnetii was isolated for the first time from a lymph node. Q fever should be considered an etiologic agent of lymphadenitis. PMID:15368098

  1. Q fever is underestimated in the United States: a comparison of fatal Q fever cases from two national reporting systems.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, F Scott; Haberling, Dana L; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2015-02-01

    Two national surveillance systems capturing reports of fatal Q fever were compared with obtained estimates of Q fever underreporting in the United States using capture-recapture methods. During 2000-2011, a total of 33 unique fatal Q fever cases were reported through case report forms submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and through U.S. death certificate data. A single case matched between both data sets, yielding an estimated 129 fatal cases (95% confidence interval [CI] = 62-1,250) during 2000-2011. Fatal cases of Q fever were underreported through case report forms by an estimated factor of 14 and through death certificates by an estimated factor of 5.2. PMID:25404074

  2. West Nile virus infection and serologic response among persons previously vaccinated against yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B W; Kosoy, O; Martin, D A; Noga, A J; Russell, B J; Johnson, A A; Petersen, L R

    2005-01-01

    It is hypothesized that previous heterologous flaviviral exposure may modulate clinical illness among persons infected with West Nile virus (WNV). Little is known about the serological response in such persons. In summer 2003, a WNV outbreak occurred in Colorado, the location of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases (DVBID). DVBID employees, most previously vaccinated with yellow fever virus (YFV) or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccines, were studied to determine whether previous vaccination affected symptom development among those subsequently infected with WNV during the outbreak, as well as their serological response. Serum samples collected in December 2003 and previously banked samples were tested using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) against WNV, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, dengue- 4 virus, JEV, and YFV. Specimens shown to have WNV antibody by PRNT were tested by IgM and IgG enzymelinked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Ten (9%) of 113 serosurvey participants had WNV neutralizing antibody titers in December 2003. PRNT titers from previous specimens showed that one of the ten had seroconverted to WNV before 2003. Of the remaining nine participants, seven reported illness in the summer of 2003, two of which were unvaccinated and five previously vaccinated. In the December 2003 specimens, five persons previously unvaccinated or vaccinated only against YFV had a fourfold or greater neutralizing titer with WNV than with other flaviviruses, whereas no persons previously vaccinated against JEV or JEV and YFV showed a similar difference in neutralizing titers. Eight of nine persons infected in 2003 had negative or indeterminate WNV MAC-ELISA results in the December 2003 sample; the ninth person was vaccinated against YFV one month previously, and was also YFV positive by MAC-ELISA. We conclude that previous flaviviral vaccination does not markedly affect the development of WNV fever and that the IgM antibody response in patients without neuroinvasive WNV disease is transient. PMID:16011430

  3. Liver histopathology and biological correlates in five cases of fatal dengue fever in Vietnamese children.

    PubMed

    Huerre, M R; Lan, N T; Marianneau, P; Hue, N B; Khun, H; Hung, N T; Khen, N T; Drouet, M T; Huong, V T; Ha, D Q; Buisson, Y; Deubel, V

    2001-02-01

    We studied five fatal cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), confirmed using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method, in Vietnamese children. The liver seems to be a target for dengue virus, so postmortem examinations were performed to investigate elementary lesions, local recruitment of inflammatory cells and whether the virus was present in target cells of the liver. We detected severe, diffuse hepatitis with midzonal necrosis and steatosis in two patients, focal areas of necrosis in two patients, and normal histology in one patient. Dengue virus antigen was detected using immunohistochemistry in hepatocytes from necrotic areas in four cases. There was no recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells, and no lymphocytes were detected in the liver lesions of patients who died from DHF. Lymphocytic infiltration occurred in only one hepatitis B virus-positive patient, with no signs of chronic hepatitis. Kupffer cells had mostly been destroyed in cases with focal or severe necrosis. TUNEL tests were positive in necrotic areas, with positive cells forming clusters, suggesting that an apoptotic mechanism was involved. Thus, we suggest that the hepatocyte and Kupffer cells may be target cells supporting virus replication and that the councilman body is an apoptotic cell, as in the pathogenesis of yellow fever. PMID:11253111

  4. A Possible connection between the 1878 yellow fever epidemic in the southern United States and the 1877-78 El Niño episode

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, Henry F.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    1999-01-01

    This study documents some of the extreme climate anomalies that were recorded in 1877 and 1878 in parts of the eastern United States, with particular emphasis on highlighting the evolution of these anomalies, as they might have contributed to the epidemic. Other years with major outbreaks of yellow fever in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries also occurred during the course of El Niño episodes, a fact that appears not to have been noted before in the literature.

  5. [Probable case of flea-borne spotted fever (Rickettsia felis)].

    PubMed

    Faccini-Martnez, lvaro A; Forero-Becerra, Elkin G; Corts-Vecino, Jess A; Polo-Teran, Luis J; Jcome, Jorge H; Vargas, Jimmy J; Valbuena, Gustavo; Hidalgo, Marylin

    2013-09-01

    Rickettsia felis is the etiologic agent of flea-borne spotted fever, with Ctenocephalides felis as its main vector and reservoir. Typically, the disease presents as acute fever associated with headache, asthenia, generalized maculo-papular rash, and in some cases, an inoculation eschar. In recent years, R. felis has acquired an important role in the etiology of the acute febrile syndrome; it is indeed an emerging infectious disease, albeit underdiagnosed. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is currently the reference diagnostic method. However, this technique has limitations related to the cross reactivity among different species of rickettsiae. Herein, we describe a case of a 16 year-old patient with an acute febrile syndrome secondary to probable infection with R. felis. PMID:24652244

  6. The interferon signaling antagonist function of yellow fever virus NS5 protein is activated by Type I interferon

    PubMed Central

    Rajsbaum, Ricardo; Macleod, Jesica M. Levingston; Pisanelli, Giuseppe; Pham, Alissa; Ayllon, Juan; Miorin, Lisa; Martinez, Carles; tenOever, Benjamin R; Garca-Sastre, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Summary To successfully establish infection Flaviviruses have to overcome the antiviral state induced by type I interferon (IFN-I). The nonstructural NS5 proteins of several flaviviruses antagonize IFN-I signaling. Here we show that yellow fever virus (YFV) inhibits IFN-I signaling through a unique mechanism that involves binding of YFV NS5 to the IFN-activated transcription factor STAT2 only in cells that have been stimulated with IFN-I. This NS5-STAT2 interaction requires IFN-I-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and the K63-linked polyubiquitination at a lysine in the N-terminal region of YFV NS5. We identified TRIM23 as the E3 ligase that interacts with and polyubiquitinates YFV NS5 to promote its binding to STAT2 and trigger IFN-I signaling inhibition. Our results demonstrate the importance of YFV NS5 in overcoming the antiviral action of IFN-I and offer a unique example of a viral protein that is activated by the same host pathway that it inhibits. PMID:25211074

  7. Imidacloprid impairs the post-embryonic development of the midgut in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, K M; Gonzaga, W G; Pascini, T V; Miranda, F R; Tom, H V V; Serro, J E; Martins, G F

    2015-09-01

    The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector for the dengue and yellow fever viruses. As blood digestion occurs in the midgut, this organ constitutes the route of entry of many pathogens. The effects of the insecticide imidacloprid on the survival of St.?aegypti were investigated and the sub-lethal effects of the insecticide on midgut development were determined. Third instar larvae were exposed to different concentrations of imidacloprid (0.15, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0 and 15.0?p.p.m.) and survival was monitored every 24?h for 10?days. Midguts from imidacloprid-treated insects at different stages of development were dissected and processed for analyses by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assays. Imidacloprid concentrations of 3.0 and 15.0?p.p.m. were found to affect midgut development similarly. Digestive cells of the fourth instar larvae (L4) midgut exposed to imidacloprid had more multilamellar bodies, abundantly found in the cell apex, and more electron-lucent vacuoles in the basal region compared with those from untreated insects. Moreover, imidacloprid interfered with the differentiation of regenerative cells, dramatically reducing the number of digestive and endocrine cells and leading to malformation of the midgut epithelium in adults. The data demonstrate that imidacloprid can reduce the survival of mosquitoes and thus indicate its potentially high efficacy in the control of St.?aegypti populations. PMID:25968596

  8. First report on invasion of yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, at Narita International Airport, Japan in August 2012.

    PubMed

    Sukehiro, Nayu; Kida, Nori; Umezawa, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Arai, Naoko; Jinnai, Tsunesada; Inagaki, Shunichi; Tsuchiya, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The invasion of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti at Narita International Airport, Japan was detected for the first time. During the course of routine vector surveillance at Narita International Airport, 27 Ae. aegypti adults emerged from larvae and pupae collected from a single larvitrap placed near No. 88 spot at passenger terminal 2 on August 8, 2012. After the appearance of Ae. aegypti in the larvitrap, we defined a 400-m buffer zone and started an intensive vector survey using an additional 34 larvitraps and 15 CO2 traps. International aircraft and passenger terminal 2 were also inspected, and one Ae. aegypti male was collected from the cargo space of an international aircraft from Darwin via Manila on August 28, 2012. Larvicide treatment with 1.5% fenitrothion was conducted in 64 catch basins and one ditch in the 400-m buffer zone. Twenty-four large water tanks were also treated at least once with 0.5% pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator. No Ae. aegypti eggs or adults were found during the 1-month intensive vector survey after finding larvae and pupae in the larvitrap. We concluded that Ae. aegypti had failed to establish a population at Narita International Airport. PMID:23698478

  9. A Multipurpose, High-Throughput Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Chip for the Dengue and Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Evans, Benjamin R; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Hou, Lin; McBride, Carolyn; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Zhao, Hongyu; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2015-05-01

    The dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, contributes significantly to global disease burden. Genetic study of Aedes aegypti is essential to understanding its evolutionary history, competence as a disease vector, and the effects and efficacy of vector control methods. The prevalence of repeats and transposable elements in the Aedes aegypti genome complicates marker development and makes genome-wide genetic study challenging. To overcome these challenges, we developed a high-throughput genotyping chip, Axiom_aegypti1. This chip screens for 50,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in Aedes aegypti populations from around the world. The array currently used genotypes 96 samples simultaneously. To ensure that these markers satisfy assumptions commonly made in many genetic analyses, we tested for Mendelian inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in laboratory crosses and a wild population, respectively. We have validated more than 25,000 of these markers to date, and expect this number to increase with more sampling. We also present evidence of the chip's efficacy in distinguishing populations throughout the world. The markers on this chip are ideal for applications ranging from population genetics to genome-wide association studies. This tool makes rapid, cost-effective, and comparable genotype data attainable to diverse sets of Aedes aegypti researchers, from those interested in potential range shifts due to climate change to those characterizing the genetic underpinnings of its competence to transmit disease. PMID:25721127

  10. Efficient transposition of the youngest miniature inverted repeat transposable element family of yellow fever mosquito in yeast.

    PubMed

    Fattash, Isam; Lee, Chia-Ni; Mo, Kaiguo; Yang, Guojun

    2015-05-01

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are often the most numerous DNA transposons in plant and animal genomes. The dramatic amplification of MITE families during evolution is puzzling, because the transposase sources for the vast majority of MITE families are unknown. The yellow fever mosquito genome contains > 220-Mb MITE sequences; however, transposition activity has not been demonstrated for any of the MITE families. The Gnome elements are the youngest MITE family in this genome, with at least 116 identical copies. To test whether the putative autonomous element Ozma is capable of mobilizing Gnome and its two sibling MITEs, analyses were performed in a yeast transposition assay system. Whereas the wild-type transposase resulted in very low transposition activity, mutations in the region containing a putative nuclear export signal motif resulted in a dramatic (at least 4160-fold) increase in transposition frequency. We have also demonstrated that each residue of the novel DD37E motif is required for the activity of the Ozma transposase. Footprint sequences left at the donor sites suggest that the transposase may cleave between the second and the third nucleotides from the 5' ends of the elements. The excised elements reinsert specifically at dinucleotide 'TA', ~ 55% of them in yeast genes. The elements described in this article could potentially be useful as genetic tools for genetic manipulation of mosquitoes. PMID:25754725

  11. Impact of Wolbachia on Infection with Chikungunya and Yellow Fever Viruses in the Mosquito Vector Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Frentiu, Francesca D.; McElroy, Kate; Day, Andrew; Higgs, Stephen; O'Neill, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of disease due to dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses is increasing in many parts of the world. The viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a highly domesticated mosquito species that is notoriously difficult to control. When transinfected into Ae. aegypti, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia has recently been shown to inhibit replication of DENVs, CHIKV, malaria parasites and filarial nematodes, providing a potentially powerful biocontrol strategy for human pathogens. Because the extent of pathogen reduction can be influenced by the strain of bacterium, we examined whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia influenced CHIKV and YFV infection in Ae. aegypti. Following exposure to viremic blood meals, CHIKV infection and dissemination rates were significantly reduced in mosquitoes with the wMel strain of Wolbachia compared to Wolbachia-uninfected controls. However, similar rates of infection and dissemination were observed in wMel infected and non-infected Ae. aegypti when intrathoracic inoculation was used to deliver virus. YFV infection, dissemination and replication were similar in wMel-infected and control mosquitoes following intrathoracic inoculations. In contrast, mosquitoes with the wMelPop strain of Wolbachia showed at least a 104 times reduction in YFV RNA copies compared to controls. The extent of reduction in virus infection depended on Wolbachia strain, titer and strain of the virus, and mode of exposure. Although originally proposed for dengue biocontrol, our results indicate a Wolbachia-based strategy also holds considerable promise for YFV and CHIKV suppression. PMID:23133693

  12. A Multipurpose, High-Throughput Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Chip for the Dengue and Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Benjamin R.; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Hou, Lin; McBride, Carolyn; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Zhao, Hongyu; Powell, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    The dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, contributes significantly to global disease burden. Genetic study of Aedes aegypti is essential to understanding its evolutionary history, competence as a disease vector, and the effects and efficacy of vector control methods. The prevalence of repeats and transposable elements in the Aedes aegypti genome complicates marker development and makes genome-wide genetic study challenging. To overcome these challenges, we developed a high-throughput genotyping chip, Axiom_aegypti1. This chip screens for 50,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in Aedes aegypti populations from around the world. The array currently used genotypes 96 samples simultaneously. To ensure that these markers satisfy assumptions commonly made in many genetic analyses, we tested for Mendelian inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in laboratory crosses and a wild population, respectively. We have validated more than 25,000 of these markers to date, and expect this number to increase with more sampling. We also present evidence of the chips efficacy in distinguishing populations throughout the world. The markers on this chip are ideal for applications ranging from population genetics to genome-wide association studies. This tool makes rapid, cost-effective, and comparable genotype data attainable to diverse sets of Aedes aegypti researchers, from those interested in potential range shifts due to climate change to those characterizing the genetic underpinnings of its competence to transmit disease. PMID:25721127

  13. Analysis of a Reverse Transcription Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) for yellow fever diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marcio R T; Vianez, João Lídio; Nunes, Keley N B; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Lima, Clayton P S; Guzman, Hilda; Martins, Lívia C; Carvalho, Valéria L; Tesh, Robert B; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2015-12-15

    Yellow Fever virus (YFV) is an important human pathogen in tropical areas of Africa and South America. Although an efficient vaccine is available and has been used since the early 1940s, sylvatic YFV transmission still occurs in forested areas where anthropogenic actions are present, such as mineral extraction, rearing livestock and agriculture, and ecological tourism. In this context, two distinct techniques based on the RT-PCR derived method have been previously developed, however both methods are expensive due to the use of thermo cyclers and labeled probes. We developed isothermal genome amplification, which is a rapid, sensitive, specific and low cost molecular approach for YFV genome detection. This assay used a set of degenerate primers designed for the NS1 gene and was able to amplify, within 30 min in isothermal conditions, the YFV 17D vaccine strain derived from an African wild prototype strain (Asibi), as well as field strains from Brazil, other endemic countries from South and Central America, and the Caribbean. The generic RT-LAMP assay could be helpful for YFV surveillance in field and rapid response during outbreaks in endemic areas. PMID:26459206

  14. Initial viral load determines the magnitude of the human CD8 T cell response to yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed

    Akondy, Rama S; Johnson, Philip L F; Nakaya, Helder I; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Mulligan, Mark J; Lawson, Benton; Miller, Joseph D; Pulendran, Bali; Antia, Rustom; Ahmed, Rafi

    2015-03-10

    CD8 T cells are a potent tool for eliminating intracellular pathogens and tumor cells. Thus, eliciting robust CD8 T-cell immunity is the basis for many vaccines under development. However, the relationship between antigen load and the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell response is not well-described in a human immune response. Here we address this issue by quantifying viral load and the CD8 T-cell response in a cohort of 80 individuals immunized with the live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YFV-17D) by sampling peripheral blood at days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 30, and 90. When the virus load was below a threshold (peak virus load < 225 genomes per mL, or integrated virus load < 400 genome days per mL), the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell response correlated strongly with the virus load (R(2) ∼ 0.63). As the virus load increased above this threshold, the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell responses saturated. Recent advances in CD8 T-cell-based vaccines have focused on replication-incompetent or single-cycle vectors. However, these approaches deliver relatively limited amounts of antigen after immunization. Our results highlight the requirement that T-cell-based vaccines should deliver sufficient antigen during the initial period of the immune response to elicit a large number of CD8 T cells that may be needed for protection. PMID:25713354

  15. No booster dose for yellow fever vaccination: what are the consequences for the activity of vaccination in travel clinics?

    PubMed

    Wyplosz, Benjamin; Leroy, Jean-Philippe; Derradji, Ouda; Consigny, Paul-Henri

    2015-01-01

    In April 2013, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization stated that a single dose of yellow fever (YF) vaccine is sufficient in the general population to confer a lifelong protection against YF. When the period of validity of the International Certificate of Vaccination (ICV) will be extended to a lifetime in June 2016, no booster dose will be needed. The objective of this prospective study was to determine the potential impact of the SAGE recommendations on the vaccination activity of our travel clinics. We showed that among 1,037 subjects seen in our three travel clinics for a YF vaccination in 2013, about 32.3% went for a booster dose that is no longer useful according to the SAGE. A drop in vaccination activity has to be expected by travel clinics in the next years, and changes in daily exercise have to be anticipated, as YF vaccination is a large part of the regular work of many healthcare providers specialized in travel medicine. PMID:25384441

  16. Immunogenicity of Yellow Fever Vaccine Coadministered With MenAfriVac in Healthy Infants in Ghana and Mali

    PubMed Central

    Roy Chowdhury, Panchali; Meier, Christian; Laraway, Hewad; Tang, Yuxiao; Hodgson, Abraham; Sow, Samba O.; Enwere, Godwin C.; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Niedrig, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background. Yellow fever (YF) is still a major public health problem in endemic regions of Africa and South America. In Africa, one of the main control strategies is routine vaccination within the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). A new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) is about to be introduced in the EPI of countries in the African meningitis belt, and this study reports on the immunogenicity of the YF-17D vaccines in infants when administered concomitantly with measles vaccine and PsA-TT. Methods. Two clinical studies were conducted in Ghana and in Mali among infants who received PsA-TT concomitantly with measles and YF vaccines at 9 months of age. YF neutralizing antibody titers were measured using a microneutralization assay. Results. In both studies, the PsA-TT did not adversely affect the immune response to the concomitantly administered YF vaccine at the age of 9 months. The magnitude of the immune response was different between the 2 studies, with higher seroconversion and seroprotection rates found in Mali vs Ghana. Conclusions. Immunogenicity to YF vaccine is unaffected when coadministered with PsA-TT at 9 months of age. Further studies are warranted to better understand the determinants of the immune response to YF vaccine in infancy. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN82484612 (PsA-TT-004); PACTR201110000328305 (PsA-TT-007). PMID:26553692

  17. Initial viral load determines the magnitude of the human CD8 T cell response to yellow fever vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Akondy, Rama S.; Johnson, Philip L. F.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Mulligan, Mark J.; Lawson, Benton; Miller, Joseph D.; Pulendran, Bali; Antia, Rustom; Ahmed, Rafi

    2015-01-01

    CD8 T cells are a potent tool for eliminating intracellular pathogens and tumor cells. Thus, eliciting robust CD8 T-cell immunity is the basis for many vaccines under development. However, the relationship between antigen load and the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell response is not well-described in a human immune response. Here we address this issue by quantifying viral load and the CD8 T-cell response in a cohort of 80 individuals immunized with the live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YFV-17D) by sampling peripheral blood at days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 30, and 90. When the virus load was below a threshold (peak virus load < 225 genomes per mL, or integrated virus load < 400 genome days per mL), the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell response correlated strongly with the virus load (R2 ∼ 0.63). As the virus load increased above this threshold, the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell responses saturated. Recent advances in CD8 T-cell–based vaccines have focused on replication-incompetent or single-cycle vectors. However, these approaches deliver relatively limited amounts of antigen after immunization. Our results highlight the requirement that T-cell–based vaccines should deliver sufficient antigen during the initial period of the immune response to elicit a large number of CD8 T cells that may be needed for protection. PMID:25713354

  18. A Possible Connection between the 1878 Yellow Fever Epidemic in the Southern United States and the 1877-78 El Niño Episode.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Henry F.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most severe outbreaks of yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, affected the southern United States in the summer of 1878. The economic and human toll was enormous, and the city of Memphis, Tennessee, was one of the most affected. The authors suggest that as a consequence of one of the strongest El Niño episodes on record-that which occurred in 1877-78-exceptional climate anomalies occurred in the United States (as well as in many other parts of the world), which may have been partly responsible for the widespread nature and severity of the 1878 yellow fever outbreak.This study documents some of the extreme climate anomalies that were recorded in 1877 and 1878 in parts of the eastern United States, with particular emphasis on highlighting the evolution of these anomalies, as they might have contributed to the epidemic. Other years with major outbreaks of yellow fever in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries also occurred during the course of El Niño episodes, a fact that appears not to have been noted before in the literature.

  19. Response to Imported Case of Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Koopmans, Marion P.G.; Vossen, Ann C.T.M.; van Doornum, Gerard J.J.; Günther, Stephan; van den Berkmortel, Franchette; Verduin, Kees M.; Dittrich, Sabine; Emmerich, Petra; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Coutinho, Roel A.

    2009-01-01

    On July 10, 2008, Marburg hemorrhagic fever was confirmed in a Dutch patient who had vacationed recently in Uganda. Exposure most likely occurred in the Python Cave (Maramagambo Forest), which harbors bat species that elsewhere in Africa have been found positive for Marburg virus. A multidisciplinary response team was convened to perform a structured risk assessment, perform risk classification of contacts, issue guidelines for follow-up, provide information, and monitor the crisis response. In total, 130 contacts were identified (66 classified as high risk and 64 as low risk) and monitored for 21 days after their last possible exposure. The case raised questions specific to international travel, postexposure prophylaxis for Marburg virus, and laboratory testing of contacts with fever. We present lessons learned and results of the follow-up serosurvey of contacts and focus on factors that prevented overreaction during an event with a high public health impact. PMID:19751577

  20. Genetic Relationships and Evolution of Genotypes of Yellow Fever Virus and Other Members of the Yellow Fever Virus Group within the Flavivirus Genus Based on the 3? Noncoding Region

    PubMed Central

    Mutebi, John-Paul; Rijnbrand, Ren C. A.; Wang, Heiman; Ryman, Kate D.; Wang, Eryu; Fulop, Lynda D.; Titball, Rick; Barrett, Alan D. T.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic relationships among flaviviruses within the yellow fever (YF) virus genetic group were investigated by comparing nucleotide sequences of the 3? noncoding region (3?NCR). Size heterogeneity was observed between members and even among strains of the same viral species. Size variation between YF strains was due to duplications and/or deletions of repeated nucleotide sequence elements (RYF). West African genotypes had three copies of the RYF (RYF1, RYF2, and RYF3); the Angola and the East and Central African genotypes had two copies (RYF1 and RYF3); and South American genotypes had only a single copy (RYF3). Nucleotide sequence analyses suggest a deletion within the 3?NCR of South American genotypes, including RYF1 and RYF2. Based on studies with the French neurotropic vaccine strain, passage of a YF virus strain in cell culture can result in deletion of RYF1 and RYF2. Taken together, these observations suggest that South American genotypes of YF virus evolved from West African genotypes and that the South American genotypes lost RYF1 and RYF2, possibly in a single event. Repeated sequence elements were found within the 3?NCR of other members of the YF virus genetic group, suggesting that it is probably characteristic for members of the YF virus genetic group. A core sequence of 15 nucleotides, containing two stem-loops, was found within the 3?NCR of all members of the YF genetic group and may represent the progenitor repeat sequence. Secondary structure predictions of the 3?NCR showed very similar structures for viruses that were closely related phylogenetically. PMID:15331698

  1. A Basic Cluster in the N Terminus of Yellow Fever Virus NS2A Contributes to Infectious Particle Production

    PubMed Central

    Vomann, Stephanie; Wieseler, Janett; Kerber, Romy

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The flavivirus NS2A protein is involved in the assembly of infectious particles. To further understand its role in this process, a charged-to-alanine scanning analysis was performed on NS2A encoded by an infectious cDNA clone of yellow fever virus (YFV). Fifteen mutants containing single, double, or triple charged-to-alanine changes were tested. Five of them did not produce infectious particles, whereas efficient RNA replication was detectable for two of the five NS2A mutants (R22A-K23A-R24A and R99A-E100A-R101A mutants). Prolonged cultivation of transfected cells resulted in the recovery of pseudorevertants. Besides suppressor mutants in NS2A, a compensating second-site mutation in NS3 (D343G) arose for the NS2A R22A-K23A-R24A mutant. We found this NS3 mutation previously to be suppressive for the NS2A? cleavage site Q189S mutant, also deficient in virion assembly. In this study, the subsequently suggested interaction between NS2A and NS3 was proven by coimmunoprecipitation analyses. Using selectively permeabilized cells, we could demonstrate that the regions encompassing R22A-K23A-R24A and Q189S in NS2A are localized to the cytoplasm, where NS3 is also known to reside. However, the defect in particle production observed for the NS2A R22A-K23A-R24A and Q189S mutants was not due to a defect in physical interaction between NS2A and NS3, as the NS2A mutations did not interrupt NS3 interaction. In fact, a region just upstream of R22-K23-R24 was mapped to be critical for NS2A-NS3 interaction. Taken together, these data support a complex interplay between YFV NS2A and NS3 in virion assembly and identify a basic cluster in the NS2A N terminus to be critical in this process. IMPORTANCE Despite an available vaccine, yellow fever remains endemic in tropical areas of South America and Africa. To control the disease, antiviral drugs are required, and an understanding of the determinants of virion assembly is central to their development. In this study, we identified a basic cluster of amino acids in the N terminus of YFV NS2A which inhibited virion assembly upon mutation. The defect was rescued by a spontaneously occurring mutation in NS3. Our study proves an interaction between NS2A and NS3, which, remarkably, was maintained for the NS2A mutant in the presence and absence of the NS3 mutation. This suggests a role for other viral and/or cellular proteins in virion assembly. Residues important for YFV virion production reported here only partially coincided with those reported for other flaviviruses, suggesting that the determinants for particle production are virus specific. Reconstruction of a YFV encoding tagged NS2A paves the way to identify further NS2A interaction partners. PMID:25694595

  2. Phylogeographic Reconstruction of African Yellow Fever Virus Isolates Indicates Recent Simultaneous Dispersal into East and West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Andrew; Guzman, Hilda; Li, Li; Ellis, Brett; Tesh, Robert B.; Barrett, Alan D. T.

    2013-01-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is a major public health problem in tropical areas of Africa and South America. There have been detailed studies on YFV ecology in West Africa and South America, but current understanding of YFV circulation on the African continent is incomplete. This inadequacy is especially notable for East and Central Africa, for which the unpredictability of human outbreaks is compounded by limitations in both historical and present surveillance efforts. Sparse availability of nucleotide sequence data makes it difficult to investigate the dispersal of YFV in these regions of the continent. To remedy this, we constructed Bayesian phylogenetic and geographic analyses utilizing 49 partial genomic sequences to infer the structure of YFV divergence across the known range of the virus on the African continent. Relaxed clock analysis demonstrated evidence for simultaneous divergence of YFV into east and west lineages, a finding that differs from previous hypotheses of YFV dispersal from reservoirs located on edges of the endemic range. Using discrete and continuous geographic diffusion models, we provide detailed structure of YFV lineage diversity. Significant transition links between extant East and West African lineages are presented, implying connection between areas of known sylvatic cycling. The results of demographic modeling reinforce the existence of a stably maintained population of YFV with spillover events into human populations occurring periodically. Geographically distinct foci of circulation are reconstructed, which have significant implications for studies of YFV ecology and emergence of human disease. We propose further incorporation of Bayesian phylogeography into formal GIS analyses to augment studies of arboviral disease. PMID:23516640

  3. Characterization of the yellow fever mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene and ligand-bound protein structure

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, David H.; Vyazunova, Irina; Lorch, Jeffery M.; Forest, Katrina T.; Lan, Que

    2009-06-12

    The sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene (AeSCP-2L3), a new member of the SCP-2 protein family, is identified from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The predicted molecular weight of AeSCP-2L3 is 13.4 kDa with a calculated pI of 4.98. AeSCP-2L3 transcription occurs in the larval feeding stages and the mRNA levels decrease in pupae and adults. The highest levels of AeSCP-2L3 gene expression are found in the body wall, and possibly originated in the fat body. This is the first report of a mosquito SCP-2-like protein with prominent expression in tissue other than the midgut. The X-ray protein crystal structure of AeSCP-2L3 reveals a bound C16 fatty acid whose acyl tail penetrates deeply into a hydrophobic cavity. Interestingly, the ligand-binding cavity is slightly larger than previously described for AeSCP-2 (Dyer et al. J Biol Chem 278:39085-39091, 2003) and AeSCP-2L2 (Dyer et al. J Lipid Res M700460-JLR200, 2007). There are also an additional 10 amino acids in SCP-2L3 that are not present in other characterized mosquito SCP-2s forming an extended loop between {beta}3 and {beta}4. Otherwise, the protein backbone is exceedingly similar to other SCP-2 and SCP-2-like proteins. In contrast to this observed high structural homology of members in the mosquito SCP2 family, the amino acid sequence identity between the members is less than 30%. The results from structural analysis imply that there have been evolutionary constraints that favor the SCP-2 C{alpha} backbone fold while the specificity of ligand binding can be altered.

  4. Functional implications of the peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the immunity of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Beerntsen, B T

    2015-06-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) play essential roles in the immune systems of insects and higher animals against certain pathogens, including bacteria. In insects, most studies on the functions of PGRPs have been performed in Drosophila, with only limited studies in mosquitoes, which are important disease vectors. In the present study, we analysed the PGRP sequences of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, acquired from two genome databases, and identified a total of seven PGRP genes; namely, PGRP-S1, -SC2, -LA, -LB, -LC, -LD and -LE. Bacterial injection using the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus showed that three PGRPs responded directly to both bacterial stimuli. Subsequently, the transcriptional expression of six of these PGRPs was knocked down using double-stranded RNA-injection-based RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi of the PGRPs resulted in different impacts on the immune responses of Ae. aegypti to the two bacteria, as evidenced by the changes in mosquito survival rates after bacterial challenges as well as the differential regulation of several antimicrobial peptides and a number of other genes involved in mosquito immune pathways. Our data suggest that PGRP-LC is a significant factor in mediating immune responses to both E. coli and M. luteus, and the other PGRPs play only minor roles against these two bacteria, with PGRP-SC2 and -LB also serving as potential negative regulators for certain immune pathway(s) in Ae. aegypti. PMID:25588548

  5. Concomitant or sequential administration of live attenuated japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine and yellow fever 17D vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Nasveld, Peter E; Marjason, Joanne; Bennett, Sonya; Aaskov, John; Elliott, Suzanne; McCarthy, Karen; Kanesa-thasan, Niranjan; Feroldi, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, study was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) co-administered with live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine (YF-17D strain; Stamaril®, Sanofi Pasteur) or administered sequentially. Participants (n = 108) were randomized to receive: YF followed by JE-CV 30 days later, JE followed by YF 30 days later, or the co-administration of JE and YF followed or preceded by placebo 30 days later or earlier. Placebo was used in a double-dummy fashion to ensure masking. Neutralizing antibody titers against JE-CV, YF-17D and selected wild-type JE virus strains was determined using a 50% serum-dilution plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50). Seroconversion was defined as the appearance of a neutralizing antibody titer above the assay cut-off post-immunization when not present pre-injection at day 0, or a least a four-fold rise in neutralizing antibody titer measured before the pre-injection day 0 and later post vaccination samples. There were no serious adverse events. Most adverse events (AEs) after JE vaccination were mild to moderate in intensity, and similar to those reported following YF vaccination. Seroconversion to JE-CV was 100% and 91% in the JE/YF and YF/JE sequential vaccination groups, respectively, compared with 96% in the co-administration group. All participants seroconverted to YF vaccine and retained neutralizing titers above the assay cut-off at month six. Neutralizing antibodies against JE vaccine were detected in 82–100% of participants at month six. These results suggest that both vaccines may be successfully co-administered simultaneously or 30 days apart. PMID:20864814

  6. Development and validation of an ELISA kit (YF MAC-HD) to detect IgM to yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Basile, Alison Jane; Goodman, Christin; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Laven, Janeen; Panella, Amanda J; Kosoy, Olga; Lanciotti, Robert S; Johnson, Barbara W

    2015-12-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) is endemic in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, with around 180,000 human infections a year occurring in Africa. Serologic testing is the chief laboratory diagnostic means of identifying an outbreak and to inform the decision to commence a vaccination campaign. The World Health Organization disseminates the reagents for YFV testing to African reference laboratories, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is charged with producing and providing these reagents. The CDC M-antibody capture ELISA is a 2-day test, requiring titration of reagents when new lots are received, which leads to inconsistency in testing and wastage of material. Here we describe the development of a kit-based assay (YF MAC-HD) based upon the CDC method, that is completed in approximately 3.5h, with equivocal samples being reflexed to an overnight protocol. The kit exhibits >90% accuracy when compared to the 2-day test. The kits were designed for use with a minimum of equipment and are stored at 4°C, removing the need for freezing capacity. This kit is capable of tolerating temporary sub-optimal storage conditions which will ease shipping or power outage concerns, and a shelf life of >6 months was demonstrated with no deterioration in accuracy. All reagents necessary to run the YF MAC-HD are included in the kit and are single-use, with 8 or 24 sample options per kit. Field trials are envisioned for the near future, which will enable refinement of the method. The use of the YF MAC-HD is anticipated to reduce materials wastage, and improve the quality and consistency of YFV serologic testing in endemic areas. PMID:26342907

  7. Coagulation factors, fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, are differentially regulated by yellow fever virus infection of hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Woodson, Sara E; Freiberg, Alexander N; Holbrook, Michael R

    2013-08-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) infection poses a great risk to un-vaccinated individuals living or traveling in the endemic regions of Africa and South America. It is estimated that approximately 30,000 people die each year of this disease. The liver is the main target of YFV, where as many as 80% of the hepatocytes may become involved in the infection. The overwhelming infection of the liver is associated with the observed hemorrhagic disease manifestations such as petechiae, ecchymoses, and hematemesis which are all thought to be linked with the observed coagulation abnormalities that include prolonged clotting times, reduction in clotting factors, fibrin-split products (D-dimers) and elevated prothrombin times. Many factors involved in the coagulation pathway are produced by hepatocytes, such as fibrinogen (FBG) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Both of these proteins have been indicated in another flavivirus related disease, dengue, as having roles related to the bleeding abnormalities observed and overall outcome of infection. In this study we wanted to determine if FBG and PAI-1 expression levels by human hepatocytes was disrupted or altered by infection with either wild-type Asibi or vaccine strain17-D YFVs. Our findings indicate that YFV infection does affect the transcriptional and translational expression of FBG and PAI-1 in human hepatocytes and that these results are further affected by IL-6 during early stages of infection. These results may lead to further understanding of the molecular mechanism associated with bleeding abnormalities observed during late stage YFV infection. PMID:23639427

  8. Pharmacological and Genetic Evidence for Gap Junctions as Potential New Insecticide Targets in the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Calkins, Travis L.; Piermarini, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is an important vector of viral diseases that impact global health. Insecticides are typically used to manage mosquito populations, but the evolution of insecticide resistance is limiting their effectiveness. Thus, identifying new molecular and physiological targets in mosquitoes is needed to facilitate insecticide discovery and development. Here we test the hypothesis that gap junctions are valid molecular and physiological targets for new insecticides. Gap junctions are intercellular channels that mediate direct communication between neighboring cells and consist of evolutionarily distinct proteins in vertebrate (connexins) and invertebrate (innexins) animals. We show that the injection of pharmacological inhibitors of gap junctions (i.e., carbenoxolone, meclofenamic acid, or mefloquine) into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes elicits dose-dependent toxic effects, with mefloquine showing the greatest potency. In contrast, when applied topically to the cuticle, carbenoxolone was the only inhibitor to exhibit full efficacy. In vivo urine excretion assays demonstrate that both carbenoxolone and mefloquine inhibit the diuretic output of adult female mosquitoes, suggesting inhibition of excretory functions as part of their mechanism of action. When added to the rearing water of 1st instar larvae, carbenoxolone and meclofenamic acid both elicit dose-dependent toxic effects, with meclofenamic acid showing the greatest potency. Injecting a double-stranded RNA cocktail against innexins into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes knock down whole-animal innexin mRNA expression and decreases survival of the mosquitoes. Taken together these data indicate that gap junctions may provide novel molecular and physiological targets for the development of insecticides. PMID:26325403

  9. Transcellular and Paracellular Pathways of Transepithelial Fluid Secretion in Malpighian (renal) Tubules of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Beyenbach, Klaus W.; Piermarini, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Isolated Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito secrete NaCl and KCl from the peritubular bath to the tubule lumen via active transport of Na+ and K+ by principal cells. Lumen-positive transepithelial voltages are the result. The counter-ion Cl− follows passively by electrodiffusion through the paracellular pathway. Water follows by osmosis, but specific routes for water across the epithelium are unknown. Remarkably, the transepithelial secretion of NaCl, KCl and water is driven by a H+ V-ATPase located in the apical brush border membrane of principal cells and not the canonical Na/K ATPase. A hypothetical cation/H+ exchanger moves Na+ and K+ from the cytoplasm to the tubule lumen. Also remarkable is the dynamic regulation of the paracellular permeability with switch-like speed which mediates in part the post-blood-meal diuresis in mosquitoes. For example, the blood meal the female mosquito takes to nourish her eggs triggers the release of kinin diuretic peptides that 1) increases the Cl− conductance of the paracellular pathway, and 2) assembles V1 and V0 complexes to activate the H+ V-ATPase and cation/H+ exchange close by. Thus, transcellular and paracellular pathways are both stimulated to quickly rid the mosquito of the unwanted salts and water of the blood meal. Stellate cells of the tubule appear to serve a metabolic support role, exporting the HCO3− generated during stimulated transport activity. Septate junctions define the properties of the paracellular pathway in Malpighian tubules, but the proteins responsible for the permselectivity and barrier functions of the septate junction are unknown. PMID:20946239

  10. The single kinin receptor signals to separate and independent physiological pathways in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Schepel, Stephen A.; Fox, Andrew J.; Miyauchi, Jeremy T.; Sou, Tiffany; Yang, Jason D.; Lau, Kenneth; Blum, Austin W.; Nicholson, Linda K.; Tiburcy, Felix; Nachman, Ronald J.; Piermarini, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    In the past, we have used the kinins of the cockroach Leucophaea (the leucokinins) to evaluate the mechanism of diuretic action of kinin peptides in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Now using the kinins of Aedes (the aedeskinins), we have found that in isolated Aedes Malpighian tubules all three aedeskinins (1 μM) significantly 1) increased the rate of fluid secretion (V̇S), 2) hyperpolarized the basolateral membrane voltage (Vbl), and 3) decreased the input resistance (Rin) of principal cells, consistent with the known increase in the Cl− conductance of the paracellular pathway in Aedes Malpighian tubules. Aedeskinin-III, studied in further detail, significantly increased V̇S with an EC50 of 1.5 × 10−8 M. In parallel, the Na+ concentration in secreted fluid significantly decreased, and the K+ concentration significantly increased. The concentration of Cl− remained unchanged. While the three aedeskinins triggered effects on Vbl, Rin, and V̇S, synthetic kinin analogs, which contain modifications of the COOH-terminal amide pentapeptide core sequence critical for biological activity, displayed variable effects. For example, kinin analog 1578 significantly stimulated V̇S but had no effect on Vbl and Rin, whereas kinin analog 1708 had no effect on V̇S but significantly affected Vbl and Rin. These observations suggest separate signaling pathways activated by kinins. One triggers the electrophysiological response, and the other triggers fluid secretion. It remains to be determined whether the two signaling pathways emanate from a single kinin receptor via agonist-directed signaling or from a differentially glycosylated receptor. Occasionally, Malpighian tubules did not exhibit a detectable response to natural and synthetic kinins. Hypothetically, the expression of the kinin receptor may depend on developmental, nutritional, and/or reproductive signals. PMID:20538895

  11. NHE8 is an intracellular cation/H+ exchanger in renal tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Piermarini, Peter M.; Weihrauch, Dirk; Meyer, Heiko; Huss, Markus; Beyenbach, Klaus W.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify and characterize the hypothesized apical cation/H+ exchanger responsible for K+ and/or Na+ secretion in the renal (Malpighian) tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. From Aedes Malpighian tubules, we cloned “AeNHE8,” a full-length cDNA encoding an ortholog of mammalian Na+/H+ exchanger 8 (NHE8). The expression of AeNHE8 transcripts is ubiquitous among mosquito tissues and is not enriched in Malpighian tubules. Western blots of Malpighian tubules suggest that AeNHE8 is expressed primarily as an intracellular protein, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical localizations in Malpighian tubules. AeNHE8 immunoreactivity is expressed in principal cells of the secretory, distal segments, where it localizes to a subapical compartment (e.g., vesicles or endosomes), but not in the apical brush border. Furthermore, feeding mosquitoes a blood meal or treating isolated tubules with dibutyryl-cAMP, both of which stimulate a natriuresis by Malpighian tubules, do not influence the intracellular localization of AeNHE8 in principal cells. When expressed heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes, AeNHE8 mediates EIPA-sensitive Na/H exchange, in which Li+ partially and K+ poorly replace Na+. The expression of AeNHE8 in Xenopus oocytes is associated with the development of a conductive pathway that closely resembles the known endogenous nonselective cation conductances of Xenopus oocytes. In conclusion, AeNHE8 does not mediate cation/H+ exchange in the apical membrane of Aedes Malpighian tubules; it is more likely involved with an intracellular function. PMID:19193723

  12. Vaccine and Wild-Type Strains of Yellow Fever Virus Engage Distinct Entry Mechanisms and Differentially Stimulate Antiviral Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Meertens, Laurent; Chazal, Maxime; Hafirassou, Mohamed Lamine; Dejarnac, Ophélie; Zamborlini, Alessia; Despres, Philippe; Sauvonnet, Nathalie; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D stands as a “gold standard” for a successful vaccine. 17D was developed empirically by passaging the wild-type Asibi strain in mouse and chicken embryo tissues. Despite its immense success, the molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of the 17D vaccine are poorly understood. 17D evolved several mutations in its genome, most of which lie within the envelope (E) protein. Given the major role played by the YFV E protein during virus entry, it has been hypothesized that the residues that diverge between the Asibi and 17D E proteins may be key determinants of attenuation. In this study, we define the process of YFV entry into target cells and investigate its implication in the activation of the antiviral cytokine response. We found that Asibi infects host cells exclusively via the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while 17D exploits a clathrin-independent pathway for infectious entry. We demonstrate that the mutations in the 17D E protein acquired during the attenuation process are sufficient to explain the differential entry of Asibi versus 17D. Interestingly, we show that 17D binds to and infects host cells more efficiently than Asibi, which culminates in increased delivery of viral RNA into the cytosol and robust activation of the cytokine-mediated antiviral response. Overall, our study reveals that 17D vaccine and Asibi enter target cells through distinct mechanisms and highlights a link between 17D attenuation, virus entry, and immune activation. PMID:26861019

  13. Fever versus Fever: the role of host and vector susceptibility and interspecific competition in shaping the current and future distributions of the sylvatic cycles of dengue virus and yellow fever virus

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Kathryn A.; Monath, Thomas P.; Weaver, Scott C.; Rossi, Shannan L.; Richman, Rebecca L.; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Two different species of flaviviruses, dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV), that originated in sylvatic cycles maintained in non-human primates and forest-dwelling mosquitoes have emerged repeatedly into sustained human-to-human transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sylvatic cycles of both viruses remain active, and where the two viruses overlap in West Africa they utilize similar suites of monkeys and Aedes mosquitoes. These extensive similarities render the differences in the biogeography and epidemiology of the two viruses all the more striking. First, the sylvatic cycle of YFV originated in Africa and was introduced into the New World, probably as a result of the slave trade, but is absent in Asia; in contrast, sylvatic DENV likely originated in Asia and has spread to Africa but not to the New World. Second, while sylvatic YFV can emerge into extensive urban outbreaks in humans, these invariably die out, whereas four different types of DENV have established human transmission cycles that are ecologically and evolutionarily distinct from their sylvatic ancestors. Finally, transmission of YFV among humans has been documented only in Africa and the Americas, whereas DENV is transmitted among humans across most of the range of competent Aedes vectors, which in the last decade has included every continent save Antarctica. This review summarizes current understanding of sylvatic transmission cycles of YFV and DENV, considers possible explanations for their disjunct distributions, and speculates on the potential consequences of future establishment of a sylvatic cycle of DENV in the Americas. PMID:23523817

  14. Yellow Fever, as seen by the Medical Officers of the Royal Navy in the Nineteenth Century

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Sheldon F.

    1933-01-01

    A critical review of old Naval Reports, showing how some difficulties in the epidemiology vanished when the mosquito means of transmission was discovered. Data are abstracted to show that the fatality, while generally exaggerated by missed cases, was often as high as recorded—also that latent immunization accounts for some types of immunity, and that the disease was always more virulent in Africa—where it probably originated—rather than in the New World. PMID:19989150

  15. Yellow fever vaccine-associated adverse events following extensive immunization in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Biscayart, Cristián; Carrega, María Eugenia Pérez; Sagradini, Sandra; Gentile, Angela; Stecher, Daniel; Orduna, Tomás; Bentancourt, Silvia; Jiménez, Salvador García; Flynn, Luis Pedro; Arce, Gabriel Pirán; Uboldi, María Andrea; Bugna, Laura; Morales, María Alejandra; Digilio, Clara; Fabbri, Cintia; Enría, Delia; Diosque, Máximo; Vizzotti, Carla

    2014-03-01

    As a consequence of YF outbreaks that hit Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay in 2008-2009, a significant demand for YF vaccination was subsequently observed in Argentina, a country where the usual vaccine recommendations are restricted to provinces that border Brazil, Paraguay, and Bolivia. The goal of this paper is to describe the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) against YF in Argentina during the outbreak in the northeastern province of Misiones, which occurred from January 2008 to January 2009. During this time, a total of nine cases were reported, almost two million doses of vaccine were administered, and a total of 165 AEFI were reported from different provinces. Case study analyses were performed using two AEFI classifications. Forty-nine events were classified as related to the YF vaccine (24 serious and 1 fatal case), and 12 events were classified as inconclusive. As the use of the YF 17D vaccine can be a challenge to health systems of countries with different endemicity patterns, a careful clinical and epidemiological evaluation should be performed before its prescription to minimize serious adverse events. PMID:24456625

  16. [Viral hemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Kager, P A

    1998-02-28

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers, such as Lassa fever and yellow fever, cause tens of thousands of deaths annually outside the Netherlands. The viruses are mostly transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks or via excreta of rodents. Important to travellers are yellow fever, dengue and Lassa and Ebola fever. For yellow fever there is an efficacious vaccine. Dengue is frequently observed in travellers; prevention consists in avoiding mosquito bites, the treatment is symptomatic. Lassa and Ebola fever are extremely rare among travellers; a management protocol can be obtained from the Netherlands Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports. Diagnostics of a patient from the tropics with fever and haemorrhagic diathesis should be aimed at treatable disorders such as malaria, typhoid fever, rickettsiosis or bacterial sepsis, because the probability of such a disease is much higher than that of Lassa or Ebola fever. PMID:9562757

  17. Comparative study on in vitro activities of citral, limonene and essential oils from Lippia citriodora and L. alba on yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Gmez, Luz Angela; Stashenko, Elena; Ocazionez, Raquel Elvira

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the antiviral activities in vitro of citral, limonene and essential oils (EOs) from Lippia citriodora and L. alba on the replication of yellow fever virus (YFV). Citral and EOs were active before and after virus adsorption on cells; IC50 values were between 4.3 and 25 microg/mL and SI ranged from 1.1 to 10.8. Results indicate that citral could contribute to the antiviral activity of the L. citriodora EO. Limonene was not active and seemed to play an insignificant role in the antiviral activity of the examined EOs. PMID:23513741

  18. Localization and role of inward rectifier K(+) channels in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Piermarini, Peter M; Dunemann, Sonja M; Rouhier, Matthew F; Calkins, Travis L; Raphemot, Rene; Denton, Jerod S; Hine, Rebecca M; Beyenbach, Klaus W

    2015-12-01

    Malpighian tubules of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes Aedes aegypti express three inward rectifier K(+) (Kir) channel subunits: AeKir1, AeKir2B and AeKir3. Here we 1) elucidate the cellular and membrane localization of these three channels in the Malpighian tubules, and 2) characterize the effects of small molecule inhibitors of AeKir1 and AeKir2B channels (VU compounds) on the transepithelial secretion of fluid and electrolytes and the electrophysiology of isolated Malpighian tubules. Using subunit-specific antibodies, we found that AeKir1 and AeKir2B localize exclusively to the basolateral membranes of stellate cells and principal cells, respectively; AeKir3 localizes within intracellular compartments of both principal and stellate cells. In isolated tubules bathed in a Ringer solution containing 34 mM K(+), the peritubular application of VU590 (10 μM), a selective inhibitor of AeKir1, inhibited transepithelial fluid secretion 120 min later. The inhibition brings rates of transepithelial KCl and fluid secretion to 54% of the control without a change in transepithelial NaCl secretion. VU590 had no effect on the basolateral membrane voltage (Vbl) of principal cells, but it significantly reduced the cell input conductance (gin) to values 63% of the control within ∼90 min. In contrast, the peritubular application of VU625 (10 μM), an inhibitor of both AeKir1 and AeKir2B, started to inhibit transepithelial fluid secretion as early as 60 min later. At 120 min after treatment, VU625 was more efficacious than VU590, inhibiting transepithelial KCl and fluid secretion to ∼35% of the control without a change in transepithelial NaCl secretion. Moreover, VU625 caused the Vbl and gin of principal cells to respectively drop to values 62% and 56% of the control values within only ∼30 min. Comparing the effects of VU590 with those of VU625 allowed us to estimate that AeKir1 and AeKir2B respectively contribute to 46% and 20% of the transepithelial K(+) secretion when the tubules are bathed in a Ringer solution containing 34 mM K(+). Thus, we uncover an important role of AeKir1 and stellate cells in transepithelial K(+) transport under conditions of peritubular K(+) challenge. The physiological role of AeKir3 in intracellular membranes of both stellate and principal cells remains to be determined. PMID:26079629

  19. 17DD and 17D-213/77 Yellow Fever Substrains Trigger a Balanced Cytokine Profile in Primary Vaccinated Children

    PubMed Central

    Luiza-Silva, Maria; Batista, Maurcio Azevedo; Martins, Marina Angela; Sathler-Avelar, Renato; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; de Lourdes de Sousa Maia, Maria; Farias, Roberto Henrique Guedes; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Galler, Ricardo; Homma, Akira; Ribeiro, Jos Geraldo Leite; Lemos, Jandira Aparecida Campos; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Caldas, Iramaya Rodrigues; Eli-Santos, Silvana Maria; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andra; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to compare the cytokine-mediated immune response in children submitted to primary vaccination with the YF-17D-213/77 or YF-17DD yellow fever (YF) substrains. Methods A non-probabilistic sample of eighty healthy primary vaccinated (PV) children was selected on the basis of their previously known humoral immune response to the YF vaccines. The selected children were categorized according to their YF-neutralizing antibody titers (PRNT) and referred to as seroconverters (PV-PRNT+) or nonseroconverters (PV-PRNT?). Following revaccination with the YF-17DD, the PV-PRNT? children (YF-17D-213/77 and YF-17DD groups) seroconverted and were referred as RV-PRNT+. The cytokine-mediated immune response was investigated after short-term in vitro cultures of whole blood samples. The results are expressed as frequency of high cytokine producers, taking the global median of the cytokine index (YF-Ag/control) as the cut-off. Results The YF-17D-213/77 and the YF-17DD substrains triggered a balanced overall inflammatory/regulatory cytokine pattern in PV-PRNT+, with a slight predominance of IL-12 in YF-17DD vaccinees and a modest prevalence of IL-10 in YF-17D-213/77. Prominent frequency of neutrophil-derived TNF-? and neutrophils and monocyte-producing IL-12 were the major features of PV-PRNT+ in the YF-17DD, whereas relevant inflammatory response, mediated by IL-12+CD8+ T cells, was the hallmark of the YF-17D-213/77 vaccinees. Both substrains were able to elicit particular but relevant inflammatory events, regardless of the anti-YF PRNT antibody levels. PV-PRNT? children belonging to the YF-17DD arm presented gaps in the inflammatory cytokine signature, especially in terms of the innate immunity, whereas in the YF-17D-213/77 arm the most relevant gap was the deficiency of IL-12-producing CD8+T cells. Revaccination with YF-17DD prompted a balanced cytokine profile in YF-17DD nonresponders and a robust inflammatory profile in YF-17D-213/77 nonresponders. Conclusion Our findings demonstrated that, just like the YF-17DD reference vaccine, the YF-17D-213/77 seed lot induced a mixed pattern of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines, supporting its universal use for immunization. PMID:23251351

  20. Characterization of yellow fever virus proteins E and NS1 expressed in Vero and Spodoptera frugiperda cells.

    PubMed

    Desprs, P; Girard, M; Bouloy, M

    1991-06-01

    The cDNA encoding the E and NS1 proteins of the yellow fever virus (YFV) was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells via the recombinant baculovirus Ac-E. NS1 as a gp100 precursor which was cleaved to generate the recombinant proteins E and NS1 similar in size, folding and antigenicity to the authentic ones. Recombinant protein E exhibited immunodominant epitopes as judged by its reactivity with YFV-neutralizing MAbs. Using the Triton X-114 phase separation system, authentic and recombinant E proteins as well as the gp100 precursor exhibited hydrophobic properties similar to those of integral membrane proteins. Recombinant protein E was found neither in the extracellular medium nor on the cell surface, suggesting that it did not migrate within the secretory pathway of insect cells. Analysis of protein NS1 expressed in primate and insect cells revealed that the newly synthesized 48K NS1 glycoprotein was converted to a heat-labile gp72 homo-oligomeric form. This phenomenon did not require the presence of carbohydrate groups. Using the Triton X-114 phase separation system, the oligomeric form of NS1 was shown to be associated with cellular membranes although it appeared less hydrophobic than protein E and gp100. A small fraction of YFV NS1 oligomers were transported throughout the secretory pathway to be shed into the extracellular medium of primate cells. YFV NS1 oligomers migrated from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, whereas their N-oligosaccharides of the high-mannose type are processed to the complex-mannose type. Protein NS1 expressed by recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells was not found in the extracellular medium but associated with the plasma membrane of the cells. Two recombinant NS1 forms were detected in insect cells: a major one with an apparent Mr of 48K and a minor one of 47K in which N-linked glycans were probably processed to a trimannosyl core without further elongation. Thus, it appears that the transport strategy as well as the N-glycosylation of NS1 in insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus were different from those of the NS1 in primate cells infected with YFV. PMID:1710649

  1. A small animal peripheral challenge model of yellow fever using interferon-receptor deficient mice and the 17D-204 vaccine strain.

    PubMed

    Thibodeaux, Brett A; Garbino, Nina C; Liss, Nathan M; Piper, Joseph; Blair, Carol D; Roehrig, John T

    2012-05-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, is a mosquito-borne pathogen that requires wild-type (wt), virulent strains to be handled at biosafety level (BSL) 3, with HEPA-filtration of room air exhaust (BSL3+). YFV is found in tropical regions of Africa and South America and causes severe hepatic disease and death in humans. Despite the availability of effective vaccines (17D-204 or 17DD), YFV is still responsible for an estimated 200,000 cases of illness and 30,000 deaths annually. Besides vaccination, there are no other prophylactic or therapeutic strategies approved for use in human YF. Current small animal models of YF require either intra-cranial inoculation of YF vaccine to establish infection, or use of wt strains (e.g., Asibi) in order to achieve pathology. We have developed and characterized a BSL2, adult mouse peripheral challenge model for YFV infection in mice lacking receptors for interferons ?, ?, and ? (strain AG129). Intraperitoneal challenge of AG129 mice with 17D-204 is a uniformly lethal in a dose-dependent manner, and 17D-204-infected AG129 mice exhibit high viral titers in both brain and liver suggesting this infection is both neurotropic and viscerotropic. Furthermore the use of a mouse model permitted the construction of a 59-biomarker multi-analyte profile (MAP) using samples of brain, liver, and serum taken at multiple time points over the course of infection. This MAP serves as a baseline for evaluating novel therapeutics and their effect on disease progression. Changes (4-fold or greater) in serum and tissue levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators as well as other factors associated with tissue damage were noted in AG129 mice infected with 17D-204 as compared to mock-infected control animals. PMID:22425792

  2. Eosinophilia and Fever with Levetiracetam: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Alexander H; Willey, Maria D; Thompson Bastin, Melissa L; Buch, Ketan P; Bensadoun, Eric S

    2015-08-01

    Levetiracetam is considered by many clinicians to be one of the most benign antiepileptic medications available. We report the case of a 24-year-old man presenting with seizures for which he was started on levetiracetam. Despite an extensive work-up and treatment of possible infectious and noninfectious issues, the patient remained intermittently febrile. When a marked peripheral eosinophilia was noted, the patient's levetiracetam was discontinued and phenytoin prescribed. The fever resolved within 24 hours, and the patient's eosinophilia count returned to normal limits following discharge back to his long-term care facility. We estimate the probability of this reaction related to levetiracetam as probable based on a score of 7 on the Naranjo scale. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility that levetiracetam may be an offending agent in a patient with unexplained fever and eosinophilia. These may be early signs of the progression to a more serious drug hypersensitivity reaction, such as drug rash, eosinophilia, and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome. PMID:26235978

  3. Dobrava virus carried by the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis, causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Romania.

    PubMed

    Panculescu-Gatej, Raluca Ioana; Sirbu, Anca; Dinu, Sorin; Waldstrom, Maria; Heyman, Paul; Murariu, Dimitru; Petrescu, Angela; Szmal, Camelia; Oprisan, Gabriela; Lundkvist, Ake; Ceianu, Cornelia S

    2014-05-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has been confirmed by serological methods during recent years in Romania. In the present study, focus-reduction neutralization tests (FRNT) confirmed Dobrava hantavirus (DOBV) as the causative agent in some HFRS cases, but could not distinguish between DOBV and Saaremaa virus (SAAV) infections in other cases. DOBV was detected by a DOBV-specific TaqMan assay in sera of nine patients out of 22 tested. Partial sequences of the M genomic segment of DOBV were obtained from sera of three patients and revealed the circulation of two DOBV lineages in Romania. Investigation of rodents trapped in Romania found three DOBV-positive Apodemus flavicollis out of 83 rodents tested. Two different DOBV lineages were also detected in A. flavicollis as determined from partial sequences of the M and S genomic segments. Sequences of DOBV in A. flavicollis were either identical or closely related to the sequences obtained from the HFRS patients. The DOBV strains circulating in Romania clustered in two monophyletic groups, together with strains from Slovenia and the north of Greece. This is the first evidence for the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents and for a DOBV etiology of HFRS in Romania. PMID:24746107

  4. Dobrava Virus Carried by the Yellow-Necked Field Mouse Apodemus flavicollis, Causing Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Panculescu-Gatej, Raluca Ioana; Sirbu, Anca; Dinu, Sorin; Waldstrom, Maria; Heyman, Paul; Murariu, Dimitru; Petrescu, Angela; Szmal, Camelia; Oprisan, Gabriela; Lundkvist, ke

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has been confirmed by serological methods during recent years in Romania. In the present study, focus-reduction neutralization tests (FRNT) confirmed Dobrava hantavirus (DOBV) as the causative agent in some HFRS cases, but could not distinguish between DOBV and Saaremaa virus (SAAV) infections in other cases. DOBV was detected by a DOBV-specific TaqMan assay in sera of nine patients out of 22 tested. Partial sequences of the M genomic segment of DOBV were obtained from sera of three patients and revealed the circulation of two DOBV lineages in Romania. Investigation of rodents trapped in Romania found three DOBV-positive Apodemus flavicollis out of 83 rodents tested. Two different DOBV lineages were also detected in A. flavicollis as determined from partial sequences of the M and S genomic segments. Sequences of DOBV in A. flavicollis were either identical or closely related to the sequences obtained from the HFRS patients. The DOBV strains circulating in Romania clustered in two monophyletic groups, together with strains from Slovenia and the north of Greece. This is the first evidence for the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents and for a DOBV etiology of HFRS in Romania. PMID:24746107

  5. A case of brucellosis mimicking Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Metin, Ozge; Teke, Turkan A; Gayretli Aydin, Zeynep G; Kaman, Ayse; Oz, Fatma N; Bayhan, Gulsum I; Tanir, Gonul

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. that is transmitted to humans by the ingestion of unpasteurized milk and other dairy products from infected animals or through close contact with secretions. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by a virus that is transmitted to humans by ixoid tick bites, contact with blood and tissue of infected animals or contact with infected humans. The symptoms of brucellosis are non-specific; it can mimic other diseases. In this paper, we present a case of brucellosis that was initially evaluated as CCHF. We emphasize that brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CCHF, especially in endemic countries. PMID:25467988

  6. Two Cases of Q-Fever in Hairy Cell Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Iannitto, Emilio; Tick, Lidwine W.; Arents, Nicolaas L. A.; Kuijper, Philip H.; Nijziel, Marten R.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder accounting for about 2% of all leukemias. The clinical course is indolent, however HCL patients are particularly susceptible to infections. Here we report two cases of Q-fever as first manifestation of disease in two patients affected by HCL. Both patients described in this report showed an unusually sluggish clinical response to the antibiotic treatment with ciprofloxacin probably because of the marked immunodeficiency. However, treatment of HCL with cladribine administered soon after the resolution of QF pneumonitis was uneventful and led to a complete remission in both cases. Most probably the association of Coxiella burnetii (CB) infection and HCL that we observed in two patients is due to chance. However, a hairy cell resembling transformation of freshly isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes upon CB has been showed. We think that the possibility of CB infection in febrile HCL patient should be always taken in mind, especially in endemic areas. In addition the potential for such infections to become chronic in HCL patients should not be overlooked and the reporting of further cases should be encouraged. PMID:25180111

  7. Two cases of q-Fever in hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ammatuna, Emanuele; Iannitto, Emilio; Tick, Lidwine W; Arents, Nicolaas L A; Kuijper, Philip H; Nijziel, Marten R

    2014-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder accounting for about 2% of all leukemias. The clinical course is indolent, however HCL patients are particularly susceptible to infections. Here we report two cases of Q-fever as first manifestation of disease in two patients affected by HCL. Both patients described in this report showed an unusually sluggish clinical response to the antibiotic treatment with ciprofloxacin probably because of the marked immunodeficiency. However, treatment of HCL with cladribine administered soon after the resolution of QF pneumonitis was uneventful and led to a complete remission in both cases. Most probably the association of Coxiella burnetii (CB) infection and HCL that we observed in two patients is due to chance. However, a hairy cell resembling transformation of freshly isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes upon CB has been showed. We think that the possibility of CB infection in febrile HCL patient should be always taken in mind, especially in endemic areas. In addition the potential for such infections to become chronic in HCL patients should not be overlooked and the reporting of further cases should be encouraged. PMID:25180111

  8. Dengue Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... caused by a virus carried by mosquitoes. The virus can cause fever, headaches, rashes, and pain throughout the body. Most cases of dengue fever are mild and go away on their own after about a week. Dengue fever rarely strikes in the United States (the last cases were reported in Texas in ...

  9. Acute Scrotal Ulcers in Typhoid Fever: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hil Yin; Nickless, David; Tee, Wennie; Tong, Enen; Aboltins, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In developed countries, typhoid fever is a travel-associated disease that is often overlooked. However, as standard blood and stool culture methods have relatively low sensitivity, diagnosis depends heavily on clinical signs and symptoms and on a high level of suspicion. Methods. Reported here is the case of an 18-year-old male who presented with fever and acute scrotal ulcers and whose blood cultures were positive for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. A review of genital ulcers associated with typhoid fever in the literature is discussed. Conclusion. This report suggests that typhoid fever is a differential diagnosis of acute genital ulcers. PMID:25859155

  10. Laboratory-confirmed dengue fever and chikungunya fever cases at the Narita Airport Quarantine Station in 2013.

    PubMed

    Furuichi, Mieko; Makie, Toshio; Honma, Yasuko; Isoda, Takayoshi; Miyake, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen patients were laboratory-confirmed cases of imported infectious diseases at the Narita Airport Quarantine Station in 2013. Blood tests were performed on 283 subjects suspected of having imported infectious diseases. Of these, 11 were diagnosed as having dengue fever (dengue) and 3 as having chikungunya fever (chikungunya) using real-time RT-PCR. The possible countries from which dengue virus infections were contracted were Thailand, Laos, Sri Lanka, and some other countries in Southeast Asia and South Asia. The 3 chikungunya cases were also diagnosed in individuals that returned from Southeast Asia. Most of the patients with dengue had a fever of over 38?. The other symptoms were generalized fatigue, dull headache, pain behind the eyes, arthralgia, and digestive symptoms. Four of the patients were unaware of any mosquito bites. The information obtained from the confirmed cases showed that it is important to consider both the destination to which individuals travelled and the clinical symptoms, regardless of whether the subjects were aware of mosquito bites. The detection rate of chikungunya at the Quarantine Station was higher than that of dengue in all reported cases in Japan. PMID:25420667

  11. Child-Invented Health Education Games: A Case Study for Dengue Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Jeffrey L.; Coombs, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The study's goal was to demonstrate the ability of an 8-year-old child to create educational games for the topic of dengue fever control. A naturalistic descriptive case study method was employed. The child had two dengue fever educational game creation activities. The study demonstrated that a child could develop functional games related to…

  12. Child-Invented Health Education Games: A Case Study for Dengue Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Jeffrey L.; Coombs, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The study's goal was to demonstrate the ability of an 8-year-old child to create educational games for the topic of dengue fever control. A naturalistic descriptive case study method was employed. The child had two dengue fever educational game creation activities. The study demonstrated that a child could develop functional games related to

  13. Human cases of Sindbis fever in South Africa, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Storm, N; Weyer, J; Markotter, W; Kemp, A; Leman, P A; Dermaux-Msimang, V; Nel, L H; Paweska, J T

    2014-02-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV), the prototype positive-sense RNA alphavirus, causes febrile arthritis and is present throughout Afro-Eurasia. Little is known of the epidemiology of Sindbis fever due to insufficient surveillance in most endemic countries. The epidemiological features of Sindbis fever in humans in South Africa are described here based on a retrospective study of suspected arbovirus cases submitted for laboratory investigation from 2006 to 2010. Cases were detected annually mostly during the late summer/early autumn months and an increase in cases was noted for 2010, coinciding with an outbreak of Rift Valley fever. Cases were reported most often from the central plateau of South Africa and involved mostly males. No severe or fatal cases were reported and cases were associated with febrile arthralgia as commonly reported for SINV infection. Further surveillance is required to reveal the true extent of the morbidity of Sindbis fever in South Africa. PMID:23611492

  14. Spatial and temporal abundance of three sylvatic yellow fever vectors in the influence area of the Manso hydroelectric power plant, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A L M; Miyazaki, R D; Silva, M; Zeilhofer, P

    2012-01-01

    Human biting catches of sylvatic yellow fever (SYF) vectors were conducted at eight stations in the influence area of the Manso hydroelectric power plant (Central Brazil) in sampling campaigns every 2 mo from July 2000 to November 2001. In total, 206 individuals were captured and classified as one of three species important for the transmission of SYF in Mato Grosso state: Haemagogus (Haemagogus) janthinomys (Dyar, 1921); Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon, 1924); and Sabethes (Sabethoides) chloropterus (Humboldt, 1819). The highest vector abundance was observed during the rainy season (November through March) and SYF vectors were present in all sampling points throughout the year, mainly in riparian and shadowed transitional forests at shadowed ramps. PMID:22308793

  15. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in virus infected cells: SARS corona virus, Yellow fever virus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus and Cytomegalovirus infections

    PubMed Central

    Radoni?, Aleksandar; Thulke, Stefanie; Bae, Hi-Gung; Mller, Marcel A; Siegert, Wolfgang; Nitsche, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Ten potential reference genes were compared for their use in experiments investigating cellular mRNA expression of virus infected cells. Human cell lines were infected with Cytomegalovirus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus, SARS coronavirus or Yellow fever virus. The expression levels of these genes and the viral replication were determined by real-time PCR. Genes were ranked by the BestKeeper tool, the GeNorm tool and by criteria we reported previously. Ranking lists of the genes tested were tool dependent. However, over all, ?-actin is an unsuitable as reference gene, whereas TATA-Box binding protein and peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase A are stable reference genes for expression studies in virus infected cells. PMID:15705200

  16. Cloning and sequencing of the cyclodiene insecticide resistance gene from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Conservation of the gene and resistance associated mutation with Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M; Shotkoski, F; ffrench-Constant, R

    1993-07-01

    In order to examine the conservation of the mechanism of cyclodiene insecticide resistance between species we cloned a cDNA from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti homologous to the resistance gene Rdl in Drosophila. In D. melanogaster, resistance to cyclodienes and picrotoxinin is caused by a single amino acid substitution (alanine to serine) in the putative channel lining of a gamma-aminobutyic acid gated chloride ion channel. We report that the mosquito gene not only shows high homology to that of Drosophila but also that resistant strains display substitution of the same amino acid. The significance of this result in relation to the evolution of pesticide resistance, the use of Drosophila as a model insect for resistance studies and the potential use of this gene as a selectable marker in the genetic transformation of non-Drosophilids is discussed. PMID:8391473

  17. Samuel Holden Parsons Lee (1772-1863): American physician, entrepreneur and selfless fighter of the 1798 Yellow Fever epidemic of New London, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Mattie, James K; Desai, Sukumar P

    2015-02-01

    Samuel Holden Parsons Lee practised medicine at a time when the germ theory of disease had not yet been proposed and antibiotics remained undiscovered. In 1798 he served selflessly as the only physician in town who was willing to battle the Yellow Fever outbreak of New London, Connecticut. Because he practised at the dawn of the age of patent medicine, unfortunately his name also came to be associated with medical quackery. We argue that his contributions have been grossly underestimated. He compounded and vended medications - including bilious pills and bitters - that were gold standards of the day. Moreover, one preparation for treatment of kidney stones led to his sub-specialization in this field and was met with such success that its sale continued for nearly 100 years after his death. While a talented medical man, Lee also had a knack for business, finding success in trading, whaling and real estate. PMID:24585580

  18. Comprehensive analysis of T cell epitope discovery strategies using 17DD yellow 2 fever virus structural proteins and BALB/c (H2d) mice model

    PubMed Central

    Junior, Milton Maciel; Kellathur, Srinivasan N.; Chikhlikar, Pryia; Dhalia, Rafael; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; August, Thomas J.; Marques, Ernesto T. A.

    2008-01-01

    Immunomics research uses in silico epitope prediction, as well as in vivo and in vitro approaches. We inoculated BALB/c (H2d) mice with 17DD yellow fever vaccine to investigate the correlations between approaches used for epitope discovery: ELISPOT assays, binding assays, and prediction software. Our results showed a good agreement between ELISPOT and binding assays, which seemed to correlate with the protein immunogenicity. PREDBALB/c prediction software partially agreed with the ELISPOT and binding assay results, but presented low specificity. The use of prediction software to exclude peptides containing no epitopes, followed by high throughput screening of the remaining peptides by ELISPOT, and the use of MHC-biding assays to characterize the MHC restrictions demonstrated to be an efficient strategy. The results allowed the characterization of 2 MHC class I and 17 class II epitopes in the envelope protein of the YF virus in BALB/c (H2d) mice. PMID:18579176

  19. Evaluation of AaDOP2 Receptor Antagonists Reveals Antidepressants and Antipsychotics as Novel Lead Molecules for Control of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Jason M.; Meyer, Jason M.; Nuss, Andrew B.; Doyle, Trevor B.; Savinov, Sergey N.; Hill, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, vectors disease-causing agents that adversely affect human health, most notably the viruses causing dengue and yellow fever. The efficacy of current mosquito control programs is challenged by the emergence of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations, suggesting an urgent need for the development of chemical insecticides with new mechanisms of action. One recently identified potential insecticide target is the A. aegypti D1-like dopamine receptor, AaDOP2. The focus of the present study was to evaluate AaDOP2 antagonism both in vitro and in vivo using assay technologies with increased throughput. The in vitro assays revealed AaDOP2 antagonism by four distinct chemical scaffolds from tricyclic antidepressant or antipsychotic chemical classes, and elucidated several structure-activity relationship trends that contributed to enhanced antagonist potency, including lipophilicity, halide substitution on the tricyclic core, and conformational rigidity. Six compounds displayed previously unparalleled potency for in vitro AaDOP2 antagonism, and among these, asenapine, methiothepin, and cis-(Z)-flupenthixol displayed subnanomolar IC50 values and caused rapid toxicity to A. aegypti larvae and/or adults in vivo. Our study revealed a significant correlation between in vitro potency for AaDOP2 antagonism and in vivo toxicity, suggesting viability of AaDOP2 as an insecticidal target. Taken together, this study expanded the repertoire of known AaDOP2 antagonists, enhanced our understanding of AaDOP2 pharmacology, provided further support for rational targeting of AaDOP2, and demonstrated the utility of efficiency-enhancing in vitro and in vivo assay technologies within our genome-to-lead pipeline for the discovery of next-generation insecticides. PMID:25332454

  20. Activation/modulation of adaptive immunity emerges simultaneously after 17DD yellow fever first-time vaccination: is this the key to prevent severe adverse reactions following immunization?

    PubMed Central

    Martins, M ; Silva, M L; Marciano, A P V; Peruhype-Magalhes, V; Eloi-Santos, S M; Ribeiro, J G L; Correa-Oliveira, R; Homma, A; Kroon, E G; Teixeira-Carvalho, A; Martins-Filho, O A

    2007-01-01

    Over past decades the 17DD yellow fever vaccine has proved to be effective in controlling yellow fever and promises to be a vaccine vector for other diseases, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which it elicits such broad-based immunity are still unclear. In this study we describe a detailed phenotypic investigation of major and minor peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations aimed at characterizing the kinetics of the adaptive immune response following primary 17DD vaccination. Our major finding is a decreased frequency of circulating CD19+ cells at day 7 followed by emerging activation/modulation phenotypic features (CD19+interleukin(IL)10R+/CD19+CD32+) at day 15. Increased frequency of CD4+human leucocyte antigen D-related(HLA-DR+) at day 7 and CD8+HLA-DR+ at day 30 suggest distinct kinetics of T cell activation, with CD4+ T cells being activated early and CD8+ T cells representing a later event following 17DD vaccination. Up-regulation of modulatory features on CD4+ and CD8+ cells at day 15 seems to be the key event leading to lower frequency of CD38+ T cells at day 30. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the co-existence of phenotypic features associated with activation events and modulatory pathways. Positive correlations between CD4+HLA-DR+ cells and CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells and the association between the type 0 chemokine receptor CCR2 and the activation status of CD4+ and CD8+ cells further support this hypothesis. We hypothesize that this controlled microenviroment seems to be the key to prevent the development of serious adverse events, and even deaths, associated with the 17DD vaccine reported in the literature. PMID:17309541

  1. Molecular Differentiation of the African Yellow Fever Vector Aedes bromeliae (Diptera: Culicidae) from Its Sympatric Non-vector Sister Species, Aedes lilii

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Kelly Louise; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Shija, Fortunate; Kaddumukasa, Martha; Djouaka, Rousseau; Misinzo, Gerald; Lutwama, Julius; Huang, Yiau-Min; Mitchell, Luke B.; Richards, Miriam; Tossou, Eric; Walton, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Yellow fever continues to be a problem in sub-Saharan Africa with repeated epidemics occurring. The mosquito Aedes bromeliae is a major vector of yellow fever, but it cannot be readily differentiated from its non-vector zoophilic sister species Ae. lilii using morphological characters. Genetic differences have been reported between anthropophilic Ae. bromeliae and zoophilic Ae. lilii and between forest and domestic populations. However, due to the application of different molecular markers and non-overlapping populations employed in previous studies, interpretation of species delimitation is unclear. Methodology/Principle Findings DNA sequences were generated from specimens of Ae. simpsoni s.l. from the Republic of Benin, Tanzania and Uganda for two nuclear genes apolipophorin 2 (apoLp2) and cytochrome p450 (CYPJ92), the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COI) barcoding region. Nuclear genes apoLp2 and CYPJ92 were unable to differentiate between species Ae. bromeliae and Ae. lilii due to ancestral lineage sorting, while ITS sequence data provided clear topological separation on a phylogeny. The standard COI barcoding region was shown to be subject to species introgression and unable to clearly distinguish the two taxa. Here we present a reliable direct PCR-based method for differentiation of the vector species Ae. bromeliae from its isomorphic, sympatric and non-biomedically important sister taxon, Ae. lilii, based on the ITS region. Using molecular species verification, we describe novel immature habitats for Ae. lilii and report both sympatric and allopatric populations. Whereas only Ae. lilii is found in the Republic of Benin and only Ae. bromeliae in Tanzania, both species are sympatric in Uganda. Conclusions/Significance Our accurate identification method will allow informed distribution and detailed ecological studies that will facilitate assessment of arboviral disease risk and development of future targeted vector control. PMID:26641858

  2. Evaluation of AaDOP2 receptor antagonists reveals antidepressants and antipsychotics as novel lead molecules for control of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Conley, Jason M; Meyer, Jason M; Nuss, Andrew B; Doyle, Trevor B; Savinov, Sergey N; Hill, Catherine A; Watts, Val J

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, vectors disease-causing agents that adversely affect human health, most notably the viruses causing dengue and yellow fever. The efficacy of current mosquito control programs is challenged by the emergence of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations, suggesting an urgent need for the development of chemical insecticides with new mechanisms of action. One recently identified potential insecticide target is the A. aegypti D1-like dopamine receptor, AaDOP2. The focus of the present study was to evaluate AaDOP2 antagonism both in vitro and in vivo using assay technologies with increased throughput. The in vitro assays revealed AaDOP2 antagonism by four distinct chemical scaffolds from tricyclic antidepressant or antipsychotic chemical classes, and elucidated several structure-activity relationship trends that contributed to enhanced antagonist potency, including lipophilicity, halide substitution on the tricyclic core, and conformational rigidity. Six compounds displayed previously unparalleled potency for in vitro AaDOP2 antagonism, and among these, asenapine, methiothepin, and cis-(Z)-flupenthixol displayed subnanomolar IC50 values and caused rapid toxicity to A. aegypti larvae and/or adults in vivo. Our study revealed a significant correlation between in vitro potency for AaDOP2 antagonism and in vivo toxicity, suggesting viability of AaDOP2 as an insecticidal target. Taken together, this study expanded the repertoire of known AaDOP2 antagonists, enhanced our understanding of AaDOP2 pharmacology, provided further support for rational targeting of AaDOP2, and demonstrated the utility of efficiency-enhancing in vitro and in vivo assay technologies within our genome-to-lead pipeline for the discovery of next-generation insecticides. PMID:25332454

  3. A Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease Case Mimicking T Cell Lymphoma with Prolonged Fever

    PubMed Central

    Yadigar, Serap; Balkan, Ilker Inanc; Saltoglu, Nese

    2014-01-01

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is a self-limited disease characterized by necrotizing lymphadenitis. Although cervical lymphadenitis in young women is the most familiar clinical presentation, it may take place in the etiology of fever in cases presenting with fever of unknown origin. A 33-year-old male case admitted with fever, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and leukopenia for one month, subsequently developing axillary lymphadenopathy during followup, diagnosed as KFD with typical histopathological findings, and showing full recovery after the excision of lymph node was presented in this report. PMID:25574175

  4. Haemophagocytosis in dengue haemorrhagic fever: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, M; Duraisamy, G

    1991-11-01

    Virus associated haemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS), a distinct clinico-pathologic entity, is characterised by systemic proliferation of non-neoplastic histotiocytes showing haemophagocytosis resulting in blood cytopaenia. It has been described in relation to several viruses earlier. Here we describe a young girl who developed this reactive process during the course of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). PMID:1803975

  5. Large vessel vasculitis in a patient with acute Q-fever: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Baziaka, Fotini; Karaiskos, Ilias; Galani, Lamprini; Barmpouti, Eleftheria; Konstantinidis, Stilianos; Kitas, George; Giamarellou, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the rickettsial organism Coxiella burnetii. Infection has an acute course, usually with a self-limited febrile illness and the possibility of the evaluation to a chronic course with endocardial involvement. The presence of autoantibodies and various autoimmune disorders have also been associated with C. burnetii infection. We report a case of acute Q fever in which the patient developed large vessel vasculitis. The FDG-PET/CT scan detected inflammation of the thoracic aortic wall, suggesting an unusual immunologic host response to acute Q fever infection.

  6. First case of Q fever endocarditis in Croatia and a short review.

    PubMed

    Zekanovi?, Drazen; Morovi?, Miro; Borcilo, Marina Neki?; Rode, Oktavija Dakovi?

    2010-09-01

    We present a 70-year-old man from Dalmatia, Croatia, with a history of prolonged high fever diagnosed as Q fever endocarditis. As far as we know, this is the first case of chronic Q fever in Croatia. The treatment was started as for culture-negative endocarditis, but was without clinical response. After significantly high anti-phase I IgG plus IgA antibodies titers to Coxiella burnetii were shown, the initial treatment with doxycycline was changed and ciprofloxacin was started with good clinical response. PMID:20977118

  7. A case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome caused by a novel bunyavirus in Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ling; Shang, Xiaopeng; Wang, Zhongfa; Hu, Fengjiao; Wang, Xinyi; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xuefei; Liu, Shelan; He, Fan; Li, Fudong; Wang, Chengwei; Jiang, Jianmin; Lin, Junfen

    2015-04-01

    Two typical symptoms of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) are fever and thrombocytopenia. Here we report a laboratory confirmed SFTS case with no fever during the entire hospitalization period, in Daishan County, Zhejiang Province, China. A 77-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with symptoms including nausea, retching, and anorexia. Laboratory tests revealed thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and liver and brain damage. The case was later confirmed as a novel bunyavirus infection. Epidemiological investigations revealed that she had no history of tick bites or skin damage, and no known exposure to persons with a similar illness in the area prior to illness onset. The patient was hospitalized for 15 days, and during the whole admission period, she did not experience any fever. The patient recovered and was discharged. PMID:25677726

  8. A case of recurrent abdominal pain with fever and urticarial eruption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Geun; Lim, Yun Jeong; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Jae Hak; Lee, Jun Kyu; Koh, Moon Soo; Lee, Jin Ho; Huh, Hee Jin; Lee, Seung Ho

    2014-07-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and serosal, synovial, or cutaneous inflammation, caused by a dysfunction of pyrin as a result of mutation within the MEFV gene. It occurs mainly among Mediterranean and Middle Eastern populations, including Jews, Arabs, and Turks. However, FMF cases have been reported outside the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries in recent years. Although FMF has been relatively rare in Korea until now, proper recognition of FMF might lead to more frequent diagnoses of FMF. We experienced an interesting case, a 31-year-old Korean man who presented with recurrent abdominal pain with fever and urticarial eruption for 10 years. DNA analysis showed complex mutations (p.Leu110Pro, p.Glu148Gln) in the MEFV gene. To date, three cases have been reported, and this case of FMF with skin conditions is the first case in Korea. PMID:25073670

  9. Pharmacological Validation of an Inward-Rectifier Potassium (Kir) Channel as an Insecticide Target in the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Rouhier, Matthew F.; Raphemot, Rene; Denton, Jerod S.; Piermarini, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquitoes are important disease vectors that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans, including those that cause malaria and dengue fever. Insecticides have traditionally been deployed to control populations of disease-causing mosquitoes, but the emergence of insecticide resistance has severely limited the number of active compounds that are used against mosquitoes. Thus, to improve the control of resistant mosquitoes there is a need to identify new insecticide targets and active compounds for insecticide development. Recently we demonstrated that inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels and small molecule inhibitors of Kir channels offer promising new molecular targets and active compounds, respectively, for insecticide development. Here we provide pharmacological validation of a specific mosquito Kir channel (AeKir1) in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. We show that VU590, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 channels, potently inhibits AeKir1 but not another mosquito Kir channel (AeKir2B) in vitro. Moreover, we show that a previously identified inhibitor of AeKir1 (VU573) elicits an unexpected agonistic effect on AeKir2B in vitro. Injection of VU590 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes significantly inhibits their capacity to excrete urine and kills them within 24 h, suggesting a mechanism of action on the excretory system. Importantly, a structurally-related VU590 analog (VU608), which weakly blocks AeKir1 in vitro, has no significant effects on their excretory capacity and does not kill mosquitoes. These observations suggest that the toxic effects of VU590 are associated with its inhibition of AeKir1. PMID:24959745

  10. Pharmacological validation of an inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channel as an insecticide target in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Rouhier, Matthew F; Raphemot, Rene; Denton, Jerod S; Piermarini, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquitoes are important disease vectors that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans, including those that cause malaria and dengue fever. Insecticides have traditionally been deployed to control populations of disease-causing mosquitoes, but the emergence of insecticide resistance has severely limited the number of active compounds that are used against mosquitoes. Thus, to improve the control of resistant mosquitoes there is a need to identify new insecticide targets and active compounds for insecticide development. Recently we demonstrated that inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels and small molecule inhibitors of Kir channels offer promising new molecular targets and active compounds, respectively, for insecticide development. Here we provide pharmacological validation of a specific mosquito Kir channel (AeKir1) in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. We show that VU590, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 channels, potently inhibits AeKir1 but not another mosquito Kir channel (AeKir2B) in vitro. Moreover, we show that a previously identified inhibitor of AeKir1 (VU573) elicits an unexpected agonistic effect on AeKir2B in vitro. Injection of VU590 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes significantly inhibits their capacity to excrete urine and kills them within 24 h, suggesting a mechanism of action on the excretory system. Importantly, a structurally-related VU590 analog (VU608), which weakly blocks AeKir1 in vitro, has no significant effects on their excretory capacity and does not kill mosquitoes. These observations suggest that the toxic effects of VU590 are associated with its inhibition of AeKir1. PMID:24959745

  11. A case of vasculitis, retinitis and macular neurosensory detachment presenting post typhoid fever

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ocular and extraocular immune-mediated phenomena are known to occur following febrile illness. Vasculitis, retinitis and neurosensory detachment are not well-recognized sequelae of typhoid fever. Findings We report a case of vasculitis, retinitis and macular neurosensory detachment presenting post typhoid fever. A 27-year-old female presented with decreased vision in right eye with history of typhoid fever (treated adequately 6 weeks prior). Her best corrected visual acuity in right eye was 20/125, N36. Fundus showed a patch of vasculitis and retinitis superior to the disc associated with macular neurosensory detachment and disc pallor. With oral steroids, the inflammation resolved and visual acuity improved to 20/20 at 6 weeks. Conclusions Immune-mediated vasculitis and retinitis following typhoid fever may respond well to systemic steroids. PMID:25246983

  12. Identification of life-stage and tissue-specific splice variants of an inward rectifying potassium (Kir) channel in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Rouhier, Matthew F; Piermarini, Peter M

    2014-05-01

    Inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play key roles in nerve, muscle, and epithelial cells in mammals, but their physiological roles in insects remain to be determined. The yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) possesses five different genes encoding Kir channel subunits: Kir1, Kir2A, Kir2B, Kir2B', and Kir3. We have recently cloned and characterized the Kir1, Kir2B, and Kir3 cDNAs in the renal (Malpighian) tubules of adult female Ae. aegypti. Here we characterize the expression of the Kir2A gene in Ae. aegypti, which was not abundantly expressed in Malpighian tubules. We find that the 1) Kir2A gene is expressed primarily in the midgut and hindgut of adult female mosquitoes, and 2) Kir2A mRNAs are alternatively spliced into three distinct variants (Kir2A-a, -b, and -c). The deduced Kir2A proteins from these splice forms share a completely conserved transmembrane domain (a pore-forming domain flanked by two transmembrane-spanning segments), but possess novel NH2-terminal and/or COOH-terminal domains. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicate that the splice variants exhibit both developmental- and tissue-specific expression. Lastly, we provide insights into the conservation of alternative splicing among the Kir2A genes of dipterans, which may add molecular diversity that compensates for the relatively limited number of Kir channel genes in insects compared to mammals. PMID:24657620

  13. Genome-wide RNA profiling of long-lasting stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells induced by Yellow Fever vaccination in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A.; Soneson, Charlotte; Delorenzi, Mauro; Speiser, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    The live-attenuated Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine YF-17D induces a broad and polyfunctional CD8 T cell response in humans. Recently, we identified a population of stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells induced by YF-17D that persists at stable frequency for at least 25years after vaccination. The YF-17D is thus a model system of human CD8 T cell biology that furthermore allows to track and study long-lasting and antigen-specific human memory CD8 T cells. Here, we describe in detail the sample characteristics and preparation of a microarray dataset acquired for genome-wide gene expression profiling of long-lasting YF-specific stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells, compared to the reference CD8 T cell differentiation subsets from total CD8 T cells. We also describe the quality controls, annotations and exploratory analyses of the dataset. The microarray data is available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) public repository with accession number GSE65804. PMID:26484272

  14. Functional classification and central nervous projections of olfactory receptor neurons housed in antennal trichoid sensilla of female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Ghaninia, Majid; Ignell, Rickard; Hansson, Bill S.

    2007-01-01

    Mosquitoes are highly dependent on their olfactory system for, e.g. host location and identification of nectar-feeding and oviposition sites. Odours are detected by olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in hair-shaped structures, sensilla, on the antennae and maxillary palps. In order to unravel the function of the olfactory system in the yellow fever vector, Aedes aegypti, we performed single-sensillum recordings from trichoid sensilla on female antennae. These sensilla are divided into four distinct morphological types. Based on the response to a set of 16 odour compounds, we identified 18 different ORN types, housed in 10 sensillum types. The ORNs responded to behaviourally relevant olfactory cues, such as oviposition attractants and sweat-borne compounds, including 4-methylcyclohexanol and indole, respectively. Two ORNs housed in these sensilla, as well as two ORNs housed in an additional sensillum type, did not respond to any of the compounds tested. The ORNs housed in individual sensilla exhibited stereotypical pairing and displayed differences in signalling mode (excitatory and inhibitory) as well as in temporal response patterns. In addition to physiological characterization, we performed anterograde neurobiotin stainings of functionally identified ORNs in order to define the functional map among olfactory glomeruli in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe. The targeted glomeruli were compared with an established 3D map. Our data showed that the ORN types sent their axons to defined antennal lobe glomeruli in a stereotypic pattern. PMID:17880395

  15. Yellow fever impact on brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) in Argentina: a metamodelling approach based on population viability analysis and epidemiological dynamics.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Eduardo S; Agostini, Ilaria; Holzmann, Ingrid; Di Bitetti, Mario S; Oklander, Luciana I; Kowalewski, Martín M; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Goenaga, Silvina; Martínez, Mariela; Lestani, Eduardo; Desbiez, Arnaud L J; Miller, Philip

    2015-11-01

    In South America, yellow fever (YF) is an established infectious disease that has been identified outside of its traditional endemic areas, affecting human and nonhuman primate (NHP) populations. In the epidemics that occurred in Argentina between 2007-2009, several outbreaks affecting humans and howler monkeys (Alouatta spp) were reported, highlighting the importance of this disease in the context of conservation medicine and public health policies. Considering the lack of information about YF dynamics in New World NHP, our main goal was to apply modelling tools to better understand YF transmission dynamics among endangered brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) populations in northeastern Argentina. Two complementary modelling tools were used to evaluate brown howler population dynamics in the presence of the disease: Vortex, a stochastic demographic simulation model, and Outbreak, a stochastic disease epidemiology simulation. The baseline model of YF disease epidemiology predicted a very high probability of population decline over the next 100 years. We believe the modelling approach discussed here is a reasonable description of the disease and its effects on the howler monkey population and can be useful to support evidence-based decision-making to guide actions at a regional level. PMID:26517499

  16. Flight height preference for oviposition of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of sylvatic yellow fever virus near the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplcio, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Morone, Fernanda; De Mello, Ceclia Ferreira; Dgallier, Nicolas; Lucio, Paulo Srgio; de Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maus; Guimares, Anthony Erico

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the oviposition behavior of mosquito species exhibiting acrodendrophilic habits was investigated. The study was conducted near the Simplicio Hydroelectic Reservoir (SHR) located on the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected using oviposition traps installed in forest vegetation cover between 1.70 and 4.30 m above ground level during the months of April, June, August, October, and December of 2011. Haemagogus janthinomys (Dyar), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), and Aedes terrens (Walker) specimens were present among the collected samples, the first two of which being proven vectors of sylvatic yellow fever (SYF) in Brazil and the latter is a vector of dengue in mainland Asia. As the data set was zero-inflated, a specific Poisson-based model was used for the statistical analysis. When all four species were considered in the model, only heights used for egg laying and months of sampling were explaining the distribution. However, grouping the species under the genera Haemagogus Williston and Aedes Meigen showed a significant preference for higher traps of the former. Considering the local working population of SHR is very large, fluctuating, and potentially exposed to SYF, and that this virus occurs in almost all Brazilian states, monitoring of Culicidae in Brazil is essential for assessing the risk of transmission of this arbovirus. PMID:23926776

  17. Birth of Three Stowaway-like MITE Families via Microhomology-Mediated Miniaturization of a Tc1/Mariner Element in the Yellow Fever Mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guojun; Fattash, Isam; Lee, Chia-Ni; Liu, Kun; Cavinder, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain numerous DNA transposons that move by a cut-and-paste mechanism. The majority of these elements are self-insufficient and dependent on their autonomous relatives to transpose. Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are often the most numerous nonautonomous DNA elements in a higher eukaryotic genome. Little is known about the origin of these MITE families as few of them are accompanied by their direct ancestral elements in a genome. Analyses of MITEs in the yellow fever mosquito identified its youngest MITE family, designated as Gnome, that contains at least 116 identical copies. Genome-wide search for direct ancestral autonomous elements of Gnome revealed an elusive single copy Tc1/Mariner-like element, named as Ozma, that encodes a transposase with a DD37E triad motif. Strikingly, Ozma also gave rise to two additional MITE families, designated as Elf and Goblin. These three MITE families were derived at different times during evolution and bear internal sequences originated from different regions of Ozma. Upon close inspection of the sequence junctions, the internal deletions during the formation of these three MITE families always occurred between two microhomologous sites (68 bp). These results suggest that multiple MITE families may originate from a single ancestral autonomous element, and formation of MITEs can be mediated by sequence microhomology. Ozma and its related MITEs are exceptional candidates for the long sought-after endogenous active transposon tool in genetic control of mosquitoes. PMID:24068652

  18. In vitro and in vivo antiviral properties of sulfated galactomannans against yellow fever virus (BeH111 strain) and dengue 1 virus (Hawaii strain).

    PubMed

    Ono, Lucy; Wollinger, Wagner; Rocco, Iray M; Coimbra, Terezinha L M; Gorin, Philip A J; Sierakowski, Maria-Rita

    2003-11-01

    Two galactomannans, one extracted from seeds of Mimosa scabrella, having a mannose to galactose ratio of 1.1, and another with a 1.4 ratio from seeds of Leucaena leucocephala, were sulfated. The products from M. scabrella (BRS) and L. leucocephala (LLS) had a degree of sulfation of 0.62 and 0.50, and an average molecular weight of 620x10(3) and 574x10(3) gmol(-1), respectively. Their activities against yellow fever virus (YFV; BeH111 strain) and dengue 1 virus (DEN-1; Hawaii strain) were evaluated. This was carried out in young mice following intraperitoneal infection with YFV. At a dose of 49 mgkg(-1), BRS and LLS gave protection against death in 87.7 and 96.5% of the mice, respectively. When challenged with 37.5 LD50 of YFV, mice previously inoculated with BRS+virus or LLS+virus, showed 93.3 and 100% resistance, respectively, with neutralization titers similar to mice injected with 25 LD50 of formaldehyde-inactivated YFV. In vitro experiments with YFV and DEN-1 in C6/36 cell culture assays in 24-well microplates showed that concentrations that produced a 100-fold decrease in virus titer of YFV were 586 and 385 mgl(-1) for BRS and LLS, respectively. For DEN-1 they were 347 and 37 mgl(-1), respectively. Sulfated galactomannans, thus demonstrate in vitro and in vivo activity against flaviviruses. PMID:14638396

  19. Functional classification and central nervous projections of olfactory receptor neurons housed in antennal trichoid sensilla of female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Ghaninia, Majid; Ignell, Rickard; Hansson, Bill S

    2007-09-01

    Mosquitoes are highly dependent on their olfactory system for, e.g. host location and identification of nectar-feeding and oviposition sites. Odours are detected by olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in hair-shaped structures, sensilla, on the antennae and maxillary palps. In order to unravel the function of the olfactory system in the yellow fever vector, Aedes aegypti, we performed single-sensillum recordings from trichoid sensilla on female antennae. These sensilla are divided into four distinct morphological types. Based on the response to a set of 16 odour compounds, we identified 18 different ORN types, housed in 10 sensillum types. The ORNs responded to behaviourally relevant olfactory cues, such as oviposition attractants and sweat-borne compounds, including 4-methylcyclohexanol and indole, respectively. Two ORNs housed in these sensilla, as well as two ORNs housed in an additional sensillum type, did not respond to any of the compounds tested. The ORNs housed in individual sensilla exhibited stereotypical pairing and displayed differences in signalling mode (excitatory and inhibitory) as well as in temporal response patterns. In addition to physiological characterization, we performed anterograde neurobiotin stainings of functionally identified ORNs in order to define the functional map among olfactory glomeruli in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe. The targeted glomeruli were compared with an established 3D map. Our data showed that the ORN types sent their axons to defined antennal lobe glomeruli in a stereotypic pattern. PMID:17880395

  20. Yellow fever impact on brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) in Argentina: a metamodelling approach based on population viability analysis and epidemiological dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Eduardo S; Agostini, Ilaria; Holzmann, Ingrid; Di Bitetti, Mario S; Oklander, Luciana I; Kowalewski, Martín M; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Goenaga, Silvina; Martínez, Mariela; Lestani, Eduardo; Desbiez, Arnaud LJ; Miller, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In South America, yellow fever (YF) is an established infectious disease that has been identified outside of its traditional endemic areas, affecting human and nonhuman primate (NHP) populations. In the epidemics that occurred in Argentina between 2007-2009, several outbreaks affecting humans and howler monkeys (Alouatta spp) were reported, highlighting the importance of this disease in the context of conservation medicine and public health policies. Considering the lack of information about YF dynamics in New World NHP, our main goal was to apply modelling tools to better understand YF transmission dynamics among endangered brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) populations in northeastern Argentina. Two complementary modelling tools were used to evaluate brown howler population dynamics in the presence of the disease: Vortex, a stochastic demographic simulation model, and Outbreak, a stochastic disease epidemiology simulation. The baseline model of YF disease epidemiology predicted a very high probability of population decline over the next 100 years. We believe the modelling approach discussed here is a reasonable description of the disease and its effects on the howler monkey population and can be useful to support evidence-based decision-making to guide actions at a regional level. PMID:26517499

  1. Genome-wide RNA profiling of long-lasting stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells induced by Yellow Fever vaccination in humans.

    PubMed

    Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A; Soneson, Charlotte; Delorenzi, Mauro; Speiser, Daniel E

    2015-09-01

    The live-attenuated Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine YF-17D induces a broad and polyfunctional CD8 T cell response in humans. Recently, we identified a population of stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells induced by YF-17D that persists at stable frequency for at least 25 years after vaccination. The YF-17D is thus a model system of human CD8 T cell biology that furthermore allows to track and study long-lasting and antigen-specific human memory CD8 T cells. Here, we describe in detail the sample characteristics and preparation of a microarray dataset acquired for genome-wide gene expression profiling of long-lasting YF-specific stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells, compared to the reference CD8 T cell differentiation subsets from total CD8 T cells. We also describe the quality controls, annotations and exploratory analyses of the dataset. The microarray data is available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) public repository with accession number GSE65804. PMID:26484272

  2. Birth of three stowaway-like MITE families via microhomology-mediated miniaturization of a Tc1/Mariner element in the yellow fever mosquito.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guojun; Fattash, Isam; Lee, Chia-Ni; Liu, Kun; Cavinder, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain numerous DNA transposons that move by a cut-and-paste mechanism. The majority of these elements are self-insufficient and dependent on their autonomous relatives to transpose. Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are often the most numerous nonautonomous DNA elements in a higher eukaryotic genome. Little is known about the origin of these MITE families as few of them are accompanied by their direct ancestral elements in a genome. Analyses of MITEs in the yellow fever mosquito identified its youngest MITE family, designated as Gnome, that contains at least 116 identical copies. Genome-wide search for direct ancestral autonomous elements of Gnome revealed an elusive single copy Tc1/Mariner-like element, named as Ozma, that encodes a transposase with a DD37E triad motif. Strikingly, Ozma also gave rise to two additional MITE families, designated as Elf and Goblin. These three MITE families were derived at different times during evolution and bear internal sequences originated from different regions of Ozma. Upon close inspection of the sequence junctions, the internal deletions during the formation of these three MITE families always occurred between two microhomologous sites (6-8 bp). These results suggest that multiple MITE families may originate from a single ancestral autonomous element, and formation of MITEs can be mediated by sequence microhomology. Ozma and its related MITEs are exceptional candidates for the long sought-after endogenous active transposon tool in genetic control of mosquitoes. PMID:24068652

  3. A case of Lassa fever: clinical and virological findings.

    PubMed Central

    Emond, R T; Bannister, B; Lloyd, G; Southee, T J; Bowen, E T

    1982-01-01

    Five days after arriving in London from Jos a young Nigerian women developed a severe and prolonged illness that proved to be Lassa fever. Virus was not detected in urine during the first three weeks but then appeared and reached a peak during the sixth week, with continuing excretion for 67 days after the onset of illness. Laboratory investigations showed evidence of extensive tissue damage and disturbance of clotting, but there was no serious bleeding and she eventually made a complete recovery despite a high sustained viraemia and severe liver damage. Convalescent serum was used in treatment but it was difficult to assess its contribution to the favourable outcome. PMID:6812716

  4. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (b) Casings from... Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000 may be imported. (2) Casings that are derived from bovines...

  5. Fever of unknown origin: report of 107 cases in a university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kang-Kang; Chen, Sheng-Sen; Ling, Qing-Xia; Huang, Chong; Zheng, Jian-Ming; Cheng, Qi; Li, Ning; Chen, Ming-Quan; Shi, Guang-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is a challenging problem in clinical practice. Evaluation of patient’s characteristics may illustrate the etiologies of FUO. In present study, 107 patients with FUO hospitalized in our inpatient department between 2010 and 2011 were investigated. The median age of the patients was 48 years (15-94). The median fever duration was 8.5 weeks (3-104). The median hospital stay was 8.5 days (1-51). Etiologies of FUO were identified as follows: infectious diseases 32 (29.9%), malignancies 19 (17.8%), inflammatory rheumatic diseases 18 (16.8%), and miscellaneous diseases 15 (14.0%). In 23 (21.5%) patients, the diagnosis remained unclear. Infection group had relative shorter average fever duration and hospital stay than other groups. Shortened mean fever duration was observed in geriatric age group. In conclusion, as the most common cause of FUO in the present study, infectious cases had relative shorter average fever duration and hospital stay, and geriatric patients had shortened average fever duration as well. PMID:25664121

  6. Acute Q fever infection in Thuringia, Germany, after burial of roe deer fawn cadavers (Capreolus capreolus): a case report

    PubMed Central

    Schleenvoigt, B.T.; Sprague, L.D.; Mertens, K.; Moog, U.; Schmoock, G.; Wolf, G.; Neumann, M.; Pletz, M.W.; Neubauer, H.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a case of a 48-year-old man who presented with acute Q fever infection after burying two fawn cadavers (Capreolus capreolus). Recent outbreaks of Q fever in Europe have been traced back to intensive goat breeding units, sheep flocks in the proximity of highly populated urban areas or to farmed deer. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing Q fever infection in a human linked to roe deer as a source of infection. PMID:26566445

  7. Acute Q fever infection in Thuringia, Germany, after burial of roe deer fawn cadavers (Capreolus capreolus): a case report.

    PubMed

    Schleenvoigt, B T; Sprague, L D; Mertens, K; Moog, U; Schmoock, G; Wolf, G; Neumann, M; Pletz, M W; Neubauer, H

    2015-11-01

    We report on a case of a 48-year-old man who presented with acute Q fever infection after burying two fawn cadavers (Capreolus capreolus). Recent outbreaks of Q fever in Europe have been traced back to intensive goat breeding units, sheep flocks in the proximity of highly populated urban areas or to farmed deer. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing Q fever infection in a human linked to roe deer as a source of infection. PMID:26566445

  8. Case definition for Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fevers: a complex challenge for epidemiologists and clinicians.

    PubMed

    Pittalis, Silvia; Fusco, Francesco Maria; Lanini, Simone; Nisii, Carla; Puro, Vincenzo; Lauria, Francesco Nicola; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2009-10-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) represent a challenge for public health because of their epidemic potential, and their possible use as bioterrorism agents poses particular concern. In 1999 the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a case definition for VHFs, subsequently adopted by other international institutions with the aim of early detection of initial cases/outbreaks in western countries. We applied this case definition to reports of Ebola and Marburg virus infections to estimate its sensitivity to detect cases of the disease. We analyzed clinical descriptions of 795 reported cases of Ebola haemorrhagic fever: only 58.5% of patients met the proposed case definition. A similar figure was obtained reviewing 169 cases of Marburg diseases, of which only 64.5% were in accordance with the case definition. In conclusion, the WHO case definition for hemorrhagic fevers is too specific and has poor sensitivity both for case finding during Ebola or Marburg outbreaks, and for early detection of suspected cases in western countries. It can lead to a hazardous number of false negatives and its use should be discouraged for early detection of cases. PMID:20128442

  9. Primary splenic angiosarcoma with fever and anemia: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Rui; Chang, Weilong; Wu, Xiuli; Chen, Junhua; Tao, Kaixiong; Zhang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Primary splenic angiosarcoma is an extremely rare and aggressive neoplasm. The prognosis of this disease is dismal, and the mean survival is less than 6 months after the diagnosis. This neoplasm typically presents with abdominal pain, splenomegaly, weight loss, and spontaneous splenic rupture. Fever is a very rare presentation of splenic angiosarcoma. Here we report the case of a 64-year-old man who presented with fever and anemia. A laparoscopic splenectomy was performed and revealed splenic angiosarcoma. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient received 5 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide plus epirubicin. He remained disease free at 9 months after surgery. This is the first case of splenic angiosarcoma with fever as the initial presentation that was treated with laparoscopic splenectomy to be reported in the English literature. PMID:26823717

  10. Live Virus Vaccines Based on a Yellow Fever Vaccine Backbone: Standardized Template with Key Considerations for a Risk/Benefit Assessment*

    PubMed Central

    Monath, Thomas P.; Seligman, Stephen J.; Robertson, James S.; Guy, Bruno; Hayes, Edward B.; Condit, Richard C.; Excler, Jean Louis; Mac, Lisa Marie; Carbery, Baevin; Chen, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viruses inserted into the backbone of another virus (so-called chimeric virus vaccines). Many viral vector vaccines are in advanced clinical trials. The first such vaccine to be approved for marketing (to date in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines) is a vaccine against the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis (JE), which employs a licensed vaccine (yellow fever 17D) as a vector. In this vaccine, two envelope proteins (prM-E) of YF 17D virus were replaced by the corresponding genes of JE virus, with additional attenuating mutations incorporated into the JE gene inserts. Similar vaccines have been constructed by inserting prM-E genes of dengue and West Nile into YF 17D virus and are in late stage clinical studies. The dengue vaccine is, however, more complex in that it requires a mixture of four live vectors each expressing one of the four dengue serotypes. This vaccine has been evaluated in multiple clinical trials. No significant safety concerns have been found. The Phase 3 trials met their endpoints in terms of overall reduction of confirmed dengue fever, and, most importantly a significant reduction in severe dengue and hospitalization due to dengue. However, based on results that have been published so far, efficacy in preventing serotype 2 infection is less than that for the other three serotypes. In the development of these chimeric vaccines, an important series of comparative studies of safety and efficacy were made using the parental YF 17D vaccine virus as a benchmark. In this paper, we use a standardized template describing the key characteristics of the novel flavivirus vaccine vectors, in comparison to the parental YF 17D vaccine. The template facilitates scientific discourse among key stakeholders by increasing the transparency and comparability of information. The Brighton Collaboration V3SWG template may also be useful as a guide to the evaluation of other recombinant viral vector vaccines. PMID:25446819

  11. Live virus vaccines based on a yellow fever vaccine backbone: standardized template with key considerations for a risk/benefit assessment.

    PubMed

    Monath, Thomas P; Seligman, Stephen J; Robertson, James S; Guy, Bruno; Hayes, Edward B; Condit, Richard C; Excler, Jean Louis; Mac, Lisa Marie; Carbery, Baevin; Chen, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viruses inserted into the backbone of another virus (so-called "chimeric virus vaccines"). Many viral vector vaccines are in advanced clinical trials. The first such vaccine to be approved for marketing (to date in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines) is a vaccine against the flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis (JE), which employs a licensed vaccine (yellow fever 17D) as a vector. In this vaccine, two envelope proteins (prM-E) of YF 17D virus were exchanged for the corresponding genes of JE virus, with additional attenuating mutations incorporated into the JE gene inserts. Similar vaccines have been constructed by inserting prM-E genes of dengue and West Nile into YF 17D virus and are in late stage clinical studies. The dengue vaccine is, however, more complex in that it requires a mixture of four live vectors each expressing one of the four dengue serotypes. This vaccine has been evaluated in multiple clinical trials. No significant safety concerns have been found. The Phase 3 trials met their endpoints in terms of overall reduction of confirmed dengue fever, and, most importantly a significant reduction in severe dengue and hospitalization due to dengue. However, based on results that have been published so far, efficacy in preventing serotype 2 infection is less than that for the other three serotypes. In the development of these chimeric vaccines, an important series of comparative studies of safety and efficacy were made using the parental YF 17D vaccine virus as a benchmark. In this paper, we use a standardized template describing the key characteristics of the novel flavivirus vaccine vectors, in comparison to the parental YF 17D vaccine. The template facilitates scientific discourse among key stakeholders by increasing the transparency and comparability of information. The Brighton Collaboration V3SWG template may also be useful as a guide to the evaluation of other recombinant viral vector vaccines. PMID:25446819

  12. Culture proven Salmonella typhi co-infection in a child with Dengue fever: a case report.

    PubMed

    Srinivasaraghavan, Rangan; Narayanan, Parameswaran; Kanimozhi, Thandapani

    2015-09-01

    Infectious diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Sometimes concurrent infections with multiple infectious agents may occur in one patient, which make the diagnosis and management a challenging task. The authors here present a case of co-infection of typhoid fever with dengue fever in a ten-year-old child and discuss the pertinent issues. The authors emphasize that the risk factors predicting the presence of such co-infections, if developed, will be immensely useful in areas where dengue outbreak occurs in the background of high transmission of endemic infections. PMID:26409747

  13. Binding of a fluorescence reporter and a ligand to an odorant-binding protein of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Leal, Gabriel M; Leal, Walter S

    2014-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), also named pheromone-binding proteins when the odorant is a pheromone, are essential for insect olfaction. They solubilize odorants that reach the port of entry of the olfactory system, the pore tubules in antennae and other olfactory appendages. Then, OBPs transport these hydrophobic compounds through an aqueous sensillar lymph to receptors embedded on dendritic membranes of olfactory receptor neurons. Structures of OBPs from mosquito species have shed new light on the mechanism of transport, although there is considerable debate on how they deliver odorant to receptors. An OBP from the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, binds the hydrophobic moiety of a mosquito oviposition pheromone (MOP) on the edge of its binding cavity. Likewise, it has been demonstrated that the orthologous protein from the malaria mosquito binds the insect repellent DEET on a similar edge of its binding pocket. A high school research project was aimed at testing whether the orthologous protein from the yellow fever mosquito, AaegOBP1, binds DEET and other insect repellents, and MOP was used as a positive control. Binding assays using the fluorescence reporter N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine (NPN) were inconclusive. However, titration of NPN fluorescence emission in AaegOBP1 solution with MOP led to unexpected and intriguing results. Quenching was observed in the initial phase of titration, but addition of higher doses of MOP led to a stepwise increase in fluorescence emission coupled with a blue shift, which can be explained at least in part by formation of MOP micelles to house stray NPN molecules. PMID:25671088

  14. Binding of a fluorescence reporter and a ligand to an odorant-binding protein of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Gabriel M.; Leal, Walter S.

    2015-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), also named pheromone-binding proteins when the odorant is a pheromone, are essential for insect olfaction. They solubilize odorants that reach the port of entry of the olfactory system, the pore tubules in antennae and other olfactory appendages. Then, OBPs transport these hydrophobic compounds through an aqueous sensillar lymph to receptors embedded on dendritic membranes of olfactory receptor neurons. Structures of OBPs from mosquito species have shed new light on the mechanism of transport, although there is considerable debate on how they deliver odorant to receptors. An OBP from the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, binds the hydrophobic moiety of a mosquito oviposition pheromone (MOP) on the edge of its binding cavity. Likewise, it has been demonstrated that the orthologous protein from the malaria mosquito binds the insect repellent DEET on a similar edge of its binding pocket. A high school research project was aimed at testing whether the orthologous protein from the yellow fever mosquito, AaegOBP1, binds DEET and other insect repellents, and MOP was used as a positive control. Binding assays using the fluorescence reporter N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine (NPN) were inconclusive. However, titration of NPN fluorescence emission in AaegOBP1 solution with MOP led to unexpected and intriguing results. Quenching was observed in the initial phase of titration, but addition of higher doses of MOP led to a stepwise increase in fluorescence emission coupled with a blue shift, which can be explained at least in part by formation of MOP micelles to house stray NPN molecules. PMID:25671088

  15. Characterization of main cytokine sources from the innate and adaptive immune responses following primary 17DD yellow fever vaccination in adults.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Luiza; Martins, Marina Angela; Esprito-Santo, Luandra Ramos; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Ribeiro, Jos Geraldo Leite; Homma, Akira; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andra; Eli-Santos, Silvana Maria; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2011-01-10

    The mechanisms of immune response following yellow fever (YF-17DD) vaccination are still poorly understood. In this study, we have performed a longitudinal investigation (days 0, 7, 15 and 30) to characterize the cytokine profile of innate and adaptive immunity following YF-17DD first-time vaccination. Data from non-stimulated cultures demonstrated a prominent participation of the innate immunity with increased frequency of TNF-?(+) neutrophils and IFN-?(+) NK-cells at day 7 besides TNF-?(+) monocytes at day 7, day 15 and day 30. Increased frequency of IL-10(+) monocytes was observed at day 15 and day 30, and decreased percentage of IL-4(+) NK-cells were detected at day 7, day 15 and day 30. Time-dependent and oscillating cytokine pattern was observed in CD4(+) T-cells, with low percentage of IL-12(+), IL-4(+) and IL-10(+) cells at day 7 and increased frequency of TNF-?(+) cells at day 15 besides IFN-?(+) and IL-5(+) cells at day 15 and day 30. Later changes with increased percentage of IL-12(+) and IL-5(+)CD8(+) T-cells were observed at day 30. Increased frequency of IL-10(+) B-cells was observed at day 15, when seroconversion was detected in all vaccinees. The overall cytokine analysis of non-stimulated leukocytes showed a transient shift towards a pro-inflammatory profile at day 7, mainly due to changes in the innate immunity, which draws back toward a mixed/regulatory pattern at day 15 and day 30. The changes induced by the in vitro YF-17DD vaccine-stimulation were mainly observed at day 0 and day 7 (before seroconversion) with minor changes at day 15 and day 30 (after seroconversion). These data support the hypothesis that a complex network with mixed pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine profile is associated with the establishment of the protective immunity following YF-17DD primo-vaccination, free of adverse events. PMID:20732465

  16. Long-lasting stem cell-like memory CD8+ T cells with a naïve-like profile upon yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A; Soneson, Charlotte; Cagnon, Laurène; Gannon, Philippe O; Allard, Mathilde; Abed Maillard, Samia; Montandon, Nicole; Rufer, Nathalie; Waldvogel, Sophie; Delorenzi, Mauro; Speiser, Daniel E

    2015-04-01

    Efficient and persisting immune memory is essential for long-term protection from infectious and malignant diseases. The yellow fever (YF) vaccine is a live attenuated virus that mediates lifelong protection, with recent studies showing that the CD8(+) T cell response is particularly robust. Yet, limited data exist regarding the long-term CD8(+) T cell response, with no studies beyond 5 years after vaccination. We investigated 41 vaccinees, spanning 0.27 to 35 years after vaccination. YF-specific CD8(+) T cells were readily detected in almost all donors (38 of 41), with frequencies decreasing with time. As previously described, effector cells dominated the response early after vaccination. We detected a population of naïve-like YF-specific CD8(+) T cells that was stably maintained for more than 25 years and was capable of self-renewal ex vivo. In-depth analyses of markers and genome-wide mRNA profiling showed that naïve-like YF-specific CD8(+) T cells in vaccinees (i) were distinct from genuine naïve cells in unvaccinated donors, (ii) resembled the recently described stem cell-like memory subset (Tscm), and (iii) among all differentiated subsets, had profiles closest to naïve cells. Our findings reveal that CD8(+) Tscm are efficiently induced by a vaccine in humans, persist for decades, and preserve a naïveness-like profile. These data support YF vaccination as an optimal mechanistic model for the study of long-lasting memory CD8(+) T cells in humans. PMID:25855494

  17. The Human NK Cell Response to Yellow Fever Virus 17D Is Primarily Governed by NK Cell Differentiation Independently of NK Cell Education.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Nicole; Ivarsson, Martin A; Blom, Kim; Gonzalez, Veronica D; Braun, Monika; Falconer, Karolin; Gustafsson, Rasmus; Fogdell-Hahn, Anna; Sandberg, Johan K; Michaëlsson, Jakob

    2015-10-01

    NK cells play an important role in the defense against viral infections. However, little is known about the regulation of NK cell responses during the first days of acute viral infections in humans. In this study, we used the live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D as a human in vivo model to study the temporal dynamics and regulation of NK cell responses in an acute viral infection. YFV induced a robust NK cell response in vivo, with an early activation and peak in NK cell function at day 6, followed by a delayed peak in Ki67 expression, which was indicative of proliferation, at day 10. The in vivo NK cell response correlated positively with plasma type I/III IFN levels at day 6, as well as with the viral load. YFV induced an increased functional responsiveness to IL-12 and IL-18, as well as to K562 cells, indicating that the NK cells were primed in vivo. The NK cell responses were associated primarily with the stage of differentiation, because the magnitude of induced Ki67 and CD69 expression was distinctly higher in CD57(-) NK cells. In contrast, NK cells expressing self- and nonself-HLA class I-binding inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors contributed, to a similar degree, to the response. Taken together, our results indicate that NK cells are primed by type I/III IFN in vivo early after YFV infection and that their response is governed primarily by the differentiation stage, independently of killer cell Ig-like receptor/HLA class I-mediated inhibition or education. PMID:26283480

  18. Vaccination with Replication Deficient Adenovectors Encoding YF-17D Antigens Induces Long-Lasting Protection from Severe Yellow Fever Virus Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Maria R.; Larsen, Mads A. B.; Kongsgaard, Michael; Rasmussen, Michael; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Thomsen, Allan R.; Christensen, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) has been successfully used for more than 70 years. It is generally considered a safe vaccine, however, recent reports of serious adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns and led to suggestions that even safer YF vaccines should be developed. Replication deficient adenoviruses (Ad) have been widely evaluated as recombinant vectors, particularly in the context of prophylactic vaccination against viral infections in which induction of CD8+ T-cell mediated immunity is crucial, but potent antibody responses may also be elicited using these vectors. In this study, we present two adenobased vectors targeting non-structural and structural YF antigens and characterize their immunological properties. We report that a single immunization with an Ad-vector encoding the non-structural protein 3 from YF-17D could elicit a strong CD8+ T-cell response, which afforded a high degree of protection from subsequent intracranial challenge of vaccinated mice. However, full protection was only observed using a vector encoding the structural proteins from YF-17D. This vector elicited virus-specific CD8+ T cells as well as neutralizing antibodies, and both components were shown to be important for protection thus mimicking the situation recently uncovered in YF-17D vaccinated mice. Considering that Ad-vectors are very safe, easy to produce and highly immunogenic in humans, our data indicate that a replication deficient adenovector-based YF vaccine may represent a safe and efficient alternative to the classical live attenuated YF vaccine and should be further tested. PMID:26886513

  19. Vaccination with Replication Deficient Adenovectors Encoding YF-17D Antigens Induces Long-Lasting Protection from Severe Yellow Fever Virus Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Maria R; Larsen, Mads A B; Kongsgaard, Michael; Rasmussen, Michael; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Thomsen, Allan R; Christensen, Jan P

    2016-02-01

    The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) has been successfully used for more than 70 years. It is generally considered a safe vaccine, however, recent reports of serious adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns and led to suggestions that even safer YF vaccines should be developed. Replication deficient adenoviruses (Ad) have been widely evaluated as recombinant vectors, particularly in the context of prophylactic vaccination against viral infections in which induction of CD8+ T-cell mediated immunity is crucial, but potent antibody responses may also be elicited using these vectors. In this study, we present two adenobased vectors targeting non-structural and structural YF antigens and characterize their immunological properties. We report that a single immunization with an Ad-vector encoding the non-structural protein 3 from YF-17D could elicit a strong CD8+ T-cell response, which afforded a high degree of protection from subsequent intracranial challenge of vaccinated mice. However, full protection was only observed using a vector encoding the structural proteins from YF-17D. This vector elicited virus-specific CD8+ T cells as well as neutralizing antibodies, and both components were shown to be important for protection thus mimicking the situation recently uncovered in YF-17D vaccinated mice. Considering that Ad-vectors are very safe, easy to produce and highly immunogenic in humans, our data indicate that a replication deficient adenovector-based YF vaccine may represent a safe and efficient alternative to the classical live attenuated YF vaccine and should be further tested. PMID:26886513

  20. The genetic architecture of a complex trait: Resistance to multiple toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in the dengue and yellow fever vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Aurlie; Paris, Margot; Frrot, Hlne; Bianco, Erica; Tetreau, Guillaume; Desprs, Laurence

    2015-10-01

    The bacterial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is an increasingly popular alternative to chemical insecticides for controlling mosquito populations. Because Bti toxicity relies on the action of four main toxins, resistance to Bti is very likely a complex phenotype involving several genes simultaneously. Dissecting the underlying genetic basis thus requires associating a quantitative measure of resistance to genetic variation at many loci in a segregating population. Here, we undertake this task using the dengue and yellow fever vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, as a study model. We conducted QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) and admixture mapping analyses on two controlled crosses and on an artificial admixed population, respectively, all obtained from resistant and susceptible lab strains. We detected 16 QTL regions, among which four QTLs were revealed by different analysis methods. These four robust QTLs explained altogether 29.2% and 62.2% of the total phenotypic variance in the two QTL crosses, respectively. They also all showed a dominant mode of action. In addition, we found six loci showing statistical association with Bti resistance in the admixed population. Five of the supercontigs highlighted in this study contained candidate genes as suggested by their function, or by prior evidence from expression and/or outlier analyses. These genomic regions are thus good starting points for fine mapping of resistance to Bti or functional analyses aiming at identifying the underlying genes and mutations. Moreover, for the purpose of this work, we built the first Ae. aegypti genetic map based on markers associated with genes expressed in larvae. This genetic map harbors 229 SNP markers mapped across the three chromosomes for a total length of 311.9cM. It brought to light several assembly discrepancies with the reference genome, suggesting a high level of genome plasticity in Ae. aegypti. PMID:26238211

  1. Clinical and Epidemiological Features of Typhoid Fever in Pemba, Zanzibar: Assessment of the Performance of the WHO Case Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Thriemer, Kamala; Ley, Benedikt B.; Ame, Shaali S.; Deen, Jaqueline L.; Pak, Gi Deok; Chang, Na Yoon; Hashim, Ramadhan; Schmied, Wolfgang Hellmut; Busch, Clara Jana-Lui; Nixon, Shanette; Morrissey, Anne; Puri, Mahesh K.; Ochiai, R. Leon; Wierzba, Thomas; Clemens, John D.; Ali, Mohammad; Jiddawi, Mohammad S.; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Ali, Said M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The gold standard for diagnosis of typhoid fever is blood culture (BC). Because blood culture is often not available in impoverished settings it would be helpful to have alternative diagnostic approaches. We therefore investigated the usefulness of clinical signs, WHO case definition and Widal test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants with a body temperature ≥37.5°C or a history of fever were enrolled over 17 to 22 months in three hospitals on Pemba Island, Tanzania. Clinical signs and symptoms of participants upon presentation as well as blood and serum for BC and Widal testing were collected. Clinical signs and symptoms of typhoid fever cases were compared to other cases of invasive bacterial diseases and BC negative participants. The relationship of typhoid fever cases with rainfall, temperature, and religious festivals was explored. The performance of the WHO case definitions for suspected and probable typhoid fever and a local cut off titre for the Widal test was assessed. 79 of 2209 participants had invasive bacterial disease. 46 isolates were identified as typhoid fever. Apart from a longer duration of fever prior to admission clinical signs and symptoms were not significantly different among patients with typhoid fever than from other febrile patients. We did not detect any significant seasonal patterns nor correlation with rainfall or festivals. The sensitivity and specificity of the WHO case definition for suspected and probable typhoid fever were 82.6% and 41.3% and 36.3 and 99.7% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of the Widal test was 47.8% and 99.4 both forfor O-agglutinin and H- agglutinin at a cut-off titre of 1∶80. Conclusions/Significance Typhoid fever prevalence rates on Pemba are high and its clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific. The sensitivity of the Widal test is low and the WHO case definition performed better than the Widal test. PMID:23284780

  2. Tigecycline-induced Drug Fever and Leukemoid Reaction: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qian-Qian; Qin, Ling; Ruan, Gui-Ren; Chen, Ru-Xuan; Luan, Zi-Jian; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we describe a patient in whom tigecycline-induced drug fever and leukemoid reaction (LR) after 3 weeks of therapy for pneumonia.A 62-year-old man developed aspiration pneumonia on February 1, 2015. He had received multiple antibiotics at another hospital, but did not respond well. Disease rapidly progressed, and he was referred to our department on February 14. We adjusted the antibiotic therapy to tigecycline + vancomycin, and added voriconazole to empiric antifungal therapy. Pneumonia largely improved, and we discontinued vancomycin and voriconazole on February 28. With tigecycline monotherapy, his clinical status remained stable.On March 7, he developed high fever and LR (white blood cell count: 38.25 × 10(9)/L). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were elevated, and CD8+ T cells had been abnormally activated. After a careful physical examination and laboratory investigation, we confirmed that primary infection did not progress and no other cause was evident. So we figured fever and LR might be induced by tigecycline. After discontinuing tigecycline and adding low-dose steroid, fever and LR totally resolved in 3 days, which further confirmed our diagnosis.According to this case and literature review, drug-induced hypersensitivity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fever and LR when the therapeutic duration of tetracycline approximates 3 weeks. Monitoring T-cell subsets may facilitate early diagnosis. When necessary, we should discontinue the suspected drug to confirm diagnosis. PMID:26559254

  3. Dengue fever in a liver-transplanted patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dengue fever is one of the commonest mosquito-borne diseases in the tropics, and Sri Lanka is no exception. Despite its commonness, dengue fever has rarely been described among patients who have undergone transplantation. We report the case of a patient with dengue fever after liver transplantation, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first such reported case outside Brazil. Case presentation Our patient was a 46-year-old Sri Lakan man who presented to our institution two years after undergoing an ABO-compatible cadaveric liver transplant. At presentation, he had typical symptoms of dengue fever. He was taking prednisolone 5mg daily and tacrolimus 3mg twice daily as immunosuppression. Initial investigations showed thrombocytopenia and neutropenia that reached a nadir by day 7 of his illness. He had elevated liver enzymes as well. The diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of NS1 antigen detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. His blood cultures and polymerase chain reaction tests for cytomegalovirus were negative. He made an uneventful recovery and was discharged by day 9 of his illness. However, normalization of liver function took nearly two weeks. In three previously reported Brazilian cases of dengue after liver transplantation, the patients presented with dengue shock syndrome, in contrast to the relatively milder presentation of our patient. Because of the lack of case reports in the literature, it is difficult to ascertain the risk factors for severe dengue infection in transplants, but dengue fever reported in renal transplants sheds some light on them. High-dose steroids increase the risk of thrombocytopenia, whereas tacrolimus has been reported to prolong the duration of symptoms. Otherwise, dengue fever is a relatively mild illness in patients who have undergone renal transplantation, and renal allograft survival has been reported to be 86% following dengue fever. Conclusion Dengue is a rarely reported infection in patients who have undergone transplantation. A high degree of suspicion is required for diagnosis. Dengue NS1 antigen detection is a useful addition to the already existing methods of diagnosis. Steroids and tacrolimus have effects on the morbidity of the disease. Graft outcomes following the infection has been excellent in all reported cases. PMID:25412699

  4. [Haemorrhagic fever viruses, possible bioterrorist use].

    PubMed

    Rigaudeau, Sophie; Bricaire, Franois; Bossi, Philippe

    2005-01-29

    The majority of haemorrhagic fever viruses are responsible for various clinical manifestations, the mutual characteristics of which are fever and haemorrhage in 5 to 70% of cases. All degrees of severity can be observed, ranging from isolated fever to multi-organ failure and death. These viruses belong to one of the following families: filoviridae, arenaviridae, bunyaviridae, and flaviviridae. They must be considered as dangerous biological weapons that could potentially be used. Most of the viruses responsible for haemorrhagic fever can be transmitted to humans through the air in spray form, except the dengue virus and the agents of haemorrhagic fever from the Congo Crimea and the haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome that are difficult to handle in cell culture. In the event of a bioterrorist act, the management of persons infected or suspected of being so will be made by the referent departments of infectious diseases, defined by the French Biotox plan. Management includes isolation, confirmation or invalidation of the diagnosis and rapid initiation of treatment with ribavirin. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment and prophylaxis of arenavirus and bunyavirus infections; it is not effective for the other families of virus. Except for yellow fever, there is no vaccination for the other forms of viral haemorrhagic fever. PMID:15687968

  5. Direct determination of sorbitol and sodium glutamate by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) in the thermostabilizer employed in the production of yellow-fever vaccine.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Eduardo da S G; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-05-15

    Reference methods for quality control of vaccines usually require treatment of the samples before analysis. These procedures are expensive, time-consuming, unhealthy and require careful manipulation of the sample, making them a potential source of analytical errors. This work proposes a novel method for the quality control of thermostabilizer samples of the yellow fever vaccine employing attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR). The main advantage of the proposed method is the possibility of direct determination of the analytes (sodium glutamate and sorbitol) without any pretreatment of the samples. Operational parameters of the FTIR technique, such as the number of accumulated scans and nominal resolution, were evaluated. The best conditions for sodium glutamate were achieved when 64 scans were accumulated using a nominal resolution of 4cm(-1). The measurements for sodium glutamate were performed at 1347cm(-)(1) (baseline correction between 1322 and 1369cm(-1)). In the case of sorbitol, the measurements were done at 890cm(-1) (baseline correction between 825 and 910cm(-1)) using a nominal resolution of 2cm(-1) with 32 accumulated scans. In both cases, the quantitative variable was the band height. Recovery tests were performed in order to evaluate the accuracy of the method and recovery percentages in the range 93-106% were obtained. Also, the methods were compared with reference methods and no statistical differences were observed. The limits of detection and quantification for sodium glutamate were 0.20 and 0.62% (m/v), respectively, whereas for sorbitol they were 1 and 3.3% (m/v), respectively. PMID:26992492

  6. A Case of Hepatic Fasciolosis Presented with Prolonged Fever in Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    SANAEI DASHTI, Anahita; NASIMFAR, Amir; SHOWRAKI, Alireza; GERAMI-ZADEH, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human fasciolosis is deemed as an emerging/re-emerging infection, hence making it an important human parasitic disease. In contrast to northern parts of Iran, human cases of fasciolosis in southern Iran are rare and sporadic. We report a sporadic case of fasciolosis in southern Iran (Fars Province) who presented with prolonged fever. Our report could suggest that there might be new foci emerging in the region, which indicates the need for further investigations. PMID:25905064

  7. Should clinical case definitions of influenza in hospitalized older adults include fever?

    PubMed Central

    Falsey, Ann R; Baran, Andrea; Walsh, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly persons. Fever is included in all standard definitions of influenza-like illness (ILI), yet older patients may have diminished febrile response to infection. Therefore, we examined the utility of various thresholds to define fever for case definitions of influenza in persons ?65years of age. Methods Data from two prospective surveillance studies for respiratory viral infection in adults hospitalized with acute cardiopulmonary illnesses with or without fever were examined. The highest temperature reported prior to admission or measured during the first 24h after admission was recorded. The diagnosis of influenza was made by a combination of viral culture, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, antigen testing, and serology. Results A total of 2410 subjects (66% ?65years of age) were enrolled; 281 had influenza (261 influenza A, 19 influenza B, and one mixed influenza A and B). The commonly used definition of ILI (fever ?378C and cough) resulted in 57% sensitivity and 71% specificity in older adults. Receiver operating characteristic curves examining the various temperature thresholds combined with cough and/or sore throat showed the optimal balance between sensitivity and specificity to be 379C (AUC 071) and 373C (AUC 066), in younger and older persons, respectively. Conclusion Clinical decision rules using the presence of cough and fever may be helpful when screening for influenza or empiric antiviral treatment when rapid influenza testing is not available; however, lower fever thresholds may be considered for elderly subjects. PMID:26256292

  8. Regional dust storm modeling for health services: The case of valley fever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Galgiani, John N.; Pejanovic, Goran; Petkovic, Slavko; Vujadinovic, Mirjam; Vukovic, Ana; Dacic, Milan; DiBiase, Scott; Prasad, Anup; El-Askary, Hesham

    2014-09-01

    On 5 July 2011, a massive dust storm struck Phoenix, Arizona (USA), raising concerns for increased cases of valley fever (coccidioidomycosis, or, cocci). A quasi-operational experimental airborne dust forecast system predicted the event and provides model output for continuing analysis in collaboration with public health and air quality communities. An objective of this collaboration was to see if a signal in cases of valley fever in the region could be detected and traced to the storm - an American haboob. To better understand the atmospheric life cycle of cocci spores, the DREAM dust model (also herein, NMME-DREAM) was modified to simulate spore emission, transport and deposition. Inexact knowledge of where cocci-causing fungus grows, the low resolution of cocci surveillance and an overall active period for significant dust events complicate analysis of the effect of the 5 July 2011 storm. In the larger context of monthly to annual disease surveillance, valley fever statistics, when compared against PM10 observation networks and modeled airborne dust concentrations, may reveal a likely cause and effect. Details provided by models and satellites fill time and space voids in conventional approaches to air quality and disease surveillance, leading to land-atmosphere modeling and remote sensing that clearly mark a path to advance valley fever epidemiology, surveillance and risk avoidance.

  9. Case report: Co-infection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Streptococcus pyogenes: is fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever underdiagnosed?

    PubMed

    Raczniak, Gregory A; Kato, Cecilia; Chung, Ida H; Austin, Amy; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Weis, Erica; Levy, Craig; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria S; Mitchell, Audrey; Bjork, Adam; Regan, Joanna J

    2014-12-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is challenging to diagnose and rapidly fatal if not treated. We describe a decedent who was co-infected with group A β-hemolytic streptococcus and R. rickettsii. Fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever may be underreported because they present as difficult to diagnose co-infections. PMID:25331804

  10. A case of typhoid Fever with hepatic granulomas and enteritis.

    PubMed

    Narechania, Shraddha; Duran, Marc; Karivedu, Vidhya; Gopalakrishna, K V

    2015-01-01

    The common histopathologic hepatic manifestations in patients infected with Salmonella include cloudy swelling and balloon degeneration with vacuolation of the hepatocytes and steatosis. Hepatic granulomas are a very rare finding, so far reported in very few cases. We report a 64-year-old patient with Salmonella enteritis who was found to have multiple 1.4 to 1.6 cm hypoechoic liver masses on ultrasound of the abdomen which on biopsy revealed hepatic granulomas. This case highlights the importance of keeping the differential diagnosis of Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) in mind in a patient with hepatic granulomas. PMID:25699196

  11. Increase in paratyphoid fever cases in Japanese travellers returning from Cambodia in 2013.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, T; Morita, M; Shimada, T; Izumiya, H; Kanayama, A; Oishi, K; Ohnishi, M; Sunagawa, T

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, an unusual increase of paratyphoid fever cases in travellers returning from Cambodia was reported in Japan. From December 2012 to September 2013, 18 cases of Salmonella Paratyphi A infection were identified. Microbiological analyses revealed that most isolates had the same clonal identity, although the epidemiological link between these cases remains unclear. It was inferred that the outbreak was caused by a common and persistent source in Cambodia that was likely to have continued during 2014. The information of surveillance and laboratory data from cases arising in travellers from countries with limited surveillance systems should be timely shared with the country of origin. PMID:26169980

  12. Clinical presentation and laboratory findings for the first autochthonous cases of dengue fever in Madeira island, Portugal, October 2012.

    PubMed

    Alves, M J; Fernandes, P L; Amaro, F; Osrio, H; Luz, T; Parreira, P; Andrade, G; Z-Z, L; Zeller, H

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of dengue fever in Madeira island was reported in 2012. Clinical and laboratory findings of the first two laboratory-confirmed autochthonous cases are reported. Both cases had fever (?38 C) and petechial rash. Symptoms also included myalgia, asthenia, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diffuse abdominal pain, and diarrhoea. The two cases were confirmed by serology and one tested positive for a dengue viral sequence. Dengue virus serotype DEN-1 was identified with probable Central or South American origin. PMID:23410256

  13. Impact of road networks on the distribution of dengue fever cases in Trinidad, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Mahabir, R S; Severson, D W; Chadee, D D

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the impact of road networks on the distribution of dengue fever cases in Trinidad, West Indies. All confirmed cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) observed during 1998 were georeferenced and spatially located on a road map of Trinidad using Geographic Information Systems software. A new digital geographic layer representing these cases was created and the distances from these cases to the nearest classified road category (5 classifications based on a functional utility system) were examined. The distance from each spatially located DHF case to the nearest road in each of the 5 road subsets was determined and then subjected to an ANOVA and t-test to determine levels of association between minor road networks (especially 3rd and 4th class roads) and DHF cases and found DHF cases were located away from forests, especially 5th class roads). The frequency of DHF cases to different road classes was: 0% (1st class roads), 7% (2nd class roads), 32% (3rd class roads), 57% (4th class roads) and 4% (5th class road). The data clearly demonstrated that both class 3 and class 4 roads account for 89% of nearby dengue cases. These results represent the first evidence of dengue cases being found restricted between forested areas and major highways and would be useful when planning and implementing control strategies for dengue and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. PMID:22609547

  14. Report of nine cases of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever From Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein; Mirjalili, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an often fatal viral infection described in about 30 countries around the world. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick and by direct contact with blood or tissue from infected humans and livestock. In the following, we report nine cases of CCHF disease. This paper reported nine human CCHF cases, two in Tabas and Bandar Abbas and seven in Yazd. They were 21-, 33-, 28-, 29-, 61, 34, 35, 36 and 52 year-old men. The first, second and third patients were butchers and other patients were farmers. CCHF should be investigated in the patients with fever, bleeding and low platelet counts. PMID:25838635

  15. Fever as a first manifestation of advanced gastric adenosquamous carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Ajoodhea, Harsha; Zhang, Ren-Chao; Xu, Xiao-Wu; Jin, Wei-Wei; Chen, Ke; He, Yong-Tao; Mou, Yi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Gastric adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) is a rare type of gastric cancer. It is a mixed neoplasm, consisting of glandular cells and squamous cells. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, thus carrying a poor prognosis. We describe a case of a 73-year-old male, who presented with refractory fever and an intra-abdominal mass on imaging. He underwent a laparoscopic exploration followed by a successful totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. Postoperative pathology revealed primary gastric ASC (T4aN0M0). The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy with S1 and is alive 20 mo after surgery without recurrence. This is the first case of advanced gastric ASC with fever as the initial presentation treated with totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy reported in the English literature. PMID:25110448

  16. Brazilian spotted fever: real-time PCR for diagnosis of fatal cases.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Fabiana Cristina Pereira; do Nascimento, Elvira Maria Mendes; Katz, Gizelda; Angerami, Rodrigo Nogueira; Colombo, Silvia; de Souza, Eliana Rodrigues; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius

    2012-12-01

    Suspicion of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) should occur in endemic regions upon surveillance of the acute febrile icteric hemorrhagic syndrome (AFIHS). However, limitations associated with currently available laboratory tests pose a challenge to early diagnosis, especially in fatal cases. Two real-time PCR (qPCR) protocols were evaluated to diagnose BSF in 110 fatal AFIHS cases, collected in BSF-endemic regions in 2009-2010. Of these, 24 were positive and 86 negative by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) assay (cut-off IgG and/or IgM ? 128). DNA from these samples was used in the qPCR protocols: one to detect Rickettsia spp. (citrate synthase gene) and another to determine spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia species (OmpA gene). Of the 24 IFA-positive samples, 5 (21%) were positive for OmpA and 9 (38%) for citrate synthase. In the IFA-negative group (n=86), OmpA and citrate synthase were positive in 23 (27%) and 27 (31%), respectively. These results showed that the 2 qPCR protocols were about twice as sensitive as the IFA test alone (93% concordance). In conclusion, qPCR is a sensitive method for the diagnosis of fatal BSF cases and should be considered for routine surveillance of AFIHS in places like Brazil, where spotted fever-related lethality is high and other endemic diseases like dengue and leptospirosis can mislead diagnosis. PMID:23168050

  17. A fatal urban case of rocky mountain spotted fever presenting an eschar in San Jose, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Argüello, Ana Patricia; Hun, Laya; Rivera, Patricia; Taylor, Lizeth

    2012-08-01

    This study reports the first urban human case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, in Costa Rica. An 8-year-old female who died at the National Children's Hospital 4 days after her admission, and an important and significant observation was the presence of an "eschar" (tache noire), which is typical in some rickettsial infections but not frequent in Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases. PMID:22855769

  18. A Fatal Urban Case of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Presenting an Eschar in San Jos, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Argello, Ana Patricia; Hun, Laya; Rivera, Patricia; Taylor, Lizeth

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the first urban human case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, in Costa Rica. An 8-year-old female who died at the National Children's Hospital 4 days after her admission, and an important and significant observation was the presence of an eschar (tache noire), which is typical in some rickettsial infections but not frequent in Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases. PMID:22855769

  19. New approaches for the standardization and validation of a real-time qPCR assay using TaqMan probes for quantification of yellow fever virus on clinical samples with high quality parameters

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes-Monteiro, Alice G; Trindade, Gisela F; Yamamura, Anna MY; Moreira, Otacilio C; de Paula, Vanessa S; Duarte, Ana Cláudia M; Britto, Constança; Lima, Sheila Maria B

    2015-01-01

    The development and production of viral vaccines, in general, involve several steps that need the monitoring of viral load throughout the entire process. Applying a 2-step quantitative reverse transcription real time PCR assay (RT-qPCR), viral load can be measured and monitored in a few hours. In this context, the development, standardization and validation of a RT-qPCR test to quickly and efficiently quantify yellow fever virus (YFV) in all stages of vaccine production are extremely important. To serve this purpose we used a plasmid construction containing the NS5 region from 17DD YFV to generate the standard curve and to evaluate parameters such as linearity, precision and specificity against other flavivirus. Furthermore, we defined the limits of detection as 25 copies/reaction, and quantification as 100 copies/reaction for the test. To ensure the quality of the method, reference controls were established in order to avoid false negative results. The qRT-PCR technique based on the use of TaqMan probes herein standardized proved to be effective for determining yellow fever viral load both in vivo and in vitro, thus becoming a very important tool to assure the quality control for vaccine production and evaluation of viremia after vaccination or YF disease. PMID:26011746

  20. New approaches for the standardization and validation of a real-time qPCR assay using TaqMan probes for quantification of yellow fever virus on clinical samples with high quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Monteiro, Alice G; Trindade, Gisela F; Yamamura, Anna M Y; Moreira, Otacilio C; de Paula, Vanessa S; Duarte, Ana Cláudia M; Britto, Constança; Lima, Sheila Maria B

    2015-01-01

    The development and production of viral vaccines, in general, involve several steps that need the monitoring of viral load throughout the entire process. Applying a 2-step quantitative reverse transcription real time PCR assay (RT-qPCR), viral load can be measured and monitored in a few hours. In this context, the development, standardization and validation of a RT-qPCR test to quickly and efficiently quantify yellow fever virus (YFV) in all stages of vaccine production are extremely important. To serve this purpose we used a plasmid construction containing the NS5 region from 17DD YFV to generate the standard curve and to evaluate parameters such as linearity, precision and specificity against other flavivirus. Furthermore, we defined the limits of detection as 25 copies/reaction, and quantification as 100 copies/reaction for the test. To ensure the quality of the method, reference controls were established in order to avoid false negative results. The qRT-PCR technique based on the use of TaqMan probes herein standardized proved to be effective for determining yellow fever viral load both in vivo and in vitro, thus becoming a very important tool to assure the quality control for vaccine production and evaluation of viremia after vaccination or YF disease. PMID:26011746

  1. Acute mercury poisoning presenting as fever of unknown origin in an adult woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mercury intoxication may present in a wide range of clinical forms from a simple disease to fatal poisoning. This article presents a case of acute mercury poisoning, a rare condition that presents challenges for diagnosis with fever of unknown origin. Case presentation A 52-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital with high fever, sore throat, a rash over her entire body, itching, nausea, and extensive muscle pain. She had cervical, bilateral axillary and mediastinal lymphadenopathies. We learned that her son and husband had similar symptoms. After excluding infectious pathologies, autoimmune diseases and malignancy were investigated. Multiple organs of our patient were involved and her fever persisted at the fourth week of admission. A repeat medical history elicited that her son had brought mercury home from school and put it on the hot stove, and the family had been exposed to the fumes for a long period of time. Our patient’s serum and urine mercury levels were high. She was diagnosed with mercury poisoning and treated accordingly. Conclusions Mercury vapor is a colourless and odorless substance. Therefore, patients with various unexplained symptoms and clinical conditions should be questioned about possible exposure to mercury. PMID:25084829

  2. [Chikungunya fever in Mexico: confirmed case and notes on the epidemiologic response].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Ávila, Roberto Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is a viral disease transmitted to human beings by the same vector as dengue -the Aedes mosquito. Besides fever and severe pain in the joints, it produces other symptoms such as myalgias, headache, nausea, fatigue and exanthema. There is no specific treatment for it; the therapeutic management of patients focuses on symptom relief. Historically, outbreaks of large proportions have been reported; even since 2010 it was considered to be a potential emerging epidemic. In 2013 it was introduced into the islands of the Caribbean, and it has recently been reported in the American continent. This paper describes the first confirmed case of chikungunya in Mexico -in the municipality of Tlajomulco de Zúñiga, Jalisco, in May, 2014-, which was imported from the Caribbean island of Antigua and Barbuda by a 39 year-old woman. PMID:25604181

  3. Dengue Fever Among Renal Transplant Recipients: A Series of 10 Cases in a Tropical Country.

    PubMed

    Costa, Silvana Daher; da Silva, Geraldo Bezerra; Jacinto, Camilla Neves; Martiniano, Lorena Vasconcelos Mesquita; Amaral, Yago Sucupira; Paes, Fernando Jose Villar Nogueira; De Mattos Brito Oliveira Sales, Maria Luiza; de Matos Esmeraldo, Ronaldo; De Francesco Daher, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    This is a case series of 10 consecutive renal allograft recipients, followed at a tertiary hospital in northeast Brazil, with a confirmed diagnosis of dengue. Five of the patients needed hospitalization. Half of them were males and age ranged from 19 to 60 years with a median of 38.2 years. They had been transplanted for a mean of 5 days to 166 months. Four patients developed dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). All patients had myalgia and headache. All of them, except one, had fever. Positive dengue serology (IgM) was found in all patients. No patient died. Dengue is an important infectious disease that can affect renal transplant recipients, mainly in endemic areas. Its presentation seems to be similar to that seen in immunocompetent patients. PMID:26033028

  4. Non-choroidal yellow melanoma showing positive staining with Sudan Black consistent with the presence of lipofuscin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jegou Penouil, Marie Hlne; Gourhant, Jean-Yves; Segretin, Catherine; Weedon, David; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2014-04-01

    A case of a predominantly yellow primary superficial spreading melanoma arising on the back of a 44-year-old woman is presented. Possible causes of the clinical and dermatoscopic yellow color are discussed. Staining with the histochemical stain, Sudan Black, revealed a differential uptake compared to a closely matched control melanoma. We speculate that the clinical and dermatoscopic yellow color could be due to the presence of increased amounts of the pigment lipofuscin, which is known to produce subtle orange color in some choroidal melanomas. PMID:24855574

  5. [A Case of Clinically Mild Encephalitis/encephalopathy with a Reversible Splenial Lesion due to Dengue Fever].

    PubMed

    Saito, Nobuo; Kitashouji, Emi; Kojiro, Maiko; Furumoto, Akitugu; Morimoto, Konosuke; Morita, Kouichi; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2015-07-01

    Clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) has been recently proposed as a clinical-radiological syndrome. Several causes of MERS have been reported including infectious diseases. We present herein on a case of MERS induced by dengue fever in a Japanese traveler. A 48-year-old male returning from Thailand and Cambodia was admitted for an unknown fever. Following admission, the dengue virus was diagnosed with a positive RT-PCR result. On day 5 of the illness, regardless of reduced fever, weakness suddenly developed in both upper limbs. A cerebral MRI showed hyperintensities in the splenium of the corpus callosum on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted images. The symptoms resolved completely within two days of onset. The patient was diagnosed as having MERS due to the MRI features and the mild clinical course. Although only a few cases of MERS caused by dengue fever have been reported, the condition is possibly underdiagnosed. It is hypothesized that dengue fever can induce MERS as dengue fever can cause increased endothelium permeability and hypo-sodium which have been proposed in the pathogenesis of MERS. However, there is currently limited evidence for this. Further research is recommended to demonstrate a causal association between dengue fever and MERS. PMID:26554222

  6. Two cases with acute abdominal aneurysm and evidence of acute Q fever infection.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, Julia C J P; Kampschreur, Linda M; de Jager-Leclercq, Monique G L; van Petersen, Andr S; Moll, Frans L; Renders, Nicole H M; Wever, Peter C; Koning, Olivier H J; Hoornenborg, Elske

    2014-02-01

    We report 2 patients with symptomatic aortic aneurysm and serologic evidence of acute Q fever with positive Coxiella burnetii PCR in blood/tissue. This suggests a role for acute Q fever in aneurysm progression. Diagnostic testing for Q fever infection in patients with symptomatic aneurysms in Q fever areas is recommended. PMID:24368182

  7. Postpolypectomy Fever, a Rare Adverse Event of Polypectomy: Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Jeong, Kee Wook; Ye, Byong Duk; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Although postpolypectomy fever (PPF) without colon perforation or hemorrhage is rare, its incidence and risk factors have not been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence and risk factors for PPF among inpatients. Methods Seven patients with PPF were matched with 70 patients without PPF from a total of 3,444 patients who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy. The PPF incidence during index hospitalization after colonoscopy was calculated, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for risk factors. Results PPF without bleeding or perforation in the colon occurred in seven patients (0.2%). The median age was 58 years for cases and 61 years for controls. The median interval from polypectomy to occurrence of fever was 7 hours, and the median duration of fever was 9 hours. Polyp size >2 cm (adjusted OR, 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.15; p=0.02) and hypertension (adjusted OR, 14.40; 95% CI, 1.23 to 180.87; p=0.03) were associated with a significantly increased risk of PPF. PPF increased the length of hospitalization. Conclusions Although the crude incidence of PPF is low, PPF may prolong hospitalization. Risk factors for PPF include hypertension and large polyps. PMID:24944987

  8. A rare case of regressively changed lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum presenting with anemia and recurrent fever.

    PubMed

    Rob, Daniel; Kuchynka, Petr; Palecek, Tomas; Cerny, Vladimir; Masek, Martin; Vitkova, Ivana; Rucklova, Zuzana; Nemecek, Eduard; Zogala, David; Linhart, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIS) is characterized by excessive accumulation of adipose tissue within some segments of the interatrial septum. Only one published case so far describes fever as a presenting feature of LHIS. On the other hand, systemic symptoms including anemia and fever are well-known clinical presentations of cardiac myxomas. We report an unusual case of a 79-year-old woman who was thoroughly but unsuccessfully investigated for recurrent fever and anemia in several specialized departments over the course of 4years. Computed tomography scan showed a pathological mass localized in the interatrial septum and spreading to ascending aorta. Histological analysis of the biopsy samples from surgery revealed the unexpected diagnosis of regressively changed LHIS. We discuss the clinical and pathologic features of this lesion suggesting that its regressive changes may be associated with inflammation and can cause systemic symptoms such as fever and anemia. PMID:26453091

  9. Travelers' Health: Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... suggest that simultaneous administration of oral polio or yellow fever vaccine decreases the immunogenicity of Ty21a. If typhoid vaccination ... combination with antimalarial drugs, oral polio vaccine, or yellow fever vaccine. J Infect Dis. 1997 Apr;175(4):871– ...

  10. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000 may be imported. (2) Casings that are derived from bovines that... spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or...

  11. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000 may be imported. (2) Casings that are derived from bovines that... spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or...

  12. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000 may be imported. (2) Casings that are derived from bovines that... spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or...

  13. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000 may be imported. (2) Casings that are derived from bovines that... spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or...

  14. Chronic Q-Fever (Coxiella burnetii) Causing Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Lumbar Osteomyelitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Leahey, P. Alexander; Tahan, Steven R.; Kasper, Ekkehard M.; Albrecht, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a rare cause of chronic infection that most frequently presents as endocarditis. We report a case of C burnetii causing an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm with contiguous lumbar osteomyelitis resulting in spinal cord compromise. The diagnosis was established by serologic studies consistent with chronic Q-fever (ratio of C burnetii immunoglobulin [Ig]G phase II titer to IgG phase I titer <1) and was confirmed by positive C burnetii polymerase chain reaction of vertebral tissue in addition to pathology of vertebral bone showing intracellular Gram-negative coccobacillary bacteria. The patient clinically improved after surgical decompression and prolonged treatment with doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine. PMID:26730393

  15. A case of Mediterranean spotted fever associated with severe respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Delalija, Boris; Punda-Poli?, Volga; Medi?, Alan; Mraovi?, Boris; imurina, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is usually a mild endemic rickettsial disease occurring in southern Croatia. We have reported the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of an acute MSF case associated with severe respiratory distress syndrome and hemodynamical instability. The patient recovered completely after antimicrobial treatment. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (FOCUS Diagnostics Inc.) was performed to detect IgM and IgG antibodies to Rickettsia conorii. A significant increase of both IgM and IgG antibody titres found in paired acute- and convalescent-phase serum confirmed the diagnosis of acute MSF. PMID:26344605

  16. Maternal mortality in a rural Tanzanian hospital: fatal Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in a case of relapsing fever in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rustenhoven-Spaan, Ilona; Melkert, Peter; Nelissen, Ellen; van Roosmalen, Jos; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2013-10-01

    Relapsing fever is a disease caused by one of the species of Borrelia. It is often misdiagnosed as malaria and can have fatal complications such as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) after the commencement of treatment with antibiotics. A 19-year-old Tanzanian woman was admitted after a term home delivery that day. She presented with a 2 day history of fever, headache, general body malaise and vomiting. She was misdiagnosed as having severe malaria and was treated with quinine. The blood slide showed Borrelia duttoni. The patient continued treatment with procaine penicillin fortified for relapsing fever. Several hours later the woman died, probably due to JHR. This case of a patient with relapsing fever who died from a JHR stresses the importance of adequate diagnosis and treatment which should include careful monitoring, especially for the first hours after starting antibiotics. PMID:23976777

  17. [A Fatal Case of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Complicated by Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masahiko; Azuma, Taichi; Yasukawa, Masaki; Shinomiya, Hiroto

    2015-09-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a recently identified emerging viral infectious disease in China that is caused by a novel phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae, SFTS virus, with an average case fatality rate of 12-30%. A cytokine storm with abnormally expressed cytokine profiles is associated with the disease severity. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an aggressive and lifethreatening syndrome associated with excessive immune activation. We report herein on a fatal case of SFTS complicated by HLH. Consecutive plasma exchange and immunomodulatory therapy was ineffective in our case. The pathognomonic histological feature was necrotizing lymphadenitis with massive hemophagocytosis of systemic lymphoid tissues with SFTS viruses and SFTS-RNA copies. No specific treatment of SFTS is available, and an effective treatment strategy for patients with rapidly progressing SFTS has not been established. Appropriate immunomodulatory therapy is necessary for SFTS patients complicated by HLH. PMID:26630792

  18. Notes from the Field: Outbreak of Locally Acquired Cases of Dengue Fever - Hawaii, 2015.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David; Viray, Melissa; Ushiroda, Jenny; Whelen, A Christian; Sciulli, Rebecca; Gose, Remedios; Lee, Roland; Honda, Eric; Park, Sarah Y

    2016-01-01

    On October 21, 2015, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of a positive dengue immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody result in a woman residing on Hawaii Island (also known as the Big Island). The patient had no history of travel off the island, and other family members reported having similar signs and symptoms, which consisted of fever, headache, myalgias and arthralgias, and a generalized erythematous rash. HDOH initiated an investigation to identify any additional cases and potential exposure sources. On October 24, HDOH received report of a group of mainland U.S. visitors who had traveled together on Hawaii Island, including several who had developed a febrile illness. Additionally, on October 27, HDOH was notified of an unrelated person, also on Hawaii Island, with a positive dengue IgM result. As of November 26, 2015, HDOH had identified 107 laboratory-confirmed cases of dengue fever (1), with dates of onset ranging from September 11 to November 18, 2015 (Figure). PMID:26796994

  19. El Nio Southern Oscillation and vegetation dynamics as predictors of dengue fever cases in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fuller, D O; Troyo, A; Beier, J C

    2009-03-01

    Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are growing health concerns throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. This study focuses on Costa Rica, which experienced over 100 000 cases of DF/DHF from 2003 to 2007. We utilized data on sea-surface temperature anomalies related to the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and two vegetation indices derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) from the Terra satellite to model the influence of climate and vegetation dynamics on DF/DHF cases in Costa Rica. Cross-correlations were calculated to evaluate both positive and negative lag effects on the relationships between independent variables and DF/DHF cases. The model, which utilizes a sinusoid and non-linear least squares to fit case data, was able to explain 83% of the variance in weekly DF/DHF cases when independent variables were shifted backwards in time. When the independent variables were shifted forward in time, consistently with a forecasting approach, the model explained 64% of the variance. Importantly, when five ENSO and two vegetation indices were included, the model reproduced a major DF/DHF epidemic of 2005. The unexplained variance in the model may be due to herd immunity and vector control measures, although information regarding these aspects of the disease system are generally lacking. Our analysis suggests that the model may be used to predict DF/DHF outbreaks as early as 40 weeks in advance and may also provide valuable information on the magnitude of future epidemics. In its current form it may be used to inform national vector control programs and policies regarding control measures; it is the first climate-based dengue model developed for this country and is potentially scalable to the broader region of Latin America and the Caribbean where dramatic increases in DF/DHF incidence and spread have been observed. PMID:19763186

  20. A Case of Adult-Onset Acute Rheumatic Fever With Long-Lasting Atrioventricular Block Requiring Permanent Pacemaker Implantation.

    PubMed

    Oba, Yusuke; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Yoshioki; Ueno, Shuichi; Nagashima, Takao; Imai, Yasushi; Shimpo, Masahisa; Kario, Kazuomi

    2015-12-01

    A 45-year-old hypertensive Japanese woman presented with epigastric pain on inspiration, fever, complete atrioventricular block and polyarthritis. Her antistreptolysin O levels were markedly elevated. A diagnosis of rheumatic fever was made according to the modified Jones criteria. She was prescribed loxoprofen sodium, which was partially effective for her extracardiac clinical symptoms. However, she had syncope due to complete atrioventricular block with asystole longer than 10 seconds. Consequently, we implanted a permanent pacemaker. Although we prescribed prednisolone, the efficacy of which was limited for the patient's conduction disturbance, the complete atrioventricular block persisted. In our systematic review of 12 similar cases, the duration of complete heart block was always transient and there was no case requiring a permanent pacemaker. We thus encountered a very rare case of adult-onset acute rheumatic fever with persistent complete atrioventricular block necessitating permanent pacemaker implantation. PMID:26549396

  1. Guidance for contact tracing of cases of Lassa fever, Ebola or Marburg haemorrhagic fever on an airplane: results of a European expert consultation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Travel from countries where viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are endemic has increased significantly over the past decades. In several reported VHF events on airplanes, passenger trace back was initiated but the scale of the trace back differed considerably. The absence of guidance documents to help the decision on necessity and scale of the trace back contributed to this variation. This article outlines the recommendations of an expert panel on Lassa fever, Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever to the wider scientific community in order to advise the relevant stakeholders in the decision and scale of a possible passenger trace back. Method The evidence was collected through review of published literature and through the views of an expert panel. The guidance was agreed by consensus. Results Only a few events of VHF cases during air travel are reported in literature, with no documented infection in followed up contacts, so that no evidence of transmission of VHF during air travel exists to date. Based on this and the expert opinion, it was recommended that passenger trace back was undertaken only if: the index case had symptoms during the flight; the flight was within 21 days after detection of the event; and for Lassa fever if exposure of body fluid has been reported. The trace back should only be done after confirmation of the index case. Passengers and crew with direct contact, seat neighbours (+/− 1 seat), crew and cleaning personal of the section of the index case should be included in the trace back. Conclusion No evidence has been found for the transmission of VHF in airplanes. This information should be taken into account, when a trace back decision has to be taken, because such a measure produces an enormous work load. The procedure suggested by the expert group can guide decisions made in future events, where a patient with suspected VHF infection travelled on a plane. However, the actual decision on start and scale of a trace back always lies in the hands of the responsible people taking all relevant information into account. PMID:23170851

  2. Clinical response in patients with dengue fever to oral calcium plus vitamin D administration: study of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Snchez-Valdz, Emilio; Delgado-Aradillas, Melissa; Torres-Martnez, Jos Angel; Torres-Bentez, Jos Martn

    2009-01-01

    A dengue epidemic is one of the most important public health problems in the tropical and subtropical areas of the World. In 2005, 7,062 dengue cases were reported in Tamaulipas on Mexico's eastern coast, including 1,832 (26%) cases classified as Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). Dengue fever (DF) is characterized by fever, intense headache, myalgias, arthralgias, rash, nausea and vomiting. A proportion of infected persons may develop DHF characterized by prominent hemorrhagic manifestations associated with thrombocytopenia. An immune mechanism of thrombocytopenia due to increased platelet destruction appears to be operative in patients with DHF. Excessive capillary permeability may lead to Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS). Patients with DHF/DSS who also have prolonged fever (> 5 days) are at high risk for concurrent bacteremia. Standard treatment is limited to electrolytic solutions, rest, measurements of body temperature, blood pressure, hematocrit, platelet count, and administration of antipyretics like paracetamol when fever is too high. Extracellular calcium plays a key role in platelet aggregation and for the regulation of the immune response in personsinfected with Dengue Virus (DV), and dihydroxy-vitamin D has recently been found to alter IL-12 expression anddendritic cell maturation. We report the cases of five patients who received oral calcium carbonate plus Vitamin D3, who improved overall clinical condition and reduced the duration of signs and symptoms of DF. PMID:22128411

  3. IgA-dominant acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis with concomitant rheumatic fever successfully treated with steroids: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rus, Rina R; Toplak, Nataša; Vizjak, Alenka; Mraz, Jerica; Ferluga, Dušan

    2015-12-31

    There are only a few reports of the co-occurrence of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APGN) and acute rheumatic fever. We report an unusual case of a 3-year-old boy with nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure with the transitional need for peritoneal dialysis, biopsy-proven atypical IgA-dominant APGN, and concomitant acute rheumatic fever, successfully treated by steroids. Aggressive treatment with pulses of methylprednisolone proved to be successful and we recommend its use in this type of cases. PMID:26718763

  4. IgA-dominant acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis with concomitant rheumatic fever successfully treated with steroids: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Rus, Rina R; Toplak, Nataa; Vizjak, Alenka; Mraz, Jerica; Ferluga, Duan

    2015-01-01

    There are only a few reports of the co-occurrence of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APGN) and acute rheumatic fever. We report an unusual case of a 3-year-old boy with nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure with the transitional need for peritoneal dialysis, biopsy-proven atypical IgA-dominant APGN, and concomitant acute rheumatic fever, successfully treated by steroids. Aggressive treatment with pulses of methylprednisolone proved to be successful and we recommend its use in this type of cases. PMID:26718763

  5. [Viral haemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Masuda, G

    1997-08-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fever denotes various kinds of febrile illness caused by certain viruses which often presents with bleeding tendency and occasionally shock. Out of these, the four maladies, Lassa fever, Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Marburg haemorrhagic fever and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever which are endemically present in Africa or eastern Europe, are known to be such diseases with high man-to-man communicability. These four haemorrhagic fevers are, therefore, designated as special conditions requiring isolation during the period when the infected patients are shedding the viruses, not only in Japan but also in many other countries. We have so far only one such case of Lassa fever who returned to Japan from Sierra Leone in 1987. Some haemorrhagic fevers including dengue (haemorrhagic) fever and hantavirus infections (e.g. haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) are not known to be man-to-man transmissible and requiring no isolation. We have a number of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fevers here in Japan today among imported febrile cases from tropical or subtropical countries. Every physician should take viral haemorrhagic fevers into consideration as one of the possibilities in diagnosing patients returning from overseas travel. PMID:9283226

  6. Lie integrable cases of the simplified multistrain/two-stream model for tuberculosis and dengue fever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucci, M. C.; Leach, P. G. L.

    2007-09-01

    We apply the techniques of Lie's symmetry analysis to a caricature of the simplified multistrain model of Castillo-Chavez and Feng [C. Castillo-Chavez, Z. Feng, To treat or not to treat: The case of tuberculosis, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 629-656] for the transmission of tuberculosis and the coupled two-stream vector-based model of Feng and Velasco-Hernandez [Z. Feng, J.X. Velasco-Hernandez, Competitive exclusion in a vector-host model for the dengue fever, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 523-544] to identify the combinations of parameters which lead to the existence of nontrivial symmetries. In particular we identify those combinations which lead to the possibility of the linearization of the system and provide the corresponding solutions. Many instances of additional symmetry are analyzed.

  7. Was it a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis? A rare association following dengue fever

    PubMed Central

    Karoli, Ritu; Siddiqi, Zeba; Fatima, Jalees; Maini, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    Dengue infection, caused by a flavivirus is endemic in more than hundred countries, mostly in the developing world. Recent observations indicate that the clinical profile of dengue is changing, and that atypical manifestations are being reported more frequently. The exact incidence of various neurological complications is variable. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a neurological manifestation rarely described in association with dengue. We present a patient, 32-year-old female who was diagnosed as a case of dengue fever initially after an acute febrile illness and two weeks later admitted in emergency with seizures and altered sensorium. Although MRI did not show typical lesions suggestive of ADEM, the lag period between initial dengue infection and neurological manifestations and complete recovery with methyl prednisolone point towards immune mediated demyelinating illness. PMID:24250170

  8. A Case of Q Fever Prosthetic Joint Infection and Description of an Assay for Detection of Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    Tande, Aaron J.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Raoult, Didier; Sim, Franklin H.; Berbari, Elie F.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first published case of Coxiella burnetii prosthetic joint infection. Diagnosis was established with PCR and culture of periprosthetic tissue and synovial fluid (and serology). A novel PCR assay is described herein. Q fever should be considered in patients with prosthetic joint infection without an identified pathogen. PMID:23077126

  9. Imported viral haemorrhagic fever with a potential for person-to-person transmission: review and recommendations for initial management of a suspected case in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Colebunders, R; Van Esbroeck, M; Moreau, M; Borchert, M

    2002-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers are caused by a wide range of viruses. There are 4 types of viruses well known to spread from person to person and able to cause nosocomial outbreaks with a high case fatality rate: an arenavirus (Lassa fever and more exceptionally the Junin and Machupo virus), a bunyavirus (Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever) and the Filoviridae (Ebola and Marburg viruses). So far there have been only a limited number of imported cases of viral haemorrhagic fever in industrialized countries. In recent years an increasing number of outbreaks of filovirus infections have occurred in Africa and in 2000 5 cases of Lassa fever were brought from Sierra Leone to Europe. Therefore European physicians should consider the possibility of a viral haemorrhagic fever in an acutely ill patient just returning from Africa or South-America with fever for which there is no obvious cause. Such patients should be questioned for risk factors for viral haemorrhagic fever. Using universal precautions for handling blood and body fluids and barrier nursing techniques there is little risk that if a patient with viral haemorrhagic fever arrives in Belgium there will be secondary cases. PMID:12534129

  10. FDG PET-CT in the Diagnosis of Takayasu Arteritis Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joohae

    2015-01-01

    Takayasu arteritis is a chronic vasculitis involving the large vessels. At diagnosis, ischemic symptom are usually present in the affected vessels. However, fever of unknown origin (FUO) is rare as an initial presentation and renders the condition difficult to diagnose. In this case report, we describe a patient who presented with a fever of unknown origin. A 68-year-old female was diagnosed with Takayasu arteritis after fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) was performed at the prepulseless stage. FDG PET-CT can assist in the early diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis patients with FUO and can improve the prognosis of such patients. PMID:26483994

  11. Dengue Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Dengue Fever KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Dengue ... can help lower the chances of infection. About Dengue Fever Dengue (DEN-gee) fever is caused by ...

  12. Clinical and Pathological Findings on Intoxication by Yellow Phosphorus After Ingesting Firework Cracker: A Rare Case of Autopsy.

    PubMed

    Şamdanci, Emine Türkmen; Çakir, Ebru; Şahin, Nurhan; Elmali, Candan; Sayin, Sadegül

    2016-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus is a toxic substance used in the production of firework cracker, fireworks, ammunition and agricultural dung. When ingested, it shows its effects mainly in the liver, the kidneys, and the brain. A four-year-old girl had died as a result of acute hepatic failure caused by ingesting a firework cracker. The case showed high levels of hepatic enzymes, along with non-specific signs such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Autopsy revealed diffuse microvesicular steatosis in the liver and disseminated degeneration in the proximal tubules of the kidneys. In cases with concomitant hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, death is inevitable. However, when only hepatic failure develops, hepatic transplantation may be lifesaving. Although intoxication from ingesting yellow phosphorus has a very high rate of mortality, forensic cases are extremely rare in the literature. PMID:24272931

  13. Pathologic Studies on Suspect Animal and Human Cases of Rift Valley Fever from an Outbreak in Eastern Africa, 2006–2007

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Wun-Ju; Paddock, Chris D.; Lederman, Edith; Rao, Carol Y.; Gould, L. Hannah; Mohamed, Mohamed; Mosha, Fausta; Mghamba, Janeth; Bloland, Peter; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Mutonga, David; Samuel, Amwayi A.; Guarner, Jeannette; Breiman, Robert F.; Zaki, Sherif R.

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important viral zoonotic disease in Africa with periodic outbreaks associated with severe disease, death, and economic hardship. During the 2006–2007 outbreaks in Eastern Africa, postmortem and necropsy tissue samples from 14 animals and 20 humans clinically suspected of RVF were studied with histopathologic evaluation and immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Six animal and 11 human samples had IHC evidence of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antigens. We found that extensive hepatocellular necrosis without prominent inflammatory cell infiltrates is the most distinctive histopathologic change in liver tissues infected with RVFV. Pathologic studies on postmortem tissue samples can help establish the diagnosis of RVF, differentiating from endemic diseases with clinical manifestations similar to RVF, such as malaria, leptospirosis, or yellow fever. PMID:20682904

  14. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

  15. A randomised double-blind clinical trial of two yellow fever vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77 in children nine-23 months old

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This randomised, double-blind, multicentre study with children nine-23 months old evaluated the immunogenicity of yellow fever (YF) vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77. YF antibodies were tittered before and 30 or more days after vaccination. Seropositivity and seroconversion were analysed according to the maternal serological status and the collaborating centre. A total of 1,966 children were randomised in the municipalities of the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais and São Paulo and blood samples were collected from 1,714 mothers. Seropositivity was observed in 78.6% of mothers and 8.9% of children before vaccination. After vaccination, seropositivity rates of 81.9% and 83.2%, seroconversion rates of 84.8% and 85.8% and rates of a four-fold increase over the pre-vaccination titre of 77.6% and 81.8% were observed in the 17D-213/77 and 17DD subgroups, respectively. There was no association with maternal immunity. Among children aged 12 months or older, the seroconversion rates of 69% were associated with concomitant vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. The data were not conclusive regarding the interference of maternal immunity in the immune response to the YF vaccine, but they suggest interference from other vaccines. The failures in seroconversion after vaccination support the recommendation of a booster dose in children within 10 years of the first dose. PMID:26517656

  16. A randomised double-blind clinical trial of two yellow fever vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77 in children nine-23 months old.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    This randomised, double-blind, multicentre study with children nine-23 months old evaluated the immunogenicity of yellow fever (YF) vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77. YF antibodies were titered before and 30 or more days after vaccination. Seropositivity and seroconversion were analysed according to the maternal serological status and the collaborating centre. A total of 1,966 children were randomised in the municipalities of the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais and São Paulo and blood samples were collected from 1,714 mothers. Seropositivity was observed in 78.6% of mothers and 8.9% of children before vaccination. After vaccination, seropositivity rates of 81.9% and 83.2%, seroconversion rates of 84.8% and 85.8% and rates of a four-fold increase over the pre-vaccination titre of 77.6% and 81.8% were observed in the 17D-213/77 and 17DD subgroups, respectively. There was no association with maternal immunity. Among children aged 12 months or older, the seroconversion rates of 69% were associated with concomitant vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. The data were not conclusive regarding the interference of maternal immunity in the immune response to the YF vaccine, but they suggest interference from other vaccines. The failures in seroconversion after vaccination support the recommendation of a booster dose in children within 10 years of the first dose. PMID:26517656

  17. De Novo Assembly and Annotation of the Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) Repeatome with dnaPipeTE from Raw Genomic Reads and Comparative Analysis with the Yellow Fever Mosquito (Aedes aegypti)

    PubMed Central

    Goubert, Clment; Modolo, Laurent; Vieira, Cristina; ValienteMoro, Claire; Mavingui, Patrick; Boulesteix, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive DNA, including transposable elements (TEs), is found throughout eukaryotic genomes. Annotating and assembling the repeatome during genome-wide analysis often poses a challenge. To address this problem, we present dnaPipeTEa new bioinformatics pipeline that uses a sample of raw genomic reads. It produces precise estimates of repeated DNA content and TE consensus sequences, as well as the relative ages of TE families. We shows that dnaPipeTE performs well using very low coverage sequencing in different genomes, losing accuracy only with old TE families. We applied this pipeline to the genome of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, an invasive species of human health interest, for which the genome size is estimated to be over 1 Gbp. Using dnaPipeTE, we showed that this species harbors a large (50% of the genome) and potentially active repeatome with an overall TE class and order composition similar to that of Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito. However, intraorder dynamics show clear distinctions between the two species, with differences at the TE family level. Our pipelines ability to manage the repeatome annotation problem will make it helpful for new or ongoing assembly projects, and our results will benefit future genomic studies of A. albopictus. PMID:25767248

  18. The geographic distribution of cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: Kastamonu, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aker, Servet; Ak?nc?, Halil; K?l?o?lu, Cem; Leblebicioglu, Hakan

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of cases diagnosed with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) with the help of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and to establish an epidemiological risk map. Data for 434 cases diagnosed with CCHF between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2013 were subjected to statistical analysis SPSS 13.0 software. A digital map of Kastamonu was transferred onto ArcGIS 10.0 software in order to establish a risk map for CCHF. The highest cumulative incidence of CCHF is 41.29/10,000, and in people living at altitudes of 1001-1200 meters. ROC analysis of altitudes above sea level of residences with CCHF cases revealed an area under the curve of 74.5% (95% CI: 0.72-0.76, p<0.05). At a cut-off point of 836.5 meters, sensitivity was 0.74 and specificity 0.76. Cumulative incidence of CCHF was significantly positively correlated with number of animals per head (r=0.76) and area of agricultural land per head (r=0.59) (p<0.05). No significant correlation was determined between cumulative incidence and forested area percentages. This study reveals that both men and women living at more than 836.5 meters above sea level and working in agriculture and animal husbandry are at risk of CCHF between May and July. Detailed examination of the ecology of vector ticks is now needed in order to fully determine the epidemiology of the disease. PMID:26139033

  19. A climate-based spatiotemporal prediction for dengue fever epidemics: a case study in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.-L.; Yang, S.-J.; Lin, Y.-C.

    2012-04-01

    Dengue Fever (DF) has been identified by the World Health organization (WHO) as one of the most serious vector-borne infectious diseases in tropical and sub-tropical areas. DF has been one of the most important epidemics in Taiwan which occur annually especially in southern Taiwan during summer and autumn. Most DF studies have focused mainly on temporal DF patterns and its close association with climatic covariates, whereas few studies have investigated the spatial DF patterns (spatial dependence and clustering) and composite space-time effects of the DF epidemics. The present study proposes a spatio-temporal DF prediction approach based on stochastic Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) analysis. Core and site-specific knowledge bases are considered, including climate and health datasets under conditions of uncertainty, space-time dependence functions, and a Poisson regression model of climatic variables contributing to DF occurrences in southern Taiwan during 2007, when the highest number of DF cases was recorded in the history of Taiwan epidemics (over 2000). The obtained results show that the DF outbreaks in the study area are highly influenced by climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis can provide the required "one-week-ahead" outbreak warnings based on spatio-temporal predictions of DF distributions. Therefore, the proposed analysis can provide the Taiwan Disease Control Agency with a valuable tool to timely identify, control, and even efficiently prevent DF spreading across space-time.

  20. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chronological list of known cases and outbreaks. Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Topics Transmission How do people get Marburg hemorrhagic fever? Signs and Symptoms What are the signs and ...

  1. Typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Wain, John; Hendriksen, Rene S; Mikoleit, Matthew L; Keddy, Karen H; Ochiai, R Leon

    2015-03-21

    Control of typhoid fever relies on clinical information, diagnosis, and an understanding for the epidemiology of the disease. Despite the breadth of work done so far, much is not known about the biology of this human-adapted bacterial pathogen and the complexity of the disease in endemic areas, especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinicians, microbiologists, and epidemiologists worldwide need to be familiar with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow surveillance and to implement control measures. PMID:25458731

  2. BIOPSY PROVEN ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS DUE TO RHABDOMYOLYSIS IN A DENGUE FEVER PATIENT: A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    PubMed Central

    Repizo, Liliany P.; Malheiros, Denise M.; Yu, Luis; Barros, Rui T.; Burdmann, Emmanuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Renal histology results are very scarce in dengue-associated rhabdomyolysis patients developing acute kidney injury (AKI). We report a case of dengue fever-induced AKI associated to rhabdomyolysis with a renal biopsy showing acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and renal deposition of myoglobin. A 28-year-old patient who presented dengue fever (DF) complicated by severe AKI and rhabdomyolysis is described. The patient required hemodialysis for three weeks. A renal biopsy revealed ATN with positive staining for myoglobin in the renal tubuli. The patient was discharged with recovered renal function. In conclusion, this case report described a biopsy proven ATN associated to DF-induced rhabdomyolysis, in which renal deposition of myoglobin was demonstrated. We suggest that serum creatine phosphokinase should be monitored in DF patients to allow for an early diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis and the institution of renal protective measures. PMID:24553615

  3. [Recurrent fevers in childhood].

    PubMed

    Piram, Maryam; Kon-Paut, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Recurrent fevers are defined as multiple stereotypical febrile episodes separated by spontaneous symptom-free intervals and occurring for months and years. Hereditary recurrent fevers are rare prototype Mendelian diseases due to inherited mutations in genes encoding partners of the innate immunity. Recurrent episodes of fever plus acute features of inflammation starting during childhood with family history are the main clues for suspecting HRF. Their common associated complication is AA amyloidosis. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds but the genetic diagnosis may contribute in most cases of monogenic hereditary recurrent fevers. Recurrent fevers must be distinguished from intermittent fevers, mostly infectious, characterized by variation in associated symptoms from episode-to-episode and without periodicity. PMID:26549686

  4. Q fever a review

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    Q or query fever is a zoonosis caused by the organism Coxiella burnetii. Cattle, sheep and goats are the most common reservoirs of this organism. The placenta of infected animals contains high numbers (up to 109/g) of C. burnetii. Aerosols occur at the time of parturition and man becomes infected following inhalation of the microorganism. The spectrum of illness in man is wide and consists of acute and chronic forms. Acute Q fever is most often a self-limited flu-like illness but may include pneumonia, hepatitis, or meningoencephalitis. Chronic Q fever almost always means endocarditis and rarely osteomyelitis. Chronic Q fever is not known to occur in animals other than man. An increased abortion and stillbirth rate are seen in infected domestic ungulates. Four provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Alberta) reported cases of Q fever in 1989. A vaccine for Q fever has recently been licensed in Australia. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17423643

  5. Large-Scale Environmental Influences on the Onset, Maintenance, and Dissipation of Six Sea Fog Cases over the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengyuan; Fu, Gang; Lu, Chungu

    2012-05-01

    Sea fog is typically formed and developed under a set of favorable environmental conditions, which are associated with the station pressure changes, sea level pressure, winds, temperature, water vapor supply, and sea surface temperature. Understanding of these environmental factors during the evolution of a sea fog episode is crucial for forecasting the occurrence and severity of sea fogs over the ocean and adjacent coastal areas. In this study, the large-scale environment variability of six fog events over the Yellow Sea was investigated. It was realized in the present study that the northwest Pacific Ocean high (NPH) is vital to fog formation over the Yellow Sea. In our study, six fog cases can be basically divided into two types: (1) pressure-weakening type, (2) pressure-strengthening type. The former type happened in spring and the latter type in summer. Prevailing southerly winds, accompanied with the well-positioned NPH, may supply a large amount of warm water vapor for the fog formation and maintenance. The intensity of the air temperature inversion is stronger in summer cases than that in spring ones. The wind direction change from south to north and the unstable lower atmosphere may lead to fog's dissipation. This study may provide a comprehensive understanding of sea fog's onset, maintenance, and dissipation over the Yellow Sea.

  6. Malignant Mediterranean spotted fever

    PubMed Central

    Lunge, Snehal Balvant; Patil, Vaibhav; Ambar, Sameer; Naik, Vishwas

    2015-01-01

    Fever with rash is one of the most common causes of referral to a dermatologist. A plethora of conditions need to be considered in the differential diagnosis. They may be broadly classified into infectious causes, drug reactions, and autoimmune disorders. Here we present a rare case of rickettsial fever with cardiac involvement in an elderly male patient with no comorbidities. PMID:26904440

  7. Clinical observations in 42 patients with Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, J; McCormick, J B; Webb, P A; Dietrich, M; Schumacher, H H; Dennis, E

    1980-12-01

    Under continuous observation of several months, 42 patients from the eastern province of Sierra Leone, Liberia (Lofa County), and neighbouring Guinea were identified as Lassa fever cases by indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique, indicating that the disease is endemic in these areas. The clinical course varied from mild disease to severe illness with haemorrhagic disorders. The fatality rate was 14%. The occurrence of only two possible secondary cases suggests that person-to-person spread of the disease is unimportant epidemiologically. There was a wide range of patients' ages, tribes, and occupations, including a 2 months old baby and a white US citizen. Clinical, laboratory, and histopathological investigations demonstrated the panorganotropism of Lassa virus. Haematological tests in few selected haemorrhagic cases with Lassa fever did not support coagulation disorders or thrombocytopenia as causing the bleeding tendency. The histopathologic changes bear resemblance to those observed in Argentinian and Bolivian haemorrhagic fever, both being caused by viruses of the Arena group. However, Lassa virus hepatitis may be differentiated from liver lesions occurring in yellow fever, Marburg virus disease, and Ebola (Maridi) haemorrhagic fever. PMID:7233535

  8. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L.; Coates, Craig J.; Wood, Thomas K.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ≤ 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes “eavesdrop” on the chemical discussions occurring between host-associated microbes to determine suitability for blood feeding. We believe these data suggest that manipulating quorum sensing by bacteria could serve as a novel approach for reducing mosquito attraction to hosts, or possibly enhancing the trapping of adults at favored oviposition sites. PMID:26674802

  9. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L; Coates, Craig J; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ? 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes "eavesdrop" on the chemical discussions occurring between host-associated microbes to determine suitability for blood feeding. We believe these data suggest that manipulating quorum sensing by bacteria could serve as a novel approach for reducing mosquito attraction to hosts, or possibly enhancing the trapping of adults at favored oviposition sites. PMID:26674802

  10. Erysipelas-like erythema of familial Mediterranean fever syndrome: a case report with emphasis on histopathologic diagnostic clues.

    PubMed

    Kolivras, Athanassios; Provost, Philippe; Thompson, Curtis T

    2013-06-01

    We report histopathological findings in a case of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) syndrome with an erysipelas-like erythema (ELE). ELE is the only pathognomic cutaneous manifestation of FMF. ELE is characterized by well-demarcated, tender, erythematous and infiltrated plaques recurring on the same site and resolving spontaneously within 48-72 h. FMF is a monogenic autoinflammatory syndrome highlighted by recurrent fever associated with polyserositis involving mainly the peritoneum, synovium and pleura. FMF results from a mutation of the MEFV gene, which encodes for pyrin, leading to Il-1β activation and promoting neutrophil migration into the dermis. Histopathological findings in our case showed a sparse superficial perivascular and interstitial lymphocytic infiltrate admixed with some neutrophils, no eosinophils and mild papillary dermal edema. Venules and lymphatics were dilated, though no vasculitis was identified. Neutrophils are the most common cutaneous marker of autoinflammation, and cutaneous manifestations of monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes are represented by the spectrum of aseptic neutrophilic dermatoses. Neutrophils in the presence of recurrent fever and in the correct clinical context of recurrent erysipelas in the same site are a diagnostic clue for FMF. PMID:23521609

  11. Metal fume fever: a review of the literature and cases reported to the Louisiana Poison Control Center.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Syed Atif; Lackovic, Michelle; Katner, Adrienne; Palermo, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Metal fume fever (MFF) is an important occupational-related illness resulting from inhalation of volatile metal oxides, especially zinc, that are produced during welding or cutting of metal materials. Onset of MFF is rapid, occurring within a few hours after inhalation of the fumes. Symptoms include fever, chills, cough, dyspnea, headache, myalgia, and malaise. Symptoms are self-limiting and typically resolve within 24 hours with a subsequent short-lived tolerance to zinc oxide fumes that disappears after one to two days of avoidance. In this report, we present an overview of MFF's history, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, regulatory guidelines, and prevention recommendations. This review is followed by a description of MFF cases reported by the Louisiana Poison Control Center to the Louisiana Office of Public Health's Section of Environmental Epidemiology and Toxicology during a two-year period. PMID:20108830

  12. YELLOW BERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow berry refers to the non-vitreous form of the wheat kernel. Individual kernels may be vitreous, non-vitreous (yellow berry) or have varying proportions of each (mottled). Yellow berry, in and of itself, represents no defect of the kernel. As in maize, rice and other cereals, the non-vitre...

  13. Intervene before leaving: clustered lot quality assurance sampling to monitor vaccination coverage at health district level before the end of a yellow fever and measles vaccination campaign in Sierra Leone in 2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In November 2009, Sierra Leone conducted a preventive yellow fever (YF) vaccination campaign targeting individuals aged nine months and older in six health districts. The campaign was integrated with a measles follow-up campaign throughout the country targeting children aged 959 months. For both campaigns, the operational objective was to reach 95% of the target population. During the campaign, we used clustered lot quality assurance sampling (C-LQAS) to identify areas of low coverage to recommend timely mop-up actions. Methods We divided the country in 20 non-overlapping lots. Twelve lots were targeted by both vaccinations, while eight only by measles. In each lot, five clusters of ten eligible individuals were selected for each vaccine. The upper threshold (UT) was set at 90% and the lower threshold (LT) at 75%. A lot was rejected for low vaccination coverage if more than 7 unvaccinated individuals (not presenting vaccination card) were found. After the campaign, we plotted the C-LQAS results against the post-campaign coverage estimations to assess if early interventions were successful enough to increase coverage in the lots that were at the level of rejection before the end of the campaign. Results During the last two days of campaign, based on card-confirmed vaccination status, five lots out of 20 (25.0%) failed for having low measles vaccination coverage and three lots out of 12 (25.0%) for low YF coverage. In one district, estimated post-campaign vaccination coverage for both vaccines was still not significantly above the minimum acceptable level (LT?=?75%) even after vaccination mop-up activities. Conclusion C-LQAS during the vaccination campaign was informative to identify areas requiring mop-up activities to reach the coverage target prior to leaving the region. The only district where mop-up activities seemed to be unsuccessful might have had logistical difficulties that should be further investigated and resolved. PMID:22676225

  14. Lassa Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Lassa Fever Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... ais (French) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Lassa fever is an acute viral illness that occurs in ...

  15. Rheumatic fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an ASO test) Complete blood count (CBC) Electrocardiogram (EKG) Sedimentation rate (ESR -- a test that measures inflammation ... criteria include: Fever High ESR Joint pain Abnormal EKG You'll likely be diagnosed with rheumatic fever ...

  16. Typhoid Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. In the United States, it is estimated that ... to protect yourself. How is typhoid fever spread? Salmonella Typhi lives only in humans. Persons with typhoid fever ...

  17. Typhoid fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Typhoid fever is an infection that causes diarrhea and a rash . It is most commonly caused due to ... in their stools for years, spreading the disease. Typhoid fever is common in developing countries. Fewer than 400 ...

  18. Using a Field Quantitative Real-Time PCR Test To Rapidly Identify Highly Viremic Rift Valley Fever Cases?

    PubMed Central

    Njenga, M. Kariuki; Paweska, Janusz; Wanjala, Rose; Rao, Carol Y.; Weiner, Matthew; Omballa, Victor; Luman, Elizabeth T.; Mutonga, David; Sharif, Shanaaz; Panning, Marcus; Drosten, Christian; Feikin, Daniel R.; Breiman, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 8% of Rift Valley fever (RVF) cases develop severe disease, leading to hemorrhage, hepatitis, and/or encephalitis and resulting in up to 50% of deaths. A major obstacle in the management of RVF and other viral hemorrhagic fever cases in outbreaks that occur in rural settings is the inability to rapidly identify such cases, with poor prognosis early enough to allow for more-aggressive therapies. During an RVF outbreak in Kenya in 2006 to 2007, we evaluated whether quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) could be used in the field to rapidly identify viremic RVF cases with risk of death. In 52 of 430 RVF cases analyzed by qRT-PCR and virus culture, 18 died (case fatality rate [CFR] = 34.6%). Levels of viremia in fatal cases were significantly higher than those in nonfatal cases (mean of 105.2 versus 102.9 per ml; P < 0.005). A negative correlation between the levels of infectious virus particles and the qRT-PCR crossover threshold (CT) values allowed the use of qRT-PCR to assess prognosis. The CFR was 50.0% among cases with CT values of <27.0 (corresponding to 2.1 104 viral RNA particles/ml of serum) and 4.5% among cases with CT values of ?27.0. This cutoff yielded 93.8% sensitivity and a 95.5% negative predictive value; the specificity and positive predictive value were 58% and 50%, respectively. This study shows a correlation between high viremia and fatality and indicates that qRT-PCR testing can identify nearly all fatal RVF cases. PMID:19171680

  19. Using a field quantitative real-time PCR test to rapidly identify highly viremic rift valley fever cases.

    PubMed

    Njenga, M Kariuki; Paweska, Janusz; Wanjala, Rose; Rao, Carol Y; Weiner, Matthew; Omballa, Victor; Luman, Elizabeth T; Mutonga, David; Sharif, Shanaaz; Panning, Marcus; Drosten, Christian; Feikin, Daniel R; Breiman, Robert F

    2009-04-01

    Approximately 8% of Rift Valley fever (RVF) cases develop severe disease, leading to hemorrhage, hepatitis, and/or encephalitis and resulting in up to 50% of deaths. A major obstacle in the management of RVF and other viral hemorrhagic fever cases in outbreaks that occur in rural settings is the inability to rapidly identify such cases, with poor prognosis early enough to allow for more-aggressive therapies. During an RVF outbreak in Kenya in 2006 to 2007, we evaluated whether quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) could be used in the field to rapidly identify viremic RVF cases with risk of death. In 52 of 430 RVF cases analyzed by qRT-PCR and virus culture, 18 died (case fatality rate [CFR] = 34.6%). Levels of viremia in fatal cases were significantly higher than those in nonfatal cases (mean of 10(5.2) versus 10(2.9) per ml; P < 0.005). A negative correlation between the levels of infectious virus particles and the qRT-PCR crossover threshold (C(T)) values allowed the use of qRT-PCR to assess prognosis. The CFR was 50.0% among cases with C(T) values of <27.0 (corresponding to 2.1 x 10(4) viral RNA particles/ml of serum) and 4.5% among cases with C(T) values of >or=27.0. This cutoff yielded 93.8% sensitivity and a 95.5% negative predictive value; the specificity and positive predictive value were 58% and 50%, respectively. This study shows a correlation between high viremia and fatality and indicates that qRT-PCR testing can identify nearly all fatal RVF cases. PMID:19171680

  20. [Isolated case of haemorrhagic fever observed in Gabon during the 2002 outbreak of Ebola but distant from epidemic zones].

    PubMed

    Nkoghe, D; Nnegue, S; Mve, M Toung; Formenty, P; Thompson, G; Iba Ba, J; Okome Nkoumou, M; Leroy, E

    2005-09-01

    During the last outbreak of Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever that occurred concurrently in Gabon and Congo, several primary foci were identified in the Ogooue Ivindo province (Northeast Gabon), where previous outbreaks had occurred. A 48-year-old woman living in Franceville located 580 Km from the epicentre presented fever with haemorrhagic signs. She was evacuated to Libreville where Ebola infection was suspected. Diagnosis was confirmed at the Centre International de Recherches Médicales of Franceville on the basis of detection of specific antibodies. Symptoms had already subsided by the time diagnosis was documented. An epidemiological investigation was undertaken to identify the source of contamination and detect secondary cases. No human or nonhuman primate source of contamination could be formally identified. Direct contact with the virus reservoir could not be ruled out. No secondary cases were detected. The favourable outcome, absence of secondary, and failure to identify a source of contamination suggest that epidemiologically undefined cases may go unnoticed during and outside of outbreaks. PMID:16548488

  1. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is usually applied to disease caused by Arenaviridae (Lassa fever, Junin and Machupo), Bunyaviridae (Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, ... fever Dengue and severe dengue Ebola virus disease Lassa fever Marburg haemorrhagic fever Rift Valley fever Multimedia, features ...

  2. Self limited disorder in a young female with fever, abdominal pain and lymphadenopathy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease is a rare, benign cause of lymphadenopathy that is often associated with fever, night sweats, and weight loss. The clinical and laboratory manifestation of Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease are similar to those of lymphoma, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and it is often mistaken for these disorders. Definitive diagnosis is accomplished by lymph node biopsy. Awareness of Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease among clinicians and pathologists is essential to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment of patients with this self-limited disorder. PMID:20062641

  3. Using Modelling to Disentangle the Relative Contributions of Zoonotic and Anthroponotic Transmission: The Case of Lassa Fever

    PubMed Central

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Garry, Robert F.; Grant, Donald S.; Khan, Sheik Humarr; Leach, Melissa; Moses, Lina M.; Schieffelin, John S.; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Webb, Colleen T.; Wood, James L. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Zoonotic infections, which transmit from animals to humans, form the majority of new human pathogens. Following zoonotic transmission, the pathogen may already have, or may acquire, the ability to transmit from human to human. With infections such as Lassa fever (LF), an often fatal, rodent-borne, hemorrhagic fever common in areas of West Africa, rodent-to-rodent, rodent-to-human, human-to-human and even human-to-rodent transmission patterns are possible. Indeed, large hospital-related outbreaks have been reported. Estimating the proportion of transmission due to human-to-human routes and related patterns (e.g. existence of super-spreaders), in these scenarios is challenging, but essential for planned interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we make use of an innovative modeling approach to analyze data from published outbreaks and the number of LF hospitalized patients to Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone to estimate the likely contribution of human-to-human transmission. The analyses show that almost of the cases at KGH are secondary cases arising from human-to-human transmission. However, we found much of this transmission is associated with a disproportionally large impact of a few individuals (super-spreaders), as we found only of human cases result in an effective reproduction number (i.e. the average number of secondary cases per infectious case) , with a maximum value up to . Conclusions/Significance This work explains the discrepancy between the sizes of reported LF outbreaks and a clinical perception that human-to-human transmission is low. Future assessment of risks of LF and infection control guidelines should take into account the potentially large impact of super-spreaders in human-to-human transmission. Our work highlights several neglected topics in LF research, the occurrence and nature of super-spreading events and aspects of social behavior in transmission and detection. PMID:25569707

  4. El Niño Southern Oscillation and vegetation dynamics as predictors of dengue fever cases in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, D. O.; Troyo, A.; Beier, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are growing health concerns throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. This study focuses on Costa Rica, which experienced over 100 000 cases of DF/DHF from 2003 to 2007. We utilized data on sea-surface temperature anomalies related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and two vegetation indices derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) from the Terra satellite to model the influence of climate and vegetation dynamics on DF/DHF cases in Costa Rica. Cross-correlations were calculated to evaluate both positive and negative lag effects on the relationships between independent variables and DF/DHF cases. The model, which utilizes a sinusoid and non-linear least squares to fit case data, was able to explain 83% of the variance in weekly DF/DHF cases when independent variables were shifted backwards in time. When the independent variables were shifted forward in time, consistently with a forecasting approach, the model explained 64% of the variance. Importantly, when five ENSO and two vegetation indices were included, the model reproduced a major DF/DHF epidemic of 2005. The unexplained variance in the model may be due to herd immunity and vector control measures, although information regarding these aspects of the disease system are generally lacking. Our analysis suggests that the model may be used to predict DF/DHF outbreaks as early as 40 weeks in advance and may also provide valuable information on the magnitude of future epidemics. In its current form it may be used to inform national vector control programs and policies regarding control measures; it is the first climate-based dengue model developed for this country and is potentially scalable to the broader region of Latin America and the Caribbean where dramatic increases in DF/DHF incidence and spread have been observed.

  5. The biogeography of viral emergence: rice yellow mottle virus as a case study.

    PubMed

    Pinel-Galzi, Agns; Traor, Oumar; Sr, Yacouba; Hbrard, Eugnie; Fargette, Denis

    2015-02-01

    Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) exemplifies the key role in plant virus emergence of the early steps of crop extension and intensification in traditional agriculture. In East Africa, RYMV emerged in the 19(th) century after rice intensification along the Indian Ocean coast, and later spread inland concomitantly with rice introduction. In West Africa, the contrasted history of rice cultivation among regions differently shaped RYMV populations. A biogeographical approach - which jointly considers the spatial distribution of the virus and its hosts over time - was applied to reach these conclusions. We linked the evolution of RYMV over the past two centuries to a geographical map of the history of rice cultivation in Africa. PMID:25544357

  6. Phenotype 2 familial mediterranean fever: evaluation of 22 case series and review of the literature on phenotype 2 FMF.

    PubMed

    Altuno?lu, Alpaslan; Erten, ?kran; Canoz, Mujdat Batur; Yuksel, Aydan; Ceylan, Gulay Gulec; Balci, Serdar; Dogan, Hayriye Tatli

    2013-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoimmune disorder characterized by recurrent bouts of fever and serosal inflammation. FMF may be complicated by AA-type amyloidosis, worsening the prognosis, with associated renal failure in some patients. Complication rate varies with race, being as high as 60% in Turks and as low as 2% in Armenians. In a few cases of patients with FMF (phenotype 2), amyloid nephropathy may be the presenting manifestation. This study included 420 patients who were admitted to the Nephrology and Rheumatology Departments of Atatrk Education and Research Hospital with unexplained proteinuria/nephrotic syndrome. The initial screening test for amyloidosis was the presence of significant proteinuria (300mg/24h). All MEFV gene exons were screened for causative mutations by direct DNA sequencing to check for any mutations. There were 22 phenotype 2 FMF patients with 27 allelic variants. The most prevalent allelic variants were M694V (10/27, 37%) and E148Q (7/27, 26%). Phenotype 2 FMF is not as rare as it was thought before; this should be kept in mind for all patients with unexplained proteinuria and/or acute phase response in high-risk ethnic groups for FMF. PMID:23228227

  7. Identification of dengue fever cases in Houston, Texas, with evidence of autochthonous transmission between 2003 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kristy O; Rodriguez, Liliana F; Herrington, Emily; Kharat, Vineetkumar; Vasilakis, Nikolaos; Walker, Christopher; Turner, Cynthia; Khuwaja, Salma; Arafat, Raouf; Weaver, Scott C; Martinez, Diana; Kilborn, Cindy; Bueno, Rudy; Reyna, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Houston, Texas, maintains an environment conducive to dengue virus (DENV) emergence; however, surveillance is passive and diagnostic testing is not readily available. To determine if DENV is present in the area, we tested 3768 clinical specimens (2138 cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] and 1630 serum) collected from patients with suspected mosquito-borne viral disease between 2003 and 2005. We identified 47 immunoglobulin M (IgM)-positive dengue cases, including two cases that were positive for viral RNA in serum for dengue serotype 2. The majority of cases did not report any history of travel outside the Houston area prior to symptom onset. The epidemic curve suggests an outbreak occurred in 2003 with continued low-level transmission in 2004 and 2005. Chart abstractions were completed for 42 of the 47 cases; 57% were diagnosed with meningitis and/or encephalitis, and 43% met the case definition for dengue fever. Two of the 47 cases were fatal, including one with illness compatible with dengue shock syndrome. Our results support local transmission of DENV during the study period. These findings heighten the need for dengue surveillance in the southern United States. PMID:24107180

  8. Sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting: a case study for the Yellow River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2014-06-01

    Water Footprint Assessment is a fast-growing field of research, but as yet little attention has been paid to the uncertainties involved. This study investigates the sensitivity of and uncertainty in crop water footprint (in m3 t-1) estimates related to uncertainties in important input variables. The study focuses on the green (from rainfall) and blue (from irrigation) water footprint of producing maize, soybean, rice, and wheat at the scale of the Yellow River basin in the period 1996-2005. A grid-based daily water balance model at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution was applied to compute green and blue water footprints of the four crops in the Yellow River basin in the period considered. The one-at-a-time method was carried out to analyse the sensitivity of the crop water footprint to fractional changes of seven individual input variables and parameters: precipitation (PR), reference evapotranspiration (ET0), crop coefficient (Kc), crop calendar (planting date with constant growing degree days), soil water content at field capacity (Smax), yield response factor (Ky) and maximum yield (Ym). Uncertainties in crop water footprint estimates related to uncertainties in four key input variables: PR, ET0, Kc, and crop calendar were quantified through Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the sensitivities and uncertainties differ across crop types. In general, the water footprint of crops is most sensitive to ET0 and Kc, followed by the crop calendar. Blue water footprints were more sensitive to input variability than green water footprints. The smaller the annual blue water footprint is, the higher its sensitivity to changes in PR, ET0, and Kc. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop due to combined uncertainties in climatic inputs (PR and ET0) were about 20% (at 95% confidence interval). The effect of uncertainties in ET0was dominant compared to that of PR. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop as a result of combined key input uncertainties were on average 30% (at 95% confidence level).

  9. Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern sierra leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW) in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and real time characterization of an acute hemorrhagic LF case at KGH LFW. This case report focuses on a third trimester pregnant Sierra Leonean woman from the historically non-endemic Northern district of Tonkolili who survived the illness despite fetal demise. Employed in this study were newly developed recombinant LASV Antigen Rapid Test cassettes and dipstick lateral flow immunoassays (LFI) that enabled the diagnosis of LF within twenty minutes of sample collection. Deregulation of overall homeostasis, significant hepatic and renal system involvement, and immunity profiles were extensively characterized during the course of hospitalization. Rapid diagnosis, prompt treatment with a full course of intravenous (IV) ribavirin, IV fluids management, and real time monitoring of clinical parameters resulted in a positive maternal outcome despite admission to the LFW seven days post onset of symptoms, fetal demise, and a natural still birth delivery. These studies solidify the growing rapid diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance capabilities at the KGH LF Laboratory, and the potential to significantly improve the current high mortality rate caused by LF. As a result of the growing capacity, we were also able to isolate Lassa virus (LASV) RNA from the patient and perform Sanger sequencing where we found significant genetic divergence from commonly circulating Sierra Leonean strains, showing potential for the discovery of a newly emerged LASV strain with expanded geographic distribution. Furthermore, recent emergence of LF cases in Northern Sierra Leone highlights the need for superior diagnostics to aid in the monitoring of LASV strain divergence with potentially increased geographic expansion. PMID:21843352

  10. Pathogenesis of the viral hemorrhagic fevers.

    PubMed

    Paessler, Slobodan; Walker, David H

    2013-01-24

    Four families of enveloped RNA viruses, filoviruses, flaviviruses, arenaviruses, and bunyaviruses, cause hemorrhagic fevers. These viruses are maintained in specific natural cycles involving nonhuman primates, bats, rodents, domestic ruminants, humans, mosquitoes, and ticks. Vascular instability varies from mild to fatal shock, and hemorrhage ranges from none to life threatening. The pathogenic mechanisms are extremely diverse and include deficiency of hepatic synthesis of coagulation factors owing to hepatocellular necrosis, cytokine storm, increased permeability by vascular endothelial growth factor, complement activation, and disseminated intravascular coagulation in one or more hemorrhagic fevers. The severity of disease caused by these agents varies tremendously; there are extremely high fatality rates in Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, and asymptomatic infection predominates in yellow fever and dengue viral infections. Although ineffective immunity and high viral loads are characteristic of several viral hemorrhagic fevers, severe plasma leakage occurs at the time of viral clearance and defervescence in dengue hemorrhagic fever. PMID:23121052

  11. Quantitative plant resistance in cultivar mixtures: wheat yellow rust as a modeling case study.

    PubMed

    Sapoukhina, Natalia; Paillard, Sophie; Dedryver, Franoise; de Vallavieille-Pope, Claude

    2013-11-01

    Unlike qualitative plant resistance, which confers immunity to disease, quantitative resistance confers only a reduction in disease severity and this can be nonspecific. Consequently, the outcome of its deployment in cultivar mixtures is not easy to predict, as on the one hand it may reduce the heterogeneity of the mixture, but on the other it may induce competition between nonspecialized strains of the pathogen. To clarify the principles for the successful use of quantitative plant resistance in disease management, we built a parsimonious model describing the dynamics of competing pathogen strains spreading through a mixture of cultivars carrying nonspecific quantitative resistance. Using the parameterized model for a wheat-yellow rust system, we demonstrate that a more effective use of quantitative resistance in mixtures involves reinforcing the effect of the highly resistant cultivars rather than replacing them. We highlight the fact that the judicious deployment of the quantitative resistance in two- or three-component mixtures makes it possible to reduce disease severity using only small proportions of the highly resistant cultivar. Our results provide insights into the effects on pathogen dynamics of deploying quantitative plant resistance, and can provide guidance for choosing appropriate associations of cultivars and optimizing diversification strategies. PMID:23875842

  12. Pox-like lesions and haemorrhagic fever in two concurrent cases in the Central African Republic: case investigation and management in difficult circumstances

    PubMed Central

    Froeschl, Guenter; Kayembe, Pitchou Kasongo

    2015-01-01

    Cases of monkeypox in humans are frequently reported from the Democratic Republic of Congo. The few reports from the Central African Republic have been limited to cases in the far South closely bordering the Congos. Team members of an international medical organisation have suspected clinically two human cases of MPX, associated with clinical signs of coagulopathy and haemorrhage in the North of the country. Key findings were history of a squirrel, fever and vesicular dermal eruptions. Subsequently patients developed profuse epistaxis and hematemesis, associated with clinical signs of shock. Both patients were isolated and treated symptomatically. Samples were sent to a regional reference laboratory, who initially issued a confirmation of the suspected diagnosis of MPX in both cases. The result was later revised, and additional analyses of samples could not confirm the diagnosis. PMID:26664524

  13. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Renal Syndrome Hendra Virus Disease Kyasanur Forest Disease Lassa Fever Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM) Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever Nipah Virus ... infection in outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever and Lassa fever. What are the symptoms of viral hemorrhagic fever ...

  14. Cotton Fever: Does the Patient Know Best?

    PubMed

    Xie, Yingda; Pope, Bailey A; Hunter, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    Fever and leukocytosis have many possible etiologies in injection drug users. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with fever and leukocytosis that were presumed secondary to cotton fever, a rarely recognized complication of injection drug use, after an extensive workup. Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited febrile syndrome characterized by fevers, leukocytosis, myalgias, nausea and vomiting, occurring in injection drug users who filter their drug suspensions through cotton balls. While this syndrome is commonly recognized amongst the injection drug user population, there is a paucity of data in the medical literature. We review the case presentation and available literature related to cotton fever. PMID:26105678

  15. Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of haemorrhagic fever viruses and bioterrorism-related haemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Philippe; Tegnell, Anders; Baka, Agoritsa; Van Loock, Frank; Hendriks, Jan; Werner, Albrecht; Maidhof, Heinrich; Gouvras, Georgios

    2004-12-01

    Haemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are a diverse group of viruses that cause a clinical disease associated with fever and bleeding disorder. HFVs that are associated with a potential biological threat are Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), Lassa fever and New World arenaviruses (Machupo, Junin, Guanarito and Sabia viruses) (Arenaviridae), Rift Valley fever (Bunyaviridae) and yellow fever, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, and Kyanasur Forest disease (Flaviviridae). In terms of biological warfare concerning dengue, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and Hantaviruses, there is not sufficient knowledge to include them as a major biological threat. Dengue virus is the only one of these that cannot be transmitted via aerosol. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and the agents of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome appear difficult to weaponise. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment and the prophylaxis of the arenaviruses and the bunyaviruses, but is not effective for the other families. All patients must be isolated and receive intensive supportive therapy. PMID:15677844

  16. The Impact of Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Diseases Interventions to Prevent Malaria Fever in Children Less than Five Years Old in Bauchi State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria accounts for about 300,000 childhood deaths and 30% of under-five year old mortality in Nigeria annually. We assessed the impact of intervention strategies that integrated Patent Medicines Vendors into community case management of childhood-diseases, improved access to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and distributed bed nets to households. We explored the influence of household socioeconomic characteristics on the impact of the interventions on fever in the under-five year olds in Bauchi State Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional case-controlled, interventional study, which sampled 3077 and 2737 under-5 year olds from 1,588 and 1601 households in pre- and post-intervention periods respectively, was conducted from 2013 to 2015. Difference-in-differences and logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the impact attributable to the interventions: integrated community case management of childhood illness which introduced trained public and private sector health providers and the possession of nets on the prevalence of fever. Results Two-week prevalence of fever among under-fives declined from 56.6% at pre-intervention to 42.5% at post-intervention. Fever-prevention fraction attributable to nets was statistically significant (OR = 0.217, 95% CI: 0.080.33). Children in the intervention group had significantly fewer incidence of fever than children in the control group had (OR = 0.765, 95% CI: 0.670.87). Although being in the intervention group significantly provided 23.5% protection against fever (95% CI: 0.130.33), the post-intervention likelihood of fever was also significantly less than at pre-intervention (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.500.65). The intervention protection fraction against fever was statistically significant at 43.4% (OR = 0.434, 95% CI: 0.360.50). Logistic regression showed that the odds of fever were lower in households with nets (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.600.88), among children whose mothers had higher education, in the post-intervention period (OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.330.46) and in the intervention group (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.480.66). The odds of fever increased with higher socio-economic status of households (17.9%-19.5%). Difference-in-differences showed that the interventions significantly reduced occurrence of fever in the intervention group (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.362.14). Conclusion The interventions were effective in reducing the prevalence and the likelihood of childhood malaria fever. Taken to scale, these can significantly reduce the burden of malaria fever in the under-five year old children. PMID:26845546

  17. Q fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Q fever may lead to these complications: Bone infection Brain infection Inflammation of the heart valves, heart lining, or heart muscle Liver infection Lung scarring Inflammation of the thin tissue that surrounds ...

  18. Hay Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and throat. This can trigger a type of allergy called hay fever. Symptoms can include Sneezing, often ... to use distilled or sterilized water with saline. Allergy shots can help make you less sensitive to ...

  19. Q Fever.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Akira A; Letiaia, Andrew G; Hartzell, Joshua D

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a significant infectious disease threat to US military personnel deployed in the Middle East. Its environmental stability, aerosol transmission, and animal reservoir make it a considerable risk for deployed troops due to its potential for weaponization and risk of natural infection. It presents as a flu-like illness that responds promptly to antimicrobial therapy. Q fever should be suspected in patients presenting with a compatible febrile illness in an endemic area and especially if the individual has been exposed to livestock. Diagnosis is confirmed with serologic blood tests, but empiric therapy should be initiated when Q fever is considered. If left untreated, patients with acute Q fever can develop severe complications as well as chronic disease manifesting several months after the initial infection. PMID:26874100

  20. Treatment of a patient with severe hemorrhagic fever accompanied by infection with methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, aspergillus and mucor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Wang, Xue; Lv, Jing; Dong, Yalin

    2015-12-01

    A 40-year-old Korean man developed hemorrhagic fever in Xi'an, which is one of the main endemic areas for this illness in China. According to the local epidemiological situation, his condition could have been due to hantavirus infection, but this was not confirmed. He presented with the typical symptoms of hemorrhagic fever and rapidly progressed to a severe multisystem illness. The clinical situation deteriorated rapidly after admission, and he became coinfected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, aspergillus, and mucor. The patient was successfully treated with appropriate fluid infusion, hemodynamic support, continuous renal replacement therapy, liver protectants, and antibacterials. This case indicates that the choice of antimicrobials and the required dose are crucial issues, and that the vaccination campaign for hemorrhagic fever in Xi'an needs greater attention. PMID:26521926

  1. A country-wide malaria survey in Mozambique. II. Malaria attributable proportion of fever and establishment of malaria case definition in children across different epidemiological settings

    PubMed Central

    Mabunda, Samuel; Aponte, John J; Tiago, Armindo; Alonso, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Background Protection against clinical malaria episodes is acquired slowly after frequent exposure to malaria parasites. This is reflected by a decrease with increasing age in both parasite density and incidence of clinical episodes. In many settings of stable malaria transmission, the presence of asymptomatic malaria parasite carriers is common and the definition of clinical malaria remains uncertain. Methods Between February 2002 and April 2003, a country-wide malaria survey was conducted in 24 districts of Mozambique, aiming to characterize the malaria transmission intensities and to estimate the proportion of fever cases attributable to malaria infections in order to establish the malaria case definition. A total of 8,816 children less than ten years of age were selected for the study. Axillary temperature was measured in all participating subjects and finger prick blood collections were taken to prepare thick and thin films for identification of parasite species and determination of parasite density. The proportion of fever cases attributable to malaria infection was estimated using a logistic regression of the fever on a monotonic function of the parasite density and, using bootstrap facilities, bootstrapped estimated confidence intervals, as well as the sensitivity and specificity for different parasite density cut-offs were produced. Results Overall, the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum was 52.4% (4,616/8,816). The prevalence of fever (axillary temperature ? 37.5C) was 9.4% (766/8,816). Fever episodes peaked among children below 12 months of life [15.1% (206/1,517)]. The lowest fever prevalence of 5.9% (67/1,224) was recorded amongst children between five and seven years of age. Among 4,098 parasitized children, 498/4,098 (13.02%) had fever. The prevalence of malaria infections associated with fever peaked among children in the less than twelve months age group and thereafter decreased rapidly with increasing age (p < 0.001). High parasite densities were significantly associated with fever (p < 0.04). The proportion of fever attributed to malaria was 37.8% (95% CI 32.9% 42.7%). An age-specific pattern was observed with significant variations across different regions in the country. In general, among children less than 12 months of life, the proportion of fever attributed to malaria infection was 43.5% (95% CI 25.8% 61.2%), in children aged between 12 and 59 months of age was 39.6% (95% CI 30.3% 48.9%), and among children aged between 5 and 10 years old was 21.5% (95% CI 11.6% 31.4%). Conclusion This study confirms that malaria remains a major cause of febrile illness during childhood. It also defines the relation between parasite density and fever and how this varies with age and region. This may help guide case definition for clinical trials of preventive tools, as well as provide definitions that may improve the precision of measurement of the burden of disease. PMID:19383126

  2. Q Fever

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, M.; Raoult, D.

    1999-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution with the exception of New Zealand. The disease is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a strictly intracellular, gram-negative bacterium. Many species of mammals, birds, and ticks are reservoirs of C. burnetii in nature. C. burnetii infection is most often latent in animals, with persistent shedding of bacteria into the environment. However, in females intermittent high-level shedding occurs at the time of parturition, with millions of bacteria being released per gram of placenta. Humans are usually infected by contaminated aerosols from domestic animals, particularly after contact with parturient females and their birth products. Although often asymptomatic, Q fever may manifest in humans as an acute disease (mainly as a self-limited febrile illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis) or as a chronic disease (mainly endocarditis), especially in patients with previous valvulopathy and to a lesser extent in immunocompromised hosts and in pregnant women. Specific diagnosis of Q fever remains based upon serology. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antiphase II antibodies are detected 2 to 3 weeks after infection with C. burnetii, whereas the presence of IgG antiphase I C. burnetii antibodies at titers of ≥1:800 by microimmunofluorescence is indicative of chronic Q fever. The tetracyclines are still considered the mainstay of antibiotic therapy of acute Q fever, whereas antibiotic combinations administered over prolonged periods are necessary to prevent relapses in Q fever endocarditis patients. Although the protective role of Q fever vaccination with whole-cell extracts has been established, the population which should be primarily vaccinated remains to be clearly identified. Vaccination should probably be considered in the population at high risk for Q fever endocarditis. PMID:10515901

  3. Remote Sensing in a Changing Climate and Environment: the Rift Valley Fever Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourre, Y. M.; Lacaux, J.-P.; Vignolles, C.; Lafaye, M.

    2012-07-01

    Climate and environment are changing rapidly whilst global population already reached 7 billions people. New public health challenges are posed by new and re-emerging diseases. Innovation is a must i.e., 1) using high resolution remote sensing, 2) re-invent health politics and trans-disciplinary management. The above are part of the 'TransCube Approach' i.e., Transition, Translation, and Transformation. The new concept of Tele-epidemiology includes such approach. A conceptual approach (CA) associated with Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in Senegal is presented. Ponds are detected using high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images and radar data from space. Data on rainfall events obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (NASA/JAXA) are combined with in-situ data. Localization of vulnerable and parked hosts (obtained from QuickBird satellite) is also used. The dynamic spatio-temporal distribution and aggressiveness of RVF mosquitoes, are based on total rainfall amounts, ponds' dynamics and entomological observations. Detailed risks maps (hazards + vulnerability) in real-time are expressed in percentages of parks where animals are potentially at risks. This CA which simply relies upon rainfall distribution from space, is meant to contribute to the implementation of the RVF early warning system (RVFews). It is meant to be applied to other diseases and elsewhere. This is particularly true in new places where new vectors have been rapidly adapting (such as Aedes albopictus) whilst viruses (such as West Nile and Chikungunya,) circulate from constantly moving reservoirs and increasing population.

  4. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, Duane J.

    1998-01-01

    Dengue fever, a very old disease, has reemerged in the past 20 years with an expanded geographic distribution of both the viruses and the mosquito vectors, increased epidemic activity, the development of hyperendemicity (the cocirculation of multiple serotypes), and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in new geographic regions. In 1998 this mosquito-borne disease is the most important tropical infectious disease after malaria, with an estimated 100 million cases of dengue fever, 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 25,000 deaths annually. The reasons for this resurgence and emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the waning years of the 20th century are complex and not fully understood, but demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure changes in the past 30 years have contributed greatly. This paper reviews the changing epidemiology of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever by geographic region, the natural history and transmission cycles, clinical diagnosis of both dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, serologic and virologic laboratory diagnoses, pathogenesis, surveillance, prevention, and control. A major challenge for public health officials in all tropical areas of the world is to devleop and implement sustainable prevention and control programs that will reverse the trend of emergent dengue hemorrhagic fever. PMID:9665979

  5. Recurrent Fever in Children.

    PubMed

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time. PMID:27023528

  6. Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

    2014-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

  7. Fever in a Visitor to Canada: a Case of Mistaken Identity

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Rachel; Ralevski, Filip; Rau, Neil; Boggild, Andrea K.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of babesiosis in a traveler from India who was diagnosed with malaria on the basis of blood smears. Pan-Plasmodium PCR was positive, though species-specific assays were negative. Reexamination of blood smears and Babesia-specific PCR confirmed babesiosis. We highlight the overlapping clinical and diagnostic features of malaria and babesiosis and the potential cross-reactivity of Plasmodium primers in cases of babesiosis. PMID:25762775

  8. [A fever of finally known origin].

    PubMed

    Jenni, Stefan; Kositz, Christian; Diethelm, Markus; Albrich, Werner

    2014-05-21

    We present the case of a 77 year old man with fever of unknown origin. Despite a thorough assessment in hospital the diagnosis could only be made after discharge when positive results for C. burnetii serology revealed acute Q-fever. However, retrospectively history and clinical findings matched well with acute Q-fever. PMID:24846891

  9. Dengue fever (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Dengue fever, or West Nile fever, is a mild viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes which causes fever, ... second exposure to the virus can result in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening illness.

  10. Q Fever myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzis, I; Dimoglou, G; Sachpekidis, V

    2008-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of Q fever infection are fever, productive cough, decrease in exercise tolerance and chills. Cardiovascular involvement is well recognized and usually presents as endocarditis and infection of an aneurysm or vascular graft. Myocarditis has only rarely been described as a manifestation of acute Q fever infection. In this report we describe a case of a young adult who presented with angina-like symptoms and ECG and biochemical markers indicative of acute coronary syndrome. The diagnosis of myocarditis was ultimately made based on the results of a normal coronary angiography and increased anti-Coxiella burnetii antibody titer. The patient has not developed dilated cardiomyopathy after two years of follow up. PMID:18923753

  11. Differential Epidemiology of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A in Kathmandu, Nepal: A Matched Case Control Investigation in a Highly Endemic Enteric Fever Setting

    PubMed Central

    Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Dongol, Sabina; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Voong Vinh, Phat; Arjyal, Amit; Martin, Laura B.; Rondini, Simona; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Dolecek, Christiane; Basnyat, Buddha; Baker, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background Enteric fever, a systemic infection caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is endemic in Kathmandu, Nepal. Previous work identified proximity to poor quality water sources as a community-level risk for infection. Here, we sought to examine individual-level risk factors related to hygiene and sanitation to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of enteric fever in this setting. Methodology and principal findings A matched case-control analysis was performed through enrollment of 103 blood culture positive enteric fever patients and 294 afebrile community-based age and gender-matched controls. A detailed questionnaire was administered to both cases and controls and the association between enteric fever infection and potential exposures were examined through conditional logistic regression. Several behavioral practices were identified as protective against infection with enteric fever, including water storage and hygienic habits. Additionally, we found that exposures related to poor water and socioeconomic status are more influential in the risk of infection with S. Typhi, whereas food consumption habits and migration play more of a role in risk of S. Paratyphi A infection. Conclusions and significance Our work suggests that S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A follow different routes of infection in this highly endemic setting and that sustained exposure to both serovars probably leads to the development of passive immunity. In the absence of a polyvalent vaccine against S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, we advocate better systems for water treatment and storage, improvements in the quality of street food, and vaccination with currently available S. Typhi vaccines. PMID:23991240

  12. “Tazomoka Is Not a Problem”. Local Perspectives on Malaria, Fever Case Management and Bed Net Use in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Raboanary, Emma; Kesteman, Thomas; Piola, Patrice; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Rogier, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Background Although its incidence has been decreasing during the last decade, malaria is still a major public health issue in Madagascar. The use of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN) remains a key malaria control intervention strategy in Madagascar, however, it encounters some obstacles. The present study aimed to explore the local terminology related to malaria, information channels about malaria, attitude towards bed nets, and health care seeking practices in case of fever. This article presents novel qualitative findings about malaria. Until now, no such data has been published for Madagascar. Methods A comparative qualitative study was carried out at four sites in Madagascar, each differing by malaria epidemiology and socio-cultural background of the populations. Seventy-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with biomedical and traditional caregivers, and members of the local population. In addition, observations of the living conditions and the uses of bed net were conducted. Results Due to the differences between local and biomedical perspectives on malaria, official messages did not have the expected impact on population in terms of prevention and care seeking behaviors. Rather, most information retained about malaria was spread through informal information circulation channels. Most interviewees perceived malaria as a disease that is simple to treat. Tazomoka (“mosquito fever”), the Malagasy biomedical word for malaria, was not used by populations. Tazo (“fever”) and tazomahery (“strong fever”) were the terms more commonly used by members of the local population to refer to malaria related symptoms. According to local perceptions in all areas, tazo and tazomahery were not caused by mosquitos. Each of these symptoms required specific health recourse. The usual fever management strategies consisted of self-medication or recourse to traditional and biomedical caregivers. Usage of bed nets was intermittent and was not directly linked to protection against malaria in the eyes of most Malagasy people. Conclusions This article highlights the conflicting understanding of malaria between local perceptions and the biomedical establishment in Madagascar. Local perceptions of malaria present a holistic vision of the disease that includes various social and cultural dimensions, rather than reflecting one universal understanding, as in the biomedical image. The consideration of this “holistic vision” and other socio-cultural aspects surrounding the understanding of malaria is essential in implementing successful control intervention strategies. PMID:26943672

  13. A Historical Look at the First Reported Cases of Lassa Fever: IgG Antibodies 40 Years After Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Nell; Schieffelin, John S.; Moses, Lina M.; Bennett, Andrew J.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Lassa fever is an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. One important question regarding Lassa fever is the duration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody after infection. We were able to locate three persons who worked in Nigeria dating back to the 1940s, two of whom were integrally involved in the early outbreaks and investigations of Lassa fever in the late 1960s, including the person from whom Lassa virus was first isolated. Two persons had high titers of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibody over 40 years after infection, indicating the potential for long-term duration of these antibodies. One person was likely infected in 1952, 17 years before the first recognized outbreak. We briefly recount the fascinating stories of these three pioneers and their important contribution to our understanding of Lassa fever. PMID:23390223

  14. Dengue Fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Dengue Fever” will be included in “Health Information for International Travel, 2007-2008” which will be published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are viral diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The disease is found in tropical and s...

  15. Orchid Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    Exotic, captivating, and seductive, orchids have long fascinated plant lovers. They first attracted the attention of Westerners in the 17th century, when explorers brought back samples from South America and Asia. By the mid-1800s, orchid collecting had reached a fever pitch, not unlike that of the Dutch tulip craze of the 1630s, with rich (and

  16. Orchid Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    Exotic, captivating, and seductive, orchids have long fascinated plant lovers. They first attracted the attention of Westerners in the 17th century, when explorers brought back samples from South America and Asia. By the mid-1800s, orchid collecting had reached a fever pitch, not unlike that of the Dutch tulip craze of the 1630s, with rich (and…

  17. Fever in the returned traveler.

    PubMed

    Lo Re, Vincent; Gluckman, Stephen J

    2003-10-01

    With the rising popularity of international travel to exotic locations, family physicians are encountering more febrile patients who recently have visited tropical countries. In the majority of cases, the fever is caused by a common illness such as tracheobronchitis, pneumonia, or urinary tract infection. However, fever in returned travelers always should raise suspicion for a severe or potentially life-threatening tropical infection. In addition to the usual medical history, physicians should obtain a careful travel history, a description of accommodations, information about pretravel immunizations or chemoprophylaxis during travel, a sexual history, and a list of exposures and risk factors. The extent and type of lymphadenopathy are important diagnostic clues. Altered mental status with fever is an alarm symptom and requires urgent evaluation and treatment. Malaria must be considered in patients who traveled even briefly within an endemic area. Enteric fever is treated with fluoroquinolones, dengue fever with supportive measures only, leptospirosis with penicillin or doxycycline, and rickettsial infections with doxycycline. PMID:14567489

  18. Arbovirus infections and viral haemorrhagic fevers in Uganda: a serological survey in Karamoja district, 1984.

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F; Gonzalez, J P; Mercier, E; Helynck, B; Larouze, B; Hannoun, C

    1989-01-01

    Sera collected in May 1984 from 132 adult residents of Karamoja district, Uganda, were examined by haemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies against selected arboviruses, namely Chikungunya and Semliki Forest alphaviruses (Togaviridae); dengue type 2, Wesselsbron, West Nile, yellow fever and Zika flaviviruses (Flaviviridae); Bunyamwera, Ilesha and Tahyna bunyaviruses (Bunyaviridae); and Sicilian sandfly fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae); and by immunofluorescence tests against certain haemorrhagic fever viruses, Lassa fever arenavirus (Arenaviridae), Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Zare and Marburg filoviruses (Filoviridae), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever nairovirus and Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae). Antibodies against Chikungunya virus were the most prevalent (47%), followed by flavivirus antibodies (16%), which were probably due mainly to West Nile virus. No evidence of yellow fever or dengue virus circulation was observed. A few individuals had antibodies against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses, suggesting that these viruses all circulate in the area. PMID:2559514

  19. [Q fever].

    PubMed

    Kalinov, Zuzana; Dorko, Erik; Cislkov, Ldia

    2007-06-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a Gram negative coccobacillus. It resides and replicates in the host s monocytes and macrophages. The developmental cycle of C. burnetii includes macrocellular and microcellular forms and the formation of spore-like bodies. It undergoes a phase variation of outer cell surface antigens from virulent phase I to avirulent phase II after passaging in the yolk sac of embryonated chicken eggs or in cell cultures. C. burnetii belongs to the most resistant bacteria. The main reservoirs of C. burnetii are cattle, sheep and goats. Human Q fever usually results from inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Acute infection mostly takes the course of a flu-like disease, atypical pneumonia or hepatitis, the chronic form resembles endocarditis. Laboratory examinations are based on the presence of antibodies. The drugs of choice are broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:17703401

  20. Fever, leucocytosis and infection after open heart surgery. A log-linear regression analysis of 115 cases.

    PubMed

    Miholic, J; Hiertz, H; Hudec, M; Laczkovics, A; Domanig, E

    1984-02-01

    A prospective investigation was undertaken in adults to assess the specificity and sensitivity of fever (greater than 38 degrees C) and leucocytosis (greater than 10 000/microliters) for the diagnosis of infection after operations with cardiopulmonary bypass. A log-linear model analysis of a multiway frequency table was used for statistical evaluation. The model parameters were separately evaluated for 2 periods: the early one until the 6th day, the late period from the 7th postoperative day until discharge. Seven out of 115 patients suffered infections during their hospital stay: Bacteremia occurred in 3, pneumonia in 2, and deep sternal wound infection in 2 patients, and a superficial wound infection in one. No significant interactions between fever, leucocytosis and/or infection were found in the first period, except an inverse relation between fever and elevated WBC (p = 0.0197). After the 6th postoperative day the model parameters did show significant interactions, fever and leucocytosis being more frequent in infected patients. However, the specificity was low: only 15% of the patients with fever or elevated WBC had an infection. The risk of in-hospital infection was significantly higher after a long duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (p = 0.009), and after transfusion of more than 2500 ml of blood on the day of operation (p = 0.001). PMID:6198774

  1. Q Fever Presenting As Recurrent, Culture-negative Endocarditis with Aortic Prosthetic Valve Failure: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    AlShukairi, Abeer N; Morshed, Muhammad G; Reiner, Neil E

    2006-01-01

    The present report describes a case of recurrent, culture-negative endocarditis presenting with aortic prosthetic valve dysfunction in a 62-year-old man who required four valve replacement surgeries. On each occasion, he presented with valve failure. Fever was only documented during his first presentation. Furthermore, no vegetations were detectable on his aortic valve at transesophageal echocardiography. On the occasion of his most recent presentation, a detailed history of animal exposure including hunting and skinning deer, moose and other large animals with his bare hands was the only clue to his diagnosis. Serum antibodies against Coxiella burnetii were strongly positive, and C burnetii DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction from his resected aortic valve tissue. Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic infection with diverse reservoirs. This diagnosis should be considered when evaluating unexplained prosthetic valve dysfunction, particularly in the setting of animal exposure. PMID:18382649

  2. The importance of molecular tools in classical biological control of weeds: Two case studies with yellow starthistle candidate biological agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular analyses may play a primary role in the process of host-specificity evaluation at species and population levels; here are reported two examples of their application with new candidate biocontrol agents for yellow starthistle (YST). Ceratapion basicorne is a root-crown boring weevil that sh...

  3. Haemorrhagic fevers and ecological perturbations.

    PubMed

    Le Guenno, B

    1997-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever is a clinical and imprecise definition for several different diseases. Their main common point is to be zoonoses. These diseases are due to several viruses which belong to different families. The Flaviviridae have been known for the longest time. They include the Amaril virus that causes yellow fever and is transported by mosquitoes. Viruses that have come to light more recently belong to three other families: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Filoviridae. They are transmitted by rodents (hantaviruses and arenaviruses) or from unknown reservoirs (Ebola Marburg). The primary cause of most outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever viruses is ecological disruption resulting from human activities. The expansion of the world population perturbs ecosystems that were stable a few decades ago and facilitates contacts with animals carrying viruses pathogenic to humans. Another dangerous human activity is the development of hospitals with poor medical hygiene. Lassa, Crimean-Congo or Ebola outbreaks are mainly nosocomial. There are also natural environmental changes: the emergence of Sin Nombre in the U.S. resulted from heavier than usual rain and snow during spring 1993 in the Four Corners. Biological industries also present risks. In 1967, collection of organs from monkeys allowed the discovery in Marburg of a new family of viruses, the Filoviridae. Hemorrhagic fever viruses are cause for worry, and the avenues to reduce their toll are still limited. PMID:9413538

  4. Viral haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Fhogartaigh, Caoimhe Nic; Aarons, Emma

    2015-02-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a range of viral infections with potential to cause life-threatening illness in humans. Apart from Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), they are largely confined to Africa, distribution being dependent on the ecology of reservoir hosts. At present, the largest ever epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD or Ebola) is occurring in West Africa, raising the possibility that cases could be imported into non-endemic countries. Diagnosis and management is challenging due to the non-specificity of early symptoms, limited laboratory facilities in endemic areas, severity of disease, lack of effective therapy, strict infection control requirements and propensity to cause epidemics with secondary cases in healthcare workers. PMID:25650201

  5. Clinical Manifestations and Case Management of Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever Caused by a Newly Identified Virus Strain, Bundibugyo, Uganda, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Paul; Howard, Natasha; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Lutwama, Julius; Wamala, Joseph; Yoti, Zabulon; Colebunders, Robert; Palma, Pedro Pablo; Sterk, Esther; Jeffs, Benjamin; Van Herp, Michel; Borchert, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    A confirmed Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak in Bundibugyo, Uganda, November 2007–February 2008, was caused by a putative new species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). It included 93 putative cases, 56 laboratory-confirmed cases, and 37 deaths (CFR = 25%). Study objectives are to describe clinical manifestations and case management for 26 hospitalised laboratory-confirmed EHF patients. Clinical findings are congruous with previously reported EHF infections. The most frequently experienced symptoms were non-bloody diarrhoea (81%), severe headache (81%), and asthenia (77%). Seven patients reported or were observed with haemorrhagic symptoms, six of whom died. Ebola care remains difficult due to the resource-poor setting of outbreaks and the infection-control procedures required. However, quality data collection is essential to evaluate case definitions and therapeutic interventions, and needs improvement in future epidemics. Organizations usually involved in EHF case management have a particular responsibility in this respect. PMID:23285243

  6. Dengue Fever Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Dengue Fever Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Dengue Fever Antibodies; Dengue Fever Virus Formal name: Dengue Antibodies ( ...

  7. Comparison of two cases of strong increase in the bottom temperature in the Yellow Sea in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L, Lian-Gang; Yang, Guang-Bing; Wang, Guansuo; Liu, Zong-Wei; Jiang, Ying; Yang, Chunmei; Zhang, Chao

    2015-09-01

    Mooring observations were carried out on the western slope of the southern Yellow Sea (YS) to observe the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC). Strong increases in the bottom temperature (about 3C within 1 day) were observed at mooring M5 (shelf break) on 8 January 2007, and at mooring A2 (mid-slope) on 5 December 2008. The strong temperature increase of bottom water at M5 was closely related to the burst of the YSWC. The bottom temperature at mooring A2 increased and decreased alternately from 7 November to 14 December 2008, and the strong increase (about 3C within 1 day) occurring on 5 December was one of the four rises during that period. The significant semi-diurnal-oscillation during that period indicated that the thermal fronts outlining the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM) boundary was very close to location A2. The notable rises in the bottom temperature at A2 were associated with bottom eastward currents, while the distinct falls in temperature coincide with bottom westward currents. The distinctive distribution in the bottom temperature associated with the YSCWM and the bottom eastward currents were mainly responsible for the strong increase in the bottom temperature at A2. The variations in the bottom temperature described here are valuable for understanding the time evolution of the YSWC in winter and the YSCWM from late autumn to early winter.

  8. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis complicating acute rheumatic fever.

    PubMed Central

    Akasheh, M. S.; al-Lozi, M.; Affarah, H. B.; Hajjiri, F. K.; al-Jitawi, S.

    1995-01-01

    A case of acute rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis following streptococcal throat infection is presented. The coincidence of rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is uncommon, but well recognised. This case is of additional interest since the nephritis was crescentic. Images Figure PMID:7479469

  9. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis complicating acute rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Akasheh, M S; al-Lozi, M; Affarah, H B; Hajjiri, F K; al-Jitawi, S

    1995-09-01

    A case of acute rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis following streptococcal throat infection is presented. The coincidence of rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is uncommon, but well recognised. This case is of additional interest since the nephritis was crescentic. PMID:7479469

  10. The liver in boutonneuse fever

    PubMed Central

    Guardia, J.; Martnez-Vzquez, J. M.; Moragas, A.; Rey, C.; Vilaseca, J.; Tornos, J.; Beltrn, M.; Bacard, R.

    1974-01-01

    Hepatic lesions were studied for the first time in 13 cases of boutonneuse fever (Mediterranean exanthematous fever). The glutamic-oxalacetic transaminases were raised in eight patients, the glutamic-pyruvic transaminases showed an increase in 10 patients, alkaline phosphatases in seven of the 10 patients investigated, and conjugate bilirubin showed moderate increases in three patients. Five patients were studied histologically; this study showed lesions of a granulomatous type, similar to those described in Q fever, in three patients, fatty degeneration with marked alcoholism in another patient, and a normal liver in the last patient. Two of the three patients with granulomatous lesions showed a moderate increase in alkaline phosphatases. After this report boutonneuse fever must be included among the infectious conditions that can produce granulomas within the liver. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3 PMID:4479621

  11. Clinical Profile of Concurrent Dengue Fever and Plasmodium vivax Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon: Case Series of 11 Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Magalhes, Belisa M. L.; Alexandre, Mrcia A. A.; Siqueira, Andr M.; Melo, Gisely C.; Gimaque, Joo B. L.; Bastos, Michele S.; Figueiredo, Regina M. P.; Carvalho, Ricardo C.; Tavares, Michel A.; Naveca, Felipe G.; Alonso, Pedro; Bassat, Quique; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Mouro, Maria P. G.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria and dengue fever are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases worldwide. This study aims to describe the clinical profile of patients with molecular diagnosis of concurrent malaria and dengue fever in a tropical-endemic area. Eleven patients with concurrent dengue virus (DENV) and Plasmodium vivax infection are reported. Similar frequencies of DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 were found, including DENV-3/DENV-4 co-infection. In eight patients, the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for severe malaria could be fulfilled (jaundice being the most common). Only one patient met severe dengue criteria, but warning signs were present in 10. Syndromic surveillance systems must be ready to identify this condition to avoid misinterpretation of severity attributed to a single disease. PMID:23033396

  12. Early detection of circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in a case of acute schistosomiasis mansoni with Katayama fever.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, S G; Ravn, J; Haagensen, I

    1992-01-01

    A 34-year-old male developed acute Katayama fever with fever, diarrhoea, joint pains, headache, urticarial rash and eosinophilia 18 days after falling into and spending 15 min in the water during water-skiing in the outlet of the Volta river. Low anti-schistosomal antibody titres were found by the immunofluorescence assay after 4 weeks, and the first Schistosoma mansoni eggs were found in faeces after 6 weeks. Both symptoms and eosinophilia increased the first days after treatment with oxamniquine, after which he improved gradually. Examination of frozen sera by the newly developed Magnetic Beads Antigen Capture-EIA (MBAC-EIA) later demonstrated a peak in schistosomal circulating anodic antigen (CAA) levels of diagnostic significance already 4 weeks after he was infected. PMID:1411323

  13. Relapsing fever in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Babudieri, B.

    1957-01-01

    The author reports on a survey carried out by him in 1954 on relapsing fever in Jordan. In that country the disease is largely tick-borne, the main vector being Ornithodoros tholozani. Some of the frequent cases in the town of Nablus and the village of Marda in West Jordan may, however, be caused by O. coniceps. The centres of infection are some of the numerous caves scattered throughout the hilly areas and certain houses in which chickens are kept. It is believed that the vector ticks could be successfully exterminated by the use of insecticides and by the adoption of certain procedures outlined by the author. Arsenobenzol compounds and penicillin have been shown not to be very effective for the treatment of relapsing fever, but good results have been obtained with Aureomycin and Terramycin. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4 PMID:13472437

  14. [Dengue as haemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Olszy?ska-Krowicka, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus is distributed in tropical and subtropical regions and transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. In September 2010 two cases of indigenous dengue fever were diagnosed in metropolitan France for the first time and next DENV infection was diagnosed in a German traveler returning from a trip to Croatia. The Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were found in several European countries (for example in greenhouses in Netherlands). The indigenous DENV infections in Europe are rare diseases, probably acquired after bites of infected mosquitoes imported by airplanes from endemic areas. Nonspecific symptoms including: fever (up to 39 degrees C), chills, arthralagia, headache, myalgia and abnormalities in laboratory tests such as: thrombocytopaenia, leukopaenia and liver tests cause problems with differential diagnosis ofhematologic and hepatologic syndromes. The most serious complications are associated with dengue shock syndrome with mortality rate of 50%. PMID:22390040

  15. CLINICAL CASE OF THE MONTH: A 49-Year-Old Man with Fever, Headache and Leg Weakness.

    PubMed

    Cardinale Md PhD, Jeffrey P; Gentile, Oliver O; Reddy, Laya M; Tran Md, Trung N; Avalos Md, Joseph A; Lopez Md, Fred A

    2015-01-01

    A 49-year-old man with an unremarkable past medical history presented to an outside hospital with a five-day history of fever, left leg weakness, myalgia and headache. The patient reported that the illness started as a fever and sore throat and he was originally diagnosed with streptococcal pharyngitis and prescribed antibiotics. The day after his initial diagnosis, his fever had progressed to include a headache, myalgia, a rash on his upper torso and right shoulder and sudden-onset left leg weakness with preserved sensation. With progressively worsening symptoms, he eventually presented to a local emergency department (ED), five days after his symptoms first started. He was experiencing continued left leg weakness, an inability to ambulate, persistent fevers to 103F, muscle aches, an intense band-like headache and confusion. The patient denied neck stiffness, photophobia, loss of sensation or any additional muscle weakness. He denied any recent travel aside from work, any sick contacts, recent tick/insect bites, history of sexually transmitted diseases or contact with animals. He reported no history of illicit drug use as well as no recent weight loss, trauma or radiation exposure. The patient had approximately a 10-pack-year tobacco smoking history. For the last ten years he drank about a six-pack of beer daily while onshore (roughly two weeks out of every month). He works on an offshore oil platform. He was not taking any home medications besides his recently prescribed antibiotics. He lived alone at home in a moderately rural area of South Louisiana. His family history was non-contributory. PMID:26741691

  16. Reduced thrombin formation and excessive fibrinolysis are associated with bleeding complications in patients with dengue fever: a casecontrol study comparing dengue fever patients with and without bleeding manifestations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue cases have been classified according to disease severity into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Although DF is considered a non-severe manifestation of dengue, it has been recently demonstrated that DF represents a heterogeneous group of patients with varied clinical complications and grades of severity. Particularly, bleeding complications, commonly associated to DHF, can be detected in half of the patients with DF. Although a frequent complication, the causes of bleedings in DF have not been fully addressed. Thus, the aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of possible pathophysiological mechanisms that could contribute to the bleeding tendency observed in patients with DF. Methods This is a casecontrol study that enrolled adults with DF without bleeding and adults with DF and bleeding complications during the defervescence period. Healthy controls were also included. Peripheral blood counts, inflammatory, fibrinolysis and endothelial cell activation markers, and thrombin generation were evaluated in patients and controls. Results We included 33 adults with DF without complications, 26 adults with DF and bleeding and 67 healthy controls. Bleeding episodes were mild in 15 (57.6%) and moderate in 11 (42.4%) patients, 8 (30.7%) patients had bleedings in multiple sites. Patients with DF and bleedings had lower platelet counts than DF without bleeding (median?=?19,500 vs. 203,500/mm3, P?

  17. Azathioprine-induced fever in autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Tawfik; Ollech, Jacob E; Chen, Shmuel; Mizrahi, Meir; Shalit, Meir

    2013-01-01

    Underdiagnosis of drug-induced fever leads to extensive investigation and prolongation of hospitalization, and may lead to multiple unnecessary invasive procedures and a wrong diagnosis. Azathioprine is a widely used immunosuppressive drug. We report a case of a 53-year-old female patient diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis treated with azathioprine, who presented to the emergency room with a 6-wk history of fever and chills without other associated symptoms. Since the patients fever was of unknown origin, she was hospitalized. All treatment was stopped and an extensive workup to explore the source of fever and chills was performed. Results of chest X-ray, viral, urine, and blood cultures, autoimmune serology, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, and abdominal ultrasound revealed no source of infection. A rechallenge test of azathioprine was performed and the fever and chills returned within a few hours. Azathioprine was established as the definite cause following rechallenge. Fever as an adverse drug reaction is often unrecognized. Azathioprine has been reported to cause drug-induced fever in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and sarcoidosis. To the best of our knowledge there have been no previous reports documenting azathioprine-induced fever in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. The occurrence of fever following the readministration of azathioprine suggests the diagnosis of drug-induced fever, particularly after the exclusion of other causes. A careful rechallenge is recommended to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:23840156

  18. [Rheumatic fever].

    PubMed

    Cherkashin, D V; Kumchin, A N; Shchulenin, S N; Svistov, A S

    2013-01-01

    This lecture-style paper highlights all major problems pertinent to rheumatic fever Definition of acute RF and chronic rheumatic heart disease is proposed and desirability of the use of these terms in clinical practice is explained. Present-day epidemiology of RF is described with reference to marked differences in its prevalence in developed and developing countries. Modern classification of acute RF is described as adopted by the Russian Association of Rheumatologists and recommended for the use in Russian medical facilities. Discussion of etiological issues is focused on such virulence factors as beta-hemolytic streptococcus A and genetic predisposition confirming hereditary nature of RE Its clinical features are described along with laboratory and instrumental methods applied for its diagnostics. Large and small diagnostic criteria of RF are considered. Special attention is given to the treatment of RF and its complications (antibiotic, pathogenetic, and drug therapy). Its primary and secondary prophylaxis is discussed in detail, preparations for the purpose are listed (with doses and duration of application). In conclusion, criteria for the efficacy of therapy are presented along with indications for hospitalization and emergency treatment. PMID:24437162

  19. Immunological features underlying viral hemorrhagic fevers.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Basler, Christopher F

    2015-10-01

    Several enveloped RNA viruses of the arenavirus, bunyavirus, filovirus and flavivirus families are associated with a syndrome known as viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). VHF is characterized by fever, vascular leakage, coagulation defects and multi organ system failure. VHF is currently viewed as a disease precipitated by viral suppression of innate immunity, which promotes systemic virus replication and excessive proinflammatory cytokine responses that trigger the manifestations of severe disease. However, the mechanisms by which immune dysregulation contributes to disease remain poorly understood. Infection of nonhuman primates closely recapitulates human VHF, notably Ebola and yellow fever, thereby providing excellent models to better define the immunological basis for this syndrome. Here we review the current state of our knowledge and suggest future directions that will better define the immunological mechanisms underlying VHF. PMID:26163194

  20. Fever of unknown origin in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gaweł, Bartłomiej; Krankowska, Dagny; Wasilczuk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to discuss issues associated with the occurrence of febrile illnesses in leisure and business travellers, with a particular emphasis on fevers of unknown origin (FUO). FUO, apart from diarrhoeas, respiratory tract infections and skin lesions, are one of the most common health problems in travellers to tropical and subtropical countries. FUO are manifestations of various diseases, typically of infectious or invasive aetiology. In one out of 3 cases, the cause of a fever in travellers returning from the hot climate zone is malaria, and therefore diagnostic tests should first aim at ruling out this specific disease entity. Other illnesses with persistent fever include dengue, enteric fever, viral hepatitis A, bacterial diarrhoeas and rickettsioses. Fever may also occur in travellers suffering from diseases of non-tropical origin, e.g. cosmopolitan respiratory tract or urinary tract infections, also, fever may coexist with other illnesses or injuries (skin rashes, bites, burns). PMID:26119676

  1. A rare case of fever of unknown origin: subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL).

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Yadala; Yadala, Vivek; Reddy, Indukuru Subbarayalu; De Padua, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old man presented with high-grade fever, chills, productive cough and episodic abdominal pain of 6 months duration. Physical examination revealed that the patient was febrile and had multiple, ill-defined, tender, indurated, erythematous nodules and plaques over the trunk and thighs. Systemic examination and investigations revealed bilateral exudative pleural effusion with an increased adenosine deaminase (ADA) level. Pulmonary tuberculosis was suspected and the patient was started on a standard four-drug antitubercular regimen. Since his fever persisted, biopsy of the plaque over the trunk was performed, which showed lobular panniculitis with atypical lymphoid cells. Immunohistochemistry showed atypical lymphoid cells, which were CD3 and CD8 positive and CD4 negative. Based on the clinical features, skin biopsy and immunohistochemistry, the diagnosis of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma was made. The patient was treated with chemotherapy followed by bone marrow transplantation, and 4-year follow-up showed complete remission of lymphoma. PMID:26290563

  2. Dengue Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This includes 100 to 200 cases in the United States, mostly in people who have recently traveled abroad. Many more cases likely go unreported because some healthcare providers do not recognize the disease. In the ...

  3. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or...

  4. Q Fever Chronic Osteomyelitis in Two Children.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beatriz; Morais, Andreia; Santos, Ana Sofia; Tavares, Delfin; Seves, Graa; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-11-01

    We report 2 cases of chronic Q fever osteomyelitis in 10- and 5-year-old girls who presented with distal right femoral and left parasternal granulomatous osteomyelitis, respectively. Both were treated with ciprofloxacin and rifampin with good response. Q fever osteomyelitis is a challenging diagnosis in children, and the choice of antimicrobial treatment is difficult because of limited available data. PMID:26226441

  5. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  6. Acute infectious purpura fulminans due to probable spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Kundavaram, A; Francis, N R; Jude, A P J; Varghese, G N

    2014-01-01

    Purpura fulminans (PF) is associated with several infections, most notably with meningococcus, staphylococcus, and streptococcus infections. However, there are few reports of association of this entity with spotted fever from India. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with fever, headache, and myalgia. On the seventh day of fever he developed nonblanching purple hemorrhagic purpura on the trunk and most prominently on the extremities consistent with purpura fulminans. Immunofluorescent assay confirmed the diagnosis of spotted fever. PF though common with rocky mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is rarely seen in association with Indian tick typhus, the usual cause of spotted fever in India. PMID:24823524

  7. Integrated Community Case Management of Fever in Children under Five Using Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Respiratory Rate Counting: A Multi-Country Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mukanga, David; Tiono, Alfred B.; Anyorigiya, Thomas; Kllander, Karin; Konat, Amadou T.; Oduro, Abraham R.; Tibenderana, James K.; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Sirima, Sodiomon B.; Cousens, Simon; Barnish, Guy; Pagnoni, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Evidence on the impact of using diagnostic tests in community case management of febrile children is limited. This effectiveness trial conducted in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Uganda, compared a diagnostic and treatment package for malaria and pneumonia with presumptive treatment with anti-malarial drugs; artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). We enrolled 4,216 febrile children between 4 and 59 months of age in 20092010. Compliance with the malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) results was high in the intervention arm across the three countries, with only 4.9% (17 of 344) of RDT-negative children prescribed an ACT. Antibiotic overuse was more common: 0.9% (4 of 446) in Uganda, 38.5% (114 of 296) in Burkina Faso, and 44.6% (197 of 442) in Ghana. Fever clearance was high in both intervention and control arms at both Day 3 (97.8% versus 96.9%, P = 0.17) and Day 7 (99.2% versus 98.8%, P = 0.17). The use of diagnostic tests limits overuse of ACTs. Its impact on antibiotic overuse and on fever clearance is uncertain. PMID:23136274

  8. [Fever of intermediate duration].

    PubMed

    Rivero, Antonio; Zambrana, Jos Luis; Pachn, Jernimo

    2003-03-01

    Fever of intermediate duration (FID) is defined as non-localized fever occurring in the community, lasting from one to four weeks, and having no diagnostic orientation after basic clinical, analytical and radiological evaluations are completed. These may include careful recording of clinical history, physical examination, hemogram, plasma creatinine determination, urinalysis, and chest radiography. The etiology of FID is still not completely defined. In our country, 70% of cases are caused by systemic infectious diseases (rickettsiosis, brucellosis, and mononucleosis syndrome) and 7.7% by localized infections; vasculitis and neoplasms account for less than 2%. In most cases FID can be attended on an outpatient basis, with the guarantee of the easy accessibility. In cases without social support or when there is digestive intolerance or criteria of severe disease, hospital care is required. For the diagnostic approach, it is useful to establish basic rules and to organize the study in several stages, taking into account the most frequent etiologies. The first visit would include elaboration of the clinical history, a hemogram, biochemistry analyses, blood cultures, urine culture, serological studies for the most frequent etiologies, a chest radiograph, and other examinations, as indicated by the clinical history data. The care provided and subsequent diagnostic studies performed will depend on the patient's progression and findings from additional studies. Further works conducted in various geographic settings are necessary to define the complete etiological spectrum of FID. PMID:12586020

  9. [Ebola and Marburg fever--outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Chlbek, R; Smetana, J; Vackov, M

    2006-12-01

    With an increasing frequency of traveling and tourism to exotic countries, a new threat-import of rare, very dangerous infections-emerges in humane medicine. Ebola fever and Marburg fever, whose agents come from the same group of Filoviridae family, belong among these diseases. The natural reservoir of these viruses has not yet been precisely determined. The pathogenesis of the diseases is not absolutely clear, there is neither a possibility of vaccination, nor an effective treatment. Fever and haemorrhagic diathesis belong to the basic symptoms of the diseases. Most of the infected persons die, the death rate is 70-88 %. The history of Ebola fever is relatively short-30 years, Marburg fever is known almost 40 years. Hundreds of people have died of these diseases so far. The study involves epidemics recorded in the world and their epidemiological relations. Not a single case has been recorded in the Czech Republic, nevertheless a sick traveler or infected animals are the highest risk of import these diseases. In our conditions, the medical staff belong to a highly endangered group of people because of stringent isolation of patients, strict rules of barrier treatment regime and high infectivity of the diseases. For this reason, the public should be prepared for possible contact with these highly virulent infections. PMID:17230375

  10. Dengue fever: a Wikipedia clinical review.

    PubMed

    Heilman, James M; De Wolff, Jacob; Beards, Graham M; Basden, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, which results in bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and leakage of blood plasma, or into dengue shock syndrome, in which dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Treatment of acute dengue fever is supportive, with either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease and use of intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases. Along with attempts to eliminate the mosquito vector, work is ongoing to develop a vaccine and medications targeted directly at the virus. PMID:25426178

  11. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. The ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky Mountain ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the U.S. National Library of Medicine Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Fever Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: cold-induced sweating syndrome familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome familial Mediterranean fever ...

  13. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Impetigo Head Lice Vomiting Chickenpox Helping ... Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Scarlet Fever KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Scarlet Fever Print A ...

  14. Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... into dengue hemorrhagic fever. Most infections in the United States are brought in from other countries. Risk factors for dengue hemorrhagic fever include having antibodies to dengue virus from an earlier infection.

  15. Groundwater flow and geochemistry in the lower reaches of the Yellow River: a case study in Shandang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. Y.; Tang, C. Y.; Sakura, Y.; Kondoh, A.; Shen, Y. J.

    2002-08-01

    Water samples were collected from the Yellow River and from wells for chemical and isotopic measurement in the counties of Yucheng and Qihe, to which 6-9×108 m3 of water is diverted annually from the Yellow River. A zone of high electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater corresponds well on the regional scale with a ridge in groundwater level, which is the main flow path through the region, but has a low gradient. The zone of highest EC along this ridge occurs at a position with the lowest ground altitude in the study area. The unique characteristic of the groundwater is the linear relationship among the principal anions as the result of mixing. The mixing effect is confirmed by its isotopic signature, which was then used to calculate the contributions from three sources: rainfall, old water, and diverted water with an average mixing rate of 18, 17, and 65%, respectively. As an indicator of water movement, Cl- content varies across a wide range in the profile from 30-10 m with a maximum concentration at about 1.2 m depth. Concentrations are relatively stable at about 2 m, which is the average boundary of the saturated and unsaturated zone. The water from the Yellow River has proved to be dominant in mixing in the aquifer in terms of groundwater flow and geochemistry. Résumé. En vue d'analyses chimiques et isotopiques, des échantillons d'eau ont été prélevés sur le Fleuve Jaune et dans des puits des comtés de Yucheng et Qihe, où l'on prélève sur le fleuve 6-9×108 m3. Une zone de forte conductivité électrique dans la nappe correspond bien, à l'échelle régionale, avec une crête piézométrique liée au principal canal traversant la région, mais avec une faible pente. La zone de plus fortes conductivités le long de cette crête se situe là où l'altitude est la plus basse dans la région. La caractéristique remarquable de la nappe est la relation linéaire entre les principaux anions, résultant d'un mélange. L'effet de mélange est confirmé par la signature isotopique, qui a alors été utilisée pour calculer les contributions des trois sources: la pluie, l'eau ancienne et l'eau prélevée dans le fleuve, avec un taux moyen de mélange respectivement de 18, 17 et 65%. Comme indicateur de l'écoulement de l'eau, la concentration en Cl- varie dans une large gamme, dans un profil de 30 cm à 10 m en profondeur, avec une concentration maximale à une profondeur d'environ 1,2 m. Les concentrations sont relativement stables à partir de 2 m, profondeur de la limite entre les zones non saturée et saturée. On a ainsi montré que l'eau du Fleuve Jaune est prédominante dans le mélange, au sein de l'aquifère en termes d'écoulement de la nappe et de composition chimique. Resumen. Se ha recogido muestras de agua del Río Amarillo y de pozos para obtener medidas químicas e isotópicas en los condados de Yucheng y Qihe, que se abastecen con 6-9×108 m3 anuales de aguas de dicho río. Hay una zona de conductividad eléctrica (CE) elevada en las aguas subterráneas, la cual se corresponde bien a escala regional con una divisoria en el nivel piezométrico que representa la vía principal de flujo a través de la región, pero con un gradiente bajo. La zona de mayor CE a lo largo de la divisoria está localizada en el punto con la menor cota topográfica en el ámbito de estudio. La característica principal de las aguas subterráneas es la relación lineal que existe entre los aniones principales como resultado de un proceso de mezcla. Este efecto se confirma mediante la huella isotópica, que se utilizó para calcular las contribuciones de tres orígenes distintos: precipitación, aguas antiguas y aguas derivadas del río, obteniéndose porcentajes respectivos del 18, 17, y 65%. Como trazador del agua, la concentración de cloruro varía ampliamente en el perfil del suelo de 0,3-10 m, con un máximo a una profundidad aproximada de 1,2 m. Las concentraciones son relativamente estables hacia 2 m de profundidad, que es la cota promedio del nivel freático. El agua del Río Amarillo domina en la mezcla de aguas del acuífero, tanto en término de flujo de aguas subterráneas como de geoquímica.

  16. Clinical and radiological features of imported chikungunya fever in Japan: a study of six cases at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yasutaka; Kato, Yasuyuki; Takeshita, Nozomi; Ujiie, Mugen; Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kudo, Koichiro; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2011-06-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is currently distributed in Africa and in South and Southeast Asia; outbreaks have occurred periodically in the region over the past 50 years. After a large outbreak had occurred in countries in the western Indian Ocean region in 2005, several countries reported cases of CHIKF from travelers who had visited affected areas. In Japan, there have been only 15 cases of CHIKF patients so far, according to the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. Therefore, to evaluate the clinical and radiological features associated with the disease, we describe 6 imported cases of CHIKF. All of the patients had had prolonged arthralgia on admission to our hospital, and diagnosis was confirmed with specific antibodies by using an IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunoassay and a plaque reduction neutralizing antibody assay. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of one patient revealed erosive arthritis and tenosynovitis during the convalescence stage. Clinicians should be aware of the late consequences of infection by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and recognize the possible association of subacute and chronic arthritis features. In addition, competent vectors of CHIKV, Aedes aegypti, can now be found in many temperate areas of the eastern and western hemispheres, including Japan. This fact raises concern that the virus could be introduced and become established in these areas. This necessitates an increased awareness of the disease, because imported cases are likely to contribute to the spread of CHIKV infection wherever the competent mosquito vectors are distributed. PMID:20862507

  17. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever Leading to Unnecessary Appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Lovekesh; Singh, Mahendra; Saxena, Ashish; Kolhe, Yuvraj; Karande, Snehal K.; Singh, Narendra; Venkatesh, P.; Meena, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arbovirus illness with an estimated incidence of 50100 million cases per year. The common symptoms of dengue include fever, rash, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and musculoskeletal pain. Dengue fever may present as acute abdomen leading to diagnostic dilemma. The acute surgical complications of dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, nonspecific peritonitis, and acute appendicitis. We report a case of dengue fever that mimicked acute appendicitis leading to unnecessary appendectomy. A careful history examination for dengue-related signs, and serial hemogram over the first 3-4 days of disease may prevent unnecessary appendectomy. PMID:26167314

  18. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever Leading to Unnecessary Appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lovekesh; Singh, Mahendra; Saxena, Ashish; Kolhe, Yuvraj; Karande, Snehal K; Singh, Narendra; Venkatesh, P; Meena, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arbovirus illness with an estimated incidence of 50-100 million cases per year. The common symptoms of dengue include fever, rash, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and musculoskeletal pain. Dengue fever may present as acute abdomen leading to diagnostic dilemma. The acute surgical complications of dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, nonspecific peritonitis, and acute appendicitis. We report a case of dengue fever that mimicked acute appendicitis leading to unnecessary appendectomy. A careful history examination for dengue-related signs, and serial hemogram over the first 3-4 days of disease may prevent unnecessary appendectomy. PMID:26167314

  19. Climate impacts on environmental risks evaluated from space: a conceptual approach to the case of Rift Valley Fever in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Tourre, Yves M.; Lacaux, Jean-Pierre; Vignolles, Cécile; Lafaye, Murielle

    2009-01-01

    Background Climate and environment vary across many spatio-temporal scales, including the concept of climate change, which impact on ecosystems, vector-borne diseases and public health worldwide. Objectives To develop a conceptual approach by mapping climatic and environmental conditions from space and studying their linkages with Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in Senegal. Design Ponds in which mosquitoes could thrive were identified from remote sensing using high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images. Additional data on pond dynamics and rainfall events (obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) were combined with hydrological in-situ data. Localisation of vulnerable hosts such as penned cattle (from QuickBird satellite) were also used. Results Dynamic spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes vexans density (one of the main RVF vectors) is based on the total rainfall amount and ponds’ dynamics. While Zones Potentially Occupied by Mosquitoes are mapped, detailed risk areas, i.e. zones where hazards and vulnerability occur, are expressed in percentages of areas where cattle are potentially exposed to mosquitoes’ bites. Conclusions This new conceptual approach, using precise remote-sensing techniques, simply relies upon rainfall distribution also evaluated from space. It is meant to contribute to the implementation of operational early warning systems for RVF based on both natural and anthropogenic climatic and environmental changes. In a climate change context, this approach could also be applied to other vector-borne diseases and places worldwide. PMID:20052381

  20. Fever of unknown origin: subacute thyroiditis versus typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Thermidor, Marjorie; Mohan, Sowjanya; Valsamis, Ageliki S; Johnson, Diane H

    2005-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is not infrequently a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians. Common infectious causes include endocarditis and abscesses in adults, and noninfectious causes include neoplasms and certain collagen vascular diseases, for example, polymyalgia rheumatica, various vasculitides, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (adult Still's disease). Subacute thyroiditis is a rare cause of FUO. Among the infectious causes of FUO, typhoid fever is relatively uncommon. We present a case of FUO in a traveler returning from India whose initial complaints were that of left-sided neck pain and angle of the jaw pain, which initially suggested the diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. After an extensive FUO workup, when typhoid fever is a likely diagnostic possibility, an empiric trial of anti- Salmonella therapy has diagnostic and therapeutic significance. The presence of relative bradycardia, and response to quinolone therapy, was the basis of the clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever as the explanation for this patients FUO. This case illustrates the diagnostic difficulties in assessing patients with FUO with few diagnostic findings. PMID:15761461

  1. Yellow nails, lymphedema and chronic cough: Yellow nail syndrome in an eight-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Siddiq, Ishita; Hughes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease and reported mainly in adults. A case of yellow nail syndrome involving an eight-year-old girl with associated discoloured yellowish nails on the fingers and toes, lymphedema and chronic cough, and sputum production is reported. PMID:22332131

  2. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Ftika, L; Maltezou, H C

    2013-03-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) typically manifest as rapidly progressing acute febrile syndromes with profound haemorrhagic manifestations and very high fatality rates. VHFs that have the potential for human-to-human transmission and onset of large nosocomial outbreaks include Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Marburg haemorrhagic fever and Lassa fever. Nosocomial outbreaks of VHFs are increasingly reported nowadays, which likely reflects the dynamics of emergence of VHFs. Such outbreaks are associated with an enormous impact in terms of human lives and costs for the management of cases, contact tracing and containment. Surveillance, diagnostic capacity, infection control and the overall preparedness level for management of a hospital-based VHF event are very limited in most endemic countries. Diagnostic capacities for VHFs should increase in the field and become affordable. Availability of appropriate protective equipment and education of healthcare workers about safe clinical practices and infection control is the mainstay for the prevention of nosocomial spread of VHFs. PMID:23333147

  3. Colchicine-free remission in familial Mediterranean fever: featuring a unique subset of the disease-a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To demonstrate and clinically, genetically and demographically characterize familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients, maintaining remission despite colchicine abstinence. Methods FMF patients were screened for an endurance of prolonged remission (≥ 3 years), despite refraining from colchicine. Clinical, demographic and genetic parameters were collected. Data were compared with those of consecutive control FMF subjects, coming to the clinic for their periodic follow up examination. Results Of 1000 patients screened over 5 years, 33 manifested colchicine-free remission. The mean duration of the remission period was 12.6 ± 8.1 years. Patients in the remission group had milder severity of FMF, compared to the control group (22 vs. 11 patients with mild disease, respectively, p = 0.003) and a longer diagnosis delay (21 ± 15.7 vs. 13.4 ± 13.5 years, respectively, p = 0.04). Patients experiencing remission suffered mostly of abdominal attacks, low rate of attacks in other sites and low rate of chronic and non-attack manifestations. When the disease resumed activity, it responded well to colchicine, despite using a lower dose, as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.001). None of the patients in this group was homozygous for the M694V mutation (p = 0.0008). Conclusions Prolonged colchicine-free remission defines a rare and milder form of FMF with unique clinical, demographic, and molecular characteristics. PMID:24401676

  4. Persistent fever, neck swelling, and small vessel vasculitis following tonsillectomy in a patient with Behets disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Behets disease commonly presents with recurrent oral and genital mucocutaneous ulcerations, uveitis and various skin manifestations. Other clinical symptoms include gastrointestinal ulcerations, arthritis, venous thrombosis, arterial aneurysms and central nervous system affection. Vasculitis underlies most clinical symptoms of Behets disease. Case presentation We report the case of a 62-year-old European Caucasian woman with Behets disease who presented with persistent fever and neck soft-tissue swelling, despite broad antibiotic treatment, two weeks after acute tonsillitis and a tonsillectomy. Diffuse epi- and mesopharyngeal swelling shown on a computed tomography scan of her neck and persistently elevated serum markers of inflammation initially prompted suspicion of an infectious etiology. Magnet resonance imaging of her neck and a neck tissue biopsy finally confirmed small vessel vasculitis involving skin, subcutaneous tissue and muscle. Considering the clinical presentation, past medical history and histological findings, we interpreted our patients symptoms as a flare of Behets disease. Immunosuppressive treatment led to rapid clinical improvement. Conclusion A patient with Behets disease developed small vessel vasculitis of the soft tissue of her neck after tonsillitis and a tonsillectomy. Infection and surgery probably triggered a flare of Behets disease. PMID:23110825

  5. [West Nile fever].

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2005-12-01

    West Nile virus was first detected in North America in 1999 and has spread throughout the United States and Canada and into Mexico and the Caribbean. The cases of encephalitis in New York were diagnosed as Saint Louis encephalitis which was endemic in the North America. However, dead crows and dead flamingo were found around the same time in New York. American birds seldom die by Saint Louis encephalitis virus infection. According to viral isolation and sequencing of the genome, the causative agent of unknown encephalitis was West Nile virus which was a member of Flaviviridae which cause fever, meningitis and encephalitis. West Nile virus is still active in North America in summer season, 1999 -2005. CDC enlightens people how to protect themselves and their community from West Nile virus. There are some reports that West Nile viral infections were occurred by blood transfusion, biologic products from blood and organ transfusion. PMID:16363684

  6. Emergency department presentations of typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Hoffner, R J; Slaven, E; Perez, J; Magana, R N; Henderson, S O

    2000-11-01

    Typhoid fever, a systemic infectious disease caused by Salmonella typhi, is classically characterized by fever, paradoxical bradycardia, abdominal pain, and a rose colored rash. This was a retrospective review of 21 confirmed cases over a 5-year period. Mean age was 32.6 years (range 2-60 years), and Mexico (7/21) and El Salvador (3/21) represented the most common countries of origin. Recent travel to an endemic area was noted in 14 patients. The most common complaints were fever (15/21), headache (10/21), abdominal pain (9/21), and diarrhea (6/21). Average duration of symptoms before presentation to the Emergency Department (ED) was 7.9 days. High fever associated with bradycardia was noted in 12 patients. Leukopenia was present in 7 patients. Blood culture was the most sensitive confirmatory test while the Widal test was positive in 7 out of 11 cases. Fever of unknown origin (12/21), followed by presumed typhoid fever (3/21) were the most common ED diagnoses. It is important to recognize that patients with typhoid fever may present to EDs in the US and this disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of febrile patients from Latin America or those with a history of recent travel to endemic countries. PMID:11074322

  7. Systematic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease presenting as a persistent fever and cough: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease is an extremely rare disorder and classically arises following primary acute or chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. It is characterized by clonal proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus-infected T-cells with an activated cytotoxic phenotype. This disease has a rapid clinical course and is more frequent in Asia and South America, with relatively few cases being reported in Western countries. The clinical and pathological features of the disease overlap with other conditions including infectious mononucleosis, chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and natural killer cell malignancies. We describe the rare case of systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease in a 16-year-old Malay boy. Case presentation He presented with a six-month history of fever and cough, with pulmonary and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and severe pancytopenia. Medium- to large-sized, CD8+ and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA-positive atypical lymphoid cells were present in the bone marrow aspirate. He subsequently developed fatal virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome and died due to sepsis and multiorgan failure. Conclusions Although systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease is a disorder which is rarely encountered in clinical practice, our case report underlines the importance of a comprehensive diagnostic approach in the management of this disease. A high level of awareness of the disease throughout the diagnosis process for young patients who present with systemic illness and hemophagocytic syndrome may be of great help for the clinical diagnosis of this disease. PMID:25163591

  8. Knowledge and behavior in an animal disease outbreak - Evidence from the item count technique in a case of African swine fever in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Randrianantoandro, Tiana N; Kono, Hiroichi; Kubota, Satoko

    2015-03-01

    Pig production in Madagascar is not sufficient for domestic consumption. Unfortunately, African swine fever (ASF), which is a severe disease, is endemic in Madagascar and constitutes a constant threat for farmers. Therefore, ASF must be eradicated in order to guarantee the development of pig production. One of the main strategies in controlling ASF is stamping out which requires the farmers' collaboration in reporting cases or suspected cases. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of farmers who knowingly sell ASF-infected meat without reporting. Since selling ASF-infected meat is prohibited by the government, we used the item count technique (ICT), an indirect questioning technique appropriate for measuring the proportion of people engaged in sensitive behavior, for one subsample, while another subsample was asked directly whether they sell ASF-infected meat. Based on the ICT, approximately 73.2% of farmers who have experienced ASF sell the ASF-infected meat. This estimate was not statistically different from that obtained by direct questioning. In the 28% of interviewed farmers who believe ASF can affect humans, the ICT yielded a higher estimate than did direct questioning, indicating that pig farmers who sell ASF-infected meat hide that fact because of their belief that infected meat might harm human consumers, not because of the law. The ICT was thus a suitable technique to address the problem of sensitive behavior. In the case of ASF outbreaks, the Malagasy government should enforce the law more strictly and provide compensation as incentive for reporting cases. PMID:25591977

  9. A comparative study of the typhidot (Dot-EIA) and Widal tests in blood culture positive cases of typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Khoharo, Haji Khan

    2011-07-01

    Seventy-six blood culture positive typhoid cases and forty-eight controls were studied. The typhidot test was positive in 74 (97.36%) cases, with a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 96%, 89.5%, and 95%, respectively, compared to the Widal test which was positive in 56 (73.68%) cases with a sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 72%, 87%, and 87%, respectively (P = 0.001). In the control group, seven (14.5%) cases tested positive for the Widal test and two (4.16%) for the typhidot (P = 0.001), yielding the sensitivity and specificity for the Widal test and the typhidot test of 63% and 83%, and 85% and 97%, respectively. We conclude that the Dot-EIA (enzyme immunoassay; typhidot) is a more sensitive and specific test which is easy to perform and more reliable compared to the Widal test and that it is useful in early therapy. PMID:21576347

  10. Fever-induced type 1 Brugada pattern.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Marta; Caetano, Francisca; Providência, Rui; Almeida, Inês; Trigo, Joana; Nascimento, José; Costa, Marco; Leitão Marques, António

    2015-04-01

    Brugada syndrome, first described over 20 years ago, is characterized by a typical electrocardiographic pattern with coved-type ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads and a high risk of sudden death in otherwise healthy young adults. The electrocardiographic pattern is sometimes intermittent, and fever is a possible trigger. The authors present the case of a 68-year-old woman who came to the emergency department with fever and syncope. A diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia was made. The electrocardiogram performed when the patient had fever revealed a type 1 Brugada pattern, which disappeared after the fever subsided. After other causes of Brugada-like pattern were excluded, Brugada syndrome was diagnosed and a cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted. This case demonstrates that this entity can be diagnosed at more advanced ages and highlights the usefulness of electrocardiography in a febrile state. PMID:25843309

  11. Q Fever: an old but still a poorly understood disease.

    PubMed

    Honarmand, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who have been infected for more than 6 months. It usually takes about 20 days after exposure to the bacteria for symptoms to occur. Most cases are mild, yet some severe cases have been reported. Symptoms of acute Q fever may include: chest pain with breathing, cough, fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pains, and shortness of breath. Symptoms of chronic Q fever may include chills, fatigue, night sweats, prolonged fever, and shortness of breath. Q fever is diagnosed with a blood antibody test. The main treatment for the disease is with antibiotics. For acute Q fever, doxycycline is recommended. For chronic Q fever, a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is often used long term. Complications are cirrhosis, hepatitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. People at risk should always: carefully dispose of animal products that may be infected, disinfect any contaminated areas, and thoroughly wash their hands. Pasteurizing milk can also help prevent Q fever. PMID:23213331

  12. Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is the most widespread and economically important virus disease of cereals. The viruses causing BYD were initially grouped based on common biological properties, including persistent and often strain-specific transmission by aphids and induction of yellowing symptoms. The...

  13. Rat Bite Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > From Insects or Animals > Rat Bite Fever Health Issues Listen Espaol Text ...

  14. A Sporadic Case of Fabry Disease Involving Repeated Fever, Psychiatric Symptoms, Headache, and Ischemic Stroke in an Adult Japanese Woman.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Jun; Katayama, Takayuki; Kano, Kohei; Asanome, Asuka; Takahashi, Kae; Saito, Tsukasa; Chinda, Junko; Nakagawa, Naoki; Sato, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Takashi; Yahara, Osamu; Momosaki, Ken; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Fabry disease can cause various neurological manifestations. We describe the case of a Japanese woman with Fabry disease who presented with ischemic stroke, aseptic meningitis, and psychiatric symptoms. The patient had a mutation in intron 4 of her ?-galactosidase A gene, which was not detected in her family. This case suggests that Fabry disease should be considered in young patients who exhibit central nervous system symptoms such as ischemic stroke, even if there is no family history of the condition. The episodes of aseptic meningitis and stroke experienced by our patient suggest that persistent inflammation might be the mechanism underlying Fabry disease. PMID:26631895

  15. Polyarteritis nodosa and familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Sachs, D; Langevitz, P; Morag, B; Pras, M

    1987-04-01

    A 22-year-old familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patient was hospitalized for continuous fever, myalgia, hypertension, vertigo and a petechial rash. Laboratory findings revealed hyperglobulinaemia, thrombocytosis and a leukaemoid reaction. While on steroid therapy the patient sustained a haemorrhage into a renal aneurysm which responded to gel foam embolization. After 12 months of follow-up his condition remained stable under treatment with cyclophosphamide, prednisone and antihypertensive medications. This case provides the fourth example of polyarteritis nodosa associated with FMF. PMID:2881591

  16. Viral haemorrhagic fevers: current status, future threats.

    PubMed

    Speed, B R; Gerrard, M P; Kennett, M L; Catton, M G; Harvey, B M

    1996-01-15

    In developing countries, the major outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fevers such as Marburg, Ebola and Lassa fever viruses have been nosocomially spread. The high mortality and absence of specific treatment have had a devastating effect. Epidemics of this highly contagious disease remain a constant threat to Australia and, as a result, carefully planned laboratory and public health strategies and clinical infection control measures have been instituted for the management of suspected cases. PMID:8569577

  17. Non-destructive identification of green and yellow pigments: the case of some Sicilian Renaissance glazed pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, V.; Majolino, D.; Venuti, V.; Barone, G.; Mazzoleni, P.; Pezzino, A.; La Russa, M. F.; Ruffolo, S. A.; Bardelli, F.

    2010-09-01

    Selected decorated Renaissance ceramic fragments, found during the excavation of a Sicilian archaeological site (Caltagirone, Sicily, South Italy), have been studied by combining scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray absorbance spectroscopy (XAS). The study was aimed at providing microchemical and microstructural characterization of the colored glazed coatings in order to elucidate the nature of the pigments in the decorative layers, and in the glaze itself. From the obtained results, the general perspective has been the identification of information to be used for a reliable recognition of the production techniques. In particular, XAS measurements, performed using synchrotron radiation (SR) as the source at the Cu K-edge, in the case of green decorations, provided structural information of the oxidation states and the local chemical environment of copper (neighboring atoms and bond distances).

  18. Climate impacts on environmental risks evaluated from space: a contribution to social benefits within the GEOSS Health Area: The case of Rift Valley Fever in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourre, Y. M.

    2009-12-01

    Climate and environment vary on many spatio-temporal scales, including climate change, with impacts on ecosystems, vector-borne diseases and public health worldwide. This study is to enable societal benefits from a conceptual approach by mapping climatic and environmental conditions from space and understanding the mechanisms within the Health Social Benefit GEOSS area. The case study is for Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in Senegal is presented. Ponds contributing to mosquitoes’ thriving, were identified from remote sensing using high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images. Additional data on ponds’ dynamics and rainfall events (obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) were combined with hydrological in-situ data. Localization of vulnerable hosts such as parked cattle (from QuickBird satellite) are also used. Dynamic spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes vexans density (one of the main RVF vectors) is based on the total rainfall amount and ponds’ dynamics. While Zones Potentially Occupied by Mosquitoes (ZPOM) are mapped, detailed risks areas, i.e. zones where hazards and vulnerability occur, are expressed in percentages of parks where cattle is potentially exposed to mosquitoes’ bites. This new conceptual approach, using remote-sensing techniques belonging to GEOSS, simply relies upon rainfall distribution also evaluated from space. It is meant to contribute to the implementation of integrated operational early warning system within the health application communities since climatic and environmental conditions (both natural and anthropogenic) are changing rapidly.

  19. Chronic Q Fever in the Netherlands 5 Years after the Start of the Q Fever Epidemic: Results from the Dutch Chronic Q Fever Database

    PubMed Central

    Delsing, Corine E.; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Wegdam-Blans, Marjolijn C. A.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.; de Jager-Leclercq, Monique G. L.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; van Kasteren, Marjo E.; Buijs, Jacqueline; Renders, Nicole H. M.; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Wever, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever, a zoonosis, which has acute and chronic manifestations. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands experienced a large Q fever outbreak, which has offered a unique opportunity to analyze chronic Q fever cases. In an observational cohort study, baseline characteristics and clinical characteristics, as well as mortality, of patients with proven, probable, or possible chronic Q fever in the Netherlands, were analyzed. In total, 284 chronic Q fever patients were identified, of which 151 (53.7%) had proven, 64 (22.5%) probable, and 69 (24.3%) possible chronic Q fever. Among proven and probable chronic Q fever patients, vascular infection focus (56.7%) was more prevalent than endocarditis (34.9%). An acute Q fever episode was recalled by 27.0% of the patients. The all-cause mortality rate was 19.1%, while the chronic Q fever-related mortality rate was 13.0%, with mortality rates of 9.3% among endocarditis patients and 18% among patients with a vascular focus of infection. Increasing age (P = 0.004 and 0.010), proven chronic Q fever (P = 0.020 and 0.002), vascular chronic Q fever (P = 0.024 and 0.005), acute presentation with chronic Q fever (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001), and surgical treatment of chronic Q fever (P = 0.025 and P < 0.001) were significantly associated with all-cause mortality and chronic Q fever-related mortality, respectively. PMID:24599987

  20. Chronic Q Fever DiagnosisConsensus Guideline versus Expert Opinion

    PubMed Central

    Wegdam-Blans, Marjolijn C.A.; Wever, Peter C.; Renders, Nicole H.M.; Delsing, Corine E.; Sprong, Tom; van Kasteren, Marjo E.E.; Bijlmer, Henk; Notermans, Daan; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Stals, Frans S.; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, has high mortality and morbidity rates if left untreated. Controversy about the diagnosis of this complex disease has emerged recently. We applied the guideline from the Dutch Q Fever Consensus Group and a set of diagnostic criteria proposed by Didier Raoult to all 284 chronic Q fever patients included in the Dutch National Chronic Q Fever Database during 20062012. Of the patients who had proven cases of chronic Q fever by the Dutch guideline, 46 (30.5%) would not have received a diagnosis by the alternative criteria designed by Raoult, and 14 (4.9%) would have been considered to have possible chronic Q fever. Six patients with proven chronic Q fever died of related causes. Until results from future studies are available, by which current guidelines can be modified, we believe that the Dutch literature-based consensus guideline is more sensitive and easier to use in clinical practice. PMID:26277798

  1. Development and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Osman, Hana A M; Eltom, Kamal H; Musa, Nasreen O; Bilal, Nasreldin M; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2013-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus (CCHFV) activity has been detected in Kordufan region of the Sudan in 2008 with high case-fatality rates in villages and rural hospitals in the region. Therefore, in the present study, a reverse transcription (RT) loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed and compared to nested RT-PCR for rapid detection of CCHFV targeting the small (S) RNA segment. A set of RT-LAMP primers, designed from a highly conserved region of the S segment of the viral genome, was employed to identify all the Sudanese CCHFV strains. The sensitivity studies indicated that the RT-LAMP detected 10fg of CCHFV RNA as determined by naked eye turbidity read out, which is more likely the way it would be read in a resource-poor setting. This level of sensitivity is good enough to detect most acute cases. Using agarose gel electrophoresis, the RT-LAMP assay detected as little as 0.1fg of viral RNA (equivalent to 50 viral particle). There was 100% agreement between results of the RT-LAMP and the nested PCR when testing 10-fold serial dilution of CCHFV RNA. The specificity studies indicated that there was no cross-reactivity with other related hemorrhagic fever viruses circulating in Sudan including, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Dengue fever virus, and yellow fever virus. The RT-LAMP was performed under isothermal conditions at 63°C and no special apparatus was needed, which rendered the assay more economical and practical than real-time PCR in such developing countries, like Sudan. In addition, the RT-LAMP provides a valuable tool for rapid detection and differentiation of CCHFV during an outbreak of the disease in remote areas and in rural hospitals with resource-poor settings. PMID:23542058

  2. Unusual increase in reported cases of paratyphoid A fever among travellers returning from Cambodia, January to September 2013.

    PubMed

    Tourdjman, M; Le Hello, S; Gossner, C; Delmas, G; Tubiana, S; Fabre, L; Kerléguer, A; Tarantola, A; Fruth, A; Friesema, I; Thorstensen Brandal, L; Lawrence, J; Fisher, I; Dufour, M; Weill, F X; de Valk, H

    2013-01-01

    From January to September 2013, a marked increase in notifications of Salmonella Paratyphi A infections among travellers returning from Cambodia occurred in France. An investigation revealed 35 cases without a common source: 21 in France, five in Germany, three in the Netherlands, one in Norway, one in the United Kingdom, four in New-Zealand. Data suggest an ongoing event that should trigger further investigation. Travellers to Cambodia should observe preventive measures including good personal hygiene and food handling practices. PMID:24094059

  3. Hay Fever Medications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mainstay of treatment for allergic rhinitis, or hay fever, is nasal steroids. It is important to note that these are ... effects, your doctor may prescribe an alternative nasal steroid for you. The majority of allergy medications for hay fever work best if started before tree pollen is ...

  4. Effect of (social) media on the political figure fever model: Jokowi-fever model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Benny; Samat, Nor Azah

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, political figures begin to utilize social media as one of alternative to engage in communication with their supporters. Publics referred to Jokowi, one of the candidates in Indonesia presidential election in 2014, as the first politician in Indonesia to truly understand the power of social media. Social media is very important in shaping public opinion. In this paper, effect of social media on the Jokowi-fever model in a closed population will be discussed. Supporter population is divided into three class sub-population, i.e susceptible supporters, Jokowi infected supporters, and recovered supporters. For case no positive media, there are two equilibrium points; the Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio less than one and the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio greater than one. For case no negative media, there is only the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if the condition is satisfied. Generally, for case positive media proportion is positive, there is no Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point. The numerical result shows that social media gives significantly effect on Jokowi-fever model, a sharp increase or a sharp decrease in the number of Jokowi infected supporters. It is also shown that the boredom rate is one of the sensitive parameters in the Jokowi-fever model; it affects the number of Jokowi infected supporters.

  5. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Anna; Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    During June 9-September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever. PMID:26812354

  6. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    During June 9–September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever. PMID:26812354

  7. Q Fever Endocarditis in HIV-Infected Patient

    PubMed Central

    Pulvirenti, Joseph; Sekosan, Marin; Paddock, Christopher D.; Zaki, Sherif R.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of Q fever endocarditis in an HIV-infected patient. The case was treated successfully with valvular replacement and a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine. We review the current literature on Q fever endocarditis, with an emphasis on the co-infection of HIV and Coxiella burnetii. PMID:15109422

  8. Education Fever and the East Asian Fertility Puzzle: A case study of low fertility in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Thomas; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Fertility throughout East Asia has fallen rapidly over the last five decades and is now below the replacement rate of 2.1 in every country in the region. Using South Korea as a case study, we argue that East Asia's ultra-low fertility rates can be partially explained by the steadfast parental drive to have competitive and successful children. Parents throughout the region invest large amounts of time and money to ensure that their children are able to enter prestigious universities and obtain top jobs. Accordingly, childrearing has become so expensive that the average couple cannot afford to have more than just one or two children. The trend of high parental investment in child education, also known as ‘education fever’, exemplifies the notion of ‘quality over quantity’ and is an important contributing factor to understanding low-fertility in East Asia. PMID:24883076

  9. Seir Model for Transmission of Dengue Fever in Selangor Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafruddin, S.; Noorani, M. S. M.

    In this paper, we study a system of differential equations that models the population dynamics of SEIR vector transmission of dengue fever. The model studied breeding value based on the number of reported cases of dengue fever in Selangor because the state had the highest case in Malaysia. The model explains that maximum level of human infection rate of dengue fever achieved in a very short period. It is also revealed that there existed suitability result between theoretical and empirical calculation using the model. The result of SEIR model will hopefully provide an insight into the spread of dengue fever in Selangor Malaysia and basic form for modeling this area.

  10. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  11. [A Case of Dengue Fever and Subsequent Long-lasting Depression Accompanied by Alopecia in a Japanese Traveler Returning from Bali, Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Hitani, Akihiro; Yamaya, Waka; To, Masako; Kano, Ichino; Honda-Hosono, Natsue; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Haruki, Kosuke

    2015-03-01

    Recovery from dengue fever is generally rapid and uneventful. However, recuperation is often prolonged and may be accompanied by noticeable depression. We present herein on a traveler to Indonesia who developed long-lasting depression after the classic symptoms of dengue fever such as fever, arthralgia, and macropapular rash had resolved. A previously healthy 42-year old japanese woman presented to the Travel Clinic of Seirei Yokohama Hospital with complaints of 4 days of fever, joint aches, bone pain, and a macropapular rash on her torso. She had returned from Bali 5 days previously. During her 1-week stay, one day was spent in rural, mountainous areas where she was exposed to several mosquito bites. The 1st serum sample collected 4 days after the disease onset gave positive result in the rapid dengue IgM antibody test and the rapid dengue NS1 antigen immunechromatographic test. The DENV-1 genome was detected with RT-PCR. Her 13-year old son, who had accompanied her, was also diagnosed as having dengue fever and he recovered without event. The Above-mentioned symptoms resolved within one week. However, the patient suffered from prolonged depression. She also noticed loss of hair 3 months after the disease onset Administration of a Serotonin-Noradrenalin Reuptake Inhibitor and a minor tranquillizer required to allow her requied to lead a normal life. Although she gradually felt better, it took approximately 2 years until she had recovered completely without taking any antidepressant and minor tranquillizer. It is a well-known fact in endemic countries that dengue fever could have an significant impact on the patients' mental well-being. However, it appears that physicians in non-endemic countries are not fully aware of the prolonged depression, which can occur subsequent to the acute illness. Follow-up consultations of returing travelers who have recoverd from dengu fever should be arranged to monitor their mental and emotional states closely. PMID:26552127

  12. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Moaz; Aleem, Numra A.; Zahid, Mohammad F.; Rahman, Arshalooz J.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is an acute febrile illness that follows a self-limiting course. However, some patients suffer from complications, including myocarditis, due to the involvement of other organs. A child presented at the Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, in June 2013 with a high-grade fever, malaise and epigastric pain radiating to the chest. Positive DF antigen and immunoglobulin M assays confirmed the diagnosis of DF. Persistent bradycardia with low blood pressure led to further cardiac investigations which showed a decreased ejection fraction and raised serum cardiac enzymes, indicating myocardial damage. With supportive care and use of inotropes, the spontaneous normalisation of cardiac enzyme levels and ejection fraction was observed. The child was discharged five days after admission. This case highlights the importance of identifying myocarditis in DF patients suffering from cardiac symptoms that are not explained by other potential aetiologies. Awareness, early suspicion and supportive care are essential to ensure favourable outcomes. PMID:26909198

  13. Yellow Legged Frog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists found this adult mountain yellow-legged frog on June 10 in Tahquitz Creek, a rediscovered population of the endangered frog in the San Jacinto Wilderness, San Bernardino National Forest, California....

  14. The exanthem of dengue fever: Clinical features of two US tourists traveling abroad

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, Laura B.; Grossman, Marc E.; Fox, Lindy P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is the most common identifiable cause of acute febrile illness among travelers returning from South America, South Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Caribbean. Although the characteristic exanthem of dengue fever occurs in up to 50% of patients, few descriptions of it are found in the dermatology literature, and discussions of how to distinguish the dengue exanthem from other infectious disease entities are rare. Chikungunya fever is an emerging infectious disease now seen in returning US tourists and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dengue fever in the appropriate patient. Objective The purpose of our study was to report two cases of dengue fever among returning US tourists, provide a review of dengue fever, offer an extensive differential diagnosis of dengue fever, and raise awareness among dermatologists of chikungunya fever. Methods This study includes clinical findings of two returning travelers, one who traveled to Mexico and the other to Thailand, complemented by a discussion of both dengue fever and its differential diagnosis. Limitations Limited to 2 case reports. Conclusion Dengue fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fever and rash in the returning traveler. Dermatologists should be aware of the distinctive exanthem of dengue fever. Recognition of the dengue fever rash permits a rapid and early diagnosis, which is critical, as dengue fever can progress to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. PMID:17959270

  15. Selective myelosuppression following yellow phosphorus ingestion.

    PubMed

    Basheer, Aneesh; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Padhi, Somanath; Iqbal, Nayyar

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity from accidental and intentional ingestion of yellow phosphorus, ubiquitously present in fireworks and rodenticides, has recently become more frequent. Gastrointestinal, renal, neurologic, and cardiovascular manifestations are common, with mortality of 23 per cent to 73 per cent. Reports of haematological abnormalities are rare. We report only the second case of severe neutropenia secondary to selective myelosuppression in a 14-year-old girl following intentional ingestion of yellow phosphorus. Leucocyte counts recovered spontaneously without further complications. Our case indicates that, besides hepatic and renal function monitoring, physicians should meticulously monitor blood counts in such cases for early detection of marrow suppression. Further studies are required to elucidate the complex mechanisms and significance of this unusual toxicity of yellow phosphorus. PMID:25848404

  16. Tweeting Fever: Are Tweet Extracts a Valid Surrogate Data Source for Dengue Fever?

    PubMed Central

    Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Fink, Clayton R.; Elbert, Eugene; Yoon, In-Kyu; Velasco, John M.; Tomayo, Agnes; Roque, V.; Ygano, S.; Macasoco, Durinda; Lewis, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether Twitter data contains information on dengue-like illness and whether the temporal trend of such data correlates with the incidence dengue or dengue-like illness as identified by city and national health authorities. Introduction Dengue fever is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the Republic of the Philippines (RP) and across the world. Early identification of geographic outbreaks can help target intervention campaigns and mitigate the severity of outbreaks. Electronic disease surveillance can improve early identification but, in most dengue endemic areas data pre-existing digital data are not available for such systems. Data must be collected and digitized specifically for electronic disease surveillance. Twitter, however, is heavily used in these areas; for example, the RP is among the top 20 producers of tweets in the world. If social media could be used as a surrogate data source for electronic disease surveillance, it would provide an inexpensive pre-digitized data source for resource-limited countries. This study investigates whether Twitter extracts can be used effectively as a surrogate data source to monitor changes in the temporal trend of dengue fever in Cebu City and the National Capitol Region surrounding Manila (NCR) in the RP. Methods We obtained two sources of ground truth incidence for dengue. The first was daily dengue fever incidence for Cebu City and the NCR taken from the Philippines Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System (PIDSR). The second ground truth source was fever incidence from Cebu City for 2011. The Cebu City Health Office (CCHO) has monitored fever incidence as a surrogate for dengue fever since the 1980s. Tweets from Cebu City, and the NCR were collected prospectively thru Twitter’s public application program interface. The Cebu City fever ground truth data set was smoothed with a seven day moving average to facilitate comparison to the PIDSR and Twitter data. A vocabulary of words and phrases describing fever and dengue fever in the tweets collected were identified and used to mark relevant tweets. A subset of these ‘fever’ tweets that mentioned fever related to a medical situation were identified. The incidence and the temporal pattern of these medically-relevant tweets were compared with the incidence and pattern of fever and dengue fever in the two ground truth data sets. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to compare the correlation among the different data sets. Noted lag periods were adjusted by moving the data in time and re-computing the correlation coefficient. Results 26,023,103 tweets were collected from the two geographic regions: 10,303,366 from Cebu City and 15,719,767 tweets from the NCR. 8,814 (0.02%) Tweets contained the word fever and 4099 (0.01% of total) mentioned fever in a medically-relevant context, for example. “…I have a fever…” vs. “…football fever….” The medically-relevant tweets were compared with both ground truth data sets. The correlation between the Tweets and each of the incidence data sets is shown below. Conclusions Tweets containing medically-relevant fever references were correlated (p<0.0001) with both fever and dengue fever incidence in the ground truth data sets. The signal indicating fever in the medically-related tweets led the incidence data significantly: by 6 days for the Cebu City fever incidence; and by 12 days for the PIDSR dengue fever incidence. Temporal adjustment to account for observed lag periods increased the correlation coefficient by about one-third in both cases. This was a limited pilot study, but it suggests that Twitter extracts may provide a valid and timely surrogate data source to monitor dengue fever in this population. Further study of the correlation of Twitter and dengue in other areas, and of Twitter with other illnesses is warranted.

  17. Tropical fevers: Management guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Sunit; Chaudhary, Dhruva; Varghese, George M.; Bhalla, Ashish; Karthi, N.; Kalantri, S.; Peter, J. V.; Mishra, Rajesh; Bhagchandani, Rajesh; Munjal, M.; Chugh, T. D.; Rungta, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Tropical fevers were defined as infections that are prevalent in, or are unique to tropical and subtropical regions. Some of these occur throughout the year and some especially in rainy and post-rainy season. Concerned about high prevalence and morbidity and mortality caused by these infections, and overlapping clinical presentations, difficulties in arriving at specific diagnoses and need for early empiric treatment, Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM) constituted an expert committee to develop a consensus statement and guidelines for management of these diseases in the emergency and critical care. The committee decided to focus on most common infections on the basis of available epidemiologic data from India and overall experience of the group. These included dengue hemorrhagic fever, rickettsial infections/scrub typhus, malaria (usually falciparum), typhoid, and leptospira bacterial sepsis and common viral infections like influenza. The committee recommends a syndromic approach to diagnosis and treatment of critical tropical infections and has identified five major clinical syndromes: undifferentiated fever, fever with rash / thrombocytopenia, fever with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), fever with encephalopathy and fever with multi organ dysfunction syndrome. Evidence based algorithms are presented to guide critical care specialists to choose reliable rapid diagnostic modalities and early empiric therapy based on clinical syndromes. PMID:24678147

  18. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Dogs, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C.; Pacheco, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy. PMID:19239764

  19. Autochthonous Dengue Fever, Tokyo, Japan, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yasuyuki; Moi, Meng Ling; Kotaki, Akira; Ota, Masayuki; Shinohara, Koh; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Kei; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Sato, Tastuya; Kunimatsu, Junwa; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Ohmagari, Norio

    2015-01-01

    After 70 years with no confirmed autochthonous cases of dengue fever in Japan, 19 cases were reported during August–September 2014. Dengue virus serotype 1 was detected in 18 patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope protein genome sequence from 3 patients revealed 100% identity with the strain from the first patient (2014) in Japan. PMID:25695200

  20. Autochthonous dengue fever, Tokyo, Japan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kutsuna, Satoshi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Moi, Meng Ling; Kotaki, Akira; Ota, Masayuki; Shinohara, Koh; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Kei; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Sato, Tastuya; Kunimatsu, Junwa; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Ohmagari, Norio

    2015-03-01

    After 70 years with no confirmed autochthonous cases of dengue fever in Japan, 19 cases were reported during August-September 2014. Dengue virus serotype 1 was detected in 18 patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope protein genome sequence from 3 patients revealed 100% identity with the strain from the first patient (2014) in Japan. PMID:25695200

  1. [Spatiotemporal variation of eco-environmental frangibility based on remote sensing and catastrophe theory: a case study of Kenli County in Yellow River Delta, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-yan; Zhao, Geng-xing; Jiang, Shu-qian; Wang, Ai-ling; Wang, Jing

    2008-08-01

    Based on remote sensing and the nonlinear theories of entropy and catastrophe, the spatiotemporal variation of eco-environmental frangibility in Kenli County of Yellow River Delta was analyzed through the installation of sampling plots. The methods of analyzing and estimating eco-environmental frangibility were also established. The results indicated that in 1987-2005, the environment of Kenli County tended to deteriorating, and two catastrophes of environmental frangibility occurred, one in 1997, and the other in 2004. The former catastrophe was mainly caused by storm tide and the water shortage from Yellow River, with the main appearance characteristics being habitat change and dominant species substitution, while the latter one was mainly from the water shortage from Yellow River, increase of evaporation-precipitation ratio, a great deal construction of reservoir, and increases of traffic road and population density, with the main appearances of the changes in vegetation type and coverage ratio. The analysis on the spatial variations of the environmental frangibility along the directions of different distances to the Yellow River and to the ocean testified the spatial gradual change pattern of the frangibility. This research was a new attempt, and provided an effective way for the quantitative measurement of environmental frangibility. PMID:18975758

  2. Fatal Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dumler, J. Stephen; Mafra, Cludio Lsias; Calic, Simone Berger; Chamone, Chequer Buffe; Filho, Gracco Cesarino; Olano, Juan Pablo; Walker, David H.

    2003-01-01

    The emergence and reemergence of a serious infectious disease are often associated with a high case-fatality rate because of misdiagnosis and inappropriate or delayed treatment. The current reemergence of spotted fever rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in Brazil has resulted in a high proportion of fatal cases. We describe two familial clusters of Brazilian spotted fever in the state of Minas Gerais, involving six children 9 months to 15 years of age; five died. Immunohistochemical investigation of tissues obtained at necropsy of a child in each location, Novo Cruzeiro and Coronel Fabriciano municipalities, established the diagnosis by demonstration of disseminated endothelial infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae. The diagnosis in the two fatal cases from Coronel Fabriciano and the surviving patient from Novo Cruzeiro was further supported by immunofluorescence serologic tests. PMID:14718082

  3. [Streptococcal rheumatic fever in adults].

    PubMed

    Lemaire, V; Peyrou, D; Ryckewaert, A

    1982-10-01

    Thirty-seven cases of streptococcal rheumatic fever in adults (20 women and 17 men; mean age 33 years) are reported. Only 3 patients had a history of previous rheumatic fever. In 73% of the cases untreated sore throat had occurred 8 to 30 days before the condition developed. Throat swabs taken during the rheumatic attack were positive for Streptococcus haemolyticus in only 5 out of 22 patients. The joints most commonly affected were those of the lower limbs and the symptoms were severe; in 2 out of 3 patients other joints were subsequently involved. Five patients had stable mitral regurgitation of undetermined duration, with systolic murmur. ECG abnormalities were noted in 7 patients, including 5 with prolongation of the PR interval and 2 with moderate elevation of the ST segment; these abnormalities regressed in all cases. No specific skin lesions were observed. The streptococcal infection was associated with a rise in antistreptolysins in 73% of the cases, a rise in antistreptokinases in 80% and a rise in both types of antibodies in 97%. Response to antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs was satisfactory in all cases. Cure was achieved within less than one month in 57% of the patients, but the condition lasted three years in 3 patients. PMID:7177815

  4. [Chikungunya fever - A new global threat].

    PubMed

    Montero, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent and the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Islands, Asia and Europe. Due to their epidemiological and biological features and the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace and could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical and epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control and mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas. PMID:25087211

  5. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biological pro...

  6. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Allergies & the ... Allergies Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment About Seasonal Allergies "Ah-choo!" It's your son's third sneezing fit ...

  7. Kid's Guide to Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... concerned when you have a fever. Shiver, Then Sweat Once your hypothalamus sets a new temperature for ... heat that's been in your body. You may sweat and decide to change into some lighter-weight ...

  8. Familial Mediterranean fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mediterranean fever is most often caused by a mutation in the MEFV gene. This gene creates proteins ... If genetic testing shows that you have the mutation associated with this condition, and your symptoms match ...

  9. Rat-bite fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are found in the mouths ... redness, or swelling Rash Symptoms due to Spirillum minus may include: Chills Fever Open sore at the ...

  10. Genetic identification of rickettsial isolates from fatal cases of Brazilian spotted fever and comparison with Rickettsia rickettsii isolates from the American continents.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Santos, Fabiana C P; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nascimento, Elvira M M; Colombo, Silvia; Marcili, Arlei; Angerami, Rodrigo N

    2014-10-01

    Fifteen bacterial isolates from spotted fever group rickettsiosis in Brazil were genetically identified as Rickettsia rickettsii. In a phylogenetic analysis with other R. rickettsii isolates from GenBank, the Central/South American isolates showed low polymorphism and formed a clade distinct from two North American clades, with the North American clades having greater in-branch polymorphism. PMID:25078908

  11. Genetic Identification of Rickettsial Isolates from Fatal Cases of Brazilian Spotted Fever and Comparison with Rickettsia rickettsii Isolates from the American Continents

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fabiana C. P.; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nascimento, Elvira M. M.; Colombo, Silvia; Marcili, Arlei; Angerami, Rodrigo N.

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen bacterial isolates from spotted fever group rickettsiosis in Brazil were genetically identified as Rickettsia rickettsii. In a phylogenetic analysis with other R. rickettsii isolates from GenBank, the Central/South American isolates showed low polymorphism and formed a clade distinct from two North American clades, with the North American clades having greater in-branch polymorphism. PMID:25078908

  12. Characterisation of inflammatory response, coagulation, and radiological findings in Katayama fever: a report of three cases at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Katayama fever is an acute clinical condition characterised by high fever, dry cough and general malaise occurring during early Schistosoma spp. infection. It is predominantly reported in travellers from non-endemic regions. Whereas the immunological response to Schistosoma infection is well characterised, alterations in inflammatory markers and coagulation in response to acute infection are poorly understood. Methods Here we report the clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics of three returning travellers with Katayama fever. Inflammatory markers and coagulation status were assessed repeatedly during follow-up to characterise the host response to infection. Radiographic findings were correlated with clinical and laboratory markers. Results Clinical symptoms were suggestive of a significant inflammatory response in all patients including high fever (>39°C), cough, and general malaise. Classical inflammatory markers including blood sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A were only moderately elevated. Marked eosinophilia (33–42% of white blood cells) was observed and persisted despite anti-inflammatory and anthelminthic treatment for up to 32 weeks. Analysis of blood coagulation markers indicated increased coagulability reflected by elevated D-dimer values (0.57–1.17 μg/ml) and high thrombin generating potentials (peak thrombin activity: 311–384 nM). One patient showed particularly high levels of microparticle-associated tissue factor activity at initial presentation (1.64 pg/ml). Multiple pulmonary and hepatic opacities demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) scanning were associated with raised inflammatory markers in one patient. Conclusions The characterisation of the inflammatory response, blood coagulation parameters and radiological findings in three patients adds to our current understanding of Katayama fever and serves as a starting point for further systematic investigations of the pathophysiology of this acute helminthic infection. PMID:24985919

  13. An outbreak of Q fever in the Basque country.

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre Errasti, C; Montejo Baranda, M; Hernandez Almaraz, J L; de la Hoz Torres, C; Martinez Gutierrez, E; Villate Navarro, J L; Sobradillo Pea, V

    1984-01-01

    The main clinical manifestations of 42 cases of Q fever occurring in an outbreak in Valmaseda, Spain during March, April and May 1982 are described in this paper. The benign character of the acute disease is emphasized. Further epidemiologic studies must be done to determine the incidence of Q fever in the Basque country. PMID:6733648

  14. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and its pathogen SFTSV.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Miao-Miao; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2015-02-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever in East Asia with case fatality up to 50%. SFTS is caused by SFTSV, a tick borne bunyavirus. In endemic area in China 1%-3% population was infected with SFTSV, but age is critical risk factor for hospitalization and death of SFTS patients. PMID:25498868

  15. Oral cancer, fever of unknown origin, and listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Morritt, A N; Mclean, N R; Snow, M H

    2002-10-01

    Listeriosis is a rare cause of fever of unknown origin in patients with oral cancer. We report two patients who, because of pain and discomfort, ate large quantities of soft cheeses; this caused listeriosis and fever. Both cases responded to high doses of amoxycillin. PMID:12379195

  16. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and coexisting hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young Min; Moon, Jin Chang; Yang, Hee Chan; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Kim, Won; Park, Sung Kwang; Lee, Sik

    2012-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute viral disease with fever, hemorrhage and renal failure caused by hantavirus infection. Hantavirus induces HFRS or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). HPS progression to a life-threatening pulmonary disease is found primarily in the USA and very rarely in South Korea. Here, we report a case of HFRS and coexisting HPS.

  17. Impact of sea surface temperature front on stratus-sea fog over the Yellow and East China Seas a case study with implications for climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Man; Zhang, Suping

    2013-06-01

    A stratus-sea fog event that occurred over the Yellow and East China Seas on 3 June 2011 is investigated using observations and a numerical model, with a focus on the effects of background circulation and Sea Surface Temperature Front (SSTF) on the transition of stratus into sea fog. Southerly winds of a synoptic high-pressure circulation transport water vapor to the Yellow Sea, creating conditions favorable for sea fog/stratus formation. The subsidence from the high-pressure contributes to the temperature inversion at the top of the stratus. The SSTF forces a secondary circulation within the ABL (Atmospheric Boundary Layer), the sinking branch of which on the cold flank of SSTF helps lower the stratus layer further to reach the sea surface. The cooling effect over the cold sea surface counteracts the adiabatic warming induced by subsidence. The secondary circulation becomes weak and the fog patches are shrunk heavily with the smoothed SSTF. A conceptual model is proposed for the transition of stratus into sea fog over the Yellow and East China Seas. Finally, the analyses suggest that sea fog frequency will probably decrease due to the weakened SSTF and the reduced subsidence of secondary circulation under global warming.

  18. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Burma.

    PubMed

    Thaung, U; Ming, C K; Thein, M

    1975-12-01

    Although sporadic from 1965 to 1969, a major outbreak of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) occurred for the first time in Rangoon in 1970. Since then the disease has occurred every year in Rangoon and is now observed to be expanding to other urban areas in the country. The clinical diagnosis of DHF was confused by concurrent outbreaks of influenza A in 1971 and influenza A and B in 1972. A laboratory study of 3,447 clinically diagnosed haemorrhagic fever cases showed that 1643 cases (47.8%) were due to dengue and chikungunya, 296 (8.6%) to influenza A, 85(2.5%) to influenza B, 12(0.3%) to measles and 1411(40.8%) were of unknown aetiology during the 5 year period 1970-1974. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are widely distributed in the country up to and including 900 meters above sea level but breeding is not found above that altitude. The absolute larval population which is highest in July as well as landing rate correlated with the peak incidence of DHF cases. PMID:131977

  19. Fever tree revisited: From malaria to autoinflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Serena; Vuch, Josef; Bianco, Anna Monica; Taddio, Andrea; Tommasini, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Over the centuries the idea of recurrent fevers has mainly been associated with malaria, but many other fevers, such as typhoid and diphtheria were cause for concern. It is only in recent times, with the more severe forms of fever from infectious origin becoming less frequent or a cause for worry that we started noticing recurrent fevers without any clear infectious cause, being described as having a pathogenesis of autoinflammatory nature. The use of molecular examinations in many cases can allow a diagnosis where the cause is monogenic. In other cases, however the pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial and the diagnostic-therapeutic approach is strictly clinical. The old fever tree paradigm developed to describe fevers caused by malaria has been revisited here to describe today's periodic fevers from the periodic fever adenitis pharyngitis aphthae syndrome to the more rare autoinflammatory diseases. This model may allow us to place cases that are yet to be identified which are likely to be of multifactorial origin. PMID:26566482

  20. Fever tree revisited: From malaria to autoinflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Serena; Vuch, Josef; Bianco, Anna Monica; Taddio, Andrea; Tommasini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Over the centuries the idea of recurrent fevers has mainly been associated with malaria, but many other fevers, such as typhoid and diphtheria were cause for concern. It is only in recent times, with the more severe forms of fever from infectious origin becoming less frequent or a cause for worry that we started noticing recurrent fevers without any clear infectious cause, being described as having a pathogenesis of autoinflammatory nature. The use of molecular examinations in many cases can allow a diagnosis where the cause is monogenic. In other cases, however the pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial and the diagnostic-therapeutic approach is strictly clinical. The old fever tree paradigm developed to describe fevers caused by malaria has been revisited here to describe today’s periodic fevers from the periodic fever adenitis pharyngitis aphthae syndrome to the more rare autoinflammatory diseases. This model may allow us to place cases that are yet to be identified which are likely to be of multifactorial origin. PMID:26566482