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1

Yellow fever.  

PubMed

Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease occurs in tropical areas of South America and Africa. It is a disease of major historical importance, but remains a threat to travelers to and residents of endemic areas despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 70 years. An important aspect is the receptivity of many non-endemic areas to introduction and spread of yellow fever. This paper reviews the clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of yellow fever, with an emphasis on recent changes in the distribution and incidence of the disease. Recent knowledge about yellow fever 17D vaccine mechanism of action and safety are discussed. PMID:25453327

Monath, Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

2014-10-24

2

Extra Exercises for Chapter 8. Epidemic Dynamics The Case of Yellow Fever  

E-print Network

Extra Exercises for Chapter 8. Epidemic Dynamics The Case of Yellow Fever Yellow Fever has been and sent one of three residents fleeing into the countryside." Yellow fever is transmitted in urban areas" (Benneson 1990, 486). These exercises introduce you to a model to simulate the spread of Yellow Fever

Ford, Andrew

3

Yellow Fever Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected ...

4

Yellow Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 1951, Max Theiler (Fig. 10.1), a Rockefeller Foundation scientist, became the only person to be awarded the Nobel Prize\\u000a in Medicine and Physiology for the development of a virus vaccine (Norrby 2007). His live, attenuated 17D vaccine was not\\u000a the first yellow fever vaccine to be tested in humans, but it was by far the most successful one. More

Thomas P. Monath

5

ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER  

PubMed Central

By injecting into guinea pigs the blood of yellow fever cases occurring in Guayaquil a group of symptoms and lesions closely resembling those observed in human yellow fever were induced in a limited number of instances. Of 74 guinea pigs inoculated with specimens of blood from 27 cases of yellow fever, 8, representing 6 cases, came down with the symptoms; namely, a marked rise of temperature after a period of incubation averaging 3 to 6 days, with simultaneous suffusion of the capillaries, particularly of the conjunctivæs and soles, then preliminary hyperleucocytosis followed by progressive leucopenia, the early appearance of albumin and casts in the urine, which gradually diminishes in volume as the disease progresses. The fever lasts only a few days, rapidly dropping first to the normal and then usually to subnormal. At this period jaundice manifests itself in varying degrees of intensity, first in the scleras, then in the skin and the urine. Hemorrhages from the nasal or gingival mucosa or anus have been observed to occur during this period. Autopsies reveal deep jaundice throughout the entire tissue. The liver is fatty and yellow, the kidney hyperemic, and often swollen and hemorrhagic. Hemorrhagic spots were almost always found in the lungs and gastrointestinal mucosa. Guinea pigs are usually rather sensitive to the infection, though many appeared to be somewhat resistant and some even refractory. The injection of the yellow fever blood into ringtail monkeys, rabbits, cats, guatusas, weasels, and sloths among the mammalians, and pigeons, ground-doves, bluebirds, mantas, blackbirds, parrakeets, reedbirds, blancos, and toucans among the birds, gave negative results. In the blood, liver, and kidneys of the guinea pigs experimentally infected with the blood of yellow fever patients a minute organism was demonstrated which closely resembles in morphology the causative agent of infectious jaundice (Leptospira icterohamorrhagiæ). The leptospira transmitted from yellow fever cases to guinea pigs was found to induce similar symptoms and lesions upon further passage into normal guinea pigs. The leptospira obtained from cases of yellow fever has been givern the provisional name of Leptospira icteroides. PMID:19868337

Noguchi, Hideyo

1919-01-01

6

A case suspected for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most successful vaccines ever developed. Since 2001, 56 cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we report a new case suspected for YEL-AVD in the Netherlands. Further research is needed to determine the true incidence of YEL-AVD and to clarify host and vaccine-associated factors in the pathogenesis of YEL-AVD. Because of the potential adverse events, healthcare providers should carefully consider vaccination only in people who are truly at risk for YF infection, especially in primary vaccine recipients. PMID:24920138

van de Pol, Eva M; Gisolf, Elizabeth H; Richter, Clemens

2014-01-01

7

Adverse events following yellow fever immunization: Report and analysis of 67 neurological cases in Brazil.  

PubMed

Neurological adverse events following administration of the 17DD substrain of yellow fever vaccine (YEL-AND) in the Brazilian population are described and analyzed. Based on information obtained from the National Immunization Program through passive surveillance or intensified passive surveillance, from 2007 to 2012, descriptive analysis, national and regional rates of YFV associated neurotropic, neurological autoimmune disease, and reporting rate ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for first time vaccinees stratified on age and year. Sixty-seven neurological cases were found, with the highest rate of neurological adverse events in the age group from 5 to 9 years (2.66 per 100,000 vaccine doses in Rio Grande do Sul state, and 0.83 per 100,000 doses in national analysis). Two cases had a combination of neurotropic and autoimmune features. This is the largest sample of YEL-AND already analyzed. Rates are similar to other recent studies, but on this study the age group from 5 to 9 years of age had the highest risk. As neurological adverse events have in general a good prognosis, they should not contraindicate the use of yellow fever vaccine in face of risk of infection by yellow fever virus. PMID:24837504

Martins, Reinaldo de Menezes; Pavão, Ana Luiza Braz; de Oliveira, Patrícia Mouta Nunes; dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Carvalho, Sandra Maria D; Mohrdieck, Renate; Fernandes, Alexandre Ribeiro; Sato, Helena Keico; de Figueiredo, Patricia Mandali; von Doellinger, Vanessa Dos Reis; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S

2014-11-20

8

ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the records of instances in which non-immune persons contracted yellow fever notwithstanding vaccination shows that the onset of disease occurs soon after vaccination, the longest period being 13 days. Since the average incubation period in yellow fever is 6 days, it seems that infection must have taken place in some instances during the period while protection was developing. These instances led to a study of the possibility of immediate protection by means of the anti-icteroides serum. It had already been shown that the immune serum protects at once against experimental Leptospira icteroides infection, but it remained to determine how long the protection would last. Guinea pigs were given different quantities of the immune serum and subsequently injected, at various intervals, with a virulent strain of Leptospira icteroides. Complete protection enduring 5 days was obtained with as minute a quantity of serum as 0.002 cc. per 1,000 gm. of body weight. After 5 days, however, the immune substance rapidly diminished, and to keep the animal protected for as long as 10 days it was necessary to give 100 times as much, or 0.2 cc. For a man weighing 80 kilos, 0.16 cc. (0.002 x 80) would theoretically be sufficient to protect for at least 5 days, 1.6 cc. for 7 days, and 16 cc. for 10 days. This temporary protection may be a valuable antecedent to that furnished by vaccination, since the final effect of the latter cannot be expected until at least 9 to 10 days have passed. PMID:19868677

Noguchi, Hideyo

1922-01-01

9

Experimental therapies for yellow fever  

PubMed Central

A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

Julander, Justin G.

2013-01-01

10

RESEARCH ARTICLE Nucleotide Sequence of Yellow Fever  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Nucleotide Sequence of Yellow Fever Virus: Implications for Flavivirus Gene, and yellow fever (1). Most fever was spread by ship to ports as far north as Boston and as far east as En. Walter Reed and colleagues in pioneering studies in Cuba in 1900 demonstrated that yellow fever

Eddy, Sean

11

17DD yellow fever vaccine  

PubMed Central

Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

2013-01-01

12

Anaphylaxis from yellow fever vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are very few reports of anaphylactic reactions to yellow fever (YF) vaccine in the literature, and these date from the 1940s. Objective: We sought to estimate the rate of YF vaccine–related anaphylaxis. Methods: All reports of adverse reactions to YF vaccine submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System between 1990 and 1997 were reviewed for those meeting

John M. Kelso; Gina T. Mootrey; Theodore F. Tsai

1999-01-01

13

Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008–2009  

PubMed Central

Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. PMID:24625634

Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

2014-01-01

14

Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.  

PubMed Central

Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:822563

Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

1976-01-01

15

429Vol. 5, No. 3, MayJune 1999 Emerging Infectious Diseases Yellow fever (YF) is a serious public health  

E-print Network

429Vol. 5, No. 3, MayJune 1999 Emerging Infectious Diseases Dispatches Yellow fever (YF Tonate and Mayaro), and a new world First Case of Yellow Fever in French Guiana since 1902 J.M. Heraud@pasteur-cayenne.fr. The first case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902 was reported in March 1998. The yellow fever

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

16

Present status of yellow fever: Memorandum from a PAHO Meeting*  

PubMed Central

An international seminar on the treatment and laboratory diagnosis of yellow fever, sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and held in 1984, differed from previous meetings on yellow fever because of its emphasis on the care and management of patients and because the participants included specialists from several branches of medicine, such as hepatology, haematology, cardiology, infectious diseases, pathology and nephrology. The meeting reviewed the current status of yellow fever and problems associated with case-finding and notification; features of yellow fever in individual countries of Latin America; health services and facilities for medical care as they relate to diagnosis and management of cases; prevention strategies for and current status of immunization programmes; clinical and pathological aspects of yellow fever in humans; pathogenesis and pathophysiology of yellow fever in experimental animal models; clinical and specific laboratory diagnosis; treatment of the disease and of complications in the functioning of individual organ systems; prognosis and prognostic indicators; and directions for future clinical and experimental research on pathophysiology and treatment. PMID:3490922

1986-01-01

17

Yellow fever vaccines and international travelers.  

PubMed

The growth of air travel has diminished the barriers to the spread of yellow fever, posing a threat to regions that have not previously been reached by the disease but are considered receptive, including the Middle East, coastal East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Asia and Australia. For many decades, vaccination against yellow fever has been required for travelers entering many countries with receptive mosquito vectors in order to prevent the importation of yellow fever virus from a country that had ongoing transmission. Each year, approximately 9 million tourists travel to countries where yellow fever is endemic; the number of tourists who visit yellow fever-endemic regions within these countries may exceed 3 million. Risk estimates of yellow fever to travelers are extremely difficult to ascertain due to fluctuation of the disease by year and season, incomplete surveillance data, and lack of accurate data regarding vaccine coverage of the local population. The 17D live yellow fever vaccine has been widely acknowledged as one of the most effective and safe vaccines in use. Recently, however, reports of severe and previously unrecognized significant adverse events linked to the 17D vaccine have caused major concern. Some have called for the development of new inactivated yellow fever vaccines for travelers. A new approach for manufacturing the live 17D vaccine involves using a full-length cDNA clone of 17D-204 virus. This new method allows production in a cell culture system and potentially reduces the risk of adventitious viruses and selection of a subpopulation during replication, thereby increasing safety. PMID:18564013

Barnett, Elizabeth D; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Wilson, Mary E

2008-07-01

18

Lost Trust: A Yellow Fever Patient Response  

PubMed Central

In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care. PMID:24348220

Runge, John S.

2013-01-01

19

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. ...3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2012-10-01

20

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. ...3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2014-10-01

21

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. ...3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2011-10-01

22

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. ...3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2010-10-01

23

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. ...3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2013-10-01

24

Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti with Drosophila melanogaster aegypti, and Culex pipiens, the primary vectors for malaria, yellow fever and dengue, and lymphatic 103

Severson, David

25

Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. PMID:25531105

Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

2015-01-01

26

Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. PMID:25531105

Auguste, Albert J.; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A.; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos

2015-01-01

27

Aedes aegypti in Brazil: genetically differentiated populations with high susceptibility to dengue and yellow fever viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aedes aegypti was eliminated from Brazil in 1955, but re-infested the country in the 1970s. Dengue outbreaks have occurred since 1981 and became endemic in several cities in Brazil after 1986. Urban yellow fever has not occurred since 1942, and only jungle yellow fever cases have been reported. A population genetic analysis using isoenzyme variation combined with an evaluation of

R Lourenço-de-Oliveira; M Vazeille; A. M. B de Filippis; A. B Failloux

2004-01-01

28

Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

2002-01-01

29

Advances and controversies in yellow fever vaccination.  

PubMed

Ever since its development in 1937, the live-attenuated 17D yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been one of the most effective vaccines available to man. In this review we highlight the major steps in the development of 17D YF vaccine. We discuss the use of neutralizing antibodies as a surrogate marker for protection, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of the current plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), a technique developed in the 1960s that continues to be superior to every modern test in both sensitivity and specificity. The neutralizing antibodies demonstrated by the PRNT can be detected for several decades after vaccination, possibly even for the remainder of the recipient's natural life. We review the available evidence on the duration of protection after primary vaccination, a topic that has been the subject of controversy over the last few months. For persons who are immunocompromised due to disease, medication or advancing age, the duration of protection may be shorter: they should always have their vaccine response checked by PRNT. Due to the higher risk of severe adverse events after vaccination with 17D YF in this group, the development of a new, inactivated vaccine will have substantial benefits in this population. PMID:24757521

Jonker, Emile F F; Visser, Leonardus G; Roukens, Anna H

2013-11-01

30

Neurological adverse events temporally associated to mass vaccination against yellow fever in Juiz de Fora, Brazil, 1999–2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and their prompt investigation are important to allow a timely and scientifically based response to the users of immunization services. This article presents an analysis of notified AEFI cases between 1999 and 2005 and their temporal association with 2001 yellow fever vaccination campaign, AEFI notification attributed to yellow fever vaccination rose from

Guilherme Côrtes Fernandes; Luiz Antonio Bastos Camacho; Marilia Sá Carvalho; Maristela Batista; Sonia Maria Rodrigues de Almeida

2007-01-01

31

Standardized quantitative RT-PCR assays for quantitation of yellow fever and chimeric yellow fever–dengue vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever–dengue chimeras (CYDs) are being developed currently as live tetravalent dengue vaccine candidates. Specific quantitative assays are needed to evaluate the viral load of each serotype in vaccine batches and biological samples. A quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) system was developed comprising five one-step qRT-PCRs targeting the E\\/NS1 junction of each chimera, or the NS5 gene in the yellow fever

N. Mantel; M. Aguirre; S. Gulia; Y. Girerd-Chambaz; S. Colombani; C. Moste; V. Barban

2008-01-01

32

ULTRACENTRIFUGATION STUDIES OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS  

PubMed Central

1. It was possible to study in the ultracentrifuge by optical methods the behavior of yellow fever virus particles directly in the unaltered serum from infected monkeys. 2. The virus showed an extremely high light absorption in the spectral range of 320 to 440 mµ, which seemed to be its intrinsic property. In a 1 cm. thickness of fluid, the small amount of virus present in unaltered infective serum absorbed about as much light (approximately 25 per cent) in the middle of this range as did all the normal serum proteins present in a combined concentration some 1000 times as great. 3. The concentration of virus in the unaltered serum was found to be of the order of 0.00005 gm. per cc. 1 cc. of a 10–9 dilution, which, as has been shown, may constitute a minimal infective dose for monkeys, would contain approximately 10,000 virus particles. The probability that most of the virus particles were in the inactive form is discussed. 4. In infective serum having a viscosity of 14 millipoises, the particles sediment with a blurred boundary at rates lying between approximately 18 and 30 x 10–13 cm./sec./dyne. Evidence indicates that this spread is the result of an aggregation or association phenomenon. 5. Computations of size are in approximate agreement with those made from ultrafiltration studies. On the assumption that the density of the virus particle is near that of protein, its volume is computed to be at least that of a spherical particle having a diameter of 12 mµ. An assumed density of 1.15 gm. per cc. yields a diameter of 19 mµ, considering the shape as spherical. PMID:19870992

Pickels, Edward G.; Bauer, Johannes H.

1940-01-01

33

Aedes FADD: A novel death domain-containing protein required for antibacterial immunity in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Dawn M. Cooper*,1 , Ciara M. Chamberlain 1 , Carl Lowenberger 1 and the arboviruses that cause Dengue fever, Yellow fever and West Nile fever. Much of the current research efforts

Lowenberger, Carl

34

Recombinant Chimeric Yellow Fever-Dengue Type 2 Virus Is Immunogenic and Protective in Nonhuman Primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chimeric yellow fever (YF)-dengue type 2 (dengue-2) virus (ChimeriVax-D2) was constructed using a re- combinant cDNA infectious clone of a YF vaccine strain (YF 17D) as a backbone into which we inserted the premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes of dengue-2 virus (strain PUO-218 from a case of dengue fever in Bangkok, Thailand). The chimeric virus was recovered from

F. Guirakhoo; R. Weltzin; T. J. Chambers; Z.-X. Zhang; K. Soike; M. Ratterree; J. Arroyo; K. Georgakopoulos; J. Catalan; T. P. Monath

2000-01-01

35

Antibody-dependent Enhancement of Yellow Fever and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Neurovirulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Antibody-dependent enhancement of yellow fever virus neurovirulence, as measured by a reduction in the average survival time of groups of mice, was demonstrated with wild-type or vaccine strains of yellow fever virus and with Japanese encephalitis virus using intraperitoneally administered monoclonal antibodies specific for the viral E glycoprotein of yellow fever virus. Enhancement of virulence could be induced by

E. A. Gould; A. Buckley

1989-01-01

36

SHORT REPORT Open Access Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in  

E-print Network

SHORT REPORT Open Access Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African of each species. Keywords: Yellow fever, Outbreak, Vector, Aedes, Central African Republic Findings Background Yellow fever is an acute, often fatal infectious disease caused by a flavivirus (Flaviviridae

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

37

The changing epidemiology of yellow fever and dengue, 1900 to 2003: full circle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever and dengue are old diseases, having caused major epidemics in centuries past. Both were effectively controlled in the mid 1900s, yellow fever in Francophone Africa by vaccination and yellow fever and dengue in the Americas by effective control of the principal urban vector of both viruses, Aedes aegypti. In the last 25 years of the 20th century, however,

D. J. Gubler

2004-01-01

38

58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, presented to the Portsmouth Naval Hospital by the Town Council of Portsmouth, 1856. (Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Museum, Portsmouth, VA) - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

39

Suspected YF-AND after yellow fever vaccination in Finland.  

PubMed

Yellow fever (YF) vaccine is considered safe but vaccine-associated complications have also been encountered. We report neurological symptoms after YF-vaccination in a previously healthy Finnish male. Other concomitant infections or causes for the symptoms could not be identified. PMID:25223921

Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Huhtamo, Eili; Kivioja, Reetta; Domingo, Cristina; Vene, Sirkka; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Niedrig, Matthias; Tienari, Pentti J; Vapalahti, Olli

2014-11-01

40

Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

2002-01-01

41

Aedes aegypti, Dengue and Re-urbanization of Yellow Fever in Brazil and other South American Countries - Past and Present Situation and Future Perspectives By  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue (DEN) and yellow fever (YF) viruses are two important arboviruses causing human disease. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF\\/DHF) reemerged in the Americas after Aedes aegypti had reinfested most tropical and subtropical regions in the hemisphere. The number of DF\\/DHF cases being reported are increasing each year; and in South America only Chile and Uruguay have not reported

Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos; Amélia P. A. T. Rosa; Francisco P. Pinheiro; Sueli G. Rodrigues; Ana C. R. Cruz; Jorge F. S. T. Rosa

42

The risk of yellow fever in a dengue-infested area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever and dengue are viral infections that in urban centres are transmitted by the same arthropod vector, a mosquito of the genus Aedes. In order to estimate the risk of an epidemic of urban yellow fever in a dengue-infested area we calculated the threshold in the basic reproduction number, R0, of dengue, above which any single sylvatic yellow fever-infected

Eduardo Massad; Francisco Antonio Bezerra Coutinho; Marcelo Nascimento Burattini; Luiz Fernandes Lopez

2001-01-01

43

The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre-and Post-Blood Meal  

E-print Network

The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22573. doi@nmsu.edu Introduction The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for dengue fever, several

Houde, Peter

44

Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four antennae-specific proteins (AaegOBP1, AaegOBP2, AaegOBP3, and AaegASP1) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and their full-length cDNAs were cloned. RT-PCR indicated that they are expressed in female and, to a lesser extent, in male antennae, but not in control tissues (legs). AaegOBP1 and AaegOBP3 showed significant similarity to previously identified mosquito odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in cysteine

Yuko Ishida; Angela M. Chen; Jennifer M. Tsuruda; Anthon J. Cornel; Mustapha Debboun; Walter S. Leal

2004-01-01

45

Yellow Fever Virus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes serratus Mosquitoes, Southern Brazil, 2008  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosquitoes were collected at ground level, identified, and processed for virus isolation and molecular analyses. Eight YFV strains were isolated (7 from pools of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes and another from Aedes serratus mosquitoes); 6 were sequenced, and they grouped in the YFV South American genotype I. The results confirmed the role of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes as the main YFV vector in southern Brazil and suggest that Ae. serratus mosquitoes may have a potential role as a secondary vector. PMID:21122222

Cardoso, Jáder da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.

2010-01-01

46

Nucleotide Sequence Variation of the Envelope Protein Gene Identifies Two Distinct Genotypes of Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of yellow fever virus over 67 years was investigated by comparing the nucleotide sequences of the envelope (E) protein genes of 20 viruses isolated in Africa, the Caribbean, and South America. Uniformly weighted parsimony algorithm analysis defined two major evolutionary yellow fever virus lineages designated E genotypes I and II. E genotype I contained viruses isolated from East

GWONG-JEN J. CHANG; BRUCE C. CROPP; RICHARD M. KINNEY; DENNIS W. TRENT; ANDDUANE J. GUBLER

1995-01-01

47

Yellow Fever in Africa: Estimating the Burden of Disease and Impact of Mass Vaccination from Outbreak and Serological Data  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the 1940s to 1960s reduced yellow fever incidence for several decades. However, after a period of low vaccination coverage, yellow fever has resurged in the continent. Since 2006 there has been substantial funding for large preventive mass vaccination campaigns in the most affected countries in Africa to curb the rising burden of disease and control future outbreaks. Contemporary estimates of the yellow fever disease burden are lacking, and the present study aimed to update the previous estimates on the basis of more recent yellow fever occurrence data and improved estimation methods. Methods and Findings Generalised linear regression models were fitted to a dataset of the locations of yellow fever outbreaks within the last 25 years to estimate the probability of outbreak reports across the endemic zone. Environmental variables and indicators for the surveillance quality in the affected countries were used as covariates. By comparing probabilities of outbreak reports estimated in the regression with the force of infection estimated for a limited set of locations for which serological surveys were available, the detection probability per case and the force of infection were estimated across the endemic zone. The yellow fever burden in Africa was estimated for the year 2013 as 130,000 (95% CI 51,000–380,000) cases with fever and jaundice or haemorrhage including 78,000 (95% CI 19,000–180,000) deaths, taking into account the current level of vaccination coverage. The impact of the recent mass vaccination campaigns was assessed by evaluating the difference between the estimates obtained for the current vaccination coverage and for a hypothetical scenario excluding these vaccination campaigns. Vaccination campaigns were estimated to have reduced the number of cases and deaths by 27% (95% CI 22%–31%) across the region, achieving up to an 82% reduction in countries targeted by these campaigns. A limitation of our study is the high level of uncertainty in our estimates arising from the sparseness of data available from both surveillance and serological surveys. Conclusions With the estimation method presented here, spatial estimates of transmission intensity can be combined with vaccination coverage levels to evaluate the impact of past or proposed vaccination campaigns, thereby helping to allocate resources efficiently for yellow fever control. This method has been used by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI Alliance) to estimate the potential impact of future vaccination campaigns. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24800812

Garske, Tini; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Yactayo, Sergio; Ronveaux, Olivier; Lewis, Rosamund F.; Staples, J. Erin; Perea, William; Ferguson, Neil M.

2014-01-01

48

Vector competence of Australian mosquitoes for yellow fever virus.  

PubMed

The vector competence of Australian mosquitoes for yellow fever virus (YFV) was evaluated. Infection and transmission rates in Cairns and Townsville populations of Aedes aegypti and a Brisbane strain of Ae. notoscriptus were not significantly different from a well-characterized YFV-susceptible strain of Ae. aegypti. After exposure to 10?·² tissue culture infectious dose (TCID??)/mL of an African strain of YFV, > 70% of Ae. aegypti and Ae. notoscriptus became infected, and > 50% transmitted the virus. When exposed to 10?·?) TCID??/mL of a South American strain of YFV, the highest infection (64%) and transmission (56%) rates were observed in Ae. notoscriptus. The infection and transmission rates in the Cairns Ae. aegypti were both 24%, and they were 36% and 28%, respectively, for the Townsville population. Because competent vectors are present, the limited number of travelers from endemic areas and strict vaccination requirements will influence whether YFV transmission occurs in Australia. PMID:21896802

van den Hurk, Andrew F; McElroy, Kate; Pyke, Alyssa T; McGee, Charles E; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Day, Andrew; Ryan, Peter A; Ritchie, Scott A; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen

2011-09-01

49

NON-FATAL INFECTION OF MICE FOLLOWING INTRACEREBRAL INOCULATION OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS  

PubMed Central

Observations have been reported which indicate that mice inoculated intracerebrally with active yellow fever virus may develop an infection which is not only non-fatal but may also be completely inapparent. The most extensive observations were made on mice which showed signs of infection but were still alive 22 days after inoculation with virus of one or another of several 17D substrains. In such cases, the infection usually progressed no further and partial or complete recovery often ensued. Agents other than yellow fever virus were excluded as a significant cause of such nonfatal infections by the failure of repeated attempts to isolate other infective agents, by the demonstration of antibodies against yellow fever virus in the sera of the mice, and by the demonstration of a high degree of resistance on the part of such surviving mice to reinoculation with large doses of neurotropic yellow fever virus. Completely inapparent infections with 17D virus were also shown to occur. Studies of apparently normal survivors of 17D virus titrations revealed a small but significant number of animals resistant to intracerebral challenge with neurotropic yellow fever virus. Further, pooled sera from such mice were shown to contain specific protective antibodies. The occurrence of non-fatal infections with 17D virus was found related to virus dose and substrain. Small doses of virus provoked a significantly higher proportion of non-fatal infections than large doses; while different 17D substrains, tested over equivalent ranges of virus dose, varied greatly with respect to the proportion of infections which did not terminate with death. In the case of two substrains (17DD low and 17D3), non-fatal infections (as demonstrated by resistance to intracerebral challenge with neurotropic virus) were sufficiently frequent to cause an increase, when included in the computation of the infective titers, of 25 per cent above the figures based on deaths alone. The demonstration of non-fatal infections, thus, may be important to the accuracy of quantitative determinations of infectivity. Limited observations with virus of the French neurotropic and the pantropic Asibi strains revealed that non-fatal infections do occur, but only rarely. Somewhat more extensive observations with unmodified virus of strains isolated from Brazilian cases of jungle yellow fever, in contrast, revealed an occurrence of non-fatal infections much greater than that observed with the most productive 17D substrains. With these jungle strains, the demonstration of non-fatal infections proved indispensable to any measure of the level of infectivity of virus preparations. The demonstration of the proportional occurrence in mice of non-fatal infections with yellow fever virus provides an additional means by which different virus strains and substrains may be characterized. PMID:19871300

Fox, John P.

1943-01-01

50

Occurrence of Autoimmune Diseases Related to the Vaccine against Yellow Fever  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever is an infectious disease, endemic in South America and Africa. This is a potentially serious illness, with lethality between 5 and 40% of cases. The most effective preventive vaccine is constituted by the attenuated virus strain 17D, developed in 1937. It is considered safe and effective, conferring protection in more than 90% in 10 years. Adverse effects are known as mild reactions (allergies, transaminases transient elevation, fever, headache) and severe (visceral and neurotropic disease related to vaccine). However, little is known about its potential to induce autoimmune responses. This systematic review aims to identify the occurrence of autoinflammatory diseases related to 17D vaccine administration. Six studies were identified describing 13 possible cases. The diseases were Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, multiple points evanescent syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and Kawasaki disease. The data suggest that 17D vaccination may play a role in the mechanism of loss of self-tolerance. PMID:25405025

Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Maria Henrique da Mota, Licia; dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz; De Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Caldas, Iramaya Rodrigues; Martins Filho, Olindo Assis; Tauil, Pedro Luis

2014-01-01

51

Risk groups for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD).  

PubMed

Although previously considered as the safest of the live virus vaccines, reports published since 2001 indicate that live yellow fever virus vaccine can cause a severe, often fatal, multisystemic illness, yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD), that resembles the disease it was designed to prevent. This review was prompted by the availability of a listing of the cumulative cases of YEL-AVD, insights from a statistical method for analyzing risk factors and re-evaluation of previously published data. The purpose of this review is to identify and analyze risk groups based on gender, age, outcome and predisposing illnesses. Using a passive surveillance system in the US, the incidence was reported as 0.3 to 0.4 cases per 100,000. However, other estimates range from 0 to 12 per 100,000. Identified and potential risk groups for YEL-AVD include elderly males, women between the ages of 19 and 34, people with a variety of autoimmune diseases, individuals who have been thymectomized because of thymoma, and infants and children ?11 years old. All but the last group are supported by statistical analysis. The confirmed risk groups account for 77% (49/64) of known cases and 76% (32/42) of the deaths. The overall case fatality rate is 66% (42/64) with a rate of 80% (12/15) in young women, in contrast to 50% (13/26) in men ?56 years old. Recognition of YEL-AVD raises the possibility that similar reactions to live chimeric flavivirus vaccines that contain a yellow fever virus vaccine backbone could occur in susceptible individuals. Delineation of risk groups focuses the search for genetic mutations resulting in immune defects associated with a given risk group. Lastly, identification of risk groups encourages concentration on measures to decrease both the incidence and the severity of YEL-AVD. PMID:25192973

Seligman, Stephen J

2014-10-01

52

Using Local History To Understand National Themes: The Yellow Fever Epidemic in Philadelphia in 1793.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information for a local history project about the 1793 Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) yellow fever outbreak. Offers potential project topics to help students learn about local history and understand life in the eighteenth century United States. (CMK)

Westbury, Susan

2003-01-01

53

Yellow fever immunity surveys in northern Uganda and Kenya and eastern Somalia, 1966-67  

PubMed Central

Recent epidemics of yellow fever in eastern Africa have stimulated serological surveys in the Karamoja district of Uganda, the northern frontier district of Kenya and the Giohar district of Somalia. All sera collected in the surveys were screened for group B arbovirus antibody using the HI test. Yellow fever immunity was confirmed by the mouse-protection test. No yellow fever immunity was found in sera collected from a residential tribal group at Karamoja but a small number of samples from persons who had previously lived outside the district showed immunity. Immunity was detected in sera from areas of the Northern Frontier district of Kenya. It is thought that this immunity may, in some areas, have resulted from extensions of the Ethiopian epidemic of 1960-62 into the region, but in another area of the district the immunity seems to have arisen from continuing focal transmission within Kenya. Yellow fever immunity was also detected in Somalia. PMID:5302299

Henderson, B. E.; Metselaar, D.; Cahill, K.; Timms, G. L.; Tukei, P. M.; Williams, M. C.

1968-01-01

54

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON YELLOW FEVER OCCURRING IN MERIDA, YUCATAN.  

PubMed

Injections into guinea pigs of the blood and the emulsions of liver and kidney obtained at autopsy from a fatal case of yellow fever in Merida induced in some of these animals, after a period of several days incubation, a rise of temperature which lasted 1, 2, or more days. When killed for examination at this febrile stage the animals invariably showed hemorrhagic areas of various size, sometimes few and sometimes numerous, in the lungs, and also, though less constantly, in the gastrointestinal mucosa, together with general hyperemia of the liver and kidneys. In a guinea pig (No. 6) inoculated with the liver emulsion of Case 1 there was a trace of jaundice on the 9th day. Injections of the blood or liver and kidney emulsions from such animals into normal guinea pigs reproduced the febrile reactions and the visceral lesions. The majority of the animals which were allowed to live and complete the course of the infection rapidly returned to normal (within several days). Examinations of these surviving guinea pigs after 2 weeks revealed the presence of rather old hemorrhagic foci in the lungs. In the course of further attempts to transfer the passage strain, a secondary infection by a bacillus of the paratyphoid group caused many deaths among the guinea pigs and resulted finally in the loss of the strain from Case 1. Most of the cultures made with the heart's blood taken at autopsy from Case 1 proved to be contaminated with a bacillus of the coli group. The contents of the apparently uncontaminated tubes were inoculated into guinea pigs, but the results were for the most part negative or vitiated by a secondary infection. Dark-field search for the leptospira with the autopsy materials was negative, although prolonged and thorough examination was not practicable at the time of these experiments. Our efforts were concentrated on obtaining positive animal transmission rather than on the time-consuming demonstration of the leptospira, which when unsuccessful does not necessarily exclude the presence of the organism in small numbers. Likewise, the dark-field work with the material from guinea pigs was confined to a brief examination and was omitted in many instances. Under these circumstances no leptospira was encountered in any of the material from Case 1. On the other hand, the results obtained with the specimens of blood from Case 2 were definitely positive, not only in the transmission of the disease directly, or indirectly by means of cultures, into guinea pigs, but also in the demonstration of the leptospira in the primary cultures and in the blood and organ emulsions of guinea pigs experimentally infected with such cultures. Definite positive direct transmissions were obtained with the specimens of blood drawn on the 2nd and 3rd days. No blood was taken on the 4th or 6th days. There were indications of abortive or mild leptospira infection in the guinea pigs inoculated with the blood taken on the 5th day. Regarding the inoculation of cultures from Case 2, it may be stated that only the cultures (leptospira +) made with the blood drawn on the 2nd day caused a definite fatal infection in guinea pigs. From this series a continuous passage in the guinea pig has been successfully accomplished. One of the guinea pigs (No. 48) inoculated with the culture 5 days old (leptospira +) made from the blood taken on the 3rd day presented typical symptoms, and a positive transfer from this to another animal (No. 98) was also made. Cultures of the blood drawn on the 5th and 7th days gave unsatisfactory results, owing to a secondary contamination. Leptospiras were detected in some of the culture tubes containing 2nd and 3rd day specimens of blood from Case 2; they were few in number and for the most part immotile, owing perhaps to some unfavorable cultural condition such as a fungus contamination. Charts 17, 18, and 19 give a summary of the experiments. See PDF for Structure. PMID:19868464

Noguchi, H; Kligler, I J

1920-10-31

55

Vector Competence of Australian Mosquitoes for Yellow Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

The vector competence of Australian mosquitoes for yellow fever virus (YFV) was evaluated. Infection and transmission rates in Cairns and Townsville populations of Aedes aegypti and a Brisbane strain of Ae. notoscriptus were not significantly different from a well-characterized YFV-susceptible strain of Ae. aegypti. After exposure to 107.2 tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/mL of an African strain of YFV, > 70% of Ae. aegypti and Ae. notoscriptus became infected, and > 50% transmitted the virus. When exposed to 106.7 TCID50/mL of a South American strain of YFV, the highest infection (64%) and transmission (56%) rates were observed in Ae. notoscriptus. The infection and transmission rates in the Cairns Ae. aegypti were both 24%, and they were 36% and 28%, respectively, for the Townsville population. Because competent vectors are present, the limited number of travelers from endemic areas and strict vaccination requirements will influence whether YFV transmission occurs in Australia. PMID:21896802

van den Hurk, Andrew F.; McElroy, Kate; Pyke, Alyssa T.; McGee, Charles E.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Day, Andrew; Ryan, Peter A.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Higgs, Stephen

2011-01-01

56

Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four antennae-specific proteins (AaegOBP1, AaegOBP2, AaegOBP3, and AaegASP1) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and their full-length cDNAs were cloned. RT-PCR indicated that they are expressed in female and, to a lesser extent, in male antennae, but not in control tissues (legs). AaegOBP1 and AaegOBP3 showed significant similarity to previously identified mosquito odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in cysteine spacing pattern and sequence. Two of the isolated proteins have a total of eight cysteine residues. The similarity of the spacing pattern of the cysteine residues and amino acid sequence to those of previously identified olfactory proteins suggests that one of the cysteine-rich proteins (AaegOBP2) is an OBP. The other (AaegASP1) did not belong to any group of known OBPs. Structural analyses indicate that six of the cysteine residues in AaegOBP2 are linked in a similar pattern to the previously known cysteine pairing in OBPs, i.e., Cys-24 Cys-55, Cys-51 Cys-104, Cys-95 Cys-113. The additional disulfide bridge, Cys-38 Cys-125, knits the extended C-terminal segment of the protein to a predicted ?2-helix. As indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, the extra rigidity seems to prevent the predicted formation of a C-terminal ?-helix at low pH.

Ishida, Yuko; Chen, Angela M.; Tsuruda, Jennifer M.; Cornel, Anthon J.; Debboun, Mustapha; Leal, Walter S.

2004-09-01

57

Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Four antennae-specific proteins (AaegOBP1, AaegOBP2, AaegOBP3, and AaegASP1) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and their full-length cDNAs were cloned. RT-PCR indicated that they are expressed in female and, to a lesser extent, in male antennae, but not in control tissues (legs). AaegOBP1 and AaegOBP3 showed significant similarity to previously identified mosquito odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in cysteine spacing pattern and sequence. Two of the isolated proteins have a total of eight cysteine residues. The similarity of the spacing pattern of the cysteine residues and amino acid sequence to those of previously identified olfactory proteins suggests that one of the cysteine-rich proteins (AaegOBP2) is an OBP. The other (AaegASP1) did not belong to any group of known OBPs. Structural analyses indicate that six of the cysteine residues in AaegOBP2 are linked in a similar pattern to the previously known cysteine pairing in OBPs, i.e., Cys-24-Cys-55, Cys-51-Cys-104, Cys-95-Cys-113. The additional disulfide bridge, Cys-38-Cys-125, knits the extended C-terminal segment of the protein to a predicted alpha2-helix. As indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, the extra rigidity seems to prevent the predicted formation of a C-terminal alpha-helix at low pH. PMID:15338030

Ishida, Yuko; Chen, Angela M; Tsuruda, Jennifer M; Cornel, Anthon J; Debboun, Mustapha; Leal, Walter S

2004-09-01

58

Fever  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Fever See complete list of charts. A fever is defined as a temperature 1° or more above the normal 98.6°. Minor ... Contact your doctor in case of a high fever or if a lower fever doesn't resolve ...

59

Yellow fever vaccination coverage following massive emergency immunization campaigns in rural Uganda, May 2011: a community cluster survey  

PubMed Central

Background Following an outbreak of yellow fever in northern Uganda in December 2010, Ministry of Health conducted a massive emergency vaccination campaign in January 2011. The reported vaccination coverage in Pader District was 75.9%. Administrative coverage though timely, is affected by incorrect population estimates and over or under reporting of vaccination doses administered. This paper presents the validated yellow fever vaccination coverage following massive emergency immunization campaigns in Pader district. Methods A cross sectional cluster survey was carried out in May 2011 among communities in Pader district and 680 respondents were indentified using the modified World Health Organization (WHO) 40?×?17 cluster survey sampling methodology. Respondents were aged nine months and above. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect data on demographic characteristics, vaccination status and reasons for none vaccination. Vaccination status was assessed using self reports and vaccination card evidence. Our main outcomes were measures of yellow fever vaccination coverage in each age-specific stratum, overall, and disaggregated by age and sex, adjusting for the clustered design and the size of the population in each stratum. Results Of the 680 survey respondents, 654 (96.1%, 95% CI 94.9 – 97.8) reported being vaccinated during the last campaign but only 353 (51.6%, 95% CI 47.2 – 56.1) had valid yellow fever vaccination cards. Of the 280 children below 5 years, 269 (96.1%, 95% CI 93.7 – 98.7) were vaccinated and nearly all males 299 (96.9%, 95% CI 94.3 – 99.5) were vaccinated. The main reasons for none vaccination were; having travelled out of Pader district during the campaign period (40.0%), lack of transport to immunization posts (28.0%) and, sickness at the time of vaccination (16.0%). Conclusions Our results show that actual yellow fever vaccination coverage was high and satisfactory in Pader district since it was above the desired minimum threshold coverage of 80% according to World Health Organization. Massive emergency vaccination done following an outbreak of Yellow fever achieved high population coverage in Pader district. Active surveillance is necessary for early detection of yellow fever cases. PMID:23497254

2013-01-01

60

Use of the yellow fever virus vaccine strain 17D for the study of strategies for the treatment of yellow fever virus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have employed the attenuated vaccine strain 17D of yellow fever virus (YFV) to evaluate the inhibitory effect of a selected series of compounds on YFV in Vero cells. Use of the vaccine strain does not require high-level microbiological containment facilities and should allow extensive screening. In addition, YFV may serve as a model for other flaviviruses including hepatitis C

J. Neyts; A. Meerbach; P. McKenna; E. De Clercq

1996-01-01

61

The 1802 Saint-Domingue yellow fever epidemic and the Louisiana Purchase.  

PubMed

Epidemics have been pivotal in the history of the world as exemplified by a yellow fever epidemic in the Caribbean that clearly altered New World geopolitics. By the end of the 18th century, yellow fever--then an "emerging disease"--was widespread throughout the Caribbean and particularly lethal in Saint-Domingue (present day Haiti). From 1793 to 1798, case fatality rates among British troops in the West Indies (including Saint-Domingue) were as high as 70%. A worse fate befell newly arrived French armed forces in 1802, ostensibly sent by Napoleon to suppress a rebellion and to reestablish slavery. Historians have disagreed on why Napoleon initially dispatched nearly 30,000 soldiers and sailors to the island. Evidence suggests the troops were actually an expeditionary force with intensions to invade North America through New Orleans and to establish a major holding in the Mississippi valley. However, lacking knowledge of basic prevention and control measures, mortality from the disease left only a small and shattered fraction of his troops alive, thwarting his secret ambition to colonize and hold French-held lands, which later became better known as the Louisiana Purchase. If an event of the magnitude of France's experience were to occur in the 21st century, it might also have profound unanticipated consequences. PMID:23169407

Marr, John S; Cathey, John T

2013-01-01

62

Functional characterization of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

After taking vertebrate blood, female mosquitoes quickly shed excess water and ions while retaining and concentrating the mostly proteinaceous nutrients. Aquaporins (AQPs) are an evolutionary conserved family of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the flow of water and in some cases glycerol and other small molecules across cellular membranes. In a previous study, we found six putative AQP genes in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, Ae. aegypti, and demonstrated the involvement of three of them in the blood meal-induced diuresis. Here we characterized AQP expression in different tissues before and after a blood meal, explored the substrate specificity of AQPs expressed in the Malpighian tubules and performed RNAi-mediated knockdown and tested for changes in mosquito desiccation resistance. We found that AQPs are generally down-regulated 24?hrs after a blood meal. Ae. aegypti AQP 1 strictly transports water, AQP 2 and 5 demonstrate limited solute transport, but primarily function as water transporters. AQP 4 is an aquaglyceroporin with multiple substrates. Knockdown of AQPs expressed in the MTs increased survival of Ae. aegypti under dry conditions. We conclude that Malpighian tubules of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes utilize three distinct AQPs and one aquaglyceroporin in their osmoregulatory functions. PMID:25589229

Drake, Lisa L; Rodriguez, Stacy D; Hansen, Immo A

2015-01-01

63

Functional characterization of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

After taking vertebrate blood, female mosquitoes quickly shed excess water and ions while retaining and concentrating the mostly proteinaceous nutrients. Aquaporins (AQPs) are an evolutionary conserved family of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the flow of water and in some cases glycerol and other small molecules across cellular membranes. In a previous study, we found six putative AQP genes in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, Ae. aegypti, and demonstrated the involvement of three of them in the blood meal-induced diuresis. Here we characterized AQP expression in different tissues before and after a blood meal, explored the substrate specificity of AQPs expressed in the Malpighian tubules and performed RNAi-mediated knockdown and tested for changes in mosquito desiccation resistance. We found that AQPs are generally down-regulated 24?hrs after a blood meal. Ae. aegypti AQP 1 strictly transports water, AQP 2 and 5 demonstrate limited solute transport, but primarily function as water transporters. AQP 4 is an aquaglyceroporin with multiple substrates. Knockdown of AQPs expressed in the MTs increased survival of Ae. aegypti under dry conditions. We conclude that Malpighian tubules of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes utilize three distinct AQPs and one aquaglyceroporin in their osmoregulatory functions. PMID:25589229

Drake, Lisa L.; Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Hansen, Immo A.

2015-01-01

64

Yellow fever in a Brazilian family returning from vacation in an endemic area: relevant clinical features and epidemiological issues.  

PubMed

We report three cases of yellow fever (YF) in a family traveling from the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil (without previous vaccination) to an endemic area, acquiring the disease and presenting mild-to-moderate symptoms. Despite posing the intermittent risk of YF in endemic areas, it also alerts to the threat of introduction and spread of YF in the urban cycle, when infected travelers return to non-endemic areas where potential vectors are highly prevalent. PMID:19930387

Chaves, Tânia S S; Vasconcelos, Marileide J; Filho, Nosor Oliveira; Alves, Jesse R

2009-01-01

65

Yellow fever vaccine: An updated assessment of advanced age as a risk factor for serious adverse events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1996, the scientific community has become aware of 14 reports of yellow fever vaccine (YEL)-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) cases and four reports of YEL-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND) worldwide, changing our understanding of the risks of the vaccine. Based on 722 adverse event reports after YEL submitted to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System in 1990–2002, we updated the

Alena Y. Khromava; Rachel Barwick Eidex; Leisa H. Weld; Katrin S. Kohl; Robert D. Bradshaw; Robert T. Chen; Martin S. Cetron

2005-01-01

66

Yellow fever virus susceptibility of two mosquito vectors from Kenya, East Africa.  

PubMed

Yellow fever is an unpredictable disease of increasing epidemic threat in East Africa. Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti has never been implicated as a vector in this region and recent outbreaks have involved a newly emerging virus genotype (East African). To better understand the increasing epidemic risk of yellow fever in East Africa, this study is the first to investigate the vector competence for an emerging East African virus genotype in Kenyan A. aegypti sensu latu (s.l) and A. (Stegomyia) simpsoni s.l. mosquito species. Using first filial generation mosquitoes and a low passage yellow fever virus, this study demonstrated that although A. aegypti s.l. is a competent vector, A. simpsoni s.l. is likely a more efficient vector. PMID:22521217

Ellis, Brett R; Sang, Rosemary C; Horne, Kate McElroy; Higgs, Stephen; Wesson, Dawn M

2012-06-01

67

Control discourses and power relations of yellow Fever: Philadelphia in 1793.  

PubMed

1793 Yellow fever in Philadelphia was the most severe epidemics in the late 18th century in the United States. More than 10% of the population in the city died and many people fled to other cities. The cause of yellow fever in the United States had close relationship with slaves and sugar in Philadelphia. Sugarcane plantation had needed many labors to produce sugar and lots of Africans had to move to America as slaves. In this process, Aëdes aegypti, the vector of yellow fever had migrated to America and the circumstances of ships or cities provided appropriate conditions for its breeding. In this period, the cause of yellow fever could not be established exactly, so suggestions of doctors became entangled in political and intellectual discourses in American society. There was a critical conflict between Jeffersonian Republicanism and Federalism about the origin and treatment of yellow fever. Benjamin Rush, a Jeffersonian Republican, suggested urban sanitation reform and bloodletting. He believed the infectious disease happened because of unsanitary city condition, so he thought the United States could be a healthy nation by improvement of the public health and sanitation. He would like to cope with national crisis and develop American society on the basis of republicanism. While Rush suggested the improvement of public health and sanitation, the city government of Philadelphia suggested isolation of yellow fever patients and quarantine. City government isolated the patients from healthy people and it reconstructed space of hospital. Also, it built orphanages to take care of children who lost their parents during the epidemic and implemented power to control people put in the state of exception. Of course, city government tried to protect the city and nation by quarantine of every ship to Philadelphia. Control policies of yellow fever in 1793 showed different conflicts and interactions. Through the yellow fever, Jeffersonian Republicanism and Federalism had conflicted in politically, but they had interactions for control of the infectious disease. And with these kinds of infectious diseases policies, we can see interactions in local, national and global level. PMID:25608507

Kim, Seohyung

2014-12-01

68

Yellow fever and Max Theiler: the only Nobel Prize for a virus vaccine.  

PubMed

In 1951, Max Theiler of the Rockefeller Foundation received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of an effective vaccine against yellow fever--a discovery first reported in the JEM 70 years ago. This was the first, and so far the only, Nobel Prize given for the development of a virus vaccine. Recently released Nobel archives now reveal how the advances in the yellow fever vaccine field were evaluated more than 50 years ago, and how this led to a prize for Max Theiler. PMID:18039952

Norrby, Erling

2007-11-26

69

Lethal 17D Yellow Fever Encephalitis in Mice. I. Passive Protection by Monoclonal Antibodies to the Envelope Proteins of 17D Yellow Fever and Dengue 2 Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Monoclonal antibodies to the envelope proteins (E) of the 17D vaccine strain of yellow fever virus (17D YF) and to dengue 2 virus were examined for their ability to confer passive protection against lethal 17D YF encephalitis in mice. All 13 IgG anti- 17D YF antibodies, regardless of neutralizing capacity, conferred solid protection when given in a relatively high

MICHAEL W. BRANDRISS; JACOB J. SCHLESINGER; EDWARD E. WALSH; MICHAEL BRISELLI

1986-01-01

70

[Integrated approach to yellow fever surveillance: pilot study in Senegal in 2003-2004].  

PubMed

The aim was to undertake a pilot study of integrated surveillance of yellow fever (YF) in Senegal, based on i) a human surveillance involving healthcare centers in the 11 administrative regions of the country ii) an entomological surveillance including domestic and sylvatic environment and iii) screening mosquitoes for YF virus using RT-PCR method. The integrated approach of human and entomological surveillance was conducted for 2 years (2003-2004). Surveillance in human population was based on screening samples of YF suspected cases (i.e. patients with acute (< or = 15 days) febrile illness with jaundice) for YF specific IgM antibodies. The entomological surveillance was carried out by collecting mosquitoes using human landing catch method and attempt to detect YF virus on them by RT-PCR. Forty five percent of the healthcare centres notified at least one suspected YF case during 2003-2004 periods. Among the 342 sera collected over 2 years, 2 revealed anti-YF IgM antibodies leading to investigations which allowed identification of the source and place of infection and implementation of a reactive focused YF immunization campaign. In addition, YFV was detected by RT-PCR from 49 out of 1762 mosquitoes tested and distributed as follows: in the sylvatic environment, 29 from Aedes furcifer and 1 from Aedes aegypti while in the domestic area, 15 Aedes aegypti and 4 Aedes furcifer. RT-PCR was found more sensitive and rapid than viral isolation for YF virus detection in mosquitoes. The pilot study in Senegal for YF surveillance integrating human and entomological parameters in domestic and sylvatic areas showed that this approach is very efficient in detecting yellow fever virus circulation due to the complementarity of the two systems. Therefore, in the light of the encouraging results presented herein, similar studies in different context and areas are needed to further validate and allow the extension of its application to other endemic regions of Africa. PMID:17824313

Faye, O; Diallo, M; Dia, I; Ba, Y; Faye, O; Mondo, M; Sylla, R; Faye, P C; Sall, A A

2007-08-01

71

Phenotypic and Molecular Analyses of Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Viruses Associated with Serious Adverse Events in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yellow fever (YF) 17D virus is one of the most successful vaccines developed to date. Its use has been estimated to be over 400 million doses with an excellent record of safety. In the past 3 years, yellow fever vaccination was intensified in Brazil in response to higher risk of urban outbreaks of the disease. Two fatal adverse events

R. Galler; K. V. Pugachev; C. L. S. Santos; S. W. Ocran; A. V. Jabor; S. G. Rodrigues; R. S. Marchevsky; M. S. Freire; L. F. C. Almeida; A. C. R. Cruz; A. M. Y. Yamamura; I. M. Rocco; E. S. Travassos da Rosa; L. T. M. Souza; P. F. C. Vasconcelos; F. Guirakhoo; T. P. Monath

2001-01-01

72

Demonstration of yellow fever and dengue antigens in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human liver by immunohistochemical analysis.  

PubMed

Two immunohistochemical techniques to determine the presence of yellow fever and dengue antigens in fixed tissue samples were developed for the purpose of making retrospective diagnoses of these viral diseases in humans. A horseradish peroxidase label was used for one technique and an alkaline phosphatase label for the other. In the former technique, acid hematin was removed from the tissues, iron-containing pigments were counterstained with Prussian blue, and the product of the diaminobenzidine reaction was enhanced with a dilute solution of osmium tetroxide that differentiated antigen from lipofuscin. In the latter technique, alkaline phosphatase was used as the enzyme labeling system with a red chromogen that contrasted nicely with the pigments in the tissues, as mentioned above. Thus, pigment removal or differentiation from antigen was not required. Replicate sections were cut and mouse polyclonal antibodies for yellow fever and all dengue types were applied to individual sections. On samples positive for dengue antigen, monoclonal antibodies were applied to additional replicate sections to demonstrate antigen of dengue types 1 and 4. In order to test the assay, samples of formalin-fixed liver tissue from Brazilian and Peruvian individuals who had died from a variety of causes as long as eight years earlier were received in a blinded fashion for immunohistochemical analysis. The techniques appeared to be highly reliable for yellow fever diagnosis; however, not enough cases were observed to adequately evaluate the procedures for dengue diagnosis. Both procedures appeared to have similar sensitivity. PMID:1951849

Hall, W C; Crowell, T P; Watts, D M; Barros, V L; Kruger, H; Pinheiro, F; Peters, C J

1991-10-01

73

Investigations into yellow fever virus and other arboviruses in the northern regions of Kenya  

PubMed Central

Previous studies having shown an appreciable level of yellow fever immunity to exist in northern Kenya, further epidemiological and serological surveys were carried out there in 1968 in an attempt to define more clearly the distribution of yellow fever and to locate possible vector and reservoir hosts of the disease; these surveys also provided information on a number of other arboviruses. Altogether 436 sera from 5 areas in northern Kenya were screened by haemagglutination-inhibition tests with 8 antigens, and 107 of these sera by neutralization tests for Group-B arboviruses. Small numbers of yellow-fever-immune adults were found in Ileret, Garissa, Loglogo and Mikona. At Marsabit high proportions of immune adults and children were found among the Burgi tribe. As the Burgi are permanent agricultural workers on Marsabit Mountain, an entomological investigation was made, over 15 000 mosquitos being collected. From these, 13 strains of Pongola virus, 1 strain of Semliki Forest virus and an unidentified virus were isolated, but no yellow fever strains. Aedes africanus and Aedes simpsoni were not found at Marsabit; small numbers of Aedes aegypti were collected biting man. The vector potential of other mosquitos collected (particularly Mansonia africana, which is present throughout the year) is discussed. PMID:4393661

Henderson, B. E.; Metselaar, D.; Kirya, G. B.; Timms, G. L.

1970-01-01

74

Complete nucleotide sequence of yellow fever virus vaccine strains 17DD and 17D-213  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome from two yellow fever (YF) virus vaccine strains, 17DD and 17D-213, has been determined. Comparison of these sequences with those of other YF viruses including the parental virulent Asibi strain allowed the identification of 48 nucleotide sequence differences which are common to all 17D substrains. This is a significant reduction from the 67

Claudia N. Duarte dos Santos; Paulo R. Post; Ricardo Carvalho; Idevaldo I. Ferreira; Charles M. Rice; Ricardo Galler

1995-01-01

75

Genetic Variation in Yellow Fever Virus: Duplication in the 3? Noncoding Region of Strains from Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequences of three regions of the genomes of 13 yellow fever (YF) virus isolates were determined to define genetic variation and evolution of the virus. Phylogenetic trees generated from sequences of either the 5? terminal 1320 nucleotides of the genome, 754 nucleotides from the NS4A and NS4B genes, or the 3? terminal 511 nucleotides were very similar and

Eryu Wang; Scott C. Weaver; Robert E. Shope; Robert B. Tesh; Douglas M. Watts; Alan D. T. Barrett

1996-01-01

76

Detection of yellow fever virus: a comparison of quantitative real-time PCR and plaque assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever virus quantitation is performed routinely by cultivation of virus containing samples using susceptible cells. Counting of the resulting plaques provides a marker for the number of infectious particles present in the sample. This assay usually takes up to 5 days before results are obtained and must be carried out under L2 or L3 laboratory conditions, depending on the

Hi-Gung Bae; Andreas Nitsche; Anette Teichmann; Stefan S. Biel; Matthias Niedrig

2003-01-01

77

FIRST RECORDED OUTBREAK OF YELLOW FEVER IN KENYA, 1992-1993. II. ENTOMOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first recorded outbreak of yellow fever in Kenya occurred from mid-1992 through March 1993 in the south Kerio Valley, Rift Valley Province. We conducted entomologic studies in February-March 1993 to identify the likely vectors and determine the potential for transmission in the surrounding rural and urban areas. Mosquitoes were collected by landing capture and processed for virus isolation. Container

PAUL REITER; ROGER CORDELLIER; JOHN O. OUMA; C. BRUCE CROPP; HARRY M. SAVAGE; EDUARD J. SANDERS; ANTHONY A. MARFIN; PETER M. TUKEI; NAFTALI N. AGATA; LEWIS G. GITAU; BETH A. RAPUODA; DUANE J. GUBLER

78

Stable Transformation of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, with the Hermes Element from the Housefly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the world's most important vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses. Work is currently in progress to control the transmission of these viruses by genetically altering the capacity of wild Ae. aegypti populations to support virus replication. The germline transformation system reported here constitutes a major advance toward the implementation of this control strategy. A

Nijole Jasinskiene; Craig J. Coates; Mark Q. Benedict; Anthony J. Cornel; Cristina Salazar Rafferty; Anthony A. James; Frank H. Collins

1998-01-01

79

Human Genetic Variation and Yellow Fever Mortality during 19th Century U.S. Epidemics  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We calculated the incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates for Caucasians and non-Caucasians during 19th century yellow fever (YF) epidemics in the United States and determined statistical significance for differences in the rates in different populations. We evaluated nongenetic host factors, including socioeconomic, environmental, cultural, demographic, and acquired immunity status that could have influenced these differences. While differences in incidence rates were not significant between Caucasians and non-Caucasians, differences in mortality and case fatality rates were statistically significant for all epidemics tested (P < 0.01). Caucasians diagnosed with YF were 6.8 times more likely to succumb than non-Caucasians with the disease. No other major causes of death during the 19th century demonstrated a similar mortality skew toward Caucasians. Nongenetic host factors were examined and could not explain these large differences. We propose that the remarkably lower case mortality rates for individuals of non-Caucasian ancestry is the result of human genetic variation in loci encoding innate immune mediators. PMID:24895309

2014-01-01

80

The Safety of Yellow Fever Vaccine 17D or 17DD in Children, Pregnant Women, HIV+ Individuals, and Older Persons: Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting immunity. Rare serious adverse events after vaccination include neurologic or viscerotropic syndromes or anaphylaxis. We conducted a systematic review of adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccination in vulnerable populations. Nine electronic bibliographic databases and reference lists of included articles were searched. Electronic databases identified 2,415 abstracts for review, and 32 abstracts were included in this review. We identified nine studies of adverse events in infants and children, eight studies of adverse events in pregnant women, nine studies of adverse events in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, five studies of adverse events in persons 60 years and older, and one study of adverse events in individuals taking immunosuppressive medications. Two case studies of maternal–neonate transmission resulted in serious adverse events, and the five passive surveillance databases identified very small numbers of cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease, yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease, and anaphylaxis in persons ? 60 years. No other serious adverse events were identified in the other studies of vulnerable groups. PMID:22302874

Thomas, Roger E.; Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Spragins, Wendy; Jackson, Dave; Williamson, Tyler

2012-01-01

81

SATELLITE-BASED RIFT VALLEY FEVER FORECASTS PREDICT A LARGE YELLOW FEVER EPIDEMIC IN SUDAN, 2005  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sustained, heavy East African rainfall is associated with Aedes spp. breeding in Kenyan grasslands and Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics. Validated RVF forecasts use satellite measurements of vegetation greenness (which increases after heavy rains) and other eco-climate indicators. These models may ...

82

Yellow fever disease: density equalizing mapping and gender analysis of international research output  

PubMed Central

Background A number of scientific papers on yellow fever have been published but no broad scientometric analysis on the published research of yellow fever has been reported. The aim of the article based study was to provide an in-depth evaluation of the yellow fever field using large-scale data analysis and employment of bibliometric indicators of production and quantity. Methods Data were retrieved from the Web of Science database (WoS) and analyzed as part of the NewQis platform. Then data were extracted from each file, transferred to databases and visualized as diagrams. Partially by means of density-equalizing mapping makes the findings clear and emphasizes the output of the analysis. Results In the study period from 1900 to 2012 a total of 5,053 yellow fever-associated items were published by 79 countries. The United States (USA) having the highest publication rate at 42% (n?=?751) followed by far from Brazil (n?=?203), France (n?=?149) and the United Kingdom (n?=?113). The most productive journals are the “Public Health Reports”, the “American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene” and the “Journal of Virology”. The gender analysis showed an overall steady increase of female authorship from 1950 to 2011. Brazil is the only country of the five most productive countries with a higher proportion of female scientists. Conclusions The present data shows an increase in research productivity over the entire study period, in particular an increase of female scientists. Brazil shows a majority of female authors, a fact that is confirmed by other studies. PMID:24245856

2013-01-01

83

The In Vivo Differentiation of Strains of Yellow Fever Virus in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Strains of yellow fever virus isolated since I927 in Africa and the Americas, and strains derived from them, have been differentiated by the responses of mice of different ages to intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intracerebral (i.c.) infection. Infection, antibody conversion, protection and death have been presented on age-dose response phase diagrams that serve as in vivo 'fingerprints' for the differentiation

R. Fitzgeorge; C. J. Bradish

1980-01-01

84

Neutralization of Yellow Fever Virus Studied Using Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies with known specificity for either the 54K envelope glycoprotein or the 48K non-structural glycoprotein of yellow fever (YF) virus-infected cells were studied in plaque reduction neutralization tests. Viruses employed in the tests comprised wild-type and vaccine strains of YF and a selection of other flaviviruses. Of 17 monoclonal antibodies examined, six of the 54K-specific antibodies

A. Buckley; E. A. Gould

1985-01-01

85

Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining molecular-biological techniques with our increased understanding of the effect of gene sequence modification on viral function, yellow fever 17D, a positive-strand RNA virus vaccine, has been manipulated to induce a protective immune response against viruses of the same family (e.g. Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses). Triggered by the emergence of West Nile virus infections in the New World

Juan Arroyo; Charles A Miller; John Catalan; Thomas P Monath

2001-01-01

86

Systems biology approach predicts immunogenicity of the yellow fever vaccine in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge in vaccinology is to prospectively determine vaccine efficacy. Here we have used a systems biology approach to identify early gene 'signatures' that predicted immune responses in humans vaccinated with yellow fever vaccine YF-17D. Vaccination induced genes that regulate virus innate sensing and type I interferon production. Computational analyses identified a gene signature, including complement protein C1qB and

Troy D Querec; Rama S Akondy; Eva K Lee; Weiping Cao; Helder I Nakaya; Dirk Teuwen; Ali Pirani; Kim Gernert; Jiusheng Deng; Bruz Marzolf; Kathleen Kennedy; Haiyan Wu; Soumaya Bennouna; Herold Oluoch; Joseph Miller; Ricardo Z Vencio; Mark Mulligan; Alan Aderem; Rafi Ahmed; Bali Pulendran

2008-01-01

87

Human Effector and Memory CD8 + T Cell Responses to Smallpox and Yellow Fever Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY ToexplorethehumanTcellresponsetoacuteviralin- fection, we performed a longitudinal analysis of CD8+ T cells responding to the live yellow fever virus and smallpox vaccines—two highly successful human vaccines. Our results show that both vaccines gener- ated a brisk primary effector CD8+ T cell response of substantial magnitude that could be readily quanti- tated with a simple set of four phenotypic markers. Secondly,

Joseph D. Miller; Robbert G. van der Most; Rama S. Akondy; John T. Glidewell; Sophia Albott; David Masopust; Kaja Murali-Krishna; Patryce L. Mahar; Srilatha Edupuganti; Susan Lalor; Stephanie Germon; Carlos Del Rio; Silvija I. Staprans; John D. Altman; Mark B. Feinberg; Rafi Ahmed

2008-01-01

88

Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever: WHO Position Paper, June 2013--recommendations.  

PubMed

This article presents the World Health Organizations (WHO) evidence and recommendations for the use of yellow fever (YF) vaccination from "Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever: WHO Position Paper - June 2013" published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record. This position paper summarizes the WHO position on the use of YF vaccination, in particular that a single dose of YF vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained life-long protective immunity against YF disease. A booster dose is not necessary. The current document replaces the position paper on the use of yellow fever vaccines and vaccination published in 2003. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its April 2013 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. PMID:24852721

2015-01-01

89

The centennial of the Yellow Fever Commission and the use of informed consent in medical research.  

PubMed

The year 2000 marked the centennial of the discovery of the mode of transmission of yellow fever. Informed consent was systematically used for the first time in research. This process was the result of a complex social phenomenon involving the American Public Health Association, the US and Spanish Governments, American and Cuban scientists, the media, and civilian and military volunteers. The public health and medical communities face the AIDS pandemic at the beginning of the 21st Century, as they faced the yellow fever epidemic at the beginning of the 20th Century. Current medical research dilemmas have fueled the debate about the ethical conduct of research in human subjects. The AIDS pandemic is imposing enormous new ethical challenges on the conduct of medical research, especially in the developing world. Reflecting on the yellow fever experiments of 1900, lessons can be learned and applied to the current ethical challenges faced by the international public health research community. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html. PMID:12053781

Güereña-Burgueño, Fernando

2002-01-01

90

Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 28 (1998) 915925 Vitelline envelope genes of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes  

E-print Network

Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 28 (1998) 915­925 Vitelline envelope genes of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Marten J. Edwards a,* , David W. Severson b , Henry H. Hagedorn c: Aedes aegypti; Vitelline envelope; 20-hydroxyecdysone 1. Introduction Eggshell development in the yellow

Severson, David

91

IMMUNITY TO YELLOW FEVER ENCEPHALITIS OF MONKEYS AND MICE IMMUNIZED BY NEURAL AND EXTRANEURAL ROUTES  

PubMed Central

Monkeys and mice surviving cerebral infection with yellow fever virus of relatively avirulent strains have been found to resist maximal intracerebral doses of yellow fever virus of a highly neurotropic strain. Such animals, however, do not resist more than very small doses of intracerebrally inoculated virus of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis. Animals immunized by extraneural routes, on the other hand, are not uniformly resistant to neural infection with neurotropic yellow fever virus. Monkeys which have undergone systemic infection with virus of the avirulent 17D strain or of several jungle strains resist only small intracerebral doses of neurotropic virus; while mice, even when possessed of very high serum-antibody levels as the result of intraperitoneal hyperimmunization, manifest only an irregular resistance to intracerebral challenge inocula. The difference in the resistance of neurally and extraneurally immunized animals is not related to similar differences in the levels of protective antibody in the sera. Indeed, the average of the serum-antibody titers of the hyperimmune mice is several times that of the intracerebral immunes. A possibly significant relation does exist, however, between the resistance of mice to neural infection and the content of protective antibody in the brain. The protective activity of suspensions of brains from mice surviving cerebral infection was found to be several times that of brain suspensions from the hyperimmunized animals. It is concluded that the superior resistance to neural infection of animals whose immunity results from a previous non-fatal infection of the nervous system is effected by a specific local mechanism which is based at least in part upon an increased concentration of antibody in the cerebral tissue. PMID:19871299

Fox, John P.

1943-01-01

92

Vaccinating in disease-free regions: a vaccine model with application to yellow fever.  

PubMed

Concerns regarding natural or induced emergence of infectious diseases have raised a debate on the pros and cons of pre-emptive vaccination of populations under uncertain risk. In the absence of immediate risk, ethical issues arise because even smaller risks associated with the vaccine are greater than the immediate disease risk (which is zero). The model proposed here seeks to formalize the vaccination decision process looking from the perspective of the susceptible individual, and results are shown in the context of the emergence of urban yellow fever in Brazil. The model decomposes the individual's choice about vaccinating or not into uncertain components. The choice is modelled as a function of (i) the risk of a vaccine adverse event, (ii) the risk of an outbreak and (iii) the probability of receiving the vaccine or escaping serious disease given an outbreak. Additionally, we explore how this decision varies as a function of mass vaccination strategies of varying efficiency. If disease is considered possible but unlikely (risk of outbreak less than 0.1), delay vaccination is a good strategy if a reasonably efficient campaign is expected. The advantage of waiting increases as the rate of transmission is reduced (low R0) suggesting that vector control programmes and emergency vaccination preparedness work together to favour this strategy. The opposing strategy, vaccinating pre-emptively, is favoured if the probability of yellow fever urbanization is high or if expected R0 is high and emergency action is expected to be slow. In summary, our model highlights the nonlinear dependence of an individual's best strategy on the preparedness of a response to a yellow fever outbreak or other emergent infectious disease. PMID:17442650

Codeço, Claudia T; Luz, Paula M; Coelho, Flavio; Galvani, Alison P; Struchiner, Claudio

2007-12-22

93

Development of a membrane adsorber based capture step for the purification of yellow fever virus.  

PubMed

Yellow fever (YF) is an endemic disease in some tropical areas of South America and Africa that presents lethality rate between 20 and 50%. There is no specific treatment and to control this disease a highly effective live-attenuated egg based vaccine is widely used for travelers and residents of areas where YF is endemic. However, recent reports of rare, sometimes fatal, adverse events post-vaccination have raised concerns. In order to increase safety records, alternative strategies should be considered, such as developing a new inactivated vaccine using a cell culture based technology, capable of meeting the demands in cases of epidemic. With this goal, the production of YF virus in Vero cells grown on microcarriers and its subsequent purification by chromatographic techniques was studied. In this work we investigate the capture step of the purification process of the YF virus. At first, virus stability was studied over a wide pH range, showing best results for the alkaline region. Considering this result and the pI of the envelope protein previously determined in silico, a strong anion exchanger was considered most suitable. Due to the easy scalability, simplicity to handle, absence of diffusional limitations and suitability for virus handling of membrane adsorbers, a Q membrane was evaluated. The amount of antigen adsorbed onto the membrane was investigated within the pH range for virus stability, and the best pH for virus adsorption was considered to be 8.5. Finally, studies on gradient and step elution allowed to determine the most adequate salt concentration for washing (0.15M) and virus elution (0.30 M). Under these operating conditions, it was shown that this capture step is quite efficient, showing high product recovery (93.2±30.3%) and efficient DNA clearance (0.9±0.3 ng/dose). PMID:24631080

Pato, Tânia P; Souza, Marta Cristina O; Silva, Andréa N M R; Pereira, Renata C; Silva, Marlon V; Caride, Elena; Gaspar, Luciane P; Freire, Marcos S; Castilho, Leda R

2014-05-19

94

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 1-undec-10-enoyl-piperidines as adulticides against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), is considered the primary vector for both dengue and yellow fever. Using insecticide is one of the major ways to control this medically important insect pest. However, few new insecticides have been developed for mosquito control. As part of our collabo...

95

Travel Characteristics and Yellow Fever Vaccine Usage Among US Global TravEpiNet Travelers Visiting Countries with Risk of Yellow Fever Virus Transmission, 2009–2011  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated serious adverse events and changing YF epidemiology have challenged healthcare providers to vaccinate only travelers whose risk of YF during travel is greater than their risk of adverse events. We describe the travel characteristics and YF vaccine use among US travelers visiting Global TravEpiNet clinics from January of 2009 to March of 2011. Of 16,660 travelers, 5,588 (34%) had itineraries to areas with risk of YF virus transmission. Of those travelers visiting one country with YF risk (N = 4,517), 71% were vaccinated at the visit, and 20% were presumed to be immune from prior vaccination. However, travelers visiting friends and relatives (odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.27–5.22) or going to Nigeria (OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.37–6.62) were significantly more likely to decline vaccination. To optimize YF vaccine use, clinicians should discuss an individual's risk–benefit assessment of vaccination and close knowledge gaps regarding vaccine use among at-risk populations. PMID:23458961

Jentes, Emily S.; Han, Pauline; Gershman, Mark D.; Rao, Sowmya R.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Staples, J. Erin; Ryan, Edward T.

2013-01-01

96

Concurrent dengue hemorrhagic fever and typhoid fever infection in adult: case report.  

PubMed

In Indonesia as well as in many developing countries both typhoid fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are still endemic and prevalent. In Indonesia the incidence of DHF in 1994 was 9.72/100,000 population with CFR of 2.5% and each year about 640,000-1,500,000 cases of typhoid fever were reported with mortality of 1.6-3%. The concurrent infection of both diseases may occur in one patient. PMID:9886130

Sudjana, P; Jusuf, H

1998-06-01

97

The single kinin receptor signals to separate and independent physiological pathways in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past we have used the leucokinins, the kinins of the cockroach Leucophaea, to evaluate the mechanism of diuretic action of kinin peptides in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Now using aedeskinins, the kinins of Aedes, are available, we find that in isolated Aede...

98

Geographic distribution and evolution of yellow fever viruses based on direct sequencing of genomic cDNA fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared the nucleotide sequence of an envelope protein gene fragment encoding amino acids 291 to 406 of 22 yellow fever (YF) virus strains of diverse geographic and host origins isolated over a 63 year time span. The nucleotide fragment of viral RNA was examined by direct sequencing ofa PCR product derived from complementary DNA. Alignment with the proto-

Loic Lepiniec; Lynn Dalgarno; V. T. Q. Huong; T. P. Monath; J.-P. Digoutte; V. Deubel

1994-01-01

99

Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three gustatory receptor neurons were characterized for contact chemoreceptive sensilla on the labella of female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. The neuron with the smallest amplitude spike responded to the feeding deterrent, quinine, as well as DEET and other insect repellents. Two other ...

100

Efficient, trans-complementing packaging systems for chimeric, pseudoinfectious dengue 2/yellow fever viruses  

SciTech Connect

In our previous studies, we have stated to build a new strategy for developing defective, pseudoinfectious flaviviruses (PIVs) and applying them as a new type of vaccine candidates. PIVs combined the efficiency of live vaccines with the safety of inactivated or subunit vaccines. The results of the present work demonstrate further development of chimeric PIVs encoding dengue virus 2 (DEN2V) glycoproteins and yellow fever virus (YFV)-derived replicative machinery as potential vaccine candidates. The newly designed PIVs have synergistically functioning mutations in the prM and NS2A proteins, which abolish processing of the latter proteins and make the defective viruses capable of producing either only noninfectious, immature and/or subviral DEN2V particles. The PIV genomes can be packaged to high titers into infectious virions in vitro using the NS1-deficient YFV helper RNAs, and both PIVs and helpers can then be passaged as two-component genome viruses at an escalating scale.

Shustov, Alexandr V. [Department of Microbiology, BBRB 373/Box 3, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294-2170 (United States); Frolov, Ilya, E-mail: ivfrolov@UAB.ed [Department of Microbiology, BBRB 373/Box 3, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294-2170 (United States)

2010-04-25

101

Evaluation of two molecular methods for the detection of Yellow fever virus genome.  

PubMed

Yellow fever virus (YFV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus is endemic to tropical areas of Africa and South America and is among the arboviruses that pose a threat to public health. Recent outbreaks in Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay and the observation that vectors capable of transmitting YFV are presenting in urban areas underscore the urgency of improving surveillance and diagnostic methods. Two novel methods (RT-hemi-nested-PCR and SYBR(®) Green qRT-PCR) for efficient detection of YFV strains circulating in South America have been developed. The methods were validated using samples obtained from golden hamsters infected experimentally with wild-type YFV strains as well as human serum and tissue samples with acute disease. PMID:21419803

Nunes, Marcio R T; Palacios, Gustavo; Nunes, Keley N B; Casseb, Samir M M; Martins, Lívia C; Quaresma, Juarez A S; Savji, Nazir; Lipkin, W Ian; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

2011-06-01

102

BCX4430, a novel nucleoside analog, effectively treats yellow fever in a Hamster model.  

PubMed

No effective antiviral therapies are currently available to treat disease after infection with yellow fever virus (YFV). A Syrian golden hamster model of yellow fever (YF) was used to characterize the effect of treatment with BCX4430, a novel adenosine nucleoside analog. Significant improvement in survival was observed after treatment with BCX4430 at 4 mg/kg of body weight per day dosed intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice daily (BID). Treatment with BCX4430 at 12.5 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days offered complete protection from mortality and also resulted in significant improvement of other YF disease parameters, including weight loss, serum alanine aminotransferase levels (6 days postinfection [dpi]), and viremia (4 dpi). In uninfected hamsters, BCX4430 at 200 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days was well tolerated and did not result in mortality or weight loss, suggesting a potentially wide therapeutic index. Treatment with BCX4430 at 12 mg/kg/day i.p. remained effective when administered once daily and for only 4 days. Moreover, BCX4430 dosed at 200 mg/kg/day i.p. BID for 7 days effectively treated YF, even when treatment was delayed up to 4 days after virus challenge, corresponding with peak viral titers in the liver and serum. BCX4430 treatment did not preclude a protective antibody response, as higher neutralizing antibody (nAb) concentrations corresponded with increasing delays of treatment initiation, and greater nAb responses resulted in the protection of animals from a secondary challenge with YFV. In summary, BCX4430 is highly active in a hamster model of YF, even when treatment is initiated at the peak of viral replication. PMID:25155605

Julander, Justin G; Bantia, Shanta; Taubenheim, Brian R; Minning, Dena M; Kotian, Pravin; Morrey, John D; Smee, Donald F; Sheridan, William P; Babu, Yarlagadda S

2014-11-01

103

Three-dimensional visualization of cultural clusters in the 1878 yellow fever epidemic of New Orleans  

PubMed Central

Background An epidemic may exhibit different spatial patterns with a change in geographic scale, with each scale having different conduits and impediments to disease spread. Mapping disease at each of these scales often reveals different cluster patterns. This paper will consider this change of geographic scale in an analysis of yellow fever deaths for New Orleans in 1878. Global clustering for the whole city, will be followed by a focus on the French Quarter, then clusters of that area, and finally street-level patterns of a single cluster. The three-dimensional visualization capabilities of a GIS will be used as part of a cluster creation process that incorporates physical buildings in calculating mortality-to-mortality distance. Including nativity of the deceased will also capture cultural connection. Results Twenty-two yellow fever clusters were identified for the French Quarter. These generally mirror the results of other global cluster and density surfaces created for the entire epidemic in New Orleans. However, the addition of building-distance, and disease specific time frame between deaths reveal that disease spread contains a cultural component. Same nativity mortality clusters emerge in a similar time frame irrespective of proximity. Italian nativity mortalities were far more densely grouped than any of the other cohorts. A final examination of mortalities for one of the nativity clusters reveals that further sub-division is present, and that this pattern would only be revealed at this scale (street level) of investigation. Conclusion Disease spread in an epidemic is complex resulting from a combination of geographic distance, geographic distance with specific connection to the built environment, disease-specific time frame between deaths, impediments such as herd immunity, and social or cultural connection. This research has shown that the importance of cultural connection may be more important than simple proximity, which in turn might mean traditional quarantine measures should be re-evaluated. PMID:18721469

Curtis, Andrew J

2008-01-01

104

Dengue hemorrhagic fever  

MedlinePLUS

Hemorrhagic dengue; Dengue shock syndrome; Philippine hemorrhagic fever; Thai hemorrhagic fever; Singapore hemorrhagic fever ... Yellow Fever, Dengue, Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Japanese ... Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, Tick-Borne Encephalitis). ...

105

Pathology Case Study: Fever, Purpura and Hypotension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. In this case, a 20 year old male college student is admitted to the emergency room with "general malaise, low-grade fever, and purplish discoloration on his face. Using the information provided, which includes patient and social history, images and descriptions from his physical exam, the hospital course and microscopic images, students are encouraged to test their knowledge of pathology and diagnose the patient's medical condition. You can check your diagnosis against the official conclusions in the "Final Diagnosis" section. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Anhalt, John P.; Aronica, Patricia; Pasculle, A. W.; Richert, Charles A.

2007-11-22

106

Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*  

PubMed Central

The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

2014-01-01

107

Cell surface expression of yellow fever virus non-structural glycoprotein NS1: consequences of interaction with antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among antibodies to flaviviral proteins only those directed at the virion envelope protein (E) or the non- structural glycoprotein NS1 are known to confer protection. To investigate the possible role of comple- ment-mediated cytolysis (CMC) in protection we measured the capacity of anti-NS 1, or E monospecific serum or monoclonal antibodies to bind to yellow fever virus (YFV)-infected cells and

Jacob J. Schlesinger; Michael W. Brandriss; J. Robert Putnak; Edward E. Walsh

1990-01-01

108

Experimental Yellow Fever Virus Infection in the Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). I. Virologic, Biochemical, and Immunologic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the clinical laboratory findings in golden hamsters experimentally infected with yellow fever (YF) virus. An accompanying paper describes the pathologic find- ings. Following intraperitoneal inoculation of a virulent strain of YF virus, hamsters developed a high-titered viremia (up to 109\\/mL) lasting 5-6 days and abnormal liver function tests. YF hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies appeared 4 or 5 days after

Hilda Guzman; Hui Zhang

2001-01-01

109

Construction, Safety, and Immunogenicity in Nonhuman Primates of a Chimeric Yellow Fever-Dengue Virus Tetravalent Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported construction of a chimeric yellow fever-dengue type 2 virus (YF\\/DEN2) and deter- mined its safety and protective efficacy in rhesus monkeys (F. Guirakhoo et al., J. Virol. 74:5477-5485, 2000). In this paper, we describe construction of three additional YF\\/DEN chimeras using premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes of wild-type (WT) clinical isolates: DEN1 (strain PUO359, isolated in

F. Guirakhoo; J. Arroyo; K. V. Pugachev; C. Miller; Z.-X. Zhang; R. Weltzin; K. Georgakopoulos; J. Catalan; S. Ocran; K. Soike; M. Ratterree; T. P. Monath

2001-01-01

110

MEK/ERK activation plays a decisive role in yellow fever virus replication: implication as an antiviral therapeutic target.  

PubMed

Exploiting the inhibition of host signaling pathways aiming for discovery of potential antiflaviviral compounds is clearly a beneficial strategy for the control of life-threatening diseases caused by flaviviruses. Here we describe the antiviral activity of the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 against Yellow fever virus 17D vaccine strain (YFV-17D). Infection of VERO cells with YFV-17D stimulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation early during infection. Pharmacological inhibition of MEK1/2 through U0126 treatment of VERO cells blockades not only the YFV-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but also inhibits YFV replication by ?99%. U0126 was also effective against dengue virus (DENV-2 and -3) and Saint-Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). Levels of NS4AB, as detected by immunofluorescence, are diminished upon treatment with the inhibitor, as well as the characteristic endoplasmic reticulum membrane invagination stimulated during the infection. Though not protective, treatment of YFV-infected, adult BALB/c mice with U0126 resulted in significant reduction of virus titers in brains. Collectively, our data suggest the potential targeting of the MEK1/2 kinase as a therapeutic tool against diseases caused by flaviviruses such as yellow fever, adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccination and dengue. PMID:25241249

Albarnaz, Jonas D; De Oliveira, Leonardo C; Torres, Alice A; Palhares, Rafael M; Casteluber, Marisa C; Rodrigues, Claudiney M; Cardozo, Pablo L; De Souza, Aryádina M R; Pacca, Carolina C; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Kroon, Erna G; Nogueira, Maurício L; Bonjardim, Cláudio A

2014-11-01

111

A Flow Cytometry-Based Assay for Quantifying Non-Plaque Forming Strains of Yellow Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

Primary clinical isolates of yellow fever virus can be difficult to quantitate by standard in vitro methods because they may not form discernable plaques or induce a measurable cytopathic effect (CPE) on cell monolayers. In our hands, the Dakar strain of yellow fever virus (YFV-Dakar) could not be measured by plaque assay (PA), focus-forming assay (FFA), or by measurement of CPE. For these reasons, we developed a YFV-specific monoclonal antibody (3A8.B6) and used it to optimize a highly sensitive flow cytometry-based tissue culture limiting dilution assay (TC-LDA) to measure levels of infectious virus. The TC-LDA was performed by incubating serial dilutions of virus in replicate wells of C6/36 cells and stained intracellularly for virus with MAb 3A8.B6. Using this approach, we could reproducibly quantitate YFV-Dakar in tissue culture supernatants as well as from the serum of viremic rhesus macaques experimentally infected with YFV-Dakar. Moreover, the TC-LDA approach was >10-fold more sensitive than standard plaque assay for quantitating typical plaque-forming strains of YFV including YFV-17D and YFV-FNV (French neurotropic vaccine). Together, these results indicate that the TC-LDA technique is effective for quantitating both plaque-forming and non-plaque-forming strains of yellow fever virus, and this methodology may be readily adapted for the study and quantitation of other non-plaque-forming viruses. PMID:23028428

Hammarlund, Erika; Amanna, Ian J.; Dubois, Melissa E.; Barron, Alex; Engelmann, Flora; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Slifka, Mark K.

2012-01-01

112

YELLOW FEVER PREVENTION STRATEGIES AWARENESS AMONG HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Vaccination is the main preventive strategy against Yellow Fever (YF), which is a public health concern in Brazil. However, HIV-infected patients might have insufficient knowledge regarding YF, YF prevention, and vaccines in general. Methods: In this questionnaire-based study, data from 158 HIV-infected individuals were addressed in three distinct outpatient clinics in São Paulo. Information was collected on demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as patients' knowledge of vaccines, YF and YF preventive strategies. In addition, individual YF vaccine recommendations and vaccine status were investigated. Results: Although most participants adequately ascertain the vaccine as the main prevention strategy against YF, few participants were aware of the severity and lack of specific treatment for YF. Discrepancy in YF vaccine (patients who should have taken the vaccine, but did not) was observed in 18.8% of participants. Conclusion: YF is an important and preventable public health concern, and these results demonstrate that more information is necessary for the HIV-infected population. PMID:25229222

Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Francelino, Hilario Sousa; Kallás, Esper Georges

2014-01-01

113

Alterations in the Aedes aegypti transcriptome during infection with West Nile, dengue and yellow fever viruses.  

PubMed

West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses are (re)emerging, mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause human disease and mortality worldwide. Alterations in mosquito gene expression common and unique to individual flaviviral infections are poorly understood. Here, we present a microarray analysis of the Aedes aegypti transcriptome over time during infection with DENV, WNV or YFV. We identified 203 mosquito genes that were ? 5-fold differentially up-regulated (DUR) and 202 genes that were ? 10-fold differentially down-regulated (DDR) during infection with one of the three flaviviruses. Comparative analysis revealed that the expression profile of 20 DUR genes and 15 DDR genes was quite similar between the three flaviviruses on D1 of infection, indicating a potentially conserved transcriptomic signature of flaviviral infection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed changes in expression of genes from diverse cellular processes, including ion binding, transport, metabolic processes and peptidase activity. We also demonstrate that virally-regulated gene expression is tissue-specific. The overexpression of several virally down-regulated genes decreased WNV infection in mosquito cells and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Among these, a pupal cuticle protein was shown to bind WNV envelope protein, leading to inhibition of infection in vitro and the prevention of lethal WNV encephalitis in mice. This work provides an extensive list of targets for controlling flaviviral infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses. PMID:21909258

Colpitts, Tonya M; Cox, Jonathan; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Feitosa, Fabiana M; Cheng, Gong; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Wang, Penghua; Krishnan, Manoj N; Higgs, Stephen; Fikrig, Erol

2011-09-01

114

Alterations in the Aedes aegypti Transcriptome during Infection with West Nile, Dengue and Yellow Fever Viruses  

PubMed Central

West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses are (re)emerging, mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause human disease and mortality worldwide. Alterations in mosquito gene expression common and unique to individual flaviviral infections are poorly understood. Here, we present a microarray analysis of the Aedes aegypti transcriptome over time during infection with DENV, WNV or YFV. We identified 203 mosquito genes that were ?5-fold differentially up-regulated (DUR) and 202 genes that were ?10-fold differentially down-regulated (DDR) during infection with one of the three flaviviruses. Comparative analysis revealed that the expression profile of 20 DUR genes and 15 DDR genes was quite similar between the three flaviviruses on D1 of infection, indicating a potentially conserved transcriptomic signature of flaviviral infection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed changes in expression of genes from diverse cellular processes, including ion binding, transport, metabolic processes and peptidase activity. We also demonstrate that virally-regulated gene expression is tissue-specific. The overexpression of several virally down-regulated genes decreased WNV infection in mosquito cells and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Among these, a pupal cuticle protein was shown to bind WNV envelope protein, leading to inhibition of infection in vitro and the prevention of lethal WNV encephalitis in mice. This work provides an extensive list of targets for controlling flaviviral infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses. PMID:21909258

Colpitts, Tonya M.; Cox, Jonathan; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Feitosa, Fabiana M.; Cheng, Gong; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Wang, Penghua; Krishnan, Manoj N.; Higgs, Stephen; Fikrig, Erol

2011-01-01

115

Biological and Phylogenetic Characteristics of Yellow Fever Virus Lineages from West Africa  

PubMed Central

The yellow fever virus (YFV), the first proven human-pathogenic virus, although isolated in 1927, is still a major public health problem, especially in West Africa where it causes outbreaks every year. Nevertheless, little is known about its genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics, mainly due to a limited number of genomic sequences from wild virus isolates. In this study, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of 24 full-length genomes from YFV strains isolated between 1973 and 2005 in a sylvatic context of West Africa, including 14 isolates that had previously not been sequenced. By this, we confirmed genetic variability within one genotype by the identification of various YF lineages circulating in West Africa. Further analyses of the biological properties of these lineages revealed differential growth behavior in human liver and insect cells, correlating with the source of isolation and suggesting host adaptation. For one lineage, repeatedly isolated in a context of vertical transmission, specific characteristics in the growth behavior and unique mutations of the viral genome were observed and deserve further investigation to gain insight into mechanisms involved in YFV emergence and maintenance in nature. PMID:23269797

Laraway, Hewád; Faye, Ousmane; Diallo, Mawlouth; Niedrig, Matthias

2013-01-01

116

Is there a risk of yellow fever virus transmission in South Asian countries with hyperendemic dengue?  

PubMed

The fact that yellow fever (YF) has never occurred in Asia remains an "unsolved mystery" in global health. Most countries in Asia with high Aedes aegypti mosquito density are considered "receptive" for YF transmission. Recently, health officials in Sri Lanka issued a public health alert on the potential spread of YF from a migrant group from West Africa. We performed an extensive review of literature pertaining to the risk of YF in Sri Lanka/South Asian region to understand the probability of actual risk and assist health authorities to form evidence informed public health policies/practices. Published data from epidemiological, historical, biological, molecular, and mathematical models were harnessed to assess the risk of YF in Asia. Using this data we examine a number of theories proposed to explain lack of YF in Asia. Considering the evidence available, we conclude that the probable risk of local transmission of YF is extremely low in Sri Lanka and for other South Asian countries despite a high Aedes aegypti density and associated dengue burden. This does not however exclude the future possibility of transmission in Asia, especially considering the rapid influx travelers from endemic areas, as we report, arriving in Sri Lanka. PMID:24367789

Agampodi, Suneth B; Wickramage, Kolitha

2013-01-01

117

Is There a Risk of Yellow Fever Virus Transmission in South Asian Countries with Hyperendemic Dengue?  

PubMed Central

The fact that yellow fever (YF) has never occurred in Asia remains an “unsolved mystery” in global health. Most countries in Asia with high Aedes aegypti mosquito density are considered “receptive” for YF transmission. Recently, health officials in Sri Lanka issued a public health alert on the potential spread of YF from a migrant group from West Africa. We performed an extensive review of literature pertaining to the risk of YF in Sri Lanka/South Asian region to understand the probability of actual risk and assist health authorities to form evidence informed public health policies/practices. Published data from epidemiological, historical, biological, molecular, and mathematical models were harnessed to assess the risk of YF in Asia. Using this data we examine a number of theories proposed to explain lack of YF in Asia. Considering the evidence available, we conclude that the probable risk of local transmission of YF is extremely low in Sri Lanka and for other South Asian countries despite a high Aedes aegypti density and associated dengue burden. This does not however exclude the future possibility of transmission in Asia, especially considering the rapid influx travelers from endemic areas, as we report, arriving in Sri Lanka. PMID:24367789

Agampodi, Suneth B.; Wickramage, Kolitha

2013-01-01

118

Characterization of an Enantioselective Odorant Receptor in the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Enantiomers differ only in the left or right handedness (chirality) of their orientations and exhibit identical chemical and physical properties. In chemical communication systems, enantiomers can be differentially active at the physiological and behavioral levels. Only recently were enantioselective odorant receptors demonstrated in mammals while their existence in insects has remained hypothetical. Using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp of Xenopus oocytes, we show that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, odorant receptor 8 (AaOR8) acts as a chiral selective receptor for the (R)-(—)-enantiomer of 1-octen-3-ol, which in the presence of other kairomones is an attractant used by blood-sucking insects to locate their hosts. In addition to steric constraints, chain length and degree of unsaturation play important roles in this recognition process. This is the first characterization of an enantioselective odorant receptor in insects and the results demonstrate that an OR alone, without helper proteins, can account for chiral specificity exhibited by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). PMID:19753115

Bohbot, Jonathan D.; Dickens, Joseph C.

2009-01-01

119

Neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

For many insects, including mosquitoes, olfaction is the dominant modality regulating their behavioral repertoire. Many neurochemicals modulate olfactory information in the central nervous system, including the primary olfactory center of insects, the antennal lobe. The most diverse and versatile neurochemicals in the insect nervous system are found in the neuropeptides. In the present study, we analyzed neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a major vector of arboviral diseases. Direct tissue profiling of the antennal lobe by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry indicated the presence of 28 mature products from 10 different neuropeptide genes. In addition, immunocytochemical techniques were used to describe the cellular location of the products of up to seven of these genes within the antennal lobe. Allatostatin A, allatotropin, SIFamide, FMRFamide-related peptides, short neuropeptide F, myoinhibitory peptide, and tachykinin-related peptides were found to be expressed in local interneurons and extrinsic neurons of the antennal lobe. Building on these results, we discuss the possible role of neuropeptide signaling in the antennal lobe of Ae. aegypti. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:592–608, 2014. PMID:23897410

Siju, KP; Reifenrath, Anna; Scheiblich, Hannah; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard; Hansson, Bill S; Schachtner, Joachim; Ignell, Rickard

2014-01-01

120

CD8+ T Cells Complement Antibodies in Protecting against Yellow Fever Virus.  

PubMed

The attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine (YF-17D) was developed in the 1930s, yet little is known about the protective mechanisms underlying its efficiency. In this study, we analyzed the relative contribution of cell-mediated and humoral immunity to the vaccine-induced protection in a murine model of YF-17D infection. Using different strains of knockout mice, we found that CD4(+) T cells, B cells, and Abs are required for full clinical protection of vaccinated mice, whereas CD8(+) T cells are dispensable for long-term survival after intracerebral challenge. However, by analyzing the immune response inside the infected CNS, we observed an accelerated T cell influx into the brain after intracerebral challenge of vaccinated mice, and this T cell recruitment correlated with improved virus control in the brain. Using mice deficient in B cells we found that, in the absence of Abs, YF vaccination can still induce some antiviral protection, and in vivo depletion of CD8(+) T cells from these animals revealed a pivotal role for CD8(+) T cells in controlling virus replication in the absence of a humoral response. Finally, we demonstrated that effector CD8(+) T cells also contribute to viral control in the presence of circulating YF-specific Abs. To our knowledge, this is the first time that YF-specific CD8(+) T cells have been demonstrated to possess antiviral activity in vivo. PMID:25539816

Bassi, Maria R; Kongsgaard, Michael; Steffensen, Maria A; Fenger, Christina; Rasmussen, Michael; Skjødt, Karsten; Finsen, Bente; Stryhn, Anette; Buus, Søren; Christensen, Jan P; Thomsen, Allan R

2015-02-01

121

Neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

For many insects, including mosquitoes, olfaction is the dominant modality regulating their behavioral repertoire. Many neurochemicals modulate olfactory information in the central nervous system, including the primary olfactory center of insects, the antennal lobe. The most diverse and versatile neurochemicals in the insect nervous system are found in the neuropeptides. In the present study, we analyzed neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a major vector of arboviral diseases. Direct tissue profiling of the antennal lobe by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry indicated the presence of 28 mature products from 10 different neuropeptide genes. In addition, immunocytochemical techniques were used to describe the cellular location of the products of up to seven of these genes within the antennal lobe. Allatostatin A, allatotropin, SIFamide, FMRFamide-related peptides, short neuropeptide F, myoinhibitory peptide, and tachykinin-related peptides were found to be expressed in local interneurons and extrinsic neurons of the antennal lobe. Building on these results, we discuss the possible role of neuropeptide signaling in the antennal lobe of Ae. aegypti. PMID:23897410

Siju, K P; Reifenrath, Anna; Scheiblich, Hannah; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard; Hansson, Bill S; Schachtner, Joachim; Ignell, Rickard

2014-02-15

122

Stability of Yellow Fever Virus under Recombinatory Pressure as Compared with Chikungunya Virus  

PubMed Central

Recombination is a mechanism whereby positive sense single stranded RNA viruses exchange segments of genetic information. Recent phylogenetic analyses of naturally occurring recombinant flaviviruses have raised concerns regarding the potential for the emergence of virulent recombinants either post-vaccination or following co-infection with two distinct wild-type viruses. To characterize the conditions and sequences that favor RNA arthropod-borne virus recombination we constructed yellow fever virus (YFV) 17D recombinant crosses containing complementary deletions in the envelope protein coding sequence. These constructs were designed to strongly favor recombination, and the detection conditions were optimized to achieve high sensitivity recovery of putative recombinants. Full length recombinant YFV 17D virus was never detected under any of the experimental conditions examined, despite achieving estimated YFV replicon co-infection levels of ?2.4×106 in BHK-21 (vertebrate) cells and ?1.05×105 in C710 (arthropod) cells. Additionally YFV 17D superinfection resistance was observed in vertebrate and arthropod cells harboring a primary infection with wild-type YFV Asibi strain. Furthermore recombination potential was also evaluated using similarly designed chikungunya virus (CHIKV) replicons towards validation of this strategy for recombination detection. Non-homologus recombination was observed for CHIKV within the structural gene coding sequence resulting in an in-frame duplication of capsid and E3 gene. Based on these data, it is concluded that even in the unlikely event of a high level acute co-infection of two distinct YFV genomes in an arthropod or vertebrate host, the generation of viable flavivirus recombinants is extremely unlikely. PMID:21826243

McGee, Charles E.; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A.; Guy, Bruno; Lang, Jean; Plante, Kenneth; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Higgs, Stephen

2011-01-01

123

Stability of yellow fever virus under recombinatory pressure as compared with chikungunya virus.  

PubMed

Recombination is a mechanism whereby positive sense single stranded RNA viruses exchange segments of genetic information. Recent phylogenetic analyses of naturally occurring recombinant flaviviruses have raised concerns regarding the potential for the emergence of virulent recombinants either post-vaccination or following co-infection with two distinct wild-type viruses. To characterize the conditions and sequences that favor RNA arthropod-borne virus recombination we constructed yellow fever virus (YFV) 17D recombinant crosses containing complementary deletions in the envelope protein coding sequence. These constructs were designed to strongly favor recombination, and the detection conditions were optimized to achieve high sensitivity recovery of putative recombinants. Full length recombinant YFV 17D virus was never detected under any of the experimental conditions examined, despite achieving estimated YFV replicon co-infection levels of ?2.4 x 10? in BHK-21 (vertebrate) cells and ?1.05 x 10? in C?10 (arthropod) cells. Additionally YFV 17D superinfection resistance was observed in vertebrate and arthropod cells harboring a primary infection with wild-type YFV Asibi strain. Furthermore recombination potential was also evaluated using similarly designed chikungunya virus (CHIKV) replicons towards validation of this strategy for recombination detection. Non-homologus recombination was observed for CHIKV within the structural gene coding sequence resulting in an in-frame duplication of capsid and E3 gene. Based on these data, it is concluded that even in the unlikely event of a high level acute co-infection of two distinct YFV genomes in an arthropod or vertebrate host, the generation of viable flavivirus recombinants is extremely unlikely. PMID:21826243

McGee, Charles E; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Guy, Bruno; Lang, Jean; Plante, Kenneth; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen

2011-01-01

124

Size Heterogeneity in the 3? Noncoding Region of South American Isolates of Yellow Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

The 3? noncoding region (3? NCR) of flaviviruses contains secondary and tertiary structures essential for virus replication. Previous studies of yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus have found that modifications to the 3? NCR are sometimes associated with attenuation in vertebrate and/or mosquito hosts. The 3? NCRs of 117 isolates of South American YFV have been examined, and major deletions and/or duplications of conserved RNA structures have been identified in several wild-type isolates. Nineteen isolates (designated YF-XL isolates) from Brazil, Trinidad, and Venezuela, dating from 1973 to 2001, exhibited a 216-nucleotide (nt) duplication, yielding a tandem repeat of conserved hairpin, stem-loop, dumbbell, and pseudoknot structures. YF-XL isolates were found exclusively within one subclade of South American genotype I YFV. One Brazilian isolate exhibited, in addition to the 216-nt duplication, a deletion of a 40-nt repeated hairpin (RYF) motif (YF-XL-?RYF). To investigate the biological significance of these 3? NCR rearrangements, YF-XL-?RYF and YF-XL isolates, as well as other South American YFV isolates, were evaluated for three phenotypes: growth kinetics in cell culture, neuroinvasiveness in suckling mice, and ability to replicate and produce disseminated infections in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. YF-XL-?RYF and YF-XL isolates showed growth kinetics and neuroinvasive characteristics comparable to those of typical South American YFV isolates, and mosquito infectivity trials demonstrated that both types of 3? NCR variants were capable of replication and dissemination in a laboratory-adapted colony of A. aegypti. PMID:15731274

Bryant, Juliet E.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.; Rijnbrand, Rene C. A.; Mutebi, J. P.; Higgs, Stephen; Barrett, Alan D. T.

2005-01-01

125

Activity of T-1106 in a hamster model of yellow Fever virus infection.  

PubMed

Yellow fever virus (YFV) causes 30,000 deaths worldwide, despite the availability of a vaccine. There are no approved antiviral therapies for the treatment of YFV disease in humans, and, therefore, these studies were designed to investigate the anti-YFV properties of T-1106, a substituted pyrazine, in a hamster model of YFV disease. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with 100 mg/kg of body weight/day of T-1106 starting 4 h prior to virus inoculation and continuing twice daily through 7 days post-virus inoculation (dpi) resulted in significantly improved survival, alanine aminotransferase levels in the serum, weight gain, and mean day to death. Virus titer in the liver at 4 dpi was significantly reduced in treated animals, as determined by both quantitative real-time PCR and infectious cell culture assay. No toxicity (weight loss or mortality) was observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day in sham-infected control animals. The observed minimal effective dose of T-1106 was 32 mg/kg/day administered either by oral or i.p. treatment. Therapeutic treatment was effective in significantly improving survival when T-1106 was administered beginning as late as 4 days after virus challenge with twice-daily treatment for 8 days at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day. With favorable safety, bioavailability, and postviral challenge treatment efficacy, T-1106 was effective in the treatment of disease in hamsters infected with YFV and should be further studied for potential use as a therapy for human YFV disease. PMID:17420215

Julander, Justin G; Furuta, Yousuke; Shafer, Kristiina; Sidwell, Robert W

2007-06-01

126

Recombinant Yellow Fever Viruses Elicit CD8+ T Cell Responses and Protective Immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi  

PubMed Central

Chagas’ disease is a major public health problem affecting nearly 10 million in Latin America. Despite several experimental vaccines have shown to be immunogenic and protective in mouse models, there is not a current vaccine being licensed for humans or in clinical trial against T. cruzi infection. Towards this goal, we used the backbone of Yellow Fever (YF) 17D virus, one of the most effective and well-established human vaccines, to express an immunogenic fragment derived from T. cruzi Amastigote Surface Protein 2 (ASP-2). The cDNA sequence of an ASP-2 fragment was inserted between E and NS1 genes of YF 17D virus through the construction of a recombinant heterologous cassette. The replication ability and genetic stability of recombinant YF virus (YF17D/ENS1/Tc) was confirmed for at least six passages in Vero cells. Immunogenicity studies showed that YF17D/ENS1/Tc virus elicited neutralizing antibodies and gamma interferon (IFN-?) producing-cells against the YF virus. Also, it was able to prime a CD8+ T cell directed against the transgenic T. cruzi epitope (TEWETGQI) which expanded significantly as measured by T cell-specific production of IFN-? before and after T. cruzi challenge. However, most important for the purposes of vaccine development was the fact that a more efficient protective response could be seen in mice challenged after vaccination with the YF viral formulation consisting of YF17D/ENS1/Tc and a YF17D recombinant virus expressing the TEWETGQI epitope at the NS2B-3 junction. The superior protective immunity observed might be due to an earlier priming of epitope-specific IFN-?-producing T CD8+ cells induced by vaccination with this viral formulation. Our results suggest that the use of viral formulations consisting of a mixture of recombinant YF 17D viruses may be a promising strategy to elicit protective immune responses against pathogens, in general. PMID:23527169

Nogueira, Raquel Tayar; Nogueira, Alanderson Rocha; Pereira, Mirian Claudia Souza; Rodrigues, Maurício Martins; Neves, Patrícia Cristina da Costa; Galler, Ricardo; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina

2013-01-01

127

Subdoses of 17DD yellow fever vaccine elicit equivalent virological/immunological kinetics timeline  

PubMed Central

Background The live attenuated 17DD Yellow Fever vaccine is one of the most successful prophylactic interventions for controlling disease expansion ever designed and utilized in larger scale. However, increase on worldwide vaccine demands and manufacturing restrictions urge for more detailed dose sparing studies. The establishment of complementary biomarkers in addition to PRNT and Viremia could support a secure decision-making regarding the use of 17DD YF vaccine subdoses. The present work aimed at comparing the serum chemokine and cytokine kinetics triggered by five subdoses of 17DD YF Vaccine. Methods Neutralizing antibody titers, viremia, cytokines and chemokines were tested on blood samples obtained from eligible primary vaccinees. Results and discussion The results demonstrated that a fifty-fold lower dose of 17DD-YF vaccine (587 IU) is able to trigger similar immunogenicity, as evidenced by significant titers of anti-YF PRNT. However, only subdoses as low as 3,013 IU elicit viremia kinetics with an early peak at five days after primary vaccination equivalent to the current dose (27,476 IU), while other subdoses show a distinct, lower in magnitude and later peak at day 6 post-vaccination. Although the subdose of 587 IU is able to trigger equivalent kinetics of IL-8/CXCL-8 and MCP-1/CCL-2, only the subdose of 3,013 IU is able to trigger similar kinetics of MIG/CXCL-9, pro-inflammatory (TNF, IFN-? and IL-2) and modulatory cytokines (IL-5 and IL-10). Conclusions The analysis of serum biomarkers IFN-? and IL-10, in association to PRNT and viremia, support the recommendation of use of a ten-fold lower subdose (3,013 IU) of 17DD-YF vaccine. PMID:25022840

2014-01-01

128

Mutagenesis analysis of T380R mutation in the envelope protein of yellow fever virus  

PubMed Central

Background The RGD motif in the mosquito-borne flaviviruses envelope protein domain III (EDIII) FG loop was shown to bind negatively charged cellular molecules and mediate virus entry in mammals. However, its importance in virus entry in the mosquito has not yet been defined. The sequences of RGD motifs are conserved in JEV-serocomplex members primarily transmitted by Culex mosquitoes but absent from members of the DENV serocomplex, which utilize Aedes mosquitoes as vectors. Interestingly, the RGD sequence is present in the attenuated 17D strain of yellow fever virus as a result of the T380R mutation in the EDIII of Asibi strain following extensive in vitro passage in mice and chicken embryos and was found to contribute to the more rapid clearance in mice challenged with 17D. However, viral infectivity and dissemination in mosquitoes had not been evaluated for this mutant. Findings The study utilized the reverse genetics system of YFV and Ae. aegypti RexD WE mosquitoes to assess the impact of a T380R mutation in YFV Asibi and 17D/Asibi M-E chimera. The T380R mutation led to higher infection rates but similar dissemination rates when introduced into the YFV Asibi strain and 17D/Asibi M-E chimera. Conclusions While the increase of the positive charge in EDIII may reduce the virulence of YFV in mice, this mutation favored the establishment of the viral infection in Ae. aegypti. However, such gain in viral infectivity did not increase dissemination in infected mosquitoes. PMID:24678844

2014-01-01

129

Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... or periarteritis nodosa The first symptom of a cancer may be a fever. This is especially true of Hodgkin disease , non- ... marrow or organ transplant, spleen removal, HIV, or cancer ... child has a fever and: Is crying and cannot be calmed (children) ...

130

Fever  

MedlinePLUS

A fever is a body temperature that is higher than normal. It is not an illness. It is part of your body's defense against infection. Most bacteria ... cause infections do well at the body's normal temperature (98.6 F). A slight fever can make ...

131

INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSES IN HUMAN DENDRITIC CELLS UPON INFECTION BY CHIMERIC YELLOW-FEVER DENGUE VACCINE SEROTYPES 1–4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Dengue,infection is an important,public health,issue worldwide.,The ChimeriVax™-Dengue,(CYD) vaccine uses yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine as a live vector. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in initiating immune responses,and could be an important,primary,target of dengue,infection. We investigated in vitro the consequences,of CYD infection of DCs on their activation\\/maturation and cytokine production. In CYD-infected DCs, we observed an up-regulation of

Florence Deauvieau; Violette Sanchez; Claire Balas; Audrey Kennel; Aymeric De Montfort; Jean Lang; Bruno Guy

132

Characterization of the yellow fever mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene and ligand-bound protein structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene (AeSCP-2L3), a new member of the SCP-2 protein family, is identified from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The predicted molecular weight of AeSCP-2L3 is 13.4 kDa with a calculated pI of 4.98. AeSCP-2L3 transcription occurs in the larval feeding stages and the mRNA levels decrease in pupae and adults. The highest levels of

David H. Dyer; Irina Vyazunova; Jeffery M. Lorch; Katrina T. Forest; Que Lan

2009-01-01

133

Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three gustatory receptor neurons were characterized for contact chemoreceptive sensilla on the labella of female yellow-fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. The neuron with the smallest amplitude spike responded to the feeding deterrent, quinine, as well as N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide and other insect repellents. Two other neurons with differing spikes responded to salt (NaCl) and sucrose. This is the first report of a gustatory receptor neuron specific for insect repellents in mosquitoes and may provide a tool for screening chemicals to discover novel or improved feeding deterrents and repellents for use in the management of arthropod disease vectors.

Sanford, Jillian L.; Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Dickens, Joseph C.

2013-03-01

134

A Mouse Model for Studying Viscerotropic Disease Caused by Yellow Fever Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Mosquito-borne yellow fever virus (YFV) causes highly lethal, viscerotropic disease in humans and non-human primates. Despite the availability of efficacious live-attenuated vaccine strains, 17D-204 and 17DD, derived by serial passage of pathogenic YFV strain Asibi, YFV continues to pose a significant threat to human health. Neither the disease caused by wild-type YFV, nor the molecular determinants of vaccine attenuation and immunogenicity, have been well characterized, in large part due to the lack of a small animal model for viscerotropic YFV infection. Here, we describe a small animal model for wild-type YFV that manifests clinical disease representative of that seen in primates without adaptation of the virus to the host, which was required for the current hamster YF model. Investigation of the role of type I interferon (IFN-?/?) in protection of mice from viscerotropic YFV infection revealed that mice deficient in the IFN-?/? receptor (A129) or the STAT1 signaling molecule (STAT129) were highly susceptible to infection and disease, succumbing within 6–7 days. Importantly, these animals developed viscerotropic disease reminiscent of human YF, instead of the encephalitic signs typically observed in mice. Rapid viremic dissemination and extensive replication in visceral organs, spleen and liver, was associated with severe pathologies in these tissues and dramatically elevated MCP-1 and IL-6 levels, suggestive of a cytokine storm. In striking contrast, infection of A129 and STAT129 mice with the 17D-204 vaccine virus was subclinical, similar to immunization in humans. Although, like wild-type YFV, 17D-204 virus amplified within regional lymph nodes and seeded a serum viremia in A129 mice, infection of visceral organs was rarely established and rapidly cleared, possibly by type II IFN-dependent mechanisms. The ability to establish systemic infection and cause viscerotropic disease in A129 mice correlated with infectivity for A129-derived, but not WT129-derived, macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro, suggesting a role for these cells in YFV pathogenesis. We conclude that the ability of wild-type YFV to evade and/or disable components of the IFN-?/? response may be primate-specific such that infection of mice with a functional IFN-?/? antiviral response is attenuated. Consequently, subcutaneous YFV infection of A129 mice represents a biologically relevant model for studying viscerotropic infection and disease development following wild-type virus inoculation, as well as mechanisms of 17D-204 vaccine attenuation, without a requirement for adaptation of the virus. PMID:19816561

Meier, Kathryn C.; Gardner, Christina L.; Khoretonenko, Mikhail V.; Klimstra, William B.; Ryman, Kate D.

2009-01-01

135

Pathophysiologic and transcriptomic analyses of viscerotropic yellow fever in a rhesus macaque model.  

PubMed

Infection with yellow fever virus (YFV), an explosively replicating flavivirus, results in viral hemorrhagic disease characterized by cardiovascular shock and multi-organ failure. Unvaccinated populations experience 20 to 50% fatality. Few studies have examined the pathophysiological changes that occur in humans during YFV infection due to the sporadic nature and remote locations of outbreaks. Rhesus macaques are highly susceptible to YFV infection, providing a robust animal model to investigate host-pathogen interactions. In this study, we characterized disease progression as well as alterations in immune system homeostasis, cytokine production and gene expression in rhesus macaques infected with the virulent YFV strain DakH1279 (YFV-DakH1279). Following infection, YFV-DakH1279 replicated to high titers resulting in viscerotropic disease with ?72% mortality. Data presented in this manuscript demonstrate for the first time that lethal YFV infection results in profound lymphopenia that precedes the hallmark changes in liver enzymes and that although tissue damage was noted in liver, kidneys, and lymphoid tissues, viral antigen was only detected in the liver. These observations suggest that additional tissue damage could be due to indirect effects of viral replication. Indeed, circulating levels of several cytokines peaked shortly before euthanasia. Our study also includes the first description of YFV-DakH1279-induced changes in gene expression within peripheral blood mononuclear cells 3 days post-infection prior to any clinical signs. These data show that infection with wild type YFV-DakH1279 or live-attenuated vaccine strain YFV-17D, resulted in 765 and 46 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), respectively. DEGs detected after YFV-17D infection were mostly associated with innate immunity, whereas YFV-DakH1279 infection resulted in dysregulation of genes associated with the development of immune response, ion metabolism, and apoptosis. Therefore, WT-YFV infection is associated with significant changes in gene expression that are detectable before the onset of clinical symptoms and may influence disease progression and outcome of infection. PMID:25412185

Engelmann, Flora; Josset, Laurence; Girke, Thomas; Park, Byung; Barron, Alex; Dewane, Jesse; Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Anne; Axthelm, Michael K; Slifka, Mark K; Messaoudi, Ilhem

2014-11-01

136

Pathophysiologic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Viscerotropic Yellow Fever in a Rhesus Macaque Model  

PubMed Central

Infection with yellow fever virus (YFV), an explosively replicating flavivirus, results in viral hemorrhagic disease characterized by cardiovascular shock and multi-organ failure. Unvaccinated populations experience 20 to 50% fatality. Few studies have examined the pathophysiological changes that occur in humans during YFV infection due to the sporadic nature and remote locations of outbreaks. Rhesus macaques are highly susceptible to YFV infection, providing a robust animal model to investigate host-pathogen interactions. In this study, we characterized disease progression as well as alterations in immune system homeostasis, cytokine production and gene expression in rhesus macaques infected with the virulent YFV strain DakH1279 (YFV-DakH1279). Following infection, YFV-DakH1279 replicated to high titers resulting in viscerotropic disease with ?72% mortality. Data presented in this manuscript demonstrate for the first time that lethal YFV infection results in profound lymphopenia that precedes the hallmark changes in liver enzymes and that although tissue damage was noted in liver, kidneys, and lymphoid tissues, viral antigen was only detected in the liver. These observations suggest that additional tissue damage could be due to indirect effects of viral replication. Indeed, circulating levels of several cytokines peaked shortly before euthanasia. Our study also includes the first description of YFV-DakH1279-induced changes in gene expression within peripheral blood mononuclear cells 3 days post-infection prior to any clinical signs. These data show that infection with wild type YFV-DakH1279 or live-attenuated vaccine strain YFV-17D, resulted in 765 and 46 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), respectively. DEGs detected after YFV-17D infection were mostly associated with innate immunity, whereas YFV-DakH1279 infection resulted in dysregulation of genes associated with the development of immune response, ion metabolism, and apoptosis. Therefore, WT-YFV infection is associated with significant changes in gene expression that are detectable before the onset of clinical symptoms and may influence disease progression and outcome of infection. PMID:25412185

Engelmann, Flora; Josset, Laurence; Girke, Thomas; Park, Byung; Barron, Alex; Dewane, Jesse; Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Anne; Axthelm, Michael K.; Slifka, Mark K.; Messaoudi, Ilhem

2014-01-01

137

Defining travel-associated cases of enteric fever.  

PubMed

There is no internationally recognized case-definition for travel-associated enteric fever in non-endemic countries. This study describes the patterns of case reporting between 2007 and 2011 as travel-associated or not from the surveillance data in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (EWNI), before and after a change in the time component of the case-definition in January 2011. It examines in particular the role of a time frame based on the reported typical incubation period in defining a case of travel-associated enteric fever. The results showed no significant differences in the distribution of cases of enteric fever in regards to the interval between the onset and UK arrival in 2011 compared to 2007-2010 (p=0.98 for typhoid and paratyphoid A); the distribution for paratyphoid B was also similar in both time periods. During 2007-2010, 93% (1730/1853) of all of the cases were classified as travel-associated compared to 94% (448/477) in 2011. This difference was not statistically significant. Changing the time component of the definition of travel-associated enteric fever did not make a significant difference to the proportion of travel-associated cases reported by investigators. Our analysis suggests that time might be subordinate to other considerations when investigators classify a case as travel-associated. PMID:24602772

Freedman, Joanne; Lighton, Lorraine; Jones, Jane

2014-01-01

138

Immune correlates of protection against yellow fever determined by passive immunization and challenge in the hamster model  

PubMed Central

Live, attenuated yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is highly efficacious but causes rare, serious adverse events resulting from active replication in the host and direct viral injury to vital organs. We recently reported development of a potentially safer ?-propiolactone-inactivated whole virion YF vaccine (XRX-001) which was highly immunogenic in mice, hamsters, monkeys, and humans (Vaccine 2010; 28:3827–40; New Engl J Med 2011;364:1326–33). To characterize the protective efficacy of neutralizing antibodies stimulated by the inactivated vaccine, graded doses of serum from hamsters immunized with inactivated XRX-001 or live 17D vaccine were transferred to hamsters by the intraperitoneal (IP) route 24 hours prior to virulent, viscerotropic YF virus challenge. Neutralizing antibody (PRNT50) titers were determined in the sera of treated animals 4 hours before challenge and 4 and 21 days after challenge. Neutralizing antibodies were shown to mediate protection. Animals having 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50) titers of ?40 four hours before challenge were completely protected from disease as evidenced by viremia, liver enzyme elevation, and protection against illness (weight change) and death. Passive titers of 10–20 were partially protective. Immunization with the XRX-001 vaccine stimulated YF neutralizing antibodies that were equally effective (based on dose response) as antibodies stimulated by live 17D vaccine. The results will be useful in defining the level of seroprotection in clinical studies of new yellow fever vaccines. PMID:21718741

Julander, Justin G.; Trent, Dennis W.; Monath, Thomas P.

2011-01-01

139

Interindividual variation in the response by fibrinogen, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 to yellow fever vaccination.  

PubMed

The acute phase reaction is important in many disease processes. Habitual levels of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the dynamic variation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins may be of importance as well. The aim of this study was to document the variation in response by fibrinogen, CRP and IL-6 levels to a mild inflammatory stimulus (yellow fever vaccination) in 25 healthy individuals. Plasma levels of fibrinogen, CRP and IL-6 were determined at baseline and 7 days after vaccination, and genetic polymorphisms in these genes were determined. After vaccination, fibrinogen levels had changed between -13 and +44% (P = 0.003), CRP levels between -88 and +672% (not significant), and IL-6 levels between -55 and +448% (not significant). Genetic variation partly explained the interindividual variation in response, as IL-6 -174G homozygotes showed a significantly stronger increase in CRP levels than IL-6 -174C allele carriers. In conclusion, this study suggests that a large interindividual variation exists in the acute phase response to yellow fever vaccination, indicating that individuals may be classified as hyper-responders or hypo-responders, and that genetic variation may influence the responsiveness of an individual. PMID:15205588

Verschuur, Maartje; van der Beek, Martha T; Tak, Hester S; Visser, Leo G; de Maat, Moniek P M

2004-07-01

140

RISK ANALYSIS: CASE HISTORY OF PUCCINIA JACEAE ON YELLOW STARTHISTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Risk analysis has five components: Risk awareness, Risk perception, Risk assessment, Risk management, and Risk communication. Using the case with the foreign plant pathogen, Puccinia jaceae, under evaluation for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, YST), approaches and...

141

Survival and swimming behavior of insecticide-exposed larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is essentially a container-inhabiting species that is closely associated with urban areas. This species is a vector of human pathogens, including dengue and yellow fever viruses, and its control is of paramount importance for disease prevention. Insecticide use against mosquito juvenile stages (i.e. larvae and pupae) is growing in importance, particularly due to the ever-growing problems of resistance to adult-targeted insecticides and human safety concerns regarding such use in human dwellings. However, insecticide effects on insects in general and mosquitoes in particular primarily focus on their lethal effects. Thus, sublethal effects of such compounds in mosquito juveniles may have important effects on their environmental prevalence. In this study, we assessed the survival and swimming behavior of A. aegypti 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae exposed to increasing concentrations of insecticides. We also assessed cell death in the neuromuscular system of juveniles. Methods Third instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of azadirachtin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid and spinosad. Insect survival was assessed for 10 days. The distance swam, the resting time and the time spent in slow swimming were assessed in 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae. Muscular and nervous cells of L4 and pupae exposed to insecticides were marked with the TUNEL reaction. The results from the survival bioassays were subjected to survival analysis while the swimming behavioral data were subjected to analyses of covariance, complemented with a regression analysis. Results All insecticides exhibited concentration-dependent effects on survival of larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito. The pyrethroid deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide followed by spinosad, imidacloprid, and azadirachtin, which exhibited low potency against the juveniles. All insecticides except azadirachtin reduced L4 swimming speed and wriggling movements. A similar trend was also observed for swimming pupa, except for imidacloprid, which increased the swimming activity of pupa. Curiously, the insecticides did not affect cell damage in the neuromuscular system of larvae and pupae. Conclusions Deltamethrin and spinosad were the main compounds to exhibit lethal effects, which allowed the control of A. aegypti larvae and pupae, and impair their swimming potentially compromising foraging and predation likelihood. PMID:24761789

2014-01-01

142

Three Novel Families of Miniature Inverted-Repeat Transposable Elements are Associated with Genes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three novel families of transposable elements, Wukong, Wujin, and Wuneng, are described in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Their copy numbers range from 2,100 to 3,000 per haploid genome. There are high degrees of sequence similarity within each family, and many structural but not sequence similarities between families. The common structural characteristics include small size, no coding potential, terminal

Zhijian Tu

1997-01-01

143

Yellow fever virus envelope protein expressed in insect cells is capable of syncytium formation in lepidopteran cells and could be used for immunodetection of YFV in human sera  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow fever is an haemorrhagic disease caused by a virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus (Flaviviridae family) and is transmitted by mosquitoes. Among the viral proteins, the envelope protein (E) is the most studied one, due to its high antigenic potencial. Baculovirus are one of the most popular and efficient eukaryotic expression system. In this study a recombinant baculovirus (vSynYFE) containing the envelope gene (env) of the 17D vaccine strain of yellow fever virus was constructed and the recombinant protein antigenicity was tested. Results Insect cells infected with vSynYFE showed syncytium formation, which is a cytopathic effect characteristic of flavivirus infection and expressed a polypeptide of around 54 kDa, which corresponds to the expected size of the recombinant E protein. Furthermore, the recombinant E protein expression was also confirmed by fluorescence microscopy of vSynYFE-infected insect cells. Total vSynYFE-infected insect extracts used as antigens detected the presence of antibodies for yellow fever virus in human sera derived from yellow fever-infected patients in an immunoassay and did not cross react with sera from dengue virus-infected patients. Conclusions The E protein expressed by the recombinant baculovirus in insect cells is antigenically similar to the wild protein and it may be useful for different medical applications, from improved diagnosis of the disease to source of antigens for the development of a subunit vaccine. PMID:21619598

2011-01-01

144

Q Fever Is Underestimated in the United States: A Comparison of Fatal Q Fever Cases from Two National Reporting Systems.  

PubMed

Two national surveillance systems capturing reports of fatal Q fever were compared with obtained estimates of Q fever underreporting in the United States using capture-recapture methods. During 2000-2011, a total of 33 unique fatal Q fever cases were reported through case report forms submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and through U.S. death certificate data. A single case matched between both data sets, yielding an estimated 129 fatal cases (95% confidence interval [CI] = 62-1,250) during 2000-2011. Fatal cases of Q fever were underreported through case report forms by an estimated factor of 14 and through death certificates by an estimated factor of 5.2. PMID:25404074

Dahlgren, F Scott; Haberling, Dana L; McQuiston, Jennifer H

2014-11-17

145

Defining risk groups to yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in the absence of denominator data.  

PubMed

Several risk groups are known for the rare but serious, frequently fatal, viscerotropic reactions following live yellow fever virus vaccine (YEL-AVD). Establishing additional risk groups is hampered by ignorance of the numbers of vaccinees in factor-specific risk groups thus preventing their use as denominators in odds ratios (ORs). Here, we use an equation to calculate ORs using the prevalence of the factor-specific risk group in the population who remain well. The 95% confidence limits and P values can also be calculated. Moreover, if the estimate of the prevalence is imprecise, discrimination analysis can indicate the prevalence at which the confidence interval results in an OR of ?1 revealing if the prevalence might be higher without yielding a non-significant result. These methods confirm some potential risk groups for YEL-AVD and cast doubt on another. They should prove useful in situations in which factor-specific risk group denominator data are not available. PMID:24394480

Seligman, Stephen J; Cohen, Joel E; Itan, Yuval; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Pezzullo, John C

2014-02-01

146

Synthesis and evaluation of imidazole-4,5- and pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxamides targeting dengue and yellow fever virus.  

PubMed

The results of a high-throughput screening assay using the dengue virus-2 replicon showed that the imidazole 4,5-dicarboxamide (I45DC) derivative (15a) has a high dengue virus inhibitory activity. Based on 15a as a lead compound, a novel class of both disubstituted I45DCs and the resembling pyrazine 2,3-dicarboxamides (P23DCs) were synthesized. Here, we report on their in vitro inhibitory activity against dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV). Some of these first generation compounds have shown activity against both viruses in the micromolar range. Within this series, compound 15b was observed to display the highest antiviral potency against YFV with an EC50 = 1.85 ?M. In addition, compounds 20a and 20b both potently inhibited replication of DENV (EC50 = 0.93 ?M) in Vero cells. PMID:25285371

Saudi, Milind; Zmurko, Joanna; Kaptein, Suzanne; Rozenski, Jef; Neyts, Johan; Van Aerschot, Arthur

2014-11-24

147

Synthesis and evaluation of imidazole-4,5- and pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxamides targeting dengue and yellow fever virus?  

PubMed Central

The results of a high-throughput screening assay using the dengue virus-2 replicon showed that the imidazole 4,5-dicarboxamide (I45DC) derivative (15a) has a high dengue virus inhibitory activity. Based on 15a as a lead compound, a novel class of both disubstituted I45DCs and the resembling pyrazine 2,3-dicarboxamides (P23DCs) were synthesized. Here, we report on their in vitro inhibitory activity against dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV). Some of these first generation compounds have shown activity against both viruses in the micromolar range. Within this series, compound 15b was observed to display the highest antiviral potency against YFV with an EC50 = 1.85 ?M. In addition, compounds 20a and 20b both potently inhibited replication of DENV (EC50 = 0.93 ?M) in Vero cells. PMID:25285371

Saudi, Milind; Zmurko, Joanna; Kaptein, Suzanne; Rozenski, Jef; Neyts, Johan; Van Aerschot, Arthur

2014-01-01

148

Defining Risk Groups to Yellow Fever Vaccine-Associated Viscerotropic Disease in the Absence of Denominator Data  

PubMed Central

Several risk groups are known for the rare but serious, frequently fatal, viscerotropic reactions following live yellow fever virus vaccine (YEL-AVD). Establishing additional risk groups is hampered by ignorance of the numbers of vaccinees in factor-specific risk groups thus preventing their use as denominators in odds ratios (ORs). Here, we use an equation to calculate ORs using the prevalence of the factor-specific risk group in the population who remain well. The 95% confidence limits and P values can also be calculated. Moreover, if the estimate of the prevalence is imprecise, discrimination analysis can indicate the prevalence at which the confidence interval results in an OR of ?1 revealing if the prevalence might be higher without yielding a non-significant result. These methods confirm some potential risk groups for YEL-AVD and cast doubt on another. They should prove useful in situations in which factor-specific risk group denominator data are not available. PMID:24394480

Seligman, Stephen J.; Cohen, Joel E.; Itan, Yuval; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Pezzullo, John C.

2014-01-01

149

Assessing the Risk of International Spread of Yellow Fever Virus: A Mathematical Analysis of an Urban Outbreak in Asunción, 2008  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever virus (YFV), a mosquito-borne virus endemic to tropical Africa and South America, is capable of causing large urban outbreaks of human disease. With the ease of international travel, urban outbreaks could lead to the rapid spread and subsequent transmission of YFV in distant locations. We designed a stochastic metapopulation model with spatiotemporally explicit transmissibility scenarios to simulate the global spread of YFV from a single urban outbreak by infected airline travelers. In simulations of a 2008 outbreak in Asunción, Paraguay, local outbreaks occurred in 12.8% of simulations and international spread in 2.0%. Using simple probabilistic models, we found that local incidence, travel rates, and basic transmission parameters are sufficient to assess the probability of introduction and autochthonous transmission events. These models could be used to assess the risk of YFV spread during an urban outbreak and identify locations at risk for YFV introduction and subsequent autochthonous transmission. PMID:22302873

Johansson, Michael A.; Arana-Vizcarrondo, Neysarí; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Gallagher, Nancy; Marano, Nina; Staples, J. Erin

2012-01-01

150

Yellow Fever Vaccination Elicits Broad Functional CD4+ T Cell Responses That Recognize Structural and Nonstructural Proteins  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever virus (YFV) can induce acute, life-threatening disease that is a significant health burden in areas where yellow fever is endemic, but it is preventable through vaccination. The live attenuated 17D YFV strain induces responses characterized by neutralizing antibodies and strong T cell responses. This vaccine provides an excellent model for studying human immunity. While several studies have characterized YFV-specific antibody and CD8+ T cell responses, less is known about YFV-specific CD4+ T cells. Here we characterize the epitope specificity, functional attributes, and dynamics of YFV-specific T cell responses in vaccinated subjects by investigating peripheral blood mononuclear cells by using HLA-DR tetramers. A total of 112 epitopes restricted by seven common HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified. Epitopes were present within all YFV proteins, but the capsid, envelope, NS2a, and NS3 proteins had the highest epitope density. Antibody blocking demonstrated that the majority of YFV-specific T cells were HLA-DR restricted. Therefore, CD4+ T cell responses could be effectively characterized with HLA-DR tetramers. Ex vivo tetramer analysis revealed that YFV-specific T cells persisted at frequencies ranging from 0 to 100 cells per million that are detectable years after vaccination. Longitudinal analysis indicated that YFV-specific CD4+ T cells reached peak frequencies, often exceeding 250 cells per million, approximately 2 weeks after vaccination. As frequencies subsequently declined, YFV-specific cells regained CCR7 expression, indicating a shift from effector to central memory. Cells were typically CXCR3 positive, suggesting Th1 polarization, and produced gamma interferon and other cytokines after reactivation in vitro. Therefore, YFV elicits robust early effector CD4+ T cell responses that contract, forming a detectable memory population. PMID:24049183

James, Eddie A.; LaFond, Rebecca E.; Gates, Theresa J.; Mai, Duy T.; Malhotra, Uma

2013-01-01

151

Changes in body fluid compartments, tissue water and electrolyte distribution, and lipid concentrations in rhesus macaques with yellow fever.  

PubMed

Rhesus macaques were inoculated subcutaneously with 40 plaque-forming units of yellow fever (YF) virus. To identify pathophysiologic mechanisms of YF, rectal temperatures and evidence of viremia were observed daily; physiologic and biochemical changes were studied on postinoculation day (PID) 5. Marked viremia was detected on PID 2 through 5, and fever was first observed on PID 4. On PID 5, blood and plasma volumes and circulatory K+ values increased, whereas RBC volume, PCV, and plasma cholesterol concentration decreased. Total lipids (mainly triglycerides) accumulated in the liver of inoculated macaques; alterations in hepatic content of water, electrolytes, and trace metals were also observed. Certain parts of the CNS, skeletal muscle, skin, heart, diaphragm, and renal cortex were affected, with changes noticed in water, electrolyte, trace metal, and lipid concentrations. These tissue changes indicated that cellular metabolism was altered and that the transport mechanisms of cell membranes of certain tissues were modified by YF virus or the disease process caused by the virus. Terminal hypoglycemia (57.6 +/- 12.1 mg/dl) was observed. The YF-induced intracellular dehydration of the medulla oblongata at the later stage of illness may depress the cardiovascular and respiratory centers, thus contributing to death of rhesus macaques infected with YF virus. PMID:7181200

Liu, C T; Griffin, M J

1982-11-01

152

Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice.  

PubMed

Yellow fever (YF) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever disease in tropical Africa and Latin America. To develop a novel experimental YF vaccine, we applied iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmid that encodes the full-length RNA genome of 17D vaccine downstream from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The vaccine was designed to transcribe the full-length viral RNA and to launch 17D vaccine virus in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with 10 ng of iDNA plasmid was sufficient to start replication of vaccine virus in vitro. Safety of the parental 17D and iDNA-derived 17D viruses was confirmed in AG129 mice deficient in receptors for IFN-?/?/?. Finally, direct vaccination of BALB/c mice with a single 20 ?g dose of iDNA plasmid resulted in seroconversion and elicitation of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in animals. We conclude that iDNA immunization approach combines characteristics of DNA and attenuated vaccines and represents a promising vaccination strategy for YF. PMID:25129436

Tretyakova, Irina; Nickols, Brian; Hidajat, Rachmat; Jokinen, Jenny; Lukashevich, Igor S; Pushko, Peter

2014-11-01

153

Pathology Case Study: Severe Headache and Fever  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male transplant patient is suffering severe headaches. Visitors are given the hospital course record, radiographic and histologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology and transplant pathology.

Anhalt, John P.

154

Pathology Case Study: Fever and Hemoptysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 29-year-old woman with chronic myelogenous leukemia has been coughing up blood. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

Geraldino, Nelson; Nine, Jeff S.

2007-11-30

155

Katayama fever in scuba divers. A report of 3 cases.  

PubMed

Katayama fever or acute schistosomiasis probably occurs more commonly than is recorded. Interviews with a 3-man scuba diving team who had had contact with a large dam in an endemic area of the eastern Transvaal Lowveld at the same time and contact area on the same day during late summer of 1986 are discussed. Two, who had not previously been exposed to infected water, presented with Katayama fever, due to Schistosoma mansoni infection, 21 days after contact and it took 30-36 months for them to recover fully after several treatments. The third patient, a keen water-sportsman and resident in the endemic area for a period of 10 years, presented with a mild infection, probably due to acquired immunity initiated during previous contacts with infected water; he took about a year to recover. The pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of the 3 cases are described in the light of recent observations made elsewhere on Katayama fever cases and the effects of chemotherapy on the course of illness. The necessity of obtaining basic information on the travel and water-contact activities of patients in order to make a diagnosis is emphasised. PMID:1901428

Evans, A C; Martin, D J; Ginsburg, B D

1991-03-01

156

A case of fever of unknown origin: Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis.  

PubMed

Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis is a rare type of vasculitis; its etiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease primarily affects the lungs, although extra-pulmonary involvement has been reported. The typical symptoms are cough, chest pain, dyspnea, and weight loss; high temperatures have been reported in rare cases. We present the case of a 65-year-old woman who was diagnosed with lymph node tuberculosis, for which she received treatment for six months. The patient experienced no improvement in her symptoms, which included fever, weakness and dyspnea. A re-evaluation of previously collected thoracoscopic biopsy material revealed compatibility with necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis. PMID:25366946

Unlü, G; Ony?lmaz, T A; Bar??, S A; Turhan, N; Vural, C; Ba?yi?it, I; Boyac?, H

2014-01-01

157

Mutagenesis of the N-Linked Glycosylation Sites of the Yellow Fever Virus NS1 Protein: Effects on Virus Replication and Mouse Neurovirulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flavivirus nonstructural glycoprotein NS1 is highly conserved and contains two N-linked glycosylation sites which are both utilized for addition of oligosaccharides during replication in cell culture. NS1 has been shown to contain epitopes for protective antibodies; however, its roles in virus replication and pathogenesis remain unknown. To study the function of NS1 during yellow fever virus replication, six mutant

Isabella R. Muylaert; Thomas J. Chambers; Ricardo Galler; Charles M. Rice

1996-01-01

158

Neutralizing (54K) and Non-neutralizing (54K and 48K) Monoclonai Antibodies against Structural and Non-structural Yellow Fever Virus Proteins Confer Immunity in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The capacity of monoclonal antibodies to protect mice passively against yellow fever (YF) virus infection was investigated. Both neutralizing (54K-specific) and non- neutralizing (54K- and 48K-specific) antibodies protected mice against challenge with the RMP substrain of YF virus. Average survival times of mice inoculated intracerebrally with a standard lethal dose of YF virus differed according to the strain used:

E. A. GOULD; A. BUCKLEY; A. D. T. BARRETT; N. CAMMACK

159

Mutation in a 17D-204 Vaccine Substrain-Specific Envelope Protein Epitope Alters the Pathogenesis of Yellow Fever Virus in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogeneous nature of the yellow fever (YF) 17D-204 vaccine virus population was exploited in this study to isolate virus variants able to escape neutralization by the 17D-204 vaccine-specific MAb 864. The conformational change on the virus surface that resulted in the loss of the MAb 864-defined epitope was effected in each variant by a single amino acid mutation in

Kate D. Ryman; T. Neil Ledger; Gerald A. Campbell; Alan D. T. Barrett

1998-01-01

160

Comparison of the genomes of the wild-type French viscerotropic strain of yellow fever virus with its vaccine derivative French neurotropic vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The French neurotropic vaccine, or FNV, was used extensively in Africa to control yellow fever (YF). Although efficacious, the vaccine caused an unaccept- able rate of post-vaccinal complications in children and was subsequently replaced by the 17D vaccine. Here we report that the genomes of the wild-type YF virus French viscerotropic virus and its attenuated vaccine derivative, FNV virus from

Eryu Wang; Kate D. Ryman; Alan D. Jennings; David J. Wood; F. Taffs; Philip D. Minor; Peter G. Sanders; Alan D. T. Barrett

1995-01-01

161

Efficient transformation of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report efficient germ-line transformation in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti accomplished using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm]. Two transgenic lines were established and characterized; each contained the Vg-Defensin A transgene with strong eye-specific expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene regulated by the artificial 3xP3 promoter. Southern blot hybridization and inverse PCR analyses

V. Kokoza; A. Ahmed; E. A. Wimmer; A. S. Raikhel

2001-01-01

162

Mutagenesis of the Signal Sequence of Yellow Fever Virus prM Protein: Enhancement of Signalase Cleavage In Vitro Is Lethal for Virus Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteolytic processing at the C-prM junction in the flavivirus polyprotein involves coordinated cleavages at the cytoplasmic and luminal sides of an internal signal sequence. We have introduced at the COOH terminus of the yellow fever virus (YFV) prM signal sequence amino acid substitutions (VPQAQA mutation) which uncoupled efficient signal peptidase cleavage of the prM protein from its dependence on prior

EVA LEE; CHRISTINE E. STOCKS; SEAN M. AMBERG; CHARLES M. RICE; MARIO LOBIGS

2000-01-01

163

Pathology Case Study: Fever, Chills, Shortness of Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man experienced fever, chills, and shortness of breath a year after having received a lung transplant. Visitors can view CT images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of pathology and clinical microbiology.

Grant, Maurice R.

164

Pathology Case Study: Fever and Severe Rigors During Transfusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer developed fever and severe rigors during a blood. Visitors are given the hospital course record and the blood bank laboratory evaluation, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology.

Aronica, Patricia; Triulzi, Darrell

2007-08-16

165

Pathology Case Study: Recurrent Fevers of Unknown Origin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a renal pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 32-year-old male has recurrent fevers. Visitors are given laboratory data and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology medicine.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Hanchett, James; Torbenson, Michael

2009-09-03

166

Pathology Case Study: History of Bilateral Back Pain and Fever  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 68-year-old woman with a history of bilateral back pain and fever has been admitted to the hospital with agitation, confusion, and delirium. Visitors are given both the histologic and laboratory findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Chung, Wen-Wei; Fernandes, Shaila; Pasculle, A. W.; Wang, Jianzhou

2008-11-27

167

A Possible Connection between the 1878 Yellow Fever Epidemic in the Southern United States and the 1877-78 El Nin??o Episode  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the most severe outbreaks of yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, affected the southern United States in the summer of 1878. The economic and human toll was enormous, and the city of Memphis, Tennessee, was one of the most affected. The authors suggest that as a consequence of one of the strongest El Nin??o episodes on record - that which occurred in 1877-78 - exceptional climate anomalies occurred in the United States (as well as in many other parts of the world), which may have been partly responsible for the widespread nature and severity of the 1878 yellow fever outbreak. This study documents some of the extreme climate anomalies that were recorded in 1877 and 1878 in parts of the eastern United States, with particular emphasis on highlighting the evolution of these anomalies, as they might have contributed to the epidemic. Other years with major outbreaks of yellow fever in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries also occurred during the course of El Nin??o episodes, a fact that appears not to have been noted before in the literature.

Diaz, H.F.; McCabe, G.J.

1999-01-01

168

A Possible Connection between the 1878 Yellow Fever Epidemic in the Southern United States and the 1877-78 El Niño Episode.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most severe outbreaks of yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, affected the southern United States in the summer of 1878. The economic and human toll was enormous, and the city of Memphis, Tennessee, was one of the most affected. The authors suggest that as a consequence of one of the strongest El Niño episodes on record-that which occurred in 1877-78-exceptional climate anomalies occurred in the United States (as well as in many other parts of the world), which may have been partly responsible for the widespread nature and severity of the 1878 yellow fever outbreak.This study documents some of the extreme climate anomalies that were recorded in 1877 and 1878 in parts of the eastern United States, with particular emphasis on highlighting the evolution of these anomalies, as they might have contributed to the epidemic. Other years with major outbreaks of yellow fever in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries also occurred during the course of El Niño episodes, a fact that appears not to have been noted before in the literature.

Diaz, Henry F.; McCabe, Gregory J.

1999-01-01

169

Role of the yellow fever virus structural protein genes in viral dissemination from the Aedes aegypti mosquito midgut.  

PubMed

Live-attenuated virus vaccines are key components in controlling arboviral diseases, but they must not disseminate in or be transmitted by mosquito vectors. Although the cycles in which many mosquito-borne viruses are transmitted are well understood, the role of viral genetics in these processes has not been fully elucidated. Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an important arbovirus and the prototype member of the family Flaviviridae. Here, YFV was used in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes as a model to investigate the genetic basis of infection and dissemination in mosquitoes. Viruses derived from infectious clones and chimeric viruses with defined sequential manipulations were used to investigate the influence of specific sequences within the membrane and envelope structural protein genes on dissemination of virus from the mosquito midgut. Substitution of domain III of the envelope protein from a midgut-restricted YFV into a wild-type YFV resulted in a marked decrease in virus dissemination, suggesting an important role for domain III in this process. However, synergism between elements within the flavivirus structural and non-structural protein genes may be necessary for efficient virus escape from the mosquito midgut. PMID:16963758

McElroy, Kate L; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen

2006-10-01

170

No Booster Dose for Yellow Fever Vaccination: What Are the Consequences for the Activity of Vaccination in Travel Clinics?  

PubMed

In April 2013, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization stated that a single dose of yellow fever (YF) vaccine is sufficient in the general population to confer a lifelong protection against YF. When the period of validity of the International Certificate of Vaccination (ICV) will be extended to a lifetime in June 2016, no booster dose will be needed. The objective of this prospective study was to determine the potential impact of the SAGE recommendations on the vaccination activity of our travel clinics. We showed that among 1,037 subjects seen in our three travel clinics for a YF vaccination in 2013, about 32.3% went for a booster dose that is no longer useful according to the SAGE. A drop in vaccination activity has to be expected by travel clinics in the next years, and changes in daily exercise have to be anticipated, as YF vaccination is a large part of the regular work of many healthcare providers specialized in travel medicine. PMID:25384441

Wyplosz, Benjamin; Leroy, Jean-Philippe; Derradji, Ouda; Consigny, Paul-Henri

2014-11-11

171

Efficacy of 2?-C-Methylcytidine Against Yellow Fever Virus in Cell Culture and in a Hamster Model  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever virus (YFV) continues to cause outbreaks of disease in endemic areas where vaccine is underutilized. Due to the effectiveness of the vaccine, antiviral development solely for the treatment of YFV is not feasible, but antivirals that are effective in the treatment of related viral diseases may be characterized for potential use against YFV as a secondary indication disease. 2?-C-methylcytidine (2?-C-MeC), a compound active against hepatitis C virus, was found to have activity against the 17D vaccine strain of YFV in cell culture (EC90 = 0.32 ?g/ml, SI = 141). This compound was effective when added as late as 16 h after virus challenge of Vero cells. When administered to YFV-infected hamsters 4 hours prior to virus challenge at a dose as low as 80 mg/kg/d, 2?-C-MeC was effective in significantly improving survival and other disease parameters (weight change, serum ALT, and liver virus titers). Disease was improved when compound was administered beginning as late as 3 days post virus infection. Broadly active antiviral compounds, such as 2?-C-MeC, represent potential for the development of compounds active against related viruses for the treatment of YFV. PMID:20227442

Julander, Justin G.; Jha, Ashok K.; Choi, Jung-Ae; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Smee, Donald F.; Morrey, John D.; Chu, Chung K.

2010-01-01

172

The interferon signaling antagonist function of yellow fever virus NS5 protein is activated by type I interferon.  

PubMed

To successfully establish infection, flaviviruses have to overcome the antiviral state induced by type I interferon (IFN-I). The nonstructural NS5 proteins of several flaviviruses antagonize IFN-I signaling. Here we show that yellow fever virus (YFV) inhibits IFN-I signaling through a unique mechanism that involves binding of YFV NS5 to the IFN-activated transcription factor STAT2 only in cells that have been stimulated with IFN-I. This NS5-STAT2 interaction requires IFN-I-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and the K63-linked polyubiquitination at a lysine in the N-terminal region of YFV NS5. We identified TRIM23 as the E3 ligase that interacts with and polyubiquitinates YFV NS5 to promote its binding to STAT2 and trigger IFN-I signaling inhibition. Our results demonstrate the importance of YFV NS5 in overcoming the antiviral action of IFN-I and offer a unique example of a viral protein that is activated by the same host pathway that it inhibits. PMID:25211074

Laurent-Rolle, Maudry; Morrison, Juliet; Rajsbaum, Ricardo; Macleod, Jesica M Levingston; Pisanelli, Giuseppe; Pham, Alissa; Ayllon, Juan; Miorin, Lisa; Martínez-Romero, Carles; tenOever, Benjamin R; García-Sastre, Adolfo

2014-09-10

173

First report on invasion of yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, at Narita International Airport, Japan in August 2012.  

PubMed

The invasion of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti at Narita International Airport, Japan was detected for the first time. During the course of routine vector surveillance at Narita International Airport, 27 Ae. aegypti adults emerged from larvae and pupae collected from a single larvitrap placed near No. 88 spot at passenger terminal 2 on August 8, 2012. After the appearance of Ae. aegypti in the larvitrap, we defined a 400-m buffer zone and started an intensive vector survey using an additional 34 larvitraps and 15 CO2 traps. International aircraft and passenger terminal 2 were also inspected, and one Ae. aegypti male was collected from the cargo space of an international aircraft from Darwin via Manila on August 28, 2012. Larvicide treatment with 1.5% fenitrothion was conducted in 64 catch basins and one ditch in the 400-m buffer zone. Twenty-four large water tanks were also treated at least once with 0.5% pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator. No Ae. aegypti eggs or adults were found during the 1-month intensive vector survey after finding larvae and pupae in the larvitrap. We concluded that Ae. aegypti had failed to establish a population at Narita International Airport. PMID:23698478

Sukehiro, Nayu; Kida, Nori; Umezawa, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Arai, Naoko; Jinnai, Tsunesada; Inagaki, Shunichi; Tsuchiya, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Yoshio

2013-01-01

174

The single kinin receptor signals to separate and independent physiological pathways in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito  

PubMed Central

In the past, we have used the kinins of the cockroach Leucophaea (the leucokinins) to evaluate the mechanism of diuretic action of kinin peptides in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Now using the kinins of Aedes (the aedeskinins), we have found that in isolated Aedes Malpighian tubules all three aedeskinins (1 ?M) significantly 1) increased the rate of fluid secretion (V?S), 2) hyperpolarized the basolateral membrane voltage (Vbl), and 3) decreased the input resistance (Rin) of principal cells, consistent with the known increase in the Cl? conductance of the paracellular pathway in Aedes Malpighian tubules. Aedeskinin-III, studied in further detail, significantly increased V?S with an EC50 of 1.5 × 10?8 M. In parallel, the Na+ concentration in secreted fluid significantly decreased, and the K+ concentration significantly increased. The concentration of Cl? remained unchanged. While the three aedeskinins triggered effects on Vbl, Rin, and V?S, synthetic kinin analogs, which contain modifications of the COOH-terminal amide pentapeptide core sequence critical for biological activity, displayed variable effects. For example, kinin analog 1578 significantly stimulated V?S but had no effect on Vbl and Rin, whereas kinin analog 1708 had no effect on V?S but significantly affected Vbl and Rin. These observations suggest separate signaling pathways activated by kinins. One triggers the electrophysiological response, and the other triggers fluid secretion. It remains to be determined whether the two signaling pathways emanate from a single kinin receptor via agonist-directed signaling or from a differentially glycosylated receptor. Occasionally, Malpighian tubules did not exhibit a detectable response to natural and synthetic kinins. Hypothetically, the expression of the kinin receptor may depend on developmental, nutritional, and/or reproductive signals. PMID:20538895

Schepel, Stephen A.; Fox, Andrew J.; Miyauchi, Jeremy T.; Sou, Tiffany; Yang, Jason D.; Lau, Kenneth; Blum, Austin W.; Nicholson, Linda K.; Tiburcy, Felix; Nachman, Ronald J.; Piermarini, Peter M.

2010-01-01

175

Functional Characterization of the Octenol Receptor Neuron on the Maxillary Palps of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background 1-Octen-3-ol (octenol) is a common attractant released by vertebrates which in combination with carbon dioxide (CO2) attracts hematophagous arthropods including mosquitoes. A receptor neuron contained within basiconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of adult mosquitoes responds selectively to 1-octen-3-ol. Recently, an odorant receptor (AaegOR8) known to occur on the maxillary palps was expressed in a heterologous system and demonstrated to be selectively sensitive to (R)-(?)-1-octen-3-ol, one of two enantiomeric forms. Lesser responses were elicited by stimulation with the (S)-enantiomer and various structural analogs. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we characterize the specificity of the octenol receptor neuron in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), in vivo using single cell recordings. The octenol neuron is exquisitely sensitive to (R)-(?)-1-octen-3-ol; comparable responses to (S)-(+)-1-octen-3-ol were elicited only at stimulus doses over 100× that required for the (R)-enantiomer. An intermediate response closer to that elicited by the (R)-(?)-enantiomer was elicited by racemic 1-octen-3-ol. Small structural changes in (R)-(?)-1-octen-3-ol resulted in large decreases in responses. Increases in spike activity were also elicited in the octenol neuron by 2-undecanone, a known repellent; other repellents (DEET, IR3535 and picaridin) were inactive. Conclusions/Significance The results of our electrophysiological studies of the octenol receptor neuron in vivo approximates results of a previous study of the octenol receptor (AaegOR8 with its obligate partner Aaeg\\ORco) expressed heterologously in Xenopus oocytes. By comparison of our current results with those of the heterologous expression study, we conclude that specificity of the octenol receptor neuron can be explained largely by characteristics of the OR alone without other associated proteins present in vivo. Our findings show that repellents may have specific stimulatory effects on receptor neurons and support the notion of repellents as modulators of mosquito odorant receptor activity. PMID:21738794

Grant, Alan J.; Dickens, Joseph C.

2011-01-01

176

Characterization of the yellow fever mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene and ligand-bound protein structure  

SciTech Connect

The sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene (AeSCP-2L3), a new member of the SCP-2 protein family, is identified from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The predicted molecular weight of AeSCP-2L3 is 13.4 kDa with a calculated pI of 4.98. AeSCP-2L3 transcription occurs in the larval feeding stages and the mRNA levels decrease in pupae and adults. The highest levels of AeSCP-2L3 gene expression are found in the body wall, and possibly originated in the fat body. This is the first report of a mosquito SCP-2-like protein with prominent expression in tissue other than the midgut. The X-ray protein crystal structure of AeSCP-2L3 reveals a bound C16 fatty acid whose acyl tail penetrates deeply into a hydrophobic cavity. Interestingly, the ligand-binding cavity is slightly larger than previously described for AeSCP-2 (Dyer et al. J Biol Chem 278:39085-39091, 2003) and AeSCP-2L2 (Dyer et al. J Lipid Res M700460-JLR200, 2007). There are also an additional 10 amino acids in SCP-2L3 that are not present in other characterized mosquito SCP-2s forming an extended loop between {beta}3 and {beta}4. Otherwise, the protein backbone is exceedingly similar to other SCP-2 and SCP-2-like proteins. In contrast to this observed high structural homology of members in the mosquito SCP2 family, the amino acid sequence identity between the members is less than 30%. The results from structural analysis imply that there have been evolutionary constraints that favor the SCP-2 C{alpha} backbone fold while the specificity of ligand binding can be altered.

Dyer, David H.; Vyazunova, Irina; Lorch, Jeffery M.; Forest, Katrina T.; Lan, Que; (UW)

2009-06-12

177

Defects in coatomer protein I (COPI) transport cause blood feeding-induced mortality in Yellow Fever mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Blood feeding by vector mosquitoes provides the entry point for disease pathogens and presents an acute metabolic challenge that must be overcome to complete the gonotrophic cycle. Based on recent data showing that coatomer protein I (COPI) vesicle transport is involved in cellular processes beyond Golgi-endoplasmic reticulum retrograde protein trafficking, we disrupted COPI functions in the Yellow Fever mosquito Aedes aegypti to interfere with blood meal digestion. Surprisingly, we found that decreased expression of the ?COPI coatomer protein led to 89% mortality in blood-fed mosquitoes by 72 h postfeeding compared with 0% mortality in control dsRNA-injected blood-fed mosquitoes and 3% mortality in ?COPI dsRNA-injected sugar-fed mosquitoes. Similar results were obtained using dsRNA directed against five other COPI coatomer subunits (?, ?, ?', ?, and ?). We also examined midgut tissues by EM, quantitated heme in fecal samples, and characterized feeding-induced protein expression in midgut, fat body, and ovary tissues of COPI-deficient mosquitoes. We found that COPI defects disrupt epithelial cell membrane integrity, stimulate premature blood meal excretion, and block induced expression of several midgut protease genes. To study the role of COPI transport in ovarian development, we injected ?COPI dsRNA after blood feeding and found that, although blood digestion was normal, follicles in these mosquitoes were significantly smaller by 48 h postinjection and lacked eggshell proteins. Together, these data show that COPI functions are critical to mosquito blood digestion and egg maturation, a finding that could also apply to other blood-feeding arthropod vectors. PMID:21628559

Isoe, Jun; Collins, Jennifer; Badgandi, Hemant; Day, W Anthony; Miesfeld, Roger L

2011-06-14

178

A case of brucellosis mimicking Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.  

PubMed

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. that is transmitted to humans by the ingestion of unpasteurized milk and other dairy products from infected animals or through close contact with secretions. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by a virus that is transmitted to humans by ixoid tick bites, contact with blood and tissue of infected animals or contact with infected humans. The symptoms of brucellosis are non-specific; it can mimic other diseases. In this paper, we present a case of brucellosis that was initially evaluated as CCHF. We emphasize that brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CCHF, especially in endemic countries. PMID:25467988

Metin, Ozge; Aydin Teke, Turkan; Gayretli Aydin, Zeynep Gokçe; Kaman, Ayse; Oz, Fatma Nur; Bayhan, Gulsum Iclal; Tanir, Gonul

2014-11-18

179

Yellow Fever, as seen by the Medical Officers of the Royal Navy in the Nineteenth Century  

PubMed Central

A critical review of old Naval Reports, showing how some difficulties in the epidemiology vanished when the mosquito means of transmission was discovered. Data are abstracted to show that the fatality, while generally exaggerated by missed cases, was often as high as recorded—also that latent immunization accounts for some types of immunity, and that the disease was always more virulent in Africa—where it probably originated—rather than in the New World. PMID:19989150

Dudley, Sheldon F.

1933-01-01

180

Evaluation of an indirect immunofluorescence assay for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies against yellow fever virus.  

PubMed

The first commercial indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Euroimmun Biochip technology was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies against yellow fever virus (YFV) and was compared with the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), which is currently the gold standard test for YFV. An overall correlation between the tests of 98.7% was established based on the analysis of 150 sera from individuals after vaccination with the 17D yellow fever vaccine. The sensitivity and specificity, calculated using the 150 sera from vaccinees and 150 sera from healthy blood donors, were 95% and 95%, respectively, for the IgG IFA and 94% and 97% for the IgM IFA. Antibody titers found in the PRNT correlated poorly with the IgM and IgG titers detected by IFA. The analysis of preexisting heterologous flaviviral immunity revealed the presence of antibodies reactive with YFV, tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and dengue virus serotypes 1 to 4 in 20 out of the 150 vaccinees. The indirect IFA showed that nine of these individuals with previous flaviviral exposure who received 17D vaccine failed to produce detectable IgM antibodies. Despite this preexisting immunity, all vaccinees developed protective immunity as detected by PRNT and anti-YFV IgG antibodies as detected by IFA. The high specificity and sensitivity of the IFA make it a useful tool for rapid diagnosis of yellow fever during outbreaks, for epidemiological studies, and for serosurveillance after vaccination. PMID:18045884

Niedrig, Matthias; Kürsteiner, Oliver; Herzog, Christian; Sonnenberg, Karen

2008-02-01

181

Two Cases of Q-Fever in Hairy Cell Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder accounting for about 2% of all leukemias. The clinical course is indolent, however HCL patients are particularly susceptible to infections. Here we report two cases of Q-fever as first manifestation of disease in two patients affected by HCL. Both patients described in this report showed an unusually sluggish clinical response to the antibiotic treatment with ciprofloxacin probably because of the marked immunodeficiency. However, treatment of HCL with cladribine administered soon after the resolution of QF pneumonitis was uneventful and led to a complete remission in both cases. Most probably the association of Coxiella burnetii (CB) infection and HCL that we observed in two patients is due to chance. However, a hairy cell resembling transformation of freshly isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes upon CB has been showed. We think that the possibility of CB infection in febrile HCL patient should be always taken in mind, especially in endemic areas. In addition the potential for such infections to become chronic in HCL patients should not be overlooked and the reporting of further cases should be encouraged. PMID:25180111

Iannitto, Emilio; Tick, Lidwine W.; Arents, Nicolaas L. A.; Kuijper, Philip H.; Nijziel, Marten R.

2014-01-01

182

Comparative study on in vitro activities of citral, limonene and essential oils from Lippia citriodora and L. alba on yellow fever virus.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the antiviral activities in vitro of citral, limonene and essential oils (EOs) from Lippia citriodora and L. alba on the replication of yellow fever virus (YFV). Citral and EOs were active before and after virus adsorption on cells; IC50 values were between 4.3 and 25 microg/mL and SI ranged from 1.1 to 10.8. Results indicate that citral could contribute to the antiviral activity of the L. citriodora EO. Limonene was not active and seemed to play an insignificant role in the antiviral activity of the examined EOs. PMID:23513741

Gómez, Luz Angela; Stashenko, Elena; Ocazionez, Raquel Elvira

2013-02-01

183

Travelers' Health: Yellow Book  

MedlinePLUS

... INFO Home Destinations Travel Notices Find a Clinic Yellow Fever Vaccinations Clinics FAQ Disease Directory Information Centers For Travelers Common Travel Health Topics Adopting a Child from Another Country Adventure ... Yellow Book Contents Chapter 1 Introduction to Travel Health & ...

184

The laboratory-confirmed dengue fever and chikungunya fever cases at the Narita Airport Quarantine Station in 2013.  

PubMed

Fourteen patients were laboratory-confirmed as cases of imported-infectious diseases at the Narita Airport Quarantine Station in 2013. Blood tests were performed on 283 subjects with suspected of imported-infectious diseases. Of these, 11 were diagnosed as having dengue fever (dengue) and 3 as having chikungunya fever (chikungunya) by real-time RT-PCR. The possible countries from which the dengue virus infection was contracted were Thailand, Laos, Sri Lanka, and some other countries also in Southeast Asia and South Asia. The three chikungunya were also in returnees from Southeast Asia. Most of the patients with dengue had a fever of over 38 ?. Other symptoms were generalized fatigue, dull headache, pain behind the eyes, arthralgia and digestive symptoms. The Subjects had been unaware of any mosquito bites in 4 cases. The information from and results of the confirmed cases showed that it is important to consider the destination as well as the clinical symptoms, independent of whether the subjects were aware of mosquito bites or not. The detection rate of chikungunya at the Quarantine station was higher than that of dengue in all reported cases in Japan. PMID:25420667

Furuichi, Mieko; Makie, Toshio; Honma, Yasuko; Isoda, Takayoshi; Miyake, Satoru

2014-11-25

185

Child-Invented Health Education Games: A Case Study for Dengue Fever  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study's goal was to demonstrate the ability of an 8-year-old child to create educational games for the topic of dengue fever control. A naturalistic descriptive case study method was employed. The child had two dengue fever educational game creation activities. The study demonstrated that a child could develop functional games related to…

Lennon, Jeffrey L.; Coombs, David W.

2006-01-01

186

The Synergistic Effect of Combined Immunization with a DNA Vaccine and Chimeric Yellow Fever/Dengue Virus Leads to Strong Protection against Dengue  

PubMed Central

The dengue envelope glycoprotein (E) is the major component of virion surface and its ectodomain is composed of domains I, II and III. This protein is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine with induction of neutralizing antibodies. In the present work, we tested two different vaccination strategies, with combined immunizations in a prime/booster regimen or simultaneous inoculation with a DNA vaccine (pE1D2) and a chimeric yellow fever/dengue 2 virus (YF17D-D2). The pE1D2 DNA vaccine encodes the ectodomain of the envelope DENV2 protein fused to t-PA signal peptide, while the YF17D-D2 was constructed by replacing the prM and E genes from the 17D yellow fever vaccine virus by those from DENV2. Balb/c mice were inoculated with these two vaccines by different prime/booster or simultaneous immunization protocols and most of them induced a synergistic effect on the elicited immune response, mainly in neutralizing antibody production. Furthermore, combined immunization remarkably increased protection against a lethal dose of DENV2, when compared to each vaccine administered alone. Results also revealed that immunization with the DNA vaccine, regardless of the combination with the chimeric virus, induced a robust cell immune response, with production of IFN-? by CD8+ T lymphocytes. PMID:23472186

Azevedo, Adriana S.; Gonçalves, Antônio J. S.; Archer, Marcia; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Alves, Ada M. B.

2013-01-01

187

A Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease Case Mimicking T Cell Lymphoma with Prolonged Fever  

PubMed Central

Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is a self-limited disease characterized by necrotizing lymphadenitis. Although cervical lymphadenitis in young women is the most familiar clinical presentation, it may take place in the etiology of fever in cases presenting with fever of unknown origin. A 33-year-old male case admitted with fever, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and leukopenia for one month, subsequently developing axillary lymphadenopathy during followup, diagnosed as KFD with typical histopathological findings, and showing full recovery after the excision of lymph node was presented in this report. PMID:25574175

Yadigar, Serap; Balkan, Ilker Inanc; Saltoglu, Nese

2014-01-01

188

Modeling dengue fever risk based on socioeconomic parameters, nationality and age groups: GIS and remote sensing based case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue fever (DF) and its impacts are growing environmental, economic, and health concerns in Saudi Arabia. In this study, we have attempted to model areas with humans at risk of dengue fever prevalence, depending on the spatial relationship between dengue fever cases and different socioeconomic parameters. We have developed new methods to verify the quality of neighborhoods from high resolution

Hassan M. Khormi; Lalit Kumar

2011-01-01

189

Travelers' Health: Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers  

MedlinePLUS

... flaviviruses (dengue, yellow fever, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Alkhurma viruses); see the Dengue and ... mosquito (RVF virus) or tick (CCHF, Omsk, Kyasanur Forest disease, Alkhurma viruses) bites or by crushing infected ...

190

Priming Effect of Dengue and Yellow Fever Vaccination on the Immunogenicity, Infectivity, and Safety of a Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine in Humans  

PubMed Central

A dengue vaccine effective against all four serotypes is urgently needed. However, safety and immunogenicity could be affected by prior exposure to flaviviruses. This open, controlled, phase IIa study was conducted in 35 healthy adults who had received monovalent, live attenuated Vero cell-derived dengue vaccine against dengue virus 1 (VDV1) or 2 (VDV2) or yellow fever (YF) vaccine 1 year before or who were flavivirus-naïve. All participants received one subcutaneous injection of tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) and were followed for 180 days. Previous vaccination did not increase reactogenicity, laboratory abnormalities, or incidence of vaccine viremia, but it did increase the neutralizing antibody response to dengue virus that persisted at day 180. There was no increase in YF antibodies in participants previously immunized with YF vaccine. Prior exposure to YF or monovalent dengue vaccines had no adverse effects on the safety or incidence of viremia associated with this TDV, but it increased immunogenicity. PMID:21976579

Qiao, Ming; Shaw, David; Forrat, Remi; Wartel-Tram, Anh; Lang, Jean

2011-01-01

191

Clustered lot quality assurance sampling: a tool to monitor immunization coverage rapidly during a national yellow fever and polio vaccination campaign in Cameroon, May 2009.  

PubMed

We used the clustered lot quality assurance sampling (clustered-LQAS) technique to identify districts with low immunization coverage and guide mop-up actions during the last 4 days of a combined oral polio vaccine (OPV) and yellow fever (YF) vaccination campaign conducted in Cameroon in May 2009. We monitored 17 pre-selected districts at risk for low coverage. We designed LQAS plans to reject districts with YF vaccination coverage <90% and with OPV coverage <95%. In each lot the sample size was 50 (five clusters of 10) with decision values of 3 for assessing OPV and 7 for YF coverage. We 'rejected' 10 districts for low YF coverage and 14 for low OPV coverage. Hence we recommended a 2-day extension of the campaign. Clustered-LQAS proved to be useful in guiding the campaign vaccination strategy before the completion of the operations. PMID:21418714

Pezzoli, L; Tchio, R; Dzossa, A D; Ndjomo, S; Takeu, A; Anya, B; Ticha, J; Ronveaux, O; Lewis, R F

2012-01-01

192

Samuel Holden Parsons Lee (1772-1863): American physician, entrepreneur and selfless fighter of the 1798 Yellow Fever epidemic of New London, Connecticut.  

PubMed

Samuel Holden Parsons Lee practised medicine at a time when the germ theory of disease had not yet been proposed and antibiotics remained undiscovered. In 1798 he served selflessly as the only physician in town who was willing to battle the Yellow Fever outbreak of New London, Connecticut. Because he practised at the dawn of the age of patent medicine, unfortunately his name also came to be associated with medical quackery. We argue that his contributions have been grossly underestimated. He compounded and vended medications - including bilious pills and bitters - that were gold standards of the day. Moreover, one preparation for treatment of kidney stones led to his sub-specialization in this field and was met with such success that its sale continued for nearly 100 years after his death. While a talented medical man, Lee also had a knack for business, finding success in trading, whaling and real estate. PMID:24585580

Mattie, James K; Desai, Sukumar P

2015-02-01

193

Evaluation of AaDOP2 receptor antagonists reveals antidepressants and antipsychotics as novel lead molecules for control of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, vectors disease-causing agents that adversely affect human health, most notably the viruses causing dengue and yellow fever. The efficacy of current mosquito control programs is challenged by the emergence of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations, suggesting an urgent need for the development of chemical insecticides with new mechanisms of action. One recently identified potential insecticide target is the A. aegypti D1-like dopamine receptor, AaDOP2. The focus of the present study was to evaluate AaDOP2 antagonism both in vitro and in vivo using assay technologies with increased throughput. The in vitro assays revealed AaDOP2 antagonism by four distinct chemical scaffolds from tricyclic antidepressant or antipsychotic chemical classes, and elucidated several structure-activity relationship trends that contributed to enhanced antagonist potency, including lipophilicity, halide substitution on the tricyclic core, and conformational rigidity. Six compounds displayed previously unparalleled potency for in vitro AaDOP2 antagonism, and among these, asenapine, methiothepin, and cis-(Z)-flupenthixol displayed subnanomolar IC50 values and caused rapid toxicity to A. aegypti larvae and/or adults in vivo. Our study revealed a significant correlation between in vitro potency for AaDOP2 antagonism and in vivo toxicity, suggesting viability of AaDOP2 as an insecticidal target. Taken together, this study expanded the repertoire of known AaDOP2 antagonists, enhanced our understanding of AaDOP2 pharmacology, provided further support for rational targeting of AaDOP2, and demonstrated the utility of efficiency-enhancing in vitro and in vivo assay technologies within our genome-to-lead pipeline for the discovery of next-generation insecticides. PMID:25332454

Conley, Jason M; Meyer, Jason M; Nuss, Andrew B; Doyle, Trevor B; Savinov, Sergey N; Hill, Catherine A; Watts, Val J

2015-01-01

194

A case of vasculitis, retinitis and macular neurosensory detachment presenting post typhoid fever  

PubMed Central

Background Ocular and extraocular immune-mediated phenomena are known to occur following febrile illness. Vasculitis, retinitis and neurosensory detachment are not well-recognized sequelae of typhoid fever. Findings We report a case of vasculitis, retinitis and macular neurosensory detachment presenting post typhoid fever. A 27-year-old female presented with decreased vision in right eye with history of typhoid fever (treated adequately 6 weeks prior). Her best corrected visual acuity in right eye was 20/125, N36. Fundus showed a patch of vasculitis and retinitis superior to the disc associated with macular neurosensory detachment and disc pallor. With oral steroids, the inflammation resolved and visual acuity improved to 20/20 at 6 weeks. Conclusions Immune-mediated vasculitis and retinitis following typhoid fever may respond well to systemic steroids. PMID:25246983

2014-01-01

195

Q Fever in the United States: summary of case reports from two national surveillance systems, 2000-2012.  

PubMed

Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis historically associated with exposure to infected livestock. This study summarizes cases of Q fever, a notifiable disease in the United States, reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through two national surveillance systems with onset during 2000-2012. The overall incidence rate during this time was 0.38 cases per million persons per year. The reported case fatality rate was 2.0%, and the reported hospitalization rate was 62%. Most cases (61%) did not report exposure to cattle, goats, or sheep, suggesting that clinicians should consider Q fever even in the absence of livestock exposure. The prevalence of drinking raw milk among reported cases of Q fever (8.4%) was more than twice the national prevalence for the practice. Passive surveillance systems for Q fever are likely impacted by underreporting and underdiagnosis because of the nonspecific presentation of Q fever. PMID:25404080

Dahlgren, F Scott; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Massung, Robert F; Anderson, Alicia D

2015-02-01

196

Spectrum of neuropsychiatric complications in 791 cases of typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Over a 6-year period, we studied 791 patients with multidrug-resistant typhoid fever, of whom 665 individuals (84%) developed neuropsychiatric manifestations. These were: acute confusional state (73%); myelitis (6%); cerebellitis (1%); parkinsonism (1%); acute psychosis (0.6%); meningo-encephalitis (0.5%); encephalitis (0.25%); sensory motor polyneuropathy, polymyositis, acute schizophrenia and bizarre neurological syndromes (0.12% each). Severe parkinsonian rigidity and meningo-encephalitis are associated with significant morbidity but very low mortality (0.5%). PMID:9171838

Ali, G; Rashid, S; Kamli, M A; Shah, P A; Allaqaband, G Q

1997-04-01

197

Pathology Case Study: Intermittent Fevers in a 43-Year-Old Black Male  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help students and instructors. In this particular study the patient is complaining of intermittent fevers. The case provides test results and data as well as microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis as well as treatment.

Dorvault, Christine; Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-12

198

Questing one Brazilian query: reporting 16 cases of Q fever from Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

Q fever has been considered non-existing in Brazil where reports of clinical cases still cannot be found. This case-series of 16 patients is a result of a systematic search for such illness by means of clinical and serologic criteria. Serologic testing was performed by the indirect microimmunofluorescence technique using phase I/II C. burnetii antigens. Influenza-like syndrome was the most frequent clinical form (eight cases--50%), followed by pneumonia, FUO (fever of unknown origin), mono-like syndrome (two cases--12.5% each), lymphadenitis (one case--6.3%) and spondylodiscitis associated with osteomyelitis (one case--6.3%). The ages varied from four to 67 years old with a median of 43.5. All but one patient had positive serologic tests for phase II IgG whether or not associated with IgM positivity compatible with acute infection. One patient had both phase I and phase II IgG antibodies compatible with chronic Q fever. Seroconvertion was detected in 10 patients. Despite the known limitations of serologic diagnosis, the cases here reported should encourage Brazilian doctors to include Q fever as an indigenous cause of febrile illness. PMID:16547572

Costa, Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves da; Brigatte, Marco Emilio; Greco, Dirceu Bartolomeu

2006-01-01

199

Pharmacological Validation of an Inward-Rectifier Potassium (Kir) Channel as an Insecticide Target in the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Mosquitoes are important disease vectors that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans, including those that cause malaria and dengue fever. Insecticides have traditionally been deployed to control populations of disease-causing mosquitoes, but the emergence of insecticide resistance has severely limited the number of active compounds that are used against mosquitoes. Thus, to improve the control of resistant mosquitoes there is a need to identify new insecticide targets and active compounds for insecticide development. Recently we demonstrated that inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels and small molecule inhibitors of Kir channels offer promising new molecular targets and active compounds, respectively, for insecticide development. Here we provide pharmacological validation of a specific mosquito Kir channel (AeKir1) in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. We show that VU590, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 channels, potently inhibits AeKir1 but not another mosquito Kir channel (AeKir2B) in vitro. Moreover, we show that a previously identified inhibitor of AeKir1 (VU573) elicits an unexpected agonistic effect on AeKir2B in vitro. Injection of VU590 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes significantly inhibits their capacity to excrete urine and kills them within 24 h, suggesting a mechanism of action on the excretory system. Importantly, a structurally-related VU590 analog (VU608), which weakly blocks AeKir1 in vitro, has no significant effects on their excretory capacity and does not kill mosquitoes. These observations suggest that the toxic effects of VU590 are associated with its inhibition of AeKir1. PMID:24959745

Rouhier, Matthew F.; Raphemot, Rene; Denton, Jerod S.; Piermarini, Peter M.

2014-01-01

200

Distinct Gene Expression Profiles in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients Infected with Vaccinia Virus, Yellow Fever 17D Virus, or Upper Respiratory Infections Running Title: PBMC Expression Response to Viral Agents  

PubMed Central

Gene expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was systematically evaluated following smallpox and yellow fever vaccination, and naturally occurring upper respiratory infection (URI). All three infections were characterized by the induction of many interferon stimulated genes, as well as enhanced expression of genes involved in proteolysis and antigen presentation. Vaccinia infection was also characterized by a distinct expression signature composed of up-regulation of monocyte response genes, with repression of genes expressed by B and T-cells. In contrast, the yellow fever host response was characterized by a suppression of ribosomal and translation factors, distinguishing this infection from vaccinia and URI. No significant URI-specific signature was observed, perhaps reflecting greater heterogeneity in the study population and etiological agents. Taken together, these data suggest that specific host gene expression signatures may be identified that distinguish one or a small number of virus agents. PMID:17651872

Scherer, Christina A.; Magness, Charles L.; Steiger, Kathryn V.; Poitinger, Nicholas D.; Caputo, Christine M.; Miner, Douglas G.; Winokur, Patricia L.; Klinzman, Donna; McKee, Janice; Pilar, Christine; Ward, Patricia A.; Gillham, Martha H.; Haulman, N. Jean; Stapleton, Jack T.; Iadonato, Shawn P.

2007-01-01

201

Nosocomial infection of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in eastern Iran: case report.  

PubMed

An outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever occurred in the county of Birjand in eastern Iran in November 2011. Four cases were involved in this outbreak. Two patients died after admission to hospital, one of whom was a nurse who acquired the infection nosocomially, and the others were treated successfully. PMID:23266037

Chinikar, Sadegh; Shayesteh, Majid; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Jalali, Tahmineh; Rasi Varaie, Fereshteh Sadat; Rafigh, Mahboubeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman

2013-01-01

202

Acta Tropica 104 (2007) 17 Surveillance of dengue fever cases using a novel  

E-print Network

population sampling method in Trinidad, West Indies: the cardinal points approach Dave D. Chadeea,, Rohit, Trinidad and Tobago b Ministry of Health, 63 Park Street, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago c Center 100 suspected dengue fever (DF) cases in county St. Patrick, Trinidad, West Indies. From the 30

Severson, David

203

Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Complicated with Pregnancy: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Hantaviruses cause two forms of human disease: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus infection can occur in pregnant women and it can have an influence on the maternal and fetal outcomes, although this is a rare finding even in endemic areas. We describe here a recent case of HFRS complicating pregnancy. PMID:16913449

Choi, Byung-Don

2006-01-01

204

A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Envelope Protein of Chimeric Yellow Fever-Dengue 1 Vaccine Virus Reduces Neurovirulence for Suckling Mice and Viremia\\/Viscerotropism for Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chimeric yellow fever-dengue 1 (ChimeriVax-DEN1) virus was produced by the transfection of Vero cells with chimeric in vitro RNA transcripts. The cell culture supernatant was subjected to plaque purification for the identification of a vaccine candidate without mutations. Of 10 plaque-purified clones, 1 containing no mutation (clone J) was selected for production of the vaccine virus. During subsequent cell

F. Guirakhoo; Z. Zhang; G. Myers; B. W. Johnson; K. Pugachev; R. Nichols; N. Brown; I. Levenbook; K. Draper; S. Cyrek; J. Lang; C. Fournier; B. Barrere; S. Delagrave; T. P. Monath

2004-01-01

205

RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE-BLIND, PHASE III, PIVOTAL FIELD TRIAL OF THE COMPARATIVE IMMUNOGENICITY, SAFETY, AND TOLERABILITY OF TWO YELLOW FEVER 17D VACCINES (ARILVAX™ AND YF-VAX) IN HEALTHY INFANTS AND CHILDREN IN PERU  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a randomized, double-blind, phase III yellow fever (YF) vaccine trial among 1,107 healthy children in Sullana in northern Peru. The safety and efficacy (by measurement of geometric mean neutralizing antibody titer responses) were determined for two YF vaccines, ARILVAX™ (n 738) and YF-VAX (n 369). Serocon- version rates were higher (94.9%) in ARILVAX™ than in YF-VAX (90.6%) recipients.

VIVIAN E. BELMUSTO-WORN; JOSE L. SANCHEZ; KAREN MCCARTHY; RICHARD NICHOLS; CHRISTIAN T. BAUTISTA; ALAN J. MAGILL; GIOVANNA PASTOR-CAUNA; CARLOS ECHEVARRIA; VICTOR A. LAGUNA-TORRES; BILLEY K. SAMAME; MARIA E. BALDEON; JAMES P. BURANS; JAMES G. OLSON; PHILIP BEDFORD; SCOTT KITCHENER; THOMAS P. MONATH

206

Viremia and Immunogenicity in Nonhuman Primates of a Tetravalent Yellow Fever–Dengue Chimeric Vaccine: Genetic Reconstructions, Dose Adjustment, and Antibody Responses against Wild-type Dengue Virus Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chimeric yellow fever (YF)–dengue (DEN) viruses (ChimeriVax–DEN) were reconstructed to correct amino acid substitutions within the envelope genes of original constructs described by Guirakhoo et al. (2001, J. Virol. 75, 7290–7304). Viruses were analyzed and compared to the previous constructs containing mutations in terms of their growth kinetics in Vero cells, neurovirulence in mice, and immunogenicity in monkeys as monovalent

F. Guirakhoo; K. Pugachev; J. Arroyo; C. Miller; Z.-X. Zhang; R. Weltzin; K. Georgakopoulos; J. Catalan; S. Ocran; K. Draper; T. P. Monath

2002-01-01

207

Immunogenicity, Genetic Stability, and Protective Efficacy of a Recombinant, Chimeric Yellow Fever-Japanese Encephalitis Virus (ChimeriVax-JE) as a Live, Attenuated Vaccine Candidate against Japanese Encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine virus, having a 60-year history of safe and effective use, is an ideal vector to deliver heterologous genes from other medically important flaviviruses. A chimeric YF\\/Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (ChimeriVax-JE virus) was constructed by insertion of the premembrane and envelope (prME) genes of an attenuated human vaccine strain (SA14–14-2) of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus between

F. Guirakhoo; Z.-X. Zhang; T. J. Chambers; S. Delagrave; J. Arroyo; A. D. T. Barrett; T. P. Monath

1999-01-01

208

Detection of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever from clinical cases in Ethiopian cattle.  

PubMed

Mucoid nasal discharge, loss of weight, decreased milk production, diarrhoea, salivation, dyspnoea, fever, lacrimation, bilateral corneal opacity and bloody urine were observed in cattle located in the Arbe Gona district of southern Ethiopia. The disease was associated with a high case fatality rate: diseased cattle died within four to five days after showing clinical signs. The clinical presentation, gross pathological observations, histopathological findings and epidemiological data strongly suggested malignant catarrhal fever. Subsequently, the ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2) DNA polymerase (UL30) gene was detected in pathological tissue samples using pan-herpesvirus nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first report of a diagnostic investigation resulting in the detection of ovine OvHV-2 in cattle and confirming the existence of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in Ethiopia. PMID:24761736

Gelaye, E; Mekonnen, G A; Jenberie, S; Ayelet, G

2013-12-01

209

Substitution of Wild-Type Yellow Fever Asibi Sequences for 17D Vaccine Sequences in ChimeriVax–Dengue 4 Does Not Enhance Infection of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

To address concerns that a flavivirus vaccine/wild-type recombinant virus might have a high mosquito infectivity phenotype, the yellow fever virus (YFV) 17D backbone of the ChimeriVax– dengue 4 virus was replaced with the corresponding gene sequences of the virulent YFV Asibi strain. Field-collected and laboratory-colonized Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were fed on blood containing each of the viruses under investigation and held for 14 days after infection. Infection and dissemination rates were based on antigen detection in titrated body or head triturates. Our data indicate that, even in the highly unlikely event of recombination or substantial backbone reversion, virulent sequences do not enhance the transmissibility of ChimeriVax viruses. In light of the low-level viremias that have been observed after vaccination in human volunteers coupled with low mosquito infectivity, it is predicted that the risk of mosquito infection and transmission of ChimeriVax vaccine recombinant/revertant viruses in nature is minimal. PMID:18266608

McGee, Charles E.; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; McElroy, Kate L.; Lang, Jean; Guy, Bruno; Decelle, Thierry; Higgs, Stephen

2008-01-01

210

Substitution of wild-type yellow fever Asibi sequences for 17D vaccine sequences in ChimeriVax-dengue 4 does not enhance infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.  

PubMed

To address concerns that a flavivirus vaccine/wild-type recombinant virus might have a high mosquito infectivity phenotype, the yellow fever virus (YFV) 17D backbone of the ChimeriVax-dengue 4 virus was replaced with the corresponding gene sequences of the virulent YFV Asibi strain. Field-collected and laboratory-colonized Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were fed on blood containing each of the viruses under investigation and held for 14 days after infection. Infection and dissemination rates were based on antigen detection in titrated body or head triturates. Our data indicate that, even in the highly unlikely event of recombination or substantial backbone reversion, virulent sequences do not enhance the transmissibility of ChimeriVax viruses. In light of the low-level viremias that have been observed after vaccination in human volunteers coupled with low mosquito infectivity, it is predicted that the risk of mosquito infection and transmission of ChimeriVax vaccine recombinant/revertant viruses in nature is minimal. PMID:18266608

McGee, Charles E; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin; Vanlandingham, Dana L; McElroy, Kate L; Lang, Jean; Guy, Bruno; Decelle, Thierry; Higgs, Stephen

2008-03-01

211

Characterization of the antigen distribution and tissue tropisms of three phenotypically distinct yellow fever virus variants in orally infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Arbovirus dissemination from the midgut of a vector mosquito is a critical step in facilitating virus transmission to a susceptible host. We previously characterized the genetic determinants of yellow fever virus (YFV) dissemination from the Aedes aegypti mosquito midgut using 2 genetically and phenotypically distinct strains of YFV: the wild-type, disseminating YFV Asibi strain and the attenuated, midgut-restricted YFV 17D vaccine strain. We examined the process of viral dissemination in YFV-infected Ae. aegypti by characterizing the tissue tropisms of 3 YF viruses in Ae. aegypti: Asibi, 17D, and a chimeric virus (17D/Asibi M-E) containing the Asibi membrane (M) and envelope (E) structural protein genes and 17D nonstructural genes. Ae. aegypti were infected orally, and whole, sectioned mosquitoes were evaluated for antigen distribution at 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days postinfection by immunohistochemical staining. Virus antigen was consistently observed in the posterior and anterior midgut, cardial epithelium, salivary glands, fat body, and nervous tissues in Asibi- and 17D/Asibi M-E-infected Ae. aegypti following 10 or 14-day extrinsic incubation, respectively. Amplification of virus in the abdominal and thoracic fat body is hypothesized to facilitate YFV infection of the Ae. aegypti salivary glands. As expected, 17D infection was generally limited to the midgut following oral infection. However, there did not appear to be a direct correlation between distribution of infection in the midgut and dissemination to the secondary tissues. PMID:18494601

McElroy, Kate L; Girard, Yvette A; McGee, Charles E; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen

2008-10-01

212

Alboserpin, a Factor Xa Inhibitor from the Mosquito Vector of Yellow Fever, Binds Heparin and Membrane Phospholipids and Exhibits Antithrombotic Activity*  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanism of factor Xa (FXa) inhibition by Alboserpin, the major salivary gland anticoagulant from the mosquito and yellow fever vector Aedes albopictus, has been characterized. cDNA of Alboserpin predicts a 45-kDa protein that belongs to the serpin family of protease inhibitors. Recombinant Alboserpin displays stoichiometric, competitive, reversible and tight binding to FXa (picomolar range). Binding is highly specific and is not detectable for FX, catalytic site-blocked FXa, thrombin, and 12 other enzymes. Alboserpin displays high affinity binding to heparin (KD ? 20 nm), but no change in FXa inhibition was observed in the presence of the cofactor, implying that bridging mechanisms did not take place. Notably, Alboserpin was also found to interact with phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine but not with phosphatidylserine. Further, annexin V (in the absence of Ca2+) or heparin outcompetes Alboserpin for binding to phospholipid vesicles, suggesting a common binding site. Consistent with its activity, Alboserpin blocks prothrombinase activity and increases both prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in vitro or ex vivo. Furthermore, Alboserpin prevents thrombus formation provoked by ferric chloride injury of the carotid artery and increases bleeding in a dose-dependent manner. Alboserpin emerges as an atypical serpin that targets FXa and displays unique phospholipid specificity. It conceivably uses heparin and phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine as anchors to increase protein localization and effective concentration at sites of injury, cell activation, or inflammation. PMID:21673107

Calvo, Eric; Mizurini, Daniella M.; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Andersen, John F.; Mans, Ben J.; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Kotsyfakis, Michail; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

2011-01-01

213

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial of the 17D Yellow Fever Virus Vaccine Given in Combination with Immune Globulin or Placebo: Comparative Viremia and Immunogenicity  

PubMed Central

We evaluated whether coadministration of the yellow fever (YF) virus vaccine with human immunoglobulin (Ig) that contained YF virus-neutralizing antibodies would reduce post-vaccination viremia without compromising immunogenicity and thus, potentially mitigate YF vaccine-associated adverse events. We randomized 80 participants to receive either YF vaccine and Ig or YF vaccine and saline placebo. Participants were followed for 91 days for safety and assessments of viremia and immunogenicity. There were no differences found between the two groups in the proportion of vaccinated participants who developed viremia, seroconversion, cluster of differentiation (CD)-8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses, and cytokine responses. These results argue against one putative explanation for the increased reporting of YF vaccine side effects in recent years (i.e., a change in travel clinic practice after 1996 when hepatitis A prophylaxis with vaccine replaced routine use of pre-travel Ig, thus potentially removing an incidental YF vaccine-attenuating effect of anti-YF virus antibodies present in Ig) (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00254826). PMID:23208880

Edupuganti, Srilatha; Eidex, Rachel B.; Keyserling, Harry; Akondy, Rama S.; Lanciotti, Robert; Orenstein, Walter; del Rio, Carlos; Pan, Yi; Querec, Troy; Lipman, Harvey; Barrett, Alan; Ahmed, Rafi; Teuwen, Dirk; Cetron, Martin; Mulligan, Mark J.

2013-01-01

214

Birth of Three Stowaway-like MITE Families via Microhomology-Mediated Miniaturization of a Tc1/Mariner Element in the Yellow Fever Mosquito  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic genomes contain numerous DNA transposons that move by a cut-and-paste mechanism. The majority of these elements are self-insufficient and dependent on their autonomous relatives to transpose. Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are often the most numerous nonautonomous DNA elements in a higher eukaryotic genome. Little is known about the origin of these MITE families as few of them are accompanied by their direct ancestral elements in a genome. Analyses of MITEs in the yellow fever mosquito identified its youngest MITE family, designated as Gnome, that contains at least 116 identical copies. Genome-wide search for direct ancestral autonomous elements of Gnome revealed an elusive single copy Tc1/Mariner-like element, named as Ozma, that encodes a transposase with a DD37E triad motif. Strikingly, Ozma also gave rise to two additional MITE families, designated as Elf and Goblin. These three MITE families were derived at different times during evolution and bear internal sequences originated from different regions of Ozma. Upon close inspection of the sequence junctions, the internal deletions during the formation of these three MITE families always occurred between two microhomologous sites (6–8 bp). These results suggest that multiple MITE families may originate from a single ancestral autonomous element, and formation of MITEs can be mediated by sequence microhomology. Ozma and its related MITEs are exceptional candidates for the long sought-after endogenous active transposon tool in genetic control of mosquitoes. PMID:24068652

Yang, Guojun; Fattash, Isam; Lee, Chia-Ni; Liu, Kun; Cavinder, Brad

2013-01-01

215

Three novel families of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements are associated with genes of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes?aegypti  

PubMed Central

Three novel families of transposable elements, Wukong, Wujin, and Wuneng, are described in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Their copy numbers range from 2,100 to 3,000 per haploid genome. There are high degrees of sequence similarity within each family, and many structural but not sequence similarities between families. The common structural characteristics include small size, no coding potential, terminal inverted repeats, potential to form a stable secondary structure, A+T richness, and putative 2- to 4-bp A+T-biased specific target sites. Evidence of previous mobility is presented for the Wukong elements. Elements of these three families are associated with 7 of 16 fully or partially sequenced Ae. aegypti genes. Characteristics of these mosquito elements indicate strong similarities to the miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) recently found to be associated with plant genes. MITE-like elements have also been reported in two species of Xenopus and in Homo sapiens. This characterization of multiple families of highly repetitive MITE-like elements in an invertebrate extends the range of these elements in eukaryotic genomes. A hypothesis is presented relating genome size and organization to the presence of highly reiterated MITE families. The association of MITE-like elements with Ae. aegypti genes shows the same bias toward noncoding regions as in plants. This association has potentially important implications for the evolution of gene regulation. PMID:9207116

Tu, Zhijian

1997-01-01

216

Functional classification and central nervous projections of olfactory receptor neurons housed in antennal trichoid sensilla of female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are highly dependent on their olfactory system for, e.g. host location and identification of nectar-feeding and oviposition sites. Odours are detected by olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in hair-shaped structures, sensilla, on the antennae and maxillary palps. In order to unravel the function of the olfactory system in the yellow fever vector, Aedes aegypti, we performed single-sensillum recordings from trichoid sensilla on female antennae. These sensilla are divided into four distinct morphological types. Based on the response to a set of 16 odour compounds, we identified 18 different ORN types, housed in 10 sensillum types. The ORNs responded to behaviourally relevant olfactory cues, such as oviposition attractants and sweat-borne compounds, including 4-methylcyclohexanol and indole, respectively. Two ORNs housed in these sensilla, as well as two ORNs housed in an additional sensillum type, did not respond to any of the compounds tested. The ORNs housed in individual sensilla exhibited stereotypical pairing and displayed differences in signalling mode (excitatory and inhibitory) as well as in temporal response patterns. In addition to physiological characterization, we performed anterograde neurobiotin stainings of functionally identified ORNs in order to define the functional map among olfactory glomeruli in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe. The targeted glomeruli were compared with an established 3D map. Our data showed that the ORN types sent their axons to defined antennal lobe glomeruli in a stereotypic pattern. PMID:17880395

Ghaninia, Majid; Ignell, Rickard; Hansson, Bill S

2007-09-01

217

Regional dust storm modeling for health services: The case of valley fever  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 5 July 2011, a massive dust storm struck Phoenix, Arizona (USA), raising concerns for increased cases of valley fever (coccidioidomycosis, or, cocci). A quasi-operational experimental airborne dust forecast system predicted the event and provides model output for continuing analysis in collaboration with public health and air quality communities. An objective of this collaboration was to see if a signal in cases of valley fever in the region could be detected and traced to the storm - an American haboob. To better understand the atmospheric life cycle of cocci spores, the DREAM dust model (also herein, NMME-DREAM) was modified to simulate spore emission, transport and deposition. Inexact knowledge of where cocci-causing fungus grows, the low resolution of cocci surveillance and an overall active period for significant dust events complicate analysis of the effect of the 5 July 2011 storm. In the larger context of monthly to annual disease surveillance, valley fever statistics, when compared against PM10 observation networks and modeled airborne dust concentrations, may reveal a likely cause and effect. Details provided by models and satellites fill time and space voids in conventional approaches to air quality and disease surveillance, leading to land-atmosphere modeling and remote sensing that clearly mark a path to advance valley fever epidemiology, surveillance and risk avoidance.

Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Galgiani, John N.; Pejanovic, Goran; Petkovic, Slavko; Vujadinovic, Mirjam; Vukovic, Ana; Dacic, Milan; DiBiase, Scott; Prasad, Anup; El-Askary, Hesham

2014-09-01

218

A case of central nervous system infection due to a novel Sandfly Fever Virus (SFV) variant: Sandfly Fever Turkey Virus (SFTV).  

PubMed

We present a case of viral encephalitis due to Sandfly Fever Turkey Virus (SFTV), a novel phlebovirus genetically related to but distinct from Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus (SFSV), recently identified in a 63-year-old female, via consensus PCR and sequencing. SFTV was initially characterized in 2010 in samples from outbreaks of febrile diseases occurred during 2007-2008 and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an SFTV-related central nervous system (CNS) infection. PMID:22336084

Ergunay, Koray; Ismayilova, Vefa; Colpak, Ilksen A; Kansu, Tulay; Us, Durdal

2012-05-01

219

Live virus vaccines based on a yellow fever vaccine backbone: standardized template with key considerations for a risk/benefit assessment.  

PubMed

The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viruses inserted into the backbone of another virus (so-called "chimeric virus vaccines"). Many viral vector vaccines are in advanced clinical trials. The first such vaccine to be approved for marketing (to date in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines) is a vaccine against the flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis (JE), which employs a licensed vaccine (yellow fever 17D) as a vector. In this vaccine, two envelope proteins (prM-E) of YF 17D virus were exchanged for the corresponding genes of JE virus, with additional attenuating mutations incorporated into the JE gene inserts. Similar vaccines have been constructed by inserting prM-E genes of dengue and West Nile into YF 17D virus and are in late stage clinical studies. The dengue vaccine is, however, more complex in that it requires a mixture of four live vectors each expressing one of the four dengue serotypes. This vaccine has been evaluated in multiple clinical trials. No significant safety concerns have been found. The Phase 3 trials met their endpoints in terms of overall reduction of confirmed dengue fever, and, most importantly a significant reduction in severe dengue and hospitalization due to dengue. However, based on results that have been published so far, efficacy in preventing serotype 2 infection is less than that for the other three serotypes. In the development of these chimeric vaccines, an important series of comparative studies of safety and efficacy were made using the parental YF 17D vaccine virus as a benchmark. In this paper, we use a standardized template describing the key characteristics of the novel flavivirus vaccine vectors, in comparison to the parental YF 17D vaccine. The template facilitates scientific discourse among key stakeholders by increasing the transparency and comparability of information. The Brighton Collaboration V3SWG template may also be useful as a guide to the evaluation of other recombinant viral vector vaccines. PMID:25446819

Monath, Thomas P; Seligman, Stephen J; Robertson, James S; Guy, Bruno; Hayes, Edward B; Condit, Richard C; Excler, Jean Louis; Mac, Lisa Marie; Carbery, Baevin; Chen, Robert T

2015-01-01

220

A Case of Typhoid Fever with Hepatic Granulomas and Enteritis  

PubMed Central

The common histopathologic hepatic manifestations in patients infected with Salmonella include cloudy swelling and balloon degeneration with vacuolation of the hepatocytes and steatosis. Hepatic granulomas are a very rare finding, so far reported in very few cases. We report a 64-year-old patient with Salmonella enteritis who was found to have multiple 1.4 to 1.6?cm hypoechoic liver masses on ultrasound of the abdomen which on biopsy revealed hepatic granulomas. This case highlights the importance of keeping the differential diagnosis of Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) in mind in a patient with hepatic granulomas.

Narechania, Shraddha; Duran, Marc; Karivedu, Vidhya; Gopalakrishna, K. V.

2015-01-01

221

Impact of road networks on the distribution of dengue fever cases in Trinidad, West Indies.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of road networks on the distribution of dengue fever cases in Trinidad, West Indies. All confirmed cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) observed during 1998 were georeferenced and spatially located on a road map of Trinidad using Geographic Information Systems software. A new digital geographic layer representing these cases was created and the distances from these cases to the nearest classified road category (5 classifications based on a functional utility system) were examined. The distance from each spatially located DHF case to the nearest road in each of the 5 road subsets was determined and then subjected to an ANOVA and t-test to determine levels of association between minor road networks (especially 3rd and 4th class roads) and DHF cases and found DHF cases were located away from forests, especially 5th class roads). The frequency of DHF cases to different road classes was: 0% (1st class roads), 7% (2nd class roads), 32% (3rd class roads), 57% (4th class roads) and 4% (5th class road). The data clearly demonstrated that both class 3 and class 4 roads account for 89% of nearby dengue cases. These results represent the first evidence of dengue cases being found restricted between forested areas and major highways and would be useful when planning and implementing control strategies for dengue and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. PMID:22609547

Mahabir, R S; Severson, D W; Chadee, D D

2012-09-01

222

Fever as a first manifestation of advanced gastric adenosquamous carcinoma: A case report  

PubMed Central

Gastric adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) is a rare type of gastric cancer. It is a mixed neoplasm, consisting of glandular cells and squamous cells. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, thus carrying a poor prognosis. We describe a case of a 73-year-old male, who presented with refractory fever and an intra-abdominal mass on imaging. He underwent a laparoscopic exploration followed by a successful totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. Postoperative pathology revealed primary gastric ASC (T4aN0M0). The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy with S1 and is alive 20 mo after surgery without recurrence. This is the first case of advanced gastric ASC with fever as the initial presentation treated with totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy reported in the English literature. PMID:25110448

Ajoodhea, Harsha; Zhang, Ren-Chao; Xu, Xiao-Wu; Jin, Wei-Wei; Chen, Ke; He, Yong-Tao; Mou, Yi-Ping

2014-01-01

223

Activity of T-705 in a hamster model of yellow fever virus infection in comparison with that of a chemically related compound, T-1106.  

PubMed

Treatment with the nucleoside analog T-1106 was previously shown to be effective in a hamster model of yellow fever virus (YFV) disease, even though it had only slight activity in cell culture. In the study described in this report, the activity of T-705, a chemically related compound currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of influenza (FDANews 4:1, 2007), was tested against YFV in cell culture and in the hamster model. The antiviral efficacy of T-705 in cell culture occurred at a concentration of 330 microM, which was more than threefold lower than the concentration at which T-1106 had antiviral efficacy, as determined by a virus yield reduction assay and confirmed by a luciferase-based ATP detection assay. Time-of-addition studies revealed that addition of T-705, T-1106, or ribavirin at 0, 4, 8, or 12 h after virus challenge was effective in inhibiting virus in Vero cells, suggesting that these three agents have similar mechanisms of action in cell culture. Because of its more potent activity in cell culture, it was anticipated that T-705 treatment of hamsters infected with YFV would result in protection from disease. Significant improvements in survival and disease parameters were seen in infected animals when T-705 was administered orally at a dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg of body weight per day when it was given twice a day for 8 days. Significant improvements were also observed with a dose of 400 mg/kg/day when treatment initiation was delayed as late as 3 days after virus inoculation. Although the dose of T-705 required for efficacy in hamsters is higher than that of T-1106 required for efficacy, T-705 treatment is effective in significantly improving disease parameters in YFV-infected hamsters, which may indicate its potential utility in the treatment of YFV disease in humans. PMID:18955536

Julander, Justin G; Shafer, Kristiina; Smee, Donald F; Morrey, John D; Furuta, Yousuke

2009-01-01

224

Binding of a fluorescence reporter and a ligand to an odorant-binding protein of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), also named pheromone-binding proteins when the odorant is a pheromone, are essential for insect olfaction. They solubilize odorants that reach the port of entry of the olfactory system, the pore tubules in antennae and other olfactory appendages. Then, OBPs transport these hydrophobic compounds through an aqueous sensillar lymph to receptors embedded on dendritic membranes of olfactory receptor neurons. Structures of OBPs from mosquito species have shed new light on the mechanism of transport, although there is considerable debate on how they deliver odorant to receptors. An OBP from the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, binds the hydrophobic moiety of a mosquito oviposition pheromone (MOP) on the edge of its binding cavity. Likewise, it has been demonstrated that the orthologous protein from the malaria mosquito binds the insect repellent DEET on a similar edge of its binding pocket. A high school research project was aimed at testing whether the orthologous protein from the yellow fever mosquito, AaegOBP1, binds DEET and other insect repellents, and MOP was used as a positive control. Binding assays using the fluorescence reporter N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine (NPN) were inconclusive. However, titration of NPN fluorescence emission in AaegOBP1 solution with MOP led to unexpected and intriguing results. Quenching was observed in the initial phase of titration, but addition of higher doses of MOP led to a stepwise increase in fluorescence emission coupled with a blue shift, which can be explained at least in part by formation of MOP micelles to house stray NPN molecules. PMID:25671088

Leal, Gabriel M.; Leal, Walter S.

2015-01-01

225

Pathology Case Study: Fevers and Mental Status Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman underwent an allogenic bone marrow transplant but did not respond well. Visitors are given the autopsy information and patient history, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Martinez, A. Julio (Augusto Julio)

226

Mediterranean spotted fever and encephalitis: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is a disease caused by Rickettsia conorii and transmitted by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It is widely distributed through southern Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. It is an emerging or a reemerging disease in some regions. Countries of the Mediterranean basin, such as Portugal, have noticed an increased incidence of MSF over the past 10 years. It was believed that MSF was a benign disease associated with a mortality rate of 1-3% before the antimicrobial drug era. It was called benign summer typhus. Severe forms were described in 1981, and the mortality rate reached 32% in Portugal in 1997. However, neurological manifestations associated with brain lesions are a rare event. We describe the case of a man with fever, maculopapular rash, a black spot, and hemisensory loss including the face on the left side of the body with brain lesions in the imaging studies. PMID:21879306

Duque, Vitor; Ventura, Conceição; Seixas, Diana; Barai, Arnaldo; Mendonça, Nuno; Martins, Joana; da Cunha, Saraiva; Meliço-Silvestre, António

2012-02-01

227

[Chikungunya fever in Mexico: confirmed case and notes on the epidemiologic response].  

PubMed

Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is a viral disease transmitted to human beings by the same vector as dengue -the Aedes mosquito. Besides fever and severe pain in the joints, it produces other symptoms such as myalgias, headache, nausea, fatigue and exanthema. There is no specific treatment for it; the therapeutic management of patients focuses on symptom relief. Historically, outbreaks of large proportions have been reported; even since 2010 it was considered to be a potential emerging epidemic. In 2013 it was introduced into the islands of the Caribbean, and it has recently been reported in the American continent. This paper describes the first confirmed case of chikungunya in Mexico -in the municipality of Tlajomulco de Zúñiga, Jalisco, in May, 2014-, which was imported from the Caribbean island of Antigua and Barbuda by a 39 year-old woman. PMID:25604181

Rivera-Ávila, Roberto Carlos

2014-08-01

228

[Fever of unknown origin and detection of Bartonella henselae IgG seropositivity: a case report].  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae, is a gram-negative bacterium which causes cat scratch disease (CSD) in man. There are sporadic case reports of CSD in Turkey. Cats play an important reservoir role for B.henselae transmission to man. In this report, a cat owner with fever of unknown origin was presented. Bartonella spp. was isolated from the blood culture of cat which had chronic progressive gingivostomatitis. B.henselae was identified by amplification of a region of citrate synthase (gltA) gene by using polymerase cha-in reaction and typed as genotype I by restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Following this identification the cat owner was investigated for the history of CSD and it was learned that he had a history of fever of unknown origin. The investigation of the patient's serum for the presence of specific B.henselae antibodies by immune fluorescence antibody test (Vircell, Spain) revealed B.henselae IgG type antibodies at a titer of 1:128. Gingivostomatitis in cats may act as a reservoir for Bartonella infection. Thus during the evaluation of patients with fever of unknown origin, Bartonella infections should be considered and possible contact with cats/dogs should be investigated. PMID:21064000

Celebi, Bekir; Yalç?n, Ebru; Babür, Cahit

2010-07-01

229

Structural, genomic, and phylogenetic analysis of Lian, a novel family of non-LTR retrotransposons in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

A retrotransposon named Lian-Aa1 was discovered in an intron of an AaHR3-1 gene of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. This retrotransposon contained a long open reading frame with 1,219 amino acids that included endonuclease, reverse transcriptase, and RNase H domains. It was shown that in the Rock strain of Ae. aegypti, there were up to 1,380 copies of Lian elements, equivalent to 0.8% of the entire genome. Five additional copies of Lian elements were isolated, mapped by restriction digestion, and partially sequenced. The 5' and 3' ends of the Lian family were determined by comparing the terminal sequences of the six copies and were subsequently confirmed by the identification of putative target duplications flanking Lian-Aa1 and Lian-Aa2. The Lian family is likely a novel family of non-long-terminal-repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons that terminate in a repeat of (CTGA-TAC)2. On average, the six copies of Lian elements showed only 0.6% sequence divergence at the nucleotide level in both a 735-bp region at the 5' end and a 1,124-bp coding region. Genomic Southern blots also revealed a very high degree of similarity among hundreds of Lian elements, suggesting very recent activity of Lian. Furthermore, all six analyzed Lian elements were closely associated with one or more different families of repetitive elements. It is possible that these associations could reflect the complex relationship between Lian elements and the rest of the Ae. aegypti genome. Phylogenetic analyses based on the reverse transcriptase, domains of 36 non-LTR retrotransposons including Lian-Aa1 identified five major subgroups that were supported by bootstrap replications. In contrast to the majority of non-LTR retrotransposons, Lian-Aa1 has an RNase H domain that is similar to a few other non-LTR retrotransposons and some retroviruses, which is consistent with the previously proposed independent assortment of different domains during the evolution of retroelements. PMID:9656485

Tu, Z; Isoe, J; Guzova, J A

1998-07-01

230

Immunogenicity of Seven New Recombinant Yellow Fever Viruses 17D Expressing Fragments of SIVmac239 Gag, Nef, and Vif in Indian Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

An effective vaccine remains the best solution to stop the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Cellular immune responses have been repeatedly associated with control of viral replication and thus may be an important element of the immune response that must be evoked by an efficacious vaccine. Recombinant viral vectors can induce potent T-cell responses. Although several viral vectors have been developed to deliver HIV genes, only a few have been advanced for clinical trials. The live-attenuated yellow fever vaccine virus 17D (YF17D) has many properties that make it an attractive vector for AIDS vaccine regimens. YF17D is well tolerated in humans and vaccination induces robust T-cell responses that persist for years. Additionally, methods to manipulate the YF17D genome have been established, enabling the generation of recombinant (r)YF17D vectors carrying genes from unrelated pathogens. Here, we report the generation of seven new rYF17D viruses expressing fragments of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239 Gag, Nef, and Vif. Studies in Indian rhesus macaques demonstrated that these live-attenuated vectors replicated in vivo, but only elicited low levels of SIV-specific cellular responses. Boosting with recombinant Adenovirus type-5 (rAd5) vectors resulted in robust expansion of SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, particularly those targeting Vif. Priming with rYF17D also increased the frequency of CD4+ cellular responses in rYF17D/rAd5-immunized macaques compared to animals that received rAd5 only. The effect of the rYF17D prime on the breadth of SIV-specific T-cell responses was limited and we also found evidence that some rYF17D vectors were more effective than others at priming SIV-specific T-cell responses. Together, our data suggest that YF17D – a clinically relevant vaccine vector – can be used to prime AIDS virus-specific T-cell responses in heterologous prime boost regimens. However, it will be important to optimize rYF17D-based vaccine regimens to ensure maximum delivery of all immunogens in a multivalent vaccine. PMID:23336000

Martins, Mauricio A.; Bonaldo, Myrna C.; Rudersdorf, Richard A.; Piaskowski, Shari M.; Rakasz, Eva G.; Weisgrau, Kim L.; Furlott, Jessica R.; Eernisse, Christopher M.; Veloso de Santana, Marlon G.; Hidalgo, Bertha; Friedrich, Thomas C.; Chiuchiolo, Maria J.; Parks, Christopher L.; Wilson, Nancy A.; Allison, David B.; Galler, Ricardo; Watkins, David I.

2013-01-01

231

Amyloid Goiter Due to Familial Mediterranean Fever in a Patient with Byler Syndrome: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background: Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF), also inherited with autosomal recessive trait, is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, arthritis, and serositis. Congenital Byler Syndrome (Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis) inherited with autosomal recessive trait and characterized by defective secretion of bile acids. FMF associated Amyloid A deposition occurs in many tissues and organs, but amyloid goiter is a rare entity that leads to enlargement and dysfunction of the thyroid. Case Report: We present a rare case of 24 year old male patient who had liver and kidney transplantation due to Byler Syndrome and secondary amyloidosis related to FMF, diagnosed as rapidly growing large amyloid goiter. Deposits of extracellular amyloid and dense adipose metaplasia diagnostic for amyloid goiter are determined upon histopathological examination of thyroidectomy material. Conclusion: When goiter was detected in cases with history of systemic amyloidosis and rapidly growing goitre, amyloid goiter should be remembered at first. This case is unique since two autosomal genetic disorders are together in the same patient and important as it emphasizes the consequences of consanguineous marriage, early diagnosis and treatment compliance of FMF and the awareness of amyloid goiter in patients followed by primary care physicians and healthcare professionals. PMID:25337425

Ci?erli, Özlem; Ünal, Asl? Do?ruk; Par?ldar, Hülya; Demiralay, Ebru; Tarç?n, Özlem

2014-01-01

232

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Trinidad and Tobago: A Case for a Conservative Approach to Platelet Transfusion  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever is endemic to Trinidad and Tobago. A retrospective analysis of all adult admissions at a tertiary hospital in Trinidad treated for dengue during January 1–December 31, 2008 was performed. A total of 186 patients were treated during this period: 98.9% (184) of the patients were thrombocytopenic; 45.2% were severely thrombocytopenic; 13 patients showed development of minor hemorrhage and only one case of major hemorrhage; platelet transfusion was given for 7% (13) of the cases; and 6 cases for which platelet transfusion was given did not show evidence of plasma leakage (12 of these cases did not show evidence of hemorrhage). There was a strong association between the lowest platelet value and hemoconcentration (?2 = 13.16, P < 0.025). No association was found between giving a platelet transfusion and hemoconcentration or hemorrhage. Thrombocytopenia seen in dengue resolves spontaneously and independent of any transfusion used. PMID:22403331

Sharma, Anu; Charles, Kenneth; Chadee, Dave; Teelucksingh, Surujpaul

2012-01-01

233

Pathology Case Study: Intermittent Confusion, Fever of Unknown Origin, and Lower Extremity Weakness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a hematopathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 67-year-old male has intermittent confusion, fever of unknown origin, and lower extremity weakness. Visitors are given microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Chung, Wen-Wei; Contis, Lydia C.; Gollin, Susanne M.; Martinez, A. Julio (Augusto Julio); Shekhter-Levin, Sofia

2009-08-06

234

Chapare Virus, a Newly Discovered Arenavirus Isolated from a Fatal Hemorrhagic Fever Case in Bolivia  

PubMed Central

A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF) cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004. Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs. A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá). RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. The virus was shown to be most closely related to Sabiá virus, but with 26% and 30% nucleotide difference in the S and L segments, and 26%, 28%, 15% and 22% amino acid differences for the L, Z, N, and GP proteins, respectively, indicating the virus represents a newly discovered arenavirus, for which we propose the name Chapare virus. In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia. PMID:18421377

Delgado, Simon; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Agudo, Roberto; Blair, Patrick J.; Vallejo, Efrain; Albariño, César G.; Vargas, Jorge; Comer, James A.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Olson, James G.; Nichol, Stuart T.

2008-01-01

235

A case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever with normal laboratory findings.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by Nairovirus, of the family Bunyaviridae. This is the first case report of a confirmed CCHF case without laboratory abnormality. A 36-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with the complaints of fever, chills, myalgia and vomiting. She was living in a CCHF-endemic region and had received a tick bite ten days previously. Her complaints had started five days after the tick bite, and bleeding of the nose and vagen followed. Under laboratory analysis, serum white blood cell (WBC) was 7300/mm3, haemoglobin (Hb)11.9 gr/dL, platelet (Plt) count 293000/mm3, aspartate transaminase (AST) was 23 U/L, alanine transaminase (ALT) 14 U/L, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 139 U/L, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) 39 U/L, INR 0.8 and APTT 26.2 seconds. Based on these clinical and epidemiological findings, a diagnosis of CCHF infection was suspected, and the diagnosis of CCHF was confirmed with a blood sample tested by TaqMan-based one-step RT-PCR positivity and IgM antibody positivity. We suggest that patients from an endemic region who have typical epidemiological and clinical findings should be evaluated as a possible case for CCHF even if the laboratory findings are not compatible. PMID:25269965

Sari, Tugba; Hatipoglu, Cigdem Ataman

2014-09-01

236

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis presenting as fever of unknown origin: case report  

PubMed Central

Background Fever of unknown origin (FUO) can be defined as a body temperature higher than 38.3°C on several occasions over more than 3 weeks, the diagnosis of which remains uncertain after 1 week of evaluation. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The highest incidence of ADEM is observed during childhood and it usually occurs following a viral or bacterial infection or, more rarely, following a vaccination, or without a preceding cause. Case presentation Here, we describe an atypical case of ADEM that initially manifested as several weeks of FUO in a fifteen years old boy. Conclusions This case report suggests a new possible syndromic association between ADEM and FUO, which should be considered in the clinical examination of patients with FUO, especially in the presence of also modest neurologic or neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:22074226

2011-01-01

237

Marburg hemorrhagic fever: report of a case studied by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.  

PubMed

The histologic and ultrastructural findings in a fatal human case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever are reported. Marburg virus was isolated from fluids and tissues and was identified in tissues by immunohistochemistry and electron and immunoelectron microscopy. The distribution of viral antigen by light level immunohistochemistry correlated with histologic lesions and also with the ultrastructural localization of virions. The tissue distribution and lesions of Marburg virus in this patient were consistent with the disease described in other human Marburg infections. Immunocytochemistry and ultrastructural examination revealed several previously unreported findings. A striking predilection for viral infection of the pancreatic islet cells was noted. In other tissues, macrophages were the primary cellular target for Marburg virus infection, with hepatocytes, adrenal cortical and medullary cells, and fibroblast-like cells also serving as important sites of viral replication. This case demonstrates the value of transmission electron microscopy as a tool for assisting in the definitive diagnosis of Marburg or Ebola hemorrhagic fever, as well as providing insight into the pathogenesis of these agents. PMID:9491211

Geisbert, T W; Jaax, N K

1998-01-01

238

Non-choroidal yellow melanoma showing positive staining with Sudan Black consistent with the presence of lipofuscin: a case report.  

PubMed

A case of a predominantly yellow primary superficial spreading melanoma arising on the back of a 44-year-old woman is presented. Possible causes of the clinical and dermatoscopic yellow color are discussed. Staining with the histochemical stain, Sudan Black, revealed a differential uptake compared to a closely matched control melanoma. We speculate that the clinical and dermatoscopic yellow color could be due to the presence of increased amounts of the pigment lipofuscin, which is known to produce subtle orange color in some choroidal melanomas. PMID:24855574

Penouil, Marie Hélène Jegou; Gourhant, Jean-Yves; Segretin, Catherine; Weedon, David; Rosendahl, Cliff

2014-04-01

239

Non-choroidal yellow melanoma showing positive staining with Sudan Black consistent with the presence of lipofuscin: a case report  

PubMed Central

A case of a predominantly yellow primary superficial spreading melanoma arising on the back of a 44-year-old woman is presented. Possible causes of the clinical and dermatoscopic yellow color are discussed. Staining with the histochemical stain, Sudan Black, revealed a differential uptake compared to a closely matched control melanoma. We speculate that the clinical and dermatoscopic yellow color could be due to the presence of increased amounts of the pigment lipofuscin, which is known to produce subtle orange color in some choroidal melanomas. PMID:24855574

Penouil, Marie Hélène Jegou; Gourhant, Jean-Yves; Segretin, Catherine; Weedon, David; Rosendahl, Cliff

2014-01-01

240

A Case of Q Fever Prosthetic Joint Infection and Description of an Assay for Detection of Coxiella burnetii  

PubMed Central

We present the first published case of Coxiella burnetii prosthetic joint infection. Diagnosis was established with PCR and culture of periprosthetic tissue and synovial fluid (and serology). A novel PCR assay is described herein. Q fever should be considered in patients with prosthetic joint infection without an identified pathogen. PMID:23077126

Tande, Aaron J.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Raoult, Didier; Sim, Franklin H.; Berbari, Elie F.

2013-01-01

241

Fulminant hepatic failure and acute renal failure as manifestations of concurrent Q fever and cytomegalovirus infection: a case report.  

PubMed

Background Coxiella burnetii is an obligate bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) commonly exists as a latent infection in healthy people. Co-infection with both pathogens is rare.Case presentationWe report an immunocompetent 53-year-old male farmer who presented with fulminant hepatic failure and acute renal failure. Empiric antibiotic treatment with intravenous penicillin G and levofloxacin were given, but hepatic and renal functions continued to deteriorate. A subsequent test of serum immunoglobulin M was positive for CMV, and administration of gancyclovir led to gradual recovery. A diagnosis of acute Q fever was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) on paired serum samples to demonstrate a significant rise in antibody titers. Antibiotic treatment was adjusted accordingly.ConclusionCMV co-infection should be considered in patients with acute Q fever when they do not respond to standard antimicrobial agents. PMID:25487053

Hsu, Jin-Yi; Tsai, Chen-Chi; Tseng, Kuo-Chih

2014-12-01

242

[A case report of acute Q fever showing Kawasaki disease-like symptoms in a 9-year-old girl].  

PubMed

A 9-year-old girl developing fever and hyperemia of both bulbar conjunctiva 5 days before admission to the Saitama Children's Medical Center after antibiotics proved ineffective was found on admission to have general fatigue and a temperature of 39 degrees C. Physical examination showed hyperemia of the bulbar conjunctiva, fissures of the lips, redness of the pharynx, and swelling of the cervical lymph nodes. Laboratory tests detected neutrophilia (11,200/microL), mild anemia (11.4g/dL), thrombocytopenia (110,000/microL), and elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase (242IU/L), alanine aminotransferase (328IU/L), and C-rective protein (25.2 mg/dL). Autoantibodies such as anti-nuclear, anti-SS-A/Ro, and anti-Jo-1 were also found. Echocardiography showed no abnormality of the coronary arteries. She was diagnosed as having incomplete Kawasaki disease on day 7 of illness, necessitating that a high dose of immunoglobulin be given intravenously. Her temperature dropped temporarily to 37 degrees C, but she developed erythema of the cheek and fever. Intravenous immunoglobulin was restarted, and minocycline introduced because her daily contact with a pet cat indicated richettsial infection such as Q fever. Mild fever, muscle pain, and elevated C-reactive protein did not improve, but clinical signs and symptoms gradually lessened after ibuprofen was given, then disappeared. A definitive diagnosis of Q fever was made through an over 4-fold rise in phase II IgG antibody titers against Coxiella burnetii, titer of less than 1 : 16 on day 14 of illness, and titer of 1 : 256 on day 34. This case study describes on atypical case of Q fever with clinical manifestations mimicking Kawasaki disease. PMID:19522308

Ohgimi, Chikara; Tanaka, Risa; Oh-ishi, Tsutomu

2009-05-01

243

Clinical quiz: A pediatric case presenting with fever and diffuse myalgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a multisystem disease characterized by recurrent polyserositis episodes seen in certain ethnic groups. In recent years the clinical picture of FMF has been expanded and severe myalgia is a frequently recognized component of the syndrome. Protracted febrile myalgia syndrome (PFMS), characterized by severe paralyzing myalgia, high fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, arthritis\\/arthralgia, and transient vasculitic rashes

Alper Soylu; Ye?im ?ztürk; Belde Kasap; Nilüfer Akman; Mehmet Türkmen; Salih Kavukçu

2005-01-01

244

Modeling dengue fever risk based on socioeconomic parameters, nationality and age groups: GIS and remote sensing based case study.  

PubMed

Dengue fever (DF) and its impacts are growing environmental, economic, and health concerns in Saudi Arabia. In this study, we have attempted to model areas with humans at risk of dengue fever prevalence, depending on the spatial relationship between dengue fever cases and different socioeconomic parameters. We have developed new methods to verify the quality of neighborhoods from high resolution satellite images based on several factors such as density of houses in each neighborhood in each district, width of streets, and roof area of houses. In the absence of detailed neighborhood quality information being available for each district, we felt this factor would best approximate the reality on the ground at local scales. Socioeconomic parameters, such as population numbers, population density, and neighborhood quality were analyzed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to create a prediction model identifying levels of risk of dengue and to describe the association between DF cases and the related socio-economic factors. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize dengue fever victims among Saudis and non-Saudis in various age groups. The results show that there was a strong positive association between dengue fever cases and socioeconomic factors (R²=0.80). The prevalence among Saudis was higher compared to non-Saudis in 2006 and 2007, while the prevalence among non-Saudis was higher in 2008, 2009 and 2010. For age groups, DF was more prevalent in adults between the ages of 16 and 60, accounting for approximately 74% of all reported cases in 2006, 67% in 2007, 81% in 2008, 87% in 2009, and 81% in 2010. PMID:21906782

Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

2011-10-15

245

A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

2011-01-01

246

Pathologic Studies on Suspect Animal and Human Cases of Rift Valley Fever from an Outbreak in Eastern Africa, 2006–2007  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important viral zoonotic disease in Africa with periodic outbreaks associated with severe disease, death, and economic hardship. During the 2006–2007 outbreaks in Eastern Africa, postmortem and necropsy tissue samples from 14 animals and 20 humans clinically suspected of RVF were studied with histopathologic evaluation and immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Six animal and 11 human samples had IHC evidence of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antigens. We found that extensive hepatocellular necrosis without prominent inflammatory cell infiltrates is the most distinctive histopathologic change in liver tissues infected with RVFV. Pathologic studies on postmortem tissue samples can help establish the diagnosis of RVF, differentiating from endemic diseases with clinical manifestations similar to RVF, such as malaria, leptospirosis, or yellow fever. PMID:20682904

Shieh, Wun-Ju; Paddock, Chris D.; Lederman, Edith; Rao, Carol Y.; Gould, L. Hannah; Mohamed, Mohamed; Mosha, Fausta; Mghamba, Janeth; Bloland, Peter; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Mutonga, David; Samuel, Amwayi A.; Guarner, Jeannette; Breiman, Robert F.; Zaki, Sherif R.

2010-01-01

247

A climate-based spatiotemporal prediction for dengue fever epidemics: a case study in southern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dengue Fever (DF) has been identified by the World Health organization (WHO) as one of the most serious vector-borne infectious diseases in tropical and sub-tropical areas. DF has been one of the most important epidemics in Taiwan which occur annually especially in southern Taiwan during summer and autumn. Most DF studies have focused mainly on temporal DF patterns and its close association with climatic covariates, whereas few studies have investigated the spatial DF patterns (spatial dependence and clustering) and composite space-time effects of the DF epidemics. The present study proposes a spatio-temporal DF prediction approach based on stochastic Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) analysis. Core and site-specific knowledge bases are considered, including climate and health datasets under conditions of uncertainty, space-time dependence functions, and a Poisson regression model of climatic variables contributing to DF occurrences in southern Taiwan during 2007, when the highest number of DF cases was recorded in the history of Taiwan epidemics (over 2000). The obtained results show that the DF outbreaks in the study area are highly influenced by climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis can provide the required "one-week-ahead" outbreak warnings based on spatio-temporal predictions of DF distributions. Therefore, the proposed analysis can provide the Taiwan Disease Control Agency with a valuable tool to timely identify, control, and even efficiently prevent DF spreading across space-time.

Yu, H.-L.; Yang, S.-J.; Lin, Y.-C.

2012-04-01

248

Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)  

MedlinePLUS

... chronological list of known cases and outbreaks. Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Topics Transmission How do people get Marburg hemorrhagic fever? Signs and Symptoms What are the signs and ...

249

Typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Control of typhoid fever relies on clinical information, diagnosis, and an understanding for the epidemiology of the disease. Despite the breadth of work done so far, much is not known about the biology of this human-adapted bacterial pathogen and the complexity of the disease in endemic areas, especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinicians, microbiologists, and epidemiologists worldwide need to be familiar with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow surveillance and to implement control measures. PMID:25458731

Wain, John; Hendriksen, Rene S; Mikoleit, Matthew L; Keddy, Karen H; Ochiai, R Leon

2014-10-21

250

A case of adult periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome associated with endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PFAPA is an acronym for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis. This syndrome has been usually\\u000a described in pediatric patients and it generally resolves spontaneously. The endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis\\u000a (EPG) is a glomerular injury characterized by hypercellularity in glomerular lumen and is caused by post-infectious or autoimmune\\u000a diseases. In this paper, we describe the case of a 35-year-old

Massimiliano Cazzato; Rossella Neri; Niccolo Possemato; Rodolfo Puccini; Stefano Bombardieri

251

[Fever without focus and fever of unknown origin in childhood].  

PubMed

Fever is one of the most common presenting symptoms in children. In the majority of cases the underlying cause is easily diagnosed and if necessary a treatment initiated. In case of absent localising symptoms and signs (fever without a focus) investigations rapidly need to be undertaken in particular in newborns and infants. Persisting daily fever for more than two weeks are called fever of unknown origin. Diagnosis of etiology of fever of unknown origin is challenging. In approximately half of the cases an infectious cause is found; inflammatory and mailgnant diseases account for 5 to 10% of the cases. Despite a systematic and interdisciplinary approach the etiology remains unknown in up to a quarter of cases. This review discusses differential diagnoses, suggested investigations and treatment for fever without a focus and fever of unknown origin. PMID:23384985

Ritz, Nicole

2013-01-30

252

Q Fever Endocarditis in Romania: The First Cases Confirmed by Direct Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious, life-threatening disease with highly variable clinical signs, making its diagnostic a real challenge. A diagnosis is readily made if blood cultures are positive, but in 2.5 to 31% of all infective endocarditis cases, routine blood cultures are negative. In such situations, alternative diagnostic approaches are necessary. Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp. are the etiological agents of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) most frequently identified by serology. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of molecular assays, as complementary methods to the conventional serologic methods for the rapid confirmatory diagnostic of Q fever endocarditis in patients with BCNE. Currently, detection of C. burnetii by culture or an antiphase I IgG antibody titers >800 represents a major Duke criterion for defining IE, while a titers of >800 for IgG antibodies to either B. henselae or B. quintana is used for the diagnosis of endocarditis due to Bartonella spp. We used indirect immunofluorescence assays for the detection of IgG titers for C. burnetii, B. henselae and B. quintana in 57 serum samples from patients with clinical suspicion of IE. Thirty three samples originated from BCNE patients, whereas 24 were tested before obtaining the blood cultures results, which finally were positive. The results of serologic testing showed that nine out of 33 BCNE cases exhibited antiphase I C. burnetii IgG antibody titer >800, whereas none has IgG for B. henselae or B. quintana. Subsequently, we used nested-PCR assay for the amplification of C. burnetii DNA in the nine positive serum samples, and we obtained positive PCR results for all analyzed cases. Afterwards we used the DNA sequencing of amplicons for the repetitive element associated to htpAB gene to confirm the results of nested-PCR. The results of sequencing allowed us to confirm that C. burnetii is the causative microorganism responsible for BCNE. In conclusion, the nested PCR amplification followed by direct sequencing is a reliable and accurate method when applied to serum samples, and it may be used as an additional test to the serological methods for the confirmatory diagnosis of BCNE cases determined by C. burnetii. PMID:22272146

Cotar, Ani Ioana; Badescu, Daniela; Oprea, Mihaela; Dinu, Sorin; Banu, Otilia; Dobreanu, Dan; Dobreanu, Minodora; Ionac, Adina; Flonta, Mirela; Straut, Monica

2011-01-01

253

Three cases of fever of unknown origin (FUO) with acute multifocal non-bacterial osteitis (NBO) as reactive osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

Evaluation for fever of unknown origin (FUO) requires a long list of studies. Recently, the validity of PET scan in FUO evaluation has been approved for screening and qualification. Non-bacterial osteitis (NBO) refers to non-bacterial and non-specific inflammation of bone, which is usually chronic, and involves multiple bony sites. We have experienced 3 cases of FUO associated with increased symmetric multiple fluorodeoxyglucose uptake preferentially at the epiphysis of the femur and tibia on fusion Positron emission tomography/Computed tomography (PET/CT). Patients were young women, who complained of intermittent fever lasting several months, which was associated only with neutropenia and relative lymphocytosis. Bone biopsies revealed increased lymphocytes and histiocyte infiltration of the cortical bone with reactive bone marrow. With no evidence of infection, the fever showed spontaneous remission within 2 weeks of conservative treatment. We report on 3 cases of FUO with self-limited acute NBO as reactive osteomyelitis and suggest that this unique pattern on PET/CT would be helpful for FUO evaluation. PMID:21953303

Hong, Young Hoon

2013-01-01

254

Viral hemorrhagic fever cases in the country of Georgia: Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance Study results.  

PubMed

Minimal information is available on the incidence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus and hantavirus infections in Georgia. From 2008 to 2011, 537 patients with fever ? 38°C for ? 48 hours without a diagnosis were enrolled into a sentinel surveillance study to investigate the incidence of nine pathogens, including CCHF virus and hantavirus. Of 14 patients with a hemorrhagic fever syndrome, 3 patients tested positive for CCHF virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Two of the patients enrolled in the study had acute renal failure. These 2 of 537 enrolled patients were the only patients in the study positive for hantavirus IgM antibodies. These results suggest that CCHF virus and hantavirus are contributing causes of acute febrile syndromes of infectious origin in Georgia. These findings support introduction of critical diagnostic approaches and confirm the need for additional surveillance in Georgia. PMID:24891463

Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Imnadze, Paata; Chokheli, Maiko; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Endeladze, Marina; Mshvidobadze, Ketevan; Clark, Danielle V; Bautista, Christian T; Abdel Fadeel, Moustafa; Pimentel, Guillermo; House, Brent; Hepburn, Matthew J; Wölfel, Silke; Wölfel, Roman; Rivard, Robert G

2014-08-01

255

Recombinant, chimaeric live, attenuated vaccine (ChimeriVax™) incorporating the envelope genes of Japanese encephalitis (SA14-14-2) virus and the capsid and nonstructural genes of yellow fever (17D) virus is safe, immunogenic and protective in non-human primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever 17D virus, a safe and effective live, attenuated vaccine, was used as a vector for genes encoding the protective antigenic determinants of a heterologous member of the genus Flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, the leading cause of acute viral central nervous system infection and death throughout Asia. The viral envelope (prM and E) genes of a full-length cDNA

T. P Monath; K Soike; I Levenbook; Z.-X Zhang; J Arroyo; S Delagrave; G Myers; A. D. T Barrett; R. E Shope; M Ratterree; T. J Chambers; F Guirakhoo

1999-01-01

256

Familial Mediterranean fever and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis: report of a case and review of the literature.  

PubMed

In familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), a genetically inherited disease characterized by fever and serositis, renal involvement is mainly AA amyloidosis. We report a patient with FMF who developed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis; presumably in response to colchicine treatment, the activity of the disease decreased and renal function tests and urinary findings normalized. This report emphasizes the concurrent existence of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with FMF in the absence of renal amyloidosis. Due to increased inflammatory response observed in FMF, immunologic glomerular injury, a common cause of glomerulonephritis, may occur more frequently in patients with FMF. PMID:15971069

Cagdas, Deniz N; Gucer, Safak; Kale, Gülsev; Duzova, Ali; Ozen, Seza

2005-09-01

257

Manipulation of the yellow fever virus non-structural genes 2A and 4B and the 3'non-coding region to evaluate genetic determinants of viral dissemination from the Aedes aegypti midgut.  

PubMed

Although much is known about the ecology, epidemiology, and molecular biology of mosquito-borne viruses, the viral factors that allow transmission by mosquitoes to humans or animals remain unknown. Using infectious clones of disseminating (Asibi) and non-disseminating (17D) yellow fever viruses (YFV), we produced chimeric viruses to evaluate the role of different viral genes in dissemination. Previously, we showed that virus produced from an infectious clone containing the structural genes of 17D in Asibi disseminated from the mosquito midgut at a rate of 31%, indicating that some genetic determinants of dissemination must lie within the non-structural (NS) protein genes or 3' non-coding region (NCR). We chose to investigate the roles of NS2A, NS4B, and the 3'NCR in YFV dissemination. Substitution of the 17D NS2A or NS4B into Asibi significantly attenuated YFV dissemination, demonstrating that this is a multigenic property. There was no difference in dissemination after substitution of the 17D 3'NCR. PMID:17172386

McElroy, Kate L; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen

2006-12-01

258

Q Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... organisms may be required to cause infection. Q Fever Topics Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Signs of illness, ... and Recommendations... Prevention Avoid getting infected... Videos Q Fever: New Guidelines for Patient Management CDC Expert Commentary, ...

259

Typhoid fever  

MedlinePLUS

Typhoid fever is an infection that causes diarrhea and a rash . It is most commonly due to ... in their stools for years, spreading the disease. Typhoid fever is common in developing countries. Fewer than ...

260

Fatal case of fog fever in a cow moved to lush pasture.  

PubMed

Fog fever in a five-year-old cow Bovine erythropoietic protoporphyria in Limousin calves Hyposelenosis associated with illthrift in lambs Box poisoning in four-month-old goat kids Amyloidosis in two gyrfalcons These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for August from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:25501522

2014-12-13

261

Combined transcatheter managements of a huge spontaneous iliac pseudoaneurysm presenting with fever of unknown origin: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction We present a successful combined endovascular repair of a rare huge spontaneous pseudoaneurysm in a patient troubled solely with fever of unknown origin. Case presentation A 79-year-old Chinese man complained of repeated episodes of fever for 10 days. His medical history, physical examination and laboratory tests were not significant. Routine antibiotics were given for suspected sepsis lasting 4 weeks without clinical improvement. Finally, an 81.9×61.6mm iliac pseudoaneurysm was found. The pseudoaneurysm originated from his left iliac arteries and covered the bifurcation of the left common iliac artery and proximal ends of both internal and external iliac arteries. A combination of endovascular repair with coil embolization and stent graft implantation was successfully performed. He underwent an uneventful recovery. Conclusions Spontaneous pseudoaneurysm with fever of unknown origin should not be ignored, especially for patients with a high risk for atherosclerosis. Combined transcatheter managements might be an alternative approach to deal with complex pseudoaneurysms, effectively and safely. PMID:24708630

2014-01-01

262

Clinical and Pathological Findings on Intoxication by Yellow Phosphorus After Ingesting Firework Cracker: A Rare Case of Autopsy.  

PubMed

Yellow phosphorus is a toxic substance used in the production of firework cracker, fireworks, ammunition and agricultural dung. When ingested, it shows its effects mainly in the liver, the kidneys, and the brain. A four-year-old girl had died as a result of acute hepatic failure caused by ingesting a firework cracker. The case showed high levels of hepatic enzymes, along with non-specific signs such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Autopsy revealed diffuse microvesicular steatosis in the liver and disseminated degeneration in the proximal tubules of the kidneys. In cases with concomitant hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, death is inevitable. However, when only hepatic failure develops, hepatic transplantation may be lifesaving. Although intoxication from ingesting yellow phosphorus has a very high rate of mortality, forensic cases are extremely rare in the literature. PMID:24272931

Samdanci, Emine Türkmen; Cakir, Ebru; Sah?n, Nurhan; Elmali, Candan; Sayin, Sadegül

2013-11-01

263

[A male case of acute sarcoidosis with fever, polyarthralgia, erythema nodosum, and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy: Löfgren's syndrome].  

PubMed

A 27-year-old man initially had low back pain and ankle arthralgia. He was admitted because fever, cough, and polyarthralgia developed and continued for three months. Chest X-ray and CT revealed bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy with pulmonary lesions. Furthermore, elevated serum-ACE level and noncaseating epitheloid cell granuloma obtained by TBLB confirmed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. After hospitalization, erythema nodosum appeared and ocular involvement was demonstrated. As a result, this case fulfilled the criteria of Löfgren's syndrome (arthritis, erythema nodosum, and BHL). Löfgren's syndrome is not uncommon in European countries, but is extremely rare in Japan. So far, only six cases with Löfgren's syndrome were reported in Japan, and all were female cases. This is the first male case in Japan. Löfgren's syndrome is usually a self-limiting disease. We used steroids for this case and remission has been maintained after the beginning of the treatment for the past one year. PMID:16457340

Izumo, Mayu; Sekiya, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Toshihiko; Tojima, Hirokazu

2005-12-01

264

Chronic recurrent multifocal Q fever osteomyelitis in children: a case report and review of the literature: Retracted.  

PubMed

Q fever is a common worldwide zoonosis that is often difficult to diagnose because of its variety and the fact that its clinical symptoms are highly unspecific. We present a rare case of chronic multifocal osteomyelitis caused by Coxiella burnetti in a 2-year-old girl, which has recurred on many occasions, although the patient is under treatment with the most widely accepted approaches from other studies. A systemic review of the little published literature on this patients shows that there is no universal consensus with regard to the most adequate treatment. PMID:25144884

Cano, Carlos; Alonso, Laura; Rendón, Diego A; García, Francisco J; Pescador, David; Blanco, Juan F

2014-12-01

265

[A case of sarcoidosis presenting with high fever and rash progressing to acute respiratory failure].  

PubMed

A 66-year-old man who had been given a clinical diagnosis of vasculitis at another hospital after presenting with high fever and rash was admitted to our hospital for further examination following a relapse of fever during steroid reduction. The biopsy specimens of the leg with crusts showed the presence of epithelioid granuloma, and because of a negative tuberculin test, increased serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and lysozyme levels, and pulmonary Ga uptake, the patient was given a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Although the patient had been treated on an outpatient basis following resolution of fever with NSAIDs and 5 mg prednisolone (PSL), he suffered acute respiratory failure during follow-up and required emergency admission. Chest CT revealed bilateral ground-glass opacity and pleural effusion, and serum ACE and soluble IL2R levels were significantly elevated. We diagnosed acute exacerbation of sarcoidosis and given high dose steroid therapy. The patient's symptoms, image findings, blood test results, and other findings promptly improved. Here we reported a highly unusual presentation of acute respiratory failure in sarcoidosis. PMID:17929471

Shibata, Seiko; Saito, Kazuhito; Ishiwata, Nobuo; Ieki, Ryuji

2007-09-01

266

Morbidity and mortality of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iraq: cases reported to the National Surveillance System, 1990-2010.  

PubMed

Although Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in the Middle East, its incidence in Iraq has not been well described since the early 1980s. To document trends and patterns of CCHF occurrence, we analyzed CCHF case reports from Iraq's National Surveillance System in 2010 and aggregate reports from previous years. A suspected case was defined as fever, hemorrhagic symptoms and a history of animal contact. Serologic testing was conducted for confirmation. Between 1998 and 2009, the annual number of confirmed cases ranged from zero to six. In 2010, 11 confirmed and 28 suspected cases were reported. The case fatality rate was 36% among confirmed cases, 4% among suspected cases. Most confirmed cases occurred during a three-week period in a single province. While CCHF is uncommon in Iraq, sporadic cases and outbreaks do occur. Surveillance could be strengthened by updating the case definition and case investigation forms. PMID:22633179

Majeed, Ban; Dicker, Richard; Nawar, Adnan; Badri, Sumaia; Noah, Anwar; Muslem, Hassan

2012-08-01

267

Intervene before leaving: clustered lot quality assurance sampling to monitor vaccination coverage at health district level before the end of a yellow fever and measles vaccination campaign in Sierra Leone in 2009  

PubMed Central

Background In November 2009, Sierra Leone conducted a preventive yellow fever (YF) vaccination campaign targeting individuals aged nine months and older in six health districts. The campaign was integrated with a measles follow-up campaign throughout the country targeting children aged 9–59 months. For both campaigns, the operational objective was to reach 95% of the target population. During the campaign, we used clustered lot quality assurance sampling (C-LQAS) to identify areas of low coverage to recommend timely mop-up actions. Methods We divided the country in 20 non-overlapping lots. Twelve lots were targeted by both vaccinations, while eight only by measles. In each lot, five clusters of ten eligible individuals were selected for each vaccine. The upper threshold (UT) was set at 90% and the lower threshold (LT) at 75%. A lot was rejected for low vaccination coverage if more than 7 unvaccinated individuals (not presenting vaccination card) were found. After the campaign, we plotted the C-LQAS results against the post-campaign coverage estimations to assess if early interventions were successful enough to increase coverage in the lots that were at the level of rejection before the end of the campaign. Results During the last two days of campaign, based on card-confirmed vaccination status, five lots out of 20 (25.0%) failed for having low measles vaccination coverage and three lots out of 12 (25.0%) for low YF coverage. In one district, estimated post-campaign vaccination coverage for both vaccines was still not significantly above the minimum acceptable level (LT?=?75%) even after vaccination mop-up activities. Conclusion C-LQAS during the vaccination campaign was informative to identify areas requiring mop-up activities to reach the coverage target prior to leaving the region. The only district where mop-up activities seemed to be unsuccessful might have had logistical difficulties that should be further investigated and resolved. PMID:22676225

2012-01-01

268

A case of periodic-fever-syndrome-like disorder with lipodystrophy, myositis, and autoimmune abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 24-year-old Japanese woman had been suffering from a periodic fever since 10 months of age. She developed deformities in\\u000a her fingers, with severe atrophy of subcutaneous adipose tissue, myositis, and frostbitten hands. She showed elevated C-reactive\\u000a protein, creatine kinase, and ?-globulin. She was also positive for antinuclear, anti-DNA, anti-SS-B, and anti-U1RNP antibodies.\\u000a Her myositis was similar to amyopathic dermatomyositis rather

Shimpei Kasagi; Seiji Kawano; Takashi Nakazawa; Hirotoshi Sugino; Masahiro Koshiba; Kunihiro Ichinose; Hiroaki Ida; Katsumi Eguchi; Shunichi Kumagai

2008-01-01

269

Using Modelling to Disentangle the Relative Contributions of Zoonotic and Anthroponotic Transmission: The Case of Lassa Fever  

PubMed Central

Background Zoonotic infections, which transmit from animals to humans, form the majority of new human pathogens. Following zoonotic transmission, the pathogen may already have, or may acquire, the ability to transmit from human to human. With infections such as Lassa fever (LF), an often fatal, rodent-borne, hemorrhagic fever common in areas of West Africa, rodent-to-rodent, rodent-to-human, human-to-human and even human-to-rodent transmission patterns are possible. Indeed, large hospital-related outbreaks have been reported. Estimating the proportion of transmission due to human-to-human routes and related patterns (e.g. existence of super-spreaders), in these scenarios is challenging, but essential for planned interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we make use of an innovative modeling approach to analyze data from published outbreaks and the number of LF hospitalized patients to Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone to estimate the likely contribution of human-to-human transmission. The analyses show that almost of the cases at KGH are secondary cases arising from human-to-human transmission. However, we found much of this transmission is associated with a disproportionally large impact of a few individuals (‘super-spreaders’), as we found only of human cases result in an effective reproduction number (i.e. the average number of secondary cases per infectious case) , with a maximum value up to . Conclusions/Significance This work explains the discrepancy between the sizes of reported LF outbreaks and a clinical perception that human-to-human transmission is low. Future assessment of risks of LF and infection control guidelines should take into account the potentially large impact of super-spreaders in human-to-human transmission. Our work highlights several neglected topics in LF research, the occurrence and nature of super-spreading events and aspects of social behavior in transmission and detection. PMID:25569707

Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Garry, Robert F.; Grant, Donald S.; Khan, Sheik Humarr; Leach, Melissa; Moses, Lina M.; Schieffelin, John S.; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Webb, Colleen T.; Wood, James L. N.

2015-01-01

270

Dengue Fever  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

“Dengue Fever” will be included in “Health Information for International Travel, 2007-2008” which will be published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are viral diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The disease is found in tropical and s...

271

Identification of dengue fever cases in Houston, Texas, with evidence of autochthonous transmission between 2003 and 2005.  

PubMed

Houston, Texas, maintains an environment conducive to dengue virus (DENV) emergence; however, surveillance is passive and diagnostic testing is not readily available. To determine if DENV is present in the area, we tested 3768 clinical specimens (2138 cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] and 1630 serum) collected from patients with suspected mosquito-borne viral disease between 2003 and 2005. We identified 47 immunoglobulin M (IgM)-positive dengue cases, including two cases that were positive for viral RNA in serum for dengue serotype 2. The majority of cases did not report any history of travel outside the Houston area prior to symptom onset. The epidemic curve suggests an outbreak occurred in 2003 with continued low-level transmission in 2004 and 2005. Chart abstractions were completed for 42 of the 47 cases; 57% were diagnosed with meningitis and/or encephalitis, and 43% met the case definition for dengue fever. Two of the 47 cases were fatal, including one with illness compatible with dengue shock syndrome. Our results support local transmission of DENV during the study period. These findings heighten the need for dengue surveillance in the southern United States. PMID:24107180

Murray, Kristy O; Rodriguez, Liliana F; Herrington, Emily; Kharat, Vineetkumar; Vasilakis, Nikolaos; Walker, Christopher; Turner, Cynthia; Khuwaja, Salma; Arafat, Raouf; Weaver, Scott C; Martinez, Diana; Kilborn, Cindy; Bueno, Rudy; Reyna, Martin

2013-12-01

272

Education Fever and the East Asian Fertility Puzzle: A case study of low fertility in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Fertility throughout East Asia has fallen rapidly over the last five decades and is now below the replacement rate of 2.1 in every country in the region. Using South Korea as a case study, we argue that East Asia's ultra-low fertility rates can be partially explained by the steadfast parental drive to have competitive and successful children. Parents throughout the region invest large amounts of time and money to ensure that their children are able to enter prestigious universities and obtain top jobs. Accordingly, childrearing has become so expensive that the average couple cannot afford to have more than just one or two children. The trend of high parental investment in child education, also known as ‘education fever’, exemplifies the notion of ‘quality over quantity’ and is an important contributing factor to understanding low-fertility in East Asia. PMID:24883076

Anderson, Thomas; Kohler, Hans-Peter

2014-01-01

273

Q Fever Reporting: Tip of the Iceberg?  

PubMed

This editorial refers to two manuscripts by Dahlgren et al: "Q fever is underestimated in the United States: a comparison of fatal Q fever cases from two national reporting systems" and "Q fever in the United States: summary of case reports from two national surveillance systems, 2000-2012. PMID:25404072

Hartzell, Joshua D

2014-11-17

274

Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of haemorrhagic fever viruses and bioterrorism-related haemorrhagic fever viruses.  

PubMed

Haemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are a diverse group of viruses that cause a clinical disease associated with fever and bleeding disorder. HFVs that are associated with a potential biological threat are Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), Lassa fever and New World arenaviruses (Machupo, Junin, Guanarito and Sabia viruses) (Arenaviridae), Rift Valley fever (Bunyaviridae) and yellow fever, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, and Kyanasur Forest disease (Flaviviridae). In terms of biological warfare concerning dengue, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and Hantaviruses, there is not sufficient knowledge to include them as a major biological threat. Dengue virus is the only one of these that cannot be transmitted via aerosol. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and the agents of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome appear difficult to weaponise. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment and the prophylaxis of the arenaviruses and the bunyaviruses, but is not effective for the other families. All patients must be isolated and receive intensive supportive therapy. PMID:15677844

Bossi, Philippe; Tegnell, Anders; Baka, Agoritsa; Van Loock, Frank; Hendriks, Jan; Werner, Albrecht; Maidhof, Heinrich; Gouvras, Georgios

2004-12-01

275

Climate impacts on environmental risks evaluated from space: a contribution to social benefits within the GEOSS Health Area: The case of Rift Valley Fever in Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate and environment vary on many spatio-temporal scales, including climate change, with impacts on ecosystems, vector-borne diseases and public health worldwide. This study is to enable societal benefits from a conceptual approach by mapping climatic and environmental conditions from space and understanding the mechanisms within the Health Social Benefit GEOSS area. The case study is for Rift Valley Fever (RVF)

Y. M. Tourre

2009-01-01

276

Hay Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... and throat. This can trigger a type of allergy called hay fever. Symptoms can include Sneezing, often ... to use distilled or sterilized water with saline. Allergy shots can help make you less sensitive to ...

277

Q Fever  

PubMed Central

Q fever is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution with the exception of New Zealand. The disease is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a strictly intracellular, gram-negative bacterium. Many species of mammals, birds, and ticks are reservoirs of C. burnetii in nature. C. burnetii infection is most often latent in animals, with persistent shedding of bacteria into the environment. However, in females intermittent high-level shedding occurs at the time of parturition, with millions of bacteria being released per gram of placenta. Humans are usually infected by contaminated aerosols from domestic animals, particularly after contact with parturient females and their birth products. Although often asymptomatic, Q fever may manifest in humans as an acute disease (mainly as a self-limited febrile illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis) or as a chronic disease (mainly endocarditis), especially in patients with previous valvulopathy and to a lesser extent in immunocompromised hosts and in pregnant women. Specific diagnosis of Q fever remains based upon serology. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antiphase II antibodies are detected 2 to 3 weeks after infection with C. burnetii, whereas the presence of IgG antiphase I C. burnetii antibodies at titers of ?1:800 by microimmunofluorescence is indicative of chronic Q fever. The tetracyclines are still considered the mainstay of antibiotic therapy of acute Q fever, whereas antibiotic combinations administered over prolonged periods are necessary to prevent relapses in Q fever endocarditis patients. Although the protective role of Q fever vaccination with whole-cell extracts has been established, the population which should be primarily vaccinated remains to be clearly identified. Vaccination should probably be considered in the population at high risk for Q fever endocarditis. PMID:10515901

Maurin, M.; Raoult, D.

1999-01-01

278

Typhoid Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Typhoid fever is an acute generalized infection of the reticuloendothelial system, intestinal lymphoid tissue, and gallbladder\\u000a caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). This communicable disease is restricted to human hosts and humans (chronic carriers) serve as the reservoir of infection.\\u000a A broad spectrum of clinical illness can ensue, with more severe forms being characterized by persisting high fever,

Myron M. Levine

279

Two autopsy cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in Japan: A pathognomonic histological feature and unique complication of SFTS  

PubMed Central

We report two autopsy cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) with a high fatality rate in aged Japanese patients. Both cases were caused by a tick-bite. The pathognomonic histological feature was necrotizing lymphadenitis of systemic lymphoid tissue with SFTS viruses and SFTSV-RNA copies. Marked fungal infections were also observed in the lungs of both patients. Since cellular immune function may be suppressed in SFTS patients, physicians should be aware of possible fungal infections. PMID:25329676

Hiraki, Tsubasa; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Suzuki, Tadaki; Goto, Yuko; Higashi, Michiyo; Yokoyama, Seiya; Tabuchi, Tomohisa; Futatsuki, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Hideki; Saijo, Masayuki; Kakihana, Yasuyuki; Arima, Naomichi; Yonezawa, Suguru

2014-01-01

280

The Unfortunate Nurse A Case Study of Dengue Fever and Social Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on an actual incident in which dengue virus was transmitted by an accidental needlestick, this case study introduces students to “emerging pathogens” and other concepts in parasitology, immunology, epidemiology, and public policy. Students also read a primary paper and learn about two modern techniques widely used in medical and research settings (i.e., EIA and Taqman RT-PCR). The case is suitable for general education biology, cell biology, microbiology, immunology, and science and public policy courses.

Karen M. Aguirre

2007-01-01

281

Q fever.  

PubMed

Q fever is a zoonosis with many manifestations. The most common clinical presentation is an influenza-like illness with varying degrees of pneumonia and hepatitis. Although acute disease is usually self-limiting, people do occasionally die from this condition. Endocarditis is the most frequent chronic presentation. Although Q fever is widespread, practitioner awareness and clinical manifestations vary from region to region. Geographically limited studies suggest that chronic fatigue syndrome and cardiovascular disease are long-term sequelae. An effective whole-cell vaccine is licensed in Australia. Live and acellular vaccines have also been studied, but are not currently licensed. PMID:16503466

Parker, Neil R; Barralet, Jennifer H; Bell, Alan Morton

2006-02-25

282

Rat-bite fever  

MedlinePLUS

Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by two different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus , both of which are found in ...

283

Dengue fever (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Dengue fever, or West Nile fever, is a mild viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes which causes fever, ... second exposure to the virus can result in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening illness.

284

Differential Epidemiology of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A in Kathmandu, Nepal: A Matched Case Control Investigation in a Highly Endemic Enteric Fever Setting  

PubMed Central

Background Enteric fever, a systemic infection caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is endemic in Kathmandu, Nepal. Previous work identified proximity to poor quality water sources as a community-level risk for infection. Here, we sought to examine individual-level risk factors related to hygiene and sanitation to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of enteric fever in this setting. Methodology and principal findings A matched case-control analysis was performed through enrollment of 103 blood culture positive enteric fever patients and 294 afebrile community-based age and gender-matched controls. A detailed questionnaire was administered to both cases and controls and the association between enteric fever infection and potential exposures were examined through conditional logistic regression. Several behavioral practices were identified as protective against infection with enteric fever, including water storage and hygienic habits. Additionally, we found that exposures related to poor water and socioeconomic status are more influential in the risk of infection with S. Typhi, whereas food consumption habits and migration play more of a role in risk of S. Paratyphi A infection. Conclusions and significance Our work suggests that S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A follow different routes of infection in this highly endemic setting and that sustained exposure to both serovars probably leads to the development of passive immunity. In the absence of a polyvalent vaccine against S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, we advocate better systems for water treatment and storage, improvements in the quality of street food, and vaccination with currently available S. Typhi vaccines. PMID:23991240

Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Dongol, Sabina; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Voong Vinh, Phat; Arjyal, Amit; Martin, Laura B.; Rondini, Simona; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Dolecek, Christiane; Basnyat, Buddha; Baker, Stephen

2013-01-01

285

Durable Regression of Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma Following Fever-inducing Mistletoe Treatment: Two Case Reports  

PubMed Central

Background: Mistletoe is a complementary cancer treatment that is widely used, usually in addition to and alongside recommended conventional cancer therapy. However, little is known about its use, effectiveness, and safety in the treatment of cutaneous lymphoma. Case Report: Two patients with primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (pT2bcNxM0 follicle center and pT2ac-NxM0 marginal zone) either declined or postponed recommended conventional treatment and received high-dose, fever-inducing mistletoe treatment; a combination of intratumoral, subcutaneous, and intravenous application was given; and one patient also underwent whole-body hyperthermia. The lymphoma regressed over a period of 12 and 8 months, respectively, and after administration of a cumulative dose of 12.98 g and 4.63 g mistletoe extract, respectively. The patients are in remission to date, 3.5 years after commencement of treatment. Neither patient received conventional cancer treatment during the entire observation period. PMID:24278797

Lace, Aija; Fonseca, Maria P.; von Laue, Broder H.; Geider, Stefan; Kienle, Gunver S.

2012-01-01

286

[Fever and jaundice... and if it was a leptospirosis. About a case of L. interrogans icterohaemorrhagiae in Northern France].  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is an anthropozoonose, an animal disease transmissible to humans, caused by a spirochete of the genus Leptospira that lives mainly among rodents but also in wetlands. It occurs worldwide, particularly in Asia, Latin America and Africa. In Europe, the incidence is small (except in France and Great Britain, where its frequency has increased in recent years) but the frequency may be underestimated. Some areas overseas are particularly affected. In France, the potential epidemic of leptospirosis is subject to climatic variations, justifying a constant monitoring of the disease provided by the National Reference Centre (CNR) of leptospires. Transmission to humans primarily occurs through contact with environments contaminated by the urine of infected animals. The disease can affect the liver and kidneys (hepatonephritis) as cytolysis, cholestasis and renal failure associated with fever. A coagulopathy usually accompanies the clinical table. Its diagnosis is difficult because of the clinical polymorphism. Early diagnosis of leptospirosis allows effective medical care, improving patient outcomes. This is currently based on gene amplification (PCR) or serology positive by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), which is the reference method. Its evolution is usually favorable with appropriate antibiotic treatment (aminopenicillin). However 5-10% of symptomatic patients have a severe multisystem defaillance. Nearly a century after the discovery of the causative agent, this zoonosis remains a public health problem, zoonosis priority in terms of virulence, its reporting is mandatory in our country. We report the case of a severe form of hepatonephritis due to water contaminated with Leptospira observed in Northern France. PMID:23702161

Assez, N; Mauriaucourt, P; Cuny, J; Goldstein, P; Wiel, E

2013-06-01

287

Orchid Fever  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exotic, captivating, and seductive, orchids have long fascinated plant lovers. They first attracted the attention of Westerners in the 17th century, when explorers brought back samples from South America and Asia. By the mid-1800s, orchid collecting had reached a fever pitch, not unlike that of the Dutch tulip craze of the 1630s, with rich (and…

Oliver, Phillip

2004-01-01

288

Sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting: a case study for the Yellow River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water Footprint Assessment is a fast-growing field of research, but as yet little attention has been paid to the uncertainties involved. This study investigates the sensitivity of and uncertainty in crop water footprint (in m3 t-1) estimates related to uncertainties in important input variables. The study focuses on the green (from rainfall) and blue (from irrigation) water footprint of producing maize, soybean, rice, and wheat at the scale of the Yellow River basin in the period 1996-2005. A grid-based daily water balance model at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution was applied to compute green and blue water footprints of the four crops in the Yellow River basin in the period considered. The one-at-a-time method was carried out to analyse the sensitivity of the crop water footprint to fractional changes of seven individual input variables and parameters: precipitation (PR), reference evapotranspiration (ET0), crop coefficient (Kc), crop calendar (planting date with constant growing degree days), soil water content at field capacity (Smax), yield response factor (Ky) and maximum yield (Ym). Uncertainties in crop water footprint estimates related to uncertainties in four key input variables: PR, ET0, Kc, and crop calendar were quantified through Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the sensitivities and uncertainties differ across crop types. In general, the water footprint of crops is most sensitive to ET0 and Kc, followed by the crop calendar. Blue water footprints were more sensitive to input variability than green water footprints. The smaller the annual blue water footprint is, the higher its sensitivity to changes in PR, ET0, and Kc. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop due to combined uncertainties in climatic inputs (PR and ET0) were about ±20% (at 95% confidence interval). The effect of uncertainties in ET0was dominant compared to that of PR. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop as a result of combined key input uncertainties were on average ±30% (at 95% confidence level).

Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2014-06-01

289

Brazilian purpuric fever: evolutionary genetic relationships of the case clone of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius to encapsulated strains of Haemophilus influenzae.  

PubMed

As a first step toward identifying the evolutionary origin of a pathogenic clone of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius causing Brazilian purpuric fever, chromosomal variation and genetic relationships were indexed among 17 isolates of biogroup aegyptius and 2209 previously characterized encapsulated H. influenzae strains recovered from 30 countries on six continents. Biogroup aegyptius isolates form three distinct evolutionary lineages of the species H. influenzae and isolates of the case clone are genetically not closely related to other isolates classified as biogroup aegyptius. The Brazilian purpuric fever case clone was found to be genetically allied with H. influenzae isolates producing serotype c polysaccharide capsule. The population genetic evidence suggests that biogroup aegyptius isolates may represent cell lineages occasionally transmitted from nonhuman hosts or spawned from a much larger base population consisting of genetically diverse nonpathogenic precursor clones. PMID:2295844

Musser, J M; Selander, R K

1990-01-01

290

Quantitative plant resistance in cultivar mixtures: wheat yellow rust as a modeling case study.  

PubMed

Unlike qualitative plant resistance, which confers immunity to disease, quantitative resistance confers only a reduction in disease severity and this can be nonspecific. Consequently, the outcome of its deployment in cultivar mixtures is not easy to predict, as on the one hand it may reduce the heterogeneity of the mixture, but on the other it may induce competition between nonspecialized strains of the pathogen. To clarify the principles for the successful use of quantitative plant resistance in disease management, we built a parsimonious model describing the dynamics of competing pathogen strains spreading through a mixture of cultivars carrying nonspecific quantitative resistance. Using the parameterized model for a wheat-yellow rust system, we demonstrate that a more effective use of quantitative resistance in mixtures involves reinforcing the effect of the highly resistant cultivars rather than replacing them. We highlight the fact that the judicious deployment of the quantitative resistance in two- or three-component mixtures makes it possible to reduce disease severity using only small proportions of the highly resistant cultivar. Our results provide insights into the effects on pathogen dynamics of deploying quantitative plant resistance, and can provide guidance for choosing appropriate associations of cultivars and optimizing diversification strategies. PMID:23875842

Sapoukhina, Natalia; Paillard, Sophie; Dedryver, Françoise; de Vallavieille-Pope, Claude

2013-11-01

291

A case history of Tunnel Boring Machine jamming in an inter-layer shear zone at the Yellow River Diversion Project in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a case study of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) jamming in a section of the Connection Works No. 7 tunnel of the Yellow River Diversion Project (YRDP) in China. Analysis of tunnel lithology, rock convergence by shearing, rock strength and ground stress, indicates that a high rate of convergence within an inter-layer shear zone in the lower part

Yanjun Shang; Jihong Xue; Sijing Wang; Zhifa Yang; Jie Yang

2004-01-01

292

Periodic Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-year-old adopted boy of mixed African American and Caucasian race was referred for consultation because of recurring fever.\\u000a Before the age of 1 year, he had begun to have monthly febrile illnesses without diagnoses. By 2 years of age, febrile episodes\\u000a were periodic, occurring approximately once in a month and had a characteristic pattern of sudden rise in temperature

Sarah S. Long

293

Localizing chronic Q fever: a challenging query  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic Q fever usually presents as endocarditis or endovascular infection. We investigated whether 18F-FDG PET/CT and echocardiography were able to detect the localization of infection. Also, the utility of the modified Duke criteria was assessed. Methods Fifty-two patients, who had an IgG titre of???1024 against C. burnetii phase I???3 months after primary infection or a positive PCR???1 month after primary infection, were retrospectively included. Data on serology, the results of all imaging studies, possible risk factors for developing proven chronic Q fever and clinical outcome were recorded. Results According to the Dutch consensus on Q fever diagnostics, 18 patients had proven chronic Q fever, 14 probable chronic Q fever, and 20 possible chronic Q fever. Of the patients with proven chronic Q fever, 22% were diagnosed with endocarditis, 17% with an infected vascular prosthesis, and 39% with a mycotic aneurysm. 56% of patients with proven chronic Q fever did not recall an episode of acute Q fever. Ten out of 13 18F-FDG PET/CT-scans in patients with proven chronic Q fever localized the infection. TTE and TEE were helpful in only 6% and 50% of patients, respectively. Conclusions If chronic Q fever is diagnosed, 18F-FDG PET/CT is a helpful imaging technique for localization of vascular infections due to chronic Q fever. Patients with proven chronic Q fever were diagnosed significantly more often with mycotic aneurysms than in previous case series. Definite endocarditis due to chronic Q fever was less frequently diagnosed in the current study. Chronic Q fever often occurs in patients without a known episode of acute Q fever, so clinical suspicion should remain high, especially in endemic regions. PMID:24004470

2013-01-01

294

Multidrug resistant enteric fever.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistant typhoid fever (MDRT) is becoming an alarming public health problem in and around Pondicherry, South India. A retrospective review of the multidrug resistant typhoid fever cases admitted to the paediatrics ward of JIPMER Hospital, Pondicherry (India) during 1990 is presented. Prolonged pyrexia, chills and rigors, toxaemia, and tender hepatomegaly often more than 3 cm below the costal margin (often without splenomegaly) were striking features of MDRT cases. The incidence of complications was also greater. Positive blood cultures were observed even after weeks of antibiotic therapy, indicating persistent bacteraemia; resistance was almost always observed for multiple drugs (two or more). The fluoroquinolone group of drugs such as ciprofloxacin have been found to be the best for MDRT in terms of rapid response and cost effectiveness. Cefotaxime has moderate efficacy. PMID:1495126

Chandra, R; Srinivasan, S; Nalini, P; Rao, R S

1992-08-01

295

Viral haemorrhagic fever.  

PubMed

Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a range of viral infections with potential to cause life-threatening illness in humans. Apart from Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), they are largely confined to Africa, distribution being dependent on the ecology of reservoir hosts. At present, the largest ever epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD or Ebola) is occurring in West Africa, raising the possibility that cases could be imported into non-endemic countries. Diagnosis and management is challenging due to the non-specificity of early symptoms, limited laboratory facilities in endemic areas, severity of disease, lack of effective therapy, strict infection control requirements and propensity to cause epidemics with secondary cases in healthcare workers. PMID:25650201

Fhogartaigh, Caoimhe Nic; Aarons, Emma

2015-02-01

296

Typhoid fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

http:\\/\\/proquest.umi.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca\\/pqdweb?did=252411801&sid=1&Fmt=4&cli entId=12520&RQT=309&VName=PQD Abstract (Document Summary) In 1948 chloramphenicol became the standard antibiotic for treating typhoid.5 Although resistance emerged within two years after its introduction, it was not until 1972 that chloramphenicol-resistant typhoid fever became a major problem.6 Outbreaks occurred in Mexico, India, Vietnam, Thailand, Korea, and Peru.6 Chloramphenicol resistance was associated with high-molecular-weight, self-transferable, IncHI plasmids. Full Text (8258 words)

Christopher M Parry; Tran Tinh Hien; Gordon Dougan; Nicholas J White; Jeremy J Farrar

2006-01-01

297

Groundwater flow and geochemistry in the lower reaches of the Yellow River: a case study in Shandang Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Water samples were collected from the Yellow River and from wells for chemical and isotopic measurement in the counties of\\u000a Yucheng and Qihe, to which 6–9×108 m3 of water is diverted annually from the Yellow River. A zone of high electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater corresponds\\u000a well on the regional scale with a ridge in groundwater level, which is the

J. Y. Chen; C. Y. Tang; Y. Sakura; A. Kondoh; Y. J. Shen

2002-01-01

298

Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral  

MedlinePLUS

... fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola virus diseases All information on Ebola virus disease Technical information, publications, situation assessments, feature ...

299

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.  

PubMed

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

300

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C. P.; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

301

Early detection of circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in a case of acute schistosomiasis mansoni with Katayama fever.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old male developed acute Katayama fever with fever, diarrhoea, joint pains, headache, urticarial rash and eosinophilia 18 days after falling into and spending 15 min in the water during water-skiing in the outlet of the Volta river. Low anti-schistosomal antibody titres were found by the immunofluorescence assay after 4 weeks, and the first Schistosoma mansoni eggs were found in faeces after 6 weeks. Both symptoms and eosinophilia increased the first days after treatment with oxamniquine, after which he improved gradually. Examination of frozen sera by the newly developed Magnetic Beads Antigen Capture-EIA (MBAC-EIA) later demonstrated a peak in schistosomal circulating anodic antigen (CAA) levels of diagnostic significance already 4 weeks after he was infected. PMID:1411323

Gundersen, S G; Ravn, J; Haagensen, I

1992-01-01

302

Tick bite fever and Q fever - a South African perspective.  

PubMed

Tick bite fever (TBF) and Q fever are zoonotic infections, highly prevalent in southern Africa, which are caused by different genera of obligate intracellular bacteria. While TBF was first described nearly 100 years ago, it has only recently been discovered that there are several rickettsial species transmitted in southern Africa, the most common of which is Rickettsia africae. This helps to explain the highly variable clinical presentation of TBF, ranging from mild to severe or even fatal, that has always been recognised. Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a protean disease that is probably extensively under-diagnosed. Clinically, it also shows a wide spectrum of severity, with about 60% of cases being clinically inapparent. Unlike TBF, Q fever may cause chronic infection, and a post-Q fever chronic fatigue syndrome has been described. The molecular pathophysiology of these diseases provides insight into different strategies that intracellular parasites may use to survive and cause disease. While newer macrolide and quinolone antibiotics show activity against these pathogens and may be useful in young children and pregnant women, the treatment of choice for acute infection in both diseases is still tetracycline-group antibiotics. Chronic Q fever remains challenging to treat. PMID:18250937

Frean, J; Blumberg, L

2007-11-01

303

Reduced thrombin formation and excessive fibrinolysis are associated with bleeding complications in patients with dengue fever: a case–control study comparing dengue fever patients with and without bleeding manifestations  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue cases have been classified according to disease severity into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Although DF is considered a non-severe manifestation of dengue, it has been recently demonstrated that DF represents a heterogeneous group of patients with varied clinical complications and grades of severity. Particularly, bleeding complications, commonly associated to DHF, can be detected in half of the patients with DF. Although a frequent complication, the causes of bleedings in DF have not been fully addressed. Thus, the aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of possible pathophysiological mechanisms that could contribute to the bleeding tendency observed in patients with DF. Methods This is a case–control study that enrolled adults with DF without bleeding and adults with DF and bleeding complications during the defervescence period. Healthy controls were also included. Peripheral blood counts, inflammatory, fibrinolysis and endothelial cell activation markers, and thrombin generation were evaluated in patients and controls. Results We included 33 adults with DF without complications, 26 adults with DF and bleeding and 67 healthy controls. Bleeding episodes were mild in 15 (57.6%) and moderate in 11 (42.4%) patients, 8 (30.7%) patients had bleedings in multiple sites. Patients with DF and bleedings had lower platelet counts than DF without bleeding (median?=?19,500 vs. 203,500/mm3, P?

2013-01-01

304

Psychological stress contributed to the development of low-grade fever in a patient with chronic fatigue syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Low-grade fever is a common symptom in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but the mechanisms responsible for its development are poorly understood. We submit this case report that suggests that psychological stress contributes to low-grade fever in CFS. Case presentation A 26-year-old female nurse with CFS was admitted to our hospital. She had been recording her axillary temperature regularly and found that it was especially high when she felt stress at work. To assess how psychological stress affects temperature and to investigate the possible mechanisms for this hyperthermia, we conducted a 60-minute stress interview and observed the changes in the following parameters: axillary temperature, fingertip temperature, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, plasma catecholamine levels, and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 (pyretic cytokines), tumor necrosis factor-? and IL-10 (antipyretic cytokines). The stress interview consisted of recalling and talking about stressful events. Her axillary temperature at baseline was 37.2°C, increasing to 38.2°C by the end of the interview. In contrast, her fingertip temperature decreased during the interview. Her heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and plasma levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline increased during the interview; there were no significant changes in either pyretic or antipyretic cytokines during or after the interview. Conclusions A stress interview induced a 1.0°C increase in axillary temperature in a CFS patient. Negative emotion-associated sympathetic activation, rather than pyretic cytokine production, contributed to the increase in temperature induced by the stress interview. This suggests that psychological stress may contribute to the development or the exacerbation of low-grade fever in some CFS patients. PMID:23497734

2013-01-01

305

Case Studies in Vector-borne Diseases Course Number 11:370:401, 16:370:501  

E-print Network

and discussion 4) Feb. 9 a) Yellow fever ­ Historical introduction b) Introduction to the parasite c) Disease domestication (evolution) 5) Feb. 16 a) Yellow fever ­ Student presentations b) Group evaluations and discussion

Wang, Changlu

306

Spotted fever from Rickettsia typhi in an older woman: a case report from a geographic area where it would not be expected.  

PubMed

We describe the case of a 75-year-old woman presenting with spotted fever followed by acute renal failure and septic shock. The infection was caused by Rickettsia typhi, not reported in Calabria district (southern Italy) since World War II. The diagnosis of murine typhus was made 3 days after admission and was based solely on clinical criteria when her worsening condition required a prompt move to the intensive care unit. Therapy with tigecycline was then started immediately and the patient improved dramatically. The diagnosis of murine typhus was confirmed 10 days after admission by immunofluorescence assay. Our case is an example of how the diagnosis of murine typhus is challenging. However, in the case of a disease lacking specific symptoms, clinicians should never forget that, even in geographic areas considered free of flea-borne diseases, the components of the enzootic cycle are present and the diagnosis should never be underestimated. PMID:25111740

Luciani, Filippo; Cione, Erika; Corsonello, Andrea; Guido, Francesca; De Santis, Salvatore; Cannataro, Roberto; Perri, Mariarita; Caroleo, Maria Cristina; Cannataro, Anna Maria

2014-10-01

307

Typhoid fever below five years.  

PubMed

During a seven year period (1981-87), 53 cases of typhoid fever in children below five years were seen. This accounted for 13.5% of all typhoid admission in pediatrics during the above period. Predominant symptoms were fever (100%), vomiting (52.8%), diarrhea (30.2%) and anorexia (24.5%). Chills and rigor associated with fever was noticed in 38% of the children. Salmonella typhi was isolated from blood in 22 of 53 (41.7%) cases. A significant finding on peripheral smear was eosinopenia (86.8%). Complications like endotoxic shock, enteric encephalopathy and gastrointestinal hemorrhage were noticed in only few cases (7.6%). There were no deaths. PMID:2361759

Pandey, K K; Srinivasan, S; Mahadevan, S; Nalini, P; Rao, R S

1990-02-01

308

Raman identification of yellow synthetic organic pigments in modern and contemporary paintings: reference spectra and case studies.  

PubMed

The characterization of the binding media and pigments in modern and contemporary paintings is important for designing safe conservation treatments, as well as for determining suitable environmental conditions for display, storage and transport. Raman spectroscopy is a suitable technique for the in situ non-destructive identification of synthetic organic pigments in the presence of the complex binding media characteristic of synthetic resin paints or colour lithographic inks. The precise identification of a pigment by comparing its spectrum to that of a reference is necessary when conservation treatments with aqueous solutions or organic solvents are being considered for a work of art, since solubility properties can sometimes vary within the same pigment group. The Raman spectra of 21 yellow synthetic organic pigments, belonging to the monoazo, monoazo lakes, diarylide, disazo condensation, benzimidazolone, bisacetoacetarylide, azo-methine metal complex, isoindolinone and isoindoline groups are presented. Since modern artists frequently mixed paint developed for other applications, in addition to colorants developed as artists' paints, other synthetic organic pigments were included in the spectral database. Two monoazo pigments, Pigment Yellow 1 and Pigment Yellow 3, a benzimidazolone, Pigment Yellow 154 and a phthalocynanine, Pigment Green 7, were identified in sample cross-sections from four modern and contemporary paintings in the collection of The Museum of Modern Art in Ljubljana, Slovenia. PMID:17590389

Ropret, Polonca; Centeno, Silvia A; Bukovec, Peter

2008-02-01

309

Raman identification of yellow synthetic organic pigments in modern and contemporary paintings: Reference spectra and case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of the binding media and pigments in modern and contemporary paintings is important for designing safe conservation treatments, as well as for determining suitable environmental conditions for display, storage and transport. Raman spectroscopy is a suitable technique for the in situ non-destructive identification of synthetic organic pigments in the presence of the complex binding media characteristic of synthetic resin paints or colour lithographic inks. The precise identification of a pigment by comparing its spectrum to that of a reference is necessary when conservation treatments with aqueous solutions or organic solvents are being considered for a work of art, since solubility properties can sometimes vary within the same pigment group. The Raman spectra of 21 yellow synthetic organic pigments, belonging to the monoazo, monoazo lakes, diarylide, disazo condensation, benzimidazolone, bisacetoacetarylide, azo-methine metal complex, isoindolinone and isoindoline groups are presented. Since modern artists frequently mixed paint developed for other applications, in addition to colorants developed as artists' paints, other synthetic organic pigments were included in the spectral database. Two monoazo pigments, Pigment Yellow 1 and Pigment Yellow 3, a benzimidazolone, Pigment Yellow 154 and a phthalocynanine, Pigment Green 7, were identified in sample cross-sections from four modern and contemporary paintings in the collection of The Museum of Modern Art in Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Ropret, Polonca; Centeno, Silvia A.; Bukovec, Peter

2008-02-01

310

The importance of molecular tools in classical biological control of weeds: Two case studies with yellow starthistle candidate biological agents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molecular analyses may play a primary role in the process of host-specificity evaluation at species and population levels; here are reported two examples of their application with new candidate biocontrol agents for yellow starthistle (YST). Ceratapion basicorne is a root-crown boring weevil that sh...

311

Rift Valley Fever Outbreak, Southern Mauritania, 2012  

PubMed Central

After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September–November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas. PMID:24447334

Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth

2014-01-01

312

Acute infectious purpura fulminans due to probable spotted fever.  

PubMed

Purpura fulminans (PF) is associated with several infections, most notably with meningococcus, staphylococcus, and streptococcus infections. However, there are few reports of association of this entity with spotted fever from India. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with fever, headache, and myalgia. On the seventh day of fever he developed nonblanching purple hemorrhagic purpura on the trunk and most prominently on the extremities consistent with purpura fulminans. Immunofluorescent assay confirmed the diagnosis of spotted fever. PF though common with rocky mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is rarely seen in association with Indian tick typhus, the usual cause of spotted fever in India. PMID:24823524

Kundavaram, A; Francis, N R; Jude, A P J; Varghese, G N

2014-01-01

313

Azithromycin for acute Q fever in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Although data on Q fever during pregnancy are limited, they indicate that infection with C. burnetii is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The infection is usually asymptomatic in pregnant women but may result in obstetric complications such as spontaneous abortion, intrauterine growth retardation, intrauterine fetal death and premature delivery; in addition, pregnant women are at higher risk of developing chronic Q fever. Treatment of Q fever during pregnancy is challenging not only because C. burnetii is an intracellular bacterium but also because of safety restrictions and limited information on the efficacy of treatment. We report a case of acute Q fever in pregnancy with a successful outcome for mother and child, describe our therapeutic approach to the management of this case, and suggest that treatment with azithromycin may have prevented possible obstetric complications and evolution toward a chronic serologic profile in our patient. PMID:19657611

Cerar, Dasa; Karner, Primoz; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Strle, Franc

2009-01-01

314

Dengue fever: a Wikipedia clinical review.  

PubMed

Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, which results in bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and leakage of blood plasma, or into dengue shock syndrome, in which dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Treatment of acute dengue fever is supportive, with either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease and use of intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases. Along with attempts to eliminate the mosquito vector, work is ongoing to develop a vaccine and medications targeted directly at the virus. PMID:25426178

Heilman, James M; De Wolff, Jacob; Beards, Graham M; Basden, Brian J

2014-01-01

315

Successful living-related liver transplantation in a child with familial yellow nail syndrome and fulminant hepatic failure: report of a case.  

PubMed

An 11-yr-old boy with familial YNS and FHF and who underwent LRLT is presented. LRLT was performed from his father with YNS. The findings of hepatic failure resolved immediately after LRLT, but severe respiratory complications and chylous ascites were observed during the follow-up. At 12 months after successful LT, the patient has good graft function, but findings of YNS including chronic cough, lymphedema and yellow nails are still present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of YNS who underwent LRLT for FHF. PMID:18503484

Kulo?lu, Zarife; Ustünda?, Gonca; Kirsaçlio?lu, Ceyda Tuna; Kansu, Aydan; Bingol-Kologlu, Meltem; Vargun, Rahsan; Hazinedaro?lu, Selcuk; Karayalçin, Selim; Girgin, Nurten

2008-12-01

316

Chikungunya Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Map Transmission - Transmission Click here to view a Digital Press Kit on chikungunya from the CDC News ... Chikungunya Cases Identified Through Passive Surveillance and Household Investigations — Puerto Rico, May 5–August 12, 2014 Differentiating ...

317

Familial Mediterranean fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Recurrent polyserositis; Benign paroxysmal peritonitis; Periodic disease; Periodic fever; FMF ... Familial Mediterranean fever is most often caused by a mutation in the MEFV gene. This gene creates proteins involved in inflammation. ...

318

Dengue Fever Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Dengue Fever Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... There is no specific treatment for classic dengue fever, and most people recover within 2 weeks. To ...

319

Genetics Home Reference: Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Fever Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome familial Mediterranean fever mevalonate kinase deficiency Muckle-Wells syndrome Nakajo-Nishimura ...

320

Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever)  

MedlinePLUS

Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/F can find information on embargoes, Annual Meeting press registration ...

321

Colorado Tick Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... species that transmit Colorado Tick Fever: Rocky Mountain wood tick ( Dermacentor andersoni ) What is Colorado Tick Fever? ... commonly by the bite of an infected adult wood tick, and while there is no evidence of ...

322

Rocky Mountain spotted fever  

MedlinePLUS

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a type of bacteria carried by ticks. ... Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. The ...

323

Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Statistics How common is valley fever? In states where ... Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & ...

324

African swine fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

PENRITH, M-L. 2009. African swine fever. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 76:91-95 African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100 % mortal- ity, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the

MARY-LOUISE PENRITH

2009-01-01

325

Rickettsioses and Q fever in travelers (2004-2013).  

PubMed

Rickettsioses (also called typhus) are associated with arthropods, including ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, although Q fever is more frequently acquired through the inhalation of contaminated aerosols or the consumption of milk. These zoonoses first emerged in the field of travel medicine 20 years ago. Here, we review rickettsioses and Q fever in travelers, highlighting cases reported in the past decade. African tick bite fever and Mediterranean spotted fever are the two most frequent spotted fevers. While the presentation of these fevers is typically benign, cardiac and neurological complications due to African tick bite fever have been reported, and Mediterranean spotted fever has been complicated by multi-organ failure and death in a few cases. Murine typhus and Q fever remain difficult to recognize and diagnose because these illnesses often present with only fever. New molecular tools, particularly when deployed with samples obtained from eschar swabs, might be easily implemented in laboratories with PCR facilities. Doxycycline must be introduced upon clinical suspicion of rickettsioses or Q fever and should be considered in cases of fever of unknown origin in travelers who are returning from at-risk geographic areas. PMID:25262433

Delord, Marion; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe

2014-01-01

326

Phase-variable expression of the 145-kDa surface protein of Brazilian purpuric fever case-clone strains of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius.  

PubMed

Clonally related strains of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius have recently been associated with Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF). Antibodies to a 145-kDa minor outer membrane protein (P145) are bactericidal and protect against experimental bacteremia. To determine if P145 is conserved among case-clone strains, case-clone strains were screened for P145 expression. Assays of a large number of colonies of each strain using colony immunoblot revealed colonies reactive with anti-P145 sera in all 17 case-clone strains. P145 was expressed at a low frequency (0.08%-2.2% of colonies) in 14 strains and at a high frequency (> 98%) in 3 strains. Expression of P145 by reactive colonies was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Also, anti-P145-nonreactive variant colonies of P145-expressing strains were detected in 0.4%-1.5% of colonies. These findings indicate P145 is conserved among BPF case-clone strains and is subject to phase-variable expression. PMID:7876625

Rubin, L G

1995-03-01

327

Colchicine-free remission in familial Mediterranean fever: featuring a unique subset of the disease-a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background To demonstrate and clinically, genetically and demographically characterize familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients, maintaining remission despite colchicine abstinence. Methods FMF patients were screened for an endurance of prolonged remission (? 3 years), despite refraining from colchicine. Clinical, demographic and genetic parameters were collected. Data were compared with those of consecutive control FMF subjects, coming to the clinic for their periodic follow up examination. Results Of 1000 patients screened over 5 years, 33 manifested colchicine-free remission. The mean duration of the remission period was 12.6?±?8.1 years. Patients in the remission group had milder severity of FMF, compared to the control group (22 vs. 11 patients with mild disease, respectively, p?=?0.003) and a longer diagnosis delay (21?±?15.7 vs. 13.4?±?13.5 years, respectively, p?=?0.04). Patients experiencing remission suffered mostly of abdominal attacks, low rate of attacks in other sites and low rate of chronic and non-attack manifestations. When the disease resumed activity, it responded well to colchicine, despite using a lower dose, as compared to the control subjects (p?

2014-01-01

328

Backscattering ratio variation and its implications for studying particle composition: A case study in Yellow and East China seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using in situ optical measurements collected during the 2003 spring cruise over the Yellow and East China seas, the particle backscattering ratio is calculated and spectral variability is analyzed by means of geometric mean regression. The analysis shows that the particle backscattering ratio can be regarded as wavelength-independent in the range of 442-676 nm, given the measurement uncertainties associated with the backscattering and scattering data. The backscattering ratio and attenuation measurements are used to calculate the particle refractive index, which is related to the particle composition. The distributions of the particle refractive index and the water component concentration along two transects suggest the feasibility for studying the particle composition.

Zhang, Minwei; Tang, Junwu; Song, Qingjun; Dong, Qing

2010-12-01

329

Resistance to serum bactericidal activity distinguishes Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) case strains of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (H. aegyptius) from non-BPF strains. Brazilian Purpuric Fever Study Group.  

PubMed

We studied the ability of normal human serum to lyse H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius (H. aegyptius) isolates recovered from patients with Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF clone) or non-BPF clone strains. BPF clone isolates, although similar to non-BPF clone isolates with regard to the ability to fix C3 to their surfaces, could be distinguished from non-BPF clone strains by their resistance to lysis in vitro following incubation with normal adult human serum. PMID:2786003

Porto, M H; Noel, G J; Edelson, P J

1989-04-01

330

Fever of unknown origin as a presentation of colonic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a 36-year-old female: A case report  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare type of lesion that mimics malignancy and has various clinical manifestations. The current study presents a 36-year-old female with a colonic mass, which closely resembled a stromal tumor during imaging. The patient experienced intermittent fever and slight abdominal pain for one month. The fever remained at ?38.5°C until the day of surgery. The patient underwent a right hemicolectomy and the preoperative fever disappeared and did not recur until the patient was discharged. PMID:24765177

ZHOU, RU; XIANG, JIANBIN; CHEN, ZONGYOU; LI, ZHENYANG; HONG, JUN

2014-01-01

331

Climate impacts on environmental risks evaluated from space: a contribution to social benefits within the GEOSS Health Area: The case of Rift Valley Fever in Senegal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate and environment vary on many spatio-temporal scales, including climate change, with impacts on ecosystems, vector-borne diseases and public health worldwide. This study is to enable societal benefits from a conceptual approach by mapping climatic and environmental conditions from space and understanding the mechanisms within the Health Social Benefit GEOSS area. The case study is for Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in Senegal is presented. Ponds contributing to mosquitoes’ thriving, were identified from remote sensing using high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images. Additional data on ponds’ dynamics and rainfall events (obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) were combined with hydrological in-situ data. Localization of vulnerable hosts such as parked cattle (from QuickBird satellite) are also used. Dynamic spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes vexans density (one of the main RVF vectors) is based on the total rainfall amount and ponds’ dynamics. While Zones Potentially Occupied by Mosquitoes (ZPOM) are mapped, detailed risks areas, i.e. zones where hazards and vulnerability occur, are expressed in percentages of parks where cattle is potentially exposed to mosquitoes’ bites. This new conceptual approach, using remote-sensing techniques belonging to GEOSS, simply relies upon rainfall distribution also evaluated from space. It is meant to contribute to the implementation of integrated operational early warning system within the health application communities since climatic and environmental conditions (both natural and anthropogenic) are changing rapidly.

Tourre, Y. M.

2009-12-01

332

Fever of unknown origin, with a twist  

PubMed Central

The authors present a case of an 81-year-old man with fever of unknown origin. The case report is illustrated with the images which clarified the diagnosis in this challenging case. The cardiac MR images were of critical importance in arriving at a diagnosis of aortic root mycotic pseudoaneurysm with rupture into the right ventricle. PMID:23345531

Lobo, Ronstan; Meany, Brendan; O'Hanlon, Rory; Kiernan, Thomas John

2013-01-01

333

Delirium and High Fever Are Associated with Subacute Motor Deterioration in Parkinson Disease: A Nested Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background In Parkinson disease (PD), systemic inflammation caused by respiratory infections such as pneumonia frequently occurs, often resulting in delirium in the advanced stages of this disease. Delirium can lead to cognitive and functional decline, institutionalization, and mortality, especially in the elderly. Inflammation causes rapid worsening of PD motor symptoms and signs, sometimes irreversibly in some, but not all, patients. Purpose To identify factors associated with subacute motor deterioration in PD patients with systemic inflammation. Methods The association of clinical factors with subacute motor deterioration was analyzed by a case-control study. Subacute motor deterioration was defined as sustained worsening by one or more modified Hoehn and Yahr (H–Y) stages. Using multivariable logistic regression incorporating baseline characteristics (age, sex, PD duration, modified H–Y stage, dementia, and psychosis history) and statistically selected possible predictors (peak body temperature, duration of leukocytosis, and presence of delirium), the odds ratios for these factors were estimated as relative risks. Results Of 80 PD patients with systemic inflammation, 26 with associated subacute motor deterioration were designated as cases and the remainder as controls. In the 26 cases, 6 months after its onset the motor deterioration had persisted in 19 patients and resolved in four (three were lost for follow-up). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that delirium and body temperature are significantly associated with motor deterioration after systemic inflammation (P?=?0.001 for delirium and P?=?0.026 for body temperature), the adjusted odds ratios being 15.89 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.23–78.14) and 2.78 (95% CI: 1.13–6.83), respectively. Conclusions In patients with PD and systemic inflammation, delirium and high body temperature are strong risk factors for subsequent subacute motor deterioration and such deterioration can persist for over 6 months. PMID:24887491

Umemura, Atsushi; Oeda, Tomoko; Tomita, Satoshi; Hayashi, Ryutaro; Kohsaka, Masayuki; Park, Kwiyoung; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Sawada, Hideyuki

2014-01-01

334

Typhoid Fever and Invasive Nontyphoid Salmonellosis, Malawi and South Africa  

PubMed Central

To determine the prevalence of invasive nontyphoid salmonellosis and typhoid fever in Malawi and South Africa, we compared case frequency and patient age distribution. Invasive nontyphoid salmonellosis showed a clear bimodal age distribution; the infection developed in women at a younger age than in men. Case frequency for typhoid fever was lower than for salmonellosis. PMID:20735930

Feasey, Nicholas A.; Archer, Brett N.; Heyderman, Robert S.; Sooka, Arvinda; Dennis, Brigitte; Keddy, Karen H.

2010-01-01

335

Groundwater flow and geochemistry in the lower reaches of the Yellow River: a case study in Shandang Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water samples were collected from the Yellow River and from wells for chemical and isotopic measurement in the counties of Yucheng and Qihe, to which 6-9×108 m3 of water is diverted annually from the Yellow River. A zone of high electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater corresponds well on the regional scale with a ridge in groundwater level, which is the main flow path through the region, but has a low gradient. The zone of highest EC along this ridge occurs at a position with the lowest ground altitude in the study area. The unique characteristic of the groundwater is the linear relationship among the principal anions as the result of mixing. The mixing effect is confirmed by its isotopic signature, which was then used to calculate the contributions from three sources: rainfall, old water, and diverted water with an average mixing rate of 18, 17, and 65%, respectively. As an indicator of water movement, Cl- content varies across a wide range in the profile from 30-10 m with a maximum concentration at about 1.2 m depth. Concentrations are relatively stable at about 2 m, which is the average boundary of the saturated and unsaturated zone. The water from the Yellow River has proved to be dominant in mixing in the aquifer in terms of groundwater flow and geochemistry. Résumé. En vue d'analyses chimiques et isotopiques, des échantillons d'eau ont été prélevés sur le Fleuve Jaune et dans des puits des comtés de Yucheng et Qihe, où l'on prélève sur le fleuve 6-9×108 m3. Une zone de forte conductivité électrique dans la nappe correspond bien, à l'échelle régionale, avec une crête piézométrique liée au principal canal traversant la région, mais avec une faible pente. La zone de plus fortes conductivités le long de cette crête se situe là où l'altitude est la plus basse dans la région. La caractéristique remarquable de la nappe est la relation linéaire entre les principaux anions, résultant d'un mélange. L'effet de mélange est confirmé par la signature isotopique, qui a alors été utilisée pour calculer les contributions des trois sources: la pluie, l'eau ancienne et l'eau prélevée dans le fleuve, avec un taux moyen de mélange respectivement de 18, 17 et 65%. Comme indicateur de l'écoulement de l'eau, la concentration en Cl- varie dans une large gamme, dans un profil de 30 cm à 10 m en profondeur, avec une concentration maximale à une profondeur d'environ 1,2 m. Les concentrations sont relativement stables à partir de 2 m, profondeur de la limite entre les zones non saturée et saturée. On a ainsi montré que l'eau du Fleuve Jaune est prédominante dans le mélange, au sein de l'aquifère en termes d'écoulement de la nappe et de composition chimique. Resumen. Se ha recogido muestras de agua del Río Amarillo y de pozos para obtener medidas químicas e isotópicas en los condados de Yucheng y Qihe, que se abastecen con 6-9×108 m3 anuales de aguas de dicho río. Hay una zona de conductividad eléctrica (CE) elevada en las aguas subterráneas, la cual se corresponde bien a escala regional con una divisoria en el nivel piezométrico que representa la vía principal de flujo a través de la región, pero con un gradiente bajo. La zona de mayor CE a lo largo de la divisoria está localizada en el punto con la menor cota topográfica en el ámbito de estudio. La característica principal de las aguas subterráneas es la relación lineal que existe entre los aniones principales como resultado de un proceso de mezcla. Este efecto se confirma mediante la huella isotópica, que se utilizó para calcular las contribuciones de tres orígenes distintos: precipitación, aguas antiguas y aguas derivadas del río, obteniéndose porcentajes respectivos del 18, 17, y 65%. Como trazador del agua, la concentración de cloruro varía ampliamente en el perfil del suelo de 0,3-10 m, con un máximo a una profundidad aproximada de 1,2 m. Las concentraciones son relativamente estables hacia 2 m de profundidad, que es la cota promedio del nivel freático. El agua del Río Amarillo domina en la mezcla de aguas

Chen, J. Y.; Tang, C. Y.; Sakura, Y.; Kondoh, A.; Shen, Y. J.

2002-08-01

336

Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

2011-12-01

337

Seir Model for Transmission of Dengue Fever in Selangor Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study a system of differential equations that models the population dynamics of SEIR vector transmission of dengue fever. The model studied breeding value based on the number of reported cases of dengue fever in Selangor because the state had the highest case in Malaysia. The model explains that maximum level of human infection rate of dengue fever achieved in a very short period. It is also revealed that there existed suitability result between theoretical and empirical calculation using the model. The result of SEIR model will hopefully provide an insight into the spread of dengue fever in Selangor Malaysia and basic form for modeling this area.

Syafruddin, S.; Noorani, M. S. M.

338

Tropical fevers: Management guidelines  

PubMed Central

Tropical fevers were defined as infections that are prevalent in, or are unique to tropical and subtropical regions. Some of these occur throughout the year and some especially in rainy and post-rainy season. Concerned about high prevalence and morbidity and mortality caused by these infections, and overlapping clinical presentations, difficulties in arriving at specific diagnoses and need for early empiric treatment, Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM) constituted an expert committee to develop a consensus statement and guidelines for management of these diseases in the emergency and critical care. The committee decided to focus on most common infections on the basis of available epidemiologic data from India and overall experience of the group. These included dengue hemorrhagic fever, rickettsial infections/scrub typhus, malaria (usually falciparum), typhoid, and leptospira bacterial sepsis and common viral infections like influenza. The committee recommends a ‘syndromic approach’ to diagnosis and treatment of critical tropical infections and has identified five major clinical syndromes: undifferentiated fever, fever with rash / thrombocytopenia, fever with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), fever with encephalopathy and fever with multi organ dysfunction syndrome. Evidence based algorithms are presented to guide critical care specialists to choose reliable rapid diagnostic modalities and early empiric therapy based on clinical syndromes. PMID:24678147

Singhi, Sunit; Chaudhary, Dhruva; Varghese, George M.; Bhalla, Ashish; Karthi, N.; Kalantri, S.; Peter, J. V.; Mishra, Rajesh; Bhagchandani, Rajesh; Munjal, M.; Chugh, T. D.; Rungta, Narendra

2014-01-01

339

Rift Valley fever, Mayotte, 2007-2008.  

PubMed

After the 2006-2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

Sissoko, Daouda; Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D'Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

2009-04-01

340

Fatal Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The emergence and reemergence of a serious infectious disease are often associated with a high case-fatality rate because of misdiagnosis and inappropriate or delayed treatment. The current reemergence of spotted fever rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in Brazil has resulted in a high proportion of fatal cases. We describe two familial clusters of Brazilian spotted fever in the state of Minas Gerais, involving six children 9 months to 15 years of age; five died. Immunohistochemical investigation of tissues obtained at necropsy of a child in each location, Novo Cruzeiro and Coronel Fabriciano municipalities, established the diagnosis by demonstration of disseminated endothelial infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae. The diagnosis in the two fatal cases from Coronel Fabriciano and the surviving patient from Novo Cruzeiro was further supported by immunofluorescence serologic tests. PMID:14718082

Dumler, J. Stephen; Mafra, Cláudio Lísias; Calic, Simone Berger; Chamone, Chequer Buffe; Filho, Gracco Cesarino; Olano, Juan Pablo; Walker, David H.

2003-01-01

341

Simian hemorrhagic fever virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biological pro...

342

Hay Fever Medications  

MedlinePLUS

... fever symptoms. These medications prevent the effects of histamine during an allergic reaction. Antihistamines are available as ... allergens, the medication can prevent the release of histamine and other chemicals. As a result, allergy symptoms ...

343

Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)  

MedlinePLUS

... What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Allergies & the ... Allergies Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment About Seasonal Allergies "Ah-choo!" It's your son's third sneezing fit ...

344

Periodic Fever Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The periodic syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that can be very difficult for practicing physicians to\\u000a diagnosis and treat. This article presents an orderly approach to hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome; tumor necrosis factor receptor-1\\u000a periodic syndrome; familial Mediterranean fever; periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis syndrome;\\u000a and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes by highlighting the disease presentation, diagnosis, pathogenesis,

Zachary Jacobs; Christina E. Ciaccio

2010-01-01

345

Emergence of Q fever  

PubMed Central

Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis with many acute and chronic manifestations caused by the pathogen Coxiella burnetii. Farm animals and pets are the main reservoirs of infection, and transmission to human beings is mainly accomplished through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Persons at greatest risk are those in contact with farm animals and include farmers, abattoir workers, and veterinarians. The organs most commonly affected during Q fever are the heart, the arteries, the bones and the liver. The most common clinical presentation is an influenza-like illness with varying degrees of pneumonia and hepatitis. Although acute disease is usually self-limiting, people do occasionally die from this condition. Endocarditis is the most serious and most frequent clinical presentation of chronic Q fever. Vascular infection is the second most frequent presentation of Q fever. The diagnosis of Q fever is based on a significant increase in serum antibody titers. The treatment is effective and well tolerated, but must be adapted to the acute or chronic pattern with the tetracyclines to be considered the mainstay of antibiotic therapy. For the treatment of Q fever during pregnancy the use of long-term cotrimoxazole therapy is proposed. PMID:23113081

Angelakis, E; Raoult, D

2011-01-01

346

[Chikungunya fever - A new global threat.  

PubMed

The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent and the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Islands, Asia and Europe. Due to their epidemiological and biological features and the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace and could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical and epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control and mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas. PMID:25087211

Montero, Antonio

2014-07-30

347

Diabetes with Hypertension as Risk Factors for Adult Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in a Predominantly Dengue Serotype 2 Epidemic: A Case Control Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a severe form of dengue, characterized by bleeding and plasma leakage. A number of DHF risk factors had been suggested. However, these risk factors may not be generalized to all populations and epidemics for screening and clinical management of patients at risk of developing DHF. This study explored demographic and comorbidity risk factors for DHF

Junxiong Pang; Agus Salim; Vernon J. Lee; Martin L. Hibberd; Kee Seng Chia; Yee Sin Leo; David C. Lye

2012-01-01

348

Characterisation of inflammatory response, coagulation, and radiological findings in Katayama fever: a report of three cases at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria  

PubMed Central

Background Katayama fever is an acute clinical condition characterised by high fever, dry cough and general malaise occurring during early Schistosoma spp. infection. It is predominantly reported in travellers from non-endemic regions. Whereas the immunological response to Schistosoma infection is well characterised, alterations in inflammatory markers and coagulation in response to acute infection are poorly understood. Methods Here we report the clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics of three returning travellers with Katayama fever. Inflammatory markers and coagulation status were assessed repeatedly during follow-up to characterise the host response to infection. Radiographic findings were correlated with clinical and laboratory markers. Results Clinical symptoms were suggestive of a significant inflammatory response in all patients including high fever (>39°C), cough, and general malaise. Classical inflammatory markers including blood sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A were only moderately elevated. Marked eosinophilia (33–42% of white blood cells) was observed and persisted despite anti-inflammatory and anthelminthic treatment for up to 32 weeks. Analysis of blood coagulation markers indicated increased coagulability reflected by elevated D-dimer values (0.57–1.17 ?g/ml) and high thrombin generating potentials (peak thrombin activity: 311–384 nM). One patient showed particularly high levels of microparticle-associated tissue factor activity at initial presentation (1.64 pg/ml). Multiple pulmonary and hepatic opacities demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) scanning were associated with raised inflammatory markers in one patient. Conclusions The characterisation of the inflammatory response, blood coagulation parameters and radiological findings in three patients adds to our current understanding of Katayama fever and serves as a starting point for further systematic investigations of the pathophysiology of this acute helminthic infection. PMID:24985919

2014-01-01

349

Duodenal string test in typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Twenty five children between 4-12 years of age hospitalized with a clinical diagnosis of enteric fever were studied for evaluating the practicality and sensitivity of duodenal string-capsule culture (DSCC) and compared with conventional cultures from blood (BC), urine (UC) and stool (SC). Duodenal string capsule (DSCC) was successfully inserted in 18 patients (72%). Insertion of DSCC failed in 7 patients (28%) and all of them were below 6 years of age. Salmonella typhi was isolated from DSCC and/or BC in 13 cases (72.2%). DSCC was positive in 11 out of 13 confirmed cases of typhoid fever (84.6%). BC was positive in 8 cases (61.5%). DSCC was successful in isolating the organism in about 30% more cases than BC. Duodenal string test was a simple, non-invasive and a reliable test which when used in combination with BC could identify almost all cases of enteric fever irrespective of duration of fever and prior use of antibiotics. PMID:8282391

Antony, T J; Patwari, A K; Anand, V K; Pillai, P K; Aneja, S; Sharma, D

1993-05-01

350

Clinical Profile and Outcome in Children of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in North India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The number of dengue fever (DF)\\/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases reported in India has risen in recent years. This study was undertaken to evaluate clinical profile and outcome of children admitted with DHF\\/dengue shock syndrome (DSS), in the 2006 DHF epidemic in Ludhiana, Punjab. Methods: Eighty one children with dengue hemorrhagic fever were hospitalized in the Pediatric Department of

Gurdeep S. Dhooria; Deepak Bhat; Harmesh S Bains

2008-01-01

351

Childbed Fever A Nineteenth-Century Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case describes the pioneering work of Ignaz Semmelweis and his efforts to remedy the problem of childbed fever in mid-19th century Europe.  Its purpose is to teach students about the scientific method by “dissecting” the various steps involved in this important, historical medical breakthrough. The case is an interrupted case, that is, students receive only one piece of information at a time, followed by discussion, before moving on to the next piece of information to solve the mystery.

Christa Colyer

1999-01-01

352

Fever in honeybee colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honeybees, Apis spp., maintain elevated temperatures inside their nests to accelerate brood development and to facilitate defense against predators. We present an additional defensive function of elevating nest temperature: honeybees generate a brood-comb fever in response to colonial infection by the heat-sensitive pathogen Ascosphaera apis. This response occurs before larvae are killed, suggesting that either honeybee workers detect the infection before symptoms are visible, or that larvae communicate the ingestion of the pathogen. This response is a striking example of convergent evolution between this "superorganism" and other fever-producing animals.

Starks, P. T.; Blackie, Caroline A.; Seeley, Thomas D.

353

Reemergence of Rift Valley Fever, Mauritania, 2010  

PubMed Central

A Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in humans and animals occurred in Mauritania in 2010. Thirty cases of RVF in humans and 3 deaths were identified. RVFV isolates were recovered from humans, camels, sheep, goats, and Culex antennatus mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates indicated a virus origin from western Africa. PMID:24447381

Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Hampathé; Ba, Yamar; Freire, Caio C.M.; Faye, Oumar; Ndiaye, Oumar; Elgady, Isselmou O.; Zanotto, Paolo M.A.; Diallo, Mawlouth

2014-01-01

354

Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada  

PubMed Central

Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan

2008-01-01

355

Ebola fever: The African emergency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ebola virus produces one of Africa's most lethal viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) infections. Statistically, Ebola fever is at the bottom of Africa's list of infectious diseases, but the speed with which it induces agonizing death puts Ebola fever at the top of Africa's emergencies. Many aspects of the virus are unknown and have eluded medical scientists for 3 decades.

J. Bruce; P. Brysiewicz

2002-01-01

356

Rift Valley Fever Review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a disease of animals and humans that occurs in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae causes the disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Epidemics occur during years of unusually heavy rainfall that assessment models are being develo...

357

Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients. PMID:22668446

Tantawichien, Terapong

2012-01-01

358

Evaluation of dengue fever reports during an epidemic, Colombia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess the validity of dengue fever reports and how they relate to the definition of case and severity. METHODS Diagnostic test assessment was conducted using cross-sectional sampling from a universe of 13,873 patients treated during the fifth epidemiological period in health institutions from 11 Colombian departments in 2013. The test under analyses was the reporting to the National Public Health Surveillance System, and the reference standard was the review of histories identified by active institutional search. We reviewed all histories of patients diagnosed with dengue fever, as well as a random sample of patients with febrile syndromes. The specificity and sensitivity of reports were estimated for this purpose, considering the inverse of the probability of being selected for weighting. The concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search was calculated using Kappa statistics. RESULTS We included 4,359 febrile patients, and 31.7% were classified as compatible with dengue fever (17 with severe dengue fever; 461 with dengue fever and warning signs; 904 with dengue fever and no warning signs). The global sensitivity of reports was 13.2% (95%CI 10.9;15.4) and specificity was 98.4% (95%CI 97.9;98.9). Sensitivity varied according to severity: 12.1% (95%CI 9.3;14.8) for patients presenting dengue fever with no warning signs; 14.5% (95%CI 10.6;18.4) for those presenting dengue fever with warning signs, and 40.0% (95%CI 9.6;70.4) for those with severe dengue fever. Concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search resulted in a Kappa of 10.1%. CONCLUSIONS Low concordance was observed between reporting and the review of clinical histories, which was associated with the low reporting of dengue fever compatible cases, especially milder cases.

Romero-Vega, Liliana; Pacheco, Oscar; de la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando; Díaz-Quijano, Fredi Alexander

2014-01-01

359

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks in Gabon, 1994–1997: Epidemiologic and Health Control Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the end of 1994 to the beginning of 1995, 49 patients with hemorrhagic symptoms were hospitalized in the Makokou General Hospital in northeastern Gabon. Yellow fever (YF) virus was first diagnosed in serum by use of polymerase chain reaction followed by blotting, and a vaccination campaign was immediately instituted. The epidemic, known as the fall 1994 epidemic, ended 6

Sylvain Baize

1999-01-01

360

Fungal Pneumonia: A Silent Epidemic Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)  

MedlinePLUS

... cases are being detected and reported i From soil to lungs Valley fever occurs in people who ... caused by the fungus Coccidioides, which lives in soil. People can become infected by inhaling fungal spores. ...

361

Mapping dengue fever transmission risk in the Aburrá Valley, Colombia  

E-print Network

Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in Medellín, the second largest Colombian city, and surrounding municipalities. We used DF case and satellite environmental data to investigate conditions associated with suitable areas for DF occurrence in 2008 in three...

Arboleda, Sair; Jaramillo-O, Nicolas; Peterson, A. Townsend

2009-12-02

362

[Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].  

PubMed

Puumala hantavirus is the most common hantavirus infection in Western Europe. The causative agent, Puumala virus, is a member of the Hantavirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family. The natural hosts of hantaviruses are chronically, but asymptomatic infected rodents, which transmit the virus to human in their excretions. Puumala virus is carried by the bank vole, clethrionomys glareolus. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by Puumala virus in France or Belgium is very similar to the previously described Nephropathia epidemica in Scandinavia. In most severe cases, the disease is clinically characterized by high fever of abrupt onset, headache, loin or abdominal pains, nausea and vomiting, and occasionally acute and transient myopia. Renal involvement results in transient proteinuria and hematuria and acute renal failure. Except for interstitial hemorrhage in the outer medulla, the renal histopathologic findings are unspecific and include prominent changes in the interstitium with interstitial oedema and inflammatory infiltrates. Thrombocytopenia, mild elevation of liver enzymes, and leukocytosis are typical laboratory findings. Spontaneous complete recovery is the rule. Laboratory diagnosis is primarily based on serology such as indirect immunofluorescence or capture enzyme--linked immunosorbent assays which detect IgM antibodies and an increased level of IgG antibodies against Puumala virus. Viral antigen may be demonstrated in the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells. PMID:11715607

Vanhille, P; Binaut, R; Kyndt, X; Launay, D; Thomas, C; Fleury, D

2001-01-01

363

Cardiac tamponade presenting as early manifestation in dengue fever.  

PubMed

Dengue fever (DF) is an outbreak prone viral disease transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. It is often associated with evidence of plasma leakage due to increased vascular permeability manifested by pleural effusion, ascites, hypoproteinaemia and pericardial effusion. Cases of small pericardial effusion have been reported in association with dengue fever, largely with dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) during epidemic outbreaks. Dengue may rarely present with cardiac tamponade as early manifestation and urgent pericardiocentesis is life saving. A 34 year old male presented with low grade fever, headache, myalgia and breathlessness. Echocardiography revealed large pericardial effusion with right ventricular diagnostic collapse requiring urgent drainage. Subsequently patient improved. Dengue serology (both IgM and IgG) was reported as markedly elevated supporting a diagnosis of classic dengue fever. PMID:25327070

Bendwal, Suresh; Malviya, Kavita; Jatav, O P; Malviya, Kapil

2014-03-01

364

Fever of unknown origin (FUO) due to Legionnaire's disease.  

PubMed

Fevers of unknown origin (FUOs) may be due to any of over 200 different disorders. We present a most unusual case of an FUO in a returning traveler from the Dominican Republic. Work-up for Q fever, Brucellosis, Bartonella, malaria and HIV were negative, but very highly elevated ESRs and ferritin levels suggested possible Legionnaire's disease. This is the third reported case of Legionnaire's disease presenting as an FUO. PMID:25444558

Muñoz-Gómez, Sigridh; Cunha, Burke A

2015-01-01

365

Yellow Legged Frog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists found this adult mountain yellow-legged frog on June 10 in Tahquitz Creek, a rediscovered population of the endangered frog in the San Jacinto Wilderness, San Bernardino National Forest, California....

2009-07-23

366

Q fever in Japan: an update review.  

PubMed

As neglected zoonosis for many years, Q fever is now ubiquitous in Japan. Similarly to elsewhere in the world, domestic animals are considered to be important reservoirs of the causal agent, Coxiella burnetii, a resistant intracellular bacterium. Infected animals shed bacteria in milk, feces, urine, vaginal mucous and birth products. Inhalation of bacteria present in the environment is the main route of animal and human infection. Shedding of C. burnetii in milk by domestic ruminants has a very limited impact as raw milk is seldom ingested by the Japanese population. The clinical expression of Q fever in Japan is similar to its clinical expression elsewhere. However clinical cases in children are more frequently reported in this country. Moreover, C. burnetii is specified as one of the causative organisms of atypical pneumonia in the Japanese Respiratory Society Guideline for the management of community-acquired pneumonia. In Japan, C. burnetii isolates are associated with acute illness and are mainly of moderate to low virulence. Cats are considered a significant source of C. burnetii responsible for human outbreaks in association with the presence of infected parturient cats. Since its recognition as a reportable disease in 1999, 7-46 clinical cases of Q fever have been reported by year. The epidemiology of Q fever in Japan remains to be elucidated and the exact modes of transmission are still unproven. Important further research is necessary to improve knowledge of the disease itself, the endogenous hosts and reservoirs, and the epidemiological cycle of coxiellosis in Japan. PMID:21146331

Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Czaplicki, Guy; Mainil, Jacques; Horii, Yoichiro; Misawa, Naoaki; Saegerman, Claude

2011-05-01

367

Chikungunya Fever in Los Angeles, California  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 33-year-old woman returning from Haiti, presenting to our emergency department (ED) with fever, rash and arthralgia. Following a broad workup that included laboratory testing for dengue and malaria, our patient was diagnosed with Chikungunya virus, which was then reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for initiation of infection control. This case demonstrates the importance of the ED for infectious disease case identification and initiation of public health measures. This case also addresses public health implications of Chikungunya virus within the United States, and issues related to the potential for local spread and autochthonous cases. PMID:25493131

Harter, Katherine R.; Bhatt, Sanjay; Kim, Hyung T.; Mallon, William K.

2014-01-01

368

Chikungunya fever in Los Angeles, California.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 33-year-old woman returning from Haiti, presenting to our emergency department (ED) with fever, rash and arthralgia. Following a broad workup that included laboratory testing for dengue and malaria, our patient was diagnosed with Chikungunya virus, which was then reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for initiation of infection control. This case demonstrates the importance of the ED for infectious disease case identification and initiation of public health measures. This case also addresses public health implications of Chikungunya virus within the United States, and issues related to the potential for local spread and autochthonous cases. PMID:25493131

Harter, Katherine R; Bhatt, Sanjay; Kim, Hyung T; Mallon, William K

2014-11-01

369

Brazilian purpuric fever: epidemic purpura fulminans associated with antecedent purulent conjunctivitis. Brazilian Purpuric Fever Study Group.  

PubMed

In late 1984, 10 children in a small, rural town in Brazil had high fever associated with vomiting and abdominal pain. Within 12-48 h of the onset of fever, purpura developed associated with vascular collapse and peripheral necrosis. All 10 children died. Cerebrospinal fluid examinations did not suggest meningitis and, when done, tests were negative for Neisseria meningitidis. Other culture, serological, and necropsy examinations did not reveal a cause. Case-finding uncovered another cluster of similar illness in children in a second town and sporadic cases in five other cities. Two case-control studies demonstrated that children who became ill were significantly more likely than control children to have had conjunctivitis during the month before illness. This conjunctivitis was purulent, preceded the onset of more severe disease by 3-15 days, and had resolved before fever began. Although no conjunctival cultures were obtained from case-children, Haemophilus aegyptius was the most common pathogen isolated from other conjunctival cultures during the epidemic. This organism was also isolated from a non-aseptic skin scraping from 1 case child. A 25-megadalton plasmid distinguished the H aegyptius isolates epidemiologically associated with illness from other Brazilian conjunctival isolates. Brazilian purpuric fever is a newly recognized syndrome of epidemic purpura fulminans associated with antecedent purulent conjunctivitis, possibly caused by H aegyptius. PMID:2888985

1987-10-01

370

Community Case Management of Fever Due to Malaria and Pneumonia in Children Under Five in Zambia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Pneumonia and malaria, two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children under five in Zambia, often have overlapping clinical manifestations. Zambia is piloting the use of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) by community health workers (CHWs) to treat uncomplicated malaria. Valid concerns about potential overuse of AL could be addressed by the use of malaria rapid diagnostics employed at the community level. Currently, CHWs in Zambia evaluate and treat children with suspected malaria in rural areas, but they refer children with suspected pneumonia to the nearest health facility. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of using CHWs to manage nonsevere pneumonia and uncomplicated malaria with the aid of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Methods and Findings Community health posts staffed by CHWs were matched and randomly allocated to intervention and control arms. Children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years were managed according to the study protocol, as follows. Intervention CHWs performed RDTs, treated test-positive children with AL, and treated those with nonsevere pneumonia (increased respiratory rate) with amoxicillin. Control CHWs did not perform RDTs, treated all febrile children with AL, and referred those with signs of pneumonia to the health facility, as per Ministry of Health policy. The primary outcomes were the use of AL in children with fever and early and appropriate treatment with antibiotics for nonsevere pneumonia. A total of 3,125 children with fever and/or difficult/fast breathing were managed over a 12-month period. In the intervention arm, 27.5% (265/963) of children with fever received AL compared to 99.1% (2066/2084) of control children (risk ratio 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.14–0.38). For children classified with nonsevere pneumonia, 68.2% (247/362) in the intervention arm and 13.3% (22/203) in the control arm received early and appropriate treatment (risk ratio 5.32, 95% confidence interval 2.19–8.94). There were two deaths in the intervention and one in the control arm. Conclusions The potential for CHWs to use RDTs, AL, and amoxicillin to manage both malaria and pneumonia at the community level is promising and might reduce overuse of AL, as well as provide early and appropriate treatment to children with nonsevere pneumonia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00513500 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20877714

Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Pilingana, Portipher; Macleod, William B.; Semrau, Katherine; Siazeele, Kazungu; Kalesha, Penelope; Hamainza, Busiku; Seidenberg, Phil; Mazimba, Arthur; Sabin, Lora; Kamholz, Karen; Thea, Donald M.; Hamer, Davidson H.

2010-01-01

371

Physical explanation of the weakened brightness temperature difference signal over the yellow sea during a dust event: Case study for March 15-16, 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper attempts to explain the cause of weakening or disappearing brightness temperature difference (BTD) signatures, in particular, over the Yellow Sea during the March 15-16, 2009 dust event. Using a simple correction approach that removes the effects of emissivity difference and water vapor effect difference, we confirmed that the weakening or disappearing BTD signatures noted over the Yellow Sea are largely due to the spectral emissivity contrast between land and ocean. The weakening or disappearing dust is hypothesized to be pronounced when the dust loading is weak because of the surface contribution to the top of atmosphere radiance, and that it is mainly due to the difference in spectral emissivity over the window band between land and ocean. It is further suggested that water vapor may be considered as a correction factor in spite of its smaller contribution.

Sohn, Byung-Ju; Chun, Hyoung-Wook; Song, Hwan-Jin; Noh, Young-Chan; Lee, Sang-Moo; Lee, Sang-Sam; Chun, Youngsin

2013-01-01

372

Q fever in Alberta, Canada: 1998-2011.  

PubMed

Establishing the diagnosis of Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) is important in directing the application of therapy to prevent severe manifestations of the infection. In Alberta, Canada, the presence of high livestock density creates a significant risk of infection, but to date, there has been no comprehensive analysis of local Q fever epidemiological trends and exposure patterns. Between 1998 and 2011, there were 39 cases and an overall adjusted case rate of 0.087 per 100 000 person-years. Cases were identified most commonly during the May-June season (Figure 2). The median age at date of diagnosis was 49.0 (range: 8.7-71.5) with slightly higher percentage of cases in men (56.4%) than in women (43.6%). There was an apparent geographical clustering of cases. The majority of these cases, with exposure data (n = 31), reported contact with farms and/or livestock, predominantly cattle (6), sheep (5) and goats (5). Cases tended to occur in census divisions with higher density of sheep, goats and cattle. Our findings suggest the need for an increase in targeted messages about Q fever to those in the livestock industry, as more targeted case finding among patients with a high index of suspicion for Q fever. In addition, widespread implementation of a standard questionnaire for cases would enhance surveillance of Q fever in Alberta. PMID:23711021

Snedeker, K G; Sikora, C

2014-03-01

373

[Miasmas, germs and doctors: the diffusion of ancient and new ideas in the Union médicale du Canada: the case of typhoid fever (1872-1900)].  

PubMed

The final decades of the 19th century have become known as a period of important transition in the medical world. New discoveries revolutionized the way diseases were seen and fought. Germs, not miasmas, caused disease and sanitary measures of prevention not miracle treatments controlled them. The articles in l'Union médicale du Canada, from 1872 to 1900 concerning typhoid fever reveal that doctors rapidly accepted some important innovations. However, when it came to innovations refuting their former theories or risking to jeopardize their popularity with the public, certain doctors hesitated to adopt the new theories. This study presents the coexistance of new ideas with the older ideas, which continued to be presented, sometimes years after important discoveries. This paper looks at how they were finally won over to the newer ideas. PMID:15025122

MacFarlane, John

2002-01-01

374

Impact of sea surface temperature front on stratus-sea fog over the Yellow and East China Seas — a case study with implications for climatology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stratus-sea fog event that occurred over the Yellow and East China Seas on 3 June 2011 is investigated using observations and a numerical model, with a focus on the effects of background circulation and Sea Surface Temperature Front (SSTF) on the transition of stratus into sea fog. Southerly winds of a synoptic high-pressure circulation transport water vapor to the Yellow Sea, creating conditions favorable for sea fog/stratus formation. The subsidence from the high-pressure contributes to the temperature inversion at the top of the stratus. The SSTF forces a secondary circulation within the ABL (Atmospheric Boundary Layer), the sinking branch of which on the cold flank of SSTF helps lower the stratus layer further to reach the sea surface. The cooling effect over the cold sea surface counteracts the adiabatic warming induced by subsidence. The secondary circulation becomes weak and the fog patches are shrunk heavily with the smoothed SSTF. A conceptual model is proposed for the transition of stratus into sea fog over the Yellow and East China Seas. Finally, the analyses suggest that sea fog frequency will probably decrease due to the weakened SSTF and the reduced subsidence of secondary circulation under global warming.

Li, Man; Zhang, Suping

2013-06-01

375

Outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by dengue virus type 3 in Al-Mukalla, Yemen  

PubMed Central

Background Investigations were conducted by the authors to explore an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) reported in 2010 from Al-Mukalla city, the capital of Hadramout in Yemen. Methods From 15–17 June 2010, the outbreak investigation period, specimens were obtained within 7?days after onset of illness of 18 acutely ill patients hospitalized with VHF and 15 household asymptomatic contacts of 6 acute cases. Additionally, 189 stored sera taken from acutely ill patients with suspected VHF hospitalized in the preceding 12?months were obtained from the Ministry of Health of Yemen. Thus, a total of 222 human specimens were collected; 207 specimens from acute cases and 15 specimens from contacts. All samples were tested with RT-PCR for dengue (DENV), Alkhumra (ALKV), Rift Valley Fever (RVFV), Yellow Fever (YFV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. Samples were also tested for DENV IgM, IgG, and NS1-antigen. Medical records of patients were reviewed and demographic, clinical, and laboratory data was collected. Results Of 207 patients tested, 181 (87.4%) patients were confirmed to have acute dengue with positive dengue NS1-antigen (97 patients, 46.9%) and/or IgM (163 patients, 78.7%). Of the 181 patients with confirmed dengue, 100 (55.2%) patients were IgG-positive. DENV RNA was detected in 2 (1%) patients with acute symptoms; both samples were molecularly typed as DENV type 3. No other VHF viruses were detected. For the 15 contacts tested, RT-PCR tests for the five viruses were negative, one contact was dengue IgM positive, and another one was dengue IgG positive. Of the 181 confirmed dengue patients, 120 (66.3%) patients were males and the median age was 24?years. The most common manifestations included fever (100%), headache (94.5%), backache (93.4%), malaise (88.4%), arthralgia (85.1%), myalgia (82.3%), bone pain (77.9%), and leukopenia (76.2%). Two (1.1%) patients died. Conclusions DENV-3 was confirmed to be the cause of an outbreak of VHF in Al-Mukalla. It is important to use both IgM and NS1-antigen tests to confirm acute dengue particularly under the adverse field conditions, where proper storage and transportation of specimens are missing, which substantially reduce the sensitivity of the RT-PCR for detecting DENV RNA. PMID:23497142

2013-01-01

376

Plants animals jha DSN FS-6700-7 (2/98) NOTE: Any yellow text shading or red text annotations have been added by ORNL Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). The annotations have been made  

E-print Network

1 Plants animals jha DSN FS-6700-7 (2/98) NOTE: Any yellow text shading or red text annotations is an especially effector vector. See a physician if unusual fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pains

377

Q Fever Outbreak in Industrial Setting  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of Q fever occurred in South Wales, United Kingdom, from July 15 through September 30, 2002. To investigate the outbreak a cohort and nested case-control study of persons who had worked at a cardboard manufacturing plant was conducted. The cohort included 282 employees and subcontractors, of whom 253 (90%) provided blood samples and 214 (76%) completed questionnaires. Ninety-five cases of acute Q fever were identified. The epidemic curve and other data suggested an outbreak source likely occurred August 5–9, 2002. Employees in the factory's offices were at greatest risk for infection (odds ratio 3.46; 95% confidence interval 1.38–9.06). The offices were undergoing renovation work around the time of likely exposure and contained straw board that had repeatedly been drilled. The outbreak may have been caused by aerosolization of Coxiella burnetii spore-like forms during drilling into contaminated straw board. PMID:15324550

Mason, Brendan W.; Nehaul, Lika K.; Smith, Robert; Salmon, Roland L.; Healy, Brendan; Valappil, Manoj; Westmoreland, Diana; de Martin, Sarah; Evans, Meirion R.; Lloyd, Graham; Hamilton-Kirkwood, Marysia; Williams, Nina S.

2004-01-01

378

Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 35-2014: a 31-year-old woman with fevers, chest pain, and a history of HCV infection and substance-use disorder.  

PubMed

A 31-year-old woman with substance-use disorder was admitted to this hospital because of fevers and chest pain. CT of the chest revealed multiple thick-walled nodular opacities throughout both lungs. Diagnostic tests were performed, and management decisions were made. PMID:25390743

Wakeman, Sarah E; Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Dudzinski, David M; Wilens, Timothy; Slavin, Peter L

2014-11-13

379

Serological evidence of dengue fever among refugees, Hargeysa, Somalia.  

PubMed

Epidemics of a malaria-like illness affected several thousand residents of the Dam Camp, a refugee camp near Hargeysa in Somalia, during 1985, 1986, and 1987. The disease was characterized by fever, chills, sweats, headache, back and joint pains for as long as 10 days in some patients. Blood smears from acutely ill patients were negative for malaria. Of 28 acute and 10 convalescent sera tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) and by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests, all were negative for antibody to Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Sindbis, Chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. However, antibody reactive to dengue 2 virus was detected by the IFA test in 39% (15/38), and 11 of 29 (38%) of the same sera were antibody positive by the HI test. Also, IgG antibody reactive to dengue 2 was demonstrated in 60% (17/28) of the same sera by the enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and 14% (4/28) were positive for IgM antibody. Of ten patients for which acute and convalescent sera were available, two developed four fold or greater rises in antibody titer evidencing infection. These data suggested that dengue virus may have been the cause of the epidemic among the Dam Camp refugees. PMID:2600591

Botros, B A; Watts, D M; Soliman, A K; Salib, A W; Moussa, M I; Mursal, H; Douglas, C; Farah, M

1989-10-01

380

Q Fever with Unusual Exposure History: A Classic Presentation of a Commonly Misdiagnosed Disease  

PubMed Central

We describe the case of a man presumptively diagnosed and treated for Rocky Mountain spotted fever following exposure to multiple ticks while riding horses. The laboratory testing of acute and convalescent serum specimens led to laboratory confirmation of acute Q fever as the etiology. This case represents a potential tickborne transmission of Coxiella burnetii and highlights the importance of considering Q fever as a possible diagnosis following tick exposures. PMID:22848855

Nett, Randall J.; Book, Earl; Anderson, Alicia D.

2012-01-01

381

Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.  

PubMed

Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspe-cific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers. PMID:25344714

Burnett, Mark W

2014-01-01

382

Fever, jaundice and acute renal failure.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is an uncommon infectious disease that has protean clinical manifestations ranging from an innocuous 'flu-like' illness to potentially life-threatening multi-organ failure. Here we describe a case of Weil's disease that presented on the acute medical take with fever, jaundice and acute renal failure. We highlight the importance of careful history taking at the time of admission and how understanding the epidemiology and pathophysiology of leptospirosis enables a definitive diagnosis to be reached. PMID:25650200

O'Toole, Sam M; Pathak, Neha; Toms, Graham C; Gelding, Susan V; Sivaprakasam, Venkat

2015-02-01

383

Control of Eggplant Yellows.  

E-print Network

AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Eggplants grown during the late summer and fall months in South and Central Texas are usually affected with a disease commonly called "eggplant yellows," which may... the green color in the plant. The contrast of yellow and green in an eggplant field is apparent at a considerable distance. The disease is infectious and appears to be caused by a virus, but the method of naQural transmission is not yet known. The most...

Jones, S. E. (Sloan Earle)

1942-01-01

384

Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease Surveillance Network (ELDSNet) Diagnosis Share Compartir Pontiac Fever Pontiac fever can be confirmed by urine antigen or paired ... special media) cannot be used to diagnose Pontiac fever. Most people with Legionnaires' disease will have pneumonia ( ...

385

Genetics Home Reference: Familial Mediterranean fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Familial Mediterranean fever On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed June 2014 What is familial Mediterranean fever? Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited condition ...

386

Effective Oral Favipiravir (T-705) Therapy Initiated after the Onset of Clinical Disease in a Model of Arenavirus Hemorrhagic Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLassa and Junín viruses are the most prominent members of the Arenaviridae family of viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever syndromes Lassa fever and Argentine hemorrhagic fever, respectively. At present, ribavirin is the only antiviral drug indicated for use in treatment of these diseases, but because of its limited efficacy in advanced cases of disease and its toxicity, safer and

Michelle Mendenhall; Andrew Russell; Donald F. Smee; Jeffery O. Hall; Ramona Skirpstunas; Yousuke Furuta; Brian B. Gowen

2011-01-01

387

Endocarditis of bovine jugular vein conduit due to Q fever.  

PubMed

Contegra (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) conduits are routinely used in cases of right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction during congenital heart surgery. We report two cases of Q fever endocarditis involving Contegra conduits. Surgical treatment and distinct aspects of both unusual cases are described. PMID:21620004

Stefanidis, Constantin; Benahmed-Mostafa, Aziz; Sanoussi, Ahmed; Quiriny, Marie; Demanet, Hélène; Theunissen, Caroline; Wauthy, Pierre

2011-06-01

388

Argentine hemorrhagic fever vaccines.  

PubMed

Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), an acute disease caused by Junin virus (JUNV, Arenaviridae), has been an important issue to public health in Argentina since the early 1950s. The field rodent Calomys musculinus is JUNV natural reservoir and human disease is a consequence of contact with infected rodents. A steady extention of AHF endemic area is being observed since the first reports of the disease. Important achievements have been made in: (a) improvement of methods for the etiological diagnosis; (b) implementation and validation of therapeutical measures; (c) development of vaccines to protect against AHF. Reference is made to different research strategies used to obtain anti-AHF vaccines in the past and anti-arenaviral diseases in the present. Information is updated on features and field performance of Candid #1 vaccine, a live attenuted vaccine currently used to prevent AHF. This vaccine was developed through a joint international effort that envisioned it as an orphan drug. With transferred technology, Argentine government was committed to be Candid #1 manufacturer and to register this vaccine as a novel medical product under the Argentine regulatory authority. Candid #1 vaccine is the first one used to control an arenaviral hemorrhagic fever, the first live viral vaccine to be manufactured and registered in Argentina, reaching its target population through governmental effort. PMID:21451263

Ambrosio, Ana; Saavedra, Maria; Mariani, Mauricio; Gamboa, Graciela; Maiza, Andrea

2011-06-01

389

National surveillance and the epidemiology of human Q fever in the United States, 1978-2004.  

PubMed

Although Q fever is considered enzootic in the United States, surveillance for human Q fever has been historically limited. From 1978 through 1999, 436 cases (average = 20 per year) of human Q fever were reported. After Q fever became nationally reportable in 1999, 255 human Q fever cases (average = 51 per year) were reported with illness onset during 2000 through 2004. The median age of cases was 51 years, and most cases were male (77%). The average annual incidence of Q fever was 0.28 cases per million persons, and was highest in persons 50-59 years of age (0.39 cases per million). State-specific incidence ranged from a high of 2.40 cases per million persons in Wyoming, to 0 cases in some states. Since Q fever became reportable, case reports have increased by more than 250%. Surveillance for Q fever is essential to establish the distribution and magnitude of disease and to complement U.S. bioterrorism preparedness activities. PMID:16837706

McQuiston, Jennifer H; Holman, Robert C; McCall, Candace L; Childs, James E; Swerdlow, David L; Thompson, Herbert A

2006-07-01

390

Fever in Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Fever in Infants and Children See complete list of charts. Because young children are not able to hold a thermometer in their ... two months of age or younger with a fever of 100.4° or higher? Yes This may ...

391

Mayaro fever virus, Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D. PMID:19891877

Azevedo, Raimunda S S; Silva, Eliana V P; Carvalho, Valéria L; Rodrigues, Sueli G; Nunes-Neto, Joaquim P; Monteiro, Hamilton; Peixoto, Victor S; Chiang, Jannifer O; Nunes, Márcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

2009-11-01

392

Effective Vaccine for Lassa Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lassa fever has been estimated to cause 5,000 deaths annually in West Africa. Recently, war in the zone where Lassa fever is hyperendemic has severely impeded control and treatment. Vaccination is the most viable control measure. There is no correlation between antibody levels and outcome in human patients, and inactivated vaccines produce high titers of antibodies to all viral proteins

S. P. Fisher-Hoch; L. Hutwagner; B. Brown; J. B. McCormick

2000-01-01

393

Isolation and characterization of Borrelia hermsii associated with two foci of tick-borne relapsing fever in California.  

PubMed

Relapsing fever, caused by the spirochete Borrelia hermsii and transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi, is endemic in many rural mountainous areas of California. Between 1996 and 1998, 12 cases of relapsing fever associated with two exposure sites in northern California were investigated. Follow-up at exposure sites included collection of soft ticks and serum specimens from sylvatic rodents. Attempts to cultivate spirochetes were made through inoculation of patient blood into mice and by feeding Ornithodoros ticks on mice. Three isolates of B. hermsii were recovered from two blood specimens and one pool of ticks. The protein and plasmid profiles of the three isolates were comparable to those of previous B. hermsii isolates from the western United States. Western immunoblotting of patient sera demonstrated an expanding immunologic response to antigens within four distinct molecular weight regions by 3 to 4 weeks postonset. Antibody to B. hermsii was detected in sera from 4 of 11 yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus); no other rodent species collected were seropositive. PMID:15004063

Fritz, Curtis L; Bronson, Lawrence R; Smith, Charles R; Schriefer, Martin E; Tucker, James R; Schwan, Tom G

2004-03-01

394

Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever  

PubMed Central

Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

Lukashevich, Igor S.

2012-01-01

395

Immunological arousal during acute Q fever infection.  

PubMed

Physicians often encounter patients who present with a vague clinical syndrome. A wide serological workup is often ordered, which may include tests for Coxiella burnetii in endemic areas. Often, the results of these tests pose new dilemma, with overlapping positive laboratory assays. The objective of this investigation was to characterise the serological overlap between acute Q fever and other infectious and immunological diseases. We retrospectively scanned the files of patients with a positive or equivocal immunoglobulin (Ig) M for C. burnetii phase II over a period of 8 years in a general hospital. Clinical and laboratory data, including antibodies to infectious agents and antibodies related to immunological states, were recorded. Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and rheumatoid factor were positive in 38%, 33.3% and 22.2% of the cases, respectively. In patients with acute Q fever, elevated IgM levels for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Mycoplasma pneumoniae, parvovirus, Bordetella pertussis, Rickettsia conorii and R. typhi were noted in 13.8%, 8.3%, 12.12%, 22.2%, 25%, 13% and 21.7% of cases, respectively. Acute Q fever induces a non-specific immunological arousal in a significant number of patients. This may interfere with diagnosis and delay treatment. Caution, clinical judgment and serological follow-up is warranted in such conditions. PMID:21509477

Vardi, M; Petersil, N; Keysary, A; Rzotkiewicz, S; Laor, A; Bitterman, H

2011-12-01

396

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Tajikistan.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a pathogenic tick-borne disease caused by a single-stranded negative-sense RNA virus classified within the Nairovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae. Cases of CCHF have been registered in Tajikistan since the disease was first brought to medical attention in 1944. However, historical Tajik manuscripts describe the features of hemorrhagic fever associated with ticks, indicating that the disease might have been known in this region for many years before it was officially characterized. Here we review the historical context of CCHF in Tajikistan, much of which has been described over several decades in the Russian literature, and include reports of recent outbreaks in Tajikistan. PMID:22217164

Tishkova, Farida H; Belobrova, Evgeniya A; Valikhodzhaeva, Matlyuba; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger; Mullojonova, Manija

2012-09-01

397

[Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome].  

PubMed

We report the cases of two sisters born of parents who were first-degree cousins, who started recurrent fever with lymph node and digestive tract involvement at the age of 2 years. There was no mutation of the familial Mediterranean fever gene and a diagnosis of partial mevalonate kinase (MVK) deficiency was made. However, immunoglobulin (Ig) D and A levels were normal. Elevated mevalonic acid in the patients' urine during an episode and MVK gene analysis provided the diagnosis. Clinical remission was obtained under anti-TNF-alpha treatment with etanercept. These observations and those of several previously reported patients, particularly in French and Dutch series, illustrate the importance of considering the diagnosis in a child with early-onset auto-inflammatory syndrome even in the absence of hyper-IgD or -IgA. PMID:24935455

Agbo-kpati, K-P; Condor, R; Hollenberg, H; Chalvon Demersay, A; Cuisset, L; Quartier, P

2014-07-01

398

[Dengue fever in mainland France].  

PubMed

Dengue fever is the most widespread distributed vector borne viral disease. It is transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. With the expansion of Aedes albopictus and increasing travel exchange, it is no longer limited to the tropical zone and transmission has been documented in temperate areas. In mainland France, where Aedes albopictus has been present and disseminating since 2004, 2 episodes of autochthonous transmission occurred in 2010 and in 2013. Control measures against dengue and chikungunya, which shares the same vector, are implemented every year since 2006, in the areas where the vector is present. They aim at preventing or limiting local transmission of these diseases. They are based on epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control measures. The diagnosis of dengue, and chikungunya should be considered in case of suggestive symptoms in patients returning from an area of virus circulation. It should also be considered for patients living or having stayed in areas of mainland France where Aedes albopictus is present, during its activity period from May 1 to November 30. The prevention and control system, including vector control measures and the notification of cases to the local health authority should be known, as the risk of autochthonous transmission increases every year. PMID:25080833

Paty, M-C

2014-11-01

399

The value of the levels of acute phase reactants for the prediction of familial Mediterranean fever associated amyloidosis: a case control study.  

PubMed

In order to determine the role of levels of acute phase proteins (APPs) for the development of amyloidosis in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients, the levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), C reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were measured in paired sera of 36 FMF patients during and in between acute attacks, 39 of their healthy parents (obligate heterozgotes), and 15 patients with FMF associated amyloidosis. To compare the levels of APPs, 39 patients with chronic infections or inflammatory diseases who may develop secondary amyloidosis, 20 patients with acute infections who are known to have elevated acute phase response but will never develop amyloidosis and 19 healthy controls were included. The median levels of all APPs are increased in the patients with FMF during attacks and a significant decrease was observed after the attack was over. The level of SAA was above reference range in all FMF patients during the attack free period and the level of at least one other APP was also above normal in 64% of the patients. Both CRP and SAA levels were found to be higher in obligate heterozygotes compared to controls. The levels of SAA in patients with FMF during the attack-free period, obligate heterozygotes and patients with FMF-amyloidosis were found to be similar. The levels in each group were found to be higher than SAA levels found in healthy controls yet lower than the levels measured in the patients with acute infections and patients with chronic inflammation or chronic infections. In conclusion, our results show that SAA level reflects subclinical inflammation with high sensitivity but its value for the prediction of amyloid formation process seems to be low. PMID:17103173

Yalçinkaya, F; Cakar, N; Acar, B; Tutar, E; Güriz, H; Elhan, A H; Oztürk, S; Kansu, A; Ince, E; Atalay, S; Girgin, N; Do?ru, U; Aysev, D; Ekim, M

2007-04-01

400

Nested polymerase chain reaction for early diagnosis of typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella typhi, is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. A rapid and sensitive method for the detection of S. typhi is essential for early diagnosis. This was a study to prospectively evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the S. typhi using flagellin gene related primers. The study was carried out in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh between July, 2010 and June, 2011, including 82 individuals of different age and sex. Of them, 62 were clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever and remaining 20 were apparently healthy controls. Cultures as well as PCR of blood specimens were performed for each of the cases. Among the 62 suspected typhoid fever cases, 8(12.9%) were blood culture positive and 55(88.7%) were PCR positive for S. typhi. All culture positive cases were positive by PCR and among 54 culture negative cases, 47(87%) were positive by PCR. Neither of the healthy controls was positive by PCR or blood culture. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PCR using blood culture as gold standard were 88.7%, 100%, 100% and 74% respectively for typhoid fever. In this study, the PCR appears highly specific, very sensitive and superior to blood culture for the early diagnosis of typhoid fever. PMID:22314449

Sultana, S; Hossain, M A; Alam, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, C; Kabir, M R; Haque, N; Yesmin, T; Kayes, M T; Maruf, A A; Kobayashi, N

2012-01-01

401

[Q fever (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of two Q fever epidemics in Baden-Württemberg demonstrated the following characteristics of this zoo-anthroponosis endemic in southern Germany: 1. affected areas are situated along sheep tracks and natural concentrations of the Dermacentor marginatus. 2. The disease spreads in waves. 3. It causes typical symptoms, particular an intense tension headache, and typical radiographic findings. Men are more commonly and more severely affected than women. Children are not affected despite proven exposure. 4. The CBR antibody titre is a reliable laboratory diagnostic parameter. 5. Epidemiological measures (search for the source of infection, elimination of seropositive sheep, use of disinfectants) reduce the reservoir of the infective agent. 6. The therapeutic drug of choice is doxycyclin. PMID:7307989

Doerr, H W; Hoferer, E; Leschhorn, V; Nassal, J

1981-11-13

402

Multiple ileal perforations and concomitant cholecystitis with gall bladder gangrene as complication of typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Surgical complications of typhoid fever usually involve the small gut, but infrequently typhoid fever also involves the gallbladder. Complications range from acalculous cholecystitis, gangrene to perforation. Here, we present a case of enteric fever with concomitant complication of multiple ileal perforations at its terminal part with acalculous cholecystistis with gangrenous gall bladder. The primary closure of the perforations and cholecystectomy was performed. Post-operatively patient developed low-output faecal fistula that was managed conservatively. PMID:25037301

Pandove, Paras K; Moudgil, Ashish; Pandove, Megha; Aggarwal, Kamna; Sharda, Divya; Sharda, Vijay K

2014-01-01

403

Multiple ileal perforations and concomitant cholecystitis with gall bladder gangrene as complication of typhoid fever  

PubMed Central

Surgical complications of typhoid fever usually involve the small gut, but infrequently typhoid fever also involves the gallbladder. Complications range from acalculous cholecystitis, gangrene to perforation. Here, we present a case of enteric fever with concomitant complication of multiple ileal perforations at its terminal part with acalculous cholecystistis with gangrenous gall bladder. The primary closure of the perforations and cholecystectomy was performed. Post-operatively patient developed low-output faecal fistula that was managed conservatively. PMID:25037301

Pandove, Paras K.; Moudgil, Ashish; Pandove, Megha; Aggarwal, Kamna; Sharda, Divya; Sharda, Vijay K.

2014-01-01

404

Q Fever with transient antiphospholipid antibodies associated with cholecystitis and splenic infarction.  

PubMed

We describe a case of Q fever associated with the transient presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in a 9-year-old boy presenting with acalculous cholecystitis and splenic infarction. Antiphospholipid antibodies are commonly associated with acute Q fever in adults but have previously been thought to be of little clinical significance. Recent data suggest that antiphospholipid antibodies may be responsible for certain clinical manifestations of acute Q fever. PMID:23271442

Newcombe, James P; Gray, Paul E A; Palasanthiran, Pam; Snelling, Thomas L

2013-04-01

405

Variability of Yellow Supergiants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past three years 58 of 131 yellow supergiant stars selected from the Sky Catalogue 2000.0, Volume 1, Stars to magnitude 8.0 (1982), edited by Hershfeld and Sinnott, have been monitored at the SW Missouri State University Baker Observatory using a Photometrics PM512 liquid-nitrogen cooled CCD detector on a 0.4m Cassegrain reflector. These stars are being studied in order to determine what fraction of yellow supergiants are variable and whether low amplitude variations occur. The technique of CCD differential photometry was used, which required that a comparison star be within five arc minutes of a program star in order to be imaged simultaneously. Each program star was imaged on several nights for a total of at least 10 times with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 100. Nightly bias and flat images were obtained in order to calibrate the program images. The aperture photometry package in IRAF was used for image analysis. Also, concurrent observations were made of several control pairs of main sequence A and G spectral class binaries not known to be variable. At the 3 sigma level of the standard deviation of the means of the differences in magnitude for the control pairs: six known variable stars have been recovered, three new suspected variables have been found, and 40 yellow supergiants have been found non-variable within the precision of the measurements. (Nine stars were later determined not to be supergiants.) These 40 non-variable yellow supergiants are distributed liberally across the Cepheid instability strip on the H-R diagram. The three suspected variables have V amplitudes of 0.02 to 0.06 magnitude. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-9315061.

Patterson, R. S.

1997-05-01

406

A typhoid fever outbreak in a slum of South Dumdum municipality, West Bengal, India, 2007: Evidence for foodborne and waterborne transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In April 2007, a slum of South Dumdum municipality, West Bengal reported an increase in fever cases. We investigated to identify the agent, the source and to propose recommendations. METHODS: We defined a suspected case of typhoid fever as occurrence of fever for ? one week among residents of ward 1 of South Dumdum during February – May 2007.

Rama Bhunia; Yvan Hutin; Ramachandran Ramakrishnan; Nishith Pal; Tapas Sen; Manoj Murhekar

2009-01-01

407

Decreasing prevalence of Q fever in Illinois.  

PubMed Central

There were 858 (37.7 percent) Q fever-infected dairy herds among the 2,277 tested in Illinois in 1963. The percentage decreased to 19.2 percent (380 of 1,975) in 1967. Reaction rates (complement-fixation test titer of 1:8 or greater) in serum samples from veterinarians decreased from 13.3 percent in 1956 to 3.9 percent in 1964 and from 3.6 percent in 1966 to 0 percent in 1968, 1970, 1972. There were 14 (2.7 percent) reactive serum samples among 526 abattoir workers tested in 1966; reaction rates were higher among workers having contact with swine (8.2 percent) than among workers having contact with cattle (1.8 percent). Two (0.1 percent) of 1,432 serum samples collected from 1967 to 1971 during preemployment examinations at another abattoir were reactive. Only two clinical cases of Q fever were reported to the Illinois Department of Public Health in the period 1963-80. All evidence evidence points to a decreasing prevalence of Q fever in Illinois. PMID:7063599

Martin, R J; Schnurrenberger, P R; Ferris, D H; Hanger, P N; Morrissey, R A

1982-01-01

408

Antibiotic treatment in pneumonia due to Q fever.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Whether Q fever responds better to doxycycline or erythromycin is unknown. METHODS: The efficacy of doxycycline and erythromycin in the treatment of pneumonia due to Q fever was assessed in a prospective, randomised, double blind study of 82 patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia and features suggestive of Q fever infection; 48 proved to have Q fever. Of the 48, 23 received doxycycline 100 mg twice a day and 25 patients received erythromycin 500 mg six hourly, both for 10 days. RESULTS: Both treatment groups had similar demographic characteristics. Fever showed a more rapid reduction in the doxycycline group (3(1.6) days versus 4.3(2) days). Side effects were observed in two patients receiving doxycycline compared with 11 patients receiving erythromycin (p less than 0.01). No differences were observed in other clinical or radiological measures. By day 40 the chest radiograph was normal in 47 of 48 patients. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate the self limiting and benign nature of most cases of pneumonia due to Q fever. Doxycycline was more effective than erythromycin. PMID:1585291

Sobradillo, V; Zalacain, R; Capelastegui, A; Uresandi, F; Corral, J

1992-01-01

409

Pediatric acute Q fever mimics other common childhood illnesses.  

PubMed

Knowledge of Q fever has increased over the last decades, but research has mainly focused on adults. Data in children are scarce, and current knowledge is mostly based on case reports. The aim of this study was to determine predictors for acute Q fever in children in the general population. We retrospectively studied all children tested for Coxiella burnetii by serology and/or PCR upon request of their general practitioner in the regional laboratory for Medical Microbiology of the Jeroen Bosch during the Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2011. A total of 1061 patients was analyzed. Influenza-like illness and respiratory tract infection were the most common presentations of acute Q fever, mimicking other common childhood illnesses. None of the reported symptoms was significantly related to a positive test outcome and therefore presenting signs or symptoms have no predictive value in diagnosing Q-fever in children. Only diagnostic tests are reliable. As the infection generally follows a mild and uncomplicated course, we question if the difficulty of recognizing pediatric Q fever is a problem worth solving. PMID:24520412

Bart, Ingeborg Y; Schabos, Yvonne; van Hout, Roeland W N M; Leenders, Alexander C A P; de Vries, Esther

2014-01-01

410

Discriminating Fever Behavior in House Flies  

PubMed Central

Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L.) challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever. PMID:23620820

Anderson, Robert D.; Blanford, Simon; Jenkins, Nina E.; Thomas, Matthew B.

2013-01-01

411

Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976  

PubMed Central

A large outbreak of haemorrhagic fever (subsequently named Ebola haemorrhagic fever) occurred in southern Sudan between June and November 1976. There was a total of 284 cases; 67 in the source town of Nzara, 213 in Maridi, 3 in Tembura, and 1 in Juba. The outbreak in Nzara appears to have originated in the workers of a cotton factory. The disease in Maridi was amplified by transmission in a large, active hospital. Transmission of the disease required close contact with an acute case and was usually associated with the act of nursing a patient. The incubation period was between 7 and 14 days. Although the link was not well established, it appears that Nzara could have been the source of infection for a similar outbreak in the Bumba Zone of Zaire. In this outbreak Ebola haemorrhagic fever was a unique clinical disease with a high mortality rate (53% overall) and a prolonged recovery period in those who survived. Beginning with an influenza-like syndrome, including fever, headache, and joint and muscle pains, the disease soon caused diarrhoea (81%), vomiting (59%), chest pain (83%), pain and dryness of the throat (63%), and rash (52%). Haemorrhagic manifestations were common (71%), being present in half of the recovered cases and in almost all the fatal cases. Two post mortems were carried out on patients in November 1976. The histopathological findings resembled those of an acute viral infection and although the features were characteristic they were not exclusively diagnostic. They closely resembled the features described in Marburg virus infection, with focal eosinophilic necrosis in the liver and destruction of lymphocytes and their replacement by plasma cells. One case had evidence of renal tubular necrosis. Two strains of Ebola virus were isolated from acute phase sera collected from acutely ill patients in Maridi hospital during the investigation in November 1976. Antibodies to Ebola virus were detected by immunofluorescence in 42 of 48 patients in Maridi who had been diagnosed clinically, but in only 6 of 31 patients in Nzara. The possibility of the indirect immunofluorescent test not being sufficiently sensitive is discussed. Of Maridi case contacts, in hospital and in the local community, 19% had antibodies. Very few of them gave any history of illness, indicating that Ebola virus can cause mild or even subclinical infections. Of the cloth room workers in the Nzara cotton factory, 37% appeared to have been infected, suggesting that the factory may have been the prime source of infection. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 3Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:307455

1978-01-01

412

Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which is a member of the Nairovirus genus (family Bunyaviridae). CCHF was first recognized during a large outbreak among agricultural workers in the mid-1940s in the Crimean peninsula. The disease now occurs sporadically throughout much of Africa, Asia, and Europe and results in

Chris A. Whitehouse

2004-01-01

413

Gallbladder perforation: A rare complication of enteric fever?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Gallbladder perforation is a rare complication of acute calculous cholecystitis in adults. Perforation of gallbladder due to enteric fever is extremely rare condition. Pre-operative diagnosis is rarely made and mortality is high. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of acalculous gallbladder perforation following enteric fever in a 14-year-old boy, who presented as acute abdomen and responded very well after emergency laparotomy and cholecystectomy. DISCUSSION Enteric fever is common in tropics and a common cause of bowel perforation. Acute cholecystitis is a rare complication of typhoid and gallbladder perforation is extremely rare complication. Ultrasound and CT lack specificity to detect gallbladder perforation. Diagnosis is usually made intra-operatively. Cholecystectomy is treatment of choice in such cases and provides good result. CONCLUSION Gallbladder perforation secondary to enteric fever requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. In typhoid endemic region, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patient presenting with a history of prolonged fever and signs of peritonitis. Early diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention are very important in reducing the morbidity and mortality. Cholecystectomy is the choice with a good outcome. PMID:24441441

Singh, Mahendra; Kumar, Lovekesh; Singh, Rashpal; Jain, Aaron K.; Karande, Snehal K.; Saradna, Arjun; Prashanth, U.

2013-01-01

414

Q fever outbreak in the terraced vineyards of Lavaux, Switzerland.  

PubMed

Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever) is a widespread zoonosis with low endemicity in Switzerland, therefore no mandatory public report was required. A cluster of initially ten human cases of acute Q fever infections characterized by prolonged fever, asthenia and mild hepatitis occurred in 2012 in the terraced vineyard of Lavaux. Epidemiological investigations based on patients' interviews and veterinary investigations included environmental sampling as well as Coxiella-specific serological assay and molecular examinations (real-time PCR in vaginal secretions) of suspected sheep. These investigations demonstrated that 43% of sheep carried the bacteria whereas 30% exhibited anti-Coxiella antibodies. Mitigation measures, including limiting human contacts with the flock, hygiene measures, flock vaccination and a public official alert, have permitted the detection of four additional human cases and the avoidance of a much larger outbreak. Since November 2012, mandatory reporting of Q fever to Swiss public health authorities has been reintroduced. A close follow up of human cases will be necessary to identify chronic Q fever. PMID:25356353

Bellini, C; Magouras, I; Chapuis-Taillard, C; Clerc, O; Masserey, E; Peduto, G; Péter, O; Schaerrer, S; Schuepbach, G; Greub, G

2014-07-01

415

Q fever outbreak in the terraced vineyards of Lavaux, Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever) is a widespread zoonosis with low endemicity in Switzerland, therefore no mandatory public report was required. A cluster of initially ten human cases of acute Q fever infections characterized by prolonged fever, asthenia and mild hepatitis occurred in 2012 in the terraced vineyard of Lavaux. Epidemiological investigations based on patients' interviews and veterinary investigations included environmental sampling as well as Coxiella-specific serological assay and molecular examinations (real-time PCR in vaginal secretions) of suspected sheep. These investigations demonstrated that 43% of sheep carried the bacteria whereas 30% exhibited anti-Coxiella antibodies. Mitigation measures, including limiting human contacts with the flock, hygiene measures, flock vaccination and a public official alert, have permitted the detection of four additional human cases and the avoidance of a much larger outbreak. Since November 2012, mandatory reporting of Q fever to Swiss public health authorities has been reintroduced. A close follow up of human cases will be necessary to identify chronic Q fever. PMID:25356353

Bellini, C; Magouras, I; Chapuis-Taillard, C; Clerc, O; Masserey, E; Peduto, G; Péter, O; Schaerrer, S; Schuepbach, G; Greub, G

2014-01-01

416

Analysis on ecological security in the soft rock area of Middle Yellow River: a case study of Changchuan Watershed, Inner Mongolia, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological security of Chanchuan watershed in the soft rock area of Middle Yellow River was synthetically evaluated and multi-objective programming of land use was forwarded by using RS and GIS techniques along with systems analysis methods. Moreover, according to the landscape ecology theory, digitalized optimum spatial patterns and rational proportion of land use were obtained through computer-aided adjustment with GIS software to get visible images of land use pattern that guarantees ecological security at Changchuan watershed. The results of comprehensive evaluation on ecological security of land use at Changchuan watershed indicate that measures of soil erosion control, ecological and environmental construction has certainly improved the situation of ecological security of this region during past decades, but the current situation of ecological security was not satisfactory. The results of multi-objective programming of land use pattern based on the ecological security evaluation indicate the optimum land use structure should be 3.7% of woodland, 38.6% of brushwood, 49.4% of grassland and 6.3% of crop land. Their spatial distributions were also patterned in light of requirement of ecological security. The average ESI in this region is leveled at relative secure, figuring at around 0.85.

Gao, Qingzhu; Xu, Hongmei; Li, Yue; Jiang, Yuan

2005-09-01

417

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Albania, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  During the spring and summer of 2001, an outbreak of eight cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) occurred in Albania.\\u000a The epidemiological investigation, the clinical presentation of the cases, and the course of the disease are described. Seven\\u000a of the cases were laboratory confirmed. A nosocomial infection and a cluster of cases within a family were observed. Genetic\\u000a analysis of

A. Papa; S. Bino; A. Llagami; B. Brahimaj; E. Papadimitriou; V. Pavlidou; E. Velo; G. Cahani; M. Hajdini; A. Pilaca; A. Harxhi; A. Antoniadis

2002-01-01

418

Esophageal sarcomatoid carcinoma presenting as a Fever with elevated serum leukocytes.  

PubMed

The study presented a case of esophageal cancer presenting as intermittent fever with markedly elevated serum leukocyte and C-reactive protein. The patient's symptoms had not improved with antibiotic treatment. However, after thoracic esophagectomy, the fever faded and leukocyte serum levels rapidly normalized. PMID:25441832

Ke, Sun-Kui; Duan, Hong-Bing; Cai, Ying-Jie; Cao, Yun-Peng; Zhong, Yuan; Hu, Chao

2014-11-01

419

Protective Efficacy of Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ebola virus (EBOV) is the causative agent of severe hemorrhagic fever in primates, with human case fatality rates up to 90%. Today, there is neither a licensed vaccine nor a treatment available for Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF). Single monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) have been successfully used in passive immunization experiments in rodent models, but have failed

Andrea Marzi; Reiko Yoshida; Hiroko Miyamoto; Mari Ishijima; Yasuhiko Suzuki; Megumi Higuchi; Yukie Matsuyama; Manabu Igarashi; Eri Nakayama; Makoto Kuroda; Masayuki Saijo; Friederike Feldmann; Douglas Brining; Heinz Feldmann; Ayato Takada

2012-01-01

420

The impact of climate change on the epidemiology and control of Rift Valley fever.  

PubMed

Climate change is likely to change the frequency of extreme weather events, such as tropical cyclones, floods, droughts and hurricanes, and may destabilise and weaken the ecosystem services upon which human society depends. Climate change is also expected to affect animal, human and plant health via indirect pathways: it is likely that the geography of infectious diseases and pests will be altered, including the distribution of vector-borne diseases, such as Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, malaria and dengue, which are highly sensitive to climatic conditions. Extreme weather events might then create the necessary conditions for Rift Valley fever to expand its geographical range northwards and cross the Mediterranean and Arabian seas, with an unexpected impact on the animal and human health of newly affected countries. Strengthening global, regional and national early warning systems is crucial, as are co-ordinated research programmes and subsequent prevention and intervention measures. PMID:18819669

Martin, V; Chevalier, V; Ceccato, P; Anyamba, A; De Simone, L; Lubroth, J; de La Rocque, S; Domenech, J

2008-08-01

421

Brazilian purpuric fever--Mato Grosso, Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) is a life-threatening pediatric infection that is preceded by conjunctivitis and caused by a specific strain of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (BPF clone). BPF was recognized during 1984 in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, when 10 children in a town of 20,000 persons died of an acute febrile illness associated with purpura and vascular collapse. Until December 1989, no cases of BPF had been reported outside of Sao Paulo and the neighboring state of Parana. This report summarizes the recognition and investigation of BPF in the state of Mato Grosso. PMID:2123287

1990-12-14

422

Familial Mediterranean fever mimicking septic arthritis.  

PubMed

We report the case of a young Lebanese female who presented with recurrent episodes of left knee and calf swelling and a synovial fluid leucocyte count suggestive of septic arthritis, however bacteriologic cultures were negative. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) was suspected in view of a positive family history and genetic analysis for the mutations in the pyrin/marenostrin (MEFV) gene revealing a homozygote mutation at methionine-694-valine. The arthritis was controlled with prophylactic colchicine therapy. FMF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute monoarticular arthritis with elevated synovial fluid white blood cells counts in regions with high incidence of FMF. PMID:15700115

Uthman, Imad; El-Sayyad, Jinane; El-hajj, Ihab; Bizri, Abdul-Rahman

2005-10-01

423

APPLICATION OF GIS MODELING FOR DENGUE FEVER PRONE AREA BASED ON SOCIOCULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS -A CASE STUDY OF DELHI CITY ZONE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affected area of Dengue risk based on socio-cultural, environmental factors and its possible spatial relationship was investigated in dengue prone area i.e. city zone of Delhi. Data were collected from all total no of 37 Dengue Confirm Samples (DCS) through interview out of 127 no. probable\\/suspected dengue incidence cases. Results indicate that out of thirty socio-economic and socio- cultural variables,

Krishna Prasad Bhandari; PLN Raju; B. S. Sokhi

424

Clinical Features and Patient Management of Lujo Hemorrhagic Fever  

PubMed Central

Background In 2008 a nosocomial outbreak of five cases of viral hemorrhagic fever due to a novel arenavirus, Lujo virus, occurred in Johannesburg, South Africa. Lujo virus is only the second pathogenic arenavirus, after Lassa virus, to be recognized in Africa and the first in over 40 years. Because of the remote, resource-poor, and often politically unstable regions where Lassa fever and other viral hemorrhagic fevers typically occur, there have been few opportunities to undertake in-depth study of their clinical manifestations, transmission dynamics, pathogenesis, or response to treatment options typically available in industrialized countries. Methods and Findings We describe the clinical features of five cases of Lujo hemorrhagic fever and summarize their clinical management, as well as providing additional epidemiologic detail regarding the 2008 outbreak. Illness typically began with the abrupt onset of fever, malaise, headache, and myalgias followed successively by sore throat, chest pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, minor hemorrhage, subconjunctival injection, and neck and facial swelling over the first week of illness. No major hemorrhage was noted. Neurological signs were sometimes seen in the late stages. Shock and multi-organ system failure, often with evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, ensued in the second week, with death in four of the five cases. Distinctive treatment components of the one surviving patient included rapid commencement of the antiviral drug ribavirin and administration of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), N-acetylcysteine, and recombinant factor VIIa. Conclusions Lujo virus causes a clinical syndrome remarkably similar to Lassa fever. Considering the high case-fatality and significant logistical impediments to controlled treatment efficacy trials for viral hemorrhagic fever, it is both logical and ethical to explore the use of the various compounds used in the treatment of the surviving case reported here in future outbreaks. Clinical observations should be systematically recorded to facilitate objective evaluation of treatment efficacy. Due to the risk of secondary transmission, viral hemorrhagic fever precautions should be implemented for all cases of Lujo virus infection, with specialized precautions to protect against aerosols when performing enhanced-risk procedures such as endotracheal intubation. PMID:25393244

Sewlall, Nivesh H.; Richards, Guy; Duse, Adriano; Swanepoel, Robert; Paweska, Janusz; Blumberg, Lucille; Dinh, Thu Ha; Bausch, Daniel

2014-01-01

425

Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: a case study in the Yellow River wetland in China.  

PubMed

Riparian wetland is the major transition zone of matter, energy and information transfer between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and has important functions of water purification and non-point pollution control. Using the field experiment method and an isotope tracing technique, the agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetland was studied in the Kouma Section of the Yellow River. The results showed that the retention of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution by riparian wetland soil occurs mainly in top 0-10 cm layer. The amount of nitrogen retained by surface soils associated with three types of vegetation are 0.045 mg/g for Phragmites communis Trin Linn, 0.036 mg/g for Scirpus triqueter Linn, and 0.032 mg/g for Typha angustifolia Linn, which account for 59.21%, 56.25%, and 56.14% of the total nitrogen interception, respectively. Exogenous nitrogen in 0-10 cm soil layer changes more quickly than in other layers. One month after adding K(15)NO3 to the tested vegetation, nitrogen content was 77.78% for P. communis Trin, 68.75% for T. angustifolia, and 8.33% for S. triqueter in the surface soil. After three months, nitrogen content was 93.33% for P. communis Trin, 72.22% for S. triqueter, and 37.50% for T. Angustifolia. There are large differences among vegetation communities respecting to purification of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution. The nitrogen uptake amount decreases in the sequence: new shoots of P. communis Trin (9.731 mg/g) > old P. communis Trin (4.939 mg/g) > S. triqueter (0.620 mg/g) > T. angustifolia (0.186 mg/g). Observations indicated that the presence of riparian wetlands as buffers on and adjacent to stream banks could be recommended to control agricultural non-point pollution. PMID:19862959

Zhao, Tongqian; Xu, Huashan; He, Yuxiao; Tai, Chao; Meng, Hongqi; Zeng, Fanfu; Xing, Menglin

2009-01-01

426

Conflation and aggregation of spatial data improve predictive models for species with limited habitats: a case of the threatened yellow-billed cuckoo in Arizona, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Riparian vegetation provides important wildlife habitat in the Southwestern United States, but limited distributions and spatial complexity often leads to inaccurate representation in maps used to guide conservation. We test the use of data conflation and aggregation on multiple vegetation/land-cover maps to improve the accuracy of habitat models for the threatened western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis). We used species observations (n = 479) from a state-wide survey to develop habitat models from 1) three vegetation/land-cover maps produced at different geographic scales ranging from state to national, and 2) new aggregate maps defined by the spatial agreement of cover types, which were defined as high (agreement = all data sets), moderate (agreement ? 2), and low (no agreement required). Model accuracies, predicted habitat locations, and total area of predicted habitat varied considerably, illustrating the effects of input data quality on habitat predictions and resulting potential impacts on conservation planning. Habitat models based on aggregated and conflated data were more accurate and had higher model sensitivity than original vegetation/land-cover, but this accuracy came at the cost of reduced geographic extent of predicted habitat. Using the highest performing models, we assessed cuckoo habitat preference and distribution in Arizona and found that major watersheds containing high-probably habitat are fragmented by a wide swath of low-probability habitat. Focus on riparian restoration in these areas could provide more breeding habitat for the threatened cuckoo, offset potential future habitat losses in adjacent watershed, and increase regional connectivity for other threatened vertebrates that also use riparian corridors.

Villarreal, Miguel L.; Van Riper, Charles; Petrakis, Roy E.

2013-01-01

427

Contamination assessment of arsenic and heavy metals in a typical abandoned estuary wetland--a case study of the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve.  

PubMed

Coastal and estuarine areas are often polluted by heavy metals that result from industrial production and agricultural activities. In this study, we investigated the concentration trait and vertical pattern of trace elements, such as As, Cd, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr, and the relationship between those trace elements and the soil properties in coastal wetlands using 28 profiles that were surveyed across the Diaokouhe Nature Reserve (DKHNR). The goal of this study is to investigate profile distribution characteristics of heavy metals in different wetland types and their variations with the soil depth to assess heavy metal pollution using pollution indices and to identify the pollution sources using multivariate analysis and sediment quality guidelines. Principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and pollution level indices were applied to evaluate the contamination conditions due to wetland degradation. The findings indicated that the concentration of trace elements decreased with the soil depth, while Cd increases with soil depth. The As concentrations in reed swamps and Suaeda heteroptera surface layers were slightly higher than those in other land use types. All six heavy metals, i.e., Ni, Cu, As, Zn, Cr, and Pb, were strongly associated with PC1 (positive loading) and could reflect the contribution of natural geological sources of metals into the coastal sediments. PC2 is highly associated with Cd and could represent anthropogenic sources of metal pollution. Most of the heavy metals exhibited significant positive correlations with total concentrations; however, no significant correlations were observed between them and the soil salt and soil organic carbon. Soil organic carbon exhibited a positive linear relationship with Cu, Pb, and Zn in the first soil layer (0-20 cm); As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the second layer (20-40 cm); and As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the third layer (40-60 cm). Soil organic carbon exhibited only a negative correlation with Cd (P?Yellow River. The results that are associated with trace element contamination would be helpful in providing scientific directions to restore wetlands across the world. PMID:25034234

Xie, Zhenglei; Sun, Zhigao; Zhang, Hua; Zhai, Jun

2014-11-01

428

fisheriesresearch Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is  

E-print Network

fisheriesresearch feature Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is an important ecological and economic in Lake Michigan: Evaluating Progress in a Cooperative Effort, 1997­2001 Yellow perch (Perca flavescens

Miller, Tom

429

Melioidosis masquerading as enteric fever.  

PubMed

Melioidosis is endemic in Southeast Asia and northern Australia, but it has been rarely reported from India. Recent reports have shown that melioidosis is an emerging infection in this part of the world, but enteric fever is more commonly seen in India. We present a 50-year-old male with diabetes who presented with acute onset of febrile illness. Preliminary investigations were suggestive of enteric fever, and he showed a partial response to parenteral ceftriaxone; however, it later turned out that he had melioidosis. The widal titres were persistently elevated even following treatment with meropenem. PMID:19121671

Valsalan, Rohith; Seshadri, Shubha; Pandit, Vinay R

2008-12-01

430

Malignant catarrhal fever in a Red Angus cow.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old cow was presented with bilateral corneal edema, increased respiratory effort, nasal discharge, and pyrexia. Ovine herpesvirus-2 was detected, confirming malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). The findings from this case suggest that MCF should be included in the differential diagnosis of mature cattle with ocular and nasal lesions, especially when sheep are present on the farm. PMID:25565720

Ricer, Lauren

2015-01-01

431

Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, South Korea, 2013  

PubMed Central

During 2013, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome was diagnosed in 35 persons in South Korea. Environmental temperature probably affected the monthly and regional distribution of case-patients within the country. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates from Korea were closely related to isolates from China and Japan. PMID:25341085

Park, Sun-Whan; Han, Myung-Guk; Yun, Seok-Min; Park, Chan; Lee, Won-Ja

2014-01-01

432

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Kazakhstan, 2009–2010  

PubMed Central

We evaluated Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) surveillance data from southern Kazakhstan during 2009–2010 and found both spatial and temporal association between reported tick bites and CCHF cases. Public health measures should center on preventing tick bites, increasing awareness of CCHF signs and symptoms, and adopting hospital infection control practices. PMID:22469505

Knust, Barbara; Medetov, Zhumagul B.; Kyraubayev, Kakimzhan B.; Bumburidi, Yekaterina; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; MacNeil, Adam; Bayserkin, Baurzhan S.; Ospanov, Kenes S.

2012-01-01

433

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)  

MedlinePLUS

... Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) Topics Transmission How do people get Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever? Signs and Symptoms What are the signs and ...

434

Pathologic and virologic study of fatal Lassa fever in man.  

PubMed Central

Postmortem examination of 21 virologically documented cases of Lassa fever, including 6 complete autopsies, was performed as part of a field study of community-acquired Lassa fever in Sierra Leone. The most consistently observed lesions were hepatocellular, adrenal, and splenic necrosis and adrenal cytoplasmic inclusions. Neither these lesions, nor other milder and less constantly observed lesions such as myocarditis, renal tubular injury, and interstitial pneumonia, appeared severe enough to explain the cause of death in Lassa fever. The central nervous system (CNS) contained no specific lesions. Viral titrations demonstrated high viral content in liver, lung, spleen, kidney, heart, placenta, and mammary gland. Clinical laboratory data included elevation of hepatic enzymes, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Because of the paucity of pathologic lesions in spite of widely disseminated viral infection, further investigation of humoral inflammatory mechanisms is indicated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7081389

Walker, D. H.; McCormick, J. B.; Johnson, K. M.; Webb, P. A.; Komba-Kono, G.; Elliott, L. H.; Gardner, J. J.

1982-01-01

435

[Epidemiology of dengue fever in China since 1978].  

PubMed

Since 1978, dengue fever occurred endemically and epidemically every 4 to 7 years in China, affecting commonly people aged between 20 and 60 years with similar incidences in males and females. Four serotypes of dengue virus have been identified in China, with DENV-1 as the predominant serotype. The incidence of dengue fever became gradually decreased after 1997 but increased significantly in the recent two years, especially in 2014, where, up to November, a total of 44894 cases had been reported in Guangdong Province. In this review, the authors summarize the epidemiology, geographical and population distribution of dengue fever in China since 1978 and analyze the factors contributing to the outbreak in 2014. PMID:25537911

Xiong, Yi-Quan; Chen, Qing

2014-12-20

436

Integrating biology into invasive species management is a key principle for eradication success: the case of yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes in northern Australia.  

PubMed

The lack of biological knowledge of many invasive species remains as one of the greatest impediments to their management. Here I detail targeted research into the biology of the yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes within northern Australia and detail how such knowledge can be used to improve the management outcomes for this species. I quantified nest location and density in three habitats, worker activity over 24 h, infestation expansion rate, seasonal variation of worker abundance and the timing of production of sexuals. Nests were predominantly (up to 68%) located at the bases of large trees, indicating that search efforts should focus around tree bases. Nest density was one nest per 22, 7.1 and 6.3 m2 in the three habitats, respectively. These data form the baselines for quantifying treatment efficacy and set sampling densities for post-treatment assessments. Most (60%) nests were underground, predominantly (89%) occurring in an open area rather than underneath a rock or log. Some seasonality was evident for nests within leaf litter, with most (83%) occurring during the 'wet season' (October-March). Of the underground nests, most were shallow, with 44% being less than 10 cm deep, and 67% being less than 20 cm deep. Such nest location and density information serves many management purposes, for improving detection, mapping and post-treatment assessments, and also provided strong evidence that carbohydrate supply was a major driver of A. gracilipes populations. Just over half of the nests (56%) contained queens. Of the 62 underground nests containing queens, most queens (80%) were located at the deepest chamber. When queens were present, most often (38%) only one queen was present, the most being 16. Queen number per nest was the lowest in July and August just prior to the emergence of virgin queens in September, with queen numbers then remaining steadily high until April. Nothing is known for any ant species about how the queen number per nest/colony affects treatment efficacy, but further research would no doubt yield important breakthroughs for treating ants. Activity occurred predominantly nocturnally, ceasing during mid-day. These activity data determined the critical threshold above which work must be conducted to be considered reliable, and also suggests that treatments are best applied in the afternoon. Total brood production peaked in February and was the lowest around August and September. These abundance data form the baselines for quantifying treatment efficacy, and may have implications for treatment efficacy. Males were found every month, predominantly between August and November. Queen pupae were found in September. The reproductive timing of sexuals determines the treatment schedule. Targeted, site-specific research such as that described here should be an integral part of any eradication program for invasive species to design knowledge-based treatment protocols and determine assessment benchmarks. PMID:25212433

Hoffmann, B D

2014-09-12

437

Educational Fever and South Korean Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the influence of educational fever on the development of the Republic of Korea education and economy in the context of the cultural history of this country. In order to examine this study, the author explains the concept of educational fever and discusses the relation between Confucianism and education zeal. Educational fever

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

2006-01-01

438

Milk Fever Control Principles: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Three main preventive principles against milk fever were evaluated in this literature review, and the efficacy of each principle was estimated from the results of controlled investigations. Oral calcium drenching around calving apparently has a mean efficacy of 50%–60% in terms of milk fever prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions.

T. Thilsing-Hansen; RJ Jørgensen; S Østergaard

2002-01-01

439

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever as causes of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Bulgaria.  

PubMed

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) are the 2 widespread viral hemorrhagic fevers occurring in Europe. HFRS is distributed throughout Europe, and CCHF has been reported mainly on the Balkan Peninsula and Russia. Both hemorrhagic fevers are endemic in Bulgaria. We investigated to what extent acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Bulgaria could be due to hantaviruses or to CCHF virus. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), we tested serum samples from 527 patients with acute febrile illness for antibodies against hantaviruses and CCHF virus. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against hantaviruses were detected in 15 (2.8%) of the patients. Of the 15 hantavirus-positive patients, 8 (1.5%) were positive for Dobrava virus (DOBV), 5 (0.9%) were positive for Puumala virus (PUUV), and the remaining 2 were positive for both hantaviruses. A plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) confirmed 4 of the 10 DOBV-positive samples. PRNT was negative for all PUUV-positive samples. Serologic evidence of recent CCHF virus infection was found in 13 (2.5%) of the patients. Interestingly, HFRS and CCHF were not only detected in well-known endemic areas of Bulgaria but also in nonendemic regions. Our results suggested that in endemic countries, CCHF and/or HFRS might appear as a nonspecific febrile illness in a certain proportion of patients. Physicians must be aware of possible viral hemorrhagic fever cases, even if hemorrhages or renal impairment are not manifested. PMID:23421884

Christova, Iva; Younan, Rasha; Taseva, Evgenia; Gladnishka, Teodora; Trifonova, Iva; Ivanova, Vladislava; Spik, Kristin; Schmaljohn, Connie; Mohareb, Emad

2013-03-01

440

Dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A World Health Organization page devoted to the control of dengue. Many excellent informative PDF files are available from this page dealing with vector control, as well as recognition of symptoms, and treatment of dengue haemorrhagic fever. Estimated numbers of at risk people are staggering. A powerful resource for teaching the importance of vector borne diseases.

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