Sample records for yellow fever cases

  1. Yellow fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aches, fever, flushing, loss of appetite, vomiting, and jaundice are common. Symptoms often go away briefly after ... urination Delirium Fever Headache Yellow skin and eyes (jaundice) Muscle aches Red eyes , face, tongue Seizures Vomiting, ...

  2. Yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Monath, Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease occurs in tropical areas of South America and Africa. It is a disease of major historical importance, but remains a threat to travelers to and residents of endemic areas despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 70 years. An important aspect is the receptivity of many non-endemic areas to introduction and spread of yellow fever. This paper reviews the clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of yellow fever, with an emphasis on recent changes in the distribution and incidence of the disease. Recent knowledge about yellow fever 17D vaccine mechanism of action and safety are discussed. PMID:25453327

  3. Extra Exercises for Chapter 8. Epidemic Dynamics The Case of Yellow Fever

    E-print Network

    Ford, Andrew

    Extra Exercises for Chapter 8. Epidemic Dynamics The Case of Yellow Fever Yellow Fever has been and sent one of three residents fleeing into the countryside." Yellow fever is transmitted in urban areas" (Benneson 1990, 486). These exercises introduce you to a model to simulate the spread of Yellow Fever

  4. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected ...

  5. Yellow Fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Monath

    \\u000a In 1951, Max Theiler (Fig. 10.1), a Rockefeller Foundation scientist, became the only person to be awarded the Nobel Prize\\u000a in Medicine and Physiology for the development of a virus vaccine (Norrby 2007). His live, attenuated 17D vaccine was not\\u000a the first yellow fever vaccine to be tested in humans, but it was by far the most successful one. More

  6. [Yellow fever in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Valero, Nereida

    2003-12-01

    In Venezuela the yellow fever has been presented in three wild focuses: San Camilo in the Tachira State, South of the Lake in the Zulia and Guayana. The last human case registered of urban yellow fever happened in 1918 in the city of Coro, Falcon State. Nevertheless, according to the epidemic registration of the Ministry of Health and Social Development corresponding to the epidemiological week no. 38 of the year 2003, 318 cases of wild yellow fever had been investigated (173 of the Zulia and 145 of Tachira), of which were confirmed 31, with a mortality of 58.0%. Previous to the appearance of this outbreak, it was notified an epizooty in monkeys with high mortality in November of 2002 in the Jesus Maria Semprum municipality of the Zulia State, persisting until September of 2003, extended to the Tachira State. Possible reasons of the reemergency of this illness are analyzed based on the high mobilization of displaced population, remote areas and of difficult access, high concentration of indigenous population (Bari, Yuepa, Wayúu) and border conflict. PMID:14727380

  7. [Serological diagnosis of dengue and yellow fever infections in suspected cases from Pará State, Brazil, 1999].

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Tais Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Costa, Maria Irene Weyl de A; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; da Rosa, Amélia P A Travassos

    2002-01-01

    From June to December 1999, 785 serum samples were obtained from patients clinically suspected of having dengue or yellow fever. The patients were referred by public health centers distributed within the six mesoregions of Par State, Brazil. Serum samples were tested for Flavivirus antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition test and for dengue and yellow fever viruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgM detection. Of the sera collected, 563 (71.7%) were positive by HI test and out of these 150 (26.6%) were positive by ELISA-IgM. Dengue virus was responsible for most of the recent infections in all regions; yellow fever cases detected in the current study were restricted to the Maraj and Southeast regions. PMID:12612738

  8. Epidemic yellow fever in eastern Nigeria, 1986.

    PubMed

    De Cock, K M; Monath, T P; Nasidi, A; Tukei, P M; Enriquez, J; Lichfield, P; Craven, R B; Fabiyi, A; Okafor, B C; Ravaonjanahary, C

    1988-03-19

    An epidemic of yellow fever occurred in the eastern part of Nigeria during the second half of 1986. Oju, in Benue State, was the most heavily affected region, but yellow fever also occurred in surrounding areas, particularly Ogoja, in Cross River State. In Oju, the mean attack and mortality rates were 4.9% and 2.8%, respectively. Sex and age specific rates were highest in males and in the 20-29 yr age group. The overall case fatality rate was approximately 50%. Diagnosis was confirmed by IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and complement fixation (CF) tests. Entomological investigations implicated Aedes africanus as the epidemic vector. Oju alone probably had about 9800 cases of yellow fever with jaundice, and some 5600 deaths. Outbreaks of this nature could be prevented by inclusion of yellow fever in the Expanded Programme on Immunisation, in areas subject to recurrent epidemics. PMID:2894558

  9. Experimental therapies for yellow fever

    PubMed Central

    Julander, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Nucleotide Sequence of Yellow Fever

    E-print Network

    Eddy, Sean

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Nucleotide Sequence of Yellow Fever Virus: Implications for Flavivirus Gene, and yellow fever (1). Most fever was spread by ship to ports as far north as Boston and as far east as En. Walter Reed and colleagues in pioneering studies in Cuba in 1900 demonstrated that yellow fever

  11. Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Van der Stuyft, P; Gianella, A; Pirard, M; Cespedes, J; Lora, J; Peredo, C; Pelegrino, J L; Vorndam, V; Boelaert, M

    1999-05-01

    Until recently, urban yellow fever had not been reported from the Americas since 1954, but jungle yellow fever increasingly affects forest dwellers in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The reinvasion by Aedes aegypti of cities in the Americas now threatens to urbanize yellow fever. After yellow fever infection was identified in a resident of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December 1997, all subsequent suspected cases were investigated. Active surveillance of yellow fever was introduced in the Santa Cruz area, with hospitals and selected urban and rural health centers reporting all suspected cases. Patients were serologically screened for yellow fever, dengue, hepatitis A and B, and leptospirosis; clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients' records and through interviews; and a population-based serosurvey was conducted in the neighborhood of one case. Between December 1997 and June 1998, symptomatic yellow fever infection was confirmed in 6 residents of Santa Cruz, of whom 5 died. 5 lived in the southern sector of the city. 2 cases did not leave the city during their incubation period, and 1 had visited only an area in which sylvatic transmission was deemed impossible. Of the 281 people covered in the serosurvey, 16 (6%) were positive for IgM antibody to yellow fever. Among 5 people for whom that result could not be explained by recent vaccination, there were 2 pairs of neighbors. This instance of urban yellow fever transmission was limited in both time and space. PMID:10334253

  12. Anaphylaxis from yellow fever vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Kelso; Gina T. Mootrey; Theodore F. Tsai

    1999-01-01

    Background: There are very few reports of anaphylactic reactions to yellow fever (YF) vaccine in the literature, and these date from the 1940s. Objective: We sought to estimate the rate of YF vaccine–related anaphylaxis. Methods: All reports of adverse reactions to YF vaccine submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System between 1990 and 1997 were reviewed for those meeting

  13. Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. PMID:24625634

  14. Yellow Fever: A Reemerging Threat

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Christina L.; Ryman, Kate D.

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a viral disease, endemic to tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. YF principally affects humans and nonhuman primates, and is transmitted via the bite of infected mosquitoes. The agent of YF, yellow fever virus (YFV), can cause devastating epidemics of potentially fatal, hemorrhagic disease. We rely on mass vaccination campaigns to prevent and control these outbreaks. However, the risk of major YF epidemics, especially in densely populated, poor urban settings, both in Africa and South America, has greatly increased due to: (1) reinvasion of urban settings by the mosquito vector of YF, Aedes aegypti; (2) rapid urbanization, particularly in parts of Africa, with populations shifting from rural to predominantly urban; and (3) waning immunization coverage. Consequently, YF is considered an emerging, or reemerging disease of considerable importance. PMID:20513550

  15. 429Vol. 5, No. 3, MayJune 1999 Emerging Infectious Diseases Yellow fever (YF) is a serious public health

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    429Vol. 5, No. 3, MayJune 1999 Emerging Infectious Diseases Dispatches Yellow fever (YF Tonate and Mayaro), and a new world First Case of Yellow Fever in French Guiana since 1902 J.M. Heraud@pasteur-cayenne.fr. The first case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902 was reported in March 1998. The yellow fever

  16. Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:822563

  17. Lost trust: a yellow fever patient response.

    PubMed

    Runge, John S

    2013-12-01

    In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care. PMID:24348220

  18. Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    E-print Network

    Severson, David

    Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti with Drosophila melanogaster aegypti, and Culex pipiens, the primary vectors for malaria, yellow fever and dengue, and lymphatic 103

  19. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. PMID:25531105

  20. Aedes aegypti in Brazil: genetically differentiated populations with high susceptibility to dengue and yellow fever viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Lourenço-de-Oliveira; M Vazeille; A. M. B de Filippis; A. B Failloux

    2004-01-01

    Aedes aegypti was eliminated from Brazil in 1955, but re-infested the country in the 1970s. Dengue outbreaks have occurred since 1981 and became endemic in several cities in Brazil after 1986. Urban yellow fever has not occurred since 1942, and only jungle yellow fever cases have been reported. A population genetic analysis using isoenzyme variation combined with an evaluation of

  1. The Yellow Fever Vaccine: A History

    PubMed Central

    Frierson, J. Gordon

    2010-01-01

    After failed attempts at producing bacteria-based vaccines, the discovery of a viral agent causing yellow fever and its isolation in monkeys opened new avenues of research. Subsequent advances were the attenuation of the virus in mice and later in tissue culture; the creation of the seed lot system to avoid spontaneous mutations; the ability to produce the vaccine on a large scale in eggs; and the removal of dangerous contaminants. An important person in the story is Max Theiler, who was Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health at Yale from 1964-67, and whose work on virus attenuation created the modern vaccine and earned him the Nobel Prize. PMID:20589188

  2. Yellow Fever Vaccination of a Primary Vaccinee During Adalimumab Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nash, Esther R; Brand, Myron; Chalkias, Spyridon

    2015-07-01

    In this case report, we describe a 63-year-old female with Crohn's disease since age 16 years, and on adalimumab therapy, who inadvertently received a yellow fever vaccine (YFV) 4 days before her next dose of adalimumab. She had never received YFV. Her next dose of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist was held. She did not report any adverse effects referable to the vaccine. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for yellow fever (YF) viral RNA on days 12 and 18 postvaccination was negative. Neutralizing antibody to YF virus vaccine was immunoprotective on day 18 following vaccination, which further increased by day 26. A neutralizing antibody obtained 2 years following vaccination also remained immunoprotective. PMID:25922988

  3. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

  4. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

  5. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

  6. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

  7. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

  8. Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

    2002-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

  9. Yellow fever vaccine safety: a reality or a myth?

    PubMed

    Arya, Subhash C

    2002-11-01

    The 17D-derived yellow fever (YF) vaccines have had an excellent record of their safety among millions of recipients. Recently, extensive viral dissemination in seven vaccinees, aged 5-79 years, with just one survivor posed a serious challenge for vaccine manufacturers. Prospective evaluations of yellow fever vaccine bulk suspensions for their viscerotropism and neurovirulence in primates or an alternate animal should minimize identical viral dissemination among prospective recipients of YF vaccines. PMID:12399186

  10. The Global Distribution of Yellow Fever and Dengue

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, D.J.; Wilson, A.J.; Hay, S.I.; Graham, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Yellow fever has been subjected to partial control for decades, but there are signs that case numbers are now increasing globally, with the risk of local epidemic outbreaks. Dengue case numbers have also increased dramatically during the past 40 years and different serotypes have invaded new geographical areas. Despite the temporal changes in these closely related diseases, and their enormous public health impact, few attempts have been made to collect a comprehensive dataset of their spatial and temporal distributions. For this review, records of the occurrence of both diseases during the 20th century have been collected together and are used to define their climatic limits using remotely sensed satellite data within a discriminant analytical model framework. The resulting risk maps for these two diseases identify their different environmental requirements, and throw some light on their potential for co-occurrence in Africa and South East Asia. PMID:16647971

  11. Yellow fever risk assessment in the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Ramos Junior, Alberto Novaes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-04-01

    Yellow fever still causes high burden in several areas of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. There are few well-designed epidemiological studies and limited data about yellow fever in Africa. Staples et al., in a recently published paper in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, performed a nationwide study in the Central African Republic (CAR) assessing infection risk and the operational impact of preventive measures. The rapid assessment of human, non-human and mosquito data call attention to the potential risk of future yellow fever outbreaks in the CAR and elsewhere. The study reinforces the need for intensified applied and operational research to address problems and human capacity needs in the realm of neglected tropical diseases in the post-2015 agenda. PMID:25732754

  12. Aedes FADD: A novel death domain-containing protein required for antibacterial immunity in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    E-print Network

    Lowenberger, Carl

    in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Dawn M. Cooper*,1 , Ciara M. Chamberlain 1 , Carl Lowenberger 1 and the arboviruses that cause Dengue fever, Yellow fever and West Nile fever. Much of the current research efforts

  13. No maternal effects after stimulation of the melanization response in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    E-print Network

    No maternal effects after stimulation of the melanization response in the yellow fever mosquito the maternal melanization response of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti by inoculating female mosquitoes

  14. Recombinant Chimeric Yellow Fever-Dengue Type 2 Virus Is Immunogenic and Protective in Nonhuman Primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Guirakhoo; R. Weltzin; T. J. Chambers; Z.-X. Zhang; K. Soike; M. Ratterree; J. Arroyo; K. Georgakopoulos; J. Catalan; T. P. Monath

    2000-01-01

    A chimeric yellow fever (YF)-dengue type 2 (dengue-2) virus (ChimeriVax-D2) was constructed using a re- combinant cDNA infectious clone of a YF vaccine strain (YF 17D) as a backbone into which we inserted the premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes of dengue-2 virus (strain PUO-218 from a case of dengue fever in Bangkok, Thailand). The chimeric virus was recovered from

  15. SHORT REPORT Open Access Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SHORT REPORT Open Access Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African of each species. Keywords: Yellow fever, Outbreak, Vector, Aedes, Central African Republic Findings Background Yellow fever is an acute, often fatal infectious disease caused by a flavivirus (Flaviviridae

  16. The changing epidemiology of yellow fever and dengue, 1900 to 2003: full circle?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Gubler

    2004-01-01

    Yellow fever and dengue are old diseases, having caused major epidemics in centuries past. Both were effectively controlled in the mid 1900s, yellow fever in Francophone Africa by vaccination and yellow fever and dengue in the Americas by effective control of the principal urban vector of both viruses, Aedes aegypti. In the last 25 years of the 20th century, however,

  17. Antibody-dependent Enhancement of Yellow Fever and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Neurovirulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Gould; A. Buckley

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY Antibody-dependent enhancement of yellow fever virus neurovirulence, as measured by a reduction in the average survival time of groups of mice, was demonstrated with wild-type or vaccine strains of yellow fever virus and with Japanese encephalitis virus using intraperitoneally administered monoclonal antibodies specific for the viral E glycoprotein of yellow fever virus. Enhancement of virulence could be induced by

  18. 58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, presented to the Portsmouth Naval Hospital by the Town Council of Portsmouth, 1856. (Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Museum, Portsmouth, VA) - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  19. Pathology Case Study: Fevers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kulich, Scott

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors in the health sciences field. In this case, a 68-year-old male patient experiencing fevers, chills, an associated non-productive cough, and weight loss was admitted to the hospital for examination. The â??Gross Description,â?ť â??Microscopic Description,â?ť and â?? Microbiologyâ?ť sections provide key information and images that contributed to the patientâ??s diagnosis. Clicking on the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment from the contributing doctors.

  20. Recent Laboratory Contributions to the Control of Yellow Fever: (Section of Tropical Diseases and Parasitology).

    PubMed

    Hindle, E

    1933-12-01

    THE MOST IMPORTANT RECENT LABORATORY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CONTROL OF YELLOW FEVER WILL BE BRIEFLY SUMMARIZED UNDER THREE HEADINGS: (1) Methods of diagnosis, (2) Transmission, and (3) Protection.(1) Methods of diagnosis.-The development of improved methods of identification, in particular by immunity tests, has made it possible to diagnose yellow fever with much greater certainty. Moreover, since the immunity following an attack of the disease is usually of life-long duration, it is possible to determine what proportion of any particular population has been infected and also how long any district has been free from infection. The application of immunity tests to the delimitation of endemic zones, especially in West Africa, has led to a great increase in our knowledge, and yellow fever has been found to have a much wider distribution than was previously suspected. Among other methods of recognizing the disease may be mentioned complement-fixation tests and also in post-mortem material the histopathology of the liver.(2) Methods of transmission. Indirect.-The main factors in the transmision of the disease by mosquitoes have been elucidated, and the relations between the course of the infection in monkeys (and also presumably in man) and the infectivity of these animals to mosquitoes. It is found that the blood becomes infective at a very early stage, before febrile symptoms develop, and that infectivity usually disappears three to four days after the onset of fever, owing to the presence of immune bodies in the blood. It is evident that any yellow fever patient must be considered to have been capable of infecting mosquitoes before showing any signs of the disease. Many other species of mosquitoes in addition to the Aëdes aegypti have now been shown capable of transmitting yellow fever.Direct.-It is now known that it is possible to acquire yellow fever in the absence of mosquitoes, through handling infected material. Many cases of laboratory infection have now been recorded in which other sources of infection can be definitely excluded.(3) Protection.-The most important advance in this direction has been the development of practicable methods of vaccination. The use of attenuated virus was followed by the use of virus and immune serum. The development of the latter has depended mainly on the discovery that when yellow fever virus is inoculated intracerebrally into mice, after a few passages it acquires neurotropic affinities and loses to a great extent its capacity for producing a general infection. The use of such virus, combined with human or animal immune serum, has been found to result in the development of a high degree of immunity comparable in intensity with that following an attack of the disease. PMID:19989606

  1. A regional reconnaissance on yellow fever in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R. M.; Haseeb, M. A.; Work, T. H.

    1955-01-01

    Neutralization-tests with yellow fever virus performed on 666 human sera collected in the southern Sudan imply that yellow fever is still endemic south of the 10th parallel, in the south-west border of the Nuba Mountains, and in the plains west of the Nuba Mountains as far north as El Muglad. Similar tests on bloods from 110 primates revealed a high rate of immunity among both baboons (Papio sp.) (94%) and grivet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) (77%), and a very low rate (1 in 56) among galagos (Galago senegalensis). It would therefore appear that, in contrast to the baboon and the grivet monkey, the galago is not significantly involved in the cycle of the virus. The epidemiological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:14379007

  2. The phylogeny of yellow fever virus 17D vaccines.

    PubMed

    Stock, Nina K; Boschetti, Nicola; Herzog, Christian; Appelhans, Marc S; Niedrig, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    In recent years the safety of the yellow fever live vaccine 17D came under scrutiny. The focus was on serious adverse events after vaccinations that resemble a wild type infection with yellow fever and whose reasons are still not known. Also the exact mechanism of attenuation of the vaccine remains unknown to this day. In this context, the standards of safety and surveillance in vaccine production and administration have been discussed. Therein embodied was the demand for improved documentation of the derivation of the seed virus used for yellow fever vaccine production. So far, there was just a historical genealogy available that is based on source area and passage level. However, there is a need for a documentation based on molecular information to get better insights into the mechanisms of pathology. In this work we sequenced the whole genome of different passages of the YFV-17D strain used by Crucell Switzerland AG for vaccine production. Using all other publically available 17D full genome sequences we compared the sequence variance of all vaccine strains and oppose a phylogenetic tree based on full genome sequences to the historical genealogy. PMID:22197965

  3. Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

    2002-01-01

    Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

  4. Aedes aegypti, Dengue and Re-urbanization of Yellow Fever in Brazil and other South American Countries - Past and Present Situation and Future Perspectives By

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos; Amélia P. A. T. Rosa; Francisco P. Pinheiro; Sueli G. Rodrigues; Ana C. R. Cruz; Jorge F. S. T. Rosa

    Dengue (DEN) and yellow fever (YF) viruses are two important arboviruses causing human disease. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF\\/DHF) reemerged in the Americas after Aedes aegypti had reinfested most tropical and subtropical regions in the hemisphere. The number of DF\\/DHF cases being reported are increasing each year; and in South America only Chile and Uruguay have not reported

  5. Yellow Fever Vaccine Booster Doses: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    PubMed

    Staples, J Erin; Bocchini, Joseph A; Rubin, Lorry; Fischer, Marc

    2015-06-19

    On February 26, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted that a single primary dose of yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting protection and is adequate for most travelers. ACIP also approved recommendations for at-risk laboratory personnel and certain travelers to receive additional doses of yellow fever vaccine (Box). The ACIP Japanese Encephalitis and Yellow Fever Vaccines Workgroup evaluated published and unpublished data on yellow fever vaccine immunogenicity and safety. The evidence for benefits and risks associated with yellow fever vaccine booster doses was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. This report summarizes the evidence considered by ACIP and provides the updated recommendations for yellow fever vaccine booster doses. PMID:26086636

  6. The risk of yellow fever in a dengue-infested area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Massad; Francisco Antonio Bezerra Coutinho; Marcelo Nascimento Burattini; Luiz Fernandes Lopez

    2001-01-01

    Yellow fever and dengue are viral infections that in urban centres are transmitted by the same arthropod vector, a mosquito of the genus Aedes. In order to estimate the risk of an epidemic of urban yellow fever in a dengue-infested area we calculated the threshold in the basic reproduction number, R0, of dengue, above which any single sylvatic yellow fever-infected

  7. The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre-and Post-Blood Meal

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22573. doi@nmsu.edu Introduction The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for dengue fever, several

  8. Municipalities of higher vulnerability to Sylvatic Yellow Fever occurrence in the Săo Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Eduardo Stramandinoli; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2011-01-01

    Until 1999 the endemic cases of Sylvatic Yellow Fever were located in the states of northern, midwestern and pre-Amazon regions. Since then, the disease progressively expanded its territory of occurrence, cases being registered beyond the traditional boundaries of endemism. The Săo Paulo State is considered to be part of this context, since after decades without registration of autochthonous cases of the disease, it reported, in 2000 and 2008-2009, epizootic occurrence in non-human primates and 30 cases in humans. Facts like these, added to the increase in incidences of serious adverse effects resulting from the Yellow Fever vaccination, have highlighted the importance of defining priority municipalities for vaccination against the disease in the state. Two groups of municipalities, some affected and some non-affected by YF, were compared for environmental variables related to the eco-epidemiology of the disease according to literature. The Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was used to pinpoint the factor able to differentiate the two groups of municipalities and define the levels of risk. The southeast region of the Săo Paulo State was considered to be the area with a higher number of municipalities classified as high risk and should be considered a priority for the application of prevention measures against Yellow Fever. PMID:22183458

  9. Yellow fever vaccination: is one dose always enough?

    PubMed

    Patel, Dipti; Simons, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    In March 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunisation (SAGE) considered a number of issues in order to update the WHO Position Paper on Yellow Fever (2003). A key conclusion of this review was that a single dose of yellow fever (YF) vaccine appears to confer life-long protection against YF disease, and that a booster dose of YF vaccine is not needed to maintain immunity. While the efficacy of YF vaccine in the majority of vaccine recipients is not in doubt, the WHO announcement is somewhat surprising as there are some limitations in the evidence base, but more importantly, this announcement is not accompanied by any imminent change in the International Health Regulations 2005. The tension between what is considered best clinical practice and the law will be difficult to reconcile for many health professionals, travellers, and the travel industry, in an area of travel medicine that is already subject to debate and confusion. This commentary reviews the recent WHO announcement, and considers the practical implications for health professionals providing YF vaccine to international travellers. PMID:24074827

  10. Nucleotide Sequence Variation of the Envelope Protein Gene Identifies Two Distinct Genotypes of Yellow Fever Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GWONG-JEN J. CHANG; BRUCE C. CROPP; RICHARD M. KINNEY; DENNIS W. TRENT; ANDDUANE J. GUBLER

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of yellow fever virus over 67 years was investigated by comparing the nucleotide sequences of the envelope (E) protein genes of 20 viruses isolated in Africa, the Caribbean, and South America. Uniformly weighted parsimony algorithm analysis defined two major evolutionary yellow fever virus lineages designated E genotypes I and II. E genotype I contained viruses isolated from East

  11. Seroprevalence of yellow Fever virus in selected health facilities in Western kenya from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kwallah, Allan Ole; Inoue, Shingo; Thairu-Muigai, Anne Wangari; Kuttoh, Nancy; Morita, Kouichi; Mwau, Matilu

    2015-05-20

    Yellow fever (YF), which is caused by a mosquito-borne virus, is an important viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in equatorial Africa and South America. Yellow fever virus (YFV) is the prototype of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of YFV in selected health facilities in Western Kenya during the period 2010-2012. A total of 469 serum samples from febrile patients were tested for YFV antibodies using in-house IgM-capture ELISA, in-house indirect IgG ELISA, and 50% focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT50). The present study did not identify any IgM ELISA-positive cases, indicating absence of recent YFV infection in the area. Twenty-eight samples (6%) tested positive for YFV IgG, because of either YFV vaccination or past exposure to various flaviviruses including YFV. Five cases were confirmed by FRNT50; of these, 4 were either vaccination or natural infection during the YF outbreak in 1992-1993 or another period and 1 case was confirmed as a West Nile virus infection. Domestication and routine performance of arboviral differential diagnosis will help to address the phenomenon of pyrexia of unknown origin, contribute to arboviral research in developing countries, and enhance regular surveillance. PMID:25672346

  12. Detection of Anti-Yellow Fever Virus Immunoglobulin M Antibodies at 3–4 Years Following Yellow Fever Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Gibney, Katherine B.; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Panella, Amanda J.; Kosoy, Olga I.; Delorey, Mark J.; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin

    2012-01-01

    The duration of anti-yellow fever (YF) virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies following YF vaccination is unknown, making it difficult to interpret positive IgM antibody results in previously vaccinated travelers. We evaluated the frequency and predictors of YF IgM antibody positivity 3–4 years following YF vaccination. Twenty-nine (73%) of 40 participants had YF IgM antibodies 3–4 years postvaccination. No demographic or exposure variables were predictive of YF IgM positivity. However, persons who were YF IgM positive at 3–4 years postvaccination had earlier onset viremia and higher neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers at 1 month and 3–4 years postvaccination compared with persons who were YF IgM negative. Detection of YF IgM antibodies several years postvaccination might reflect remote YF vaccination rather than recent YF vaccination or YF virus infection. PMID:23109371

  13. Using Local History To Understand National Themes: The Yellow Fever Epidemic in Philadelphia in 1793.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbury, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information for a local history project about the 1793 Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) yellow fever outbreak. Offers potential project topics to help students learn about local history and understand life in the eighteenth century United States. (CMK)

  14. Equilibrium Analysis of a Yellow Fever Dynamical Model with Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Martorano Raimundo, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We propose an equilibrium analysis of a dynamical model of yellow fever transmission in the presence of a vaccine. The model considers both human and vector populations. We found thresholds parameters that affect the development of the disease and the infectious status of the human population in the presence of a vaccine whose protection may wane over time. In particular, we derived a threshold vaccination rate, above which the disease would be eradicated from the human population. We show that if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is greater than a given threshold, then the disease is naturally (without intervention) eradicated from the population. In contrast, if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is less than that threshold, then the disease is eradicated from the populations only when the growing rate of humans is less than another threshold; otherwise, the disease is eradicated only if the reproduction number of the infection after vaccination is less than 1. When this reproduction number is greater than 1, the disease will be eradicated from the human population if the vaccination rate is greater than a given threshold; otherwise, the disease will establish itself among humans, reaching a stable endemic equilibrium. The analysis presented in this paper can be useful, both to the better understanding of the disease dynamics and also for the planning of vaccination strategies. PMID:25834634

  15. Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Yuko; Chen, Angela M.; Tsuruda, Jennifer M.; Cornel, Anthon J.; Debboun, Mustapha; Leal, Walter S.

    2004-09-01

    Four antennae-specific proteins (AaegOBP1, AaegOBP2, AaegOBP3, and AaegASP1) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and their full-length cDNAs were cloned. RT-PCR indicated that they are expressed in female and, to a lesser extent, in male antennae, but not in control tissues (legs). AaegOBP1 and AaegOBP3 showed significant similarity to previously identified mosquito odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in cysteine spacing pattern and sequence. Two of the isolated proteins have a total of eight cysteine residues. The similarity of the spacing pattern of the cysteine residues and amino acid sequence to those of previously identified olfactory proteins suggests that one of the cysteine-rich proteins (AaegOBP2) is an OBP. The other (AaegASP1) did not belong to any group of known OBPs. Structural analyses indicate that six of the cysteine residues in AaegOBP2 are linked in a similar pattern to the previously known cysteine pairing in OBPs, i.e., Cys-24 Cys-55, Cys-51 Cys-104, Cys-95 Cys-113. The additional disulfide bridge, Cys-38 Cys-125, knits the extended C-terminal segment of the protein to a predicted ?2-helix. As indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, the extra rigidity seems to prevent the predicted formation of a C-terminal ?-helix at low pH.

  16. Equilibrium analysis of a yellow Fever dynamical model with vaccination.

    PubMed

    Martorano Raimundo, Silvia; Amaku, Marcos; Massad, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We propose an equilibrium analysis of a dynamical model of yellow fever transmission in the presence of a vaccine. The model considers both human and vector populations. We found thresholds parameters that affect the development of the disease and the infectious status of the human population in the presence of a vaccine whose protection may wane over time. In particular, we derived a threshold vaccination rate, above which the disease would be eradicated from the human population. We show that if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is greater than a given threshold, then the disease is naturally (without intervention) eradicated from the population. In contrast, if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is less than that threshold, then the disease is eradicated from the populations only when the growing rate of humans is less than another threshold; otherwise, the disease is eradicated only if the reproduction number of the infection after vaccination is less than 1. When this reproduction number is greater than 1, the disease will be eradicated from the human population if the vaccination rate is greater than a given threshold; otherwise, the disease will establish itself among humans, reaching a stable endemic equilibrium. The analysis presented in this paper can be useful, both to the better understanding of the disease dynamics and also for the planning of vaccination strategies. PMID:25834634

  17. Phosphorylation of Yellow Fever Virus NS5 alters methyltransferase activity

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Hoover, Spencer; Falk, Shaun P.; Weisblum, Bernard; Vestling, Martha; Striker, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Serine/threonine phosphorylation of the nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) is conserved feature of flaviviruses, but the kinase(s) responsible and function(s) remain unknown. Mass spectrometry was used to characterize phosphorylated residues of yellow fever virus (YFV) NS5 expressed in mammalian cells. Multiple different phosphopeptides were detected. Mutational and additional mass spectrometry data implicated serine 56 (S56), a conserved residue near the active site in the NS5 methyltransferase domain, as one of the phosphorylation sites. Methyltransferase activity is required to form a methylated RNA cap structure and for translation of the YFV polyprotein. We show the 2’-O- methylation reaction requires the hydroxyl side chain of S56, and replacement with a negative charge inhibits enzymatic activity. Furthermore mutational alteration of S56, S56A or S56D, prevents amplification in a viral replicon system. Collectively our data suggest phosphorylation of NS5 S56 may act to shut down capping in the viral life cycle. PMID:18757072

  18. Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Fever See complete list of charts. A fever is defined as a temperature 1° or more above the normal 98.6°. Minor ... Contact your doctor in case of a high fever or if a lower fever doesn't resolve ...

  19. Use of the yellow fever virus vaccine strain 17D for the study of strategies for the treatment of yellow fever virus infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Neyts; A. Meerbach; P. McKenna; E. De Clercq

    1996-01-01

    We have employed the attenuated vaccine strain 17D of yellow fever virus (YFV) to evaluate the inhibitory effect of a selected series of compounds on YFV in Vero cells. Use of the vaccine strain does not require high-level microbiological containment facilities and should allow extensive screening. In addition, YFV may serve as a model for other flaviviruses including hepatitis C

  20. Functional characterization of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Lisa L.; Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2015-01-01

    After taking vertebrate blood, female mosquitoes quickly shed excess water and ions while retaining and concentrating the mostly proteinaceous nutrients. Aquaporins (AQPs) are an evolutionary conserved family of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the flow of water and in some cases glycerol and other small molecules across cellular membranes. In a previous study, we found six putative AQP genes in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, Ae. aegypti, and demonstrated the involvement of three of them in the blood meal-induced diuresis. Here we characterized AQP expression in different tissues before and after a blood meal, explored the substrate specificity of AQPs expressed in the Malpighian tubules and performed RNAi-mediated knockdown and tested for changes in mosquito desiccation resistance. We found that AQPs are generally down-regulated 24?hrs after a blood meal. Ae. aegypti AQP 1 strictly transports water, AQP 2 and 5 demonstrate limited solute transport, but primarily function as water transporters. AQP 4 is an aquaglyceroporin with multiple substrates. Knockdown of AQPs expressed in the MTs increased survival of Ae. aegypti under dry conditions. We conclude that Malpighian tubules of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes utilize three distinct AQPs and one aquaglyceroporin in their osmoregulatory functions. PMID:25589229

  1. Functional characterization of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Drake, Lisa L; Rodriguez, Stacy D; Hansen, Immo A

    2015-01-01

    After taking vertebrate blood, female mosquitoes quickly shed excess water and ions while retaining and concentrating the mostly proteinaceous nutrients. Aquaporins (AQPs) are an evolutionary conserved family of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the flow of water and in some cases glycerol and other small molecules across cellular membranes. In a previous study, we found six putative AQP genes in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, Ae. aegypti, and demonstrated the involvement of three of them in the blood meal-induced diuresis. Here we characterized AQP expression in different tissues before and after a blood meal, explored the substrate specificity of AQPs expressed in the Malpighian tubules and performed RNAi-mediated knockdown and tested for changes in mosquito desiccation resistance. We found that AQPs are generally down-regulated 24?hrs after a blood meal. Ae. aegypti AQP 1 strictly transports water, AQP 2 and 5 demonstrate limited solute transport, but primarily function as water transporters. AQP 4 is an aquaglyceroporin with multiple substrates. Knockdown of AQPs expressed in the MTs increased survival of Ae. aegypti under dry conditions. We conclude that Malpighian tubules of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes utilize three distinct AQPs and one aquaglyceroporin in their osmoregulatory functions. PMID:25589229

  2. A DNA vaccine against yellow fever virus: development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Milton; Cruz, Fábia da Silva Pereira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; da Motta, Márcia Archer; Cassemiro, Klécia Marília Soares de Melo; Maia, Rita de Cássia Carvalho; de Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; Galler, Ricardo; Freire, Marcos da Silva; August, Joseph Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T A; Dhalia, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Attenuated yellow fever (YF) virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE) or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE), aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies. PMID:25875109

  3. Yellow fever in Pará State, Amazon region of Brazil, 1998-1999: entomologic and epidemiologic findings.

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, P. F.; Rosa, A. P.; Rodrigues, S. G.; Rosa, E. S.; Monteiro, H. A.; Cruz, A. C.; Barros, V. L.; Souza, M. R.; Rosa, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is frequently associated with high severity and death rates in the Amazon region of Brazil. During the rainy seasons of 1998 and 1999, 23 (eight deaths) and 34 (eight deaths) human cases of YF were reported, respectively, in different geographic areas of Pará State; most cases were on Marajó Island. Patients were 1 to 46 years of age. Epidemiologic and ecological studies were conducted in Afuá and Breves on Marajó Island; captured insects yielded isolates of 4 and 11 YF strains, respectively, from Haemagogus janthinomys pooled mosquitoes. The cases on Marajó Island in 1999 resulted from lack of vaccination near the focus of the disease and intense migration, which brought many nonimmune people to areas where infected vectors were present. We hypothesize that YF virus remains in an area after an outbreak by vertical transmission among Haemagogus mosquitoes. PMID:11485676

  4. Yellow fever vaccine: An updated assessment of advanced age as a risk factor for serious adverse events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alena Y. Khromava; Rachel Barwick Eidex; Leisa H. Weld; Katrin S. Kohl; Robert D. Bradshaw; Robert T. Chen; Martin S. Cetron

    2005-01-01

    Since 1996, the scientific community has become aware of 14 reports of yellow fever vaccine (YEL)-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) cases and four reports of YEL-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND) worldwide, changing our understanding of the risks of the vaccine. Based on 722 adverse event reports after YEL submitted to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System in 1990–2002, we updated the

  5. Phenotypic and Molecular Analyses of Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Viruses Associated with Serious Adverse Events in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Galler; K. V. Pugachev; C. L. S. Santos; S. W. Ocran; A. V. Jabor; S. G. Rodrigues; R. S. Marchevsky; M. S. Freire; L. F. C. Almeida; A. C. R. Cruz; A. M. Y. Yamamura; I. M. Rocco; E. S. Travassos da Rosa; L. T. M. Souza; P. F. C. Vasconcelos; F. Guirakhoo; T. P. Monath

    2001-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D virus is one of the most successful vaccines developed to date. Its use has been estimated to be over 400 million doses with an excellent record of safety. In the past 3 years, yellow fever vaccination was intensified in Brazil in response to higher risk of urban outbreaks of the disease. Two fatal adverse events

  6. Inhibitory effect of essential oils obtained from plants grown in Colombia on yellow fever virus replication in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rocío Meneses; Raquel E Ocazionez; Jairo R Martínez; Elena E Stashenko

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An antiviral drug is needed for the treatment of patients suffering from yellow fever. Several compounds present in plants can inactive in vitro a wide spectrum of animal viruses. AIM: In the present study the inhibitory effect of essential oils of Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Oreganum vulgare and Artemisia vulgaris on yellow fever virus (YFV) replication was investigated. METHODS:

  7. Lethal 17D Yellow Fever Encephalitis in Mice. I. Passive Protection by Monoclonal Antibodies to the Envelope Proteins of 17D Yellow Fever and Dengue 2 Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL W. BRANDRISS; JACOB J. SCHLESINGER; EDWARD E. WALSH; MICHAEL BRISELLI

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY Monoclonal antibodies to the envelope proteins (E) of the 17D vaccine strain of yellow fever virus (17D YF) and to dengue 2 virus were examined for their ability to confer passive protection against lethal 17D YF encephalitis in mice. All 13 IgG anti- 17D YF antibodies, regardless of neutralizing capacity, conferred solid protection when given in a relatively high

  8. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... two other hemorrhagic fevers, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. How are hemorrhagic fever viruses grouped? VHFs are ... be prevented and controlled? With the exception of yellow fever and Argentine hemorrhagic fever, for which vaccines have ...

  9. Genetic Variation in Yellow Fever Virus: Duplication in the 3? Noncoding Region of Strains from Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eryu Wang; Scott C. Weaver; Robert E. Shope; Robert B. Tesh; Douglas M. Watts; Alan D. T. Barrett

    1996-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of three regions of the genomes of 13 yellow fever (YF) virus isolates were determined to define genetic variation and evolution of the virus. Phylogenetic trees generated from sequences of either the 5? terminal 1320 nucleotides of the genome, 754 nucleotides from the NS4A and NS4B genes, or the 3? terminal 511 nucleotides were very similar and

  10. Complete nucleotide sequence of yellow fever virus vaccine strains 17DD and 17D-213

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia N. Duarte dos Santos; Paulo R. Post; Ricardo Carvalho; Idevaldo I. Ferreira; Charles M. Rice; Ricardo Galler

    1995-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome from two yellow fever (YF) virus vaccine strains, 17DD and 17D-213, has been determined. Comparison of these sequences with those of other YF viruses including the parental virulent Asibi strain allowed the identification of 48 nucleotide sequence differences which are common to all 17D substrains. This is a significant reduction from the 67

  11. Notes from the field: fatal yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease--Oregon, September 2014.

    PubMed

    DeSilva, Malini; Sharma, Arun; Staples, Erin; Arndt, Byron; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Shames, Jim; Cieslak, Paul

    2015-03-20

    In September 2014, a previously healthy Oregon woman in her 60s went to a hospital emergency department with malaise, dyspnea, vomiting, and diarrhea of 3-5 days' duration. She reported no recent travel, ill contacts, or dietary changes. Six days earlier, she had received a single dose of yellow fever vaccine and typhoid vaccine before planned travel to South America. PMID:25789744

  12. Stable Transformation of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, with the Hermes Element from the Housefly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nijole Jasinskiene; Craig J. Coates; Mark Q. Benedict; Anthony J. Cornel; Cristina Salazar Rafferty; Anthony A. James; Frank H. Collins

    1998-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the world's most important vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses. Work is currently in progress to control the transmission of these viruses by genetically altering the capacity of wild Ae. aegypti populations to support virus replication. The germline transformation system reported here constitutes a major advance toward the implementation of this control strategy. A

  13. Inaugural dissertation on Yellow Fever and on the treatment of that disease by saline medicines 

    E-print Network

    Bone, George Frederick

    1846-01-01

    Previous to my graduation in Edinburgh on the 1st of August 1845, I submitted to the Faculty of Medicine a Thesis on Yellow Fever. This Thesis I have since corrected and enlarged, and now venture to publish. The labour of writing it was not great...

  14. Detection of yellow fever virus: a comparison of quantitative real-time PCR and plaque assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hi-Gung Bae; Andreas Nitsche; Anette Teichmann; Stefan S. Biel; Matthias Niedrig

    2003-01-01

    Yellow fever virus quantitation is performed routinely by cultivation of virus containing samples using susceptible cells. Counting of the resulting plaques provides a marker for the number of infectious particles present in the sample. This assay usually takes up to 5 days before results are obtained and must be carried out under L2 or L3 laboratory conditions, depending on the

  15. FIRST RECORDED OUTBREAK OF YELLOW FEVER IN KENYA, 1992-1993. II. ENTOMOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL REITER; ROGER CORDELLIER; JOHN O. OUMA; C. BRUCE CROPP; HARRY M. SAVAGE; EDUARD J. SANDERS; ANTHONY A. MARFIN; PETER M. TUKEI; NAFTALI N. AGATA; LEWIS G. GITAU; BETH A. RAPUODA; DUANE J. GUBLER

    The first recorded outbreak of yellow fever in Kenya occurred from mid-1992 through March 1993 in the south Kerio Valley, Rift Valley Province. We conducted entomologic studies in February-March 1993 to identify the likely vectors and determine the potential for transmission in the surrounding rural and urban areas. Mosquitoes were collected by landing capture and processed for virus isolation. Container

  16. The Safety of Yellow Fever Vaccine 17D or 17DD in Children, Pregnant Women, HIV+ Individuals, and Older Persons: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roger E.; Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Spragins, Wendy; Jackson, Dave; Williamson, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting immunity. Rare serious adverse events after vaccination include neurologic or viscerotropic syndromes or anaphylaxis. We conducted a systematic review of adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccination in vulnerable populations. Nine electronic bibliographic databases and reference lists of included articles were searched. Electronic databases identified 2,415 abstracts for review, and 32 abstracts were included in this review. We identified nine studies of adverse events in infants and children, eight studies of adverse events in pregnant women, nine studies of adverse events in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, five studies of adverse events in persons 60 years and older, and one study of adverse events in individuals taking immunosuppressive medications. Two case studies of maternal–neonate transmission resulted in serious adverse events, and the five passive surveillance databases identified very small numbers of cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease, yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease, and anaphylaxis in persons ? 60 years. No other serious adverse events were identified in the other studies of vulnerable groups. PMID:22302874

  17. Human Genetic Variation and Yellow Fever Mortality during 19th Century U.S. Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We calculated the incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates for Caucasians and non-Caucasians during 19th century yellow fever (YF) epidemics in the United States and determined statistical significance for differences in the rates in different populations. We evaluated nongenetic host factors, including socioeconomic, environmental, cultural, demographic, and acquired immunity status that could have influenced these differences. While differences in incidence rates were not significant between Caucasians and non-Caucasians, differences in mortality and case fatality rates were statistically significant for all epidemics tested (P < 0.01). Caucasians diagnosed with YF were 6.8 times more likely to succumb than non-Caucasians with the disease. No other major causes of death during the 19th century demonstrated a similar mortality skew toward Caucasians. Nongenetic host factors were examined and could not explain these large differences. We propose that the remarkably lower case mortality rates for individuals of non-Caucasian ancestry is the result of human genetic variation in loci encoding innate immune mediators. PMID:24895309

  18. The Molecular Characterization of a Diuretic Hormone Receptor (GPRdih1) From Females of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) 

    E-print Network

    Jagge, Christopher Lloyd

    2011-02-22

    In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), hemolymph-circulating diuretic hormones act upon the renal organs (Malpighian tubules) to regulate primary urine composition and secretion rate; however, the molecular ...

  19. The Molecular Characterization of a Diuretic Hormone Receptor (GPRdih1) From Females of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.)

    E-print Network

    Jagge, Christopher Lloyd

    2011-02-22

    In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), hemolymph-circulating diuretic hormones act upon the renal organs (Malpighian tubules) to regulate primary urine composition and secretion rate; however, the molecular endocrine mechanisms underlying...

  20. A Mouse Model for Studying Viscerotropic Disease Caused by Yellow Fever Virus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn C. Meier; Christina L. Gardner; Mikhail V. Khoretonenko; William B. Klimstra; Kate D. Ryman

    2009-01-01

    Mosquito-borne yellow fever virus (YFV) causes highly lethal, viscerotropic disease in humans and non-human primates. Despite the availability of efficacious live-attenuated vaccine strains, 17D-204 and 17DD, derived by serial passage of pathogenic YFV strain Asibi, YFV continues to pose a significant threat to human health. Neither the disease caused by wild-type YFV, nor the molecular determinants of vaccine attenuation and

  1. Neutralization of Yellow Fever Virus Studied Using Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Buckley; E. A. Gould

    1985-01-01

    SUMMARY Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies with known specificity for either the 54K envelope glycoprotein or the 48K non-structural glycoprotein of yellow fever (YF) virus-infected cells were studied in plaque reduction neutralization tests. Viruses employed in the tests comprised wild-type and vaccine strains of YF and a selection of other flaviviruses. Of 17 monoclonal antibodies examined, six of the 54K-specific antibodies

  2. Systems biology approach predicts immunogenicity of the yellow fever vaccine in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy D Querec; Rama S Akondy; Eva K Lee; Weiping Cao; Helder I Nakaya; Dirk Teuwen; Ali Pirani; Kim Gernert; Jiusheng Deng; Bruz Marzolf; Kathleen Kennedy; Haiyan Wu; Soumaya Bennouna; Herold Oluoch; Joseph Miller; Ricardo Z Vencio; Mark Mulligan; Alan Aderem; Rafi Ahmed; Bali Pulendran

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge in vaccinology is to prospectively determine vaccine efficacy. Here we have used a systems biology approach to identify early gene 'signatures' that predicted immune responses in humans vaccinated with yellow fever vaccine YF-17D. Vaccination induced genes that regulate virus innate sensing and type I interferon production. Computational analyses identified a gene signature, including complement protein C1qB and

  3. Human Effector and Memory CD8 + T Cell Responses to Smallpox and Yellow Fever Vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph D. Miller; Robbert G. van der Most; Rama S. Akondy; John T. Glidewell; Sophia Albott; David Masopust; Kaja Murali-Krishna; Patryce L. Mahar; Srilatha Edupuganti; Susan Lalor; Stephanie Germon; Carlos Del Rio; Silvija I. Staprans; John D. Altman; Mark B. Feinberg; Rafi Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY ToexplorethehumanTcellresponsetoacuteviralin- fection, we performed a longitudinal analysis of CD8+ T cells responding to the live yellow fever virus and smallpox vaccines—two highly successful human vaccines. Our results show that both vaccines gener- ated a brisk primary effector CD8+ T cell response of substantial magnitude that could be readily quanti- tated with a simple set of four phenotypic markers. Secondly,

  4. Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Arroyo; Charles A Miller; John Catalan; Thomas P Monath

    2001-01-01

    By combining molecular-biological techniques with our increased understanding of the effect of gene sequence modification on viral function, yellow fever 17D, a positive-strand RNA virus vaccine, has been manipulated to induce a protective immune response against viruses of the same family (e.g. Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses). Triggered by the emergence of West Nile virus infections in the New World

  5. The In Vivo Differentiation of Strains of Yellow Fever Virus in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Fitzgeorge; C. J. Bradish

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY Strains of yellow fever virus isolated since I927 in Africa and the Americas, and strains derived from them, have been differentiated by the responses of mice of different ages to intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intracerebral (i.c.) infection. Infection, antibody conversion, protection and death have been presented on age-dose response phase diagrams that serve as in vivo 'fingerprints' for the differentiation

  6. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... haemorrhagic fevers), Filoviridae (Ebola and Marburg) and Flaviviridae (yellow fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola ... topics Dengue Disease outbreaks Infectious diseases Tropical diseases Yellow fever You are here: Health topics Haemorrhagic fevers, Viral ...

  7. Yellow fever virus: genetic and phenotypic diversity and implications for detection, prevention and therapy.

    PubMed

    Beasley, David W C; McAuley, Alexander J; Bente, Dennis A

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) is the prototypical hemorrhagic fever virus, yet our understanding of its phenotypic diversity and any molecular basis for observed differences in disease severity and epidemiology is lacking, when compared to other arthropod-borne and haemorrhagic fever viruses. This is, in part, due to the availability of safe and effective vaccines resulting in basic YFV research taking a back seat to those viruses for which no effective vaccine occurs. However, regular outbreaks occur in endemic areas, and the spread of the virus to new, previously unaffected, areas is possible. Analysis of isolates from endemic areas reveals a strong geographic association for major genotypes, and recent epidemics have demonstrated the emergence of novel sequence variants. This review aims to outline the current understanding of YFV genetic and phenotypic diversity and its sources, as well as the available animal models for characterizing these differences in vivo. The consequences of genetic diversity for detection and diagnosis of yellow fever and development of new vaccines and therapeutics are discussed. PMID:25545072

  8. SATELLITE-BASED RIFT VALLEY FEVER FORECASTS PREDICT A LARGE YELLOW FEVER EPIDEMIC IN SUDAN, 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustained, heavy East African rainfall is associated with Aedes spp. breeding in Kenyan grasslands and Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics. Validated RVF forecasts use satellite measurements of vegetation greenness (which increases after heavy rains) and other eco-climate indicators. These models may ...

  9. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 28 (1998) 915925 Vitelline envelope genes of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes

    E-print Network

    Severson, David

    1998-01-01

    Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 28 (1998) 915­925 Vitelline envelope genes of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Marten J. Edwards a,* , David W. Severson b , Henry H. Hagedorn c: Aedes aegypti; Vitelline envelope; 20-hydroxyecdysone 1. Introduction Eggshell development in the yellow

  10. Isolation of yellow fever virus from mosquitoes in Misiones province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Goenaga, Silvina; Fabbri, Cintia; Dueńas, Juan Climaco Rondan; Gardenal, Cristina Noemí; Rossi, Gustavo Carlos; Calderon, Gladys; Morales, Maria Alejandra; Garcia, Jorge Braulio; Enria, Delia Alcira; Levis, Silvana

    2012-11-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic to tropical regions of South America and Africa. From 2007 to 2009 an important epidemic/epizootic of YF was detected in different populations of howler monkeys (Alouatta species) in Misiones, a northeastern Argentinian province. Yellow fever virus (YFV) infection was researched and documented by laboratory tests in humans and in dead Alouatta carayá. The objective of that research was to investigate the circulation of YFV in mosquitoes, which could be implicated in the sylvatic transmission of YF in Argentina. The above-mentioned mosquitoes were captured in the same geographical region where the epizootic took place. A YFV strain was isolated in cell culture from pools of Sabethes albiprivus. This study is not only the first isolation of YFV from mosquitoes in Argentina, but it is also the first YFV isolation reported in the species Sabethes albiprivus, suggesting that this species might be playing a key role in sylvatic YF in Argentina. PMID:23025694

  11. A curious case of Fever and hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia as a cause of pyrexia is a rare entity. Similarly, hyperpigmentation of skin has rarely been reported as the presenting manifestation of folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency. The author reports the case of a patient who presented with fever and hyperpigmentation and was diagnosed to have megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency after other infective, inflammatory/autoimmune, endocrine causes of pyrexia and hyperpigmentation were excluded by appropriate investigations. The patient responded remarkably well to the treatment with vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation. Although presentation of megaloblastic anaemia as isolated fever or hyperpigmentation are noted in literature, simultaneous fever and hyperpigmentation as its initial presentation is exceedingly rare. PMID:25738019

  12. A Curious Case of Fever and Hyperpigmentation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia as a cause of pyrexia is a rare entity. Similarly, hyperpigmentation of skin has rarely been reported as the presenting manifestation of folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency. The author reports the case of a patient who presented with fever and hyperpigmentation and was diagnosed to have megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency after other infective, inflammatory/autoimmune, endocrine causes of pyrexia and hyperpigmentation were excluded by appropriate investigations. The patient responded remarkably well to the treatment with vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation. Although presentation of megaloblastic anaemia as isolated fever or hyperpigmentation are noted in literature, simultaneous fever and hyperpigmentation as its initial presentation is exceedingly rare. PMID:25738019

  13. [City-laboratory: Campinas and yellow fever at the dawn of the Republican era].

    PubMed

    Martins, Valter

    2015-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, there were yellow fever epidemics in Campinas. Considered a seaside disease, the fever startled lay people and physicians. The scientific debate about the etiology of the disease left the domain of magazines and medical correspondence to orient political and sanitary actions. In order to combat the disease, the city began to resemble a laboratory and experienced its "era of sanitation and demolition," with victories over the ailment and inconvenience to the public. The State Sanitary Commission led by Emilio Ribas, aware of Finlay's Culicidae theory, rehearsed in Campinas what would happen with Oswaldo Cruz and Pereira Passos in Rio de Janeiro. The novelty of combating mosquitoes coexisted with age-old practices dear to miasmatic theory, such as disinfection. PMID:26038859

  14. A curious case of yellow nail syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cri?an-Dabija, Radu; Mih?escu, Traian

    2015-01-01

    The Yellow Nail Syndrome is a rare clinical entity, first described in 1967 by P.D. Samman and W.F. White. The triad slow-growing dystrophic yellow nails, lymphedema and chronic respiratory disorders is the typical manifestation of the disease but some variations have been described as well as associations with chylothorax, chylous ascites, intestinal lymphangiectasia, thyroid abnormalities, malignancies and immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency. We present a case of a 55-years-old woman that had an insidious onset of respiratory disorders and chronic sinusitis, suspected to be infectious throughout the hospitalizations, associated with therapeutically neglected autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:26016054

  15. Sensorineural hearing loss in Lassa fever: two case reports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter O Okokhere; Titus S Ibekwe; George O Akpede

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lassa fever is an acute arena viral haemorrhagic fever with varied neurological sequelae. Sensorineural hearing loss is one of the rare complications which occur usually during the convalescent stage of the infection. CASE PRESENTATION: The cases of two female patients aged 19 and 43 years old, respectively, with clinical features suggestive of Lassa fever and confirmed by immunoserological\\/Lassa-virus-specific reverse

  16. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 1-undec-10-enoyl-piperidines as adulticides against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), is considered the primary vector for both dengue and yellow fever. Using insecticide is one of the major ways to control this medically important insect pest. However, few new insecticides have been developed for mosquito control. As part of our collabo...

  17. A real-time reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the rapid detection of yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Kwallah, Allan ole; Inoue, Shingo; Muigai, Anne W T; Kubo, Toru; Sang, Rosemary; Morita, Kouichi; Mwau, Matilu

    2013-10-01

    Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne disease, is an important viral hemorrhagic fever in Africa and South America where it is endemic. Detection of yellow fever virus (YFV) in Africa remains a challenge due to a lack of highly specific tests. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a rapid detection reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) for YFV. The RT-LAMP was done isothermally at 62 °C using a real-time turbidimeter that allowed detection within 1h. Specificity of the RT-LAMP was determined using RNA from flaviviruses and other related viruses where only YFV RNA was detected: West Nile virus, dengue viruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and chikungunya virus. In addition, equal sensitivity was also observed when the RT-LAMP and the real-time RT-PCR were compared using YFV-spiked human serum samples with a detection limit of 0.29 PFU/ml. Two Kenyan YFV wild strains showed an equal detection limit as the vaccine strain 17D in this study. The RT-LAMP reduced the time of reaction from 3h to 1h and increased sensitivity tenfold compared to RT-PCR. Therefore, this test offers a simple, rapid and reliable diagnostic tool for yellow fever when there are outbreaks of acute hemorrhagic fever in Kenya and other African countries. PMID:23692685

  18. Travel Characteristics and Yellow Fever Vaccine Usage Among US Global TravEpiNet Travelers Visiting Countries with Risk of Yellow Fever Virus Transmission, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Jentes, Emily S.; Han, Pauline; Gershman, Mark D.; Rao, Sowmya R.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Staples, J. Erin; Ryan, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated serious adverse events and changing YF epidemiology have challenged healthcare providers to vaccinate only travelers whose risk of YF during travel is greater than their risk of adverse events. We describe the travel characteristics and YF vaccine use among US travelers visiting Global TravEpiNet clinics from January of 2009 to March of 2011. Of 16,660 travelers, 5,588 (34%) had itineraries to areas with risk of YF virus transmission. Of those travelers visiting one country with YF risk (N = 4,517), 71% were vaccinated at the visit, and 20% were presumed to be immune from prior vaccination. However, travelers visiting friends and relatives (odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.27–5.22) or going to Nigeria (OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.37–6.62) were significantly more likely to decline vaccination. To optimize YF vaccine use, clinicians should discuss an individual's risk–benefit assessment of vaccination and close knowledge gaps regarding vaccine use among at-risk populations. PMID:23458961

  19. Yellow Fever Virus NS3 Plays an Essential Role in Virus Assembly Independent of Its Known Enzymatic Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chinmay G. Patkar; Richard J. Kuhn

    2008-01-01

    In flaviviruses it has been proposed that there is a coupling between genome replication and virion assembly and that nonstructural proteins are involved in this process. It was previously reported that mutations in yellow fever virus (YFV) nonstructural protein NS2A blocked production of infectious virus and that this block could be released by a suppressor mutation in NS3. Here, based

  20. Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gustatory receptor neurons were characterized for contact chemoreceptive sensilla on the labella of female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. The neuron with the smallest amplitude spike responded to the feeding deterrent, quinine, as well as DEET and other insect repellents. Two other ...

  1. Geographic distribution and evolution of yellow fever viruses based on direct sequencing of genomic cDNA fragments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loic Lepiniec; Lynn Dalgarno; V. T. Q. Huong; T. P. Monath; J.-P. Digoutte; V. Deubel

    1994-01-01

    We have compared the nucleotide sequence of an envelope protein gene fragment encoding amino acids 291 to 406 of 22 yellow fever (YF) virus strains of diverse geographic and host origins isolated over a 63 year time span. The nucleotide fragment of viral RNA was examined by direct sequencing ofa PCR product derived from complementary DNA. Alignment with the proto-

  2. The single kinin receptor signals to separate and independent physiological pathways in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past we have used the leucokinins, the kinins of the cockroach Leucophaea, to evaluate the mechanism of diuretic action of kinin peptides in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Now using aedeskinins, the kinins of Aedes, are available, we find that in isolated Aede...

  3. Efficient, trans-complementing packaging systems for chimeric, pseudoinfectious dengue 2/yellow fever viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Shustov, Alexandr V. [Department of Microbiology, BBRB 373/Box 3, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294-2170 (United States); Frolov, Ilya, E-mail: ivfrolov@UAB.ed [Department of Microbiology, BBRB 373/Box 3, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294-2170 (United States)

    2010-04-25

    In our previous studies, we have stated to build a new strategy for developing defective, pseudoinfectious flaviviruses (PIVs) and applying them as a new type of vaccine candidates. PIVs combined the efficiency of live vaccines with the safety of inactivated or subunit vaccines. The results of the present work demonstrate further development of chimeric PIVs encoding dengue virus 2 (DEN2V) glycoproteins and yellow fever virus (YFV)-derived replicative machinery as potential vaccine candidates. The newly designed PIVs have synergistically functioning mutations in the prM and NS2A proteins, which abolish processing of the latter proteins and make the defective viruses capable of producing either only noninfectious, immature and/or subviral DEN2V particles. The PIV genomes can be packaged to high titers into infectious virions in vitro using the NS1-deficient YFV helper RNAs, and both PIVs and helpers can then be passaged as two-component genome viruses at an escalating scale.

  4. Dynamics of the CD8 T-cell response following yellow fever virus 17D immunization

    PubMed Central

    Co, Mary Dawn T; Kilpatrick, Elizabeth D; Rothman, Alan L

    2009-01-01

    Management of yellow fever is focused on the prevention of illness by the use of the yellow fever virus (YFV) 17D vaccine. The role of neutralizing antibodies in protection is generally accepted with YFV-specific T cells likely contributing to the control of viral replication. We studied CD8+ T-cell responses to four defined human leucocyte antigen-B35-restricted epitopes in YFV vaccine recipients as a model of the kinetics of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses to an acute human viral infection. Multiple features of these epitope-specific responses were analysed after vaccination including magnitude, cytokine production, phenotype and T-cell receptor repertoire. Peak peptide-specific interferon-? (IFN-?) responses of almost 1% of CD8+ T cells were seen as early as 2 weeks post-vaccination; however, dominant responses varied between donors. Peptide-specific responses were still detectable at 54 months post-vaccination. Tetramer-positive cells, at high frequencies, were detected as early as 7–9 days, before detectable IFN-?-producing cells, suggesting a defect in the functional capacity of some antigen-specific cells early post-vaccination. The predominant memory phenotype of the tetramer-positive population was a differentiated effector (CD45RA+ CCR7? CD62L?) phenotype. The T-cell receptor V? analysis revealed a diverse oligoclonal repertoire in tetramer-positive T-cell populations in two individuals. These characteristics of the YFV-specific T-cell response could contribute to vaccine effectiveness. PMID:19740333

  5. Three-dimensional visualization of cultural clusters in the 1878 yellow fever epidemic of New Orleans

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Background An epidemic may exhibit different spatial patterns with a change in geographic scale, with each scale having different conduits and impediments to disease spread. Mapping disease at each of these scales often reveals different cluster patterns. This paper will consider this change of geographic scale in an analysis of yellow fever deaths for New Orleans in 1878. Global clustering for the whole city, will be followed by a focus on the French Quarter, then clusters of that area, and finally street-level patterns of a single cluster. The three-dimensional visualization capabilities of a GIS will be used as part of a cluster creation process that incorporates physical buildings in calculating mortality-to-mortality distance. Including nativity of the deceased will also capture cultural connection. Results Twenty-two yellow fever clusters were identified for the French Quarter. These generally mirror the results of other global cluster and density surfaces created for the entire epidemic in New Orleans. However, the addition of building-distance, and disease specific time frame between deaths reveal that disease spread contains a cultural component. Same nativity mortality clusters emerge in a similar time frame irrespective of proximity. Italian nativity mortalities were far more densely grouped than any of the other cohorts. A final examination of mortalities for one of the nativity clusters reveals that further sub-division is present, and that this pattern would only be revealed at this scale (street level) of investigation. Conclusion Disease spread in an epidemic is complex resulting from a combination of geographic distance, geographic distance with specific connection to the built environment, disease-specific time frame between deaths, impediments such as herd immunity, and social or cultural connection. This research has shown that the importance of cultural connection may be more important than simple proximity, which in turn might mean traditional quarantine measures should be re-evaluated. PMID:18721469

  6. Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

    2014-01-01

    The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

  7. Pathology Case Study: Fever, Purpura and Hypotension

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anhalt, John P.

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. In this case, a 20 year old male college student is admitted to the emergency room with "general malaise, low-grade fever, and purplish discoloration on his face. Using the information provided, which includes patient and social history, images and descriptions from his physical exam, the hospital course and microscopic images, students are encouraged to test their knowledge of pathology and diagnose the patient's medical condition. You can check your diagnosis against the official conclusions in the "Final Diagnosis" section. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

  8. The first cases of Lassa fever in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dzotsi, E K; Ohene, S-A; Asiedu-Bekoe, F; Amankwa, J; Sarkodie, B; Adjabeng, M; Thouphique, A M; Ofei, A; Oduro, J; Atitogo, D; Bonney, J H K; Paintsil, S C N; Ampofo, W

    2012-09-01

    Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease endemic in West Africa but with no previous case reported in Ghana. We describe the first two laboratory confirmed cases of Lassa fever from the Ashanti Region of Ghana detected in October and December, 2011. PMID:23661832

  9. Experimental Yellow Fever Virus Infection in the Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). I. Virologic, Biochemical, and Immunologic Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilda Guzman; Hui Zhang

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the clinical laboratory findings in golden hamsters experimentally infected with yellow fever (YF) virus. An accompanying paper describes the pathologic find- ings. Following intraperitoneal inoculation of a virulent strain of YF virus, hamsters developed a high-titered viremia (up to 109\\/mL) lasting 5-6 days and abnormal liver function tests. YF hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies appeared 4 or 5 days after

  10. Construction, Safety, and Immunogenicity in Nonhuman Primates of a Chimeric Yellow Fever-Dengue Virus Tetravalent Vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Guirakhoo; J. Arroyo; K. V. Pugachev; C. Miller; Z.-X. Zhang; R. Weltzin; K. Georgakopoulos; J. Catalan; S. Ocran; K. Soike; M. Ratterree; T. P. Monath

    2001-01-01

    We previously reported construction of a chimeric yellow fever-dengue type 2 virus (YF\\/DEN2) and deter- mined its safety and protective efficacy in rhesus monkeys (F. Guirakhoo et al., J. Virol. 74:5477-5485, 2000). In this paper, we describe construction of three additional YF\\/DEN chimeras using premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes of wild-type (WT) clinical isolates: DEN1 (strain PUO359, isolated in

  11. Cell surface expression of yellow fever virus non-structural glycoprotein NS1: consequences of interaction with antibody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob J. Schlesinger; Michael W. Brandriss; J. Robert Putnak; Edward E. Walsh

    1990-01-01

    Among antibodies to flaviviral proteins only those directed at the virion envelope protein (E) or the non- structural glycoprotein NS1 are known to confer protection. To investigate the possible role of comple- ment-mediated cytolysis (CMC) in protection we measured the capacity of anti-NS 1, or E monospecific serum or monoclonal antibodies to bind to yellow fever virus (YFV)-infected cells and

  12. CD8+ T cells complement antibodies in protecting against yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Maria R; Kongsgaard, Michael; Steffensen, Maria A; Fenger, Christina; Rasmussen, Michael; Skjřdt, Karsten; Finsen, Bente; Stryhn, Anette; Buus, Sřren; Christensen, Jan P; Thomsen, Allan R

    2015-02-01

    The attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine (YF-17D) was developed in the 1930s, yet little is known about the protective mechanisms underlying its efficiency. In this study, we analyzed the relative contribution of cell-mediated and humoral immunity to the vaccine-induced protection in a murine model of YF-17D infection. Using different strains of knockout mice, we found that CD4(+) T cells, B cells, and Abs are required for full clinical protection of vaccinated mice, whereas CD8(+) T cells are dispensable for long-term survival after intracerebral challenge. However, by analyzing the immune response inside the infected CNS, we observed an accelerated T cell influx into the brain after intracerebral challenge of vaccinated mice, and this T cell recruitment correlated with improved virus control in the brain. Using mice deficient in B cells we found that, in the absence of Abs, YF vaccination can still induce some antiviral protection, and in vivo depletion of CD8(+) T cells from these animals revealed a pivotal role for CD8(+) T cells in controlling virus replication in the absence of a humoral response. Finally, we demonstrated that effector CD8(+) T cells also contribute to viral control in the presence of circulating YF-specific Abs. To our knowledge, this is the first time that YF-specific CD8(+) T cells have been demonstrated to possess antiviral activity in vivo. PMID:25539816

  13. Neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Siju, KP; Reifenrath, Anna; Scheiblich, Hannah; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard; Hansson, Bill S; Schachtner, Joachim; Ignell, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    For many insects, including mosquitoes, olfaction is the dominant modality regulating their behavioral repertoire. Many neurochemicals modulate olfactory information in the central nervous system, including the primary olfactory center of insects, the antennal lobe. The most diverse and versatile neurochemicals in the insect nervous system are found in the neuropeptides. In the present study, we analyzed neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a major vector of arboviral diseases. Direct tissue profiling of the antennal lobe by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry indicated the presence of 28 mature products from 10 different neuropeptide genes. In addition, immunocytochemical techniques were used to describe the cellular location of the products of up to seven of these genes within the antennal lobe. Allatostatin A, allatotropin, SIFamide, FMRFamide-related peptides, short neuropeptide F, myoinhibitory peptide, and tachykinin-related peptides were found to be expressed in local interneurons and extrinsic neurons of the antennal lobe. Building on these results, we discuss the possible role of neuropeptide signaling in the antennal lobe of Ae. aegypti. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:592–608, 2014. PMID:23897410

  14. Surveillance for Yellow Fever Virus in Non-Human Primates in Southern Brazil, 2001–2011: A Tool for Prioritizing Human Populations for Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Marco A. B.; Cardoso, Jader da C.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Cruz, Laura L.; Faraco, Fernando J. C.; Bercini, Marilina A.; Vettorello, Kátia C.; Porto, Mariana A.; Mohrdieck, Renate; Ranieri, Tani M. S.; Schermann, Maria T.; Sperb, Alethéa F.; Paz, Francisco Z.; Nunes, Zenaida M. A.; Romano, Alessandro P. M.; Costa, Zouraide G.; Gomes, Silvana L.; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, epizootics among New World monkey species may indicate circulation of yellow fever (YF) virus and provide early warning of risk to humans. Between 1999 and 2001, the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul initiated surveillance for epizootics of YF in non-human primates to inform vaccination of human populations. Following a YF outbreak, we analyzed epizootic surveillance data and assessed YF vaccine coverage, timeliness of implementation of vaccination in unvaccinated human populations. From October 2008 through June 2009, circulation of YF virus was confirmed in 67 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State; vaccination was recommended in 23 (34%) prior to the outbreak and in 16 (24%) within two weeks of first epizootic report. In 28 (42%) municipalities, vaccination began more than two weeks after first epizootic report. Eleven (52%) of 21 laboratory-confirmed human YF cases occurred in two municipalities with delayed vaccination. By 2010, municipalities with confirmed YF epizootics reported higher vaccine coverage than other municipalities that began vaccination. In unvaccinated human populations timely response to epizootic events is critical to prevent human yellow fever cases. PMID:24625681

  15. Transcutaneous yellow fever vaccination of subjects with or without atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Slifka, Mark K.; Leung, Donald Y. M.; Hammarlund, Erika; Raué, Hans-Peter; Simpson, Eric L.; Tofte, Susan; Baig-Lewis, Shahana; David, Gloria; Lynn, Henry; Woolson, Rob; Hata, Tissa; Milgrom, Henry; Hanifin, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with global prevalence ranging from 3% to 20%. AD patients have an increased risk for complications following viral infection (e.g., herpes simplex virus), and vaccination of AD patients with live vaccinia virus is contraindicated due to a heightened risk of eczema vaccinatum, a rare but potentially lethal complication associated with smallpox vaccination. Objective To develop a better understanding of immunity to cutaneous viral infection in AD patients. Methods In a double-blind, randomized study, we investigated the safety and immunogenicity of live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccination of non-atopic (NA) subjects and AD patients following standard subcutaneous (SC) inoculation or transcutaneous (TC) vaccination administered with a bifurcated needle. Viremia, neutralizing antibody, and antiviral T cell responses were analyzed for up to 30 days post-vaccination. Results YFV vaccination by either route was well tolerated. SC vaccination resulted in higher seroconversion rates than TC vaccination but elicited similar antiviral antibody levels and T cell responses in both NA and AD groups. Following TC vaccination, both groups mounted similar neutralizing antibody responses, but AD patients demonstrated lower antiviral T cell responses by 30 days after vaccination. Among TC-vaccinated subjects, a significant inverse correlation between baseline IgE levels and the magnitude of antiviral antibody and CD4+ T cell responses was observed. Conclusions YFV vaccination of AD patients by the TC route revealed that high baseline IgE levels provides a potential biomarker for predicting reduced virus-specific immune memory following TC infection with a live virus. PMID:24331381

  16. AaCAT1 of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Immo A.; Boudko, Dmitri Y.; Shiao, Shin-Hong; Voronov, Dmitri A.; Meleshkevitch, Ella A.; Drake, Lisa L.; Aguirre, Sarah E.; Fox, Jeffrey M.; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    Insect yolk protein precursor gene expression is regulated by nutritional and endocrine signals. A surge of amino acids in the hemolymph of blood-fed female mosquitoes activates a nutrient signaling system in the fat bodies, which subsequently derepresses yolk protein precursor genes and makes them responsive to activation by steroid hormones. Orphan transporters of the SLC7 family were identified as essential upstream components of the nutrient signaling system in the fat body of fruit flies and the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. However, the transport function of these proteins was unknown. We report expression and functional characterization of AaCAT1, cloned from the fat body of A. aegypti. Expression of AaCAT1 transcript and protein undergoes dynamic changes during postembryonic development of the mosquito. Transcript expression was especially high in the third and fourth larval stages; however, the AaCAT1 protein was detected only in pupa and adult stages. Functional expression and analysis of AaCAT1 in Xenopus oocytes revealed that it acts as a sodium-independent cationic amino acid transporter, with unique selectivity to l-histidine at neutral pH (K0.5l-His = 0.34 ± 0.07 mm, pH 7.2). Acidification to pH 6.2 dramatically increases AaCAT1-specific His+-induced current. RNAi-mediated silencing of AaCAT1 reduces egg yield of subsequent ovipositions. Our data show that AaCAT1 has notable differences in its transport mechanism when compared with related mammalian cationic amino acid transporters. It may execute histidine-specific transport and signaling in mosquito tissues. PMID:21262963

  17. Immune activation alters cellular and humoral responses to yellow fever 17D vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Muyanja, Enoch; Ssemaganda, Aloysius; Ngauv, Pearline; Cubas, Rafael; Perrin, Helene; Srinivasan, Divya; Canderan, Glenda; Lawson, Benton; Kopycinski, Jakub; Graham, Amanda S.; Rowe, Dawne K.; Smith, Michaela J.; Isern, Sharon; Michael, Scott; Silvestri, Guido; Vanderford, Thomas H.; Castro, Erika; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Singer, Joel; Gillmour, Jill; Kiwanuka, Noah; Nanvubya, Annet; Schmidt, Claudia; Birungi, Josephine; Cox, Josephine; Haddad, Elias K.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Fast, Patricia; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Trautmann, Lydie

    2014-01-01

    Background. Defining the parameters that modulate vaccine responses in African populations will be imperative to design effective vaccines for protection against HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and dengue virus infections. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the patient-specific immune microenvironment to the response to the licensed yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) in an African cohort. Methods. We compared responses to YF-17D in 50 volunteers in Entebbe, Uganda, and 50 volunteers in Lausanne, Switzerland. We measured the CD8+ T cell and B cell responses induced by YF-17D and correlated them with immune parameters analyzed by flow cytometry prior to vaccination. Results. We showed that YF-17D–induced CD8+ T cell and B cell responses were substantially lower in immunized individuals from Entebbe compared with immunized individuals from Lausanne. The impaired vaccine response in the Entebbe cohort associated with reduced YF-17D replication. Prior to vaccination, we observed higher frequencies of exhausted and activated NK cells, differentiated T and B cell subsets and proinflammatory monocytes, suggesting an activated immune microenvironment in the Entebbe volunteers. Interestingly, activation of CD8+ T cells and B cells as well as proinflammatory monocytes at baseline negatively correlated with YF-17D–neutralizing antibody titers after vaccination. Additionally, memory T and B cell responses in preimmunized volunteers exhibited reduced persistence in the Entebbe cohort but were boosted by a second vaccination. Conclusion. Together, these results demonstrate that an activated immune microenvironment prior to vaccination impedes efficacy of the YF-17D vaccine in an African cohort and suggest that vaccine regimens may need to be boosted in African populations to achieve efficient immunity. Trial registration. Registration is not required for observational studies. Funding. This study was funded by Canada’s Global Health Research Initiative, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and United States Agency for International Development. PMID:24911151

  18. Molecular and immunological characterization of a DNA-launched yellow fever virus 17D infectious clone.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaohong; Dalebout, Tim J; Lukashevich, Igor S; Bredenbeek, Peter J; Franco, David

    2015-04-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV)-17D is an empirically developed, highly effective live-attenuated vaccine that has been administered to human beings for almost a century. YFV-17D has stood as a paradigm for a successful viral vaccine, and has been exploited as a potential virus vector for the development of recombinant vaccines against other diseases. In this study, a DNA-launched YFV-17D construct (pBeloBAC-FLYF) was explored as a new modality to the standard vaccine to combine the commendable features of both DNA vaccine and live-attenuated viral vaccine. The DNA-launched YFV-17D construct was characterized extensively both in cell culture and in mice. High titres of YFV-17D were generated upon transfection of the DNA into cells, whereas a mutant with deletion in the capsid-coding region (pBeloBAC-YF/?C) was restricted to a single round of infection, with no release of progeny virus. Homologous prime-boost immunization of AAD mice with both pBeloBAC-FLYF and pBeloBAC-YF/?C elicited specific dose-dependent cellular immune response against YFV-17D. Vaccination of A129 mice with pBeloBAC-FLYF resulted in the induction of YFV-specific neutralizing antibodies in all vaccinated subjects. These promising results underlined the potential of the DNA-launched YFV both as an alternative to standard YFV-17D vaccination and as a vaccine platform for the development of DNA-based recombinant YFV vaccines. PMID:25516543

  19. Carbon dioxide instantly sensitizes female yellow fever mosquitoes to human skin odours.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Teun; Geier, Martin; Cardé, Ring T

    2005-08-01

    Female mosquitoes are noted for their ability to use odours to locate a host for a blood meal. Two sensory organs contribute to their sense of smell: the maxillary palps, which measure the level of CO2, and the antennae, which detect other host-released odours. To establish the relative importance and interactions of CO2 and other body emissions in freely flying mosquitoes, we presented female yellow fever mosquitoes Aedes aegypti L. with broad plumes of human skin odour and CO2 at natural concentrations and dilutions thereof in a wind tunnel. 3-D video-recorded flight tracks were reconstructed. Activation, flight velocity, upwind turning and source finding waned quickly as skin odours were diluted, whereas in the presence of CO2 these parameters remained unchanged over more than a 100-fold dilution from exhaled concentrations. Although mosquitoes were behaviourally less sensitive to skin odours than to CO2, their sensitivity to skin odours increased transiently by at least fivefold immediately following a brief encounter with a filament of CO2. This sensitization was reflected in flight velocity, track angle, turning rate upon entering and exiting the broad odour plume and, ultimately, in the source-finding rate. In Ae. aegypti, CO2 thus functions as a ;releaser' for a higher sensitivity and responsiveness to skin odours. The initially low responsiveness of mosquitoes to skin odours, their high sensitivity to CO2, and the sensitization of the olfactory circuitry by CO2 are ecologically relevant, because rapidly fluctuating CO2 levels reliably signal a potential host. Possible mechanisms of the instantaneous sensitization are considered. PMID:16043601

  20. Subdoses of 17DD yellow fever vaccine elicit equivalent virological/immunological kinetics timeline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The live attenuated 17DD Yellow Fever vaccine is one of the most successful prophylactic interventions for controlling disease expansion ever designed and utilized in larger scale. However, increase on worldwide vaccine demands and manufacturing restrictions urge for more detailed dose sparing studies. The establishment of complementary biomarkers in addition to PRNT and Viremia could support a secure decision-making regarding the use of 17DD YF vaccine subdoses. The present work aimed at comparing the serum chemokine and cytokine kinetics triggered by five subdoses of 17DD YF Vaccine. Methods Neutralizing antibody titers, viremia, cytokines and chemokines were tested on blood samples obtained from eligible primary vaccinees. Results and discussion The results demonstrated that a fifty-fold lower dose of 17DD-YF vaccine (587 IU) is able to trigger similar immunogenicity, as evidenced by significant titers of anti-YF PRNT. However, only subdoses as low as 3,013 IU elicit viremia kinetics with an early peak at five days after primary vaccination equivalent to the current dose (27,476 IU), while other subdoses show a distinct, lower in magnitude and later peak at day 6 post-vaccination. Although the subdose of 587 IU is able to trigger equivalent kinetics of IL-8/CXCL-8 and MCP-1/CCL-2, only the subdose of 3,013 IU is able to trigger similar kinetics of MIG/CXCL-9, pro-inflammatory (TNF, IFN-? and IL-2) and modulatory cytokines (IL-5 and IL-10). Conclusions The analysis of serum biomarkers IFN-? and IL-10, in association to PRNT and viremia, support the recommendation of use of a ten-fold lower subdose (3,013 IU) of 17DD-YF vaccine. PMID:25022840

  1. Yellow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Woodward

    1871-01-01

    IT would seem to me that the great difficulty of conceiving yellow as a compound colour is the brightness or lightness of yellow, as compared with its components. In the spectrum, we have the maximum of light in the yellow, and it is against our experience to put two dark colours together and form one light one, as, for example,

  2. Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Jillian L.; Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2013-03-01

    Three gustatory receptor neurons were characterized for contact chemoreceptive sensilla on the labella of female yellow-fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. The neuron with the smallest amplitude spike responded to the feeding deterrent, quinine, as well as N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide and other insect repellents. Two other neurons with differing spikes responded to salt (NaCl) and sucrose. This is the first report of a gustatory receptor neuron specific for insect repellents in mosquitoes and may provide a tool for screening chemicals to discover novel or improved feeding deterrents and repellents for use in the management of arthropod disease vectors.

  3. Yellow fever outbreak affecting Alouatta populations in southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State), 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Dos Santos, Edmilson; da Cruz Cardoso, Jader; da Fonseca, Daltro Fernandes; Noll, Carlos Alberto; Silveira, Vivian Regina; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Kanamura, Cristina; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo

    2012-01-01

    The natural transmission cycle of Yellow Fever (YF) involves tree hole breeding mosquitoes and a wide array of nonhuman primates (NHP), including monkeys and apes. Some Neotropical monkeys (howler monkeys, genus Alouatta) develop fatal YF virus (YFV) infections similar to those reported in humans, even with minimum exposure to the infection. Epizootics in wild primates may be indicating YFV circulation, and the surveillance of such outbreaks in wildlife is an important tool to help prevent human infection. In 2001, surveillance activities successfully identified YF-related death in a black-and-gold howler monkey (Alouatta caraya), Rio Grande do Sul State (RGS) in southern Brazil, and the YFV was isolated from a species of forest-dwelling mosquito (Haemagogus leucocelaenus). These findings led the State Secretariat of Health to initiate a monitoring program for YF and other 18 arboviral infections in Alouatta monkeys. The monitoring program included monkey captures, reporting of monkey casualties by municipalities, and subsequent investigations. If monkey carcasses were found in forests, samples were collected in a standardized manner and this practice resulted in increased reporting of outbreaks. In October 2008, a single howler monkey in a northwestern RGS municipality was confirmed to have died from YF. From October 2008 to June 2009, 2,013 monkey deaths were reported (830 A. caraya and 1,183 A. guariba clamitans). Viruses isolation in blood, viscera, and/or immunohistochemistry led to the detection of YF in 204 of 297 (69%) (154 A. g. clamitans and 50 A. caraya) dead Alouatta monkeys tested. The number of municipalities with confirmed YFV circulation in howlers increased from 2 to 67 and 21 confirmed human cases occurred. This surveillance system was successful in identifying the largest YF outbreak affecting wild NHP ever recorded. PMID:22020690

  4. Clinical and Immunological Insights on Severe, Adverse Neurotropic and Viscerotropic Disease following 17D Yellow Fever Vaccination?

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maria Luiza; Espírito-Santo, Luçandra Ramos; Martins, Marina Angela; Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Peruhype-Magalhăes, Vanessa; Caminha, Ricardo Carvalho; de Andrade Maranhăo-Filho, Péricles; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Galler, Ricardo; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Marcovistz, Rugimar; Homma, Akira; Teuwen, Dirk E.; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2010-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccines (17D-204 and 17DD) are well tolerated and cause very low rates of severe adverse events (YEL-SAE), such as serious allergic reactions, neurotropic adverse diseases (YEL-AND), and viscerotropic diseases (YEL-AVD). Viral and host factors have been postulated to explain the basis of YEL-SAE. However, the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of YEL-SAE remain unknown. The present report provides a detailed immunological analysis of a 23-year-old female patient. The patient developed a suspected case of severe YEL-AVD with encephalitis, as well as with pancreatitis and myositis, following receipt of a 17D-204 YF vaccination. The patient exhibited a decreased level of expression of Fc-?R in monocytes (CD16, CD32, and CD64), along with increased levels of NK T cells (an increased CD3+ CD16+/? CD56+/?/CD3+ ratio), activated T cells (CD4+ and CD8+ cells), and B lymphocytes. Enhanced levels of plasmatic cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-17, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) as well as an exacerbated ex vivo intracytoplasmic cytokine pattern, mainly observed within NK cells (gamma interferon positive [IFN-?+], tumor necrosis factor alpha positive [TNF-?+], and IL-4 positive [IL-4+]), CD8+ T cells (IL-4+ and IL-5+), and B lymphocytes (TNF-?+, IL-4+, and IL-10+). The analysis of CD4+ T cells revealed a complex profile that consisted of an increased frequency of IL-12+ and IFN-?+ cells and a decreased percentage of TNF-?+, IL-4+, and IL-5+ cells. Depressed cytokine synthesis was observed in monocytes (TNF-?+) following the provision of antigenic stimuli in vitro. These results support the hypothesis that a strong adaptive response and abnormalities in the innate immune system may be involved in the establishment of YEL-AND and YEL-AVD. PMID:19906894

  5. RISK ANALYSIS: CASE HISTORY OF PUCCINIA JACEAE ON YELLOW STARTHISTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Risk analysis has five components: Risk awareness, Risk perception, Risk assessment, Risk management, and Risk communication. Using the case with the foreign plant pathogen, Puccinia jaceae, under evaluation for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, YST), approaches and...

  6. A public health risk assessment for yellow fever vaccination: a model exemplified by an outbreak in the state of Săo Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Tengan, Ciléa; Sato, Helena Keico; Spinola, Roberta; Mascheretti, Melissa; França, Ana Cecilia Costa; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Pereira, Mariza; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Amaku, Marcos; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Massad, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to analyse the 2009 outbreak in the region of Botucatu in the state of Săo Paulo (SP), Brazil, when 28 yellow fever (YF) cases were confirmed, including 11 deaths. At the time of the outbreak, the Secretary of Health of the State of Săo Paulo vaccinated one million people, causing the death of five individuals, an unprecedented number of YF vaccine-induced fatalities. We apply a mathematical model described previously to optimise the proportion of people who should be vaccinated to minimise the total number of deaths. The model was used to calculate the optimum proportion that should be vaccinated in the remaining, vaccine-free regions of SP, considering the risk of vaccine-induced fatalities and the risk of YF outbreaks in these regions. PMID:25946247

  7. A public health risk assessment for yellow fever vaccination: a model exemplified by an outbreak in the state of Săo Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Tengan, Ciléa; Sato, Helena Keico; Spinola, Roberta; Mascheretti, Melissa; França, Ana Cecilia Costa; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Pereira, Mariza; Souza, Renato Pereira de; Amaku, Marcos; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Massad, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    We propose a method to analyse the 2009 outbreak in the region of Botucatu in the state of Săo Paulo (SP), Brazil, when 28 yellow fever (YF) cases were confirmed, including 11 deaths. At the time of the outbreak, the Secretary of Health of the State of Săo Paulo vaccinated one million people, causing the death of five individuals, an unprecedented number of YF vaccine-induced fatalities. We apply a mathematical model described previously to optimise the proportion of people who should be vaccinated to minimise the total number of deaths. The model was used to calculate the optimum proportion that should be vaccinated in the remaining, vaccine-free regions of SP, considering the risk of vaccine-induced fatalities and the risk of YF outbreaks in these regions. PMID:25946247

  8. Comparative study between paratyphoid A and typhoid fever cases.

    PubMed

    Abdel Wahab, M F; Haseeb, A N; Hamdy, H S; Awadalla, Y A

    1996-01-01

    Twenty eight positive blood culture paratyphoid A fever cases were studied. Forty two positive blood culture typhoid cases were taken as controls. Cases and controls were subjected to: 1) careful history, 2) thorough clinical examination, 3) two blood cultures for salmonella, 4) Widal agglutination test, 5) total and differential white blood count, 6) urine and stool cultures following therapy. There was no significant difference in the clinical picture between acute paratyphoid A fever and acute typhoid fever except the significant decrease of anorexia (57%), toxic look (54%), coated tongue (64%) in acute paratyphoid A cases when compared to acute typhoid cases. The prevalence of extraintestinal symptoms in paratyphoid A cases may mimic viral infections. Three of the 4 classical signs namely; toxic look (54%), bronchitic chest (50%), splenomegaly (72%) and tympanitis (64%) were good bed side suggestive clinical diagnostic aids in paratyphoid A cases. Blood culture was the cornerstone of diagnosis of paratyphoid A cases. In 6 (21%), only the second blood sample was positive stressing the value of multiple cultures. Significant Widal antibody titre was elicited in only about half (57%) of paratyphoid A cases which was significantly lower than typhoid cases (83%). Leucopenia was found in only 25% of paratyphoid A cases. Eosinopenia was constant and is considered as a diagnostic and prognostic aid. No correlation was elicited between either the height of antibody titre or the height of leucocytic count and the severity of illness. There was no significant difference in the response to therapy or the occurrence of complications between paratyphoid A cases and typhoid cases. Up to the current knowledge, this is the first report on comparative study between acute paratyphoid A fever and acute typhoid fever in Egypt from clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic points of view. PMID:17214195

  9. Travelers' Health: Yellow Book

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Home Destinations Travel Notices Find a Clinic Yellow Fever Vaccinations Clinics FAQ Disease Directory Information Centers For ... sections, and expanded disease maps (including country-level yellow fever vaccine recommendation maps). The book is currently available ...

  10. Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Hemorrhagic dengue; Dengue shock syndrome; Philippine hemorrhagic fever; Thai hemorrhagic fever; Singapore hemorrhagic fever ... Endy TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses (Dengue, Yellow ... Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, ...

  11. Three Novel Families of Miniature Inverted-Repeat Transposable Elements are Associated with Genes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhijian Tu

    1997-01-01

    Three novel families of transposable elements, Wukong, Wujin, and Wuneng, are described in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Their copy numbers range from 2,100 to 3,000 per haploid genome. There are high degrees of sequence similarity within each family, and many structural but not sequence similarities between families. The common structural characteristics include small size, no coding potential, terminal

  12. Yellow Fever Vaccination Elicits Broad Functional CD4+ T Cell Responses That Recognize Structural and Nonstructural Proteins

    PubMed Central

    James, Eddie A.; LaFond, Rebecca E.; Gates, Theresa J.; Mai, Duy T.; Malhotra, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) can induce acute, life-threatening disease that is a significant health burden in areas where yellow fever is endemic, but it is preventable through vaccination. The live attenuated 17D YFV strain induces responses characterized by neutralizing antibodies and strong T cell responses. This vaccine provides an excellent model for studying human immunity. While several studies have characterized YFV-specific antibody and CD8+ T cell responses, less is known about YFV-specific CD4+ T cells. Here we characterize the epitope specificity, functional attributes, and dynamics of YFV-specific T cell responses in vaccinated subjects by investigating peripheral blood mononuclear cells by using HLA-DR tetramers. A total of 112 epitopes restricted by seven common HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified. Epitopes were present within all YFV proteins, but the capsid, envelope, NS2a, and NS3 proteins had the highest epitope density. Antibody blocking demonstrated that the majority of YFV-specific T cells were HLA-DR restricted. Therefore, CD4+ T cell responses could be effectively characterized with HLA-DR tetramers. Ex vivo tetramer analysis revealed that YFV-specific T cells persisted at frequencies ranging from 0 to 100 cells per million that are detectable years after vaccination. Longitudinal analysis indicated that YFV-specific CD4+ T cells reached peak frequencies, often exceeding 250 cells per million, approximately 2 weeks after vaccination. As frequencies subsequently declined, YFV-specific cells regained CCR7 expression, indicating a shift from effector to central memory. Cells were typically CXCR3 positive, suggesting Th1 polarization, and produced gamma interferon and other cytokines after reactivation in vitro. Therefore, YFV elicits robust early effector CD4+ T cell responses that contract, forming a detectable memory population. PMID:24049183

  13. Imported Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever cases in Istanbul

    PubMed Central

    Midilli, Kenan; Garg?l?, Ay?en; Ergonul, Onder; ?engöz, Gönül; Ozturk, Recep; Bakar, Mehmet; Jongejan, Frans

    2007-01-01

    We described a series of imported cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in Istanbul and investigated the genetic diversity of the virus. All the suspected cases of CCHF, who were applied to the health centers in Istanbul, were screened for CCHF virus (CCHFv) infection by using semi-nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) following RT-PCR. Simultaneous blood samples were also sent to the national reference laboratory in Ankara for serologic investigation. In 10 out of 91 patients, CCHFv was detected by PCR, and among 9 out of 10, anti-CCHFv IgM antibodies were also positive. Clinical features were characterized by fever, myalgia, and hemorrhage. The levels of liver enzymes, creatinine phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated, and bleeding markers were prolonged. All the cases were treated with ribavirin. There was no fatal case. All the strains clustered within the same group as other Europe/Turkey isolates. PMID:17553137

  14. Q fever osteoarticular infection: four new cases and a review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Landais; F. Fenollar; A. Constantin; C. Cazorla; C. Guilyardi; H. Lepidi; A. Stein; J. M. Rolain; D. Raoult

    2007-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide-occurring zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Better knowledge of the disease and of evolving diagnostics can enable recognition of unusual manifestations. Reported here\\u000a are four cases of Q fever osteoarticular infections in adults: two cases of Q fever tenosynovitis, which represent the first\\u000a two reports of this infection, and two cases of Q fever spondylodiscitis complicated

  15. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...processed in a region where African swine fever exists, as listed under §...

  16. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...processed in a region where African swine fever exists, as listed under §...

  17. Acta Tropica 104 (2007) 17 Surveillance of dengue fever cases using a novel

    E-print Network

    Severson, David

    2007-01-01

    Acta Tropica 104 (2007) 1­7 Surveillance of dengue fever cases using a novel Aedes aegypti 100 suspected dengue fever (DF) cases in county St. Patrick, Trinidad, West Indies. From the 30 that this eradication program initially sup- pressed the vector populations and prevented the spread of dengue fever (DF

  18. Pathology Case Study: Severe Headache and Fever

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anhalt, John P.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male transplant patient is suffering severe headaches. Visitors are given the hospital course record, radiographic and histologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology and transplant pathology.

  19. Pathology Case Study: Fever and Hemoptysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Geraldino, Nelson

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 29-year-old woman with chronic myelogenous leukemia has been coughing up blood. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

  20. The dissemination of 17D yellow fever vaccine in Africans in Kenya in relation to the interpretation of results of protection-test surveys

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, W. H. R.

    1954-01-01

    The extent of dissemination of 17D yellow fever vaccine among the population of Kenya, especially among Africans, is estimated, largely from information in the records of the Kenya Medical Department. The total recorded vaccinations of Africans between 1941 and 1951 amount to about 379,000, representing 7.2% of the African population in 1948; it is, however, possible that the actual number of vaccinations is considerably higher. At Mombasa, 78,000 persons of races other than Africans were given routine inoculation over the same period. After a study of the economy of use of vaccine, the author discusses the protection-test surveys performed before 1951 and during that year in relation to the dissemination of vaccine. It is tentatively concluded that natural infection of man with yellow fever is rare in both Kenya and Tanganyika. PMID:13209303

  1. Yellow fever virus envelope protein expressed in insect cells is capable of syncytium formation in lepidopteran cells and could be used for immunodetection of YFV in human sera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria CES Barros; Tatiane GCM Galasso; Antônio JM Chaib; Nicolas Degallier; Tatsuya Nagata; Bergmann M Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Background  Yellow fever is an haemorrhagic disease caused by a virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus (Flaviviridae family) and is\\u000a transmitted by mosquitoes. Among the viral proteins, the envelope protein (E) is the most studied one, due to its high antigenic\\u000a potencial. Baculovirus are one of the most popular and efficient eukaryotic expression system. In this study a recombinant\\u000a baculovirus

  2. Comparison of the genomes of the wild-type French viscerotropic strain of yellow fever virus with its vaccine derivative French neurotropic vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eryu Wang; Kate D. Ryman; Alan D. Jennings; David J. Wood; F. Taffs; Philip D. Minor; Peter G. Sanders; Alan D. T. Barrett

    1995-01-01

    The French neurotropic vaccine, or FNV, was used extensively in Africa to control yellow fever (YF). Although efficacious, the vaccine caused an unaccept- able rate of post-vaccinal complications in children and was subsequently replaced by the 17D vaccine. Here we report that the genomes of the wild-type YF virus French viscerotropic virus and its attenuated vaccine derivative, FNV virus from

  3. Mutagenesis of the N-Linked Glycosylation Sites of the Yellow Fever Virus NS1 Protein: Effects on Virus Replication and Mouse Neurovirulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabella R. Muylaert; Thomas J. Chambers; Ricardo Galler; Charles M. Rice

    1996-01-01

    The flavivirus nonstructural glycoprotein NS1 is highly conserved and contains two N-linked glycosylation sites which are both utilized for addition of oligosaccharides during replication in cell culture. NS1 has been shown to contain epitopes for protective antibodies; however, its roles in virus replication and pathogenesis remain unknown. To study the function of NS1 during yellow fever virus replication, six mutant

  4. Neutralizing (54K) and Non-neutralizing (54K and 48K) Monoclonai Antibodies against Structural and Non-structural Yellow Fever Virus Proteins Confer Immunity in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. GOULD; A. BUCKLEY; A. D. T. BARRETT; N. CAMMACK

    SUMMARY The capacity of monoclonal antibodies to protect mice passively against yellow fever (YF) virus infection was investigated. Both neutralizing (54K-specific) and non- neutralizing (54K- and 48K-specific) antibodies protected mice against challenge with the RMP substrain of YF virus. Average survival times of mice inoculated intracerebrally with a standard lethal dose of YF virus differed according to the strain used:

  5. Efficient transformation of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kokoza; A. Ahmed; E. A. Wimmer; A. S. Raikhel

    2001-01-01

    We report efficient germ-line transformation in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti accomplished using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm]. Two transgenic lines were established and characterized; each contained the Vg-Defensin A transgene with strong eye-specific expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene regulated by the artificial 3xP3 promoter. Southern blot hybridization and inverse PCR analyses

  6. Mutation in a 17D-204 Vaccine Substrain-Specific Envelope Protein Epitope Alters the Pathogenesis of Yellow Fever Virus in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate D. Ryman; T. Neil Ledger; Gerald A. Campbell; Alan D. T. Barrett

    1998-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of the yellow fever (YF) 17D-204 vaccine virus population was exploited in this study to isolate virus variants able to escape neutralization by the 17D-204 vaccine-specific MAb 864. The conformational change on the virus surface that resulted in the loss of the MAb 864-defined epitope was effected in each variant by a single amino acid mutation in

  7. A Possible connection between the 1878 yellow fever epidemic in the southern United States and the 1877-78 El Nińo episode

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, Henry F.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    1999-01-01

    This study documents some of the extreme climate anomalies that were recorded in 1877 and 1878 in parts of the eastern United States, with particular emphasis on highlighting the evolution of these anomalies, as they might have contributed to the epidemic. Other years with major outbreaks of yellow fever in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries also occurred during the course of El Nińo episodes, a fact that appears not to have been noted before in the literature.

  8. COMPARATIVE SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF TWO YELLOW FEVER 17D VACCINES (ARILVAX AND YF-VAX) IN A PHASE III MULTICENTER, DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL TRIAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS P. MONATH; RICHARD NICHOLS; W. TAD ARCHAMBAULT; LINDA MOORE; RON MARCHESANI; JASON TIAN; ROBERT E. SHOPE; NICOLA THOMAS; ROBERT SCHRADER; DEAN FURBY; PHILIP BEDFORD

    Yellow fever (YF) is a significant health problem in South America and Africa. Travelers to these areas require immunization. The United States, infested with Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, is at risk of introduction of this disease. There is only a single U.S. manufacturer of YF 17D vaccine, and supplies may be insufficient in an emergency. A randomized, double-blind outpatient study was

  9. Modelling Patterns of Evidence in Bayesian Networks: a Case-study in Classical Swine Fever

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Modelling Patterns of Evidence in Bayesian Networks: a Case-study in Classical Swine Fever Linda C.elbers,willie.loeffen}@wur.nl Abstract. Upon engineering a Bayesian network for the early detection of Classical Swine Fever in pigs, we of an infection with the Classical Swine Fever (CSF) virus in individual pigs. Upon constructing our Bayesian

  10. A Possible Connection between the 1878 Yellow Fever Epidemic in the Southern United States and the 1877-78 El Nińo Episode.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Henry F.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most severe outbreaks of yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, affected the southern United States in the summer of 1878. The economic and human toll was enormous, and the city of Memphis, Tennessee, was one of the most affected. The authors suggest that as a consequence of one of the strongest El Nińo episodes on record-that which occurred in 1877-78-exceptional climate anomalies occurred in the United States (as well as in many other parts of the world), which may have been partly responsible for the widespread nature and severity of the 1878 yellow fever outbreak.This study documents some of the extreme climate anomalies that were recorded in 1877 and 1878 in parts of the eastern United States, with particular emphasis on highlighting the evolution of these anomalies, as they might have contributed to the epidemic. Other years with major outbreaks of yellow fever in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries also occurred during the course of El Nińo episodes, a fact that appears not to have been noted before in the literature.

  11. Human impacts have shaped historical and recent evolution in Aedes aegypti, the dengue and yellow fever mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Julia E.; Evans, Benjamin R.; Zheng, Wei; Obas, Vanessa; Barrera-Martinez, Laura; Egizi, Andrea; Zhao, Hongyu; Caccone, Adalgisa; Powell, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Though anthropogenic impacts are often considered harmful to species, human modifications to the landscape can actually create novel niches to which other species can adapt. These “domestication” processes are especially important in the context of arthropod disease vectors, where ecological overlap of vector and human populations may lead to epidemics. Here, we present results of a global genetic study of one such species, the dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, whose evolutionary history and current distribution have been profoundly shaped by humans. We used DNA sequences of four nuclear genes and 1504 SNP markers developed with RAD-tag sequencing to test the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti originated in Africa, where a domestic form arose and spread throughout the tropical and subtropical world with human trade and movement. Results confirmed African ancestry of the species, and supported a single subspeciation event leading to the pantropical domestic form. Additionally, genetic data strongly supported the hypothesis that human trade routes first moved domestic Ae. aegypti out of Africa into the New World, followed by a later invasion from the New World into Southeast Asia and the Pacific. These patterns of domestication and invasion are relevant to many species worldwide, as anthropogenic forces increasingly impact evolutionary processes. PMID:24111703

  12. First report on invasion of yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, at Narita International Airport, Japan in August 2012.

    PubMed

    Sukehiro, Nayu; Kida, Nori; Umezawa, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Arai, Naoko; Jinnai, Tsunesada; Inagaki, Shunichi; Tsuchiya, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The invasion of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti at Narita International Airport, Japan was detected for the first time. During the course of routine vector surveillance at Narita International Airport, 27 Ae. aegypti adults emerged from larvae and pupae collected from a single larvitrap placed near No. 88 spot at passenger terminal 2 on August 8, 2012. After the appearance of Ae. aegypti in the larvitrap, we defined a 400-m buffer zone and started an intensive vector survey using an additional 34 larvitraps and 15 CO2 traps. International aircraft and passenger terminal 2 were also inspected, and one Ae. aegypti male was collected from the cargo space of an international aircraft from Darwin via Manila on August 28, 2012. Larvicide treatment with 1.5% fenitrothion was conducted in 64 catch basins and one ditch in the 400-m buffer zone. Twenty-four large water tanks were also treated at least once with 0.5% pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator. No Ae. aegypti eggs or adults were found during the 1-month intensive vector survey after finding larvae and pupae in the larvitrap. We concluded that Ae. aegypti had failed to establish a population at Narita International Airport. PMID:23698478

  13. Engineered resistance in Aedes aegypti to a West African and a South American strain of yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Higgs, S; Rayner, J O; Olson, K E; Davis, B S; Beaty, B J; Blair, C D

    1998-05-01

    Double subgenomic Sindbis (dsSIN) viruses were engineered to transduce mosquito cells with antisense RNA derived either from the premembrane (prM) or polymerase (NS5) coding regions of the 17D vaccine strain of yellow fever virus (YFV). Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells were infected at high multiplicities of infection (MOI) with each dsSIN virus. Forty-eight hours later, the transduced cells were challenged with an MOI of 0.1 of the Asibi strain of YFV. At 72-hr postchallenge, the cells were assayed by immunofluorescence for the presence of YFV antigen. Cells transduced with prM or NS5 antisense RNAs derived from the YFV genome displayed no YFV-specific antigens. In contrast, cells infected with control dsSIN viruses that expressed no antisense RNA or dengue virus-derived antisense RNAs were permissive for the challenge virus. To analyze resistance in the mosquito, five log10 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of each dsSIN virus and three log10TCID50 of either a West African (BA-55) or South American (1899/81) strain of wild-type YFV were coinoculated into Ae. aegypti. Mosquitoes transduced with effector RNAs targeting the prM or NS5 gene regions did not transmit West African YFV and poorly transmitted the South American strain of YFV. PMID:9598458

  14. Efficient transposition of the youngest miniature inverted repeat transposable element family of yellow fever mosquito in yeast.

    PubMed

    Fattash, Isam; Lee, Chia-Ni; Mo, Kaiguo; Yang, Guojun

    2015-05-01

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are often the most numerous DNA transposons in plant and animal genomes. The dramatic amplification of MITE families during evolution is puzzling, because the transposase sources for the vast majority of MITE families are unknown. The yellow fever mosquito genome contains > 220-Mb MITE sequences; however, transposition activity has not been demonstrated for any of the MITE families. The Gnome elements are the youngest MITE family in this genome, with at least 116 identical copies. To test whether the putative autonomous element Ozma is capable of mobilizing Gnome and its two sibling MITEs, analyses were performed in a yeast transposition assay system. Whereas the wild-type transposase resulted in very low transposition activity, mutations in the region containing a putative nuclear export signal motif resulted in a dramatic (at least 4160-fold) increase in transposition frequency. We have also demonstrated that each residue of the novel DD37E motif is required for the activity of the Ozma transposase. Footprint sequences left at the donor sites suggest that the transposase may cleave between the second and the third nucleotides from the 5' ends of the elements. The excised elements reinsert specifically at dinucleotide 'TA', ~ 55% of them in yeast genes. The elements described in this article could potentially be useful as genetic tools for genetic manipulation of mosquitoes. PMID:25754725

  15. Initial viral load determines the magnitude of the human CD8 T cell response to yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed

    Akondy, Rama S; Johnson, Philip L F; Nakaya, Helder I; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Mulligan, Mark J; Lawson, Benton; Miller, Joseph D; Pulendran, Bali; Antia, Rustom; Ahmed, Rafi

    2015-03-10

    CD8 T cells are a potent tool for eliminating intracellular pathogens and tumor cells. Thus, eliciting robust CD8 T-cell immunity is the basis for many vaccines under development. However, the relationship between antigen load and the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell response is not well-described in a human immune response. Here we address this issue by quantifying viral load and the CD8 T-cell response in a cohort of 80 individuals immunized with the live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YFV-17D) by sampling peripheral blood at days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 30, and 90. When the virus load was below a threshold (peak virus load < 225 genomes per mL, or integrated virus load < 400 genome days per mL), the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell response correlated strongly with the virus load (R(2) ? 0.63). As the virus load increased above this threshold, the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell responses saturated. Recent advances in CD8 T-cell-based vaccines have focused on replication-incompetent or single-cycle vectors. However, these approaches deliver relatively limited amounts of antigen after immunization. Our results highlight the requirement that T-cell-based vaccines should deliver sufficient antigen during the initial period of the immune response to elicit a large number of CD8 T cells that may be needed for protection. PMID:25713354

  16. A Multipurpose, High-Throughput Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Chip for the Dengue and Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Evans, Benjamin R; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Hou, Lin; McBride, Carolyn; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Zhao, Hongyu; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, contributes significantly to global disease burden. Genetic study of Aedes aegypti is essential to understanding its evolutionary history, competence as a disease vector, and the effects and efficacy of vector control methods. The prevalence of repeats and transposable elements in the Aedes aegypti genome complicates marker development and makes genome-wide genetic study challenging. To overcome these challenges, we developed a high-throughput genotyping chip, Axiom_aegypti1. This chip screens for 50,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in Aedes aegypti populations from around the world. The array currently used genotypes 96 samples simultaneously. To ensure that these markers satisfy assumptions commonly made in many genetic analyses, we tested for Mendelian inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in laboratory crosses and a wild population, respectively. We have validated more than 25,000 of these markers to date, and expect this number to increase with more sampling. We also present evidence of the chip's efficacy in distinguishing populations throughout the world. The markers on this chip are ideal for applications ranging from population genetics to genome-wide association studies. This tool makes rapid, cost-effective, and comparable genotype data attainable to diverse sets of Aedes aegypti researchers, from those interested in potential range shifts due to climate change to those characterizing the genetic underpinnings of its competence to transmit disease. PMID:25721127

  17. No booster dose for yellow fever vaccination: what are the consequences for the activity of vaccination in travel clinics?

    PubMed

    Wyplosz, Benjamin; Leroy, Jean-Philippe; Derradji, Ouda; Consigny, Paul-Henri

    2015-01-01

    In April 2013, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization stated that a single dose of yellow fever (YF) vaccine is sufficient in the general population to confer a lifelong protection against YF. When the period of validity of the International Certificate of Vaccination (ICV) will be extended to a lifetime in June 2016, no booster dose will be needed. The objective of this prospective study was to determine the potential impact of the SAGE recommendations on the vaccination activity of our travel clinics. We showed that among 1,037 subjects seen in our three travel clinics for a YF vaccination in 2013, about 32.3% went for a booster dose that is no longer useful according to the SAGE. A drop in vaccination activity has to be expected by travel clinics in the next years, and changes in daily exercise have to be anticipated, as YF vaccination is a large part of the regular work of many healthcare providers specialized in travel medicine. PMID:25384441

  18. The interferon signaling antagonist function of yellow fever virus NS5 protein is activated by type I interferon.

    PubMed

    Laurent-Rolle, Maudry; Morrison, Juliet; Rajsbaum, Ricardo; Macleod, Jesica M Levingston; Pisanelli, Giuseppe; Pham, Alissa; Ayllon, Juan; Miorin, Lisa; Martínez-Romero, Carles; tenOever, Benjamin R; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2014-09-10

    To successfully establish infection, flaviviruses have to overcome the antiviral state induced by type I interferon (IFN-I). The nonstructural NS5 proteins of several flaviviruses antagonize IFN-I signaling. Here we show that yellow fever virus (YFV) inhibits IFN-I signaling through a unique mechanism that involves binding of YFV NS5 to the IFN-activated transcription factor STAT2 only in cells that have been stimulated with IFN-I. This NS5-STAT2 interaction requires IFN-I-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and the K63-linked polyubiquitination at a lysine in the N-terminal region of YFV NS5. We identified TRIM23 as the E3 ligase that interacts with and polyubiquitinates YFV NS5 to promote its binding to STAT2 and trigger IFN-I signaling inhibition. Our results demonstrate the importance of YFV NS5 in overcoming the antiviral action of IFN-I and offer a unique example of a viral protein that is activated by the same host pathway that it inhibits. PMID:25211074

  19. Functional implications of the peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the immunity of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Beerntsen, B T

    2015-06-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) play essential roles in the immune systems of insects and higher animals against certain pathogens, including bacteria. In insects, most studies on the functions of PGRPs have been performed in Drosophila, with only limited studies in mosquitoes, which are important disease vectors. In the present study, we analysed the PGRP sequences of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, acquired from two genome databases, and identified a total of seven PGRP genes; namely, PGRP-S1, -SC2, -LA, -LB, -LC, -LD and -LE. Bacterial injection using the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus showed that three PGRPs responded directly to both bacterial stimuli. Subsequently, the transcriptional expression of six of these PGRPs was knocked down using double-stranded RNA-injection-based RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi of the PGRPs resulted in different impacts on the immune responses of Ae.?aegypti to the two bacteria, as evidenced by the changes in mosquito survival rates after bacterial challenges as well as the differential regulation of several antimicrobial peptides and a number of other genes involved in mosquito immune pathways. Our data suggest that PGRP-LC is a significant factor in mediating immune responses to both E.?coli and M.?luteus, and the other PGRPs play only minor roles against these two bacteria, with PGRP-SC2 and -LB also serving as potential negative regulators for certain immune pathway(s) in Ae.?aegypti. PMID:25588548

  20. Chronic q Fever in a renal transplant recipient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Godinho, I; Nogueira, E L; Santos, C M; Paulo, S E; Fortes, A; Guerra, J O; Gomes da Costa, A

    2015-05-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii that presents with a wide spectrum of acute and chronic manifestations. Progression to chronic Q fever is frequently associated with valve and vascular prosthesis, aneurisms, pregnancy, immunosuppression, and advanced chronic kidney disease. We present a case of a kidney transplant recipient with persistent fever of unknown origin, negative blood cultures, anemia, and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Q fever serological tests were suggestive of chronic Q fever and the patient was diagnosed with probable chronic Q fever according to the Dutch Fever Consensus Group Guidelines. Initiation of doxycycline 200 mg/d and hydroxychloroquine 600 mg/d resulted in clinical remission. Chronic Q fever is a high-morbidity and -mortality disease if untreated and special attention has to be given to high-risk patients, such as kidney transplant recipients. PMID:26036515

  1. Pathology Case Study: Fevers, Cutaneous Nodules and Cerebrovascular Accident

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dunn, Jeanette

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 58-year-old male diagnosed with leukemia following a motorcycle accident developed pancytopenia with profound neutropenia, fevers, erythematous nodules on the skin during therapy. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  2. Pathology Case Study: Fever and Severe Rigors During Transfusion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aronica, Patricia

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer developed fever and severe rigors during a blood. Visitors are given the hospital course record and the blood bank laboratory evaluation, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology.

  3. Pathology Case Study: Fever and a Hilar Pulmonary Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Horn, Kevin D.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 37-year-old man has a recurring fever and swelling in his legs. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, radiological results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

  4. Pathology Case Study: Fever, Chills, Shortness of Breath

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grant, Maurice R.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man experienced fever, chills, and shortness of breath a year after having received a lung transplant. Visitors can view CT images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of pathology and clinical microbiology.

  5. Pathology Case Study: Recurrent Fevers of Unknown Origin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    This is a renal pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 32-year-old male has recurrent fevers. Visitors are given laboratory data and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology medicine.

  6. A Case of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zadjali, Matllooba; Al-Hashim, Hakeem; Al-Ghailani, Mohammad; Balkhair, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of June 2011, the first case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was observed in Oman since the last fifteen years. The first blood sample using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test were sent looking for CCHF, tick-borne encephalitis, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Chikungunya and West Nile. All resulted as negative. The repeated serology for CCHF came strongly positive after five days from the initial negative test, and accordingly patient started on ribavirin and he responded to it. His condition improved dramatically. PMID:23772290

  7. Fever versus Fever: the role of host and vector susceptibility and interspecific competition in shaping the current and future distributions of the sylvatic cycles of dengue virus and yellow fever virus

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Kathryn A.; Monath, Thomas P.; Weaver, Scott C.; Rossi, Shannan L.; Richman, Rebecca L.; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Two different species of flaviviruses, dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV), that originated in sylvatic cycles maintained in non-human primates and forest-dwelling mosquitoes have emerged repeatedly into sustained human-to-human transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sylvatic cycles of both viruses remain active, and where the two viruses overlap in West Africa they utilize similar suites of monkeys and Aedes mosquitoes. These extensive similarities render the differences in the biogeography and epidemiology of the two viruses all the more striking. First, the sylvatic cycle of YFV originated in Africa and was introduced into the New World, probably as a result of the slave trade, but is absent in Asia; in contrast, sylvatic DENV likely originated in Asia and has spread to Africa but not to the New World. Second, while sylvatic YFV can emerge into extensive urban outbreaks in humans, these invariably die out, whereas four different types of DENV have established human transmission cycles that are ecologically and evolutionarily distinct from their sylvatic ancestors. Finally, transmission of YFV among humans has been documented only in Africa and the Americas, whereas DENV is transmitted among humans across most of the range of competent Aedes vectors, which in the last decade has included every continent save Antarctica. This review summarizes current understanding of sylvatic transmission cycles of YFV and DENV, considers possible explanations for their disjunct distributions, and speculates on the potential consequences of future establishment of a sylvatic cycle of DENV in the Americas. PMID:23523817

  8. NHE8 is an intracellular cation/H+ exchanger in renal tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Piermarini, Peter M; Weihrauch, Dirk; Meyer, Heiko; Huss, Markus; Beyenbach, Klaus W

    2009-04-01

    The goal of this study was to identify and characterize the hypothesized apical cation/H(+) exchanger responsible for K(+) and/or Na(+) secretion in the renal (Malpighian) tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. From Aedes Malpighian tubules, we cloned "AeNHE8," a full-length cDNA encoding an ortholog of mammalian Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 8 (NHE8). The expression of AeNHE8 transcripts is ubiquitous among mosquito tissues and is not enriched in Malpighian tubules. Western blots of Malpighian tubules suggest that AeNHE8 is expressed primarily as an intracellular protein, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical localizations in Malpighian tubules. AeNHE8 immunoreactivity is expressed in principal cells of the secretory, distal segments, where it localizes to a subapical compartment (e.g., vesicles or endosomes), but not in the apical brush border. Furthermore, feeding mosquitoes a blood meal or treating isolated tubules with dibutyryl-cAMP, both of which stimulate a natriuresis by Malpighian tubules, do not influence the intracellular localization of AeNHE8 in principal cells. When expressed heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes, AeNHE8 mediates EIPA-sensitive Na/H exchange, in which Li(+) partially and K(+) poorly replace Na(+). The expression of AeNHE8 in Xenopus oocytes is associated with the development of a conductive pathway that closely resembles the known endogenous nonselective cation conductances of Xenopus oocytes. In conclusion, AeNHE8 does not mediate cation/H(+) exchange in the apical membrane of Aedes Malpighian tubules; it is more likely involved with an intracellular function. PMID:19193723

  9. Phylogeographic Reconstruction of African Yellow Fever Virus Isolates Indicates Recent Simultaneous Dispersal into East and West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Andrew; Guzman, Hilda; Li, Li; Ellis, Brett; Tesh, Robert B.; Barrett, Alan D. T.

    2013-01-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is a major public health problem in tropical areas of Africa and South America. There have been detailed studies on YFV ecology in West Africa and South America, but current understanding of YFV circulation on the African continent is incomplete. This inadequacy is especially notable for East and Central Africa, for which the unpredictability of human outbreaks is compounded by limitations in both historical and present surveillance efforts. Sparse availability of nucleotide sequence data makes it difficult to investigate the dispersal of YFV in these regions of the continent. To remedy this, we constructed Bayesian phylogenetic and geographic analyses utilizing 49 partial genomic sequences to infer the structure of YFV divergence across the known range of the virus on the African continent. Relaxed clock analysis demonstrated evidence for simultaneous divergence of YFV into east and west lineages, a finding that differs from previous hypotheses of YFV dispersal from reservoirs located on edges of the endemic range. Using discrete and continuous geographic diffusion models, we provide detailed structure of YFV lineage diversity. Significant transition links between extant East and West African lineages are presented, implying connection between areas of known sylvatic cycling. The results of demographic modeling reinforce the existence of a stably maintained population of YFV with spillover events into human populations occurring periodically. Geographically distinct foci of circulation are reconstructed, which have significant implications for studies of YFV ecology and emergence of human disease. We propose further incorporation of Bayesian phylogeography into formal GIS analyses to augment studies of arboviral disease. PMID:23516640

  10. Characterization of the yellow fever mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene and ligand-bound protein structure

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, David H.; Vyazunova, Irina; Lorch, Jeffery M.; Forest, Katrina T.; Lan, Que; (UW)

    2009-06-12

    The sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene (AeSCP-2L3), a new member of the SCP-2 protein family, is identified from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The predicted molecular weight of AeSCP-2L3 is 13.4 kDa with a calculated pI of 4.98. AeSCP-2L3 transcription occurs in the larval feeding stages and the mRNA levels decrease in pupae and adults. The highest levels of AeSCP-2L3 gene expression are found in the body wall, and possibly originated in the fat body. This is the first report of a mosquito SCP-2-like protein with prominent expression in tissue other than the midgut. The X-ray protein crystal structure of AeSCP-2L3 reveals a bound C16 fatty acid whose acyl tail penetrates deeply into a hydrophobic cavity. Interestingly, the ligand-binding cavity is slightly larger than previously described for AeSCP-2 (Dyer et al. J Biol Chem 278:39085-39091, 2003) and AeSCP-2L2 (Dyer et al. J Lipid Res M700460-JLR200, 2007). There are also an additional 10 amino acids in SCP-2L3 that are not present in other characterized mosquito SCP-2s forming an extended loop between {beta}3 and {beta}4. Otherwise, the protein backbone is exceedingly similar to other SCP-2 and SCP-2-like proteins. In contrast to this observed high structural homology of members in the mosquito SCP2 family, the amino acid sequence identity between the members is less than 30%. The results from structural analysis imply that there have been evolutionary constraints that favor the SCP-2 C{alpha} backbone fold while the specificity of ligand binding can be altered.

  11. Two Cases of Q-Fever in Hairy Cell Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Iannitto, Emilio; Tick, Lidwine W.; Arents, Nicolaas L. A.; Kuijper, Philip H.; Nijziel, Marten R.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder accounting for about 2% of all leukemias. The clinical course is indolent, however HCL patients are particularly susceptible to infections. Here we report two cases of Q-fever as first manifestation of disease in two patients affected by HCL. Both patients described in this report showed an unusually sluggish clinical response to the antibiotic treatment with ciprofloxacin probably because of the marked immunodeficiency. However, treatment of HCL with cladribine administered soon after the resolution of QF pneumonitis was uneventful and led to a complete remission in both cases. Most probably the association of Coxiella burnetii (CB) infection and HCL that we observed in two patients is due to chance. However, a hairy cell resembling transformation of freshly isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes upon CB has been showed. We think that the possibility of CB infection in febrile HCL patient should be always taken in mind, especially in endemic areas. In addition the potential for such infections to become chronic in HCL patients should not be overlooked and the reporting of further cases should be encouraged. PMID:25180111

  12. An increase in enteric fever cases due to Salmonella Paratyphi A in & around Chandigarh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varsha Gupta; Jaspal Kaur; Jagdish Chander

    Background & objectives: Enteric fever is a major public health problem in India. It is classically caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A which had been reported less frequently from cases of enteric fever has shown an increasing trend since 1996 in India. There is also variation in the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Paratyphi A from

  13. Monitoring of clinical and laboratory data in two cases of imported Lassa fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Schmitz; Bernhard Köhler; Thomas Laue; Christian Drosten; Peter J. Veldkamp; Stephan Günther; Petra Emmerich; Hans P. Geisen; Klaus Fleischer; Matthias F. C. Beersma; Achim Hoerauf

    2002-01-01

    During 2000, four cases of fatal Lassa fever were imported from Africa to Europe. In two patients, consecutive serum samples were available for monitoring of virus load and cytokine levels in addition to standard laboratory data. Both patients had non-specific early clinical symptoms including high fever. Patient 1 developed multi-organ failure and died of hemorrhagic shock on day 15 of

  14. Child-Invented Health Education Games: A Case Study for Dengue Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Jeffrey L.; Coombs, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The study's goal was to demonstrate the ability of an 8-year-old child to create educational games for the topic of dengue fever control. A naturalistic descriptive case study method was employed. The child had two dengue fever educational game creation activities. The study demonstrated that a child could develop functional games related to…

  15. Typhoid fever in the neapolitan area: A case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Stroffolini; G. Manzillo; R. DE SENA; E. Manzillo; P. Pagliano; M. Zaccarelli; M. Russo; M. Soscia; G. Giusti

    1992-01-01

    Typhoid fever is endemic in the Neapolitan area, where its yearly incidence rate largely exceeds the corresponding national figure. During the period from January to June, 1990, a matched case-control study was carried out in order to identify risk factors of the disease in this area; 51 subjects (mean age 27.2 years) with typhoid fever were compared with 102 controls

  16. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...processed in a region where African swine fever exists, as listed in § 94.8 of...

  17. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...processed in a region where African swine fever exists, as listed in § 94.8 of...

  18. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...processed in a region where African swine fever exists, as listed in § 94.8 of...

  19. Estudio de Fiebre Amarilla en primates en áreas de brote de los departamentos de San Pedro y Central del Paraguay Study of Yellow Fever in primates in outbreaks areas of the departments of San Pedro and Central in Paraguay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roig CI; Miret JII; Guillén YI; Aria LI; Mendoza LIV; Acosta MEI; Meza TI; Sosa L; Echagüe G; Müller VV; Schinini A; Rodas JH; Aquino VH

    Yellow Fever (YF) is one of the most important zoonotic diseases affecting human population. It is impossible to eradicate wild YF remaining active in tropical zones of Africa and South America. All species of primates are susceptible and are considered reservoirs in wild regions. Mortality is low and its precise value is unknown though there are epizootics with high mortality

  20. Efficient transformation of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm].

    PubMed

    Kokoza, V; Ahmed, A; Wimmer, E A; Raikhel, A S

    2001-11-01

    We report efficient germ-line transformation in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti accomplished using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm]. Two transgenic lines were established and characterized; each contained the Vg-Defensin A transgene with strong eye-specific expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene regulated by the artificial 3xP3 promoter. Southern blot hybridization and inverse PCR analyses of genomic DNA demonstrated a precise piggyBac-mediated, single copy insertion of the pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm,Vg-DefA] transposon in each transgenic line. For each line, genetic analysis confirmed stability and integrity of the entire transposon construct in the mosquito genome through the G2-G6 generations. Successful establishment of homozygous transgenic lines indicated that in both cases a non-lethal integration of the transposon into the mosquito genome had occurred. The 3xP3-EGFP marker was tested in mosquitoes with different genetic backgrounds. In white-eyed transgenic mosquitoes, the strong eye-specific expression of GFP was observed throughout all stages of development, starting from newly hatched first instar larvae to adults. A similar level and pattern of fluorescence was observed in red-eyed mosquitoes that were generated by crossing the 3xP3-EGFP transformants with the kh(w) white-eye mosquitoes transformed with the Drosophila cinnabar gene. Importantly, the utility of the 3xP3-EGFP, as marker gene for transformation of wild type mosquitoes, was demonstrated by strong eye-specific GFP expression in larval and pupal stages of black-eyed hybrids of the 3xP3-EGFP white-eye transformants and the wild type Rockefeller/UGAL strain. Finally, analysis of the Vg-DefA transgene expression in transformants from two established lines demonstrated strong blood-meal activation and fat-body-specific expression regulated by the Vg 1.8-kb 5' upstream region. PMID:11583926

  1. Samuel Holden Parsons Lee (1772-1863): American physician, entrepreneur and selfless fighter of the 1798 Yellow Fever epidemic of New London, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Mattie, James K; Desai, Sukumar P

    2015-02-01

    Samuel Holden Parsons Lee practised medicine at a time when the germ theory of disease had not yet been proposed and antibiotics remained undiscovered. In 1798 he served selflessly as the only physician in town who was willing to battle the Yellow Fever outbreak of New London, Connecticut. Because he practised at the dawn of the age of patent medicine, unfortunately his name also came to be associated with medical quackery. We argue that his contributions have been grossly underestimated. He compounded and vended medications - including bilious pills and bitters - that were gold standards of the day. Moreover, one preparation for treatment of kidney stones led to his sub-specialization in this field and was met with such success that its sale continued for nearly 100 years after his death. While a talented medical man, Lee also had a knack for business, finding success in trading, whaling and real estate. PMID:24585580

  2. Evaluation of AaDOP2 receptor antagonists reveals antidepressants and antipsychotics as novel lead molecules for control of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Conley, Jason M; Meyer, Jason M; Nuss, Andrew B; Doyle, Trevor B; Savinov, Sergey N; Hill, Catherine A; Watts, Val J

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, vectors disease-causing agents that adversely affect human health, most notably the viruses causing dengue and yellow fever. The efficacy of current mosquito control programs is challenged by the emergence of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations, suggesting an urgent need for the development of chemical insecticides with new mechanisms of action. One recently identified potential insecticide target is the A. aegypti D1-like dopamine receptor, AaDOP2. The focus of the present study was to evaluate AaDOP2 antagonism both in vitro and in vivo using assay technologies with increased throughput. The in vitro assays revealed AaDOP2 antagonism by four distinct chemical scaffolds from tricyclic antidepressant or antipsychotic chemical classes, and elucidated several structure-activity relationship trends that contributed to enhanced antagonist potency, including lipophilicity, halide substitution on the tricyclic core, and conformational rigidity. Six compounds displayed previously unparalleled potency for in vitro AaDOP2 antagonism, and among these, asenapine, methiothepin, and cis-(Z)-flupenthixol displayed subnanomolar IC50 values and caused rapid toxicity to A. aegypti larvae and/or adults in vivo. Our study revealed a significant correlation between in vitro potency for AaDOP2 antagonism and in vivo toxicity, suggesting viability of AaDOP2 as an insecticidal target. Taken together, this study expanded the repertoire of known AaDOP2 antagonists, enhanced our understanding of AaDOP2 pharmacology, provided further support for rational targeting of AaDOP2, and demonstrated the utility of efficiency-enhancing in vitro and in vivo assay technologies within our genome-to-lead pipeline for the discovery of next-generation insecticides. PMID:25332454

  3. A case of Lassa fever: clinical and virological findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R T Emond; B Bannister; G Lloyd; T J Southee; E T Bowen

    1982-01-01

    Five days after arriving in London from Jos a young Nigerian women developed a severe and prolonged illness that proved to be Lassa fever. Virus was not detected in urine during the first three weeks but then appeared and reached a peak during the sixth week, with continuing excretion for 67 days after the onset of illness. Laboratory investigations showed

  4. Q fever in the United States: summary of case reports from two national surveillance systems, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, F Scott; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Massung, Robert F; Anderson, Alicia D

    2015-02-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis historically associated with exposure to infected livestock. This study summarizes cases of Q fever, a notifiable disease in the United States, reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through two national surveillance systems with onset during 2000-2012. The overall incidence rate during this time was 0.38 cases per million persons per year. The reported case fatality rate was 2.0%, and the reported hospitalization rate was 62%. Most cases (61%) did not report exposure to cattle, goats, or sheep, suggesting that clinicians should consider Q fever even in the absence of livestock exposure. The prevalence of drinking raw milk among reported cases of Q fever (8.4%) was more than twice the national prevalence for the practice. Passive surveillance systems for Q fever are likely impacted by underreporting and underdiagnosis because of the nonspecific presentation of Q fever. PMID:25404080

  5. Pathology Case Study: Intermittent Fevers in a 43-Year-Old Black Male

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dorvault, Christine

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help students and instructors. In this particular study the patient is complaining of intermittent fevers. The case provides test results and data as well as microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis as well as treatment.

  6. Viral haemorrhagic fever in Sweden: experiences from management of a case.

    PubMed

    Foberg, U; Frydén, A; Isaksson, B; Jahrling, P; Johnson, A; McKee, K; Niklasson, B; Normann, B; Peters, C; Bengtsson, M

    1991-01-01

    The first recognized case in Scandinavia with potential man to man transmission of viral haemorrhagic fever occurred in Linköping, Sweden, in January 1990. Following a visit to Kenya a 21-year-old male student suffered a very severe illness including extremely prolonged high grade fever, rash, disseminated intravascular coagulation with thrombocytopenia and severe bleedings. This necessitated one month of intensive care support including respirator treatment. The patient was discharged after 2 1/2 months in good condition, with a partial femoral nerve paresis. About 100 medical personnel were exposed to aerosol or blood before a strict containment regimen was established. No secondary cases occurred. PMID:1853161

  7. Enteric fever due to Salmonella Paratyphi A in Greece: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chalkias, Athanasios; Anastasopoulos, Dimitrios; Tsiaglis, Stavros

    2008-01-01

    Background Enteric fever is a major global public health problem and growing international travel leads to an increase in the risk of contracting infectious diseases that are endemic in the country of destination. Case presentation A 30-year-old Pakistani male was admitted feeling generally unwell with fever, vertigo, vomiting and headache. Admission blood cultures grew Salmonella ser. Paratyphi A. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid and Ciprofloxacin. Conclusion This case report emphasizes the potent spread of Salmonellae bacilli in a developed country. PMID:19087343

  8. Pharmacological Validation of an Inward-Rectifier Potassium (Kir) Channel as an Insecticide Target in the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Rouhier, Matthew F.; Raphemot, Rene; Denton, Jerod S.; Piermarini, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquitoes are important disease vectors that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans, including those that cause malaria and dengue fever. Insecticides have traditionally been deployed to control populations of disease-causing mosquitoes, but the emergence of insecticide resistance has severely limited the number of active compounds that are used against mosquitoes. Thus, to improve the control of resistant mosquitoes there is a need to identify new insecticide targets and active compounds for insecticide development. Recently we demonstrated that inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels and small molecule inhibitors of Kir channels offer promising new molecular targets and active compounds, respectively, for insecticide development. Here we provide pharmacological validation of a specific mosquito Kir channel (AeKir1) in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. We show that VU590, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 channels, potently inhibits AeKir1 but not another mosquito Kir channel (AeKir2B) in vitro. Moreover, we show that a previously identified inhibitor of AeKir1 (VU573) elicits an unexpected agonistic effect on AeKir2B in vitro. Injection of VU590 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes significantly inhibits their capacity to excrete urine and kills them within 24 h, suggesting a mechanism of action on the excretory system. Importantly, a structurally-related VU590 analog (VU608), which weakly blocks AeKir1 in vitro, has no significant effects on their excretory capacity and does not kill mosquitoes. These observations suggest that the toxic effects of VU590 are associated with its inhibition of AeKir1. PMID:24959745

  9. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Envelope Protein of Chimeric Yellow Fever-Dengue 1 Vaccine Virus Reduces Neurovirulence for Suckling Mice and Viremia\\/Viscerotropism for Monkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Guirakhoo; Z. Zhang; G. Myers; B. W. Johnson; K. Pugachev; R. Nichols; N. Brown; I. Levenbook; K. Draper; S. Cyrek; J. Lang; C. Fournier; B. Barrere; S. Delagrave; T. P. Monath

    2004-01-01

    A chimeric yellow fever-dengue 1 (ChimeriVax-DEN1) virus was produced by the transfection of Vero cells with chimeric in vitro RNA transcripts. The cell culture supernatant was subjected to plaque purification for the identification of a vaccine candidate without mutations. Of 10 plaque-purified clones, 1 containing no mutation (clone J) was selected for production of the vaccine virus. During subsequent cell

  10. Viremia and Immunogenicity in Nonhuman Primates of a Tetravalent Yellow Fever–Dengue Chimeric Vaccine: Genetic Reconstructions, Dose Adjustment, and Antibody Responses against Wild-type Dengue Virus Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Guirakhoo; K. Pugachev; J. Arroyo; C. Miller; Z.-X. Zhang; R. Weltzin; K. Georgakopoulos; J. Catalan; S. Ocran; K. Draper; T. P. Monath

    2002-01-01

    Chimeric yellow fever (YF)–dengue (DEN) viruses (ChimeriVax–DEN) were reconstructed to correct amino acid substitutions within the envelope genes of original constructs described by Guirakhoo et al. (2001, J. Virol. 75, 7290–7304). Viruses were analyzed and compared to the previous constructs containing mutations in terms of their growth kinetics in Vero cells, neurovirulence in mice, and immunogenicity in monkeys as monovalent

  11. Immunogenicity, Genetic Stability, and Protective Efficacy of a Recombinant, Chimeric Yellow Fever-Japanese Encephalitis Virus (ChimeriVax-JE) as a Live, Attenuated Vaccine Candidate against Japanese Encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Guirakhoo; Z.-X. Zhang; T. J. Chambers; S. Delagrave; J. Arroyo; A. D. T. Barrett; T. P. Monath

    1999-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine virus, having a 60-year history of safe and effective use, is an ideal vector to deliver heterologous genes from other medically important flaviviruses. A chimeric YF\\/Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (ChimeriVax-JE virus) was constructed by insertion of the premembrane and envelope (prME) genes of an attenuated human vaccine strain (SA14–14-2) of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus between

  12. Birth of Three Stowaway-like MITE Families via Microhomology-Mediated Miniaturization of a Tc1/Mariner Element in the Yellow Fever Mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guojun; Fattash, Isam; Lee, Chia-Ni; Liu, Kun; Cavinder, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain numerous DNA transposons that move by a cut-and-paste mechanism. The majority of these elements are self-insufficient and dependent on their autonomous relatives to transpose. Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are often the most numerous nonautonomous DNA elements in a higher eukaryotic genome. Little is known about the origin of these MITE families as few of them are accompanied by their direct ancestral elements in a genome. Analyses of MITEs in the yellow fever mosquito identified its youngest MITE family, designated as Gnome, that contains at least 116 identical copies. Genome-wide search for direct ancestral autonomous elements of Gnome revealed an elusive single copy Tc1/Mariner-like element, named as Ozma, that encodes a transposase with a DD37E triad motif. Strikingly, Ozma also gave rise to two additional MITE families, designated as Elf and Goblin. These three MITE families were derived at different times during evolution and bear internal sequences originated from different regions of Ozma. Upon close inspection of the sequence junctions, the internal deletions during the formation of these three MITE families always occurred between two microhomologous sites (6–8 bp). These results suggest that multiple MITE families may originate from a single ancestral autonomous element, and formation of MITEs can be mediated by sequence microhomology. Ozma and its related MITEs are exceptional candidates for the long sought-after endogenous active transposon tool in genetic control of mosquitoes. PMID:24068652

  13. Detection of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever from clinical cases in Ethiopian cattle.

    PubMed

    Gelaye, E; Mekonnen, G A; Jenberie, S; Ayelet, G

    2013-12-01

    Mucoid nasal discharge, loss of weight, decreased milk production, diarrhoea, salivation, dyspnoea, fever, lacrimation, bilateral corneal opacity and bloody urine were observed in cattle located in the Arbe Gona district of southern Ethiopia. The disease was associated with a high case fatality rate: diseased cattle died within four to five days after showing clinical signs. The clinical presentation, gross pathological observations, histopathological findings and epidemiological data strongly suggested malignant catarrhal fever. Subsequently, the ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2) DNA polymerase (UL30) gene was detected in pathological tissue samples using pan-herpesvirus nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first report of a diagnostic investigation resulting in the detection of ovine OvHV-2 in cattle and confirming the existence of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in Ethiopia. PMID:24761736

  14. Fever of unknown origin: 98 cases from Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Moawad, Mahmoud A.; Bassil, Habib; Elsherif, Mona; Ibrahim, Abeer; Elnaggar, Moustafa; Edathodu, Jameela; Alharthi, Abdulaziz; Albugami, Muneerah; Sabry, Ahmed; Shoukri, Mohammed; Bakhsh, Ibtisam; Laudon, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is mainly secondary to infectious, neoplastic or inflammatory diseases. To increase the body of knowledge on this diagnosis in the region, we collected information on all patients admitted to our institution with FUO in a 13-year period. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all immunocompetent males and females aged 13 years and older admitted between January 1995 and June 2008 who fulfilled the criteria for FUO. Data collection included demographics, laboratory investigations, imaging studies, procedures and discharge diagnoses. For true FUO, we recorded the duration of follow-up and the outcome. RESULTS: The 98 patients who met the criteria included 44 males and 54 females with a mean (SD) age of 41.3 (18.5) years and range of 14 to 85 years. The most frequent diagnostic etiology was infectious in 32 (32.7%). Seventeen (17.3%) patients were undiagnosed or had true FUO. Of 9 patients followed up, 8 recovered and 1 expired. The mean duration of follow-up was 20.6 months (range, 0-168 months). CONCLUSION: Infectious diseases, especially TB, continue to be the leading etiology of FUO in our area. Our data did not identify any predictor of certain FUO diagnoses except for older age and neoplastic etiology. True FUO patients generally did well. Reporting local experience is important in guiding clinicians about the epidemiologic patterns of FUO in their regions. PMID:20622346

  15. Regional dust storm modeling for health services: The case of valley fever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Galgiani, John N.; Pejanovic, Goran; Petkovic, Slavko; Vujadinovic, Mirjam; Vukovic, Ana; Dacic, Milan; DiBiase, Scott; Prasad, Anup; El-Askary, Hesham

    2014-09-01

    On 5 July 2011, a massive dust storm struck Phoenix, Arizona (USA), raising concerns for increased cases of valley fever (coccidioidomycosis, or, cocci). A quasi-operational experimental airborne dust forecast system predicted the event and provides model output for continuing analysis in collaboration with public health and air quality communities. An objective of this collaboration was to see if a signal in cases of valley fever in the region could be detected and traced to the storm - an American haboob. To better understand the atmospheric life cycle of cocci spores, the DREAM dust model (also herein, NMME-DREAM) was modified to simulate spore emission, transport and deposition. Inexact knowledge of where cocci-causing fungus grows, the low resolution of cocci surveillance and an overall active period for significant dust events complicate analysis of the effect of the 5 July 2011 storm. In the larger context of monthly to annual disease surveillance, valley fever statistics, when compared against PM10 observation networks and modeled airborne dust concentrations, may reveal a likely cause and effect. Details provided by models and satellites fill time and space voids in conventional approaches to air quality and disease surveillance, leading to land-atmosphere modeling and remote sensing that clearly mark a path to advance valley fever epidemiology, surveillance and risk avoidance.

  16. Live virus vaccines based on a yellow fever vaccine backbone: standardized template with key considerations for a risk/benefit assessment.

    PubMed

    Monath, Thomas P; Seligman, Stephen J; Robertson, James S; Guy, Bruno; Hayes, Edward B; Condit, Richard C; Excler, Jean Louis; Mac, Lisa Marie; Carbery, Baevin; Chen, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viruses inserted into the backbone of another virus (so-called "chimeric virus vaccines"). Many viral vector vaccines are in advanced clinical trials. The first such vaccine to be approved for marketing (to date in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines) is a vaccine against the flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis (JE), which employs a licensed vaccine (yellow fever 17D) as a vector. In this vaccine, two envelope proteins (prM-E) of YF 17D virus were exchanged for the corresponding genes of JE virus, with additional attenuating mutations incorporated into the JE gene inserts. Similar vaccines have been constructed by inserting prM-E genes of dengue and West Nile into YF 17D virus and are in late stage clinical studies. The dengue vaccine is, however, more complex in that it requires a mixture of four live vectors each expressing one of the four dengue serotypes. This vaccine has been evaluated in multiple clinical trials. No significant safety concerns have been found. The Phase 3 trials met their endpoints in terms of overall reduction of confirmed dengue fever, and, most importantly a significant reduction in severe dengue and hospitalization due to dengue. However, based on results that have been published so far, efficacy in preventing serotype 2 infection is less than that for the other three serotypes. In the development of these chimeric vaccines, an important series of comparative studies of safety and efficacy were made using the parental YF 17D vaccine virus as a benchmark. In this paper, we use a standardized template describing the key characteristics of the novel flavivirus vaccine vectors, in comparison to the parental YF 17D vaccine. The template facilitates scientific discourse among key stakeholders by increasing the transparency and comparability of information. The Brighton Collaboration V3SWG template may also be useful as a guide to the evaluation of other recombinant viral vector vaccines. PMID:25446819

  17. A Case of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Bucillamine-Induced Yellow Nail Syndrome Initially Manifesting as Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Isozaki, Takeo; Yajima, Nobuyuki; Sato, Michihito; Takahashi, Ryo; Wakabayashi, Kuninobu; Miwa, Yusuke; Negishi, Masao; Ide, Hirotsugu; Kasama, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a 67-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis with yellow nail syndrome (YNS) that was caused by bucillamine. All three signs (yellow fingernails, lymphatic edema, and bronchiectasis) of YNS manifested, with characteristic timing, first with the nails turning yellow after when bronchiectasis was noticed. We reviewed 10 case reports from Japan and compared the periods until the appearance of yellow nails after starting bucillamine treatment, as well as those until lung disease and leg edema appeared. PMID:21769257

  18. Moment-to-moment flight manoeuvres of the female yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti L.) in response to plumes of carbon dioxide and human skin odour.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Teun; Cardé, Ring T

    2011-10-15

    Odours are crucial cues enabling female mosquitoes to orient to prospective hosts. However, their in-flight manoeuvres to host odours are virtually unknown. Here we analyzed in 3-D the video records of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes flying in a wind tunnel in response to host odour plumes that differed in spatial structure and composition. Following a brief (~0.03 s) encounter with CO(2), mosquitoes surged upwind and, in the absence of further encounters, counterturned without displacing upwind. These patterns resemble moth responses to encounter and loss of a filament of pheromone. Moreover, CO(2) encounters induced a highly regular pattern of counterturning across the windline in the horizontal (crosswind) and vertical planes, causing the mosquito to transect repeatedly the area where CO(2) was previously detected. However, despite the rapid changes across all three axes following an encounter with CO(2), the angular velocities remained remarkably constant. This suggests that during these CO(2)-induced surges mosquitoes stabilize flight through sensors, such as the halteres and Johnston organs, sensitive to Coriolis forces. In contrast to the instantaneous responses of the mosquito CO(2), a brief encounter with a filament of human skin odour did not induce a consistent change in mosquito flight. These differential responses were reflected in further experiments with broad plumes. A broad homogeneous plume of skin odour induced rapid upwind flight and source finding, whereas a broad filamentous plume of skin odour lowered activation rates, kinetic responses and source finding compared with homogeneous plumes. Apparently, yellow fever mosquitoes need longer continuous exposure to complex skin-odour blends to induce activation and source finding. PMID:21957112

  19. Long-lasting stem cell-like memory CD8+ T cells with a naďve-like profile upon yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A; Soneson, Charlotte; Cagnon, Laurčne; Gannon, Philippe O; Allard, Mathilde; Abed Maillard, Samia; Montandon, Nicole; Rufer, Nathalie; Waldvogel, Sophie; Delorenzi, Mauro; Speiser, Daniel E

    2015-04-01

    Efficient and persisting immune memory is essential for long-term protection from infectious and malignant diseases. The yellow fever (YF) vaccine is a live attenuated virus that mediates lifelong protection, with recent studies showing that the CD8(+) T cell response is particularly robust. Yet, limited data exist regarding the long-term CD8(+) T cell response, with no studies beyond 5 years after vaccination. We investigated 41 vaccinees, spanning 0.27 to 35 years after vaccination. YF-specific CD8(+) T cells were readily detected in almost all donors (38 of 41), with frequencies decreasing with time. As previously described, effector cells dominated the response early after vaccination. We detected a population of naďve-like YF-specific CD8(+) T cells that was stably maintained for more than 25 years and was capable of self-renewal ex vivo. In-depth analyses of markers and genome-wide mRNA profiling showed that naďve-like YF-specific CD8(+) T cells in vaccinees (i) were distinct from genuine naďve cells in unvaccinated donors, (ii) resembled the recently described stem cell-like memory subset (Tscm), and (iii) among all differentiated subsets, had profiles closest to naďve cells. Our findings reveal that CD8(+) Tscm are efficiently induced by a vaccine in humans, persist for decades, and preserve a naďveness-like profile. These data support YF vaccination as an optimal mechanistic model for the study of long-lasting memory CD8(+) T cells in humans. PMID:25855494

  20. The molecular and immunochemical expression of innexins in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti: insights into putative life stage- and tissue-specific functions of gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Travis L; Woods-Acevedo, Mikal A; Hildebrandt, Oliver; Piermarini, Peter M

    2015-05-01

    Gap junctions (GJ) mediate direct intercellular communication by forming channels through which certain small molecules and/or ions can pass. Connexins, the proteins that form vertebrate GJ, are well studied and known to contribute to neuronal, muscular and epithelial physiology. Innexins, the GJ proteins of insects, have only recently received much investigative attention and many of their physiological roles remain to be determined. Here we characterize the molecular expression of six innexin (Inx) genes in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (AeInx1, AeInx2, AeInx3, AeInx4, AeInx7, and AeInx8) and the immunochemical expression of one innexin protein, AeInx3, in the alimentary canal. We detected the expression of no less than four innexin genes in each mosquito life stage (larva, pupa, adult) and tissue/body region from adult males and females (midgut, Malpighian tubules, hindgut, head, carcass, gonads), suggesting a remarkable potential molecular diversity of GJ in mosquitoes. Moreover, the expression patterns of some innexins were life stage and/or tissue specific, suggestive of potential functional specializations. Cloning of the four full-length cDNAs expressed in the Malpighian tubules of adult females (AeInx1, AeInx2, AeInx3, and AeInx7) revealed evidence for 1) alternative splicing of AeInx1 and AeInx3 transcripts, and 2) putative N-glycosylation of AeInx3 and AeInx7. Finally, immunohistochemistry of AeInx3 in the alimentary canal of larval and adult female mosquitoes confirmed localization of this innexin to the intercellular regions of Malpighian tubule and hindgut epithelial cells, suggesting that it is an important component of GJ in these tissues. PMID:25585357

  1. Fever as a first manifestation of advanced gastric adenosquamous carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Ajoodhea, Harsha; Zhang, Ren-Chao; Xu, Xiao-Wu; Jin, Wei-Wei; Chen, Ke; He, Yong-Tao; Mou, Yi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Gastric adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) is a rare type of gastric cancer. It is a mixed neoplasm, consisting of glandular cells and squamous cells. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, thus carrying a poor prognosis. We describe a case of a 73-year-old male, who presented with refractory fever and an intra-abdominal mass on imaging. He underwent a laparoscopic exploration followed by a successful totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. Postoperative pathology revealed primary gastric ASC (T4aN0M0). The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy with S1 and is alive 20 mo after surgery without recurrence. This is the first case of advanced gastric ASC with fever as the initial presentation treated with totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy reported in the English literature. PMID:25110448

  2. Pathology Case Study: Fevers and Mental Status Changes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Martinez, A. Julio (Augusto Julio)

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman underwent an allogenic bone marrow transplant but did not respond well. Visitors are given the autopsy information and patient history, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

  3. [Chikungunya fever in Mexico: confirmed case and notes on the epidemiologic response].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Ávila, Roberto Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is a viral disease transmitted to human beings by the same vector as dengue -the Aedes mosquito. Besides fever and severe pain in the joints, it produces other symptoms such as myalgias, headache, nausea, fatigue and exanthema. There is no specific treatment for it; the therapeutic management of patients focuses on symptom relief. Historically, outbreaks of large proportions have been reported; even since 2010 it was considered to be a potential emerging epidemic. In 2013 it was introduced into the islands of the Caribbean, and it has recently been reported in the American continent. This paper describes the first confirmed case of chikungunya in Mexico -in the municipality of Tlajomulco de Zúńiga, Jalisco, in May, 2014-, which was imported from the Caribbean island of Antigua and Barbuda by a 39 year-old woman. PMID:25604181

  4. New approaches for the standardization and validation of a real-time qPCR assay using TaqMan probes for quantification of yellow fever virus on clinical samples with high quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Monteiro, Alice G; Trindade, Gisela F; Yamamura, Anna My; Moreira, Otacilio C; de Paula, Vanessa S; Duarte, Ana Cláudia M; Britto, Constança; Lima, Sheila Maria B

    2015-07-01

    The development and production of viral vaccines, in general, involve several steps that need the monitoring of viral load throughout the entire process. Applying a 2-step quantitative reverse transcription real time PCR assay (RT-qPCR), viral load can be measured and monitored in a few hours. In this context, the development, standardization and validation of a RT-qPCR test to quickly and efficiently quantify yellow fever virus (YFV) in all stages of vaccine production are extremely important. To serve this purpose we used a plasmid construction containing the NS5 region from 17DD YFV to generate the standard curve and to evaluate parameters such as linearity, precision and specificity against other flavivirus. Furthermore, we defined the limits of detection as 25 copies/reaction, and quantification as 100 copies/reaction for the test. To ensure the quality of the method, reference controls were established in order to avoid false negative results. The qRT-PCR technique based on the use of TaqMan probes herein standardized proved to be effective for determining yellow fever viral load both in vivo and in vitro, thus becoming a very important tool to assure the quality control for vaccine production and evaluation of viremia after vaccination or YF disease. PMID:26011746

  5. Pathology Case Study: Intermittent Confusion, Fever of Unknown Origin, and Lower Extremity Weakness

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, Wen-Wei

    This is a hematopathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 67-year-old male has intermittent confusion, fever of unknown origin, and lower extremity weakness. Visitors are given microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  6. A case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever with normal laboratory findings.

    PubMed

    Sari, Tugba; Hatipoglu, Cigdem Ataman

    2014-09-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by Nairovirus, of the family Bunyaviridae. This is the first case report of a confirmed CCHF case without laboratory abnormality. A 36-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with the complaints of fever, chills, myalgia and vomiting. She was living in a CCHF-endemic region and had received a tick bite ten days previously. Her complaints had started five days after the tick bite, and bleeding of the nose and vagen followed. Under laboratory analysis, serum white blood cell (WBC) was 7300/mm3, haemoglobin (Hb)11.9 gr/dL, platelet (Plt) count 293000/mm3, aspartate transaminase (AST) was 23 U/L, alanine transaminase (ALT) 14 U/L, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 139 U/L, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) 39 U/L, INR 0.8 and APTT 26.2 seconds. Based on these clinical and epidemiological findings, a diagnosis of CCHF infection was suspected, and the diagnosis of CCHF was confirmed with a blood sample tested by TaqMan-based one-step RT-PCR positivity and IgM antibody positivity. We suggest that patients from an endemic region who have typical epidemiological and clinical findings should be evaluated as a possible case for CCHF even if the laboratory findings are not compatible. PMID:25269965

  7. Maternal mortality in a rural Tanzanian hospital: fatal Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in a case of relapsing fever in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rustenhoven-Spaan, Ilona; Melkert, Peter; Nelissen, Ellen; van Roosmalen, Jos; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2013-10-01

    Relapsing fever is a disease caused by one of the species of Borrelia. It is often misdiagnosed as malaria and can have fatal complications such as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) after the commencement of treatment with antibiotics. A 19-year-old Tanzanian woman was admitted after a term home delivery that day. She presented with a 2 day history of fever, headache, general body malaise and vomiting. She was misdiagnosed as having severe malaria and was treated with quinine. The blood slide showed Borrelia duttoni. The patient continued treatment with procaine penicillin fortified for relapsing fever. Several hours later the woman died, probably due to JHR. This case of a patient with relapsing fever who died from a JHR stresses the importance of adequate diagnosis and treatment which should include careful monitoring, especially for the first hours after starting antibiotics. PMID:23976777

  8. Evolutionary analysis of the kinesin light chain genes in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti: gene duplication as a source for novel early zygotic genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The maternal zygotic transition marks the time at which transcription from the zygotic genome is initiated and a subset of maternal RNAs are progressively degraded in the developing embryo. A number of early zygotic genes have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster and comparisons to sequenced mosquito genomes suggest that some of these early zygotic genes such as bottleneck are fast-evolving or subject to turnover in dipteran insects. One objective of this study is to identify early zygotic genes from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti to study their evolution. We are also interested in obtaining early zygotic promoters that will direct transgene expression in the early embryo as part of a Medea gene drive system. Results Two novel early zygotic kinesin light chain genes we call AaKLC2.1 and AaKLC2.2 were identified by transcriptome sequencing of Aedes aegypti embryos at various time points. These two genes have 98% nucleotide and amino acid identity in their coding regions and show transcription confined to the early zygotic stage according to gene-specific RT-PCR analysis. These AaKLC2 genes have a paralogous gene (AaKLC1) in Ae. aegypti. Phylogenetic inference shows that an ortholog to the AaKLC2 genes is only found in the sequenced genome of Culex quinquefasciatus. In contrast, AaKLC1 gene orthologs are found in all three sequenced mosquito species including Anopheles gambiae. There is only one KLC gene in D. melanogaster and other sequenced holometabolous insects that appears to be similar to AaKLC1. Unlike AaKLC2, AaKLC1 is expressed in all life stages and tissues tested, which is consistent with the expression pattern of the An. gambiae and D. melanogaster KLC genes. Phylogenetic inference also suggests that AaKLC2 genes and their likely C. quinquefasciatus ortholog are fast-evolving genes relative to the highly conserved AaKLC1-like paralogs. Embryonic injection of a luciferase reporter under the control of a 1 kb fragment upstream of the AaKLC2.1 start codon shows promoter activity at least as early as 3 hours in the developing Ae. aegypti embryo. The AaKLC2.1 promoter activity reached ~1600 fold over the negative control at 5 hr after egg deposition. Conclusions Transcriptome profiling by use of high throughput sequencing technologies has proven to be a valuable method for the identification and discovery of early and transient zygotic genes. The evolutionary investigation of the KLC gene family reveals that duplication is a source for the evolution of new genes that play a role in the dynamic process of early embryonic development. AaKLC2.1 may provide a promoter for early zygotic-specific transgene expression, which is a key component of the Medea gene drive system. PMID:20615250

  9. El Nińo Southern Oscillation and vegetation dynamics as predictors of dengue fever cases in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Troyo, A; Beier, J C

    2009-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are growing health concerns throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. This study focuses on Costa Rica, which experienced over 100 000 cases of DF/DHF from 2003 to 2007. We utilized data on sea-surface temperature anomalies related to the El Nińo Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and two vegetation indices derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) from the Terra satellite to model the influence of climate and vegetation dynamics on DF/DHF cases in Costa Rica. Cross-correlations were calculated to evaluate both positive and negative lag effects on the relationships between independent variables and DF/DHF cases. The model, which utilizes a sinusoid and non-linear least squares to fit case data, was able to explain 83% of the variance in weekly DF/DHF cases when independent variables were shifted backwards in time. When the independent variables were shifted forward in time, consistently with a forecasting approach, the model explained 64% of the variance. Importantly, when five ENSO and two vegetation indices were included, the model reproduced a major DF/DHF epidemic of 2005. The unexplained variance in the model may be due to herd immunity and vector control measures, although information regarding these aspects of the disease system are generally lacking. Our analysis suggests that the model may be used to predict DF/DHF outbreaks as early as 40 weeks in advance and may also provide valuable information on the magnitude of future epidemics. In its current form it may be used to inform national vector control programs and policies regarding control measures; it is the first climate-based dengue model developed for this country and is potentially scalable to the broader region of Latin America and the Caribbean where dramatic increases in DF/DHF incidence and spread have been observed. PMID:19763186

  10. Capacity building permitting comprehensive monitoring of a severe case of Lassa hemorrhagic fever in Sierra Leone with a positive outcome: Case Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica N Grove; Luis M Branco; Matt L Boisen; Ivana J Muncy; Lee A Henderson; John S Schieffellin; James E Robinson; James J Bangura; Mbalu Fonnie; Randal J Schoepp; Lisa E Hensley; Alhassan Seisay; Joseph N Fair; Robert F Garry

    2011-01-01

    Lassa fever is a neglected tropical disease with a significant impact on the health care system of endemic West African nations.\\u000a To date, case reports of Lassa fever have focused on laboratory characterisation of serological, biochemical and molecular\\u000a aspects of the disease imported by infected individuals from Western Africa to the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan and\\u000a Israel. Our report

  11. Influenza or not influenza: analysis of a case of high fever that happened 2000 years ago in Biblical time.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam L E; Ng, Pak C; Leung, Ting F

    2010-01-01

    The Bible describes the case of a woman with high fever cured by our Lord Jesus Christ. Based on the information provided by the gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke, the diagnosis and the possible etiology of the febrile illness is discussed. Infectious diseases continue to be a threat to humanity, and influenza has been with us since the dawn of human history. If the postulation is indeed correct, the woman with fever in the Bible is among one of the very early description of human influenza disease. Infectious diseases continue to be a threat to humanity, and influenza has been with us since the dawn of human history. We analysed a case of high fever that happened 2000 years ago in Biblical time and discussed possible etiologies. PMID:20663162

  12. Swine fever virus strains isolated in these atypical cases are virulent only for the foetus and the newborn piglet. In 50 p. ioo of these positive cases, seroneutralization tests showed that iso-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Swine fever virus strains isolated in these atypical cases are virulent only for the foetus swine fever virus strains were characterized as serological variants. These strains are poorly FOR PREGNANT SOWS OF THE « THIVERVAI,» STRAIN FROM CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS Isolated in tissue culture

  13. Coexistence of hereditary angioedema in a case of familial Mediterranean fever with partial response to colchicine

    PubMed Central

    Bahceci, Semiha Erdem; Genel, Ferah; Gulez, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a very rare and potentially life-threatening genetic disease characterised by episodes of edema in various parts of the body, including the extremities, face, and airway. The disease is usually associated with attacks of abdominal pain. On the other hand, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an inherited condition characterised by recurrent episodes of painful inflammation in the abdomen, chest, or joints. In this report, we present a child with FMF and undiagnosed HAE, which made him a partial responder to colchicine treatment. Consequently, HAE must be considered in differential diagnosis of cases in which a partial response is obtained from FMF treatment, particularly in countries where FMF is frequently encountered, because early diagnosis of HAE can facilitate prevention of life-threatening complications, such as upper airway obstruction. To our knowledge, our patient is the first patient reported in the literature with the diagnosis of HAE and FMF together.

  14. A Case of Q Fever Prosthetic Joint Infection and Description of an Assay for Detection of Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    Tande, Aaron J.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Raoult, Didier; Sim, Franklin H.; Berbari, Elie F.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first published case of Coxiella burnetii prosthetic joint infection. Diagnosis was established with PCR and culture of periprosthetic tissue and synovial fluid (and serology). A novel PCR assay is described herein. Q fever should be considered in patients with prosthetic joint infection without an identified pathogen. PMID:23077126

  15. Modeling dengue fever risk based on socioeconomic parameters, nationality and age groups: GIS and remote sensing based case study.

    PubMed

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

    2011-10-15

    Dengue fever (DF) and its impacts are growing environmental, economic, and health concerns in Saudi Arabia. In this study, we have attempted to model areas with humans at risk of dengue fever prevalence, depending on the spatial relationship between dengue fever cases and different socioeconomic parameters. We have developed new methods to verify the quality of neighborhoods from high resolution satellite images based on several factors such as density of houses in each neighborhood in each district, width of streets, and roof area of houses. In the absence of detailed neighborhood quality information being available for each district, we felt this factor would best approximate the reality on the ground at local scales. Socioeconomic parameters, such as population numbers, population density, and neighborhood quality were analyzed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to create a prediction model identifying levels of risk of dengue and to describe the association between DF cases and the related socio-economic factors. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize dengue fever victims among Saudis and non-Saudis in various age groups. The results show that there was a strong positive association between dengue fever cases and socioeconomic factors (R˛=0.80). The prevalence among Saudis was higher compared to non-Saudis in 2006 and 2007, while the prevalence among non-Saudis was higher in 2008, 2009 and 2010. For age groups, DF was more prevalent in adults between the ages of 16 and 60, accounting for approximately 74% of all reported cases in 2006, 67% in 2007, 81% in 2008, 87% in 2009, and 81% in 2010. PMID:21906782

  16. Travel-associated Coxiella burnetii infections: Three cases of Q fever with different clinical manifestation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Kobbe; Stefanie Kramme; Andreas Gocht; Mathias Werner; Ute Lippert; Jürgen May; Gerd Burchard

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundCertain activities expose travellers to Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of acute human Q fever. Awareness of Q fever must be improved, also as a potential imported disease, but delayed seroconversion and serological cross-reactivity complicate the diagnosis. Granulomatous inflammation of liver and bone marrow can be typical histopathological findings.

  17. Q fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Query fever ... Q fever is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii . These bacteria can infect: ... products Feces Milk Urine Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released into the ...

  18. Typhoid Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Typhoid Fever Information for adults A A A Typhoid fever is caused by infection with a bacterium known as Salmonella Typhi. The infection causes high fever, diarrhea, and sometimes a rash that causes flat ...

  19. Dengue Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... help lower the chances of infection. About Dengue Fever Dengue (DEN-gee) fever is caused by four similar viruses spread by ... else, that person can be infected with dengue fever. The virus can't spread directly from person ...

  20. Pathologic studies on suspect animal and human cases of Rift Valley fever from an outbreak in Eastern Africa, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Wun-Ju; Paddock, Chris D; Lederman, Edith; Rao, Carol Y; Gould, L Hannah; Mohamed, Mohamed; Mosha, Fausta; Mghamba, Janeth; Bloland, Peter; Njenga, M Kariuki; Mutonga, David; Samuel, Amwayi A; Guarner, Jeannette; Breiman, Robert F; Zaki, Sherif R

    2010-08-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important viral zoonotic disease in Africa with periodic outbreaks associated with severe disease, death, and economic hardship. During the 2006-2007 outbreaks in Eastern Africa, postmortem and necropsy tissue samples from 14 animals and 20 humans clinically suspected of RVF were studied with histopathologic evaluation and immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Six animal and 11 human samples had IHC evidence of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antigens. We found that extensive hepatocellular necrosis without prominent inflammatory cell infiltrates is the most distinctive histopathologic change in liver tissues infected with RVFV. Pathologic studies on postmortem tissue samples can help establish the diagnosis of RVF, differentiating from endemic diseases with clinical manifestations similar to RVF, such as malaria, leptospirosis, or yellow fever. PMID:20682904

  1. Pathologic Studies on Suspect Animal and Human Cases of Rift Valley Fever from an Outbreak in Eastern Africa, 2006–2007

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Wun-Ju; Paddock, Chris D.; Lederman, Edith; Rao, Carol Y.; Gould, L. Hannah; Mohamed, Mohamed; Mosha, Fausta; Mghamba, Janeth; Bloland, Peter; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Mutonga, David; Samuel, Amwayi A.; Guarner, Jeannette; Breiman, Robert F.; Zaki, Sherif R.

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important viral zoonotic disease in Africa with periodic outbreaks associated with severe disease, death, and economic hardship. During the 2006–2007 outbreaks in Eastern Africa, postmortem and necropsy tissue samples from 14 animals and 20 humans clinically suspected of RVF were studied with histopathologic evaluation and immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Six animal and 11 human samples had IHC evidence of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antigens. We found that extensive hepatocellular necrosis without prominent inflammatory cell infiltrates is the most distinctive histopathologic change in liver tissues infected with RVFV. Pathologic studies on postmortem tissue samples can help establish the diagnosis of RVF, differentiating from endemic diseases with clinical manifestations similar to RVF, such as malaria, leptospirosis, or yellow fever. PMID:20682904

  2. Q Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rates Geography Seasonality Persons at Risk Further Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Q Fever in ... CDC–INFO Q Fever Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology In-Depth Information Prevention Other Ricketssial ...

  3. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chronological list of known cases and outbreaks. Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Topics Transmission How do people get Marburg hemorrhagic fever? Signs and Symptoms What are the signs and ...

  4. A climate-based spatiotemporal prediction for dengue fever epidemics: a case study in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.-L.; Yang, S.-J.; Lin, Y.-C.

    2012-04-01

    Dengue Fever (DF) has been identified by the World Health organization (WHO) as one of the most serious vector-borne infectious diseases in tropical and sub-tropical areas. DF has been one of the most important epidemics in Taiwan which occur annually especially in southern Taiwan during summer and autumn. Most DF studies have focused mainly on temporal DF patterns and its close association with climatic covariates, whereas few studies have investigated the spatial DF patterns (spatial dependence and clustering) and composite space-time effects of the DF epidemics. The present study proposes a spatio-temporal DF prediction approach based on stochastic Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) analysis. Core and site-specific knowledge bases are considered, including climate and health datasets under conditions of uncertainty, space-time dependence functions, and a Poisson regression model of climatic variables contributing to DF occurrences in southern Taiwan during 2007, when the highest number of DF cases was recorded in the history of Taiwan epidemics (over 2000). The obtained results show that the DF outbreaks in the study area are highly influenced by climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis can provide the required "one-week-ahead" outbreak warnings based on spatio-temporal predictions of DF distributions. Therefore, the proposed analysis can provide the Taiwan Disease Control Agency with a valuable tool to timely identify, control, and even efficiently prevent DF spreading across space-time.

  5. Recombinant, chimaeric live, attenuated vaccine (ChimeriVax™) incorporating the envelope genes of Japanese encephalitis (SA14-14-2) virus and the capsid and nonstructural genes of yellow fever (17D) virus is safe, immunogenic and protective in non-human primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P Monath; K Soike; I Levenbook; Z.-X Zhang; J Arroyo; S Delagrave; G Myers; A. D. T Barrett; R. E Shope; M Ratterree; T. J Chambers; F Guirakhoo

    1999-01-01

    Yellow fever 17D virus, a safe and effective live, attenuated vaccine, was used as a vector for genes encoding the protective antigenic determinants of a heterologous member of the genus Flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, the leading cause of acute viral central nervous system infection and death throughout Asia. The viral envelope (prM and E) genes of a full-length cDNA

  6. De Novo Assembly and Annotation of the Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) Repeatome with dnaPipeTE from Raw Genomic Reads and Comparative Analysis with the Yellow Fever Mosquito (Aedes aegypti)

    PubMed Central

    Goubert, Clément; Modolo, Laurent; Vieira, Cristina; ValienteMoro, Claire; Mavingui, Patrick; Boulesteix, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive DNA, including transposable elements (TEs), is found throughout eukaryotic genomes. Annotating and assembling the “repeatome” during genome-wide analysis often poses a challenge. To address this problem, we present dnaPipeTE—a new bioinformatics pipeline that uses a sample of raw genomic reads. It produces precise estimates of repeated DNA content and TE consensus sequences, as well as the relative ages of TE families. We shows that dnaPipeTE performs well using very low coverage sequencing in different genomes, losing accuracy only with old TE families. We applied this pipeline to the genome of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, an invasive species of human health interest, for which the genome size is estimated to be over 1 Gbp. Using dnaPipeTE, we showed that this species harbors a large (50% of the genome) and potentially active repeatome with an overall TE class and order composition similar to that of Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito. However, intraorder dynamics show clear distinctions between the two species, with differences at the TE family level. Our pipeline’s ability to manage the repeatome annotation problem will make it helpful for new or ongoing assembly projects, and our results will benefit future genomic studies of A. albopictus. PMID:25767248

  7. De novo assembly and annotation of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) repeatome with dnaPipeTE from raw genomic reads and comparative analysis with the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Goubert, Clément; Modolo, Laurent; Vieira, Cristina; ValienteMoro, Claire; Mavingui, Patrick; Boulesteix, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    Repetitive DNA, including transposable elements (TEs), is found throughout eukaryotic genomes. Annotating and assembling the "repeatome" during genome-wide analysis often poses a challenge. To address this problem, we present dnaPipeTE-a new bioinformatics pipeline that uses a sample of raw genomic reads. It produces precise estimates of repeated DNA content and TE consensus sequences, as well as the relative ages of TE families. We shows that dnaPipeTE performs well using very low coverage sequencing in different genomes, losing accuracy only with old TE families. We applied this pipeline to the genome of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, an invasive species of human health interest, for which the genome size is estimated to be over 1 Gbp. Using dnaPipeTE, we showed that this species harbors a large (50% of the genome) and potentially active repeatome with an overall TE class and order composition similar to that of Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito. However, intraorder dynamics show clear distinctions between the two species, with differences at the TE family level. Our pipeline's ability to manage the repeatome annotation problem will make it helpful for new or ongoing assembly projects, and our results will benefit future genomic studies of A. albopictus. PMID:25767248

  8. Q Fever Endocarditis in Romania: The First Cases Confirmed by Direct Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Cotar, Ani Ioana; Badescu, Daniela; Oprea, Mihaela; Dinu, Sorin; Banu, Otilia; Dobreanu, Dan; Dobreanu, Minodora; Ionac, Adina; Flonta, Mirela; Straut, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious, life-threatening disease with highly variable clinical signs, making its diagnostic a real challenge. A diagnosis is readily made if blood cultures are positive, but in 2.5 to 31% of all infective endocarditis cases, routine blood cultures are negative. In such situations, alternative diagnostic approaches are necessary. Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp. are the etiological agents of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) most frequently identified by serology. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of molecular assays, as complementary methods to the conventional serologic methods for the rapid confirmatory diagnostic of Q fever endocarditis in patients with BCNE. Currently, detection of C. burnetii by culture or an antiphase I IgG antibody titers >800 represents a major Duke criterion for defining IE, while a titers of >800 for IgG antibodies to either B. henselae or B. quintana is used for the diagnosis of endocarditis due to Bartonella spp. We used indirect immunofluorescence assays for the detection of IgG titers for C. burnetii, B. henselae and B. quintana in 57 serum samples from patients with clinical suspicion of IE. Thirty three samples originated from BCNE patients, whereas 24 were tested before obtaining the blood cultures results, which finally were positive. The results of serologic testing showed that nine out of 33 BCNE cases exhibited antiphase I C. burnetii IgG antibody titer >800, whereas none has IgG for B. henselae or B. quintana. Subsequently, we used nested-PCR assay for the amplification of C. burnetii DNA in the nine positive serum samples, and we obtained positive PCR results for all analyzed cases. Afterwards we used the DNA sequencing of amplicons for the repetitive element associated to htpAB gene to confirm the results of nested-PCR. The results of sequencing allowed us to confirm that C. burnetii is the causative microorganism responsible for BCNE. In conclusion, the nested PCR amplification followed by direct sequencing is a reliable and accurate method when applied to serum samples, and it may be used as an additional test to the serological methods for the confirmatory diagnosis of BCNE cases determined by C. burnetii. PMID:22272146

  9. Serological characterization of dengue virus infections observed among dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome cases in upper Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Ngwe Tun, Mya Myat; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Kurosawa, Yae; Lwin, Yee Yee; Lin, Sanda; Aye, Kay Thi; Thet Khin, Pe; Myint, Tin; Htwe, Khin; Mapua, Cynthia A; Natividad, Filipinas F; Hirayama, Kenji; Morita, Kouichi

    2013-07-01

    In Myanmar, dengue fever (DF)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children. From Pyinmana Hospital in 2004 and Mandalay Children Hospital in 2006, 160 patients diagnosed clinically to have DHF/dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were examined for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG levels. A focus reduction neutralization test was also used to determine primary or secondary dengue virus (DENV) infection. By using IgM-capture ELISA, 139 cases were confirmed as DENV infections. Of these IgM-positives, 94 samples were collected 7-24 days from the onset of illness, to which 13 (14%) and 81 (86%) were determined to be primary and secondary DENV infections, respectively. The 13 primary DENV infection cases were spread among the various severity groups (DHF grade I-IV and DSS) and represented age groups ranging from <1 year of age to 9 years of age. The patients in these primary infection cases showed a remarkably high IgM with a low IgG titer response compared with the secondary infection cases. No significant differences were observed in IgG titers with clinical severity. The data obtained in this study suggest that primary DENV infection cases exist certainly among DHF/DSS cases in Myanmar, and that additional mechanism(s) aside from the antibody-dependent enhancement mechanism could have influenced the clinical severity in DHF/DSS cases. PMID:23595687

  10. [Fever, nosebleeding and myalgic abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Leopold, M; Siepmann, T

    2008-02-20

    A 38 year old patient presented with fever, myalgic abdominal pain, nose bleeding and acute renal failure since five days. A combination of thrombocytopenia, proteinuria, elevated CrP and creatinin is common in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) due to Hantavirus infection. The benigne form is called Nephropathia epidemica. Dialysis is infrequently required by patients with the Puumala virus. Other infection (e.g. malaria, leptospirosis, yellow fever) and systemic diseases (e.g. collagenosis or vasculitis) are considered. PMID:18548800

  11. Viral hemorrhagic fever cases in the country of Georgia: Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance Study results.

    PubMed

    Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Imnadze, Paata; Chokheli, Maiko; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Endeladze, Marina; Mshvidobadze, Ketevan; Clark, Danielle V; Bautista, Christian T; Abdel Fadeel, Moustafa; Pimentel, Guillermo; House, Brent; Hepburn, Matthew J; Wölfel, Silke; Wölfel, Roman; Rivard, Robert G

    2014-08-01

    Minimal information is available on the incidence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus and hantavirus infections in Georgia. From 2008 to 2011, 537 patients with fever ? 38°C for ? 48 hours without a diagnosis were enrolled into a sentinel surveillance study to investigate the incidence of nine pathogens, including CCHF virus and hantavirus. Of 14 patients with a hemorrhagic fever syndrome, 3 patients tested positive for CCHF virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Two of the patients enrolled in the study had acute renal failure. These 2 of 537 enrolled patients were the only patients in the study positive for hantavirus IgM antibodies. These results suggest that CCHF virus and hantavirus are contributing causes of acute febrile syndromes of infectious origin in Georgia. These findings support introduction of critical diagnostic approaches and confirm the need for additional surveillance in Georgia. PMID:24891463

  12. Lassa Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Lassa Fever Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Lassa fever is an acute viral illness that occurs in ...

  13. Scarlet fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Scarlet fever is a disease caused by an infection with bacteria in the group A Streptococcus (the same bacteria ... Scarlet fever was once a very serious childhood disease, but now it is easy to treat. The streptococcal bacteria ...

  14. Valley Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

  15. Typhoid Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Multistate Foodborne Outbreaks CDC's Role Key Programs Typhoid Fever General Information Frequently Asked Questions How is typhoid ... can take to protect yourself. How is typhoid fever spread? Salmonella Typhi lives only in humans. Persons ...

  16. Q Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... organisms may be required to cause infection. Q Fever Topics Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Signs of illness, ... and Recommendations... Prevention Avoid getting infected... Videos Q Fever: New Guidelines for Patient Management CDC Expert Commentary, ...

  17. Prevention of Amyloidosis in Familial Mediterranean Fever with Colchicine: A Case-Control Study in Armenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria K. Sevoyan; Tamara F. Sarkisian; Ara A. Beglaryan; Gohar R. Shahsuvaryan; Haroutune K. Armenian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether or not the use of colchicine decreases the risk of amyloidosis among Armenian patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Subjects and Methods: The study included 99 Armenian patients from the Center of Medical Genetics database with genetically ascertained FMF; 33 had renal amyloidosis and 66 were randomly selected control patients without renal amyloidosis. Self- reported colchicine

  18. Elevated Troponin and Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction in Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Kenneth A.; Kelly, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a patient with fever and borreliosis in the Northwestern Washington State, USA. The patient exhibited a classic Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction of tachycardia, hypotension, and thrombocytopenia following antimicrobial therapy, and she also developed an elevated serum cardiac troponin during therapy. PMID:22567483

  19. Scarlet Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Scarlet Fever A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A This image displays the sandpaper-like appearance on the ... red dots (red strawberry tongue) typical of scarlet fever. Overview Scarlet fever is an infection with a ...

  20. Morbidity and mortality of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iraq: cases reported to the National Surveillance System, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Ban; Dicker, Richard; Nawar, Adnan; Badri, Sumaia; Noah, Anwar; Muslem, Hassan

    2012-08-01

    Although Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in the Middle East, its incidence in Iraq has not been well described since the early 1980s. To document trends and patterns of CCHF occurrence, we analyzed CCHF case reports from Iraq's National Surveillance System in 2010 and aggregate reports from previous years. A suspected case was defined as fever, hemorrhagic symptoms and a history of animal contact. Serologic testing was conducted for confirmation. Between 1998 and 2009, the annual number of confirmed cases ranged from zero to six. In 2010, 11 confirmed and 28 suspected cases were reported. The case fatality rate was 36% among confirmed cases, 4% among suspected cases. Most confirmed cases occurred during a three-week period in a single province. While CCHF is uncommon in Iraq, sporadic cases and outbreaks do occur. Surveillance could be strengthened by updating the case definition and case investigation forms. PMID:22633179

  1. Study on the Prevalence of Leptospirosis among Fever Cases Reported from Private Clinics in the Urban areas of Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Kolandaswamy, Karumana Gounder

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To know the prevalence of leptospirosis cases reported in private clinics among fever cases in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India to know its real magnitude of the problem and to diagnose Leptospirosis among fever cases from differential diagnosis. Methods 1502 Blood serum samples collected from three urban towns namely Kallakurichi (Latitude: 11° 73? N; Longitude: 78° 97? E), Villupuram (Latitude: 11° 75? N; Longitude: 79° 92? E) and Thindivanam (Latitude: 12° 25? N; Longitude: 79° 65? E) in fifteen clinics based on case definition of leptospirosis delineated by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Government of India. Samples were tested in the laboratory of the Zonal Entomological Team (ZET), Cuddalore with Macroscopic Slide Agglutination Test (MSAT) and Ig-M ELISA. Result There were 65 positive cases detected from 1502 blood serum samples in both MSAT and Ig-M ELISA. It could be known that there was 4% cases contributed from private clinics among fever cases. From this study, further it was known that all age groups of people affected irrespective of sexes based on their living condition associated with the environment prevailed of the disease. Conclusion From this study, it was quantified that 4% of cases reported in private clinics among fever cases and its findings ascertained both the importance of differential diagnosis as well as reports that should be included to the Government for knowing its real magnitude for planning. PMID:24955313

  2. A case of periodic-fever-syndrome-like disorder with lipodystrophy, myositis, and autoimmune abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shimpei Kasagi; Seiji Kawano; Takashi Nakazawa; Hirotoshi Sugino; Masahiro Koshiba; Kunihiro Ichinose; Hiroaki Ida; Katsumi Eguchi; Shunichi Kumagai

    2008-01-01

    A 24-year-old Japanese woman had been suffering from a periodic fever since 10 months of age. She developed deformities in\\u000a her fingers, with severe atrophy of subcutaneous adipose tissue, myositis, and frostbitten hands. She showed elevated C-reactive\\u000a protein, creatine kinase, and ?-globulin. She was also positive for antinuclear, anti-DNA, anti-SS-B, and anti-U1RNP antibodies.\\u000a Her myositis was similar to amyopathic dermatomyositis rather

  3. Improving the power to detect risk variants for allergic disease by defining case-control status based on both asthma and hay fever.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Manuel A R

    2014-12-01

    Asthma and hay fever are likely to share hundreds if not thousands of genetic risk variants. Despite this, the extent to which the power to identify shared risk variants could be improved by considering information from both diseases when designing or analyzing genetic studies has not been studied in detail. Simulations were performed to quantify the power to detect an association between case-control status and a bi-allelic risk variant shared between asthma and hay fever across a range of disease and genetic models, as well as different ascertainment and analytical strategies. For a fixed sample size, when designing a new genome-wide association study (GWAS), selecting for genotyping cases with both asthma and hay fever (A+H+), and controls with neither disease (A-H-) was the study design that provided the greatest power to identify a shared risk variant. On the other hand, when analyzing an existing GWAS, power was greatest across a wide range of scenarios, when cases were defined as individuals who suffered from either disease (A+ or H+) and controls as those who suffered from neither (A-H-). Bivariate analysis of asthma and hay fever provided comparable but slightly decreased power. In conclusion, new GWAS can be designed and existing GWAS reanalyzed more efficiently to identify risk variants for allergic disease by using ascertainment or analytical strategies that consider both asthma and hay fever information. PMID:25296694

  4. Identification of Dengue Fever Cases in Houston, Texas, with Evidence of Autochthonous Transmission Between 2003 and 2005

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Liliana F.; Herrington, Emily; Kharat, Vineetkumar; Vasilakis, Nikolaos; Walker, Christopher; Turner, Cynthia; Khuwaja, Salma; Arafat, Raouf; Weaver, Scott C.; Martinez, Diana; Kilborn, Cindy; Bueno, Rudy; Reyna, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Houston, Texas, maintains an environment conducive to dengue virus (DENV) emergence; however, surveillance is passive and diagnostic testing is not readily available. To determine if DENV is present in the area, we tested 3768 clinical specimens (2138 cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] and 1630 serum) collected from patients with suspected mosquito-borne viral disease between 2003 and 2005. We identified 47 immunoglobulin M (IgM)-positive dengue cases, including two cases that were positive for viral RNA in serum for dengue serotype 2. The majority of cases did not report any history of travel outside the Houston area prior to symptom onset. The epidemic curve suggests an outbreak occurred in 2003 with continued low-level transmission in 2004 and 2005. Chart abstractions were completed for 42 of the 47 cases; 57% were diagnosed with meningitis and/or encephalitis, and 43% met the case definition for dengue fever. Two of the 47 cases were fatal, including one with illness compatible with dengue shock syndrome. Our results support local transmission of DENV during the study period. These findings heighten the need for dengue surveillance in the southern United States. PMID:24107180

  5. Dengue Fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Dengue Fever” will be included in “Health Information for International Travel, 2007-2008” which will be published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are viral diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The disease is found in tropical and s...

  6. Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern sierra leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW) in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and real time characterization of an acute hemorrhagic LF case at KGH LFW. This case report focuses on a third trimester pregnant Sierra Leonean woman from the historically non-endemic Northern district of Tonkolili who survived the illness despite fetal demise. Employed in this study were newly developed recombinant LASV Antigen Rapid Test cassettes and dipstick lateral flow immunoassays (LFI) that enabled the diagnosis of LF within twenty minutes of sample collection. Deregulation of overall homeostasis, significant hepatic and renal system involvement, and immunity profiles were extensively characterized during the course of hospitalization. Rapid diagnosis, prompt treatment with a full course of intravenous (IV) ribavirin, IV fluids management, and real time monitoring of clinical parameters resulted in a positive maternal outcome despite admission to the LFW seven days post onset of symptoms, fetal demise, and a natural still birth delivery. These studies solidify the growing rapid diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance capabilities at the KGH LF Laboratory, and the potential to significantly improve the current high mortality rate caused by LF. As a result of the growing capacity, we were also able to isolate Lassa virus (LASV) RNA from the patient and perform Sanger sequencing where we found significant genetic divergence from commonly circulating Sierra Leonean strains, showing potential for the discovery of a newly emerged LASV strain with expanded geographic distribution. Furthermore, recent emergence of LF cases in Northern Sierra Leone highlights the need for superior diagnostics to aid in the monitoring of LASV strain divergence with potentially increased geographic expansion. PMID:21843352

  7. Spatio-temporal variations of precipitation in arid and semiarid regions of China: The Yellow River basin as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Juntai; Singh, Vijay P.; Li, Jianfeng; Chen, Yongqin David

    2014-03-01

    Daily precipitation data from 64 precipitation gauging stations within the Yellow River basin were analyzed by defining 17 precipitation indices with the aim to investigate space and time changes in precipitation characteristics. The modified Mann-Kendall trend test method was used to detect trends in the precipitation series. The influence of Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) on the basin precipitation was also investigated. Results indicate that: (1) the Yellow River basin is dominated by decreasing precipitation and precipitation deficit may further deteriorate the shortage of water resources. The middle Yellow River basin may encounter increasingly serious shortage of water resources and higher risk of floods would be expected in the lower Yellow River basin; (2) a higher risk of droughts can be expected in spring and autumn and precipitation in winter is increasing, which imply evident seasonality and seasonal shifts of precipitation changes within the basin; (3) short-duration consecutive precipitation events are prevalent in the basin and frequency and amount of short-duration consecutive precipitation events are increasing; (4) precipitation extremes are not dominant in the Yellow River basin, except for some regions in the North China Plain and rainstorm events are generally decreasing; and (5) no evident impact of IPO on the precipitation in the Yellow River basin is found. In this case, precipitation deficit would be a major problem the basin-scale water resources management may face in the future.

  8. Climate impacts on environmental risks evaluated from space: a contribution to social benefits within the GEOSS Health Area: The case of Rift Valley Fever in Senegal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M. Tourre

    2009-01-01

    Climate and environment vary on many spatio-temporal scales, including climate change, with impacts on ecosystems, vector-borne diseases and public health worldwide. This study is to enable societal benefits from a conceptual approach by mapping climatic and environmental conditions from space and understanding the mechanisms within the Health Social Benefit GEOSS area. The case study is for Rift Valley Fever (RVF)

  9. Typhoid fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people with typhoid fever develop a rash called "rose spots," which are small red spots on the ... Or you may be asked to drink uncontaminated water with electrolyte packets. Antibiotics are given to kill ...

  10. Hay Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Each spring, summer, and fall, trees, weeds, and grasses release tiny pollen grains into the air. Some of the pollen ends up in your nose and throat. This can trigger a type of allergy called hay fever. ...

  11. Q Fever

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, M.; Raoult, D.

    1999-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution with the exception of New Zealand. The disease is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a strictly intracellular, gram-negative bacterium. Many species of mammals, birds, and ticks are reservoirs of C. burnetii in nature. C. burnetii infection is most often latent in animals, with persistent shedding of bacteria into the environment. However, in females intermittent high-level shedding occurs at the time of parturition, with millions of bacteria being released per gram of placenta. Humans are usually infected by contaminated aerosols from domestic animals, particularly after contact with parturient females and their birth products. Although often asymptomatic, Q fever may manifest in humans as an acute disease (mainly as a self-limited febrile illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis) or as a chronic disease (mainly endocarditis), especially in patients with previous valvulopathy and to a lesser extent in immunocompromised hosts and in pregnant women. Specific diagnosis of Q fever remains based upon serology. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antiphase II antibodies are detected 2 to 3 weeks after infection with C. burnetii, whereas the presence of IgG antiphase I C. burnetii antibodies at titers of ?1:800 by microimmunofluorescence is indicative of chronic Q fever. The tetracyclines are still considered the mainstay of antibiotic therapy of acute Q fever, whereas antibiotic combinations administered over prolonged periods are necessary to prevent relapses in Q fever endocarditis patients. Although the protective role of Q fever vaccination with whole-cell extracts has been established, the population which should be primarily vaccinated remains to be clearly identified. Vaccination should probably be considered in the population at high risk for Q fever endocarditis. PMID:10515901

  12. Fever during alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Otero-Antón; A González-Quintela; J Saborido; C Mart??nez-Rey; J. A Torre; E Barrio

    1999-01-01

    Background: Fever is considered common during alcohol withdrawal, but there are very few reports focused on this problem. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and causes of fever in patients admitted to the hospital with alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Methods: A total of 110 episodes of alcohol abstinence syndrome (10 cases of tremulousness and anxiety, 38

  13. Remote Sensing in a Changing Climate and Environment: the Rift Valley Fever Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourre, Y. M.; Lacaux, J.-P.; Vignolles, C.; Lafaye, M.

    2012-07-01

    Climate and environment are changing rapidly whilst global population already reached 7 billions people. New public health challenges are posed by new and re-emerging diseases. Innovation is a must i.e., 1) using high resolution remote sensing, 2) re-invent health politics and trans-disciplinary management. The above are part of the 'TransCube Approach' i.e., Transition, Translation, and Transformation. The new concept of Tele-epidemiology includes such approach. A conceptual approach (CA) associated with Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in Senegal is presented. Ponds are detected using high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images and radar data from space. Data on rainfall events obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (NASA/JAXA) are combined with in-situ data. Localization of vulnerable and parked hosts (obtained from QuickBird satellite) is also used. The dynamic spatio-temporal distribution and aggressiveness of RVF mosquitoes, are based on total rainfall amounts, ponds' dynamics and entomological observations. Detailed risks maps (hazards + vulnerability) in real-time are expressed in percentages of parks where animals are potentially at risks. This CA which simply relies upon rainfall distribution from space, is meant to contribute to the implementation of the RVF early warning system (RVFews). It is meant to be applied to other diseases and elsewhere. This is particularly true in new places where new vectors have been rapidly adapting (such as Aedes albopictus) whilst viruses (such as West Nile and Chikungunya,) circulate from constantly moving reservoirs and increasing population.

  14. Two autopsy cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in Japan: a pathognomonic histological feature and unique complication of SFTS.

    PubMed

    Hiraki, Tsubasa; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Suzuki, Tadaki; Goto, Yuko; Higashi, Michiyo; Yokoyama, Seiya; Tabuchi, Tomohisa; Futatsuki, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Hideki; Saijo, Masayuki; Kakihana, Yasuyuki; Arima, Naomichi; Yonezawa, Suguru

    2014-11-01

    We report two autopsy cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) with a high fatality rate in aged Japanese patients. Both cases were caused by a tick-bite. The pathognomonic histological feature was necrotizing lymphadenitis of systemic lymphoid tissue with SFTS viruses and SFTSV-RNA copies. Marked fungal infections were also observed in the lungs of both patients. Since cellular immune function may be suppressed in SFTS patients, physicians should be aware of possible fungal infections. PMID:25329676

  15. Two autopsy cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in Japan: A pathognomonic histological feature and unique complication of SFTS

    PubMed Central

    Hiraki, Tsubasa; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Suzuki, Tadaki; Goto, Yuko; Higashi, Michiyo; Yokoyama, Seiya; Tabuchi, Tomohisa; Futatsuki, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Hideki; Saijo, Masayuki; Kakihana, Yasuyuki; Arima, Naomichi; Yonezawa, Suguru

    2014-01-01

    We report two autopsy cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) with a high fatality rate in aged Japanese patients. Both cases were caused by a tick-bite. The pathognomonic histological feature was necrotizing lymphadenitis of systemic lymphoid tissue with SFTS viruses and SFTSV-RNA copies. Marked fungal infections were also observed in the lungs of both patients. Since cellular immune function may be suppressed in SFTS patients, physicians should be aware of possible fungal infections. PMID:25329676

  16. Valley Fever Center Valley Fever: Arizona's Disease

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    Valley Fever Center in Phoenix Valley Fever: Arizona's Disease Valley fever (coccidioidomycosis to valley fever occurs after a spore from the fungus becomes airborne, either by wind or soil disruption requiring medical attention. The elderly are more likely to be diagnosed with valley fever

  17. Metal fume fever

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, P.V.; Finley, C.J. (Division of Emergency Medicine, Eastern Virginia Graduate School of Medicine, Norfolk (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Metal fume fever is an ancient occupational disease still encountered among metal workers. The delay between exposure and onset of non-specific symptoms makes this an elusive diagnosis. We present the case of a patient who developed symptoms several hours after welding. The historical background, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and self-limited course of this common, yet frequently unrecognized illness are discussed.

  18. Distribution of phthalate esters in topsoil: a case study in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Hongjun, Yang; Wenjun, Xie; Qing, Liu; Jingtao, Liu; Hongwen, Yu; Zhaohua, Lu

    2013-10-01

    The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is a typical agricultural and petrochemical industrial area of China. To assess the current status of phthalate esters (PAEs) of soil residues, soil samples (0?20 cm) (n?=?82) were collected in Bincheng District, at the geographic center of the YRD. PAEs were detected in all topsoil samples analyzed, which indicated that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Concentrations of 11 PAEs are in the range of 0.794?19.504 ?g g(-1), with an average value of 2.975 ?g g(-1). It was presented that PAEs pollution in this area was weak and monotonously increasing along the rural-urban gradient. Higher concentrations were observed from roadsides (and/or gutters), densely anthropogenic activities areas (such as the urbanization and industrialization), and agriculture influence district, which mainly originated from construction waste, municipal sewage, agricultural waste and pesticide, discarded plastic effusion and atmospheric depositions. Concentrations of PAEs were weakly positivity correlated with soil organic carbon content and pH, which suggested both of them can affect the distribution of PAEs. The concentration of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate dominated in the 11 PAEs, with the average values of 0.735 and 1.915 ?g g(-1), respectively, and accounted for 92.1 % of the whole PAEs' concentrations. No significant differences of PAE congeneric profiles were observed between our work and others previously reported, which is consistent with the use of similar commercial PAEs around the world. PMID:23609921

  19. [Differential diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of Q-fever in a male prisoner. Case report].

    PubMed

    Vanya, Melinda; Szili, Károly; Zámolyi, Szilvia; Magyar, Hajnalka; K?rösi, Gábor; Benk?, Árpád; Hornyák, Anna; Heged?s, Zsolt; György, Lajos

    2015-05-01

    The authors describe the case of a 46-year-old man, who developed atypical pneumonia caused by Coxiella burnetii. Chest X-ray revealed interstitial pneumonia. Western blot and ELISA test were positive for Coxiella burnetii antibody. After treatment with doxycyclin and amoxicillin supplemented with vitamin B6 for 10 days, the patient displayed a clinical improvement. The authors conclude that in cases with atypical pneumonia, Coxiella burnetii antibody as well as other bacterial or viral antibodies should be determined. PMID:26042781

  20. The Unfortunate Nurse A Case Study of Dengue Fever and Social Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Karen M. Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    Based on an actual incident in which dengue virus was transmitted by an accidental needlestick, this case study introduces students to “emerging pathogens” and other concepts in parasitology, immunology, epidemiology, and public policy. Students also read a primary paper and learn about two modern techniques widely used in medical and research settings (i.e., EIA and Taqman RT-PCR). The case is suitable for general education biology, cell biology, microbiology, immunology, and science and public policy courses.

  1. Rat-bite fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are found in ...

  2. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Valley fever, also called coccidioidomycosis, is an ... fungal topics, visit the fungal diseases homepage. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Topics Definition What is valley fever? Symptoms ...

  3. Dengue fever (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Dengue fever, or West Nile fever, is a mild viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes which causes fever, ... second exposure to the virus can result in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening illness.

  4. Atypical aetiology of a conjugal fever: autochthonous airport malaria between Paris and French Riviera: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Pomares-Estran, Christelle; Delaunay, Pascal; Mottard, Annie; Cua, Eric; Roger, Pierre-Marie; Pradines, Bruno; Parzy, Daniel; Bogreau, Hervé; Rogier, Christophe; Jeannin, Charles; Karch, Saďd; Fontenille, Didier; Dejour-Salamanca, Dominique; Legros, Fabrice; Marty, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Endemic malaria has been eradicated from France, but some falciparum malaria cases have been described in patients who have never travelled outside the country. Ms. V. 21 year-old and Mr. M. 23 year-old living together in Paris were on holiday in Saint Raphaël (French Riviera). They presented with fever, vertigo and nausea. A blood smear made to control thrombocytopaenia revealed intra-erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum. The parasitaemia level was 0.15% for Ms. V and 3.2% for Mr. M. This couple had no history of blood transfusion or intravenous drug use. They had never travelled outside metropolitan France, but had recently travelled around France: to Saint Mard (close to Paris Charles de Gaulle (CdG) airport), to Barneville plage (in Normandy) and finally to Saint Raphaël. The most probable hypothesis is an infection transmitted in Saint Mard by an imported anopheline mosquito at CdG airport. The DNA analysis of parasites from Ms. V.'s and Mr. M.'s blood revealed identical genotypes. Because it is unlikely that two different anopheline mosquitoes would be infected by exactly the same clones, the two infections must have been caused by the infective bites of the same infected mosquito. PMID:19698152

  5. A historical look at the first reported cases of Lassa fever: IgG antibodies 40 years after acute infection.

    PubMed

    Bond, Nell; Schieffelin, John S; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew J; Bausch, Daniel G

    2013-02-01

    Lassa fever is an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. One important question regarding Lassa fever is the duration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody after infection. We were able to locate three persons who worked in Nigeria dating back to the 1940s, two of whom were integrally involved in the early outbreaks and investigations of Lassa fever in the late 1960s, including the person from whom Lassa virus was first isolated. Two persons had high titers of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibody over 40 years after infection, indicating the potential for long-term duration of these antibodies. One person was likely infected in 1952, 17 years before the first recognized outbreak. We briefly recount the fascinating stories of these three pioneers and their important contribution to our understanding of Lassa fever. PMID:23390223

  6. A Historical Look at the First Reported Cases of Lassa Fever: IgG Antibodies 40 Years After Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Bond, Nell; Schieffelin, John S; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew J; Bausch, Daniel G

    2012-12-31

    Lassa fever is an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. One important question regarding Lassa fever is the duration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody after infection. We were able to locate three persons who worked in Nigeria dating back to the 1940s, two of whom were integrally involved in the early outbreaks and investigations of Lassa fever in the late 1960s, including the person from whom Lassa virus was first isolated. Two persons had high titers of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibody over 40 years after infection, indicating the potential for long-term duration of these antibodies. One person was likely infected in 1952, 17 years before the first recognized outbreak. We briefly recount the fascinating stories of these three pioneers and their important contribution to our understanding of Lassa fever. PMID:23277481

  7. Anti-TNF agents in familial Mediterranean fever: report of three cases and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salih Ozgocmen; Ozgur Akgul

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease characterized by recurrent fever, peritonitis\\/pleuritis,\\u000a or arthritis attacks. Patients may have FMF-associated mutations of pyrin. The role of biologics such as anti-tumor necrosis\\u000a factor (TNF) agents (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab) and anakinra, canakinumab, or rilonacept in the treatment\\u000a of FMF needs to be clarified. Herein we present reports of three patients (all

  8. Polyarteritis nodosa and Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis in a child with familial Mediterranean fever: a case report.

    PubMed

    Girisgen, Ilknur; Sonmez, Ferah; Koseoglu, Kutsi; Erisen, Seda; Yilmaz, Dilek

    2012-02-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent self-limited attacks of fever accompanied by peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis. Approximately 5% of individuals with familial Mediterranean fever have been reported to have Henoch-Schonlein purpura and about 1% to have polyarteritis nodosa. A 7-year-old girl presenting with complaints of purpuric rash, abdominal pain, arthritis, hematuria, and proteinuria and having IgA depositions on renal biopsy was diagnosed as Henoch-Schönlein nephritis. She had a history of recurrent fever, abdominal and joint pain and M694 V compound homozygote mutation. Colchicine treatment was started for the diagnosis of FMF. When constitutional symptoms such as myalgia, weight loss, fatigue, fever, and hypertension were added to the clinical picture, the diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa HSP was thought and confirmed by the demonstration of microaneurisms on renal arteries. There was no response to corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide treatments; however, the symptoms were rapidly and dramatically reduced after the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin. In conclusion, polyarteritis nodosa and Henoch-Schonlein purpura can be seen together with familial Mediterranean fever. It is also suggested that IVIG might be an important adjunct therapy in selected patients with polyarteritis nodosa, especially in the lack of response to steroids and immunsuppressive drugs. PMID:21259007

  9. Orchid Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    Exotic, captivating, and seductive, orchids have long fascinated plant lovers. They first attracted the attention of Westerners in the 17th century, when explorers brought back samples from South America and Asia. By the mid-1800s, orchid collecting had reached a fever pitch, not unlike that of the Dutch tulip craze of the 1630s, with rich (and…

  10. Case Report Muscle pain, fever, cough, and progressive dyspnea in a woman with eosinophilic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Fan, Y; Wang, G S; Wu, G M

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is rare and challenging. This condition is frequently misdiagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis, lymphoma, schistosomiasis, Wegener's granuloma, severe acute respiratory syndrome, or severe community-acquired pneumonia. Herein, we report a case in which computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous lung biopsy was used to diagnose EP without alveolar eosinophilia or peripheral eosinophilia. A roundworm identified in the patient's stool confirmed the precise diagnosis to be parasitic EP. This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of EP confirmed by CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy. CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy may represent a new tool for the diagnosis of EP in patients without typical alveolar eosinophilia or peripheral eosinophilia. PMID:25966191

  11. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Gledovic, Z B; Jeknic, A S; Grgurevic, A D; Rakocevic, B B; Bozovic, B R; Mugosa, B V

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the epidemiological features of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Montenegro. The study included 169 cases of HFRS diagnosed in the period between 1995 and 2005 according to the clinical symptoms and serological confirmation. For the analysis of the demographic characteristics of the cases, as well as of the chronological and topographical features of the disease, a descriptive epidemiological method was employed. The average incidence rate in the observed period was 2.6 per 100,000. In the observed period, 8 people died; the average case fatality rate was 4.8% (range: 0.1-15%). Among the diseased persons, 116 were males and 53 were females; most of the cases were adults. The greatest number of HFRS cases occurred during the summer months. The highest incidence rates were registered in the northeastern, rural part of the country. The most frequent type of hantaviruses in Montenegro were Dobrava-Belgrade and Hantaan, carried by rodent species, i.e., the yellow-neck mouse and the striped-field mouse. It is likely that HFRS in Montenegro will become more common in the near future, unless public health control measures are taken. PMID:18806348

  12. Fungal Pneumonia: A Silent Epidemic Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Number of reported cases Number of US valley fever cases, 1995-2011 An estimated 150,000 more ... Coccidioidomycosis, a fungal disease called “cocci” or “valley fever,” is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia ...

  13. Yellow nails (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Yellow nails are seen in the 'yellow nail syndrome' in which there is thickening and yellow to yellow-green discoloration of all nails. Lymphedema, especially of the ankles, and compromised respiration ...

  14. Q Fever.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease found throughout the world. It is caused by the intracellular gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Infection by C. burnetii occurs primarily by inhalation of the aerosolized bacteria from birthing animals or contaminated dust. The bacterium is very resistant to drying and heat, and is considered highly endemic in the Middle East, where it is likely underdiagnosed. Special Operations Forces medical providers should be aware of this disease, which must be in the differential diagnosis of a patient who has a history of fever, elevated liver enzymes, pneumonia in its acute form, and endocarditis, especially in those with existing valvular heart disease in its chronic form. PMID:26125173

  15. Q fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Marrie

    \\u000a Q fever is the illness in man due to infection with the microorganism Coxiella burnetii. It is a zoonosis and its epidemiology is closely linked to the animal reservoirs of the causative microorganism, C. burnetii. Important elements of the epidemiology of this infection can be learned from the history of its discovery and early investigations;\\u000a a consideration of the macro-epidemiology

  16. Viral haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Fhogartaigh, Caoimhe Nic; Aarons, Emma

    2015-02-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a range of viral infections with potential to cause life-threatening illness in humans. Apart from Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), they are largely confined to Africa, distribution being dependent on the ecology of reservoir hosts. At present, the largest ever epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD or Ebola) is occurring in West Africa, raising the possibility that cases could be imported into non-endemic countries. Diagnosis and management is challenging due to the non-specificity of early symptoms, limited laboratory facilities in endemic areas, severity of disease, lack of effective therapy, strict infection control requirements and propensity to cause epidemics with secondary cases in healthcare workers. PMID:25650201

  17. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masoud Mardani; Maryam Keshtkar-Jahromi

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a tick-borne viral disease reported from more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, South-East Europe, and the Middle East. The majority of human cases are workers in livestock industry, agriculture, slaughterhouses, and veterinary practice. Nosocomial transmission is also well described. Clinical manifestations are nonspecific and symptoms typically include high fever, headache, malaise, arthralgia, myalgia, nausea, abdominal

  18. Q fever in Bulgaria and Slovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Serbezov, V. S.; Kazár, J.; Novkirishki, V.; Gatcheva, N.; Kovácová, E.; Voynova, V.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of dramatic political and economic changes in the beginning of the 1990s, Q-fever epidemiology in Bulgaria has changed. The number of goats almost tripled; contact between goat owners (and their families) and goats, as well as goats and other animals, increased; consumption of raw goat milk and its products increased; and goats replaced cattle and sheep as the main source of human Coxiella burnetii infections. Hundreds of overt, serologically confirmed human cases of acute Q fever have occurred. Chronic forms of Q fever manifesting as endocarditis were also observed. In contrast, in Slovakia, Q fever does not pose a serious public health problem, and the chronic form of infection has not been found either in follow-ups of a Q-fever epidemic connected with goats imported from Bulgaria and other previous Q-fever outbreaks or in a serologic survey. Serologic diagnosis as well as control and prevention of Q fever are discussed. PMID:10341175

  19. Case Studies in Vector-borne Diseases Course Number 11:370:401, 16:370:501

    E-print Network

    Wang, Changlu

    and discussion 4) Feb. 9 a) Yellow fever ­ Historical introduction b) Introduction to the parasite c) Disease domestication (evolution) 5) Feb. 16 a) Yellow fever ­ Student presentations b) Group evaluations and discussion

  20. Muscular polyarteritis nodosa as a cause of fever of undetermined origin: a case report and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Kamimura; Makio Hatakeyama; Kimiaki Torigoe; Hiroyuki Nara; Naoko Kaneko; Hidetomo Satou; Taku Yoshio; Hitoaki Okazaki; Seiji Minota

    2005-01-01

    We describe an unusual presentation of a localized form of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) manifested by fever of undetermined origin (FUO). Biopsies of the gastrocnemius muscle revealed necrotizing arteritis and initiation of prednisolone (PSL) brought rapid response. The PAN localized to muscle is rare; furthermore, this disease presented as FUO is very rare. We want to increase awareness that muscle can

  1. Clinical manifestations and case management of Ebola haemorrhagic fever caused by a newly identified virus strain, Bundibugyo, Uganda, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Paul; Howard, Natasha; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Lutwama, Julius; Wamala, Joseph; Yoti, Zabulon; Colebunders, Robert; Palma, Pedro Pablo; Sterk, Esther; Jeffs, Benjamin; Van Herp, Michel; Borchert, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    A confirmed Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak in Bundibugyo, Uganda, November 2007-February 2008, was caused by a putative new species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). It included 93 putative cases, 56 laboratory-confirmed cases, and 37 deaths (CFR?=?25%). Study objectives are to describe clinical manifestations and case management for 26 hospitalised laboratory-confirmed EHF patients. Clinical findings are congruous with previously reported EHF infections. The most frequently experienced symptoms were non-bloody diarrhoea (81%), severe headache (81%), and asthenia (77%). Seven patients reported or were observed with haemorrhagic symptoms, six of whom died. Ebola care remains difficult due to the resource-poor setting of outbreaks and the infection-control procedures required. However, quality data collection is essential to evaluate case definitions and therapeutic interventions, and needs improvement in future epidemics. Organizations usually involved in EHF case management have a particular responsibility in this respect. PMID:23285243

  2. Typhoid fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher M Parry; Tran Tinh Hien; Gordon Dougan; Nicholas J White; Jeremy J Farrar

    2006-01-01

    http:\\/\\/proquest.umi.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca\\/pqdweb?did=252411801&sid=1&Fmt=4&cli entId=12520&RQT=309&VName=PQD Abstract (Document Summary) In 1948 chloramphenicol became the standard antibiotic for treating typhoid.5 Although resistance emerged within two years after its introduction, it was not until 1972 that chloramphenicol-resistant typhoid fever became a major problem.6 Outbreaks occurred in Mexico, India, Vietnam, Thailand, Korea, and Peru.6 Chloramphenicol resistance was associated with high-molecular-weight, self-transferable, IncHI plasmids. Full Text (8258 words)

  3. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more information on enabling JavaScript. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria, which cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Credit: CDC Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ...

  4. Dengue Fever Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this website will be limited. Search Help? Dengue Fever Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Dengue Fever Antibodies; Dengue Fever Virus Formal name: Dengue Antibodies ( ...

  5. Systemic lupus erythematosus and familial Mediterranean fever: a possible negative association between the two disease entities--report of four cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lidar, M; Zandman-Goddard, G; Shinar, Y; Zaks, N; Livneh, A; Langevitz, P

    2008-07-01

    Serositis is a common clinical manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), as well as being the hallmark of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), the most prevalent monogenic disease in the Jewish population. We have treated four patients who suffered from both SLE and FMF since 2001 in our clinic, which also serves as the national center for FMF. Our cases illustrate both similarities and dissimilarities between the clinical manifestations of these two diseases, an aspect which should be borne in mind, especially in the young female patients. In general, it seems that co-occurrence of FMF moderates the presentation of lupus. PMID:18625639

  6. Relapsing fever in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Babudieri, B.

    1957-01-01

    The author reports on a survey carried out by him in 1954 on relapsing fever in Jordan. In that country the disease is largely tick-borne, the main vector being Ornithodoros tholozani. Some of the frequent cases in the town of Nablus and the village of Marda in West Jordan may, however, be caused by O. coniceps. The centres of infection are some of the numerous caves scattered throughout the hilly areas and certain houses in which chickens are kept. It is believed that the vector ticks could be successfully exterminated by the use of insecticides and by the adoption of certain procedures outlined by the author. Arsenobenzol compounds and penicillin have been shown not to be very effective for the treatment of relapsing fever, but good results have been obtained with Aureomycin and Terramycin. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4 PMID:13472437

  7. Ebola haemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock. PMID:21084112

  8. Clinical Profile of Concurrent Dengue Fever and Plasmodium vivax Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon: Case Series of 11 Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Magalhăes, Belisa M. L.; Alexandre, Márcia A. A.; Siqueira, André M.; Melo, Gisely C.; Gimaque, Joăo B. L.; Bastos, Michele S.; Figueiredo, Regina M. P.; Carvalho, Ricardo C.; Tavares, Michel A.; Naveca, Felipe G.; Alonso, Pedro; Bassat, Quique; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Mourăo, Maria P. G.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria and dengue fever are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases worldwide. This study aims to describe the clinical profile of patients with molecular diagnosis of concurrent malaria and dengue fever in a tropical-endemic area. Eleven patients with concurrent dengue virus (DENV) and Plasmodium vivax infection are reported. Similar frequencies of DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 were found, including DENV-3/DENV-4 co-infection. In eight patients, the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for severe malaria could be fulfilled (jaundice being the most common). Only one patient met severe dengue criteria, but warning signs were present in 10. Syndromic surveillance systems must be ready to identify this condition to avoid misinterpretation of severity attributed to a single disease. PMID:23033396

  9. Raman identification of yellow synthetic organic pigments in modern and contemporary paintings: Reference spectra and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ropret, Polonca; Centeno, Silvia A.; Bukovec, Peter

    2008-02-01

    The characterization of the binding media and pigments in modern and contemporary paintings is important for designing safe conservation treatments, as well as for determining suitable environmental conditions for display, storage and transport. Raman spectroscopy is a suitable technique for the in situ non-destructive identification of synthetic organic pigments in the presence of the complex binding media characteristic of synthetic resin paints or colour lithographic inks. The precise identification of a pigment by comparing its spectrum to that of a reference is necessary when conservation treatments with aqueous solutions or organic solvents are being considered for a work of art, since solubility properties can sometimes vary within the same pigment group. The Raman spectra of 21 yellow synthetic organic pigments, belonging to the monoazo, monoazo lakes, diarylide, disazo condensation, benzimidazolone, bisacetoacetarylide, azo-methine metal complex, isoindolinone and isoindoline groups are presented. Since modern artists frequently mixed paint developed for other applications, in addition to colorants developed as artists' paints, other synthetic organic pigments were included in the spectral database. Two monoazo pigments, Pigment Yellow 1 and Pigment Yellow 3, a benzimidazolone, Pigment Yellow 154 and a phthalocynanine, Pigment Green 7, were identified in sample cross-sections from four modern and contemporary paintings in the collection of The Museum of Modern Art in Ljubljana, Slovenia.

  10. Raman identification of yellow synthetic organic pigments in modern and contemporary paintings: reference spectra and case studies.

    PubMed

    Ropret, Polonca; Centeno, Silvia A; Bukovec, Peter

    2008-02-01

    The characterization of the binding media and pigments in modern and contemporary paintings is important for designing safe conservation treatments, as well as for determining suitable environmental conditions for display, storage and transport. Raman spectroscopy is a suitable technique for the in situ non-destructive identification of synthetic organic pigments in the presence of the complex binding media characteristic of synthetic resin paints or colour lithographic inks. The precise identification of a pigment by comparing its spectrum to that of a reference is necessary when conservation treatments with aqueous solutions or organic solvents are being considered for a work of art, since solubility properties can sometimes vary within the same pigment group. The Raman spectra of 21 yellow synthetic organic pigments, belonging to the monoazo, monoazo lakes, diarylide, disazo condensation, benzimidazolone, bisacetoacetarylide, azo-methine metal complex, isoindolinone and isoindoline groups are presented. Since modern artists frequently mixed paint developed for other applications, in addition to colorants developed as artists' paints, other synthetic organic pigments were included in the spectral database. Two monoazo pigments, Pigment Yellow 1 and Pigment Yellow 3, a benzimidazolone, Pigment Yellow 154 and a phthalocynanine, Pigment Green 7, were identified in sample cross-sections from four modern and contemporary paintings in the collection of The Museum of Modern Art in Ljubljana, Slovenia. PMID:17590389

  11. [West Nile fever].

    PubMed

    Delgado-López, Nancy; Andrade-Zárate, Vicente; Nellen-Hummel, Haiko; Halabe-Cherem, José

    2003-01-01

    West Nile fever is a mosquito-borne febrile illness seen in Africa, Asia, and Europe, but reported in North America only once. West Nile virus is of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Several West Nile fever outbreaks were reported from Israel in the 1950s and in 1980. Since the mid-1990s, frequency and apparent clinical severity of West Nile virus outbreaks have increased. Outbreaks in Rumania (1996), Russia (1999), and Israel (2000) involved hundreds of persons with severe neurologic disease. In the summer of 1999, West Nile virus was recognized in the among Western Hemisphere for the first time when it caused an epidemic of encephalitis and aseptic meningitis among residents of greater New York City. Other outbreak occurred during the summer of 2000. West Nile fever in humans usually is a febrile, influenza-like illness characterized by abrupt onset. Occasionally (less than 15% of cases) are acute aseptic meningitis or encephalitis. Although human vaccines for West Nile virus are under development, the most effective to way reduce local population of mosquitoes is to eliminate sources of standing water and preventing vector mosquitoes from biting humans by using mosquito repellents and barrier methods. PMID:19753724

  12. Yellow nail syndrome (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by yellow nails that lack a cuticle, grow slowly, and are loose or detached (onycholysis). Yellow nail syndrome is most commonly associated with lung disorders, and ...

  13. Detailed analysis of health status of Q fever patients 1 year after the first Dutch outbreak: a case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. M. Limonard; J. B. Peters; M. H. Nabuurs-Franssen; G. Weers-Pothoff; R. Besselink; C. A. de Groot; P. N. R. Dekhuijzen; J. H. M. M. Vercoulen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The two long-term complications, after primary infection, are chronic Q fever in approximately 1% of patients, and a chronic fatigue syndrome in 10-20%. However, the existence of a protracted decreased health status after Q fever remains controversial. AIM: To determine the health status of the patients

  14. Muscular polyarteritis nodosa as a cause of fever of undetermined origin: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Takeshi; Hatakeyama, Makio; Torigoe, Kimiaki; Nara, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Naoko; Satou, Hidetomo; Yoshio, Taku; Okazaki, Hitoaki; Minota, Seiji

    2005-06-01

    We describe an unusual presentation of a localized form of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) manifested by fever of undetermined origin (FUO). Biopsies of the gastrocnemius muscle revealed necrotizing arteritis and initiation of prednisolone (PSL) brought rapid response. The PAN localized to muscle is rare; furthermore, this disease presented as FUO is very rare. We want to increase awareness that muscle can be also a single-affected site as well as other well known sites such as appendix, gallbladder, uterus or testis, and skin. Since there is no single appellation for this disease, we would like to propose the term "muscular PAN". PMID:15965639

  15. Integrated Community Case Management of Fever in Children under Five Using Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Respiratory Rate Counting: A Multi-Country Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mukanga, David; Tiono, Alfred B.; Anyorigiya, Thomas; Källander, Karin; Konaté, Amadou T.; Oduro, Abraham R.; Tibenderana, James K.; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Sirima, Sodiomon B.; Cousens, Simon; Barnish, Guy; Pagnoni, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Evidence on the impact of using diagnostic tests in community case management of febrile children is limited. This effectiveness trial conducted in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Uganda, compared a diagnostic and treatment package for malaria and pneumonia with presumptive treatment with anti-malarial drugs; artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). We enrolled 4,216 febrile children between 4 and 59 months of age in 2009–2010. Compliance with the malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) results was high in the intervention arm across the three countries, with only 4.9% (17 of 344) of RDT-negative children prescribed an ACT. Antibiotic overuse was more common: 0.9% (4 of 446) in Uganda, 38.5% (114 of 296) in Burkina Faso, and 44.6% (197 of 442) in Ghana. Fever clearance was high in both intervention and control arms at both Day 3 (97.8% versus 96.9%, P = 0.17) and Day 7 (99.2% versus 98.8%, P = 0.17). The use of diagnostic tests limits overuse of ACTs. Its impact on antibiotic overuse and on fever clearance is uncertain. PMID:23136274

  16. Does Climate Control Valley Fever Incidence in California?

    E-print Network

    Zender, Charles

    Does Climate Control Valley Fever Incidence in California? Charlie Zender1 , Jorge Talamantes2;Figure 1: Lifecycle of coccidioidomycosis (Courtesy Kent Kuehl, Bakersfield Californian) Valley fever) and total number of reported cases N0 [# yr-1 ] (dashed line) of valley fever in Kern County from 1960

  17. (Dengue Fever reported in Osceola County) OSCEOLA COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENT

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    (Dengue Fever reported in Osceola County) OSCEOLA COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENT ISSUES PUBLIC HEALTH of two cases of dengue fever in Osceola County. Dengue is one of several mosquito-borne illnesses was not acquired locally. Symptoms of dengue fever vary according to the age of the patient. Infants and young

  18. Dengue fever outbreak in Lahore.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Usman; Loya, Asif; Mehmood, Muhammad Tariq; Nazeer, Hammad; Sultan, Faisal

    2013-03-01

    Dengue fever has now affected all the major cities of country. About 41,354 patients underwent antibody screening for dengue fever from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital, Lahore, during the epidemic period (October 1st 2010 to December 20th 2010). Out of them, 1294 (3.1%) patients were positive for IgM antibodies, and 124 (0.3%) for IgG antibodies. A total of 722 (1.7%) patients were borderline positive for IgM antibodies and 108 (0.26%) were borderline positive for IgG antibodies. Dengue fever has emerged as a global problem over the last 5 years. It has also hit Lahore badly especially after the floods in 2010. High index of suspicion should be there in case of related symptoms. PMID:23458054

  19. Hay Fever Medications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MD, FAAAAI Seasonal allergic rhinitis known as hay fever symptoms range from being mildly annoying to seriously ... of your mouth, throat, eyes or ears. Hay fever symptoms are most often triggered by tree pollen ...

  20. Familial Mediterranean fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recurrent polyserositis; Benign paroxysmal peritonitis; Periodic disease; Periodic fever; FMF ... Familial Mediterranean fever is most often caused by a mutation in the MEFV gene. This gene creates proteins involved in inflammation. ...

  1. Q fever - early

    MedlinePLUS

    Q fever is an infectious disease that is spread by domestic and wild animals and ticks. ... Q fever is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii , which live in domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, ...

  2. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Safe Concussions: What to Know Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Allergies & the Immune System > Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

  3. Dengue Fever Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Dengue Fever Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... There is no specific treatment for classic dengue fever, and most people recover within 2 weeks. To ...

  4. Allergies and Hay Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/F can find information on embargoes, Annual Meeting press registration ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Fever Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome familial Mediterranean fever mevalonate kinase deficiency Muckle-Wells syndrome Nakajo-Nishimura ...

  6. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Statistics How common is valley fever? In states where ... Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & ...

  7. Dengue Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... email updates Order publications Featured Research One small RNA regulates mosquito development, growth, and reproduction. Read more ... the 20th century, many tropical regions of the world saw an increase in dengue cases. Epidemics also ...

  8. African swine fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARY-LOUISE PENRITH

    2009-01-01

    PENRITH, M-L. 2009. African swine fever. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 76:91-95 African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100 % mortal- ity, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the

  9. Dengue Fever versus Bioterrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorji Harnod; Hang Chang; Tzong-Luen Wang

    2002-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever has ever been used as a route of bioterrorism. The mode of transmission, clinical course, and mortality of these illnesses vary with the specific viruses. In Taiwan, dengue fever is the most encountered disease of hemorrhagic fever. In the viewpoint of bioterrorism, dengue is always excluded because it is not transmissible by small-particle aerosols, and primary dengue

  10. Climate impacts on environmental risks evaluated from space: a conceptual approach to the case of Rift Valley Fever in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Tourre, Yves M.; Lacaux, Jean-Pierre; Vignolles, Cécile; Lafaye, Murielle

    2009-01-01

    Background Climate and environment vary across many spatio-temporal scales, including the concept of climate change, which impact on ecosystems, vector-borne diseases and public health worldwide. Objectives To develop a conceptual approach by mapping climatic and environmental conditions from space and studying their linkages with Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in Senegal. Design Ponds in which mosquitoes could thrive were identified from remote sensing using high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images. Additional data on pond dynamics and rainfall events (obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) were combined with hydrological in-situ data. Localisation of vulnerable hosts such as penned cattle (from QuickBird satellite) were also used. Results Dynamic spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes vexans density (one of the main RVF vectors) is based on the total rainfall amount and ponds’ dynamics. While Zones Potentially Occupied by Mosquitoes are mapped, detailed risk areas, i.e. zones where hazards and vulnerability occur, are expressed in percentages of areas where cattle are potentially exposed to mosquitoes’ bites. Conclusions This new conceptual approach, using precise remote-sensing techniques, simply relies upon rainfall distribution also evaluated from space. It is meant to contribute to the implementation of operational early warning systems for RVF based on both natural and anthropogenic climatic and environmental changes. In a climate change context, this approach could also be applied to other vector-borne diseases and places worldwide. PMID:20052381

  11. Assessing the economic impact of immunisation against East Coast fever: a case study in coast province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mukhebi, A W; Kariuki, D P; Mussukuya, E; Mullins, G; Ngumi, P N; Thorpe, W; Perry, B D

    1995-07-01

    The cost of immunising cattle against East Coast fever by the infection and treatment method has been calculated for a pilot scheme in Kaloleni Division of the Coast Province of Kenya by using a spreadsheet model. The cost was calculated to be KSh 544 (US$25) per animal (in 1990 values). If a farmer were to bear all this cost, immunisation would be financially profitable in grade cattle, but the benefits of immunisation would not be sufficient to justify the immunisation of zebu cattle. For these animals, the cost of immunisation would have to be in the range of KSh 230 to KSh 415 per animal, or the farm-gate price of milk would have to increase by at least 80 per cent from KSh 7.50 to 13.50/litre, or the government would have to subsidise the cost either partially or fully. The first two possibilities are realistic, because the costs of routine immunisation are likely to be lower than for the pilot scheme, and because the increasing demand for milk is likely to push up prices in the liberalised markets. If both the grade and zebu cattle in Kaloleni Division were targets for immunisation, it is estimated that there would be 14,500 head for immunisation annually, costing an estimated KSh 8 million. The spreadsheet model used to assess the economics of immunisation in the Kaloleni Division could be applied to determine the government or private veterinary service charges for immunisation that would be financially profitable to farmers in a defined cattle production system in any division, district or country. The model could also be used to estimate the annual total number of cattle for immunisation in a target cattle production system and thus help with the financial planning for the exercise. PMID:7483227

  12. Yellow Jackie

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ken Eklund (WriterGuy REV)

    2001-06-30

    You, the reader, are helping Terry sail a yacht from South America to New Zealand. You are asked to investigate an outbreak of disease on board a second yacht. You interview the crew members, consult a medical reference, and observe other clues to determine what diseases the ill crew members have. The solution involves medical science, sports science, human health, biology, microbiology, infectious diseases, epidemiology, and hygiene. The mystery tests literacy, problem solving skills and deductive reasoning. The mystery has three parts. In the first part, you meet the characters and enter the story. In the second part, you interview the characters, investigate the facts, and attempt to solve the case. When you solve the case, you enter the third part, which concludes the story, and summarizes the scientific analysis needed to solve the case. The narrative is fictional, but the scenario is based on actual events and contemporary science research and discoveries.

  13. Persistent fever, neck swelling, and small vessel vasculitis following tonsillectomy in a patient with Behçet’s disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Behçet’s disease commonly presents with recurrent oral and genital mucocutaneous ulcerations, uveitis and various skin manifestations. Other clinical symptoms include gastrointestinal ulcerations, arthritis, venous thrombosis, arterial aneurysms and central nervous system affection. Vasculitis underlies most clinical symptoms of Behçet’s disease. Case presentation We report the case of a 62-year-old European Caucasian woman with Behçet’s disease who presented with persistent fever and neck soft-tissue swelling, despite broad antibiotic treatment, two weeks after acute tonsillitis and a tonsillectomy. Diffuse epi- and mesopharyngeal swelling shown on a computed tomography scan of her neck and persistently elevated serum markers of inflammation initially prompted suspicion of an infectious etiology. Magnet resonance imaging of her neck and a neck tissue biopsy finally confirmed small vessel vasculitis involving skin, subcutaneous tissue and muscle. Considering the clinical presentation, past medical history and histological findings, we interpreted our patient’s symptoms as a flare of Behçet’s disease. Immunosuppressive treatment led to rapid clinical improvement. Conclusion A patient with Behçet’s disease developed small vessel vasculitis of the soft tissue of her neck after tonsillitis and a tonsillectomy. Infection and surgery probably triggered a flare of Behçet’s disease. PMID:23110825

  14. Fitness Fever and Fitness Fever 2.0 Requirements

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    1 Fitness Fever and Fitness Fever 2.0 Requirements o Have a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25 or greater Fever program, participants will receive o One Group Training Session and one Group Challenge a week Personal Training session #12;2 Circle one: Fitness Fever or Fitness Fever 2.0 Name Local Address Apt

  15. Q Fever: An Old but Still a Poorly Understood Disease

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who have been infected for more than 6 months. It usually takes about 20 days after exposure to the bacteria for symptoms to occur. Most cases are mild, yet some severe cases have been reported. Symptoms of acute Q fever may include: chest pain with breathing, cough, fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pains, and shortness of breath. Symptoms of chronic Q fever may include chills, fatigue, night sweats, prolonged fever, and shortness of breath. Q fever is diagnosed with a blood antibody test. The main treatment for the disease is with antibiotics. For acute Q fever, doxycycline is recommended. For chronic Q fever, a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is often used long term. Complications are cirrhosis, hepatitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. People at risk should always: carefully dispose of animal products that may be infected, disinfect any contaminated areas, and thoroughly wash their hands. Pasteurizing milk can also help prevent Q fever. PMID:23213331

  16. An Unusual Manifestation of Q Fever: Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Y?lmaz, Gülden; Öztürk, Bengi; Memiko?lu, Osman; Co?kun, Belgin; Yalç?, Aysun; Metin, Özge; Ünal, Hatice; Kurt, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Q fever has rarely been reported and can be difficult to diagnose, especially in immunocompromised patients. In the present report, we describe an unusual case of Q fever that presented as peritonitis and was treated with long-term combination therapy with doxycycline, ciprofloxacin and rifampicin for five weeks in a patient who had been on peritoneal dialysis for six years due to hypertensive nephropathy. PMID:25899561

  17. Chronic Q Fever Diagnosis—Consensus Guideline versus Expert Opinion

    PubMed Central

    Wegdam-Blans, Marjolijn C.A.; Wever, Peter C.; Renders, Nicole H.M.; Delsing, Corine E.; Sprong, Tom; van Kasteren, Marjo E.E.; Bijlmer, Henk; Notermans, Daan; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Stals, Frans S.; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, has high mortality and morbidity rates if left untreated. Controversy about the diagnosis of this complex disease has emerged recently. We applied the guideline from the Dutch Q Fever Consensus Group and a set of diagnostic criteria proposed by Didier Raoult to all 284 chronic Q fever patients included in the Dutch National Chronic Q Fever Database during 2006–2012. Of the patients who had proven cases of chronic Q fever by the Dutch guideline, 46 (30.5%) would not have received a diagnosis by the alternative criteria designed by Raoult, and 14 (4.9%) would have been considered to have possible chronic Q fever. Six patients with proven chronic Q fever died of related causes. Until results from future studies are available, by which current guidelines can be modified, we believe that the Dutch literature-based consensus guideline is more sensitive and easier to use in clinical practice.

  18. Climate impacts on environmental risks evaluated from space: a contribution to social benefits within the GEOSS Health Area: The case of Rift Valley Fever in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourre, Y. M.

    2009-12-01

    Climate and environment vary on many spatio-temporal scales, including climate change, with impacts on ecosystems, vector-borne diseases and public health worldwide. This study is to enable societal benefits from a conceptual approach by mapping climatic and environmental conditions from space and understanding the mechanisms within the Health Social Benefit GEOSS area. The case study is for Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in Senegal is presented. Ponds contributing to mosquitoes’ thriving, were identified from remote sensing using high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images. Additional data on ponds’ dynamics and rainfall events (obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) were combined with hydrological in-situ data. Localization of vulnerable hosts such as parked cattle (from QuickBird satellite) are also used. Dynamic spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes vexans density (one of the main RVF vectors) is based on the total rainfall amount and ponds’ dynamics. While Zones Potentially Occupied by Mosquitoes (ZPOM) are mapped, detailed risks areas, i.e. zones where hazards and vulnerability occur, are expressed in percentages of parks where cattle is potentially exposed to mosquitoes’ bites. This new conceptual approach, using remote-sensing techniques belonging to GEOSS, simply relies upon rainfall distribution also evaluated from space. It is meant to contribute to the implementation of integrated operational early warning system within the health application communities since climatic and environmental conditions (both natural and anthropogenic) are changing rapidly.

  19. Seir Model for Transmission of Dengue Fever in Selangor Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafruddin, S.; Noorani, M. S. M.

    In this paper, we study a system of differential equations that models the population dynamics of SEIR vector transmission of dengue fever. The model studied breeding value based on the number of reported cases of dengue fever in Selangor because the state had the highest case in Malaysia. The model explains that maximum level of human infection rate of dengue fever achieved in a very short period. It is also revealed that there existed suitability result between theoretical and empirical calculation using the model. The result of SEIR model will hopefully provide an insight into the spread of dengue fever in Selangor Malaysia and basic form for modeling this area.

  20. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  1. Contact allergic reaction to D & C Yellow No. 11 and Quinoline Yellow.

    PubMed

    Björkner, B; Niklasson, B

    1983-07-01

    D & C Yellow No. 11 and Quinoline Yellow belong to a group of quinophtalone dyes with a common basic structure. D & C Yellow No. 11 is used mostly in plastics, spirit lacquers, coloured smokes and cosmetics, but it is also increasingly used as a dye in soaps and shampoos. Quinoline Yellow is used for dyeing wool, silk and nylon in cases where good light fastness is not required, but is most commonly used as a drug and food colouring agent. A patient, extremely sensitive to D & C Yellow No. 11 with a positive patch test reaction down to 0.00001%, also reacted to Quinoline Yellow at a test concentration of 0.1%. To establish if any cross-reactivity occurs between the two compounds, a high pressure liquid chromatograph was used for analysis, purification and separation of the two colours. The patient was then patch tested with the two colours and the pure fraction of Quinoline Yellow. The test results confirm a true sensitivity to Quinoline Yellow and to D & C Yellow No. 11, and may indicate cross-reactivity between the colours. PMID:6684529

  2. The exanthem of dengue fever: Clinical features of two US tourists traveling abroad

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, Laura B.; Grossman, Marc E.; Fox, Lindy P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is the most common identifiable cause of acute febrile illness among travelers returning from South America, South Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Caribbean. Although the characteristic exanthem of dengue fever occurs in up to 50% of patients, few descriptions of it are found in the dermatology literature, and discussions of how to distinguish the dengue exanthem from other infectious disease entities are rare. Chikungunya fever is an emerging infectious disease now seen in returning US tourists and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dengue fever in the appropriate patient. Objective The purpose of our study was to report two cases of dengue fever among returning US tourists, provide a review of dengue fever, offer an extensive differential diagnosis of dengue fever, and raise awareness among dermatologists of chikungunya fever. Methods This study includes clinical findings of two returning travelers, one who traveled to Mexico and the other to Thailand, complemented by a discussion of both dengue fever and its differential diagnosis. Limitations Limited to 2 case reports. Conclusion Dengue fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fever and rash in the returning traveler. Dermatologists should be aware of the distinctive exanthem of dengue fever. Recognition of the dengue fever rash permits a rapid and early diagnosis, which is critical, as dengue fever can progress to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. PMID:17959270

  3. [Diagnostic approach of recurrent fevers of unknown origin in adults].

    PubMed

    Zenone, T

    2015-07-01

    Recurrent fever of unknown origin is probably the most difficult to diagnose subtype of fever of unknown origin. It represents between 18 and 42% of the cases in large series of patients with fever of unknown origin. The limited literature data do not allow one to construct a diagnostic algorithm. However, the diagnostic strategy is different from classic fever of unknown origin. The spectrum of causative disorders is different from continuous fever with less infections and tumors. Among systemic inflammatory diseases, adult-onset Still's disease is the most common cause. More than 50% of the cases remain unexplained. Hereditary recurrent fevers, the prototype of autoinflammatory diseases, are now more easily discuss in a young adult. PMID:25595877

  4. Bacteria Stimulate Hatching of Yellow Fever Mosquito Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Böröczky, Katalin; Wesson, Dawn M.; Schal, Coby; Apperson, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti Linnaeus is a peridomestic mosquito that lays desiccation-resistant eggs in water-filled human-made containers. Previous investigations connected egg hatching with declining dissolved oxygen (DO) that is associated with bacterial growth. However, past studies failed to uncouple DO from other potential stimulatory factors and they contained little quantitative information about the microbial community; consequently, a direct role for bacteria or compounds associated with bacteria in stimulating egg hatching cannot be dismissed. Methodology/Principal Findings Environmental factors stimulating hatch of Ae. aegypti eggs were investigated using non-sterile and sterile white oak leaf (WOL) infusions and a bacterial culture composed of a mix of 14 species originally isolated from bamboo leaf infusion. In WOL infusion with active microbes, 92.4% of eggs hatched in 2-h at an average DO concentration of 2.4 ppm. A 24-h old bacterial culture with a DO concentration of 0.73 ppm also stimulated 95.2% of eggs hatch within 1-h. In contrast, only 4.0% of eggs hatched in sterile infusion, whose DO averaged 7.4 ppm. Effects of bacteria were uncoupled from DO by exposing eggs to bacterial cells suspended in NaCl solution. Over a 4-h exposure period, 93.8% of eggs hatched while DO concentration changed minimally from 7.62 to 7.50 ppm. Removal of bacteria by ultra-filtration and cell-free filtrate resulted in only 52.0% of eggs hatching after 4-h at an average DO concentration of 5.5 ppm. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, the results provide compelling evidence that bacteria or water-soluble compounds secreted by bacteria, not just low DO concentration, stimulate hatching of Ae. aegypti eggs. However, the specific cues involved remain to be identified. These research findings contribute new insight into an important aspect of the oviposition biology of Ae. aegypti, a virus vector of global importance, providing the basis for a new paradigm of environmental factors involved in egg hatching. PMID:21915323

  5. Elevated serum zinc levels in metal fume fever

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, N.E.; Ruthman, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    Metal fume fever is not an uncommon syndrome among welders following exposure to oxidized metal fumes (usually zinc). The relationship of serum zinc level to the acute phase of this illness is not known. Two cases of metal fume fever, associated with elevated serum zinc levels, are presented. Further studies are necessary to determine the diagnostic usefulness of serum zinc levels in metal fume fever.

  6. Tropical fevers: Management guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Sunit; Chaudhary, Dhruva; Varghese, George M.; Bhalla, Ashish; Karthi, N.; Kalantri, S.; Peter, J. V.; Mishra, Rajesh; Bhagchandani, Rajesh; Munjal, M.; Chugh, T. D.; Rungta, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Tropical fevers were defined as infections that are prevalent in, or are unique to tropical and subtropical regions. Some of these occur throughout the year and some especially in rainy and post-rainy season. Concerned about high prevalence and morbidity and mortality caused by these infections, and overlapping clinical presentations, difficulties in arriving at specific diagnoses and need for early empiric treatment, Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM) constituted an expert committee to develop a consensus statement and guidelines for management of these diseases in the emergency and critical care. The committee decided to focus on most common infections on the basis of available epidemiologic data from India and overall experience of the group. These included dengue hemorrhagic fever, rickettsial infections/scrub typhus, malaria (usually falciparum), typhoid, and leptospira bacterial sepsis and common viral infections like influenza. The committee recommends a ‘syndromic approach’ to diagnosis and treatment of critical tropical infections and has identified five major clinical syndromes: undifferentiated fever, fever with rash / thrombocytopenia, fever with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), fever with encephalopathy and fever with multi organ dysfunction syndrome. Evidence based algorithms are presented to guide critical care specialists to choose reliable rapid diagnostic modalities and early empiric therapy based on clinical syndromes. PMID:24678147

  7. Rift Valley Fever, Mayotte, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D’Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    After the 2006–2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

  8. Rift Valley fever, Mayotte, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Sissoko, Daouda; Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D'Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

    2009-04-01

    After the 2006-2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

  9. Rift Valley fever vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, is a negative-stranded RNA virus carrying a tripartite RNA genome. RVFV is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes large outbreaks among ruminants and humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human patients develop an acute febrile illness, followed by a fatal hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or ocular diseases, whereas ruminants experience abortions during outbreak. Effective vaccination of both humans and ruminants is the best approach to control Rift Valley fever. This article summarizes the development of inactivated RVFV vaccine, live attenuated vaccine, and other new generation vaccines. PMID:19837291

  10. Non-destructive identification of green and yellow pigments: the case of some Sicilian Renaissance glazed pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, V.; Majolino, D.; Venuti, V.; Barone, G.; Mazzoleni, P.; Pezzino, A.; La Russa, M. F.; Ruffolo, S. A.; Bardelli, F.

    2010-09-01

    Selected decorated Renaissance ceramic fragments, found during the excavation of a Sicilian archaeological site (Caltagirone, Sicily, South Italy), have been studied by combining scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray absorbance spectroscopy (XAS). The study was aimed at providing microchemical and microstructural characterization of the colored glazed coatings in order to elucidate the nature of the pigments in the decorative layers, and in the glaze itself. From the obtained results, the general perspective has been the identification of information to be used for a reliable recognition of the production techniques. In particular, XAS measurements, performed using synchrotron radiation (SR) as the source at the Cu K-edge, in the case of green decorations, provided structural information of the oxidation states and the local chemical environment of copper (neighboring atoms and bond distances).

  11. [Chikungunya fever - A new global threat].

    PubMed

    Montero, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent and the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Islands, Asia and Europe. Due to their epidemiological and biological features and the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace and could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical and epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control and mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas. PMID:25087211

  12. Rift valley fever.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Gertruida H

    2002-11-01

    Rift Valley fever virus is an arthropod-borne Phlebovirus endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Outbreaks also have occurred in Egypt, Madagascar, and most recently in the Arabian peninsula. Large epizootics occur at irregular intervals in seasons of above-average rainfall with persistent flooding and the appearance of large numbers of floodwater-breeding Aedine mosquitoes. The virus is transmitted transovarially and can remain dormant in mosquito eggs during dry interepizootic periods. Low-level virus circulation occurs in high-rainfall forested areas, although individual cases of the disease rarely are recognized. RVF is characterized by abortion in pregnant animals and a high mortality in newborn lambs, kids, and calves. Susceptibility to disease is related to age and breed, with severe disease occurring in the young of exotic sheep and cattle breeds. RVF is a zoonosis, and human beings experience an influenza-like illness and, more rarely, complications such as encephalitis or retinitis. The virus causes a severe hepatitis, particularly in aborted fetuses and newborn lambs. The disease must be differentiated from other conditions that cause death with hepatitis and jaundice. Both an inactivated and a live attenuated vaccine are available. New-generation vaccines are being tested, because the existing mousebrain-attenuated strain induces fetal teratology or abortion in a percentage of pregnant animals. Diagnosis is based on histopathology or the demonstration of viral antigen or antibody. PMID:12442582

  13. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and its pathogen SFTSV.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Miao-Miao; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2015-02-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever in East Asia with case fatality up to 50%. SFTS is caused by SFTSV, a tick borne bunyavirus. In endemic area in China 1%-3% population was infected with SFTSV, but age is critical risk factor for hospitalization and death of SFTS patients. PMID:25498868

  14. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Zhai, Shenyong; Wen, Hongling; Cui, Feng; Chi, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ling; Xue, Fuzhong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Shoufeng; Song, Yanyan; Du, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, which results in severe illness and has a high case-fatality rate, is caused by a novel bunyavirus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. We found that samples from 2/237 (0.8%) healthy persons and 111/134 (83%) goats in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China, were seropositive for this virus. PMID:22608264

  15. An overview of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chinikar S; Goya MM; Zeinali M; Haeri A

    Crimean- Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic tick-born disease with a mortality rate of up to 50% in humans. After a short incubation period, the disease is characterized by sudden fever, chills, severe headache, dizziness, back, and abdominal pain. Additional symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, neuropsychiatric, and cardiovascular changes. In severe cases, hemorrhagic manifestations, ranging from petechiae

  16. Hyperendemic Focus of Q Fever Related to Sheep and Wind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herve Tissot-Dupont; Sylvie Torres; Meyer Nezri; Didier Raoult

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis which is caused by Coxiella burnetii and presents as both acute or chronic cases. The disease can be transmitted from animal reservoirs to humans by the inhalation of infected aerosols. The authors investigated the epidemiology of Q fever in the Bouches-du-Rhone district of southern France. The study area was centered around the small town

  17. Yellow Ribbon Application Yellow Ribbon Program

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    (Yellow Ribbon Program) is a provision of the Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 the same amount as the institution. The Post-9/11 GI Bill pays up to the highest public in an additional charge to your entitlement. I am 100% eligible for Ch.33 Post 9/11 Veterans Education Benefit

  18. Access, acceptability and utilization of community health workers using diagnostics for case management of fever in Ugandan children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Use of diagnostics in integrated community case management (iCCM) of fever is recognized as an important step in improving rational use of drugs and quality of care for febrile under-five children. This study assessed household access, acceptability and utilization of community health workers (CHWs) trained and provided with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and respiratory rate timers (RRTs) to practice iCCM. Methods A total of 423 households with under-five children were enrolled into the study in Iganga district, Uganda. Households were selected from seven villages in Namungalwe sub-county using probability proportionate to size sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers in selected households. Data were entered into Epidata statistical software, and analysed using SPSS Statistics 17.0, and STATA version 10. Results Most (86%, 365/423) households resided within a kilometre of a CHW’s home, compared to 26% (111/423) residing within 1 km of a health facility (p?

  19. Duodenal string test in typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Antony, T J; Patwari, A K; Anand, V K; Pillai, P K; Aneja, S; Sharma, D

    1993-05-01

    Twenty five children between 4-12 years of age hospitalized with a clinical diagnosis of enteric fever were studied for evaluating the practicality and sensitivity of duodenal string-capsule culture (DSCC) and compared with conventional cultures from blood (BC), urine (UC) and stool (SC). Duodenal string capsule (DSCC) was successfully inserted in 18 patients (72%). Insertion of DSCC failed in 7 patients (28%) and all of them were below 6 years of age. Salmonella typhi was isolated from DSCC and/or BC in 13 cases (72.2%). DSCC was positive in 11 out of 13 confirmed cases of typhoid fever (84.6%). BC was positive in 8 cases (61.5%). DSCC was successful in isolating the organism in about 30% more cases than BC. Duodenal string test was a simple, non-invasive and a reliable test which when used in combination with BC could identify almost all cases of enteric fever irrespective of duration of fever and prior use of antibiotics. PMID:8282391

  20. Modeling valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) incidence on the basis of climate conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Korine N. Kolivras; Andrew C. Comrie

    2003-01-01

    Valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) is a disease endemic to arid regions within the Western Hemisphere, and is caused by a soil-dwelling fungus, Coccidioides immitis. Incidence data for Pima County, reported to the Arizona Department of Health Services as new cases of valley fever, were used to conduct exploratory analyses and develop monthly multivariate models of relationships between valley fever incidence and

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Statistical modeling of valley fever data in Kern County,

    E-print Network

    Zender, Charles

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Statistical modeling of valley fever data in Kern County, California Jorge October 2006 / Published online: 21 November 2006 # ISB 2006 Abstract Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever of cases in the endemic areas. We present here an attempt at the modeling of valley fever incidence in Kern

  2. The economic impact of dengue hemorrhagic fever on family level in Southern Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mette Lřnstrup Harving; Ho Chi

    Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes (Aedes Aegypti). WHO estimates that 40% of the world's population live in areas endemic for dengue fever, and that there are approximately 50 million cases of dengue in- fection worldwide every year. This study aims to measure the economic consequences of dengue hemor- rhagic fever in Southern Vietnam on family level.

  3. Childbed Fever A Nineteenth-Century Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christa Colyer

    1999-01-01

    This case describes the pioneering work of Ignaz Semmelweis and his efforts to remedy the problem of childbed fever in mid-19th century Europe.  Its purpose is to teach students about the scientific method by “dissecting” the various steps involved in this important, historical medical breakthrough. The case is an interrupted case, that is, students receive only one piece of information at a time, followed by discussion, before moving on to the next piece of information to solve the mystery.

  4. Using Thematic Mapper data for change detection and sustainable use of cultivated land: a case study in the Yellow River delta, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. X. Zhao; G. Lin; T. Warner

    2004-01-01

    Preservation of cultivated land is one of China's four basic strategic policies. Timely land use monitoring is a prerequisite of cultivated land management and sustainable utilization. Using digital satellite remote sensing techniques, the intention is to develop a workable procedure for cultivated land change detection in the Yellow River delta region. Four detection methods were assessed. The assessment, in general,

  5. Use of activated carbons prepared from sawdust and rice-husk for adsorption of acid dyes: a case study of Acid Yellow 36

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Malik

    2003-01-01

    Activated carbons, prepared from low-cost mahogany sawdust and rice husk have been utilized as the adsorbents for the removal of acid dyes from aqueous solution. An acid dye, Acid Yellow 36 has been used as the adsorbate. Results show that a pH value of 3 is favourable for the adsorption of acid dye. The isothermal data could be well described

  6. Imported Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Tattevin, Pierre; Tarantola, Arnaud; Legay, François; Tall, Adama; Nabeth, Pierre; Zeller, Hervé; Michelet, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease that may also be transmitted through person-to-person transmission by exposure to infected body fluids. Despite its wide geographic distribution in animals, CCHF virus is rarely associated with recognized human diseases. We report the first case of imported CCHF in France. PMID:16145173

  7. Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treat them, and when to call your doctor. Fever Facts Fever happens when the body's internal "thermostat" ... place for them. View Survey Continue Causes of Fever It's important to remember that fever by itself ...

  8. Pathogenesis of Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Yun, Nadezhda E; Walker, David H

    2012-10-01

    Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host's immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents. PMID:23202452

  9. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks in Gabon, 1994–1997: Epidemiologic and Health Control Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Baize

    1999-01-01

    From the end of 1994 to the beginning of 1995, 49 patients with hemorrhagic symptoms were hospitalized in the Makokou General Hospital in northeastern Gabon. Yellow fever (YF) virus was first diagnosed in serum by use of polymerase chain reaction followed by blotting, and a vaccination campaign was immediately instituted. The epidemic, known as the fall 1994 epidemic, ended 6

  10. The Pathogenesis of Rift Valley Fever

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonotic disease distributed in sub-Saharan African countries and the Arabian Peninsula. The disease is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) of the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, and virus replication in domestic ruminant results in high rates of mortality and abortion. RVFV infection in humans usually causes a self-limiting, acute and febrile illness; however, a small number of cases progress to neurological disorders, partial or complete blindness, hemorrhagic fever, or thrombosis. This review describes the pathology of RVF in human patients and several animal models, and summarizes the role of viral virulence factors and host factors that affect RVFV pathogenesis. PMID:21666766

  11. Texas Fever (Third Report).

    E-print Network

    Francis, M. (Mark)

    1908-01-01

    , Texas. Reports and bulletins are sent free upon application to the Director. TEXAS FEVER DUUlt: of hi$ and t tion, . - 7, become that fe occurs If n:als degre by el Tf +hi (Third Report.) BY M. FRANCIS, Veterinarian Twenty years ago... the authorities of the Texas Experiment Station de- cided to take up the Texas Fever problem, and, if possible, work out (.Am - plan by which the discouraging losses that followed the importation gh-class cattle for breeding purposes, could be avoided...

  12. Evaluation of dengue fever reports during an epidemic, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Vega, Liliana; Pacheco, Oscar; de la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando; Díaz-Quijano, Fredi Alexander

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the validity of dengue fever reports and how they relate to the definition of case and severity. METHODS Diagnostic test assessment was conducted using cross-sectional sampling from a universe of 13,873 patients treated during the fifth epidemiological period in health institutions from 11 Colombian departments in 2013. The test under analyses was the reporting to the National Public Health Surveillance System, and the reference standard was the review of histories identified by active institutional search. We reviewed all histories of patients diagnosed with dengue fever, as well as a random sample of patients with febrile syndromes. The specificity and sensitivity of reports were estimated for this purpose, considering the inverse of the probability of being selected for weighting. The concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search was calculated using Kappa statistics. RESULTS We included 4,359 febrile patients, and 31.7% were classified as compatible with dengue fever (17 with severe dengue fever; 461 with dengue fever and warning signs; 904 with dengue fever and no warning signs). The global sensitivity of reports was 13.2% (95%CI 10.9;15.4) and specificity was 98.4% (95%CI 97.9;98.9). Sensitivity varied according to severity: 12.1% (95%CI 9.3;14.8) for patients presenting dengue fever with no warning signs; 14.5% (95%CI 10.6;18.4) for those presenting dengue fever with warning signs, and 40.0% (95%CI 9.6;70.4) for those with severe dengue fever. Concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search resulted in a Kappa of 10.1%. CONCLUSIONS Low concordance was observed between reporting and the review of clinical histories, which was associated with the low reporting of dengue fever compatible cases, especially milder cases. PMID:26039392

  13. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever Fact sheet N°208 January 2013 Key facts The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus causes severe viral haemorrhagic ... the principal tick vector. The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in animals and ticks The hosts of ...

  14. Mapping dengue fever transmission risk in the Aburrá Valley, Colombia

    E-print Network

    Arboleda, Sair; Jaramillo-O, Nicolas; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2009-12-02

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in Medellín, the second largest Colombian city, and surrounding municipalities. We used DF case and satellite environmental data to investigate conditions associated with suitable areas for DF occurrence in 2008 in three...

  15. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients. PMID:22668446

  16. Malignant Catarrhal Fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal viral disease of ruminant species, particularly cattle, bison, and deer. Clinical signs vary between species. Two major epidemiologic types of MCF exist, and are defined by the ruminant species that serve as natural reservoir hosts for infection...

  17. Q Fever Subunit Vaccine 

    E-print Network

    Cowen, Caitlyn

    2014-12-12

    and effective vaccine against Q fever remains a priority in reducing the global impact this bacteria has on both livestock and human health. The goal of this project is to isolate and purify dominant antigenic Coxiella proteins expressed in Escherichia coli...

  18. Asplenia and fever

    PubMed Central

    Milota, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    A 45-year-old-man presented with the abrupt onset of a fever over 30 years after surgical splenectomy. He presented with symptoms and findings that seemed consistent with influenza. He rapidly developed fulminant meningitis that resulted in his death. PMID:26130882

  19. Altered mental status and fever

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Tokunbo; Bhatia, Ashmeet; Lambl, Barbara; Altamimi, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is still the most common cause of neuroinvasive arboviral disease in the USA with a case death of 10–30%. We are reporting a case of a 61-year-old woman with a history of Crohn's disease, fibromyalgia treated with chronic steroid therapy that presented with a day history of fever, confusion and lethargy. She had a lumbar puncture which was notable for lymphocytosis and was positive for WNV. She initially was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which were subsequently discontinued when the diagnosis of WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND) was made. A high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose WNND, and this should be suspected in elderly immunocompromised patient presenting with altered mental status and lumbar puncture suggestive of aseptic meningitis. Recent study has showed that there is genetic variation in the interferon response pathway which is associated with both risk for symptomatic WNV infection and disease progression. PMID:23813996

  20. Plants animals jha DSN FS-6700-7 (2/98) NOTE: Any yellow text shading or red text annotations have been added by ORNL Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). The annotations have been made

    E-print Network

    1 Plants animals jha DSN FS-6700-7 (2/98) NOTE: Any yellow text shading or red text annotations is an especially effector vector. See a physician if unusual fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pains

  1. Leptospirosis presenting as honeymoon fever.

    PubMed

    de Sainte Marie, B; Delord, M; Dubourg, G; Gautret, P; Parola, P; Brouqui, P; Lagier, J C

    2015-05-01

    An increasing number of travelers from western countries visit tropical regions, questioning western physicians on the prophylaxis, the diagnosis and the therapeutic management of patients with travel-associated infection. In July 2014, a French couple stayed for an adventure-travel in Columbia without malaria prophylaxis. A week after their return the woman presented with fever, myalgia, and retro-orbital pain. Three days later, her husband presented similar symptoms. In both patients, testing for malaria, arboviruses and blood cultures remained negative. An empirical treatment with doxycycline and ceftriaxone was initiated for both patients. Serum collected from the female patient yielded positive IgM for leptospirosis but was negative for her husband. Positive Real-Time PCR were observed in blood and urine from both patients, confirming leptospirosis. Three lessons are noteworthy from this case report. First, after exclusion of malaria, as enteric fever, leptospirosis and rickettsial infection are the most prevalent travel-associated infections, empirical treatment with doxycycline and third generation cephalosporin should be considered. In addition, the diagnosis of leptospirosis requires both serology and PCR performed in both urine and blood samples. Finally, prophylaxis using doxycycline, also effective against leptospirosis, rickettsial infections or travellers' diarrhea should be recommended for adventure travelers in malaria endemic areas. PMID:25835103

  2. Pontiac fever: an operational definition for epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Tossa, Paul; Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Hartemann, Philippe; Mathieu, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    Background Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. Methods A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. Results The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days). 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122–0.127]). A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 104.L-1 (FISH method) was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04). Conclusion Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of Legionella. PMID:16646972

  3. Chikungunya Fever in Los Angeles, California

    PubMed Central

    Harter, Katherine R.; Bhatt, Sanjay; Kim, Hyung T.; Mallon, William K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old woman returning from Haiti, presenting to our emergency department (ED) with fever, rash and arthralgia. Following a broad workup that included laboratory testing for dengue and malaria, our patient was diagnosed with Chikungunya virus, which was then reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for initiation of infection control. This case demonstrates the importance of the ED for infectious disease case identification and initiation of public health measures. This case also addresses public health implications of Chikungunya virus within the United States, and issues related to the potential for local spread and autochthonous cases. PMID:25493131

  4. Q fever in Japan: an update review.

    PubMed

    Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Czaplicki, Guy; Mainil, Jacques; Horii, Yoichiro; Misawa, Naoaki; Saegerman, Claude

    2011-05-01

    As neglected zoonosis for many years, Q fever is now ubiquitous in Japan. Similarly to elsewhere in the world, domestic animals are considered to be important reservoirs of the causal agent, Coxiella burnetii, a resistant intracellular bacterium. Infected animals shed bacteria in milk, feces, urine, vaginal mucous and birth products. Inhalation of bacteria present in the environment is the main route of animal and human infection. Shedding of C. burnetii in milk by domestic ruminants has a very limited impact as raw milk is seldom ingested by the Japanese population. The clinical expression of Q fever in Japan is similar to its clinical expression elsewhere. However clinical cases in children are more frequently reported in this country. Moreover, C. burnetii is specified as one of the causative organisms of atypical pneumonia in the Japanese Respiratory Society Guideline for the management of community-acquired pneumonia. In Japan, C. burnetii isolates are associated with acute illness and are mainly of moderate to low virulence. Cats are considered a significant source of C. burnetii responsible for human outbreaks in association with the presence of infected parturient cats. Since its recognition as a reportable disease in 1999, 7-46 clinical cases of Q fever have been reported by year. The epidemiology of Q fever in Japan remains to be elucidated and the exact modes of transmission are still unproven. Important further research is necessary to improve knowledge of the disease itself, the endogenous hosts and reservoirs, and the epidemiological cycle of coxiellosis in Japan. PMID:21146331

  5. [The ocular fundus findings in dengue fever].

    PubMed

    Wen, K H; Sheu, M M; Chung, C B; Wang, H Z; Chen, C W

    1989-01-01

    From September to December of 1988, 24 cases of clinical diagnosed dengue fever accompanied by visual disturbances were studied. A detailed history and a detailed ocular examination including visual acuity, slit lamp examination, fundus examination through dilated pupil and fluorescein angiography were conducted. In some cases, Amsler grid, visual field, visual evoked potential and color vision test were also evaluated. The chief complaints of these 24 patients were blurred vision, central scotoma, floaters, photophobia and halo vision. The intervals between onset of fever and awareness of blurred vision were 2 to 15 days with an average of 7.26 days. The ocular fundus changes included macular hemorrhage, retinal hemorrhage, maculopathy, Roth's spot, diffuse retinal edema, peripapillary hemorrhage vitreous cells and blurring optic disc. The fluorescein angiographic findings included poor choroidal flushing, delayed disc filling, disc extravasation, block fluorescence, capillary obliteration, non filling of macular network, capillary leakage and window defect. Seventeen cases (30 eyes) were followed-up for 2 weeks to 3 months. Visual recovery was good in most of the cases. However, 2 cases (4 eyes) showed poor visual outcome. In this series studied, the principle ocular fundus change caused by dengue fever was macular hemorrhage. This may be due to the capillary changes near the macular area. But in some of the cases, the direct viral invasion and/or indirect changes of the optic nerve, the retinal pigment epithelium or photoreceptors should be considered. PMID:2733064

  6. Vaccine Platforms to Control Arenaviral Hemorrhagic Fevers.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Ricardo; Bredenbeek, Peter; Jiang, Xiaohong; Tretyakova, Irina; Pushko, Peter; Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-11-20

    Arenaviruses are rodent-borne emerging human pathogens. Diseases caused by these viruses, e.g., Lassa fever (LF) in West Africa and South American hemorrhagic fevers (HFs), are serious public health problems in endemic areas. We have employed replication-competent and replication-deficient strategies to design vaccine candidates potentially targeting different groups "at risk". Our leader LF vaccine candidate, the live reassortant vaccine ML29, is safe and efficacious in all tested animal models including non-human primates. In this study we showed that treatment of fatally infected animals with ML29 two days after Lassa virus (LASV) challenge protected 80% of the treated animals. In endemic areas, where most of the target population is poor and many live far from health care facilities, a single-dose vaccination with ML29 would be ideal solution. Once there is an outbreak, a fast-acting vaccine or post-exposure prophylaxis would be best. The 2(nd) vaccine technology is based on Yellow Fever (YF) 17D vaccine. We designed YF17D-based recombinant viruses expressing LASV glycoproteins (GP) and showed protective efficacy of these recombinants. In the current study we developed a novel technology to clone LASV nucleocapsid within YF17D C gene. Low immunogenicity and stability of foreign inserts must be addressed to design successful LASV/YFV bivalent vaccines to control LF and YF in overlapping endemic areas of West Africa. The 3(rd) platform is based on the new generation of alphavirus replicon virus-like-particle vectors (VLPV). Using this technology we designed VLPV expressing LASV GP with enhanced immunogenicity and bivalent VLPV expressing cross-reactive GP of Junin virus (JUNV) and Machupo virus (MACV), causative agents of Argentinian and Bolivian HF, respectively. A prime-boost regimen required for VLPV immunization might be practical for medical providers, military, lab personnel, and visitors in endemic areas. PMID:23420494

  7. Control of Eggplant Yellows.

    E-print Network

    Jones, S. E. (Sloan Earle)

    1942-01-01

    AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Eggplants grown during the late summer and fall months in South and Central Texas are usually affected with a disease commonly called "eggplant yellows," which may... the green color in the plant. The contrast of yellow and green in an eggplant field is apparent at a considerable distance. The disease is infectious and appears to be caused by a virus, but the method of naQural transmission is not yet known. The most...

  8. The Incidence of Fever after Subinguinal Microsurgical Varicocelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyunsoo; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we aimed to identify the incidence of fever in patients after subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy and to evaluate the clinical factors associated with the occurrence of the fever. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of patients who underwent subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (group A) under spinal anesthesia. In addition, we reviewed the cases of patients who underwent microsurgical vasovasostomy under spinal anesthesia as a control group (group B). The incidence of fever in each group was compared. We investigated the clinical factors influencing the occurrence of fever in the patients of group A. Results The incidence of fever in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (32.5% [53/163] vs. 0.4% [1/284]; p<0.001). Clinical factors such as age, varicocele grade, weight, height, operation time, number of ligated veins, usage of immediate postoperative analgesics, presence of postoperative hematoma, and duration of hospital stay were not significantly associated with the occurrence of fever. Conclusions We found that one-third of the patients developed transient fever after subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy, and therefore, this information should be provided during preoperative counseling. PMID:24872953

  9. Fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Mulders-Manders, Catharina; Simon, Anna; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    More than 50 years after the first definition of fever of unknown origin (FUO), it still remains a diagnostic challenge. Evaluation starts with the identification of potential diagnostic clues (PDCs), which should guide further investigations. In the absence of PDCs a standardised diagnostic protocol should be followed with PET-CT as the imaging technique of first choice. Even with a standardised protocol, in a large proportion of patients from western countries the cause for FUO cannot be identified. The treatment of FUO is guided by the final diagnosis, but when no cause is found, antipyretic drugs can be prescribed. Corticosteroids should be avoided in the absence of a diagnosis, especially at an early stage. The prognosis of FUO is determined by the underlying cause. The majority of patients with unexplained FUO will eventually show spontaneous remission of fever. We describe the definition, diagnostic workup, causes and treatment of FUO. PMID:26031980

  10. Rift Valley fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Gerdes

    2004-01-01

    Summary Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease of ruminants, camels and humans. It is also a significant zoonosis which may be encountered as an uncomplicated influenza-like illness, but may also present as a haemorrhagic disease with liver involvement; there may also be ocular or neurological lesions. In animals, RVF may be inapparent in non-pregnant adults, but outbreaks

  11. Photo yellowing of human hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. S. Nogueira; M. Richena; L. E. Dicelio; I. Joekes

    2007-01-01

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white,

  12. Treatment of enteric fever.

    PubMed

    Arjyal, Amit; Pandit, Anil

    2008-01-01

    Enteric fever is systemic illness caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, B and C. It is believed to be a readily treatable illness by many clinicians in the developing world where it is endemic; however, with the emergence of drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, treatment is becoming increasingly difficult. While drugs such as cefixime, previously believed to be effective, have been proven otherwise, new agents such as gatifloxacin and azithromycin have proven to be promising. Re-emergence of chloramphenicol sensitive strains in previously resistant areas points towards the concept of antibiotic recycling, preserving the use of older antibiotics. Antibiotic recycling has been used successfully in hospital settings. However, its usefulness in community settings, where the main burden of enteric fever resides, is challenging to manage due to logistics and a lack of infrastructure. Nalidixic acid resistance used to be a marker for clinical response to flouroquinolones; however, recent studies highlight the importance of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility as a better marker. Enteric fever, as a public health problem, has been tackled by protection of food and water supplies in the industrialised countries of the world. Nonetheless, that goal seems too far-fetched in the developing world where there are hundreds of villages, towns and cities without adequate infrastructures. Perhaps the key to solving this problem is combining point-of-use-purification of water (by chlorination) with the treatment of illness in the community. Treatment of chronic carriers is also necessary in order to halt the cycles of transmission. PMID:19745518

  13. Q Fever with Unusual Exposure History: A Classic Presentation of a Commonly Misdiagnosed Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nett, Randall J.; Book, Earl; Anderson, Alicia D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the case of a man presumptively diagnosed and treated for Rocky Mountain spotted fever following exposure to multiple ticks while riding horses. The laboratory testing of acute and convalescent serum specimens led to laboratory confirmation of acute Q fever as the etiology. This case represents a potential tickborne transmission of Coxiella burnetii and highlights the importance of considering Q fever as a possible diagnosis following tick exposures. PMID:22848855

  14. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 35-2014: a 31-year-old woman with fevers, chest pain, and a history of HCV infection and substance-use disorder.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Sarah E; Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Dudzinski, David M; Wilens, Timothy; Slavin, Peter L

    2014-11-13

    A 31-year-old woman with substance-use disorder was admitted to this hospital because of fevers and chest pain. CT of the chest revealed multiple thick-walled nodular opacities throughout both lungs. Diagnostic tests were performed, and management decisions were made. PMID:25390743

  15. Fever, jaundice and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Sam M; Pathak, Neha; Toms, Graham C; Gelding, Susan V; Sivaprakasam, Venkat

    2015-02-01

    Leptospirosis is an uncommon infectious disease that has protean clinical manifestations ranging from an innocuous 'flu-like' illness to potentially life-threatening multi-organ failure. Here we describe a case of Weil's disease that presented on the acute medical take with fever, jaundice and acute renal failure. We highlight the importance of careful history taking at the time of admission and how understanding the epidemiology and pathophysiology of leptospirosis enables a definitive diagnosis to be reached. PMID:25650200

  16. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF DENGUE FEVER\\/DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN THAILAND AT THE FAMILY AND POPULATION LEVELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIELLE V. CLARK; MAMMEN P. MAMMEN JR.; ANANDA NISALAK; VIRAT PUTHIMETHEE; TIMOTHY P. ENDY

    2005-01-01

    Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever constitute a substantial health burden on the population in Thailand. In this study, the impact of symptomatic dengue virus infection on the families of patients hospitalized at the Kamphaeng Phet Provincial Hospital with laboratory-confirmed dengue in 2001 was assessed, and the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost for fatal and non-fatal cases of dengue were

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Borrelia hermsii Associated with Two Foci of Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in California

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Curtis L.; Bronson, Lawrence R.; Smith, Charles R.; Schriefer, Martin E.; Tucker, James R.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2004-01-01

    Relapsing fever, caused by the spirochete Borrelia hermsii and transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi, is endemic in many rural mountainous areas of California. Between 1996 and 1998, 12 cases of relapsing fever associated with two exposure sites in northern California were investigated. Follow-up at exposure sites included collection of soft ticks and serum specimens from sylvatic rodents. Attempts to cultivate spirochetes were made through inoculation of patient blood into mice and by feeding Ornithodoros ticks on mice. Three isolates of B. hermsii were recovered from two blood specimens and one pool of ticks. The protein and plasmid profiles of the three isolates were comparable to those of previous B. hermsii isolates from the western United States. Western immunoblotting of patient sera demonstrated an expanding immunologic response to antigens within four distinct molecular weight regions by 3 to 4 weeks postonset. Antibody to B. hermsii was detected in sera from 4 of 11 yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus); no other rodent species collected were seropositive. PMID:15004063

  18. Isolation and characterization of Borrelia hermsii associated with two foci of tick-borne relapsing fever in California.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Curtis L; Bronson, Lawrence R; Smith, Charles R; Schriefer, Martin E; Tucker, James R; Schwan, Tom G

    2004-03-01

    Relapsing fever, caused by the spirochete Borrelia hermsii and transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi, is endemic in many rural mountainous areas of California. Between 1996 and 1998, 12 cases of relapsing fever associated with two exposure sites in northern California were investigated. Follow-up at exposure sites included collection of soft ticks and serum specimens from sylvatic rodents. Attempts to cultivate spirochetes were made through inoculation of patient blood into mice and by feeding Ornithodoros ticks on mice. Three isolates of B. hermsii were recovered from two blood specimens and one pool of ticks. The protein and plasmid profiles of the three isolates were comparable to those of previous B. hermsii isolates from the western United States. Western immunoblotting of patient sera demonstrated an expanding immunologic response to antigens within four distinct molecular weight regions by 3 to 4 weeks postonset. Antibody to B. hermsii was detected in sera from 4 of 11 yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus); no other rodent species collected were seropositive. PMID:15004063

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Familial Mediterranean fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Familial Mediterranean fever On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed June 2014 What is familial Mediterranean fever? Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited condition characterized ...

  20. Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diagnosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Pontiac Fever Pontiac fever can be confirmed by urine antigen or paired ... special media) cannot be used to diagnose Pontiac fever. Most people with Legionnaires' disease will have pneumonia ( ...

  1. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) On this Page What ... How is HFRS prevented? Suggested Reading What is hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome? Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome ( ...

  2. Modeling spatio-temporal risk changes in the incidence of Dengue fever in Saudi Arabia: a geographical information system case study.

    PubMed

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit; Elzahrany, Ramze A

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to use geographical information systems to demonstrate the Dengue fever (DF) risk on a monthly basis in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia with the purpose to provide documentation serving to improve surveillance and monitor the Aedes aegypti mosquito vector. Getis-Ord Gi* statistics and a frequency index covering a five-year period (2006-2010) were used to map DF and model the risk spatio-temporally. The results show that monthly hotspots were mainly concentrated in central Jeddah districts and that the pattern changes considerably with time. For example, on a yearly basis, for the month of January, the Burman district was identified as a low risk area in 2006, a high-risk area in 2007, medium risk in 2008, very low risk in 2009 and low risk in 2010. The results demonstrate that it would be useful to follow the monthly DF pattern, based on the average weekly frequency, as this can facilitate the allocation of resources for the treatment of the disease, preventing its prevalence and monitoring its vector. PMID:22109865

  3. Effective Vaccine for Lassa Fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Fisher-Hoch; L. Hutwagner; B. Brown; J. B. McCormick

    2000-01-01

    Lassa fever has been estimated to cause 5,000 deaths annually in West Africa. Recently, war in the zone where Lassa fever is hyperendemic has severely impeded control and treatment. Vaccination is the most viable control measure. There is no correlation between antibody levels and outcome in human patients, and inactivated vaccines produce high titers of antibodies to all viral proteins

  4. Fever in Infants and Children

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Fever in Infants and Children See complete list of charts. Because young children are not able to hold a thermometer in their ... two months of age or younger with a fever of 100.4° or higher? Yes This may ...

  5. Familial Q fever clustering with variable manifestations imitating infectious and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Abu Rmeileh, A; Khoury, T; Meir, K; Drori, A; Shalit, M; Benenson, S; Elinav, H

    2015-05-01

    Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, can present as an outbreak of acute disease ranging from asymptomatic disease, pneumonia, hepatitis or fever of unknown origin, which can progress to a chronic disease, most frequently endocarditis. The occurrence of Q fever within families is rarely described, and in most cases presents with uniform acute disease manifestations. Here we present a familial cluster of Q fever presenting as highly variable synchronous manifestations in four of five family members, including prolonged fever of unknown origin, asymptomatic carrier state, hepatitis, and chronic endocarditis developing in the absence of previous symptoms. This case series highlights the possibility of Q fever developing in cohabitated individuals with highly variable symptoms masking the common disease etiology. Screening of all exposed individuals, even those not clinically suspected to be infected, may enable to better identify, treat and prevent progression to chronic disease. PMID:25770747

  6. Dengue fever, Hawaii, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Effler, Paul V; Pang, Lorrin; Kitsutani, Paul; Vorndam, Vance; Nakata, Michele; Ayers, Tracy; Elm, Joe; Tom, Tammy; Reiter, Paul; Rigau-Perez, José G; Hayes, John M; Mills, Kristin; Napier, Mike; Clark, Gary G; Gubler, Duane J

    2005-05-01

    Autochthonous dengue infections were last reported in Hawaii in 1944. In September 2001, the Hawaii Department of Health was notified of an unusual febrile illness in a resident with no travel history; dengue fever was confirmed. During the investigation, 1,644 persons with locally acquired denguelike illness were evaluated, and 122 (7%) laboratory-positive dengue infections were identified; dengue virus serotype 1 was isolated from 15 patients. No cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever or shock syndrome were reported. In 3 instances autochthonous infections were linked to a person who reported denguelike illness after travel to French Polynesia. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Hawaiian isolates were closely associated with contemporaneous isolates from Tahiti. Aedes albopictus was present in all communities surveyed on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai; no Ae. aegypti were found. This outbreak underscores the importance of maintaining surveillance and control of potential disease vectors even in the absence of an imminent disease threat. PMID:15890132

  7. Dengue Fever, Hawaii, 2001–2002

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Lorrin; Kitsutani, Paul; Vorndam, Vance; Nakata, Michele; Ayers, Tracy; Elm, Joe; Tom, Tammy; Reiter, Paul; Rigau-Perez, José G.; Hayes, John M.; Mills, Kristin; Napier, Mike; Clark, Gary G.; Gubler, Duane J.

    2005-01-01

    Autochthonous dengue infections were last reported in Hawaii in 1944. In September 2001, the Hawaii Department of Health was notified of an unusual febrile illness in a resident with no travel history; dengue fever was confirmed. During the investigation, 1,644 persons with locally acquired denguelike illness were evaluated, and 122 (7%) laboratory-positive dengue infections were identified; dengue virus serotype 1 was isolated from 15 patients. No cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever or shock syndrome were reported. In 3 instances autochthonous infections were linked to a person who reported denguelike illness after travel to French Polynesia. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Hawaiian isolates were closely associated with contemporaneous isolates from Tahiti. Aedes albopictus was present in all communities surveyed on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai; no Ae. aegypti were found. This outbreak underscores the importance of maintaining surveillance and control of potential disease vectors even in the absence of an imminent disease threat. PMID:15890132

  8. Infection Control During Filoviral Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Vanessa, N Raabe; Matthias, Borchert

    2012-01-01

    Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg) hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website. PMID:22529631

  9. [Dengue fever in mainland France].

    PubMed

    Paty, M-C

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most widespread distributed vector borne viral disease. It is transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. With the expansion of Aedes albopictus and increasing travel exchange, it is no longer limited to the tropical zone and transmission has been documented in temperate areas. In mainland France, where Aedes albopictus has been present and disseminating since 2004, 2 episodes of autochthonous transmission occurred in 2010 and in 2013. Control measures against dengue and chikungunya, which shares the same vector, are implemented every year since 2006, in the areas where the vector is present. They aim at preventing or limiting local transmission of these diseases. They are based on epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control measures. The diagnosis of dengue, and chikungunya should be considered in case of suggestive symptoms in patients returning from an area of virus circulation. It should also be considered for patients living or having stayed in areas of mainland France where Aedes albopictus is present, during its activity period from May 1 to November 30. The prevention and control system, including vector control measures and the notification of cases to the local health authority should be known, as the risk of autochthonous transmission increases every year. PMID:25080833

  10. The value of the levels of acute phase reactants for the prediction of familial Mediterranean fever associated amyloidosis: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Yalçinkaya, F; Cakar, N; Acar, B; Tutar, E; Güriz, H; Elhan, A H; Oztürk, S; Kansu, A; Ince, E; Atalay, S; Girgin, N; Do?ru, U; Aysev, D; Ekim, M

    2007-04-01

    In order to determine the role of levels of acute phase proteins (APPs) for the development of amyloidosis in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients, the levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), C reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were measured in paired sera of 36 FMF patients during and in between acute attacks, 39 of their healthy parents (obligate heterozgotes), and 15 patients with FMF associated amyloidosis. To compare the levels of APPs, 39 patients with chronic infections or inflammatory diseases who may develop secondary amyloidosis, 20 patients with acute infections who are known to have elevated acute phase response but will never develop amyloidosis and 19 healthy controls were included. The median levels of all APPs are increased in the patients with FMF during attacks and a significant decrease was observed after the attack was over. The level of SAA was above reference range in all FMF patients during the attack free period and the level of at least one other APP was also above normal in 64% of the patients. Both CRP and SAA levels were found to be higher in obligate heterozygotes compared to controls. The levels of SAA in patients with FMF during the attack-free period, obligate heterozygotes and patients with FMF-amyloidosis were found to be similar. The levels in each group were found to be higher than SAA levels found in healthy controls yet lower than the levels measured in the patients with acute infections and patients with chronic inflammation or chronic infections. In conclusion, our results show that SAA level reflects subclinical inflammation with high sensitivity but its value for the prediction of amyloid formation process seems to be low. PMID:17103173

  11. In vivo endogenous spore formation by Coxiella burnetii in Q fever endocarditis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T F McCaul; A J Dare; J P Gannon; A J Galbraith

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To determine whether Coxiella burnetii, the aetiological agent of Q fever, undergoes endogenous spore-like formation, the crucial stage of the developmental cycle, in the infected cardiac valves of patients with chronic Q fever endocarditis. METHODS--Surgically removed valves from three cases of Q fever endocarditis were processed for electron microscopy. Sections were stained with potassium permanganate and uranyl acetate before being

  12. Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, X. H.; Wang, Y. D.; Hou, X. Y.

    2014-03-01

    China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005.

  13. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in typhoid fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona J. Cooke; John Wain

    2004-01-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella typhi, causes over 20 million cases annually, with at least 700,000 deaths. The main burden of disease is in developing countries, particularly the Indian Subcontinent and South East Asia. However, cases in returning travellers, immigrants and refugees in developed countries are not uncommon. Drug resistance is fast becoming a major problem in the management of

  14. Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: a case study in the Yellow River wetland in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tongqian; Xu, Huashan; He, Yuxiao; Tai, Chao; Meng, Hongqi; Zeng, Fanfu; Xing, Menglin

    2009-01-01

    Riparian wetland is the major transition zone of matter, energy and information transfer between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and has important functions of water purification and non-point pollution control. Using the field experiment method and an isotope tracing technique, the agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetland was studied in the Kouma Section of the Yellow River. The results showed that the retention of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution by riparian wetland soil occurs mainly in top 0-10 cm layer. The amount of nitrogen retained by surface soils associated with three types of vegetation are 0.045 mg/g for Phragmites communis Trin Linn, 0.036 mg/g for Scirpus triqueter Linn, and 0.032 mg/g for Typha angustifolia Linn, which account for 59.21%, 56.25%, and 56.14% of the total nitrogen interception, respectively. Exogenous nitrogen in 0-10 cm soil layer changes more quickly than in other layers. One month after adding K(15)NO3 to the tested vegetation, nitrogen content was 77.78% for P. communis Trin, 68.75% for T. angustifolia, and 8.33% for S. triqueter in the surface soil. After three months, nitrogen content was 93.33% for P. communis Trin, 72.22% for S. triqueter, and 37.50% for T. Angustifolia. There are large differences among vegetation communities respecting to purification of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution. The nitrogen uptake amount decreases in the sequence: new shoots of P. communis Trin (9.731 mg/g) > old P. communis Trin (4.939 mg/g) > S. triqueter (0.620 mg/g) > T. angustifolia (0.186 mg/g). Observations indicated that the presence of riparian wetlands as buffers on and adjacent to stream banks could be recommended to control agricultural non-point pollution. PMID:19862959

  15. Conflation and aggregation of spatial data improve predictive models for species with limited habitats: a case of the threatened yellow-billed cuckoo in Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; Van Riper, Charles, III; Petrakis, Roy E.

    2013-01-01

    Riparian vegetation provides important wildlife habitat in the Southwestern United States, but limited distributions and spatial complexity often leads to inaccurate representation in maps used to guide conservation. We test the use of data conflation and aggregation on multiple vegetation/land-cover maps to improve the accuracy of habitat models for the threatened western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis). We used species observations (n = 479) from a state-wide survey to develop habitat models from 1) three vegetation/land-cover maps produced at different geographic scales ranging from state to national, and 2) new aggregate maps defined by the spatial agreement of cover types, which were defined as high (agreement = all data sets), moderate (agreement ? 2), and low (no agreement required). Model accuracies, predicted habitat locations, and total area of predicted habitat varied considerably, illustrating the effects of input data quality on habitat predictions and resulting potential impacts on conservation planning. Habitat models based on aggregated and conflated data were more accurate and had higher model sensitivity than original vegetation/land-cover, but this accuracy came at the cost of reduced geographic extent of predicted habitat. Using the highest performing models, we assessed cuckoo habitat preference and distribution in Arizona and found that major watersheds containing high-probably habitat are fragmented by a wide swath of low-probability habitat. Focus on riparian restoration in these areas could provide more breeding habitat for the threatened cuckoo, offset potential future habitat losses in adjacent watershed, and increase regional connectivity for other threatened vertebrates that also use riparian corridors.

  16. MORE ON IRIS YELLOW SPOT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iris yellow spot, caused by Iris yellow spot tospovirus, is an emerging disease of onion in the U.S. and world. Yield losses vary, but may range from undetectable to nearly 100% in onion seed crops. This article presents recent advances in understanding the etiology, epidemiology, and management o...

  17. Photo yellowing of human hair.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, A C S; Richena, M; Dicelio, L E; Joekes, I

    2007-09-25

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white, dark-brown, blond and red hair. All hair types showed a substantial change in yellowness after irradiation, which is dependent on the hair type and radiation wavelength. Surprisingly, white hair turns less yellow after both full and UVB-filtered radiation exposure. This effect is more pronounced when UVB is filtered from the radiation system. The only radiation that shows a photo-yellowing effect on white hair is infrared. As the yellowness of white hair is commonly related to tryptophan degradation, fluorescence experiments with hair solutions were performed to identify the natural degradation of tryptophan which occurs in hair after light irradiation. Pigmented hairs were also studied, as well as hair treated with a bleaching solution. Although we observe a decrease in tryptophan content of hair after lamp radiation, a direct correlation with hair yellowness was not achieved. Results are discussed in terms of hair type, composition and melanin content. PMID:17627835

  18. fisheriesresearch Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is

    E-print Network

    Miller, Tom

    fisheriesresearch feature Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is an important ecological and economic in Lake Michigan: Evaluating Progress in a Cooperative Effort, 1997­2001 Yellow perch (Perca flavescens

  19. Q fever in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is present worldwide. Recent studies have shown that this bacterium is an emerging pathogen in French Guiana and has a high prevalence (24% of community-acquired pneumonia). In this review, we focus on the peculiar epidemiology of Q fever in French Guiana. We place it in the context of the epidemiology of the disease in the surrounding countries of South America. We also review the clinical features of Q fever in this region, which has severe initial presentation but low mortality rates. These characteristics seem to be linked to a unique genotype (genotype 17). Finally, we discuss the issue of the animal reservoir of C. burnetii in French Guiana, which is still unknown. Further studies are necessary to identify this reservoir. Identification of this reservoir will improve the understanding of the Q fever epidemic in French Guiana and will provide new tools to control this public health problem. PMID:25092817

  20. Treatment for Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Treatment for Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) How ... 4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO Fungal Diseases Types of Diseases Aspergillosis Definition Symptoms People at ...

  1. Humidifier fever 1

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    MRC Symposium (1977).Thorax, 32, 653-663. Humidifier fever. In enclosed environments, it may be necessary to regulate temperature, ventilation, and humidity to maintain comfortable working conditions. Several systems can be used although in terms of installation and running costs a simple radiator system is far more economical than air conditioning with complete temperature and humidity control. Humidity control requires the introduction of water into a moving current of air, and in such a system baffle plates are often used to eliminate large droplets; also any unused water is usually recirculated. Organic dust drawn into the system and settling on the baffle plates and in the mixing chamber may be utilised by micro-organisms introduced from the atmosphere and from the water supply, and a biomass builds up. Microbial material is then voided into the working atmosphere by the ventilation system. Under appropriate exposure conditions susceptible individuals may succumb to an episode of humidifier fever, an influenza-like illness with pyrexia and malaise as the main symptoms, but cough, chest tightness, dyspnoea and weight loss may also be seen. The episodes usually occur after absence from work for a few days and have been termed `Monday sickness'. Individuals are often able to return to work the next day and appear refractory to further exposure. The disease is of the winter months probably due to the larger amount (up to 90%) of fresh air drawn into the humidifier during the summer. In the blood of exposed subjects precipitins are usually present to extracts of baffle plate material and recirculating water although they are not necessarily indicative of disease. Skin tests may be positive and inhalation challenge has reproduced the disease in susceptible individuals. Many organisms may be isolated from baffle plates and recirculating water but only amoeba extracts have produced consistently positive reactions with sera from affected individuals. Remedial actions such as changing from water to steam humidification or running recirculation water to waste have proved effective in some factories. Other measures may be considered, for example, adding microbicidal agents or prefiltering intake air. The pyrexial episode may be due to immune complex-complement or alternative pathway-complement activation, inducing the release of leucocyte pyrogen; alternatively, sensitised lymphocytes can release lymphokines capable of inducing leucocyte pyrogen release.

  2. Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris A. Whitehouse

    2004-01-01

    Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which is a member of the Nairovirus genus (family Bunyaviridae). CCHF was first recognized during a large outbreak among agricultural workers in the mid-1940s in the Crimean peninsula. The disease now occurs sporadically throughout much of Africa, Asia, and Europe and results in

  3. Person-to-Person Transmission of Severe Fever With Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Bunyavirus Through Blood Contact

    PubMed Central

    Gai, Zhongtao; Liang, Mifang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Shuo; Jin, Cong; Wang, Shi-Wen; Sun, Lifeng; Zhou, Na; Zhang, Quanfu; Sun, Yulan; Ding, Shu-Jun; Li, Chuan; Gu, Wen; Zhang, Fushun; Wang, Yunshan; Bian, Pengfei; Li, Xiaoying; Wang, Zhiqiang; Song, Xiuguang; Wang, Xianjun; Xu, Aiqiang; Bi, Zhenqiang; Chen, Shijun

    2012-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus is a newly discovered bunyavirus with high pathogenicity to human. The transmission model has been largely uncharacterized. Investigation on a cluster of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome cases provided evidence of person-to-person transmission through blood contact to the index patient with high serum virus load. PMID:22095565

  4. Chronic meningococcemia presenting as a recurrent painful rash without Fever in a teenage girl.

    PubMed

    Bonville, Cynthia A; Suryadevara, Manika; Ajagbe, Olamide; Domachowske, Joseph B

    2015-06-01

    Chronic meningococcemia is a rare diagnosis seen in patients with recurrent fever and rash. We describe a case of chronic meningococcemia in a teenage girl who presented with a recurrent painful rash, without fever, over a period of 8 weeks. PMID:25970111

  5. Reevaluation of the risk of fetal death and malformation after q Fever.

    PubMed

    Million, Matthieu; Roblot, France; Carles, Dominiques; D'Amato, Felicetta; Protopopescu, Camelia; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Raoult, Didier

    2014-07-15

    A meta-analysis of 136 Q fever pregnancies, including 4 new cases and 7 population-based serological studies, revealed significant increases in fetal death and malformation after Q fever during pregnancy. This poor obstetric outcome is prevented by antibiotic treatment. PMID:24748522

  6. Pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever in rhesus monkeys: role of interferon response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Morrill; G. B. Jennings; A. J. Johnson; T. M. Cosgriff; P. H. Gibbs; C. J. Peters

    1990-01-01

    Summary Rhesus monkeys inoculated intravenously with Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus presented clinical disease syndromes similar to human cases of RVF. All 17 infected monkeys had high-titered viremias but disease ranged from clinically inapparent to death. Three (18%) RVF virus-infected monkeys developed signs of hemorrhagic fever characterized by epistaxis, petechial to purpuric cutaneous lesions, anorexia, and vomiting prior to death.

  7. Dengue fever with hemorrhagic manifestations in travellers returning to Quebec from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Duperval, Raymond; Frost, Eric H; Artsob, Harvey

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of dengue fever with hemorrhagic manifestations were observed in 1990 and 1992 among travellers returning from Asia, while a third presented with classical dengue fever after the patient’s first trip to an endemic region. All experienced rash, thrombocytopenia and coagulation disorders and had flavivirus serology consistent with exposure to dengue virus. PMID:22346452

  8. [Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers--pathogens, epidemiology and therapy].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers are severe, systemic viral diseases affecting humans and non-human primates. They are characterized by multiple symptoms such as hemorrhages, fever, headache, muscle and abdominal pain, chills, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Elevated liver-associated enzyme levels and coagulopathy are also associated with these diseases. Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers are caused by (Lake victoria) Marburg virus and different species of Ebola viruses, respectively. They are enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses and belong to the family of filoviridae. Case fatality rates of filovirus disease outbreaks are among the highest reported for any human pathogen, ranging from 25 to 90% or more. Outbreaks of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fever occur in certain regions of equatorial Africa at irregular intervals. Since 2000, the number of outbreaks has increased. In 2014, the biggest outbreak of a filovirus-induced hemorrhagic fever that has been documented so far occurred from March to July 2014 in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria. The outbreak was caused by a new variant of Zaire Ebola-Virus, affected more than 2600 people (stated 20 August) and was associated with case-fatality rates of up to 67% (Guinea). Treatment of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers is symptomatic and supportive, licensed antiviral agents are currently not available. Recently, BCX4430, a promising synthetic adenosine analogue with high in vitro and in vivo activity against filoviruses and other RNA viruses, has been described. BCX4430 inhibits viral RNA polymerase activity and protects cynomolgus macaques from Marburg virus infection when administered as late as 48 hours after infection. Nucleic acid-based products, recombinant vaccines and antibodies appear to be less suitable for the treatment of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers. PMID:25282746

  9. Fever, genes, and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Baulac, Stéphanie; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Nabbout, Rima; Huberfeld, Gilles; Serratosa, Jose; Leguern, Eric; Baulac, Michel

    2004-07-01

    About 13% of patients with epilepsy have a history of febrile seizures (FS). Studies of familial forms suggest a genetic component to the epidemiological link. Indeed, in certain monogenic forms of FS, for which several loci have been reported, some patients develop epilepsy with a higher risk than in the general population. Patients with generalised epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) can have typical and isolated FS, FS lasting more beyond age 6 years, and subsequent afebrile (typically generalised) seizures. Mutations associated with GEFS+ were identified in genes for subunits of the voltage-gated sodium channel and the gamma2 subunit of the ligand-gated GABAA receptor. Screening for these genes in patients with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy showed de novo mutations of the alpha1 subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel. Antecedent FS are commonly observed in temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE). In sporadic mesial TLE-characterised by the sequence of complex FS in childhood, hippocampal sclerosis, and refractory temporal-lobe seizures-association studies suggested the role of several susceptibility genes. Work on some large pedigrees also suggests that FS and temporal-lobe seizures may have a common genetic basis, whether hippocampus sclerosis is present or not. The molecular defects identified in the genetic associations of FS and epileptic seizures are very attractive models to aid our understanding of epileptogenesis and susceptibility to seizure-provoking factors, especially fever. PMID:15207799

  10. Acute rheumatic Fever and rheumatic heart disease among children - american samoa, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Amanda; Edison, Laura; Introcaso, Camille E; Goh, Lucy; Marrone, James; Mejia, Amelita; Beneden, Chris Van

    2015-05-29

    Acute rheumatic fever is a nonsuppurative, immune-mediated consequence of group A streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat). Recurrent or severe acute rheumatic fever can cause permanent cardiac valve damage and rheumatic heart disease, which increases the risk for cardiac conditions (e.g., infective endocarditis, stroke, and congestive heart failure). Antibiotics can prevent acute rheumatic fever if administered no more than 9 days after symptom onset. Long-term benzathine penicillin G (BPG) injections are effective in preventing recurrent acute rheumatic fever attacks and are recommended to be administered every 3-4 weeks for 10 years or until age 21 years to children who receive a diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever. During August 2013, in response to anecdotal reports of increasing rates of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease, CDC collaborated with the American Samoa Department of Health and the Lyndon B. Johnson Tropical Medical Center (the only hospital in American Samoa) to quantify the number of cases of pediatric acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in American Samoa and to assess the potential roles of missed pharyngitis diagnosis, lack of timely prophylaxis prescription, and compliance with prescribed BPG prophylaxis. Using data from medical records, acute rheumatic fever incidence was calculated as 1.1 and 1.5 cases per 1,000 children aged ?18 years in 2011 and 2012, respectively; 49% of those with acute rheumatic fever subsequently received a diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease. Noncompliance with recommended prophylaxis with BPG after physician-diagnosed acute rheumatic fever was noted for 22 (34%) of 65 patients. Rheumatic heart disease point prevalence was 3.2 cases per 1,000 children in August 2013. Establishment of a coordinated acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease control program in American Samoa, likely would improve diagnosis, treatment, and patient compliance with BPG prophylaxis. PMID:26020139

  11. Integrating biology into invasive species management is a key principle for eradication success: the case of yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, B D

    2015-04-01

    The lack of biological knowledge of many invasive species remains as one of the greatest impediments to their management. Here I detail targeted research into the biology of the yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes within northern Australia and detail how such knowledge can be used to improve the management outcomes for this species. I quantified nest location and density in three habitats, worker activity over 24 h, infestation expansion rate, seasonal variation of worker abundance and the timing of production of sexuals. Nests were predominantly (up to 68%) located at the bases of large trees, indicating that search efforts should focus around tree bases. Nest density was one nest per 22, 7.1 and 6.3 m2 in the three habitats, respectively. These data form the baselines for quantifying treatment efficacy and set sampling densities for post-treatment assessments. Most (60%) nests were underground, predominantly (89%) occurring in an open area rather than underneath a rock or log. Some seasonality was evident for nests within leaf litter, with most (83%) occurring during the 'wet season' (October-March). Of the underground nests, most were shallow, with 44% being less than 10 cm deep, and 67% being less than 20 cm deep. Such nest location and density information serves many management purposes, for improving detection, mapping and post-treatment assessments, and also provided strong evidence that carbohydrate supply was a major driver of A. gracilipes populations. Just over half of the nests (56%) contained queens. Of the 62 underground nests containing queens, most queens (80%) were located at the deepest chamber. When queens were present, most often (38%) only one queen was present, the most being 16. Queen number per nest was the lowest in July and August just prior to the emergence of virgin queens in September, with queen numbers then remaining steadily high until April. Nothing is known for any ant species about how the queen number per nest/colony affects treatment efficacy, but further research would no doubt yield important breakthroughs for treating ants. Activity occurred predominantly nocturnally, ceasing during mid-day. These activity data determined the critical threshold above which work must be conducted to be considered reliable, and also suggests that treatments are best applied in the afternoon. Total brood production peaked in February and was the lowest around August and September. These abundance data form the baselines for quantifying treatment efficacy, and may have implications for treatment efficacy. Males were found every month, predominantly between August and November. Queen pupae were found in September. The reproductive timing of sexuals determines the treatment schedule. Targeted, site-specific research such as that described here should be an integral part of any eradication program for invasive species to design knowledge-based treatment protocols and determine assessment benchmarks. PMID:25212433

  12. The prevalence of celiac disease among patients with familial mediterranean Fever.

    PubMed

    I?ikay, Sedat; I?ikay, Nurgül; Kocamaz, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Background Familial Mediterranean Fever and celiac disease are both related to auto-inflammation and/or auto-immunity and they share some common clinical features such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating and flatulence. Objectives We aimed to determine the association of these two diseases, if present. Methods Totally 112 patients diagnosed with Familial Mediterranean Fever and 32 cases as healthy control were included in the study. All participants were examined for the evidence of celiac disease, with serum tissue transglutaminase IgA levels (tTG IgA). Results Totally 144 cases, 112 with Familial Mediterranean Fever and 32 healthy control cases were included in the study. tTG IgA positivity was determined in three cases with Familial Mediterranean Fever and in one case in control group. In that aspect there was no significant difference regarding the tTG IgA positivity between groups (P=0.81). Duodenum biopsy was performed to the tTG IgA positive cases and revealed Marsh Type 3b in two Familial Mediterranean Fever cases and Marsh Type 3c in the other one while the biopsy results were of the only tTG IgA positive case in control group was Marsh Type 3b. In HLA evaluation of the celiac cases; HLA DQ2 was present in two celiac cases of the Familial Mediterranean Fever group and in the only celiac case of the control group while HLA DQ8 was present in one celiac case of the Familial Mediterranean Fever group. Conclusions We did not determine an association of Familial Mediterranean Fever with celiac disease. Larger studies with subgroup analysis are warranted to determine the relationship of these two diseases. PMID:26017084

  13. A unique Yellow River-derived distal subaqueous delta in the Yellow Sea

    E-print Network

    Liu, Paul

    A unique Yellow River-derived distal subaqueous delta in the Yellow Sea Z.S. Yang a , J.P. Liu b deposited around the eastern tip of the Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea. This clinoform deposit re-suspended and transported out of the Bohai Sea into the Yellow Sea. Overall, the Yellow River

  14. Aerosols Over Yellow Sea Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS image shows complex phytoplankton distribution patterns in the Bohai and Yellow seas. A wide band of brownish water along the coast north and south of the mouth of the Yangtze River indicates a heavy load of suspended sediment. The air over eastern central China and the Yellow Sea is thick with aerosols. Farther north over the Manchurian Plain and Greater Khingan Range, the air is much clearer.

  15. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, South Korea, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kye-Hyung; Yi, Jongyoun; Kim, Gayeon; Choi, Su Jin; Jun, Kang Il; Kim, Nak-Hyun; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Kim, Nam-Joong; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2013-01-01

    We report a retrospectively identified fatal case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in South Korea from 2012. SFTS virus was isolated from the stored blood of the patient. Phylogenetic analysis revealed this isolate was closely related to SFTS virus strains from China and Japan. PMID:24206586

  16. Malignant catarrhal fever in a Red Angus cow.

    PubMed

    Ricer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    A 3-year-old cow was presented with bilateral corneal edema, increased respiratory effort, nasal discharge, and pyrexia. Ovine herpesvirus-2 was detected, confirming malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). The findings from this case suggest that MCF should be included in the differential diagnosis of mature cattle with ocular and nasal lesions, especially when sheep are present on the farm. PMID:25565720

  17. Demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis following Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bonetti; S. Monaco; S. Ferrari; F. Tezzon; N. Rizzuto

    1991-01-01

    Neurological complications of Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever) are rare, although the occurrence of headache, paresthesias, and transient focal deficits has been reported. We report the case of a patient with a relapsing demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis as an aftermath of C. burnetii endocarditis and pneumonia.

  18. CAPRINE HERPESVIRUS 2 ASSOCIATED MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER IN DEER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A presumptive histopathologic diagnosis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was made in three cases of disease in Sika deer and white-tailed deer with various degrees of hair loss and skin lesions. Antibody against an epitope conserved among the MCF group viruses was detected in the serum of all dise...

  19. TRANSMISSION OF EPIDEMIC DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN EASTERNMOST INDONESIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NONO C. SUKRI; KANTI LARAS; TONI WANDRA; SUKMAN DIDI; RIA P. LARASATI; JOSEF R. RACHDYATMAKA; STEVIE OSOK; PETRUS TJIA; JOHN M. SARAGIH; SRI HARTATI; ERLIN LISTYANINGSIH; KEVIN R. PORTER; CHARMAGNE G. BECKETT; INGERANI S. PRAWIRA; NARAIN PUNJABI; SRI A. SUPARMANTO; H. JAMES BEECHAM; MICHAEL J. BANGS; ANDREW L. CORWIN

    In April 2001, a second suspected outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the easternmost region of Indonesia was investigated in Merauke, a town located in the southeastern corner of Papua, by the Indonesian Ministry of Health and the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2. Principal case criteria of hemorrhagic disease provided for a study enrollment of 15 clinically acute

  20. Kikuchi's disease: A benign cause of fever and cervical lymphadenopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna M. Boula; John G. Bizakis; George E. Tsirakis; Theognosia S. Chimona; Efstathios N. Stathopoulos; Michael G. Alexandrakis

    2005-01-01

    Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (Kikuchi's disease, KD) is a rare benign condition of unknown origin, usually characterized by lymphadenopathy and fever, affecting mainly young women. We describe three cases of patients, one man and two women, with biopsy-proven KD detected at our university hospital during the past 3 years and we review the literature.

  1. Guillain-Barre syndrome occurring during dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chandra Mohan; Kumawat, B L; Ralot, Tarun; Tripathi, Gautam; Dixit, Shailesh

    2011-09-01

    Various types of neurological manifestations are described in dengue fever, of which peripheral neuropathy is rarely reported. We are reporting such a case that presented with three days' history of fever and weakness of all the four limbs of two days' duration. On investigations it turned out to be acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) type of Guillain-Barre syndrome with decrease platelet counts and positive serology for dengue. All other causes of acute polyneuropathy were ruled out by history and relevant investigations. Patient improved with intravenous immunoglobulin and other supportive therapy. PMID:22480104

  2. Pylephlebitis After Colonic Polypectomy Causing Fever and Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    May, Gary; Kortan, Paul; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    Pylephlebitis is a rare condition with a high mortality risk if not recognized and treated early. The most common symptoms include fever and abdominal pain, with the majority of cases manifesting with a polymicrobial bacteremia. We report an elderly woman with pylephlebitis presenting with fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting, likely secondary to a polypectomy 6 weeks prior. Abdominal CT revealed portal vein thrombus and blood cultures grew Streptococcus milleri and Haemophilus parainfluenza type V. Pylephlebitis should be considered when symptoms and signs of infection develop following endoscopic procedures, particularly in patients with an underlying hypercoaguable disease.

  3. Familial Mediterranean Fever With Complete Symptomatic Remission During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Taek; Jang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jae Eun; Kim, Mi Kang; Yoo, Jun Jae; Lee, Gye Yeon; Kae, Sea Hyub; Lee, Jin

    2015-07-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder, ethnically restricted and commonly found among populations surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. FMF is the most prevalent autoinflammatory disease; is characterized by recurrent, self-limited episodes of fever with serositis; and is caused by Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV) mutations on chromosome 16. We describe a case of adult-onset FMF with complete symptomatic remission during pregnancy, without the use of colchicine. A 25-year-old woman had presented with periodic fever, abdominal pain, and vomiting since she was 21. Her abdominal computed tomography scan showed intestinal nonrotation. She underwent exploratory laparotomy and appendectomy for her symptoms 1 year prior. She had a symptom-free pregnancy period, but abdominal pain and fever recurred after delivery. Mutation analysis of the MEFV gene revealed two point mutations (p.Leu110Pro and p.Glu148Gln). We report an adult female patient with FMF in Korea with complete symptomatic remission during pregnancy. PMID:26131005

  4. Familial Mediterranean Fever With Complete Symptomatic Remission During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Taek; Lee, Jae Eun; Kim, Mi Kang; Yoo, Jun Jae; Lee, Gye Yeon; Kae, Sea Hyub; Lee, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder, ethnically restricted and commonly found among populations surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. FMF is the most prevalent autoinflammatory disease; is characterized by recurrent, self-limited episodes of fever with serositis; and is caused by Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV) mutations on chromosome 16. We describe a case of adult-onset FMF with complete symptomatic remission during pregnancy, without the use of colchicine. A 25-year-old woman had presented with periodic fever, abdominal pain, and vomiting since she was 21. Her abdominal computed tomography scan showed intestinal nonrotation. She underwent exploratory laparotomy and appendectomy for her symptoms 1 year prior. She had a symptom-free pregnancy period, but abdominal pain and fever recurred after delivery. Mutation analysis of the MEFV gene revealed two point mutations (p.Leu110Pro and p.Glu148Gln). We report an adult female patient with FMF in Korea with complete symptomatic remission during pregnancy.

  5. Nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Naderi, H R; Sarvghad, M R; Bojdy, A; Hadizadeh, M R; Sadeghi, R; Sheybani, F

    2011-06-01

    We report a nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) that affected six patients in June 2009 in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, apparently related to one index case. The last four cases were healthcare workers. Infection was spread by percutaneous exposure to two cases, and probably by direct contact with blood, clothes and sheets, to three others. The diagnosis in the two fatal cases was not confirmed virologically. The diagnosis in four cases who survived was confirmed by specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The patients were treated with ribavirin. In endemic areas, every patient presenting with a febrile haemorrhagic syndrome should be considered to have a viral haemorrhagic fever until proven otherwise. Patients who meet the criteria for probable CCHF should be admitted to hospital and treated with ribavirin. Appropriate isolation precautions should be immediately initiated. PMID:20800007

  6. Drug fever due to piperacillin/tazobactam loaded into bone cement.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Bum; Choi, Joon Seok; Park, Sang Hoon; Kee, Won Ju; Koh, Young-Il

    2011-02-01

    Although drug fever may develop after administration of the drug by various routes, it has not been reported with antibiotic-loaded bone cement. Here, a case of drug fever induced by piperacillin/tazobactam loaded into bone cement is reported. A 72-yr-old woman presented with fever that developed two weeks after insertion of bone cement loaded with antibiotics including piperacillin/tazobactam into the knee joint for infectious arthritis. The fever was associated with a skin rash and blood eosinophilia. The work-up of the fever excluded several causes. Drug provocation test demonstrated that the piperacillin/tazobactam, which had been loaded in the bone cement, was the cause of the fever. The findings of this case suggest that drug fever can be induced by any drug placed and released continuously within the body. Therefore, the evaluation for possible drug fever should include all drugs the patient has been exposed to regardless of the route of administration. PMID:21286026

  7. Drug Fever Due to Piperacillin/Tazobactam Loaded into Bone Cement

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Bum; Choi, Joon Seok; Park, Sang Hoon; Kee, Won Ju

    2011-01-01

    Although drug fever may develop after administration of the drug by various routes, it has not been reported with antibiotic-loaded bone cement. Here, a case of drug fever induced by piperacillin/tazobactam loaded into bone cement is reported. A 72-yr-old woman presented with fever that developed two weeks after insertion of bone cement loaded with antibiotics including piperacillin/tazobactam into the knee joint for infectious arthritis. The fever was associated with a skin rash and blood eosinophilia. The work-up of the fever excluded several causes. Drug provocation test demonstrated that the piperacillin/tazobactam, which had been loaded in the bone cement, was the cause of the fever. The findings of this case suggest that drug fever can be induced by any drug placed and released continuously within the body. Therefore, the evaluation for possible drug fever should include all drugs the patient has been exposed to regardless of the route of administration. PMID:21286026

  8. Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection Language: English Espańol ( ... red rash that feels rough, like sandpaper. Scarlet Fever Podcast A pediatrician explains the cause, treatment and ...

  9. FastStats: Allergies/Hay Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit Button NCHS Home Allergies and Hay Fever Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... the U.S. Morbidity: Adults Number with diagnosed hay fever in the past 12 months: 17.6 million ...

  10. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) Topics Transmission How do people get Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever? Signs and Symptoms What are the signs and ...

  11. Postvaccinal inflammatory neuropathy: peripheral nerve biopsy in 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Vital, Claude; Vital, Anne; Gbikpi-Benissan, Georges; Longy-Boursier, Maďté; Climas, Marie-Thérčse; Castaing, Yves; Canron, Marie-Hélčne; Le Bras, Michel; Petry, Klaus

    2002-09-01

    Autoimmune inflammatory polyneuropathy (PN) can be triggered by vaccination. We report 3 such cases. A 36-year-old female nurse presented 15 days after a hepatitis B vaccination (HBV) with acute sensory disturbances in the lower limbs. She had severe ataxia but no weakness. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level was 84 mg/100 mL, with 3 lymphocytes. A 66-year-old man presented 21 days after HBV with severe motor and sensory PN involving all 4 limbs. A 66-year-old man presented 15 days after a yellow fever vaccination with progressive motor and sensory PN involving all 4 limbs and bilateral facial paralysis. CSF protein level was 300 mg/100 mL, with 5 lymphocytes. Six weeks later, a tracheostomy was performed. In these 3 patients, the nerve deficits lasted for months. In each case, peripheral nerve biopsy showed KP1-positive histiocytes but no T-lymphocytes in the endoneurium. On ultrastructural examination, there was axonal degeneration in the first 2 cases; in case 2, a few myelinated fibers exhibited an intra-axonal macrophage but the myelin sheath was preserved. There was only 1 example of macrophage-associated demyelination in case 2, but these were numerous in case 3. It is likely that in the first 2 cases, an autoimmune reaction against some axonal or neuronal components was triggered by HBV. It induced an acute sensory ataxic PN in case 1 and an acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) in case 2. The third patient had a chronic inflammatory demyelinating PN, likely triggered by yellow fever vaccination. PMID:12365564

  12. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Families and Loved Ones of Responders More Communication Resources Radio PSAs Videos Infographics Factsheets Banners Posters ... Updates: 2014 West Africa Outbreak Previous Case Counts Communication Resources for West African Audiences Guinea Liberia Sierra ...

  13. Familial mediterranean fever: revisiting an ancient disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seza Ozen

    2003-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an auto-inflammatory disease characterised by periodic attacks of fever and serositis. Recent genetic and epidemiological research have highlighted the importance of this disease. FMF is the most frequent periodic fever syndrome and is transmitted in an autosomal recessive fashion. The disease is caused by mutations in the gene on the short arm of chromosome 16,

  14. SCID Mouse Model for Lethal Q Fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masako Andoh; Takashi Naganawa; Akitoyo Hotta; Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi; Hideto Fukushi; Toshiaki Masegi; Katsuya Hirai

    2003-01-01

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, has many manifestations in humans. Endocarditis is the most serious complication of Q fever. Animal models are limited to acute pulmonary or hepatic disease and reproductive disorders. An appropriate experimental animal model for Q fever endocarditis does not yet exist. In this study, severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice infected with C.

  15. ABRAMORAMA and BOND360 PARTICLE FEVER

    E-print Network

    Schöne, Bernd R.

    ABRAMORAMA and BOND360 Presents PARTICLE FEVER A documentary film by Mark Levinson and David Kaplan / Brooke Medansky 212-354-2384 / brookem@bondinfluence.com #12;LOGLINE: Particle Fever follows the inside and inspiring scientific breakthrough as it happens. Particle Fever follows six brilliant scientists during

  16. SWINE FEVER : INFLUENCE OF PASSIVE IMMUNITY

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    SWINE FEVER : INFLUENCE OF PASSIVE IMMUNITY ON PIG IMMUNE RESPONSE FOLLOWING VACCINATION response to swine fever virus (S.F.V.) was investigated in pigs injected with variable amounts of S (GIRAUD et al., 1974; MOWAT, 1974) or swine fever vaccine #12;within the first weeks of life (I

  17. Educational Fever and South Korean Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of educational fever on the development of the Republic of Korea education and economy in the context of the cultural history of this country. In order to examine this study, the author explains the concept of educational fever and discusses the relation between Confucianism and education zeal. Educational fever

  18. One-year follow-up of patients of the ongoing Dutch Q fever outbreak: clinical, serological and echocardiographic findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. M. Limonard; M. H. Nabuurs-Franssen; G. Weers-Pothoff; C. J. Wijkmans; R. Besselink; A. M. Horrevorts; P. M. Schneeberger; C. A. de Groot

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  In 2007, a large goat-farming-associated Q fever outbreak occurred in the Netherlands. Data on the clinical outcome of Dutch\\u000a Q fever patients are lacking. The current advocated follow-up strategy includes serological follow-up to detect evolution\\u000a to chronic disease and cardiac screening at baseline to identify and prophylactically treat Q fever patients in case of valvulopathy.\\u000a However, serological follow-up using commercially

  19. Behavioral Fever in Newborn Rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn Satinoff; G. N. McEwen Jr.; B. A. Williams

    1976-01-01

    Rabbit pups, 12 to 72 hours old, did not develop a fever when injected intraperitoneally with a pyrogen and maintained at an ambient temperature of 32 degrees C for 2 hours. When placed in a thermally graded alleyway, animals injected with pyrogen selected gradient positions that represented significantly higher temperatures than controls injected with saline (40.4 degrees in contrast to

  20. Dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A World Health Organization page devoted to the control of dengue. Many excellent informative PDF files are available from this page dealing with vector control, as well as recognition of symptoms, and treatment of dengue haemorrhagic fever. Estimated numbers of at risk people are staggering. A powerful resource for teaching the importance of vector borne diseases.

  1. Behavioral fever in newborn rabbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satinoff, E.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Williams, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    New Zealand white rabbit pups aged 12 to 72 hr were divided into three groups and given an intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas polysaccharide, a saline vehicle alone, and no treatment, respectively. The animals injected with pyrogen and maintained at an ambient temperature of 32 C for 2 hr did not develop fever. When placed in a thermally graded alleyway, the animals injected with pyrogen selected gradient positions that represented significantly higher temperatures than controls injected with saline. Further stay at selected positions for 5 min caused a considerable increase in the rectal temperature of the pyrogen-injected pups but not that of controls. The results support the hypothesis that newborn rabbits will develop a fever by behavioral means after a single injection of an exogenous pyrogen if the opportunity for thermoregulatory behavior is present. No fever develops if the pups must rely solely on internal thermoregulatory mechanisms. The behavioral system for producing a fever is mature at birth, but an adequate system of internal reflexes does not appear to develop for some days.

  2. African swine fever in the

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caucasus Contributors; Daniel Beltrán-Alcrudo; Juan Lubroth

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by a DNA virus, Asfi virus , currently the sole member of the Asfarviridae family. It is a highly contagious virus infection of domestic pigs, but can also be acquired through the ingestion of contaminated feedstuffs and transmitted by certain tick species. ASF has a serious socioeconomic impact on people's livelihoods, participation in international

  3. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  4. Typhoid fever in Fiji: a reversible plague?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Corinne N; Kama, Mike; Acharya, Shrish; Bera, Una; Clemens, John; Crump, John A; Dawainavesi, Aggie; Dougan, Gordon; Edmunds, W John; Fox, Kimberley; Jenkins, Kylie; Khan, M Imran; Koroivueta, Josefa; Levine, Myron M; Martin, Laura B; Nilles, Eric; Pitzer, Virginia E; Singh, Shalini; Raiwalu, Ratu Vereniki; Baker, Stephen; Mulholland, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The country of Fiji, with a population of approximately 870 000 people, faces a growing burden of several communicable diseases including the bacterial infection typhoid fever. Surveillance data suggest that typhoid has become increasingly common in rural areas of Fiji and is more frequent amongst young adults. Transmission of the organisms that cause typhoid is facilitated by faecal contamination of food or water and may be influenced by local behavioural practices in Fiji. The Fijian Ministry of Health, with support from Australian Aid, hosted a meeting in August 2012 to develop comprehensive control and prevention strategies for typhoid fever in Fiji. International and local specialists were invited to share relevant data and discuss typhoid control options. The resultant recommendations focused on generating a clearer sense of the epidemiology of typhoid in Fiji and exploring the contribution of potential transmission pathways. Additionally, the panel suggested steps such as ensuring that recommended ciprofloxacin doses are appropriate to reduce the potential for relapse and reinfection in clinical cases, encouraging proper hand hygiene of food and drink handlers, working with water and sanitation agencies to review current sanitation practices and considering a vaccination policy targeting epidemiologically relevant populations. PMID:25066005

  5. Typhoid fever in Fiji: a reversible plague?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Kama, Mike; Acharya, Shrish; Bera, Una; Clemens, John; Crump, John A; Dawainavesi, Aggie; Dougan, Gordon; Edmunds, W John; Fox, Kimberley; Jenkins, Kylie; Khan, M Imran; Koroivueta, Josefa; Levine, Myron M; Martin, Laura B; Nilles, Eric; Pitzer, Virginia E; Singh, Shalini; Raiwalu, Ratu Vereniki; Baker, Stephen; Mulholland, Kim

    2014-10-01

    The country of Fiji, with a population of approximately 870 000 people, faces a growing burden of several communicable diseases including the bacterial infection typhoid fever. Surveillance data suggest that typhoid has become increasingly common in rural areas of Fiji and is more frequent amongst young adults. Transmission of the organisms that cause typhoid is facilitated by faecal contamination of food or water and may be influenced by local behavioural practices in Fiji. The Fijian Ministry of Health, with support from Australian Aid, hosted a meeting in August 2012 to develop comprehensive control and prevention strategies for typhoid fever in Fiji. International and local specialists were invited to share relevant data and discuss typhoid control options. The resultant recommendations focused on generating a clearer sense of the epidemiology of typhoid in Fiji and exploring the contribution of potential transmission pathways. Additionally, the panel suggested steps such as ensuring that recommended ciprofloxacin doses are appropriate to reduce the potential for relapse and reinfection in clinical cases, encouraging proper hand hygiene of food and drink handlers, working with water and sanitation agencies to review current sanitation practices and considering a vaccination policy targeting epidemiologically relevant populations. PMID:25066005

  6. Animal models of viral hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Smith, Darci R; Holbrook, Michael R; Gowen, Brian B

    2014-12-01

    The term "viral hemorrhagic fever" (VHF) designates a syndrome of acute febrile illness, increased vascular permeability and coagulation defects which often progresses to bleeding and shock and may be fatal in a significant percentage of cases. The causative agents are some 20 different RNA viruses in the families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae and Flaviviridae, which are maintained in a variety of animal species and are transferred to humans through direct or indirect contact or by an arthropod vector. Except for dengue, which is transmitted among humans by mosquitoes, the geographic distribution of each type of VHF is determined by the range of its animal reservoir. Treatments are available for Argentine HF and Lassa fever, but no approved countermeasures have been developed against other types of VHF. The development of effective interventions is hindered by the sporadic nature of most infections and their occurrence in geographic regions with limited medical resources. Laboratory animal models that faithfully reproduce human disease are therefore essential for the evaluation of potential vaccines and therapeutics. The goal of this review is to highlight the current status of animal models that can be used to study the pathogenesis of VHF and test new countermeasures. PMID:25448088

  7. Clinical Characteristics of Q Fever and Etiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in a Tropical Region of Southern Taiwan: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chung-Hsu; Chang, Lin-Li; Lin, Jiun-Nong; Chen, Wei-Fang; Wei, Yu-Feng; Chiu, Chien-Tung; Wu, Jiun-Ting; Hsu, Chi-Kuei; Chen, Jung-Yueh; Lee, Ho-Sheng; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical characteristics of Q fever are poorly identified in the tropics. Fever with pneumonia or hepatitis are the dominant presentations of acute Q fever, which exhibits geographic variability. In southern Taiwan, which is located in a tropical region, the role of Q fever in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has never been investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings During the study period, May 2012 to April 2013, 166 cases of adult CAP and 15 cases of acute Q fever were prospectively investigated. Cultures of clinical specimens, urine antigen tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila, and paired serologic assessments for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) were used for identifying pathogens associated with CAP. From April 2004 to April 2013 (the pre-study period), 122 cases of acute Q fever were also included retrospectively for analysis. The geographic distribution of Q fever and CAP cases was similar. Q fever cases were identified in warmer seasons and younger ages than CAP. Based on multivariate analysis, male gender, chills, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes were independent characteristics associated with Q fever. In patients with Q fever, 95% and 13.5% of cases presented with hepatitis and pneumonia, respectively. Twelve (7.2%) cases of CAP were seropositive for C. burnetii antibodies, but none of them had acute Q fever. Among CAP cases, 22.9% had a CURB-65 score ?2, and 45.8% had identifiable pathogens. Haemophilus parainfluenzae (14.5%), S. pneumoniae (6.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.8%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.0%) were the most common pathogens identified by cultures or urine antigen tests. Moreover, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and co-infection with 2 pathogens accounted for 9.0%, 7.8%, and 1.8%, respectively. Conclusions In southern Taiwan, Q fever is an endemic disease with hepatitis as the major presentation and is not a common etiology of CAP. PMID:25033402

  8. A retrospective study of acute pancreatitis in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Etiological diagnosis is an important part of the diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Hantavirus infection is a rare cause of acute pancreatitis, which is easy to ignore. There is a need to analyze clinical features of acute pancreatitis caused by Hantavirus. Methods This is a retrospective study conducted from May 1, 2006 to May 31, 2012 on patients diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome at our hospital. We reviewed these patients medical records, laboratory results and radiologic examinations to determine the prevalence and summarize clinical features of acute pancreatitis in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Results A total of 218 patients were diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome during the 6-year study period. Only 2.8% (6/218) of the total hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome patients were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. The first symptom for all six of the patients with acute pancreatitis was fever. All six patients experienced hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia during the disease course, which was different from general acute pancreatitis. In addition, we presented two misdiagnosed clinical cases. Conclusions Acute pancreatitis is not a frequent complication in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Clinicians should be alerted to the possibility of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome when acute pancreatitis patients with epidemiological data have high fever before abdominal pain. PMID:24345089

  9. Crimean congo hemorrhagic fever appearance in the north of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Mahmood; Asgharzadeh, Seyed Ahmad; Bayani, Masomeh; Alijanpour, Ebrahim; Javaniyan, Mostafa; Jabbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute tick-borne viral, zoonotic disease with hemorrhagic manifestations and considerable mortality in humans. The purpose of this study was to introduce CCHF as a case report from Babol, north of Iran. It is known as an endemic pathogen in some regions of Iran. Case presentation: We present a case of CCHF suffering from sudden onset of fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, melena and hemorrhagic manifestations like petechiae and epistaxis accompanied with evidence of ticks bite in a non-endemic area in the north of Iran. The laboratory dignosis was CCHF. He was treated with ribavirin and recovered completely. Conclusion: CCHF may be seen in non- endemic regions and clinicians must be awarded about its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24009947

  10. Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea

    E-print Network

    Liu, Paul

    Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea J. Paul Liua,*, John Yellow Sea reveal a 20­40-m-thick subaqueous clinoform delta that wraps around the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, extending into the South Yellow Sea. This complex sigmoidal-oblique clinoform

  11. MUCOCUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF CHIKUNGUNYA FEVER

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CF) is an arboviral acute febrile illness transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. After a quiescence of more than three decades, CF has recently re-emerged as a major public health problem of global scale. CF is characterized by an acute onset of high fever associated with a severe disabling arthritis often accompanied by prominent mucocutaneous manifestations. The disease is usually self-limiting, but the joint symptoms and some of the cutaneous features may persist after the defervescence. A wide range of mucocutaneous changes has been described to occur in association with CF during the current epidemic. Besides a morbilliform erythema, hyperpigmentation, xerosis, excoriated papules, aphthous-like ulcers, vesiculobullous and lichenoid eruptions, and exacerbation of pre-existing or quiescent dermatoses had been observed frequently. These unusual features may help in the clinical differential diagnosis of acute viral exanthems mimicking CF. PMID:20418982

  12. 73 FR 9174 - Add Mauritius to the List of Regions Where African Swine Fever Exists

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-02-20

    ...encephalopathy, swine vesicular disease, classical swine fever, and African swine fever (ASF). These...PLAGUE), EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  13. 73 FR 16179 - Addition of Armenia to the List of Regions Where African Swine Fever Exists

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-03-27

    ...encephalopathy, swine vesicular disease, classical swine fever, and African swine fever (ASF). These...PLAGUE), EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  14. 73 FR 1043 - Addition of Armenia to the List of Regions Where African Swine Fever Exists

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-01-07

    ...encephalopathy, swine vesicular disease, classical swine fever, and African swine fever (ASF). These...PLAGUE), EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  15. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; Ansari, Hossein; Mardani, Masoud; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. Since that time, the number of cases of CCHF in Iran has markedly increased. Through January 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.6%. The disease has been seen in 26 of the country’s 31 provinces, with the greatest number of cases in Sistan and Baluchestan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan provinces. The increase in CCHF in Iran has paralleled that in neighboring Turkey, though the number of cases in Turkey has been much larger, with an overall CFR of around 5%. In this article, we review the features of CCHF in Iran, including its history, epidemiology, animal and tick reservoirs, current surveillance and control programs, diagnostic methods, clinical features and experience with ribavirin therapy, and consider possible explanations for the difference in the CFR of CCHF between Iran and Turkey. The emergence of CCHF in Iran calls for countermeasures at many levels to protect the population, but also provides opportunities for studying the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:23872313

  16. Genetic Analysis of Viruses Associated with Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, 2000-01

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor Shoemaker; Carla Boulianne; Martin J. Vincent; Linda Pezzanite; Mohammed M. Al-Qahtani; Yagub Al-Mazrou; Ali S. Khan; Pierre E. Rollin; Robert Swanepoel; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Stuart T. Nichol

    The first confirmed Rift Valley fever outbreak outside Africa was reported in September 2000, in the Ara- bian Peninsula. As of February 2001, a total of 884 hospitalized patients were identified in Saudi Arabia, with 124 deaths. In Yemen, 1,087 cases were estimated to have occurred, with 121 deaths. Laboratory diagnosis of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infections included virus

  17. Antibodies against Coxiella burnetii and pregnancy outcome during the 2007-2008 Q fever outbreaks in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wim van der Hoek; Jamie CE Meekelenkamp; Alexander CAP Leenders; Nancy Wijers; Daan W Notermans; Chantal WPM Hukkelhoven

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Q fever has become a major public health problem in the Netherlands. Infection with Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) during pregnancy has resulted in adverse pregnancy outcome in the majority of reported cases. Therefore, we aimed to quantify this risk by examining the earliest periods corresponding to the epidemic in the Netherlands. METHODS: Serum samples that had been collected from

  18. Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michael; Grant, Ashley; Paessler, Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    The etiologic agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), Machupo virus (MACV) is reported to have a mortality rate of 25 to 35%. First identified in 1959, BHF was the cause of a localized outbreak in San Joaquin until rodent population controls were implemented in 1964. The rodent Calomys collosus was identified as the primary vector and reservoir for the virus. Multiple animal models were considered during the 1970’s with the most human-like disease identified in Rhesus macaques but minimal characterization of the pathogenesis has been published since. A reemergence of reported BHF cases has been reported in recent years, which necessitates the further study and development of a vaccine to prevent future outbreaks. PMID:24636947

  19. Measurements of Asian dust optical properties over the Yellow Sea of China by shipboard and ground-based photometers, along with satellite remote sensing: A case study of the passage of a frontal system during April 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Liu; Dongxu Yang; Wenzhong Chen; Hua Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol optical properties were measured by a POM-01 MarkII Sun and sky photometer onboard the Dongfanghong Number 2 Research Ship on the Yellow Sea of China during the passage of a cold front surrounded by airborne dust that originated in Mongolia between 21 and 24 April 2006. The aerosol size distributions in clean marine environment were dominated by an accumulate

  20. A case of recurrent typhoid fever in the United States: importance of the grandmother connection and the use of large restriction fragment pattern analysis of genomic DNA for strain comparison.

    PubMed

    Wright, P W; Wallace, R J; Steingrube, V A; Gibson, J L; Barth, S S

    1994-12-01

    An 8-year old girl was infected for a second time with Salmonella typhi by contact with her grandmother, a known typhoid carrier. The S. typhi from both patient and grandmother had closely related genomic pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns that differed from epidemiologically unrelated strains. The girl responded well to a 14-day course of oral trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. The grandmother was treated successfully with a 28-day regimen of oral ciprofloxacin. Typhoid fever remains an endemic disease in the United States, largely because of recognized chronic stool carriers. Most of these carriers had typhoid in the preantibiotic era and remain potential sources of disease when they provide meals for others, not uncommonly grandchildren. The importance of this "grandmother" connection to endemic typhoid fever is reviewed, as is the potential use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis pattern analysis for comparison of strains of S. typhi. PMID:7892078

  1. Chikungunya fever. Rheumatic manifestations of an emerging disease in Europe.

    PubMed

    Horcada, M Loreto; Díaz-Calderón, Carlos; Garrido, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is a viral disease caused by an alphavirus belonging to the Togaviridae family, transmitted by several species of Aedes mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus). It is endemic in Africa and Asia with recurrent outbreaks. It is an emerging disease and cases in Europe transmitted by A. albopictus have been established in Mediterranean areas. The first autochthonous cases detected on the Caribbean islands suppose a serious threat of spreading disease to America, which so far has been disease free. Clinical symptoms begin abruptly with fever, skin rash and polyarthritis. Although mortality is low, a high percentage of patients develop a chronic phase defined by persistent arthritis for months or even years. A severe immune response is responsible for joint inflammation. The absence of specific treatment and lack of vaccine requires detailed studies about its immunopathogenesis in order to determine the most appropriate target. PMID:25192946

  2. Pontiac fever outbreak associated with a cooling tower.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, S; Spitalny, K; Barbaree, J; Faur, Y; McKinney, R

    1987-01-01

    In late April 1984, an outbreak of Pontiac fever was investigated in an office building in lower Manhattan (New York City). The outbreak was characterized by a high attack rate (78 per cent overall); the predominant symptoms were myalgias, chills, fatigue, fever, and headache. There was a clustering of cases in an office that was air cooled by a dedicated cooling tower separate from the remainder of the building. A high concentration of live L. Pneumophila cells in the cooling tower was quantified. Airborne spread via settle plates placed along the air intake system and within the office was demonstrated. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen was found in the urine of two cases, and identical monoclonal antibody reactivity patterns of isolates from all sources was observed. Difficulty was experienced in eliminating the organism from the tower. PMID:3565648

  3. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever in travellers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli Schwartz; Bradley A Connor

    2005-01-01

    Enteric fever—a more inclusive term for typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever—is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica, including S enterica serotype Typhi (S typhi) and serotype Paratyphi (S paratyphi). In developed countries there have been two major changes in the pattern of the disease: a marked decline in its incidence and its characterisation as a predominantly travel-associated disease. The

  4. Rat Bite Fever and Streptobacillus moniliformis

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sean P.

    2007-01-01

    Rat bite fever, caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis, is a systemic illness classically characterized by fever, rigors, and polyarthralgias. If left untreated, it carries a mortality rate of 10%. Unfortunately, its nonspecific initial presentation combined with difficulties in culturing its causative organism produces a significant risk of delay or failure in diagnosis. The increasing popularity of rats and other rodents as pets, together with the risk of invasive or fatal disease, demands increased attention to rat bite fever as a potential diagnosis. The clinical and biological features of rat bite fever and Streptobacillus moniliformis are reviewed, providing some distinguishing features to assist the clinician and microbiologist in diagnosis. PMID:17223620

  5. Acute Q fever in Portugal. Epidemiological and clinical features of 32 hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Palmela, Carolina; Badura, Robert; Valadas, Emília

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. The main characteristic of acute Q fever is its clinical polymorphism, usually presenting as a febrile illness with varying degrees of hepatitis and/or pneumonia. Q fever is endemic in Portugal, and it is an obligatory notifiable disease since 1999. However, its epidemiological and clinical characteristics are still incompletely described. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 32 cases admitted in the Infectious Diseases Department, Santa Maria’s University Hospital, from January 2001 to December 2010, in whom acute Q fever was diagnosed by the presence of antibodies to phase II Coxiella burnetii antigens associated with a compatible clinical syndrome. Results Out of the 32 cases recorded, 29 (91%) were male, with a male:female ratio of 9.7:1. Individuals at productive age were mainly affected (88%, n=28, with ages between 25 and 64 years). Clinically, the most common manifestation of acute Q fever was hepatic involvement (84%, n=27), which occurred isolated in 53% (n=17) of the cases. Hepatitis was more severe, presenting with higher values of liver function tests, in patients presenting both pulmonary and hepatic involvement. Additionally, we report one case of myocarditis and another one with neurological involvement. Empiric but appropriate antibiotic therapy was given in 66% (n=21) of the cases. There was a complete recovery in 94% (n=30) of the patients, and one death. We confirmed the sub-notification of this disease in Portugal, with only 47% (n=15) of the cases notified. Conclusion In Portugal further studies are needed to confirm our results. From the 32 cases studied, acute Q fever presented more frequently as a febrile disease with hepatic involvement affecting mainly young male individuals. Furthermore, acute Q fever is clearly underdiagnosed and underreported in Portugal, which suggests that an increased awareness of the disease is needed, together with a broader use of serological testing. PMID:24432263

  6. Early-onset sensorineural hearing loss in Lassa fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Ibekwe; P. O. Okokhere; D. Asogun; F. F. Blackie; M. M. Nwegbu; K. W. Wahab; S. A. Omilabu; G. O. Akpede

    2011-01-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease which affects one-fourth to two million people annually with the fatality\\u000a rate of about 10,000. It is associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) usually at the convalescent stage. Recently,\\u000a cases of SNHL at the acute phase have been reported. This study was done to further investigate the incidence and features\\u000a of SNHL

  7. Dengue fever in the Indian Subcontinent: an overview.

    PubMed

    Raheel, Ummar; Faheem, Muhammad; Riaz, Mohammad Nasir; Kanwal, Naghmana; Javed, Farakh; Zaidi, Najam us Sahar Sadaf; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2011-04-01

    The Indian Subcontinent has emerged as a scene of many mosquito-borne infectious diseases, including malaria and dengue fever. After the 1990s, the rate of malaria declined owing largely to preventive measures, but at the same time dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) were increasing in the region. Outbreaks were recorded in all countries of the Indian Subcontinent with India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka on the forefront and suffering from the largest number of cases and deaths. We discuss annual cases of DF/DHF in these four countries and possible factors involved in DF outbreaks. We also discuss prevalent serotypes in this region where data suggest the emergence of DEN2 and DEN3 as the most dominant and lethal serotypes. Climate is an important factor influencing DF outbreaks, and rainfall, temperature and humidity play a pivotal role in DF outbreaks. Finally the economic impact of DF/DHF cases is discussed showing that direct and indirect economic loss due to DF/DHF reaches millions of USD each year. PMID:21537064

  8. Retracted manuscript: Scientific yellow journalism.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The following article from Small GTPases, "Scientific Yellow Journalism" by Anica Klockars and Michael J. Williams, published online on 20 September 2012 (doi: 10.4161/sgtp.22289; http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/smallgtpases/article/22289/) by Landes Bioscience and subsequently published in print in Small GTPases 2012 3(4):201 has been retracted by agreement between the authors and the journal's Editor in Chief, Michael J. Williams (also an author of the paper). PMID:23485921

  9. Transgenic yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Li; S. J. Wylie; M. G. K. Jones

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) plants have been generated by meristem co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The binary plasmid pPZBNIa contains the bar gene under the control of a CaMV 35?S promoter. The transformation method involves inoculation of embryonic axis explants\\u000a with A. tumefaciens, flooding the meristem with glufosinate, and initial culture on non-selective medium. Shoots were transferred to culture

  10. 78 FR 8960 - Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...APHIS-2012-0069] Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...We are amending the Texas (Splenetic) Fever regulations by updating the scientific...Messenger, Staff Entomologist, Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program Manager,...

  11. Review article Rift Valley fever virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Rift Valley fever virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus): an update on pathogenesis Africa (Received 5 February 2010; accepted 21 May 2010) Abstract ­ Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus fever / molecular epidemiology / vector / pathogenesis / diagnostic Table of contents 1. Introduction

  12. Active surveillance of Q fever in human and animal population of Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    Loukaides, Fidias; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Kolonia, Virginia; Ioannidou, Maria-Christina; Psaroulaki, Anna; Tselentis, Yannis

    2006-01-01

    Background A long-term active surveillance of Q fever was conducted in Cyprus organized in two phases. Methods Following serological tests and identification of seropositive humans and animals for C. burnetii in two villages (VIL1 and VIL2), all seronegative individuals were followed up for one year on a monthly basis by trained physicians to detect possible seroconversion for Q fever. In the second phase of the study, active surveillance for one year was conducted in the entire Cyprus. Physicians were following specific case definition criteria for Q fever. Standardized questionnaires, a geographical information system on a regional level, Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) examinations and shell vial technique were used. Results Eighty-one seronegative humans and 239 seronegative animals from both villages participated in the first phase surveillance period of Q fever. Despite the small number of confirmed clinical cases (2 humans and 1 goat), a significant percentage of new seropositives for C. burnetii (44.4% of human participants and 13.8% of animals) was detected at the end of the year. During the second phase of surveillance, 82 humans, 100 goats, and 76 sheep were considered suspected cases of Q fever. However, only 9 human, 8 goat, and 4 sheep cases were serologically confirmed, while C. burnetii was isolated from three human and two animal samples. The human incidence rate was estimated at 1.2 per 100,000 population per year. Conclusion A small number of confirmed clinical cases of Q fever were observed despite the high seroprevalence for C. burnetii in human and animal population of Cyprus. Most of the cases in the local population of Cyprus appear to be subclinical. Moreover further studies should investigate the role of ticks in the epidemiology of Q fever and their relation to human seropositivity. PMID:16539741

  13. Enteric fever imported to the Czech Republic: epidemiology, clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Trojánek, Milan; D?di?ová, Daniela; Žemli?ková, Helena; Jakub?, Vladislav; Malíková, Eliška; Reisingerová, Marie; Gabrielová, Alice; Papagiannitsis, Costas C; Hrabák, Jaroslav; Horová, Blanka; Urbášková, Pavla; Marešová, Vilma; Stejskal, František

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological and clinical characteristics of imported enteric fever in Czech travellers and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated strains. Retrospective descriptive study included adult patients treated with enteric fever at Hospital Na Bulovce during January 2004-December 2012. A case of typhoid or paratyphoid fever was defined as isolation of Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi from blood or stool. During the study period, there have been diagnosed 19 cases of enteric fever (12 males and 7 females) with age median of 30 years; 14 cases were caused by Salmonella Typhi and 5 cases by S. Paratyphi A. The infection has been acquired in South Asia (16 patients; 84.2 %), in Africa (Egypt, Angola) in two cases (10.5 %), and in Mexico (1; 5.3 %). Symptoms included fever (all patients), diarrhoea (16 cases; 84.2 %), headache (9; 47.4 %), and abdominal pain (7; 36.8 %). Seventeen patients (89.5 %) were treated with fluoroquinolones; however, the treatment failure was observed in seven of them (41.2 %). Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility was detected in eight strains (66.7 %), and one strain (8.3 %) was multidrug resistant. Sequence analysis of quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of the gyrA gene revealed the presence of amino acid substitutions in all tested isolates with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers represent epidemiologically important diseases that may lead to potentially life-threatening complications. Major issue in the management of enteric fever represents the non-susceptibility of Salmonella strains to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials. PMID:25394534

  14. Persistent Q fever and ischaemic stroke in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    González-Quijada, S; Salazar-Thieroldt, E; Mora-Simón, M J

    2015-04-01

    Whether persistent or chronic Q fever may act as a risk factor for stroke is unknown. A case-control study was conducted in the Hospital Universitario de Burgos (Spain) between February 2011 and December 2012. A total of 803 samples from 634 consecutive hospitalized patients ?65 years old were tested, of whom 111 were cases (patients with prevalent or incident ischaemic stroke and/or transient ischaemic attack) and 523 were controls (patients without ischaemic stroke and/or transient ischaemic attack). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titres phase I and II against Q fever, and IgG antibodies levels against Chlamydia pneumoniae and cytomegalovirus (CMV), were determined using immunofluorescence assay and ELISA methods, respectively. Phase I IgG titres against Coxiella burnetii ?1:256 (compatible with chronic or persistent Q fever) were detected in 16 of 110 (14.5%) cases and in 32 of 524 (6.1%) controls; P = .004, odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 4.9. This ratio was maintained after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cardioembolic focus, smoking, diabetes, other cardiovascular diseases, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.3). High-titre IgG antibodies (top quartile) against CMV (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.5), but not against C. pneumoniae (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.6), also were associated with ischaemic stroke after adjustment for risk factors. In conclusion, serology compatible with persistent or chronic Q fever is associated with ischaemic stroke in elderly patients. High levels of IgG antibodies against CMV, but not against C. pneumoniae, also are associated with ischaemic stroke in these patients. PMID:25630457

  15. Determination of Serum Adenosine Deaminase and Xanthine Oxidase Levels in Patients with Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Celik, V. Kenan; Sari, Ismail; Engin, Aynur; Yildiz, Gürsel; Aydin, Hüseyin; Bakir, Sevtap

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate. Despite increasing knowledge about hemorrhagic fever viruses, little is known about the pathogenesis of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever. In this study, we measured serum adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase levels in Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever patients. METHODS: Serum adenosine deaminase levels were measured with a sensitive colorimetric method described by Giusti and xanthine oxidase levels by the method of Worthington in 30 consecutive hospitalized patients (mean age 42.6 ± 21.0). Laboratory tests confirmed their diagnoses of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever. Thirty-five subjects (mean age 42.9 ± 19.1) served as the control group. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase levels between cases and controls (p<0.05). However, neither adenosine deaminase nor xanthine oxidase levels varied with the severity of disease in the cases assessed (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase levels were increased in patients with Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever. Elevated serum xanthine oxidase activity in patients with Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever may be associated with reactive oxygen species generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system during inflammatory responses. In addition, elevated lipid peroxidation may contribute to cell damage and hemorrhage. The association of cell damage and hemorrhage with xanthine oxidase activity should be further investigated in large-scale studies. PMID:20668627

  16. Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... quickly and do not mean your child has epilepsy. These seizures also do not cause any permanent ... Blood clots or thrombophlebitis Medications, such as some antibiotics, antihistamines, and seizure medicines

  17. Ask Dr. Sue: "Children and Fevers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1989-01-01

    Considers aspects of children's fevers. Answers questions concerning: (1) the temperature at which a fever is infectious; (2) the point at which a feverish child in care should be sent home; (3) the length of time a parent should wait before returning the child to day care; and (4) the way to take a child's temperature. (RJC)

  18. Global Trends in Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2010-01-01

    Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and Southeast Asia, where enteric fever is associated with poor sanitation and unsafe food and water. High-quality incidence data from Asia are underpinning efforts to expand access to typhoid vaccines. Efforts are underway to develop vaccines that are immunogenic in

  19. Mothers’ perceptions of fever in children

    PubMed Central

    Ravanipour, Maryam; Akaberian, Sherafat; Hatami, Gissou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fever is one of the most common symptoms for children. Most fevers are not dangerous; parents, especially mothers, nevertheless experience severe anxiety confronting children's fevers. This study aimed to explore the mothers’ perceptions of fever in their children. Materials and Methods: Mothers of hospitalized febrile children were selected by purposeful sampling method from two hospitals in Bushehr in 2012. Data saturation was reached after in-depth semi structured interviews with 12 participants. Data analysis was done by conventional content analysis method. Findings: Sense of concern, the necessity for quick action and the need for protection emerged from mothers’ views. Sense of concern came from concerns over cause of fever, child's hospitalization and possible side-effects of fever. The necessity for quick action resulted from gathering information, self-medication and referring to healthcare centres; the need for spiritual and emotional protection created the need to protect in mothers. Conclusion: Findings showed that mothers need educational, emotional and spiritual protection in order to overcome their concerns and managing their children's fever. It is recommended that an empowering model based on these findings be developed in order to strengthen mothers in dealing with fevers in order to prevent excessive concern and anxiety. PMID:25250363

  20. Powassan encephalitis and Colorado tick fever.

    PubMed

    Romero, José R; Simonsen, Kari A

    2008-09-01

    This article discusses two tick-borne illnesses: Powassan encephalitis, a rare cause of central nervous system infection caused by the Powassan virus, and Colorado tick fever, an acute febrile illness caused by the Colorado tick fever virus common to the Rocky Mountain region of North America. PMID:18755390

  1. Myocarditis in a traveler returning from the Dominican Republic: an unusual presentation of dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Zea, Diego; Foley, Kimberly; Carey, Jeanne

    2014-07-01

    Myocarditis is an uncommon manifestation of dengue fever. We describe a case of a 69-year-old Hispanic male who presented to an emergency room in New York City 3 days after returning from a trip to the Dominican Republic complaining of a 1-day history of chest pain and fever. His first electrocardiogram showed a new left bundle branch block, and initial cardiac enzymes included troponin of 5 ng/dL, creatine kinase-MB of 9 ng/mL, and myoglobin of 234 ng/mL. Dengue fever antibodies were found to be elevated: immunoglobulin M (IgM) titer was 2.48 (reference range < 0.9), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer was 4.26 (reference range < 0.9). The patient was diagnosed with myocarditis caused by dengue fever. He improved after 1 week with conservative management in a telemetry unit and was discharged home. PMID:24891462

  2. Myocarditis in a Traveler Returning from the Dominican Republic: An Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever

    PubMed Central

    Zea, Diego; Foley, Kimberly; Carey, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Myocarditis is an uncommon manifestation of dengue fever. We describe a case of a 69-year-old Hispanic male who presented to an emergency room in New York City 3 days after returning from a trip to the Dominican Republic complaining of a 1-day history of chest pain and fever. His first electrocardiogram showed a new left bundle branch block, and initial cardiac enzymes included troponin of 5 ng/dL, creatine kinase-MB of 9 ng/mL, and myoglobin of 234 ng/mL. Dengue fever antibodies were found to be elevated: immunoglobulin M (IgM) titer was 2.48 (reference range < 0.9), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer was 4.26 (reference range < 0.9). The patient was diagnosed with myocarditis caused by dengue fever. He improved after 1 week with conservative management in a telemetry unit and was discharged home. PMID:24891462

  3. Satellite Detection of Ebola River Hemorrhagic Fever Epidemics Trigger Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton J.; Pinzon, Jorge E.

    2006-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever, named after the Ebola River in Central Africa, first appeared in June 1976, during an outbreak in Nzara and Maridi, Sudan. In September 1976, a separate outbreak was recognized in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). One fatal case was identified in Tandala, DRC, in June 1977, followed by another outbreak in Nzara, Sudan, in July 1979. Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks results in a very high mortality of patients who contract the disease: from 50 to 80% of infected people perish from this highly virulent disease. Death is gruesome, with those afflicted bleeding to death from massive hemorrhaging of organs and capillaries. The disease was not identified again until the end of 1994, when three outbreaks occurred almost simultaneously in Africa. In October, an outbreak was identified in a chimpanzee community studied by primatologists in Tal, Cote d'lvoire, with one human infection. The following month, multiple cases were reported in northeast Gabon in the gold panning camps of Mekouka, Andock, and Minkebe. Later that same month, the putative index case of the 1995 Kikwit, DRC, outbreak was exposed through an unknown mechanism while working in a charcoal pit. In Gabon, two additional outbreaks were reported in February and JuIy,1996, respectively, in Mayibout II, a village 40 km south of the original outbreak in the gold panning camps, and a logging camp between Ovan and Koumameyong, near Booue. The largest Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic occurred in Gulu District, Uganda from August 2000 to January 2001. In December 2001, Ebola reappeared in the Ogooue-lvindo Province, Gabon with extension into Mbomo District, The Republic of the Congo lasting until July 2002. Since 2002 there have been several outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Gabon and adjacent areas of Congo. Of interest is the seasonal context and occasional temporal clustering of Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. Near simultaneous appearances of Ebola epidemics in Nzara, Sudan and Yambuku, DRC in 1976 occurred within two months of each other in two geographic locations separated by hundreds of kilometers involving two separate viral strains (Sudan and Zaire EBO strains). The outbreaks of Tal, Cote d'lvoire; Mekouka, Gabon; and Kikwit, DRC in late 1994 also occurred within months of each other in three different geographic regions involving two different viral strains (Cote d'lvoire and Zaire EBO strains). Fifteen years passed between the 1976-9 and 1994-6 temporal clusters of Ebola cases without identification of additional cases.

  4. The geographical distribution of Q fever

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Martin M.; Bertagna, P.

    1955-01-01

    The results of a WHO-assisted survey of the distribution of Q fever in 32 countries and an analysis of reports published to date indicate that Q fever exists in 51 countries on five continents. Q-fever infection was most often reported in man and the domestic ruminants, such as cattle, sheep, and goats. The disease was found to exist in most countries where investigations were carried out. Notable exceptions were Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, and the Scandinavian countries. With the exception of Poland, where the results were inconclusive, all these countries import relatively few domestic ruminants—the most important animal reservoirs of human Q-fever infection. It seems, therefore, that the traffic of infected ruminants may be one of the most important, if not the most important, means for the geographical spread of Q fever. The importance, if any, of ticks associated with such traffic needs to be defined. PMID:13284560

  5. Statistical modeling of valley fever data in Kern County, California.

    PubMed

    Talamantes, Jorge; Behseta, Sam; Zender, Charles S

    2007-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is a fungal infection found in the southwestern US, northern Mexico, and some places in Central and South America. The fungus that causes it (Coccidioides immitis) is normally soil-dwelling but, if disturbed, becomes air-borne and infects the host when its spores are inhaled. It is thus natural to surmise that weather conditions that foster the growth and dispersal of the fungus must have an effect on the number of cases in the endemic areas. We present here an attempt at the modeling of valley fever incidence in Kern County, California, by the implementation of a generalized auto regressive moving average (GARMA) model. We show that the number of valley fever cases can be predicted mainly by considering only the previous history of incidence rates in the county. The inclusion of weather-related time sequences improves the model only to a relatively minor extent. This suggests that fluctuations of incidence rates (about a seasonally varying background value) are related to biological and/or anthropogenic reasons, and not so much to weather anomalies. PMID:17120065

  6. Statistical modeling of valley fever data in Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talamantes, Jorge; Behseta, Sam; Zender, Charles S.

    2007-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is a fungal infection found in the southwestern US, northern Mexico, and some places in Central and South America. The fungus that causes it ( Coccidioides immitis) is normally soil-dwelling but, if disturbed, becomes air-borne and infects the host when its spores are inhaled. It is thus natural to surmise that weather conditions that foster the growth and dispersal of the fungus must have an effect on the number of cases in the endemic areas. We present here an attempt at the modeling of valley fever incidence in Kern County, California, by the implementation of a generalized auto regressive moving average (GARMA) model. We show that the number of valley fever cases can be predicted mainly by considering only the previous history of incidence rates in the county. The inclusion of weather-related time sequences improves the model only to a relatively minor extent. This suggests that fluctuations of incidence rates (about a seasonally varying background value) are related to biological and/or anthropogenic reasons, and not so much to weather anomalies.

  7. Spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula--A rare presentation of enteric fever.

    PubMed Central

    Otaigbe, Barbara Edewele; Anochie, Ifeoma Comfort; Gbobo, Ifefoma

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enterocutaneous fistulae (ECFs) after typhoid perforation have been previously recorded postoperatively due to repair leak or new perforation. Spontaneous ECF formation due to primary intra-abdominal pathologic processes has been attributed to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and Crohn's disease. A review of the literature has shown no previous report of spontaneous ECF caused primarily by salmonella typhi infection. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of spontaneous ECF due to salmonella typhi infection. CASE REPORT: An eight-year-old female presented with high fever and weight loss of two weeks' duration and a one-week history of a foul-smelling umbilical discharge. She was ill looking, wasted, with evidence of peritonitis. An emergency exploratory laparotomy revealed multiple perforations at the antimesenteric border of the ileocecal valve. With intestinal resection and anastomosis and the use of broad spectrum antibiotics, her clinical state improved. Tissue biopsy showed hemorrhagic necrosis with infiltration by mononuclear inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION: ECF is a rare complication of enteric fever, Enteric fever should therefore be considered in ill children presenting with ECF in the absence of a history of previous surgery, or blunt or penetrating trauma. Images Figure 1 PMID:17052064

  8. Cemented backfilling performance of yellow phosphorus slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-sheng Chen; Bin Zhao; Xin-min Wang; Qin-li Zhang; Li Wang

    2010-01-01

    The experiments on the cemented backfilling performance of yellow phosphorus slag, including physical-mechanical properties,\\u000a chemical compositions, optimized proportion, and cementation mechanisms, were carried out to make good use of yellow phosphorus\\u000a slag as well as tackle with environment problems, safety problems, geological hazards, and high-cost issues during mining\\u000a in Kaiyang Phosphorus Mine Group, Guizhou. The results show that yellow phosphorus

  9. Titanium, Sinusitis, and the Yellow Nail Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrik Berglund; Björn Carlmark

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by nail changes, respiratory disorders, and lymphedema. In a yellow nail patient with\\u000a a skeletal titanium implant and with gold in her teeth, we found high levels of titanium in nail clippings. This study aims\\u000a to examine the possible role of titanium in the genesis of the yellow nail syndrome. Nail clippings from patients with

  10. Rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arvind; Singh, Varun Kumar; Nanda, Satyan

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare but potentially lethal complication of severe dengue fever. We present a case of 21-year-old man with fever, bodyache and black coloured and decreasing amount of urine. He was positive for NS1 (non-structural protein-1) antigen and IgM antibody for dengue. Platelet count was below 20×10(9)/L and kidney function test was deranged. Urine was positive for myoglobin. The patient was managed emergently on conservative lines and improved in 10?days. Rhabdomyolysis should always be kept in mind in a patient with severe dengue, as its early detection and prompt management can prevent further progression to acute renal failure. PMID:26174727

  11. Person-to-person asymptomatic infection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus through blood contact.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Deng, Baocheng; Zhang, Jie; Cui, Wei; Yao, Wenqing; Liu, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease recently discovered in northeastern and central China that is caused by a novel bunyavirus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). Humans are primarily infected through tick bites. Four previous reports have discussed SFTS infection from person to person, all cases of which were symptomatic. In this report, we analysed the epidemiological and clinical data for a cluster of cases, including one case of secondary-asymptomatic infection, and review the literature regarding SFTSV transmission from person to person. We conclude that SFTSV caused the asymptomatic infections via person-to-person contact with infected blood. PMID:24739616

  12. Neuropeptide F and its expression in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Dawn M; Pohl, Jan; Crim, Joe W; Brown, Mark R

    2002-08-01

    A neuropeptide F (NPF) was isolated from an extract of adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes based on its immunoreactivity in a radioimmunoassay for Drosophila NPF. After sequencing the peptide, cDNAs encoding the NPF were identified from head and midgut. These cDNAs encode a prepropeptide containing a 36 amino acid peptide with an amidated carboxyl terminus, and its sequence shows it to be a member of the neuropeptide F/Y superfamily. Immunocytochemistry and Northern blots confirmed that both the brain and midgut of females are likely sources of NPF, found at its highest hemolymph titer before and 24 h after a blood meal. PMID:12182937

  13. Evolution of insect arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferases: Structural evidence from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qian; Robinson, Howard; Ding, Haizhen; Christensen, Bruce M.; Li, Jianyong

    2012-01-01

    Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (aaNAT) catalyzes the transacetylation from acetyl-CoA to arylalkylamines. aaNATs are involved in sclerotization and neurotransmitter inactivation in insects. Phyletic distribution analysis confirms three clusters of aaNAT-like sequences in insects: typical insect aaNAT, polyamine NAT-like aaNAT, and mosquito unique putative aaNAT (paaNAT). Here we studied three proteins: aaNAT2, aaNAT5b, and paaNAT7, each from a different cluster. aaNAT2, a protein from the typical insect aaNAT cluster, uses histamine as a substrate as well as the previously identified arylalkylamines. aaNAT5b, a protein from polyamine NAT -like aaNAT cluster, uses hydrazine and histamine as substrates. The crystal structure of aaNAT2 was determined using single-wavelength anomalous dispersion methods, and that of native aaNAT2, aaNAT5b and paaNAT7 was detected using molecular replacement techniques. All three aaNAT structures have a common fold core of GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily proteins, along with a unique structural feature: helix/helices between ?3 and ?4 strands. Our data provide a start toward a more comprehensive understanding of the structure–function relationship and physiology of aaNATs from the mosquito Aedes aegypti and serve as a reference for studying the aaNAT family of proteins from other insect species. The structures of three different types of aaNATs may provide targets for designing insecticides for use in mosquito control. PMID:22753468

  14. Identification and characterization of two arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferases in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Mehere, Prajwalini; Han, Qian; Christensen, Bruce M.; Li, Jianyong

    2012-01-01

    In this study we provide a molecular and biochemical identification of two arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferases (aaNAT) from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. N-acetyldopamine, the enzyme product of aaNAT, was detected in Ae. aegypti, indicating the presence of an aaNAT in this mosquito. A BLAST search of the Ae. aegypti genome, using sequence information from an activity-verified Drosophila aaNAT, identified thirteen putative aaNAT sequences sharing 13-48% sequence identity with the Drosophila enzyme. Eight of the thirteen putative aaNAT proteins were expressed using a bacterial expression system. Screening of purified recombinant proteins against 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine, methoxytryptamine, norepinephrine, octopamine, tryptamine, and tyramine substrates, established that two of the putative aaNATs are active to the tested arylalkylamines. We therefore named them aaNAT1 and 2, respectively. Analysis of the transcriptional profiles of the two aaNAT genes from Ae. aegypti revealed that aaNAT1 is more abundant in the whole body of larvae and pupae, and aaNAT2 is more abundant in the head of adult mosquitoes. Based on their substrate and transcriptional profiles, together with previous reports from other insects, we suggest that the two aaNATs play diverse roles in Ae. aegypti, with aaNAT1 primarily involved in sclerotization and aaNAT2 mainly in neurotransmitter inactivation. Our data provide a beginning to a more comprehensive understanding of the biochemistry and physiology of aaNATs from the Ae. aegypti and serve as a reference for studying the aaNAT family of proteins from other insect species. PMID:21645618

  15. The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal

    PubMed Central

    Price, David P.; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Churbanov, Alexander; Houde, Peter; Milligan, Brook; Drake, Lisa L.; Gustafson, John E.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The fat body is the main organ of intermediary metabolism in insects and the principal source of hemolymph proteins. As part of our ongoing efforts to understand mosquito fat body physiology and to identify novel targets for insect control, we have conducted a transcriptome analysis of the fat body of Aedes aegypti before and in response to blood feeding. Results We created two fat body non-normalized EST libraries, one from mosquito fat bodies non-blood fed (NBF) and another from mosquitoes 24 hrs post-blood meal (PBM). 454 pyrosequencing of the non-normalized libraries resulted in 204,578 useable reads from the NBF sample and 323,474 useable reads from the PBM sample. Alignment of reads to the existing reference Ae. aegypti transcript libraries for analysis of differential expression between NBF and PBM samples revealed 116,912 and 115,051 matches, respectively. De novo assembly of the reads from the NBF sample resulted in 15,456 contigs, and assembly of the reads from the PBM sample resulted in 15,010 contigs. Collectively, 123 novel transcripts were identified within these contigs. Prominently expressed transcripts in the NBF fat body library were represented by transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins. Thirty-five point four percent of all reads in the PBM library were represented by transcripts that encode yolk proteins. The most highly expressed were transcripts encoding members of the cathepsin b, vitellogenin, vitellogenic carboxypeptidase, and vitelline membrane protein families. Conclusion The two fat body transcriptomes were considerably different from each other in terms of transcript expression in terms of abundances of transcripts and genes expressed. They reflect the physiological shift of the pre-feeding fat body from a resting state to vitellogenic gene expression after feeding. PMID:21818341

  16. Editorial The Revised International Health Regulations (2005): Impact on Yellow Fever Vaccination in Clinical Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annelies Wilder-Smith; David R. Hill; David O. Freedman

    IHR (2005) are far ranging in scope and have broad impli- cations for national, regional, and super-governmental spheres. At the same time, from the perspective of the prac- ticing clinician, there are some immediate practical conse- quences with regards to the international vaccine certificate for travelers. The extended spectrum of diseases and events under IHR (2005) that may cause a

  17. Experience- and age-mediated oviposition behaviour in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Ruktanonchai, N W; Lounibos, L P; Smith, D L; Allan, S A

    2015-09-01

    In repeated behaviours such as those of feeding and reproduction, past experiences can inform future behaviour. By altering their behaviour in response to environmental stimuli, insects in highly variable landscapes can tailor their behaviour to their particular environment. In particular, female mosquitoes may benefit from plasticity in their choice of egg-laying site as these sites are often temporally variable and clustered. The opportunity to adapt egg-laying behaviour to past experience also exists for mosquito populations as females typically lay eggs multiple times throughout their lives. Whether experience and age affect egg-laying (or oviposition) behaviour in the mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) was assessed using a wind tunnel. Initially, gravid mosquitoes were provided with a cup containing either repellent or well water. After ovipositing in these cups, the mosquitoes were blood-fed and introduced into a wind tunnel. In this wind tunnel, an oviposition cup containing repellent was placed in the immediate vicinity of the gravid mosquitoes. A cup containing well water was placed at the opposite end of the tunnel so that if the females flew across the chamber, they encountered the well water cup, in which they readily laid eggs. Mosquitoes previously exposed to repellent cups became significantly more likely to later lay eggs in repellent cups, suggesting that previous experience with suboptimal oviposition sites informs mosquitoes of the characteristics of nearby oviposition sites. These results provide further evidence that mosquitoes modify behaviour in response to environmental information and are demonstrated in a vector species in which behavioural plasticity may be ecologically and epidemiologically meaningful. PMID:25982411

  18. Carbon dioxide instantly sensitizes female yellow fever mosquitoes to human skin odours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teun Dekker; Martin Geier

    2005-01-01

    Female mosquitoes are noted for their ability to use odours to locate a host for a blood meal. Two sensory organs contribute to their sense of smell: the maxillary palps, which measure the level of CO2, and the antennae, which detect other host-released odours. To establish the relative importance and interactions of CO2 and other body emissions in freely flying

  19. Analysis of odorant receptor protein function in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odorant receptors (ORs) in insects are ligand-gated ion channels comprised of two subunits: a variable receptor and an obligatory co-receptor (Orco). This protein receptor complex of unknown stoichiometry interacts with an odor molecule leading to changes in permeability of the sensory dendrite, th...

  20. Characterization of an enantioselective odorant receptor in the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In chemical communication systems, optical isomers have been shown to be differentially active at the physiological and behavioral levels. One enantiomer may serve as an attractant for one species while its antipode may function as a disruptant or repellent in another species or even within the sam...