Sample records for yellow stem borer

  1. Transgenic fertile japonica rice plants expressing a modified cryIA(b) gene resistant to yellow stem borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Wu; Y. Fan; C. Zhang; N. Oliva; S. K. Datta

    1997-01-01

    The japonica rice variety Taipei 309 was cotransformed by particle bombardment of immature embryo-derived embryogenic calli\\u000a with a modified ?-endotoxin gene cryIA(b) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) under the control of the rice Actin1 promoter, and the hygromycin resistance gene, hph driven by the CaMV35S promoter. Selected transgenic rice plants showed enhanced insecticidal activity against yellow stem\\u000a borer (Scirpophaga incertulas), with

  2. Generation of marker-free Bt transgenic indica rice and evaluation of its yellow stem borer resistance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Arul, L; Talwar, D

    2010-01-01

    We report on generation of marker-free (‘clean DNA’) transgenic rice (Oryza sativa), carrying minimal gene-expression-cassettes of the genes of interest, and evaluation of its resistance to yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The transgenic indica rice harbours a translational fusion of 2 different Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes, namely cry1B-1Aa, driven by the green-tissue-specific phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) promoter. Mature seed-derived calli of an elite indica rice cultivar Pusa Basmati-1 were co-bombarded with gene-expression-cassettes (clean DNA fragments) of the Bt gene and the marker hpt gene, to generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. The clean DNA fragments for bombardment were obtained by restriction digestion and gel extraction. Through biolistic transformation, 67 independent transformants were generated. Transformation frequency reached 3.3%, and 81% of the transgenic plants were co-transformants. Stable integration of the Bt gene was confirmed, and the insert copy number was determined by Southern analysis. Western analysis and ELISA revealed a high level of Bt protein expression in transgenic plants. Progeny analysis confirmed stable inheritance of the Bt gene according to the Mendelian (3:1) ratio. Insect bioassays revealed complete protection of transgenic plants from yellow stem borer infestation. PCR analysis of T2 progeny plants resulted in the recovery of up to 4% marker-free transgenic rice plants. PMID:20720299

  3. Breeding for stem borer resistance in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem borers are arguably the most important group of insect pests of sugarcane. Stem borers primarily belong to the insect order Lepidoptera, although a few species belong to the order Coleoptera. The larvae of these insects bore into the sugarcane stalk and heavy infestations can cause severe losse...

  4. Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  5. Parasitism of lepidopterous stem borers in cultivated and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  6. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

  7. Farmers' perceptions of the white stem borer Scirpophaga innotata (Walker), in Cilamaya, West Java, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Rubia; A. A. Lazaro; K. L. Heong; Diah; Nurhasyim; G. A. Norton

    1996-01-01

    In connection with the white stem borer outbreak, reported during the 1989–1990 wet season in the northern part of West Java, field surveys were conducted to determine the importance of this pest to farmers, to assess their knowledge of it and to determine current control practices. The largest percentage (85%) of farmers perceived the white stem borer as important and

  8. Relationship between maize stem structural characteristics and resistance to pink stem borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) attack.

    PubMed

    Santiago, R; Souto, X C; Sotelo, J; Butrón, A; Malvar, R A

    2003-10-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre), is one of the most important insect pests of maize (Zea mays L.) in northwestern Spain. The objectives of this work were to evaluate, at different times during the growth of maize, structural traits related to the entry point and tissues on which larvae feed and to determine the relationship between these structural traits and the stem borer resistance. Six inbred lines with different levels of stem resistance to S. nonagrioides were evaluated in several trials. Potential structural resistance factors included rind and pith puncture resistance (RPR and PPR), rind thickness, length of the meristematic area (LMA), and pith parenchyma interlumen thickness (PPIT). Surprisingly, the inbred lines that showed the strongest stalks, EP42 and EP47, were not stem resistant to pink stem borer attack, while the stem resistant inbreds A509, CM151, and PB130 were among the least resistant to rind puncture. There were no significant differences among resistant and susceptible inbreds for the rind thickness. However, the susceptible inbred EP42 had the softest internode pith, and the resistant inbred PB130 showed the hardest, as was expected. Susceptible inbred lines in general showed higher values for the LMA, while the PPIT was important for individual inbreds. The results suggest that the usefulness of these characters as estimators of pink stem borer resistance is limited to some genotypes. Besides, even among those genotypes, other mechanisms of resistance that do not involve stalk strength could be present. Among the traits considered, the LMA was the most promising as an indicator of resistance to pink stem borer, although further experimentation is necessary. PMID:14650532

  9. Predictive zoning of rice stem borer damage in southern India through spatial interpolation of weather-based models.

    PubMed

    Reji, G; Chander, Subhash; Kamble, Kalpana

    2014-09-01

    Rice stem borer is an important insect pest causing severe damage to rice crop in India. The relationship between weather parameters such as maximum (T(max)) and minimum temperature (T(min)), morning (RH1) and afternoon relative humidity (RH2) and the severity of stem borer damage (SB) were studied. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for formulating pest-weather models at three sites in southern India namely, Warangal, Coimbatore and Pattambi as SB = -66.849 + 2.102 T(max) + 0.095 RH1, SB = 156.518 - 3.509 T(min) - 0.785 RH1 and SB = 43.483 - 0.418 T(min) - 0.283 RH1 respectively. The pest damage predicted using the model at three sites did not significantly differ from the observed damage (t = 0.442; p > 0.05). The range of weather parameters favourable for stem borer damage at each site were also predicted using the models. Geospatial interpolation (kriging) of the pest-weather models were carried out to predict the zones of stem borer damage in southern India. Maps showing areas with high, medium and low risk of stem borer damage were prepared using geographical information system. The risk maps of rice stem borer would be useful in devising management strategies for the pest in the region. PMID:25204068

  10. Molecular changes in the maize composite EPS12 during selection for resistance to pink stem borer.

    PubMed

    Butrón, A; Tarrío, R; Revilla, P; Ordás, A; Malvar, R A

    2005-04-01

    The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèvbre) is the most important pest of maize (Zea mays L.) throughout the Mediterranean area. The maize composite EPS12 has been chosen as the base population for a breeding program based on its resistance to pink stem borer, with the main selection criterion being resistance to stem tunneling. Yield was taken as a secondary selection criterion to avoid any unwanted negatively correlated response on this character. The aims of investigation were: (1) to monitor the effects of selection for resistance to pink stem borer on allele frequency at 70 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and their impact on the genetic structure of EPS12 and (2) to identify loci at which allelic frequencies changed significantly due to directional selection. Genetic diversity was reduced during the selection process (as expected since random genetic drift as well as selection could reduce genetic variability), but not significantly so. Although the loss of genetic variation was generally consistent with that expected in a model in which random genetic drift acts alone on neutral alleles, the changes observed in the frequency of five alleles were significantly greater than expected. Further, the linear trend of the departure from the random genetic drift model was significant for some allelic versions of two SSR markers, umc1329 and phi076; directional selection was therefore acting on these loci. The significant effect of directional selection on those markers suggests the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for tunnel length and/or for yield under artificial infestation with Sesamia nonagrioides on the long arm of chromosome 4. PMID:15714327

  11. Seasonal parasitism by egg parasites of the yellow rice borer, Scirpophaga incertulas [Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indrani S. Hikim

    1988-01-01

    Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) [Lep.: Pyralidae] is a common pest of rice in West Bengal, India. A three year study (1978–1981) revealed that egg parasites were important\\u000a in reducing the borer population in an uninterrupted rice cultivation practice. The parasite activity showed periodical fluctuation\\u000a coinciding with the moth emergence. It was evident thatTelenomus spp. were most common and most dominating in

  12. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Chilo auricilius and comparison with three other rice stem borers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-09-15

    The mitogenome of Chilo auricilius (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae) was a circular molecule made up of 15,367 bp. Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas, and C. auricilius, are closely related, well known rice stem borers that are widely distributed in the main rice-growing regions of China. The gene order and orientation of all four stem borers were similar to that of other insect mitogenomes. Among the four stem borers, all AT contents were below 83%, while all AT contents of tRNA genes were above 80%. The genomes were compact, with only 121-257 bp of non-coding intergenic spacer. There are 56 or 62-bp overlapping nucleotides in Crambidae moths, but were only 25-bp overlapping nucleotides in the noctuid moth S. inferens. There was a conserved motif 'ATACTAAA' between trnS2 (UCN) and nad1 in Crambidae moths, but this same region was 'ATCATA' in the noctuid S. inferens. And there was a 6-bp motif 'ATGATAA' of overlapping nucleotides, which was conserved in Lepidoptera, and a 14-bp motif 'TAAGCTATTTAAAT' conserved in the three Crambidae moths (C. suppressalis, C. auricilius and T. incertulas), but not in the noctuid. Finally, there were no stem-and-loop structures in the two Chilo moths. PMID:25042162

  13. Evaluation for potential Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) strains for control of the striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. Nine Trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the Greater Mekong Subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential Trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. In the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains showed higher parasitism rates on 0-24-h eggs than on the two older age groups (24-48 and 48-72 h). Wasp emergence rate was also higher from parasitized 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs, while Trichogramma immature duration was significantly prolonged on 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs. Parasitism rates differed among Trichogramma strains, with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii CJ strain showing significantly higher parasitism rate than any other strains. In the field tests, parasitism of sentinel striped stem borer eggs by Trichogramma strains released at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 wasps per hectare was low, with marginal yet significant differences between strains. The highest parasitism was achieved by T. chilonis CJ strain at the high and medium release rates. Hence, it can be concluded that T. chilonis CJ strain released at 100,000 wasps per hectare may be a cost-effective control tactic for field releases targeting striped stem borer. PMID:25026653

  14. Characterization of a tyramine receptor type 2 from hemocytes of rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Xu, Gang; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2015-04-01

    Calcium acts as a second messenger in many cell types, including insect hemocytes. Intracellular calcium level has a definite role in innate and adaptive immune signaling. Biogenic amines such as octopamine (OA), tyramine (TA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) play various important physiological roles in insects by activating distinct G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that share a putative seven transmembrane domain structure. OA and 5-HT have been shown that can mediate insect hemocytic immune reactions to infections and invasions. Here, we showed that TA increase hemocyte spreading in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. Furthermore, we cloned a cDNA encoding a tyramine receptor type 2 from the hemocytes in the C. suppressalis, viz., CsTA2, which shares high sequence similarity to members of the invertebrate tyramine receptor family. The CsTA2 receptor was stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, and its ligand response has been examined. Receptor activation with TA induced a dose-dependent increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cells, with an EC50 value of 18.7±5.3 nM, whereas OA, DA, 5-HT and other potential agonists did not have this response. The mRNA is present in various tissues including nerve cord, hemocytes, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, and epidermis in the larval stage. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry assay displayed that CsTA2 was detected and presented on hemocytes. We also showed that TA induced Ca(2+) release from the hemocytes of C. suppressalis. PMID:25772095

  15. Susceptibility of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to flubendiamide in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Yao, Rong; Wu, Shunfan; Su, Jianya; Gao, Congfen

    2014-06-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important rice pest in China, and has evolved resistance to several classes of insecticides. Flubendiamide is a phthalic diamide insecticide that shows selective insecticidal activity against lepidopterous insects. The susceptibility of 40 field populations of C. suppressalis, collected in 2011 and 2012 in seven provinces of south-eastern China, to flubendiamide was determined through rice seedling dipping bioassay method. Of these 40 populations, seven populations that were seldom exposed to flubendiamide were used to set up the baseline sensitivity, and the LC50 value was 0.092 mg/L. Variation in susceptibility among the 40 field populations was high (34-fold). The range of mean lethal concentration (LC50) values in response to this chemical was between 0.032 mg/L (FS11) and 1.090 mg/L (JH12) across the populations. Substantial variations of the susceptibility to flubendiamide were detected among different geographic populations. There was no significant difference observed between years for most populations, except for populations from Jinhua and Lujiang. Resistance ratios to the chemical ranged from 0.8 to 11.8, indicating that most colonies remained susceptible or showed certain decrease in susceptibility. It was found that 16 of the 40 populations had some level of resistance. However, moderate level of resistance was discovered in only one population from JH12 from Zhejiang province (11.8-fold). Other 15 populations showed low level of resistance (5.1-9.3-fold) to flubendiamide. These data are useful in future monitoring programs for detecting any changes in susceptibility as a result of using flubendiamide. PMID:25026690

  16. Exploring the Midgut Transcriptome and Brush Border Membrane Vesicle Proteome of the Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chuanhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lin, Yongjun

    2012-01-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac. PMID:22666467

  17. Yellow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Woodward

    1871-01-01

    IT would seem to me that the great difficulty of conceiving yellow as a compound colour is the brightness or lightness of yellow, as compared with its components. In the spectrum, we have the maximum of light in the yellow, and it is against our experience to put two dark colours together and form one light one, as, for example,

  18. Efficacy of ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) against stem borers and leaffolder insect-pests of basmati rice.

    PubMed

    Sarao, P S; Kaur, H

    2014-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three kharif seasons from 2009 to 2011 at Sudhar village, Ludhiana and Rice Research Area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Four doses of Ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) a new chemistry @ 20, 30, 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check Cartap hydrochloride 4 G @ 1000 g a.i. ha(-1) was tested against stem borers and leaffolder infesting basmati rice. Over the years, dead heart in all the Ferterra doses and standard check (1.01-1.80%) were at par70 DAT, whereas, at 80 DAT doses @ 40, 50 and standard check were at par (1.04-1.13%) but significantly better than lower doses and untreated control. Similarly, over the years, Ferterra doses @ 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) was significantly better than control in reducing white ear incidence, whereas, at 30 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check intermediately reduced the white ears incidence. Leaffolder infestation at all the Ferterra doses were at par with standard check 70 DAT (2.69-3.87%), whereas, 80 DAT, Ferterra doses @ 30, 40, 50 and standard check were at par (2.95-3.49%) but significantly better than lower dose and untreated control. Over the years the cost : benefit ratio was maximum (1 : 23.67) in the Ferterra @40 g a.i. ha(-1) dose followed by 50 g a.i. ha(-1) dose. PMID:25204052

  19. Dopamine modulates hemocyte phagocytosis via a D1-like receptor in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Xu, Gang; Stanley, David; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a signal moiety bridging the nervous and immune systems. DA dysregulation is linked to serious human diseases, including addiction, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. However, DA actions in the immune system remain incompletely understood. In this study, we found that DA modulates insect hemocyte phagocytosis using hemocytes prepared from the rice stem borer (RSB), Chilo suppressalis. We investigated whether insect hemocytes are capable of de novo DA production. Here we show that exposing hemocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to induction of DA-generating enzymes. Exogenous DA induced rapid phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in naïve hemocytes. Activation of ERK was inhibited by preincubating with a DOP1 receptor antagonist. Thus, DA signaling via the DOP1 receptor may contribute to early hemocyte activation. DA synthesized and released from hemocytes may act in an autocrine mechanism to stimulate or maintain phagocytic activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that inhibition of DA synthesis with ?-methyl-DL-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride or blockage of DOP1 receptor with antagonist SCH23390 impaired hemocyte phagocytosis. Topical DA application also significantly decreased RSB mortality following challenge with the insect pathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. We infer that a DA-dependent signaling system operates in hemocytes to mediate phagocytotic functions. PMID:26179416

  20. Agrobacterium-Transformed Rice Plants Expressing Synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) Genes are Highly Toxic to Striped Stem Borer and Yellow Stem Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiongying Cheng; Ravinder Sardana; Harvey Kaplan; Illimar Altosaar

    1998-01-01

    Over 2,600 transgenic rice plants in nine strains were regenerated from >500 independently selected hygromycin-resistant calli after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The plants were transformed with fully modified (plant codon optimized) versions of two synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) coding sequences from Bacillus thuringiensis as well as the hph and gus genes, coding for hygromycin phosphotransferase and beta -glucuronidase, respectively. These sequences were

  1. SOYBEAN STEM BORER IN KANSAS: A Research Update. M. Kaczmarek1, R.A. Higgins1, P.E. Sloderbeck1, L.L. Buschman1, D. Crook1, S.B. Ramaswamy1, W. Schapaugh2.

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    SOYBEAN STEM BORER IN KANSAS: A Research Update. M. Kaczmarek1, R.A. Higgins1, P.E. Sloderbeck1, L.L. Buschman1, D. Crook1, S.B. Ramaswamy1, W. Schapaugh2. 1Dept. Of Entomology, Kansas State Univ., Waters Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA, 2Dept. Of Agronomy, Kansas State Univ., Throckmorton Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506

  2. Predicting the Impact of Temperature Change on the Future Distribution of Maize Stem Borers and Their Natural Enemies along East African Mountain Gradients Using Phenology Models

    PubMed Central

    Mwalusepo, Sizah; Tonnang, Henri E. Z.; Massawe, Estomih S.; Okuku, Gerphas O.; Khadioli, Nancy; Johansson, Tino; Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Lepidopteran stem borers are among the most important pests of maize in East Africa. The objective of the present study was to predict the impact of temperature change on the distribution and abundance of the crambid Chilo partellus, the noctuid Busseola fusca, and their larval parasitoids Cotesia flavipes and Cotesia sesamiae at local scale along Kilimanjaro and Taita Hills gradients in Tanzania and Kenya, respectively. Temperature-dependent phenology models of pests and parasitoids were used in a geographic information system for mapping. The three risk indices namely establishment, generation, and activity indices were computed using current temperature data record from local weather stations and future (i.e., 2055) climatic condition based on downscaled climate change data from the AFRICLIM database. The calculations were carried out using index interpolator, a sub-module of the Insect Life Cycle Modeling (ILCYM) software. Thin plate algorithm was used for interpolation of the indices. Our study confirmed that temperature was a key factor explaining the distribution of stem borers and their natural enemies but other climatic factors and factors related to the top-down regulation of pests by parasitoids (host-parasitoid synchrony) also played a role. Results based on temperature only indicated a worsening of stem borer impact on maize production along the two East African mountain gradients studied. This was attributed to three main changes occurring simultaneously: (1) range expansion of the lowland species C. partellus in areas above 1200 m.a.s.l.; (2) increase of the number of pest generations across all altitudes, thus by 2055 damage by both pests will increase in the most productive maize zones of both transects; (3) disruption of the geographical distribution of pests and their larval parasitoids will cause an improvement of biological control at altitude below 1200 m.a.s.l. and a deterioration above 1200 m.a.s.l. The predicted increase in pest activity will significantly increase maize yield losses in all agro-ecological zones across both transects but to a much greater extent in lower areas. PMID:26075605

  3. Brassica rapa stock description: F1 and F2 Non-purple stem, Yellow-green leaf stocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

    PDF containing seed stock profile information for and illustration of the F1 and F2 Non-Purple Stem, Yellow-Green Leaf variety of Brassica rapa (Fast Plants). This also includes some brief suggestions for their use as a model organism in teaching Mendelian genetics with a monohybrid cross using Wisconsin Fast Plants.

  4. Lipophilic metabolite profiling of maize and sorghum seeds and seedlings, and their pest spotted stem borer larvae: a standardized GC-MS based approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dhillon, Mukesh K

    2015-03-01

    In order to better understand the biochemical interactions and to identify new biomarkers for plant resistance against insects, we proposed a suitable lipophilic profiling method for insects and their host plants. The critical components of GC-MS based analysis are: sample amount, extraction, derivatization, temperature gradient, run time, and identification of peaks. For lipophilic metabolite profiling of maize and sorghum, and their insect pest, spotted stem borer larvae, we recommend 100 mg sample weight for seeds and insect samples (whole insect body), and 200 mg for seedlings. Maize and sorghum seeds required less time for fat extraction in comparison to their seedlings and the pest fed on these seedlings. GC-MS was standardized for better separation and intensity of peaks using different temperature gradients in the range of 180-300 C. A total of 48 lipophilic compounds encompassing various classes based on their functional groups such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, hydrocarbons, sterols and terpenoids, vitamin derivative, etc. were separated in the seedlings (30), seeds (14), and the pest (26) in the retention time range of 3.22 to 29.41 min. This method could be useful to study nutritional aspects of different field crops in relation to various stresses apart from the analysis of lipophilic compounds for better understanding of insect-plant interactions. PMID:25872248

  5. Relations between two rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella (Cr.) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and their hymenopterous larval parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Hummelen

    1974-01-01

    In many tropical countries, lepidopterous stem borers are major pests of the rice crop. Study of the rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella and Diatraea saccharalis, was made in the Paramaribo area, at the experimental station 'CELOS' during 1971, 1972 and 1973, since data on the ecology and economic importance of these borers were incomplete and almost lacking for the

  6. Differential Expression Patterns in Chemosensory and Non-Chemosensory Tissues of Putative Chemosensory Genes Identified by Transcriptome Analysis of Insect Pest the Purple Stem Borer Sesamia inferens (Walker)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Jin, Jun-Yan; Jin, Rong; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Deng, Jian-Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 39 for odorant receptors (ORs) and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs). The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. Conclusion Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as well as other insects. PMID:23894529

  7. The impact of climate change on the potential distribution of agricultural pests: the case of the coffee white stem borer (Monochamus leuconotus P.) in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Kutywayo, Dumisani; Chemura, Abel; Kusena, Winmore; Chidoko, Pardon; Mahoya, Caleb

    2013-01-01

    The production of agricultural commodities faces increased risk of pests, diseases and other stresses due to climate change and variability. This study assesses the potential distribution of agricultural pests under projected climatic scenarios using evidence from the African coffee white stem borer (CWB), Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an important pest of coffee in Zimbabwe. A species distribution modeling approach utilising Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) and Generalized Linear Models (GLM) was applied on current and projected climate data obtained from the WorldClim database and occurrence data (presence and absence) collected through on-farm biological surveys in Chipinge, Chimanimani, Mutare and Mutasa districts in Zimbabwe. Results from both the BRT and GLM indicate that precipitation-related variables are more important in determining species range for the CWB than temperature related variables. The CWB has extensive potential habitats in all coffee areas with Mutasa district having the largest model average area suitable for CWB under current and projected climatic conditions. Habitat ranges for CWB will increase under future climate scenarios for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutare districts while it will decrease in Mutasa district. The highest percentage change in area suitable for the CWB was for Chimanimani district with a model average of 49.1% (3 906 ha) increase in CWB range by 2080. The BRT and GLM predictions gave similar predicted ranges for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutasa districts compared to the high variation in current and projected habitat area for CWB in Mutare district. The study concludes that suitable area for CWB will increase significantly in Zimbabwe due to climate change and there is need to develop adaptation mechanisms. PMID:24014222

  8. Diurnal and seasonal changes in stem increment and water use by yellow poplar trees in response to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Samuel B; Wullschleger, Stan D; Nosal, Miloslav

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate indicators of whole-tree physiological responses to climate stress, we determined seasonal, daily and diurnal patterns of growth and water use in 10 yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) trees in a stand recently released from competition. Precise measurements of stem increment and sap flow made with automated electronic dendrometers and thermal dissipation probes, respectively, indicated close temporal linkages between water use and patterns of stem shrinkage and swelling during daily cycles of water depletion and recharge of extensible outer-stem tissues. These cycles also determined net daily basal area increment. Multivariate regression models based on a 123-day data series showed that daily diameter increments were related negatively to vapor pressure deficit (VPD), but positively to precipitation and temperature. The same model form with slight changes in coefficients yielded coefficients of determination of about 0.62 (0.57-0.66) across data subsets that included widely variable growth rates and VPDs. Model R2 was improved to 0.75 by using 3-day running mean daily growth data. Rapid recovery of stem diameter growth following short-term, diurnal reductions in VPD indicated that water stored in extensible stem tissues was part of a fast recharge system that limited hydration changes in the cambial zone during periods of water stress. There were substantial differences in the seasonal dynamics of growth among individual trees, and analyses indicated that faster-growing trees were more positively affected by precipitation, solar irradiance and temperature and more negatively affected by high VPD than slower-growing trees. There were no negative effects of ozone on daily growth rates in a year of low ozone concentrations. PMID:14522718

  9. Emerald ash borer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (USDA; Forest Service)

    2004-11-13

    The emerald ash borer is an insect that was introduced to the United States on accident. The larvae of this insect feed on essential parts of the ash tree. This non-native species has killed several million trees already.

  10. EAB or Native Borer? Insect Galleries Often Confused for Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    EAB or Native Borer? Insect Galleries Often Confused for Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) PM 3065 May 2014 Emerald Ash Borer Native Borers EAB Bark Beetles have a main tunnel (arrows) with many perpendicular, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa. Emerald Ash Borer Native Borers EAB

  11. Stem pitting and seedling yellows symptoms of Citrus tristeza virus infection may be determined by minor sequence variants.

    PubMed

    Cerni, Silvija; Rusci?, Jelena; Nolasco, Gustavo; Gatin, Zivko; Krajaci?, Mladen; Skori?, Dijana

    2008-02-01

    The isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), the most destructive viral pathogen of citrus, display a high level of variability. As a result of genetic bottleneck induced by the bud-inoculation of CTV-infected material, inoculated seedlings of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka displayed different symptoms. All successfully grafted plants showed severe symptoms of stem pitting and seedling yellows, while plants in which inoculated buds died displayed mild symptoms. Since complex CTV population structure was detected in the parental host, the aim of this work was to investigate how it changed after the virus transmission, and to correlate it with observed symptoms. The coat protein gene sequence of the predominant genotype was identical in parental and grafted plants and clustered to the phylogenetic group 5 encompassing severe reference isolates. In seedlings displaying severe symptoms, the low-frequency variants clustering to other phylogenetic groups were detected, as well. Indicator plants were inoculated with buds taken from unsuccessfully grafted C. wilsonii seedlings. Surprisingly, they displayed no severe symptoms despite the presence of phylogenetic group 5 genomic variants. The results suggest that the appearance of severe symptoms in this case is probably induced by a complex CTV population structure found in seedlings displaying severe symptoms, and not directly by the predominant genomic variant. PMID:18074213

  12. Alternative Management Strategy for Peachtree Borer and Lesser Peachtree Borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) and lesser peachtree borer (Synanthedon pictipes) are native insects that cause serious damage to peach trees in the southeastern U.S. Damage by both species is exacted on trees through larvae feeding on the cambium. Management of the univoltine peachtree...

  13. PENNSYLVANIA EMERALD ASH BORER ACTION PLAN Prepared by

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    PENNSYLVANIA EMERALD ASH BORER ACTION PLAN Prepared by: Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture............................................................................................................. 2 Impact of Emerald Ash Borer

  14. Insecticide Management Options for EMERALD ASH BORER

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    Insecticide Management Options for EMERALD ASH BORER R. Chris Williamson, Associate Professor researchers are studying methods of controlling emerald ash borer (EAB). The latest information on insecticide Emerald Ash Borer Program's website (www.emeraldashborer.wi.gov) or contact your University of Wisconsin

  15. Blueberry Stem Borer Oberea myops Haldeman

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    larva is yellowish, about 25 mm (one inch) long, and only about 3mm (1/8 inch) wide. It pupates. Host plants include blueberry, rhododendron, azalea, and mountain laurel. The adult is about 14-16mm long (slightly over ½ inch), with long black antennae. Most of the adult beetle (head, pronotum

  16. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  17. EST analysis of functional genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis and modification in the secondary xylem of the yellow poplar ( Liriodendron tulipifera ) stem during early stage of tension wood formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyunjung Jin; Jihye Do; Dahyun Moon; Eun Woon Noh; Wook Kim; Mi Kwon

    A cDNA library was constructed from secondary xylem in the stem of a 2-year-old yellow poplar after being bent for 6 h with\\u000a a 45° configuration to isolate genes related to cell wall modification during the early stages of tension wood formation.\\u000a A total of 6,141 ESTs were sequenced to generate a database of 5,982 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs). These

  18. Cell wall composition as a maize defense mechanism against corn borers.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rios, Jaime; Malvar, Rosa A; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Santiago, Rogelio

    2011-04-01

    European and Mediterranean corn borers are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize (Zea mays L.) in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith and rind tissues of resistant and susceptible inbred lines as possible corn borer resistance traits. Composition of cell wall polysaccharides, lignin concentration and composition, and cell wall bound forms of hydroxycinnamic acids were measured. As expected, most of the cell wall components were found at higher concentrations in the rind than in the pith tissues, with the exception of galactose and total diferulate esters. Pith of resistant inbred lines had significantly higher concentrations of total cell wall material than susceptible inbred lines, indicating that the thickness of cell walls could be the initial barrier against corn borer larvae attack. Higher concentrations of cell wall xylose and 8-O-4-coupled diferulate were found in resistant inbreds. Stem tunneling by corn borers was negatively correlated with concentrations of total diferulates, 8-5-diferulate and p-coumarate esters. Higher total cell wall, xylose, and 8-coupled diferulates concentrations appear to be possible mechanisms of corn borer resistance. PMID:21281952

  19. Instructions for the Use and Care of an Increment Borer

    E-print Network

    Bolding, M. Chad

    or crack, where the bark is thinnest. Hold the bit near the threads with one hand; with your other hand will outline the safe and proper use of an increment borer. Materials Needed WARNING: The end of the borer bit borer 1. Separate the handle (A) from the borer bit (B) and extractor (C). (See Figure 1.) Place

  20. Yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Monath, Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease occurs in tropical areas of South America and Africa. It is a disease of major historical importance, but remains a threat to travelers to and residents of endemic areas despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 70 years. An important aspect is the receptivity of many non-endemic areas to introduction and spread of yellow fever. This paper reviews the clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of yellow fever, with an emphasis on recent changes in the distribution and incidence of the disease. Recent knowledge about yellow fever 17D vaccine mechanism of action and safety are discussed. PMID:25453327

  1. Philip N. Borer Complete List of Publications

    E-print Network

    Doyle, Robert

    Current Effects in the NMR of Nucleic Acids: A Graphical Approach." 8. McFarland, G. D., & Borer, P. N on Caffeine and its Interaction with Nucleic Acids." 10. Stone, M. P., Johnson, D. L., & Borer, P. N. (1981, 11086-11090, "NMR Studies of Pig Gastric Microsomal H+, K+-ATPase and Phos- pholipid Dynamics: Effects

  2. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  3. Long-lasting stem cell-like memory CD8+ T cells with a naïve-like profile upon yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A; Soneson, Charlotte; Cagnon, Laurène; Gannon, Philippe O; Allard, Mathilde; Abed Maillard, Samia; Montandon, Nicole; Rufer, Nathalie; Waldvogel, Sophie; Delorenzi, Mauro; Speiser, Daniel E

    2015-04-01

    Efficient and persisting immune memory is essential for long-term protection from infectious and malignant diseases. The yellow fever (YF) vaccine is a live attenuated virus that mediates lifelong protection, with recent studies showing that the CD8(+) T cell response is particularly robust. Yet, limited data exist regarding the long-term CD8(+) T cell response, with no studies beyond 5 years after vaccination. We investigated 41 vaccinees, spanning 0.27 to 35 years after vaccination. YF-specific CD8(+) T cells were readily detected in almost all donors (38 of 41), with frequencies decreasing with time. As previously described, effector cells dominated the response early after vaccination. We detected a population of naïve-like YF-specific CD8(+) T cells that was stably maintained for more than 25 years and was capable of self-renewal ex vivo. In-depth analyses of markers and genome-wide mRNA profiling showed that naïve-like YF-specific CD8(+) T cells in vaccinees (i) were distinct from genuine naïve cells in unvaccinated donors, (ii) resembled the recently described stem cell-like memory subset (Tscm), and (iii) among all differentiated subsets, had profiles closest to naïve cells. Our findings reveal that CD8(+) Tscm are efficiently induced by a vaccine in humans, persist for decades, and preserve a naïveness-like profile. These data support YF vaccination as an optimal mechanistic model for the study of long-lasting memory CD8(+) T cells in humans. PMID:25855494

  4. Nontarget effects on aquatic decomposer organisms of imidacloprid as a systemic insecticide to control emerald ash borer in riparian trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kreutzweiser; Kevin Good; Derek Chartrand; Taylor Scarr; Dean Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Imidacloprid is effective against emerald ash borer when applied as a systemic insecticide. Following stem or soil injections to trees in riparian areas, imidacloprid residues could be indirectly introduced to aquatic systems via leaf fall or leaching. Either route of exposure may affect non-target, aquatic decomposer organisms. Leaves from ash trees treated with imidacloprid at two field rates and an

  5. HABITAT AND MOVEMENTS OF BREEDING YELLOW RAILS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THEODORE A. BOOKHOUT; JEFFREY R. STENZEL

    Four pairs of Yellow Rails (Coturnicops noveboracensis) were radiotracked (1039 locations) in May-August 1980 at Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan, to identify characteristics of breeding habitat and its use by Yellow Rails. Vegetation at nesting sites was dominated by Carex lasiocarpa (>90% of basal stems) in wet sedge meadows, which comprised nearly 90% of the 30-ha study area. Water depth

  6. Yellow fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aches, fever, flushing, loss of appetite, vomiting, and jaundice are common. Symptoms often go away briefly after ... urination Delirium Fever Headache Yellow skin and eyes (jaundice) Muscle aches Red eyes , face, tongue Seizures Vomiting, ...

  7. Stems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-03

    Some mature plants can produce new plants by cutting a piece of stem off of the original plant. Most members of the mint family and ivy family can do this readily. The new plant will grow its own root system.

  8. Tree height influences flight of lesser peachtree borer and peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capture of males of the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson), and the peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in pheromone traps positioned at 0, 1.8, 3.6, and 5.5 m above ground was affected by tree height in different habitats. In a peach orchard wit...

  9. Yellow nails (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Yellow nails are seen in the 'yellow nail syndrome' in which there is thickening and yellow to yellow-green discoloration of all nails. Lymphedema, especially of the ankles, and compromised respiration ...

  10. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected ...

  11. Do My Ash Trees Have Emerald Ash Borer?

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Do My Ash Trees Have Emerald Ash Borer? Purdue Plant & Pest Diagnostic Laboratory #12;Ash Tree splits S-shaped galleries Diagnostic Symptoms of Emerald Ash Borer #12;Diagnostic Symptoms of EAB information on recent emerald ash borer finds in Indiana, please contact the Indiana Department of Natural

  12. Professional Guide to Emerald Ash Borer Insecticide Treatments

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    Professional Guide to Emerald Ash Borer Insecticide Treatments R. Chris Williamson, UW Entomology Emerald ash borer insecticide treatment considerations. A variety of insecticide products and application methods are available to professionals for control of emerald ash borer (EAB). Based on current research

  13. Mexican rice borer ... an introduction Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), Lepidoptera, Crambidae] was first discovered in

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Mexican rice borer ... an introduction Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), Lepidoptera sugarcane, rice, corn, lemongrass, sorghum, and sudangrass causing millions of dollars in increased in Florida, pheromone traps that attract Mexican rice borer (MRB) male moths were initially placed around

  14. Yellow Fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Monath

    \\u000a In 1951, Max Theiler (Fig. 10.1), a Rockefeller Foundation scientist, became the only person to be awarded the Nobel Prize\\u000a in Medicine and Physiology for the development of a virus vaccine (Norrby 2007). His live, attenuated 17D vaccine was not\\u000a the first yellow fever vaccine to be tested in humans, but it was by far the most successful one. More

  15. Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis Fairmaire

    E-print Network

    Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Abstract The cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis, were examined. Keywords Agrilus planipennis . Contact pheromone . 3-Methyltricosane . Emerald ash borer. Mating system

  16. Diferulate content of maize sheaths is associated with resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Reid, Lana M; Arnason, John T; Sandoya, German; Souto, Xose C; Malvar, Rosa A

    2006-11-29

    The leaf sheaths of selected inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) with variable levels of stem resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèvbre) were evaluated for antibiotic effect on insect development. Phytochemical analyses of leaf sheaths were conducted for cell wall phenylpropanoid content to gain a better understanding of maize-resistance mechanisms. Laboratory bioassays established that sheath tissues from different genotypes significantly affected the growth of neonate larvae. Three hydroxycinnamates, p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, and cis-ferulic acids, and three isomers of diferulic acid, 8-5', 8-O-4', and 8-5' b (benzofuran form), were identified. Significant negative correlations were found between larvae weight and diferulic acid content for six genotypes. These results are in agreement with previous studies concerning the role of cell wall structural components in stem borer resistance. PMID:17117802

  17. ELIZABETH T. BORER Department of Zoology

    E-print Network

    Borer, Elizabeth T.

    in a field system: Does numerical dominance shift along a gradient of productivity? Ecology Letters 6: 929, OR 97331-2914 (541) 737-3701 borer@science.oregonstate.edu EDUCATION 2002 Ph.D. in Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, UC Santa Barbara, CA 2000 MA in Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, UC Santa Barbara

  18. EXPLORATION FOR EMERALD ASH BORER IN CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Houping Liu; Toby R. Petrice; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao

    2003-01-01

    In June 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in greater than 2,500 square miles of southeastern Michigan and southwestern Ontario; more recent infestations were found in Ohio, Maryland, and Virginia in 2003. Federal and state agencies adopted a strategy of

  19. Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester

    Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash

  20. Yellow nail syndrome (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by yellow nails that lack a cuticle, grow slowly, and are loose or detached (onycholysis). Yellow nail syndrome is most commonly associated with lung disorders, and ...

  1. 72 FR 30458 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-06-01

    We are amending the emerald ash borer regulations by adding Prince George's County, MD, to the list of areas quarantined because of emerald ash borer. As a result of this action, the interstate movement of regulated articles from that county is restricted. This action is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the emerald ash borer from Prince George's County, MD, into noninfested areas of......

  2. Progression of ash canopy thinning and dieback outward from the initial infestation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southeastern Michigan.

    PubMed

    Smitley, David; Davis, Terrance; Rebek, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Our objective was to characterize the rate at which ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees decline in areas adjacent to the leading edge of visible ash canopy thinning due to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Trees in southeastern Michigan were surveyed from 2003 to 2006 for canopy thinning and dieback by comparing survey trees with a set of 11 standard photographs. Freeways stemming from Detroit in all directions were used as survey transects. Between 750 and 1,100 trees were surveyed each year. A rapid method of sampling populations of emerald ash borer was developed by counting emerald ash borer emergence holes with binoculars and then felling trees to validate binocular counts. Approximately 25% of the trees surveyed for canopy thinning in 2005 and 2006 also were sampled for emerald ash borer emergence holes using binoculars. Regression analysis indicates that 41-53% of the variation in ash canopy thinning can be explained by the number of emerald ash borer emergence holes per tree. Emerald ash borer emergence holes were found at every site where ash canopy thinning averaged > 40%. In 2003, ash canopy thinning averaged 40% at a distance of 19.3 km from the epicenter of the emerald ash borer infestation in Canton. By 2006, the point at which ash trees averaged 40% canopy thinning had increased to a distance of 51.2 km away from Canton. Therefore, the point at which ash trees averaged 40% canopy thinning, a state of decline clearly visible to the average person, moved outward at a rate of 10.6 km/yr during this period. PMID:18950047

  3. EST analysis of functional genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis and modification in the secondary xylem of the yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) stem during early stage of tension wood formation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyunjung; Do, Jihye; Moon, Dahyun; Noh, Eun Woon; Kim, Wook; Kwon, Mi

    2011-11-01

    A cDNA library was constructed from secondary xylem in the stem of a 2-year-old yellow poplar after being bent for 6 h with a 45° configuration to isolate genes related to cell wall modification during the early stages of tension wood formation. A total of 6,141 ESTs were sequenced to generate a database of 5,982 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs). These sequences were clustered into 1,733 unigenes, including 822 contigs and 911 singletons. Homologs of the genes regulate many aspects of secondary xylem development, including those for primary and secondary metabolism, plant growth hormones, transcription factors, cell wall biosynthesis and modification, and stress responses. Although there were only 1,733 annotated ESTs (28.9%), the annotated ESTs obtained in this study provided sequences for a broad array of transcripts expressed in the stem upon mechanical bending, and the majority of them were the first representatives of their respective gene families in Liriodendron tulipifera. In the case of lignin, xylem-specific COMTs were identified and their expressions were significantly downregulated in the tension wood-forming tissues. Additionally, the majority of the auxin- and BR-related genes were downregulated significantly in response to mechanical bending treatment. Despite the small number of ESTs sequenced in this study, many genes that are relevant to cell wall biosynthesis and modification have been isolated. Expression analysis of selected genes allow us to identify the regulatory genes that may perform essential functions during the early stages of tension wood formation and associated cell wall modification. PMID:21688015

  4. Behavior of the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Khorramshahi; W. E. Burkholder

    1981-01-01

    Adult males of the lesser grain borer,Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), produce a pheromone that attracts both sexes. The volatiles from males collected on filter paper or Porapak-Q were attractive in two laboratory bioassays. The mating behavior is described and the function of the phen infested with the borer.

  5. Mapping of QTL for resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer attack using the intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) population of maize.

    PubMed

    Ordas, Bernardo; Malvar, Rosa A; Santiago, Rogelio; Sandoya, German; Romay, Maria C; Butron, Ana

    2009-11-01

    The Mediterranean corn borer or pink stem borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) causes important yield losses as a consequence of stalk tunneling and direct kernel damage. B73 and Mo17 are the source of the most commercial valuable maize inbred lines in temperate zones, while the intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) population is an invaluable source for QTL identification. However, no or few experiments have been carried out to detect QTL for corn borer resistance in the B73 x Mo17 population. The objective of this work was to locate QTL for resistance to stem tunneling and kernel damage by MCB in the IBM population. We detected a QTL for kernel damage at bin 8.05, although the effect was small and two QTL for stalk tunneling at bins 1.06 and 9.04 in which the additive effects were 4 cm, approximately. The two QTL detected for MCB resistance were close to other QTL consistently found for European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) resistance, indicating mechanisms of resistance common to both pests or gene clusters controlling resistance to different plagues. The precise mapping achieved with the IBM population will facilitate the QTL pyramiding and the positional cloning of the detected QTL. PMID:19756472

  6. Effects of mating disruption against the Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides, on the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matilde Eizaguirre; Albert Sans; Carmen López; Ramon Albajes

    In many Mediterranean areas, two stalk borers, Sesamia nonagrioides and Ostrinia nubilalis affect maize yield. The efficacy of mating disruption techniques against the first corn borer has been evaluated in recent years. In the present paper the effect of such a control method on populations densities of O. nubilalis is reported. Densities of O. nubilalis in fields treated with S.

  7. Travelers' Health: Yellow Book

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Home Destinations Travel Notices Find a Clinic Yellow Fever Vaccinations Clinics FAQ Disease Directory Information Centers For ... sections, and expanded disease maps (including country-level yellow fever vaccine recommendation maps). The book is currently available ...

  8. USDA Forest Service: Emerald Ash Borer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Emerald Ash Borer(EAB) has become a pesky problem in North America in recent years, after being introduced into the ecosystem in the early 1990s. This information site from the USDA Forest Service is dedicated to providing the northeastern part of North America (where the bug has become a big problem) with information on identifying the insect, its infestations, and quarantine information, as well as control and management resources. The "Infestations" section contains several maps outlining the infected and quarantined ares of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maryland, and the United States as a whole. This is a great resource for anyone interested or concerned about the current EAB problem.

  9. Apple Burrknot Borers in New York Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Apple Burrknot Borers in New York ­ Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State DAVID P. KAIN, RICHARD W. STRAUB AND ARTHUR M. AGNELLO Department damage to dwarf apple trees caused by American plum borer, a survey was conducted in the major apple

  10. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB) are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73). Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits. PMID:20230603

  11. Modeling the spread of the Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd K. BenDor; Sara S. Metcalf; Lauren E. Fontenot; Brandi Sangunett; Bruce Hannon

    2006-01-01

    Recently, an invasive Asian beetle known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Coleoptera: Buprestidae) has emerged as a threat to ash trees in the Midwestern United States and Canada [McCullough, D.G., Katovich, S.A., 2004. Pest Alert: Emerald Ash Borer. United States Forest Service, Northeastern Area. NA-PR-02-04]. Significant infestations in Michigan and nearby areas have all but doomed nearly

  12. Control of the lesser cornstalk borer on peanuts 

    E-print Network

    Cunningham, Walter Holland

    1958-01-01

    CORNSTALK BORER ON FRANUTS A Thesis WALTER H. CUNNINORAR, JR. Subuitted te the Oraduate School of the Agricultural and Nechanical College of Texas ia partial fuliillueut of the requireueuts for the degree of RASTER OF SCIENCE August, ISSS Najor Sub... the Prequency of Apylications . SO The Developnent of a Spray Schedule 0 ~ ~ 3 V The Influences oi INigration uyon Contrel ~ \\ 33 Varietal Resistance to the Lesser Cornstalh Borer Light Tray Studies Bait Tray Studies 3S 41 gunnery Literature Cited...

  13. Changes in phenolic concentrations during recurrent selection for resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.).

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rogelio; Sandoya, German; Butrón, Ana; Barros, Jaime; Malvar, Rosa A

    2008-09-10

    Recurrent selection has been reported as successful for improving maize resistance against corn borers. This study was conducted to determine if phenolics concentration in maize changes during recurrent selection to improve stalk resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer. Three cycles of selection [EPS12(S)C0, ESP12(S)C2, and EPS12(S)C3] from the maize synthetic population EPS12 and test crosses to inbred lines A639, B93, and EP42 were field grown and artificially infested with Mediterranean corn borer larvae, and the pith tissues were sampled for biochemical analyses. Two major simple phenolic acids [p-coumaric (p-CA) and trans-ferulic (E-FA) acids] were identified in free and cell-wall fractions, whereas four isomers of diferulic acid (DFA) (8-5'l, 5-5', 8-o-4', and 8-5' benzofuran form) were present in the cell-wall bound fraction. The selection cycles EPS12(S)C0 and EPS12(S)C3 showed less damage and higher cell wall phenolics concentrations than the cycle EPS12(S)C2. In addition, higher concentrations of total DFAs were associated with shorter tunnel length and lower numbers of larvae per stem. The current study shows new and concrete evidence that the cell-wall bound phenolics could have a determinative role in the resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer, although future development of recurrent and divergent selection cycles will clarify this point. PMID:18656924

  14. ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Role of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Larval

    E-print Network

    ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Role of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Larval Vibrations in Host (Hymenoptera: Eulophi- dae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size

  15. Comparison Of Trap Types and Colors for Capturing Emerald Ash Borer Adults at Different Population Densities

    E-print Network

    SAMPLING Comparison Of Trap Types and Colors for Capturing Emerald Ash Borer Adults at DifferentÞcial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, remains a challenge for regulatory ofÞcials, foresters, and ar- borists

  16. FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Comparison of Male and Female Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera

    E-print Network

    FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Comparison of Male and Female Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae); DOI: 10.1603/EC10197 ABSTRACT We conducted trapping experiments for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus, green prism traps, ash canopy, monitoring The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

  17. 32 2009 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL EMERALD ASH BORER

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    32 2009 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL EMERALD ASH BORER 48824 ABSTRACT Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a beetle native to Asia, was discovered in 10 states. Emerald ash borer (EAB) has the potential to spread and kill native ash trees (Fraxinus sp

  18. Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    E-print Network

    Romero-Severson, Jeanne

    GENETICS Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer of coffee, Coffea arabica L., the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). H. hampei samples (n in the tropics. Unfortunately, a small scolytid, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari

  19. Life history studies of Prorops nasuta , a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Infante; John Mumford; Peter BAKER

    2005-01-01

    Life history studies were conducted in the laboratory on the African parasitoid Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The female wasp enters an infested coffee berry, kills the adult borer and seals the entrance of the berry with the body of the borer, impeding the entry of other organisms

  20. Host Plants and Population Dynamics of the Ear Borer Mussidia nigrivenella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Benin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamoudou Sétamou; Fritz Schulthess; Saka Gounou; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister

    2000-01-01

    The ear borer Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on various cultivated and wild plants. Surveys in four agro-ecological zones of Benin, conducted between 1993 and 1997, revealed '20 plant species from 11 plant families hosting the borer, but only 13 host plants enable the borer to develop to the pupal stage. Whereas, a maize crop

  1. Yellow Ribbon Application Yellow Ribbon Program

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    (Yellow Ribbon Program) is a provision of the Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 the same amount as the institution. The Post-9/11 GI Bill pays up to the highest public in an additional charge to your entitlement. I am 100% eligible for Ch.33 Post 9/11 Veterans Education Benefit

  2. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) induced responses enhance susceptibility in maize.

    PubMed

    Dafoe, Nicole J; Thomas, James D; Shirk, Paul D; Legaspi, Michelle E; Vaughan, Martha M; Huffaker, Alisa; Teal, Peter E; Schmelz, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant responses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize (Zea mays) responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinianubilalis) larvae revealed the presence of inducible acidic diterpenoid phytoalexins, termed kauralexins, and increases in the benzoxazinoid 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucose (HDMBOA-Glc) after 24 h of herbivory. Despite these rapidly activated defenses, larval growth was not altered in short-term feeding assays. Unexpectedly, ECB growth significantly improved in assays using stem tissue preconditioned by 48 h of larval tunneling. Correspondingly, measures of total soluble protein increased over 2.6-fold in these challenged tissues and were accompanied by elevated levels of sucrose and free linoleic acid. While microarray analyses revealed up-regulation of over 1100 transcripts, fewer individual protein increases were demonstrable. Consistent with induced endoreduplication, both wounding and ECB stem attack resulted in similar significant expansion of the nucleus, nucleolus and levels of extractable DNA from challenged tissues. While many of these responses are triggered by wounding alone, biochemical changes further enhanced in response to ECB may be due to larval secreted effectors. Unlike other Lepidoptera examined, ECB excrete exceedingly high levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in their frass which is likely to contact and contaminate the surrounding feeding tunnel. Stem exposure to a metabolically stable auxin, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), promoted significant protein accumulation above wounding alone. As a future testable hypothesis, we propose that ECB-associated IAA may function as a candidate herbivore effector promoting the increased nutritional content of maize stems. PMID:24023868

  3. Development of kairomone based control programs for cocoa pod borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cocoa Pod Borer moth presents a unique opportunity to develop host volatile attractants for control strategies for the following reasons. First, knowing what volatiles are critical for host finding by females will allow for development of mass trapping and/or attract and kill strategies to cont...

  4. REPORT ON THE 2006 BORER YIELD REDUCTION EVALUATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important that farmers and their crop consultants know how newly released varieties of sugarcane will respond to infestations of its key insect pest the sugarcane borer. In an effort to provide this information, varieties are routinely evaluated for their response to season-long infestations o...

  5. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272

  6. Modeling Emerald Ash Borer Establishment and Spread Using GIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Ayersman; Michael P. Strager; Jacquelyn M. Strager

    Within the last decade, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have emerged to the forefront in computer modeling of invasive species. The invasive Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has become a major research inquiry because of its drastic impact in such a short time. Spreading is primarily caused through human vectors (i.e. campgrounds, nurseries, and sawmills), although natural spread does occur through flight.

  7. Chemical Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damon J. Crook; Victor C. Mastro

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted,\\u000a based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical

  8. EUROPEAN CORN BORERS: A DIMINISHED INSECT THREAT FROM NOW ON?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn borer populations have fluctuated dramatically over the years, but in the past few years some scientists are reporting consistently low populations. Is this part of a natural cycle or has genetically-engineered corn, which in some areas is greater than half of the plantings, led to an area wid...

  9. New host association for Mexican rice borer in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This note reports Arundo donax, giant reed or carrizo cane, as a new host association of Eoreuma loftini, the Mexican rice borer. Larvae of E. loftini were found feeding on the growing tips of A. donax canes in a nursery and in field stands along the Rio Grande in the Lower Rio Grande Valley and L...

  10. Does the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Have Mutualistic Fungi?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanneth Pérez; Francisco Infante; Fernando E. Vega

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays were performed to determine if a mutualistic association exists between three species of fungi and the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). The fungi Fusarium solani (Martius), Penicillium citrinum Thom and Candida fermentati (Saito) were evaluated on the reproduction and survivorship of H.hampei. The fungi were evaluated at three concentrations: 5 102 ;5 104 and 5 106 spores\\/ml

  11. Wolbachia Infection in the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando E. Vega; Pablo Benavides; Jeffrey A. Stuart; Scott L. O’Neill

    2002-01-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction protocol yielded positive detection of the mater- nally inherited cytoplasmic proteobacterium Wolbachia in total genomic DNA from coffee berry borers collected in Benin, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, India, Kenya, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Uganda. Wolbachia was not detected in specimens from Cameroon, the Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Peru. AmpliÞed bands from India and

  12. Results from the 2013 sugarcane borer yield reduction study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) is the key pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. As the key pest, some insecticide is required every year to avoid economic damage by this insect. The current economic damage threshold is 10% bored internodes at harvest time (beginning the first of October). To...

  13. Development of Harmonic Radar Systems for Tracking Emerald Ash Borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borers (EAB) have killed millions of ash trees since they were identified in North America in the summer of 2002. Data are needed on EAB behavior to aid development of treatment and management strategies and enable more effectively schedule and target control measures. Entomological ra...

  14. Stem-boring caterpillars of switchgrass in the midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lepidopteran stem-borers were collected from switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., tillers showing symptoms of infestation at seven locations in Illinois and Iowa, with additional observations made on larval and adult activity. Blastobasis repartella (Dietz)(Coleophoridae), whose only known host is swit...

  15. Control of Eggplant Yellows.

    E-print Network

    Jones, S. E. (Sloan Earle)

    1942-01-01

    AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Eggplants grown during the late summer and fall months in South and Central Texas are usually affected with a disease commonly called "eggplant yellows," which may... the green color in the plant. The contrast of yellow and green in an eggplant field is apparent at a considerable distance. The disease is infectious and appears to be caused by a virus, but the method of naQural transmission is not yet known. The most...

  16. 70 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    E-print Network

    70 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER BIOLOGICAL CONTROL Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid from northeast Asia, was identified

  17. Photo yellowing of human hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. S. Nogueira; M. Richena; L. E. Dicelio; I. Joekes

    2007-01-01

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white,

  18. Biology and host specificity of Mecinus Janthinus Germar (col.: Curculionidae), a candidate for the biological control of yellow and dalmatian toadflax, Linaria Vulgaris (l.) mill, and Linaria Dalmatica (l.) mill. (scrophulariaceae) in North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Jeanneret; D. Schroeder

    1992-01-01

    The biology and host specificity of Mecinus janthinus Germar, an oligophagous, univoltine stem?borer of Linaria spp. are discussed. The results of feeding and oviposition tests with 38 species in 13 families and of larval transfer tests with four plant species are presented. They show that M. janthinus is restricted to the genus Linaria and does not develop on snapdragon Antirrhinum

  19. 120 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 DETECTION OF EMERALD ASH BORER,

    E-print Network

    120 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 DETECTION OF EMERALD ASH BORER Center, Houghton, MI 49931 ABSTRACT The exotic emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera. For the foreseeable future, trap tree and ground surveys will be important tools for detecting emerald ash borer

  20. Novel visual-cue-based sticky traps for monitoring of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis (Col., Buprestidae)

    E-print Network

    Novel visual-cue-based sticky traps for monitoring of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis (Col USDA APHIS PPQ, Brighton, MI, USA Introduction The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis emerald ash borers (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, using solely visual cues based on previous work

  1. The relationship between the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) and ash (Fraxinus spp.) tree decline: Using visual canopy condition

    E-print Network

    The relationship between the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) and ash (Fraxinus spp.) tree 13 April 2013 Keywords: Fraxinus Emerald ash borer Canopy condition Stable isotope Carbon Water by the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) which was inadvertently introduced to the US

  2. 2014 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ENTO-76NP Emerald Ash Borer Control for Foresters and Landowners

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    2014 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ENTO-76NP Emerald Ash Borer Control: Virginia Cooperative Extension, Fairfax, VA Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) is found in all regions for emerald Ash Borer: Systemic Insecticides Contact Insecticides Imidacloprid Permethrin Acephate Bifenthrin

  3. Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin G. A. Whitehill; Alexandra Popova-Butler; Kari B. Green-Church; Jennifer L. Koch; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi Bonello; Haibing Yang

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is

  4. Digestive amylase from the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus Horn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Mendiola-Olaya; A Valencia-Jiménez; S Valdés-Rodr??guez; J Délano-Frier; A Blanco-Labra

    2000-01-01

    A combination of ion-exchange chromatography, preparative electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography allowed a 1209-fold purification of one of the two major digestive ?-amylases from larvae of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus Horn. The purified enzyme showed a molecular mass of 60.2 kDa, an isoelectric point of 4.7 and an optimal pH for activity of 6.0. The enzyme was heat

  5. Cell wall composition as a maize defense mechanism against corn borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European and Mediterranean corn borers are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith and rind tissues of diverse inbred lines as possible corn borer resistance traits. Ce...

  6. Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 2009–2019

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent F. Kovacs; Robert G. Haight; Deborah G. McCullough; Rodrigo J. Mercader; Nathan W. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2010-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered near Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario in 2002. As of March 2009, isolated populations of emerald ash borer (EAB) have been detected in nine additional states and Quebec. EAB is a highly invasive forest pest that has the potential to spread and kill native ash trees

  7. Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat

    E-print Network

    Medjahed, Brahim

    Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat Brahim - Dearborn 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48120, USA {brahim,wgrosky}@umich.edu Abstract. The Emerald Ash Service ­ Ontology ­ Invasive Species ­ EAB. 1 Introduction The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is a shiny

  8. Identifying resistance in corn to southwestern corn borer, fall armyworm, and corn earworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar; fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith); and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie, are major insect pests of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Corn germplasm with resistance to leaf feeding by southwestern corn borer a...

  9. Post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was examined in a young apple orchard planted on size-controlling rootstock in Virginia. All female dogwood borers captured while exhibiting casting flight near the base of trees were mated, base...

  10. DIVERSITY OF PENICILLIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (CBB) causes great damage to coffee crops around the world. Borer eggs are laid in developing coffee berries, and the larvae feed on tissue of the berry. It has been hypothesized that fungal growth in insect galleries provides exogenous sterols needed for...

  11. Potential impacts of emerald ash borer invasion on biogeochemical and water cycling in residential

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Potential impacts of emerald ash borer invasion on biogeochemical and water cycling in residential could threaten those services, with unknown environmental consequences. The outbreak of emerald ash borer is an imminent threat to the ash population in North America. In the Minneapolis­Saint Paul

  12. PROGRESS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BORER RESISTANT WHITE-BARKED BIRCHES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank S. Santamour

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a thorough and compre- hensive review of the current state of knowledge regarding the hosts of the bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius) and biochemical and genetics studies designed to identify and develop borer-resistant white-barked birches. Both older and heretofore unpublished observations and experiments are evaluated to provide a framework for future research. Based on the hypothesis that

  13. A predator of the coffee berry borer: is it present in your country?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) was reported in Kenya as a predator of coffee berry borer eggs and larvae. The 1-2 mm long thrips enters the hole bored by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on the coffee berry,...

  14. Penicillium brocae, a new species associated with the coffee berry borer in Chiapas, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen W. Peterson; Jeanneth Perez; Fernando E. Vega; Francisco Infante

    2003-01-01

    Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatan, Chia- pas, and from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Implicatum, but because it does not conform to known species we have described it as new. ITS and

  15. PENICILLIUM BROCAE A NEW SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatán, Chiapas, or from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Imp...

  16. The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (wals.) (Lepidoptera: elachistidae): egg and damage distribution and parasitism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celso Luiz Hohmann; Ana Maria Meneguim; Elizete Anelli Andrade; Tanara Garcia de Novaes; Carla Zandoná

    2003-01-01

    The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (Wals.) has been a limiting factor in growing avocados over the last years in many Brazilian states. This is a result of the lack of safe and feasible management practices to minimize the fruit borer damage. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the pest biology and ecology as well as

  17. The biology and control of the lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica (Fab. 

    E-print Network

    Thomson, Valiavetil

    1966-01-01

    at 29+ 0. 5 C and 75- 5 per cent relative humidity 38 6. Head capsule width (mm) of lesser gawain borer larval instars reared on milo at 29- 0. 5 C and 75- 5 per cent relative humidity + 40 7. Mortality of different stages of lesser grain borer when...

  18. [Yellow fever in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Valero, Nereida

    2003-12-01

    In Venezuela the yellow fever has been presented in three wild focuses: San Camilo in the Tachira State, South of the Lake in the Zulia and Guayana. The last human case registered of urban yellow fever happened in 1918 in the city of Coro, Falcon State. Nevertheless, according to the epidemic registration of the Ministry of Health and Social Development corresponding to the epidemiological week no. 38 of the year 2003, 318 cases of wild yellow fever had been investigated (173 of the Zulia and 145 of Tachira), of which were confirmed 31, with a mortality of 58.0%. Previous to the appearance of this outbreak, it was notified an epizooty in monkeys with high mortality in November of 2002 in the Jesus Maria Semprum municipality of the Zulia State, persisting until September of 2003, extended to the Tachira State. Possible reasons of the reemergency of this illness are analyzed based on the high mobilization of displaced population, remote areas and of difficult access, high concentration of indigenous population (Bari, Yuepa, Wayúu) and border conflict. PMID:14727380

  19. MORE ON IRIS YELLOW SPOT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iris yellow spot, caused by Iris yellow spot tospovirus, is an emerging disease of onion in the U.S. and world. Yield losses vary, but may range from undetectable to nearly 100% in onion seed crops. This article presents recent advances in understanding the etiology, epidemiology, and management o...

  20. Photo yellowing of human hair.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, A C S; Richena, M; Dicelio, L E; Joekes, I

    2007-09-25

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white, dark-brown, blond and red hair. All hair types showed a substantial change in yellowness after irradiation, which is dependent on the hair type and radiation wavelength. Surprisingly, white hair turns less yellow after both full and UVB-filtered radiation exposure. This effect is more pronounced when UVB is filtered from the radiation system. The only radiation that shows a photo-yellowing effect on white hair is infrared. As the yellowness of white hair is commonly related to tryptophan degradation, fluorescence experiments with hair solutions were performed to identify the natural degradation of tryptophan which occurs in hair after light irradiation. Pigmented hairs were also studied, as well as hair treated with a bleaching solution. Although we observe a decrease in tryptophan content of hair after lamp radiation, a direct correlation with hair yellowness was not achieved. Results are discussed in terms of hair type, composition and melanin content. PMID:17627835

  1. fisheriesresearch Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is

    E-print Network

    Miller, Tom

    fisheriesresearch feature Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is an important ecological and economic in Lake Michigan: Evaluating Progress in a Cooperative Effort, 1997­2001 Yellow perch (Perca flavescens

  2. Illustrated guide to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire and related species (Coleoptera, Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 33 species of Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) hypothesized to be most closely related to Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash borer), are described and illustrated. Morphology (adults and immatures), biology, distribution, detailed taxonomic history and systematics are presented fo...

  3. Tri-trophic Analyses of Rice, the Sugarcane Borer, and Putative Biological Control Agents 

    E-print Network

    Lv, Jiale

    2010-01-14

    A three-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance and compensatory response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to injury caused by the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.). Two mechanisms of within-plant tolerance/compensation were...

  4. Relationship between time to flowering and stalk and ear damage by second generation corn borers.

    PubMed

    Ordas, B; Alvarez, A; Revilla, P; Butron, A; Malvar, R A

    2013-06-01

    In the Mediterranean area, the main corn borer species are Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Mediterranean corn borer) and Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (European corn borer). In the overall context of integrated pest control, it is possible to reduce the effect of a pest without having a negative effect on the environment by varying the sowing date. Benefits are possible if the most susceptible stages of the crop no longer coincide with the peak of the pest. We used different cycles of selection (0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of two populations (Purdue A and Purdue B) of maize selected for early flowering to get a more precise estimation of the relationship between maturity of plant tissues and corn borer damage. We found a relationship between the damage produced by corn borers and the number of days from flowering to infestation. We conclude that, after flowering, a later stage of plant development at the moment of the infestation by corn borers reduces the damage caused by the larvae. Based on our results, we recommend to plant as early as possible so the tissues would be as mature as possible at the moment of insect attack. PMID:23865188

  5. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight. PMID:20021772

  6. A unique Yellow River-derived distal subaqueous delta in the Yellow Sea

    E-print Network

    Liu, Paul

    A unique Yellow River-derived distal subaqueous delta in the Yellow Sea Z.S. Yang a , J.P. Liu b deposited around the eastern tip of the Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea. This clinoform deposit re-suspended and transported out of the Bohai Sea into the Yellow Sea. Overall, the Yellow River

  7. Aerosols Over Yellow Sea Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS image shows complex phytoplankton distribution patterns in the Bohai and Yellow seas. A wide band of brownish water along the coast north and south of the mouth of the Yangtze River indicates a heavy load of suspended sediment. The air over eastern central China and the Yellow Sea is thick with aerosols. Farther north over the Manchurian Plain and Greater Khingan Range, the air is much clearer.

  8. 66 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER IN RUSSIA: 2009 SITUATION UPDATE

    E-print Network

    66 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER IN RUSSIA: 2009 The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is a beetle native to East Asia and the Russian

  9. Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

    2011-11-01

    The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study, changes in volatile and non-volatile foliar phytochemicals of potted 2-yr-old black ash, Fraxinus nigra Marshall, seedlings were observed in response to EAB larval feeding in the main stem. EAB larval feeding affected levels of six compounds [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-?-ocimene, methyl salicylate, and (Z,E)-?-farnesene] with patterns of interaction depending upon compounds of interest and time of observation. Increased methyl salicylate emission suggests similarity in responses induced by EAB larval feeding and other phloem-feeding herbivores. Overall, EAB larval feeding suppressed (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate emission, elevated (E)-?-ocimene emission in the first 30days, but emissions leveled off thereafter, and generally increased the emission of (Z,E)-?-farnesene. Levels of carbohydrates and phenolics increased overall, while levels of proteins and most amino acids decreased in response to larval feeding. Twenty-three amino acids were consistently detected in the foliage of black ash. The three most abundant amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, while the four least abundant were ?-aminobutyric acid, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, methionine, and sarcosine. Most (16) foliar free amino acids and 6 of the 9 detected essential amino acids decreased with EAB larval feeding. The ecological consequences of these dynamic phytochemical changes on herbivores harbored by ash trees and potential natural enemies of these herbivores are discussed. PMID:21802697

  10. Detectability of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in asymptomatic urban trees by using branch samples.

    PubMed

    Ryall, Krista L; Fidgen, Jeffrey G; Turgeon, Jean J

    2011-06-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an exotic invasive insect causing extensive mortality to ash trees, Fraxinus spp., in Canada and the United States. Detection of incipient populations of this pest is difficult because of its cryptic life stages and a multiyear time lag between initial attack and the appearance of signs or symptoms of infestation. We sampled branches from open-grown urban ash trees to develop a sample unit suitable for detecting low density A. planipennis infestation before any signs or symptoms are evident. The sample unit that maximized detection rates consisted of one 50-cm-long piece from the base of a branch ?6 cm diameter in the midcrown. The optimal sample size was two such branches per tree. This sampling method detected ?75% of asymptomatic trees known to be infested by using more intensive sampling and ?3 times more trees than sampling one-fourth of the circumference of the trunk at breast height. The method is less conspicuous and esthetically damaging to a tree than the removal of bark from the main stem or the use of trap trees, and could be incorporated into routine sanitation or maintenance of city-owned trees to identify and delineate infested areas. This research indicates that branch sampling greatly reduces false negatives associated with visual surveys and window sampling at breast height. Detection of A. planipennis-infested asymptomatic trees through branch sampling in urban centers would provide landowners and urban foresters with more time to develop and implement management tactics. PMID:22251647

  11. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed. PMID:22506996

  12. APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser D. P. Kain and A. Agnello Dogwood borer (DWB); Synanthedon scitula (Harris) N.Y.S. Agric. Expt. Station

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser D. P. Kain and A. Agnello Dogwood borer (DWB); Synanthedon@nysaes.cornell .edu APPLE, EVALUATION OF VARIOUS TRUNK SPRAYS TO CONTROL BORERS INFESTING BURRKNOTS, 2006 the untreated check. (Table 1) Table 1. Efficacy of insecticides against dogwood borer infesting apple, 2006

  13. Managing Insect and Mite Pests

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    ......................................................................11 Yellow sugarcane aphid ................................................12 Corn leaf aphid PESTS ....................................................26 Sugarcane borer, southwestern corn borer ....................................................26 Lesser cornstalk borer ...................................................27 Sugarcane rootstock

  14. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  15. Susceptibility of Cry1Ab-resistant and -susceptible Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: crambidae) to Four Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a primary corn stalk borer pest targeted by transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in many areas of the mid-southern region of the United States. Recently, genes encoding for Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 Bt proteins were transferred in...

  16. Suitability of the Eggs of Two Species of Eucalyptus Longhorned Borers (Phoracantha recurva and P. semipunctata) as Hosts

    E-print Network

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    Suitability of the Eggs of Two Species of Eucalyptus Longhorned Borers (Phoracantha recurva and P Received August 20, 1999; accepted June 12, 2000 Eggs of the eucalyptus longhorned borer (Phoracan- tha semipunctata F.) are the typical host of the en- cyrtid egg parasitoid Avetianella longoi Siscaro. Both P

  17. The distribution of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) in Southern Mexico: A survey for a biocontrol project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Baker; J. F. Barrera; J. E. Valenzuela

    1989-01-01

    In surveys of coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico from 1983 to 1985 to assess the distribution and damage caused by the coffee berry borer, prior to parasite introduction levels of infestation were greatest near the Guatemalan border and varied with altitude, the borer was most numerous between 500–1000 m above sea level, corresponding to a mean annual temperature of 23

  18. Beauveria bassiana -A Potential Mycopesticide for the Efficient Control of Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Haraprasad; S. R. Niranjana; H. S. Prakash; H. S. Shetty; Seema Wahab

    2001-01-01

    The Coffee Berry Borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) has been a serious insect pest of coffee cultivars C. robusta and C. catimor in India since 1991, causing 40-80% coffee bean loss. To combat this important pest, an indigenous entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin was isolated from dead and moribund coffee berry borers from the wild. The fungus

  19. Corn borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and Crambidae) resistance of main races of maize from North America.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Pedro; Butrón, Ana; Ordás, Bernardo; Soengas, Pilar; Ordás, Amando; Malvar, Rosa Ana

    2007-02-01

    Resistance to corn borers, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize, Zea mays L., populations is partial, and more resistant populations are needed. The objective of this research was to compare resistance to corn borers of the main maize races from North America. Twenty open-pollinated maize populations belonging to the races Southern Dent, Corn Belt Dent, and Northern Flint, and three check populations, were evaluated under artificial infestation with S. nonagrioides and O. nubilalis. None of the populations had complete resistance. Northern Flint had the lowest yield under corn borer infestation, whereas Southern Dent had the highest yield but also the largest damage. Corn Belt Dent had a shorter growing cycle and similar yield of infected plants than Southern Dent. The checks had intermediate yield and resistance and were not significantly different from Corn Belt Dent for any trait. The Southern Dent populations Tennessee Red Cob and White Dent (PI221885 and PI311232) could be used as sources of tolerance to corn borers, although they are not expected to provide great gains compared with the levels of tolerance already present in some Corn Belt Dent and European Flint populations and would require adaptation to short growing cycle. The Corn Belt Dent synthetic BS17 had the highest yield and general agronomic performance under corn borer infestation, along with Rustler and Silver King, and the European Flint composite EPS13. PMID:17370830

  20. Simulation models for European corn borer postdiapause morphogenesis and early infestation of maize in Missouri, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magai, Robert N.; Decker, W. L.; Keaster, Armon J.

    The European corn borer is one of the most damaging insect pests to maize in the United States. Different methods exist for the estimation of time of damage to corn by first generation European corn borer. The most commonly used method is the linear thermal constant concept of phenology which by convention calculates cumulative thermal units from January 1 or another arbitrary date. Linear and nonlinear models based on the thermal units concept developed were to predict and simulate postdiapause development of the European corn borer and subsequent infestation of the maize crop using early spring temperatures (May 1-15) in central Missouri. The developmental rates of European corn borer were obtained from growth chamber investigations that simulated those temperatures, the operational temperatures being selected from a compilation of archival meteorological data from 1948 to 1989. The linear and polynomial regression models were developed to predict phenological stages of the European corn borer using thermal units as developmental rates. The models were compared against each other to determine the better predictor of estimation values: each explained 94 and 98% of the variation in developmental stages, respectively. In addition, the models were tested against independent field data and both models gave good predictions of developmental stages, indicating that either model would be a good predictor.

  1. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars, and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    Cottrell, T E; Fuest, J; Horton, D L

    2008-12-01

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), showed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer blows, knife cuts, pruning wounds), infested by lesser peachtree borer larvae or injured by disease. In fact, there was no difference in female oviposition response to knife cut wounds and knife cut wounds infested with lesser peachtree borer larvae. Oviposition on wounded bark from three different high chill peach cultivars was similar and strongly suggests that the narrow genetic base of high chill peach cultivars grown in the southeastern United States has little inherent resistance to the lesser peachtree borer. In stark contrast, when provided different Prunus spp., i.e., exotic peach and the native species P. angustifolia and P. serotina, the exotic peach was highly preferred for oviposition by the native lesser peachtree borer. PMID:19161694

  2. Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea

    E-print Network

    Liu, Paul

    Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea J. Paul Liua,*, John Yellow Sea reveal a 20­40-m-thick subaqueous clinoform delta that wraps around the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, extending into the South Yellow Sea. This complex sigmoidal-oblique clinoform

  3. The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis fairmaire (coleoptera: buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Crosthwaite, Jill C; Sobek, Stephanie; Lyons, D Barry; Bernards, Mark A; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of the emerald ash borer were investigated, and seasonal changes in these mechanisms monitored. The majority of emerald ash borers survive winter as freeze-intolerant prepupae. In winter, A. planipennis prepupae have low supercooling points (approximately -30°C), which they achieve by accumulating high concentrations of glycerol (approximately 4M) in their body fluids and by the synthesis of antifreeze agents. Cuticular waxes reduce inoculation from external ice. This is the first comprehensive study of seasonal changes in cold tolerance in a buprestid beetle. PMID:21070784

  4. RESEARCH ARTICLE Nucleotide Sequence of Yellow Fever

    E-print Network

    Eddy, Sean

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Nucleotide Sequence of Yellow Fever Virus: Implications for Flavivirus Gene, and yellow fever (1). Most fever was spread by ship to ports as far north as Boston and as far east as En. Walter Reed and colleagues in pioneering studies in Cuba in 1900 demonstrated that yellow fever

  5. Anaphylaxis from yellow fever vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Kelso; Gina T. Mootrey; Theodore F. Tsai

    1999-01-01

    Background: There are very few reports of anaphylactic reactions to yellow fever (YF) vaccine in the literature, and these date from the 1940s. Objective: We sought to estimate the rate of YF vaccine–related anaphylaxis. Methods: All reports of adverse reactions to YF vaccine submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System between 1990 and 1997 were reviewed for those meeting

  6. Spiroacetals in the Colonization Behaviour of the Coffee Berry Borer: A ‘Push-Pull’ System

    PubMed Central

    Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1?1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a ‘push-pull’ system, whereby frontalin acts as the ‘push’ (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the ‘pull’ (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135

  7. Effectiveness of differing trap types for the detection of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-08-01

    The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies. PMID:19689904

  8. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood. PMID:20069830

  9. Chemical ecology of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Mastro, Victor C

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted, based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical research need to find an efficient survey method for detecting A. planipennis infestations. Here, we present a review of research that has led to the development of effective trapping methods for A. planipennis. Studies on the insect's biology and behavior have led to the identification of several potential attractants as well as the design of a visually attractive trap. The ongoing challenge in developing an optimally efficient trapping methodology for A. planipennis will involve finding the best combination of variables, such as trap shape, trap color (or other visual properties), trap placement, lure components, as well as the ratios and release rates of those components. PMID:20108026

  10. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

    2010-10-01

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (<3%) in both the spring and fall sample periods. In the fall 2009 samples, ? 1.5% of experimental cohorts and 0.8% of the wild emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the three release sites by the end of the study but was not detected in the experimental cohorts or associated wild larvae in any of the three control plots. PMID:22546447

  11. STEM Career

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    There are many groups and organizations in the United States working to encourage young people to enter STEM-related careers, and this website represents one of those endeavors. The STEM Career website was created by Professor Rich Feller of Colorado State University to help encourage young people to select just such a career path. The website contains updates on STEM career possibilities, and basic answers to questions like "Why STEM?" and "Why STEM Centric Career Development?" Visitors should also scan through the "STEM Disciplines" area on the homepage, as it contains resources about the job outlook for related STEM disciplines, such as biochemical engineering and engineering managers. Moving on, the site also features news updates from Professor Feller and his colleagues on subjects that include the ways in which corporations are promoting STEM education and women in STEM.

  12. Impact of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, on Yield of the Cultivated Sunflower, Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, J.P.; Grant, Angela K.; Jyoti, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Foliar and soil-drench insecticide treatments were used in attempts to manipulate infestation of cultivated sunflower plants, Helianthus annuus LeConte (Asterales: Asteraceae) by Dectes texanus LeConte, (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) a serious pest of sunflowers in the High Plains of the USA. Seed yields were assessed on a per-plant basis for both oilseed and confection type sunflower hybrids in two years. Both insecticide treatments (foliar ë-cyhalothrin and soil-drench carbofuran) improved yield of oilseed sunflowers in 2004, but not in 2005. Yield of confection hybrids was improved by a systemic fungicide (thiophanate methyl) in 2005, but insecticides did not improve yield in either year. Both insecticide treatments gave good control of various stalk-boring insects such as Cylindrocopturus adspersus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Mordellistena sp. (Coleoptera: Mordellidae), and Pelochrista womanana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but neither gave better than 50% control of D. texanus. Plants were sorted according to the presence or absence of D. texanus larvae and no reduction was found in total seed weight, seed size, or oil content as a result of infestation. However, mature larvae of D. texanus girdle stalks at the base in preparation for overwintering, a behavior that reduced stalk breakage force by 34–40%, leading to yield losses through lodging. At harvest in 2005, there were differences between cultivars and among treatments in the proportions of D. texanus larvae that had girdled their plants at harvest. It was concluded that further research aimed at reducing crop losses to D. texanus should focus on means of delaying stalk desiccation and/or deterioration, factors that appear to trigger girdling behavior. PMID:20307233

  13. Photodegradation of emamectin benzoate and its influence on efficacy against the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emamectin benzoate is a novel insecticide with characteristics of translaminar movement into plant leaf tissue. The compound was derived from the avermectin family and improved with thermal stability, greater water solubility, and a broader spectrum of insecticidal activity than avermectin. To deter...

  14. RICE GERMPLASM EVALUATION FOR AGRONOMIC TRAITS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON STEM BORER (CHILO AGAMEMNON BLES.) RESISTANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. El-Malky; M. M. El-Habashy; A. F. Abdelkhalik

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted at Rice Research Training Centre, Sakha, Kafr Al Sheikh, Egypt during 2003-2006. Forty-six lines were selected from four populations. These populations were produced from five parents namely; M204, M202 and 98-Y-116 (American varieties) that were used as highly susceptible varieties and two Egyptian (Giza177 and Sakha102) as resistant varieties. F1 crosses were conducted at experimental farm

  15. Is it possible to control fumonisin contamination in maize kernels by using genotypes resistant to the Mediterranean corn borer?

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rogelio; Cao, Ana; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2013-10-01

    Insect activity has long been associated with Fusarium infection. The objectives of the current study were 1) to estimate the impact of Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre, damage on fumonisin contamination in the maize kernel by comparing fumonisin contamination under infestation and protected conditions, and 2) to measure the potential use of genotypes resistant to this borer as controlling factors of fumonisin contamination. Genotypes with increased kernel damage by borers tended to increase fumonisin accumulation under infestation conditions. In particular environments, other factors influenced fumonisin contamination more than damage by borers. When ear damage by borers is significant, maize resistance to ear damage could contribute to the reduction of fumonisin contamination in the kernels. Genotype such as EP42 x EP77 that combines low ear damage by borers and low fumonisin level across environments is a good choice to control fumonisin contamination. The use of an applicable methodology to identify Mediterranean corn borer-resistant genotypes to ear attack under artificial infestations might be a promising approach. PMID:24224270

  16. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    PubMed

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood. PMID:20568603

  17. Developing monitoring techniques for the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Tom W; Chen, Yigen; Graves, Andrew D; Hishinuma, Stacy M; Grulke, Nancy E; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2014-06-01

    The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive species that has colonized oak woodlands in southern California. To better define its seasonal flight activity, assist with forest and integrated pest management activities, and define the current distribution in California, an effective monitoring technique for A. auroguttatus is necessary. We assessed the efficacy of two colors of flight-intercept prism traps, the placement of these traps at three heights, and several commercially available lures [Manuka oil, Phoebe oil, and a green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol] for monitoring the flight of adult A. auroguttatus. Landing rates and the densities of D-shaped emergence holes of A. auroguttatus adults were assessed on the lower stems of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, of varying size and crown health classes. Purple flight-intercept prism traps placed at heights of 3 m and 4.5 m caught significantly more female A. auroguttatus than green prism traps. In one experiment, males also responded at a significantly higher level to purple than to green prism traps placed at 3 m height. The addition of commercially available lures significantly enhanced male, but not female, A. auroguttatus trap catch when compared with unbaited control traps. There were no differences among male flight responses to the three lures. A. auroguttatus landing rates and emergence hole densities were significantly greater on the largest-diameter trees (>76.2 cm diameter at breast height) and on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. The annual increment in emergence hole densities was also significantly greater on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. In three trapping studies over multiple years in southern California, the adult flight period began as early as mid-May, peaked in mid-June to early July, and ended in early- to mid-September. To demonstrate the efficacy of the detection method for A. auroguttatus (unbaited purple traps at 3 m height), a delimitation survey conducted from 2009 to 2012 confirmed that the species was only present in San Diego Co., but that the distribution was expanding northward. PMID:24755194

  18. Yellow Fever: A Reemerging Threat

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Christina L.; Ryman, Kate D.

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a viral disease, endemic to tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. YF principally affects humans and nonhuman primates, and is transmitted via the bite of infected mosquitoes. The agent of YF, yellow fever virus (YFV), can cause devastating epidemics of potentially fatal, hemorrhagic disease. We rely on mass vaccination campaigns to prevent and control these outbreaks. However, the risk of major YF epidemics, especially in densely populated, poor urban settings, both in Africa and South America, has greatly increased due to: (1) reinvasion of urban settings by the mosquito vector of YF, Aedes aegypti; (2) rapid urbanization, particularly in parts of Africa, with populations shifting from rural to predominantly urban; and (3) waning immunization coverage. Consequently, YF is considered an emerging, or reemerging disease of considerable importance. PMID:20513550

  19. Retracted manuscript: Scientific yellow journalism.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The following article from Small GTPases, "Scientific Yellow Journalism" by Anica Klockars and Michael J. Williams, published online on 20 September 2012 (doi: 10.4161/sgtp.22289; http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/smallgtpases/article/22289/) by Landes Bioscience and subsequently published in print in Small GTPases 2012 3(4):201 has been retracted by agreement between the authors and the journal's Editor in Chief, Michael J. Williams (also an author of the paper). PMID:23485921

  20. Transgenic yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Li; S. J. Wylie; M. G. K. Jones

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) plants have been generated by meristem co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The binary plasmid pPZBNIa contains the bar gene under the control of a CaMV 35?S promoter. The transformation method involves inoculation of embryonic axis explants\\u000a with A. tumefaciens, flooding the meristem with glufosinate, and initial culture on non-selective medium. Shoots were transferred to culture

  1. Effect of seasonal variations on jackfruit trunk borer (Batocera rufomaculata De Geer) infestation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Alam, M Z; Hossain, M M; Miah, M G

    2013-04-01

    The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall. PMID:24498801

  2. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

  3. Integrated tactics for managing the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year field study conducted in Texas to evaluate the effect of several management strategies on the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), in sugarcane, Saccharum spp. hybrids, showed that irrigation reduced injury in both susceptible and resistant by 2.5-fold. Irrigation, host plant resi...

  4. Chemical control of the Mexican rice borer in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are no reliably effective controls for the Mexican rice borer on sugarcane in South Texas, and the pest is spreading to rice-growing areas of Texas and Louisiana. A small-plot insecticide test comparing six insecticides was conducted in South Texas during the summer of 2008 to identify compou...

  5. Cell Wall Composition as a Maize Defense Mechanism Against Corn Borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European and Mediterranean corn borers (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner and Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith tissues of diverse inbr...

  6. On the Eyes of Male Coffee Berry Borers as Rudimentary Organs

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Fernando E.; Simpkins, Ann; Bauchan, Gary; Infante, Francisco; Kramer, Matthew; Land, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Like males in other species in the genus, male coffee berry borers have a lower number of facets in the compound eyes than females. The rudimentary eyes in male coffee berry borers could be an evolutionary response to their cryptic life habit, whereby they are born inside a coffee berry and never leave the berry. The main objective of the study was to determine if the differences in the number of facets translates into differences in visual acuity. We used low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to visualize and quantify the number of facets in the compound eyes. There was a significantly lower (p<0.0001) number of facets in males (19.1±4.10) than in females (127.5±3.88). To assess visual acuity, we conducted optomotor response experiments, which indicate that females respond to movement, while males did not respond under the conditions tested. The coffee berry borer is an example of an insect whereby disuse of an organ has led to a rudimentary compound eye. This is the first study that has experimentally tested responses to movement in bark beetles. PMID:24465752

  7. Development of a rearing methodology for the dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A continuous rearing method for dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was devised using standardized procedures at each developmental stage. The mating success of pairs of moths in 30 and 60 cm(3) cages and exposed to natural daylight or artificial light did not diffe...

  8. 44 2008 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species EMERALD ASH BORER: CHEMICAL ECOLOGY

    E-print Network

    44 2008 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species EMERALD ASH BORER: CHEMICAL ECOLOGY AND VISUAL, University Park, PA 16802 2 USDAAPHIS, PPQ, 5936 Ford Ct., Ste. 200, Brighton, MI 48116 ABSTRACT The emerald the establishment of a more specific lure for this pest. We have also shown that it is possible to trap emerald ash

  9. Characteristics and distribution of potential ash tree hosts for emerald ash borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. MacFarlane; Shawna Patterson Meyer

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a recently discovered (July 2002) exotic insect pest, which has caused the death of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in Detroit, MI, USA and has also spread into other areas of Michigan, isolated locations in Indiana, Ohio, Maryland and Virginia, and nearby Windsor, Ont., in Canada. Ash trees occur in many

  10. MANAGING THE RISK OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER RESISTANCE TO BT CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bt corn offers growers a powerful new tool for controlling European corn borer (ECB), a significant pest in the Midwestern United States. Industry and academic scientists have developed a high-dose refuge strategy to combat ECB resistance to Bt corn. We developed a stochastic dynamic bioeconomic m...

  11. Trichogramma Brassicae and SLAM ® , an Integrated Approach to Managing European Corn Borer and Corn Rootworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie C. Lewis; Robert D. Gunnarson; James C. Robbins

    2005-01-01

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae); western corn rootworm (WCRW), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; and northern corn rootworm (NCRW), Diabrotica barberi (Smith & Lawrence) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are important pests of corn, Zea mays L., that occur simultaneously in the US Corn Belt. Areawide management strategies for northern and western corn rootworm in Iowa, Kansas, South Dakota, Illinois, and

  12. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is the primary target of the widely adopted transgenic corn events MON810 and Bt11, expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal toxin, Cry1Ab. Resistant strains of O. nubilalis have been selected in the laboratory by exposure to Bt ...

  13. Feasibility of grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, larval acoustic detection in Florida vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer (GRB) is an important pest of grapes in the Eastern U.S. The larvae feed on grape roots, reducing vine vigor and increasing susceptibility to pathogens and drought. A study was conducted in 3 vineyards to test whether infestations could be identified using acoustic methods. Sound...

  14. Acoustic detection of arthropod infestation of grape roots: scouting for grape root borer (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is the key pest of grapes in Florida. Chlorpyrifos is the only chemical registered in Florida for control, but it is not an ideal control tool because it is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees, and its recommended timing...

  15. Susceptibility of eggs and adult fecundity of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, exposed to methoprene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Chanbang; F. H. Arthur; G. E. Wilde; J. E. Throne; Bh. Subramanyam

    2008-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to determine the susceptibility of eggs and neonates of the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae = Bostrychidae), exposed to the insect growth regulator, methoprene, on filter paper and on rough rice. In the first test, the hatch rate of eggs exposed on filter paper treated with methoprene at the label rate

  16. 72 FR 30462 - Importation of Emerald Ash Borer Host Material From Canada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-06-01

    We are establishing regulations to prohibit or restrict the importation of certain articles from Canada that present a risk of being infested with emerald ash borer. This action is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of this plant pest from infested areas in Canada to noninfested areas of the United States and to prevent further introductions of this plant pest into the United...

  17. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SEDIMENT SAMPLING TECHNOLOGY, AQUATIC RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS, RUSSIAN PEAT BORER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Russian Peat Borer designed and fabricated by Aquatic Research Instruments was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in April and May 1999 at sites in EPA Regions 1 and 5, respectively. In additio...

  18. Explorations for Natural Enemies of Emerald Ash Borer in China, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was made in China during July-August, 2006. We visited 11 field plots in four provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina, then peel...

  19. Proteins induced in corn (Zea mays) in response to the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) is a major pest of corn. ECB begin by feeding in the whorl tissue and then eventually tunnel into the stalk of the corn where they cause most of the damage. Tunneling can disrupt the transport of water and nutrients in the plant and it provides sites...

  20. A Life History of the Squash Vine Borer, Melittia Cucurbitae (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life history of the squash vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was investigated in South Carolina. Duration of life stages, numbers of progeny, and mortality rates for SVB were determined in cages held at 25 plus minus 2C, 65-70% humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h in a rearing room, and ...

  1. NHBugs: The Big Three Resources Emerald Ash Borer Management for Landowners

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Emerald ash borer is in this zone, though not necessarily in all ash trees. Potential expansion area" diameter at breast height, dbh) as possible, leaving smaller ash. 5. Identify high-value ash trees stocking. #12;Potential expansion area for urban landscape: 1. Inventory your trees by species, size

  2. Response of grape root borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) neonates to root extracts from vitaceae species and rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observations at regular intervals of the location of newly hatched grape root borer larvae moving freely within Petri dish bioassays were used to measure and compare their response to filter paper discs treated with ethanol- and hexane-based extracts of roots from known and potential Vitaceae hosts ...

  3. Mid-parent heterosis and combining ability of European corn borer resistance in maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth M. Lamb; David W. Davis; David A. Andow

    1993-01-01

    Success in breeding maize resistant to the European corn borer has been limited, with the exception of leaf feeding resistance. The inheritance of resistance to leaf, sheath-collar and ear damage in four maize germplasms and their six F1 crosses was evaluated by diallel analysis. Plants in a completely randomized design were artificially infested at the whorl, anthesis or full silk

  4. Borate and imidacloprid treatment of ash logs infested with the emerald ash borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Nzokou; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack; D. Pascal Kamdem

    2006-01-01

    As of January 2006, portions of Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario were infested with the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, a destructive exotic Asian beetle that feeds within the inner bark of ash (Fraxinus) trees. This project evaluated borate (dissodium octaborate tetrahydrate) and imidacloprid to sanitize EAB-infested logs, which would then facilitate log transport to mills outside the quarantine

  5. Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yigen Chen; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland

    2011-01-01

    The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study,

  6. A Decision Support System for Emerald Ash Borer Eradication Using Spatial-Dynamic Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd K. BenDor; Sara S. Metcalf; Lauren E. Fontenot; Brandi Sangunett

    Recently, an invasive Asian beetle known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) ( Agrilus planipennis Coleoptera: Buprestidae) has emerged as a threat to Ash trees in the Midwestern United States and Canada (McCullough and Katovich 2004). Significant infestations in Michigan and nearby areas have all but doomed nearly one billion native ash trees. This paper presents an argument for the

  7. Dispersal of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis , in newly-colonized sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo J. Mercader; Nathan W. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough

    2009-01-01

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive forest insect pest threatening more than 8 billion ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America. Development of effective survey methods and strategies to slow the spread of A. planipennis requires an understanding of dispersal, particularly in recently established satellite populations. 2 We assessed the dispersal of A. planipennis beetles

  8. Preservative treatment of ash wood from emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) infested trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Nzokou; Sedric M. Pankras; D. Pascal

    Portions of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario have been infested by the emerald ash borer (EAB), an exotic pest believed to have been imported from Asia. The pest is reported to have killed 10 million to 15 million ash trees and continues to spread. Most of southern Michigan is under quarantine, and the movement of ash lumber, firewood, logs, and

  9. The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill C. Crosthwaite; Stephanie Sobek; D. Barry Lyons; Mark A. Bernards; Brent J. Sinclair

    2011-01-01

    Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of

  10. Effect of emerald ash borer on structure and material properties of ash trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) currently occurs in fifteen states in the United States, as well as Ontario and Quebec in Canada. A decline in ash tree strength following EAB infestation is potentially hazardous to public safety, particularly when trees are left standing for several years after dying. Dead ...

  11. Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brahim Medjahed; William Grosky

    The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has killed or infested millions of ash trees in Michigan and is fast spreading to neighboring states. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates that if EAB went unchecked in the rest of the country, the loss to the nation could range from $20 billion to $60 billion. One key requirement for the success of

  12. Biological control of emerald ash borers: the role of indigenous North American parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated parasitoids were conducted in Cranberry Township, PA; Granville, PA; and Cheltenham, MD. Several species of parasitic Hymenoptera were collected from EAB-infested green ash trees or reared from late-instar E...

  13. Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Density and Canopy Dieback in Three North American Ash Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea C. Anulewicz; Deborah G. McCullough; David L. Cappaert

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan, U.S. and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Little information about A. planipennis is available from its native range and it was not known whether this invasive pest would exhibit a preference for a

  14. An Assessment of the Relationship Between Emerald Ash Borer Presence and Landscape Pattern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    Six years after its 2002 detection near Detroit, MI, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has spread hundreds of miles across the Upper Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Human-assisted transportation of infested ash materials is the primary mechanism of EAB dispersal over long distances. Natural spread occurs locally and is influenced by factors, such as

  15. Assessing the Hazard of Emerald Ash Borer and Other Exotic Stressors to Community Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Ball; Sarah Mason; Aaron Kiesz; Dan McCormick; Craig Brown

    2007-01-01

    Exotic stressors such as emerald ash borer are an increasing concern to many communities across North America. One means of assessing the hazard these stressors may represent to a community's publicly managed trees is through an inventory of their street trees. The South Dakota Division of Resource Conservation and Forestry conducted street tree inventories in selected communities across the state

  16. A Potential Plan of Action for Emerald Ash Borer in Nebraska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Wheeler

    2010-01-01

    \\u0009Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) (EAB) is an invasive insect pest. It feeds on the cambium tissues of ash tree species. It was first discovered in the United States in 2002 in Detroit, Michigan. Their effects on ash trees are deadly, and it is quickly spreading across the Midwest. Nebraska has not yet been invaded, but confirmed findings continue getting

  17. UPDATE ON EMERALD ASH BORER NATURAL ENEMY SURVEYS IN MICHIGAN AND CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leah S. Bauer; Houping Liu; Robert A. Haack; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Deborah L. Miller

    We began research on natural enemies of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis soon after its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. Regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada adopted a strategy of eradication for EAB in an effort to protect New World ash. Should eradication fail, however, conventional biological control will be needed to suppress populations of

  18. Antioxidant genes of the emerald ash borer ( Agrilus planipennis): Gene characterization and expression profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Praveen Mamidala; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi Bonello; Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-01-01

    Phytophagous insects frequently encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) from exogenous and endogenous sources. To overcome the effect of ROS, insects have evolved a suite of antioxidant defense genes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive insect pest from Asia has killed millions of

  19. DIATOMACEOUS EARTH PLUS METHOPRENE FOR CONTROL OF LESSER GRAIN BORER, RHYZOPERTHA DOMINICA, IN ROUGH RICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), is a major insect pest of all stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE), a natural inert dust, and methoprene, an insect growth regulator, are two insecticides registered for direct application for stored grains. However, methopre...

  20. Electrophysiological response of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) to apple volatile compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coupled gas chromatography and electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analyses of headspace volatiles from apple host tissues revealed a total of 16 antennal responses to which female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), responded. There were no differences in the amplitude of the response o...

  1. Plant resistance and its effect on the peritrophic membrane of southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella Dyar) is a serious pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the southern United States. Corn germplasm lines with conventional genetic leaf-feeding resistance to this pest, the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), and other lepidopterans have been released t...

  2. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer (EAB) larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, Michigan by caging gravid EAB females or placing laboratory-reared eg...

  3. Genetic transformation and regeneration of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ningxia Du

    2008-01-01

    Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Oleaceae; Section Melioides), is a widely distributed native tree species, planted for timber production and popular for landscaping in North America. However, the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is attacking all North American ash spp. and it has become the most important pest of ash trees in North America. The objectives of this project were to develop

  4. DIEL PERIODICITY OF EMERGENCE AND PRE-MATING REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORS OF ADULT DOGWOOD BORER (LEPIDOPTERA: SESIIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence and pre-mating reproductive behaviors of adult dogwood borer moths, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) were examined under controlled conditions in the laboratory and in apple orchards in Virginia. The diel periodicity of male response to pheromone sources was recorded ...

  5. Influence of drought stress on Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera:Crambidae) oviposition preference in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), has been spreading northward from Mexico and Texas sugarcane and rice, and invasion of Louisiana is projected. This study showed drought stress increases water potential in sugarcane plants and results in >3.4-fold more dry leaves than in well-watered...

  6. Inbreeding variability and population structure in the invasive haplodiploid palm-seed borer ( Coccotrypes dactyliperda )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Holzman; A. J. Bohonak; L. R. Kirkendall; D. Gottlieb; A. R. Harari; S. T. Kelley

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the mating system and population genetic structure of the invasive haplodiploid palm-seed borer Coccotrypes dactyliperda in California. We focused on whether these primarily inbreeding beetles have a 'mixed- breeding' system that includes occasional outbreeding, and whether local inbreeding coefficients (FIS) varied with dominant environmental factors. We also analysed the genetic structure of C. dactyliperda populations across local and

  7. Photoprotection of Beauveria bassiana: testing simple formulations for control of the coffee berry borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVEN EDGINGTON; HECTOR SEGURA; WILLIAM DE LA ROSA; TREVOR WILLIAMS

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana is considered to be one of the few natural enemies available for use against the coffee berry borer. In an attempt to enhance the efficacy of this pathogen, a range of concentrations of 22 substances was tested in simple laboratory tests using natural sunlight or a UV light source. Unprotected B. bassiana spores were almost

  8. Alternative Hosts for Bethylid Parasitoids of the Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud; Ian C. W Hardy

    2001-01-01

    Three species of bethylid wasps, Prorops nasuta Waterston, Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem, and C. hyalinipennis Ashmead, attack the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), by both predation and parasitism. C. hyalinipennis has only recently been reported to attack H. hampei. Its previously recorded hosts belong to the coleopteran families Curculionidae, Anobiidae, and Scolytidae. We evaluated five further coleopteran species,

  9. Evidence for allelochemical attraction of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei , by coffee berries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Giordanengo; Luc O. Brun; Brigitte Frerot

    1993-01-01

    Petri dish choice tests conducted on the coffee berry borer (CBB),Hypothenemus hampei, showed that females were able to discriminate between coffee berries at different ripening stages. A Y-shaped glass olfactometer was used to demonstrate that coffee berries emitted volatile chemicals that elicited upwind movement by female CBB. Olfactometer tests with three different solvent extracts of berries showed that at least

  10. Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Benavides; Fernando E. Vega; Jeanne Romero-Severson; Alex E. Bustillo; Jeffrey J. Stuart

    2005-01-01

    AmpliÞed fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) Þngerprinting was used to examine the genetic variability and biogeography of the most important insect pest of coffee, Coffea arabica L., the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). H. hampei samples (n 101) from 17 countries on three continents were examined. Only 26 unique Þngerprints (haplotypes) were dis- covered among all samples. Genetic variability was

  11. Parasitoids for biocontrol of coffee berry borer: past, present and future.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detailed surveys for coffee berry borer parasitoids were initiated in October 2006 in two coffee growing areas of Kenya (Kisii and Embu). The most abundant parasitoid species are Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae). Our preliminary findings indica...

  12. On the eyes of male coffee berry borers as rudimentary organs.

    PubMed

    Vega, Fernando E; Simpkins, Ann; Bauchan, Gary; Infante, Francisco; Kramer, Matthew; Land, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Like males in other species in the genus, male coffee berry borers have a lower number of facets in the compound eyes than females. The rudimentary eyes in male coffee berry borers could be an evolutionary response to their cryptic life habit, whereby they are born inside a coffee berry and never leave the berry. The main objective of the study was to determine if the differences in the number of facets translates into differences in visual acuity. We used low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to visualize and quantify the number of facets in the compound eyes. There was a significantly lower (p<0.0001) number of facets in males (19.1 ± 4.10) than in females (127.5 ± 3.88). To assess visual acuity, we conducted optomotor response experiments, which indicate that females respond to movement, while males did not respond under the conditions tested. The coffee berry borer is an example of an insect whereby disuse of an organ has led to a rudimentary compound eye. This is the first study that has experimentally tested responses to movement in bark beetles. PMID:24465752

  13. Shade over coffee: its effects on berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Soto-Pinto; I. Perfecto; J. Caballero-Nieto

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between different ecological features of shade and the incidence of coffee berry borer, coffee leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in rustic coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. Thirty-six 10 m by 10 m plots were established within coffee plantations. The following variables were measured or estimated: number of vegetation strata, percent

  14. Mycobiota associated with the coffee berry borer ( Hypothenemus hampei) in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanneth Pérez; Francisco Infante; Fernando E. Vega; Francisco Holguín; Jorge MacÍAs; Javier Valle; Guadalupe Nieto; Stephen W. Peterson; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Kerry O'donnell

    2003-01-01

    Field surveys were carried out in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico, to collect and identify fungi associated with the cuticle, gut, faeces and galleries of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei. Insects and coffee berries containing galleries were collected in three coffee farms at different altitudes : Rosario Izapa (425 m), La Alianza (700 m) and Monteperla (950 m). An

  15. Evaluation of Cold Temperatures and Density as Mortality Factors of the Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer

    E-print Network

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    Evaluation of Cold Temperatures and Density as Mortality Factors of the Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer semipunctata F., in California is limited by winter temperature con- ditions. The cold tolerance of prepupal stages was tested by exposing infested logs to cold temperature treatments of -5, 0, +5, and + l

  16. Dynamics of twolined chestnut borer Agrilus bilineatus as inuenced by defoliation and selection thinning

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    borer adults during a gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymnatriidae), outbreak and examined defoliated by gypsy moth, extensive defoliation occurred in one year, and major overstory tree mortality year of attack (Haack & Acciavatti, 1992). Expansion of the range of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L

  17. Associations between host plant concentrations of selected biochemical nutrients and Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini, infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an economic pest of sugarcane and other graminaceous host crops, and it attacks grassy weeds. Oviposition preference has been known to be for plants with leaves that form folds. This study is the first to associate the nutr...

  18. Lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica, select rough rice kernels with cracked hulls for infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests were conducted to determine whether differing amounts of kernels with cracked hulls (0, 5, 10, and 20%) mixed with intact kernels affected progeny production of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in two rough rice varieties, Francis and Wells. Wells had been previously classified as...

  19. Borer problems and their control in dwarf apple trees David Kain, Entomology, NYSAES, Geneva, NY

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Borer problems and their control in dwarf apple trees David Kain, Entomology, NYSAES, Geneva, NY in western New York, were invading burrknots on dwarf apple trees. About the same time, Dick Straub seemed to be becoming more common in dwarf apple plantings, as well. Based on Deb's alert, we decided

  20. Title: Use of Physical Barriers to Prevent Borer Infestation of Apple Burrknots Project Leaders

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Title: Use of Physical Barriers to Prevent Borer Infestation of Apple Burrknots Project Leaders of burrknot tissue on apple dwarfing rootstocks is an increasing problem throughout the northeast. One into the winter. We also discuss economic considerations. Background and Justification: Apple growers

  1. POSSIBLE DEGRADATIVE ROLES OF A COFFEE BERRY BORER-ASSOCIATED YEAST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Pichia guilliermondii based on 26s ribosomal gene sequences. Liquid culture experiments with media containing different caffeine lev...

  2. Evaluation of Pheromone-Based Strategies for the Dogwood Borer on Commercial Apple Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious wood-boring pest of apple in eastern North America. The recent identification of its sex pheromone and a potent behavioral antagonist affords the opportunity to develop pheromone based management strategies for th...

  3. Evidence for Obligate Migratory Flight Behavior in Young European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, flight behavior was examined in laboratory experiments. Adults were each tethered to one of 16 round-about flight mills in an environmental chamber, and the data relayed to a computer. Parameters analyzed included duration, distance, and speed of the longes...

  4. STEM crisis or STEM surplus?

    E-print Network

    Xue, Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce is a crucial driver of the U.S. economy. Over the last decade, there has been significant concern regarding the adequacy of the supply of STEM workers ...

  5. Male-produced pheromone of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid introduced for the biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Cossé, Allard A; Petroski, Richard J; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Vermillion, Karl; Lelito, Jonathan P; Cooperband, Miriam F; Gould, Juli R

    2012-04-01

    The braconid wasp, Spathius agrili, has been released in the U.S. as a biocontrol agent for the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilus planipennis), a destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). We identified and synthesized seven male-specific volatile compounds. Three of these, dodecanal, (4R,11E)-tetradecen-4-olide, and (Z)-10-heptadecen-2-one, were the key behaviorally active components in flight tunnel bioassays. Male specificity was demonstrated by gas chromatographic comparison of male and female volatile emissions and whole body extracts. Identifications were aided by coupled gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis, microchemical reactions, NMR, chiral GC analysis, and GC and MS comparison with authentic standards. Both the racemic and chiral forms of the ?-lactone, as well as both E- and Z-isomers were synthesized. Flight tunnel behavioral tests showed positive male and female S. agrili responses to both natural pheromone and synthetic blends, with upwind flight and landing on the source. Large field-cage tests, using yellow sticky traps baited with pheromone, captured approximately 50% of the released male and female wasps in 24-h periods. The use of pheromone-baited traps in the field could simplify the current detection method for determining parasitoid establishment (i.e., laboriously felling and peeling ash trees for recovery of S. agrili from infested EAB larvae). PMID:22456948

  6. Field damage to yellow starthistle infected by Synchytrium solstitiale, and greenhouse maintenance and host range of the fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synchytrium solstitiale damaged yellow starthistle (YST) plants in the field in France, causing reductions of 58, 82, 20, and 56 percent in plant height, plant area, stem diameter, and capitula production, respectively, compared to controls. It was therefore evaluated for biological control in the ...

  7. 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS

    E-print Network

    2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, Athens, GA 30602 ABSTRACT The effects of emerald ash

  8. Cemented backfilling performance of yellow phosphorus slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-sheng Chen; Bin Zhao; Xin-min Wang; Qin-li Zhang; Li Wang

    2010-01-01

    The experiments on the cemented backfilling performance of yellow phosphorus slag, including physical-mechanical properties,\\u000a chemical compositions, optimized proportion, and cementation mechanisms, were carried out to make good use of yellow phosphorus\\u000a slag as well as tackle with environment problems, safety problems, geological hazards, and high-cost issues during mining\\u000a in Kaiyang Phosphorus Mine Group, Guizhou. The results show that yellow phosphorus

  9. Titanium, Sinusitis, and the Yellow Nail Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrik Berglund; Björn Carlmark

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by nail changes, respiratory disorders, and lymphedema. In a yellow nail patient with\\u000a a skeletal titanium implant and with gold in her teeth, we found high levels of titanium in nail clippings. This study aims\\u000a to examine the possible role of titanium in the genesis of the yellow nail syndrome. Nail clippings from patients with

  10. Genotoxicity of gardenia yellow and its components.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, A; Kitano, M; Furusawa, N; Yamaguchi, H; Kuroda, K; Endo, G

    2002-11-01

    Gardenia fruit (Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS) is widely used as a natural food colorant and as a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of hepatic and inflammatory diseases. "Gardenia yellow" is a natural food colorant which is extracted by ethanol from gardenia fruit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of gardenia yellow. Genotoxicity of gardenia yellow and its components, crocetin, gentiobiose (a component of crocin), geniposide and genipin (formed by hydrolysis of geniposide), was studied by Ames test, rec-assay, and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) using V79 cells. Gardenia yellow and its components were found not to be mutagenic in the Salmonella reverse mutation assay. Gardenia yellow and genipin caused damage of DNA in rec-assay. Gardenia yellow induced a significant dose-dependent increase of SCE frequency (8.6 times at 1000 microg/ml as the value for the solvent control). Only genipin induced SCEs significantly among the components of gardenia yellow. Moreover, genipin induced a significant increase of tetraploids at all doses tested (95% at 8 microg/ml). Gardenia yellow preparation was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE), and geniposide was detected. However, genipin was not observed. In conclusion, we have shown that genipin possesses genotoxicity. Furthermore, there were unidentified genotoxicants in gardenia yellow. PMID:12176087

  11. First record of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in Pará nut, Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae).

    PubMed

    Gumier-Costa, Fabiano

    2009-01-01

    We report the occurrence of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) attacking Pará nuts stored in the southeast of Para state. The coffee berry borer successfully colonized and reproduced using Pará nuts as a food source. Based on this observation, the Pará nuts can be used as an alternative food source in rearing the coffee berry borer. Also, attention should be brought to need of proper storage of these nuts to avoid infestation by this pest. PMID:19618062

  12. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase: Initiation of Minus Strand Synthesis in Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravindra N. Singh; Theo W. Dreher

    1997-01-01

    An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity was detergent-solubilized from the chloroplast membranes of Chinese cabbage leaves infected with turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV). The template-dependent, micrococcal nuclease-treated activity synthesized full-length minus strands from TYMV RNA and 3?-fragments as short as a 28-nucleotide-long RNA comprising the amino acid acceptor stem of the 3?-tRNA-like structure (TLS). Minus strands were shown to arise

  13. Epidemiology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease is one of the most important diseases of blackberry in the United States. Several viruses are found associated with the symptomology but Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV) appears to be the most prevalent of all, leading to the need for a better understand...

  14. Control strategies for yellow nutsedge and nightshade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow nutsedge is a perennial weed that is difficult to control in several crops once established. It is particularly problematic in onion production. Yellow nutsedge reproduces and is dispersed primarily by tubers that are formed at the apical ends of underground rhizomes. Tubers may remain viable...

  15. PROSPECTIVE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS FOR YELLOW STARTHISTLE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow starthistle is an important alien weed that has invaded 20 million acres in the western U.S. Yellow starthistle is spiny plant that interferes with grazing livestock and outdoors recreation, it is fatally poisonous to horses, and it outcompetes desirable vegetation. Previously released agen...

  16. STEM Thinking!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is a term seen almost daily in the news. In 2009, President Obama launched the Educate to Innovate initiative to move American students from the middle to the top of the pack in science and math achievement over the next decade (The White House, n.d.). Learning about the attributes of STEM

  17. Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwen Lomberk

    2007-01-01

    In this issue, ‘Pancreatology and the Web’ focuses on stem cell research, one of the 21st century’s most exciting areas of science. Stem cell research has been advancing our knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. Although still in its infancy, this field also offers a revolutionary

  18. University of Minnesota Extension is an equal opportunity educator and employer. For Americans with Disabilities Act accommodations, please call 800-876-8636. Updated February 2009. Emerald ash borer, a small green insect deadly to

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Brian

    with Disabilities Act accommodations, please call 800-876-8636. Updated February 2009. Emerald ash borer, a small. CHALLENGE Since 2002, emerald ash borer has killed tens of millions of ash trees in neighboring states and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources to formulate a response plan: Delay emerald ash borer's arrival

  19. Experimental therapies for yellow fever

    PubMed Central

    Julander, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

  20. Differential Response in Foliar Chemistry of Three Ash Species to Emerald Ash Borer Adult Feeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yigen Chen; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic wood-boring beetle that has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources since its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In this study, we investigated the phytochemical responses\\u000a of the three most common North American ash species (black, green, and white ash) in northeastern USA to

  1. Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis Fairmaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan P. Lelito; Katalin Böröczky; Tappey H. Jones; Ivich Fraser; Victor C. Mastro; James H. Tumlinson; Thomas C. Baker

    2009-01-01

    The cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis, were examined to determine if there are differences in these compounds between the sexes. We also assessed feral male EAB\\u000a in the field for behavioral changes based on the application of a female-specific compound to dead, solvent-washed beetles.\\u000a Males in the field spent significantly more time attempting copulation with dead,

  2. Antennally Active Macrolide from the Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis Emitted Predominantly by Females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Bartelt; Allard A. Cossé; Bruce W. Zilkowski; Ivich Fraser

    2007-01-01

    The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was ca. 10 times more abundant from females. It was\\u000a readily sensed by antennae of both males and females. Identification was confirmed by synthesis. The behavioral effects of\\u000a the lactone remain unstudied

  3. Genetic analysis of emerald ash borer ( Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) populations in Asia and North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland; Robert A. Haack; Anthony I. Cognato; James J. Smith

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees first discovered outside of its native range of northeastern Asia in 2002. EAB spread from its initial zone of\\u000a discovery in the Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario metropolitan areas, in large part, from inadvertent human-assisted\\u000a movement of infested ash materials.

  4. Distinguishing Defensive Characteristics in the Phloem of Ash Species Resistant and Susceptible to Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Cipollini; Qin Wang; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Jeff R. Powell; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms

    2011-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis\\u000a of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high

  5. Modeling the invasive emerald ash borer risk of spread using a spatially explicit cellular model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anantha M. Prasad; Louis R. Iverson; Matthew P. Peters; Jonathan M. Bossenbroek; Stephen N. Matthews; T. Davis Sydnor; Mark W. Schwartz

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is decimating native ashes (Fraxinus sp.) throughout midwestern North America, killing millions of trees over the years. With plenty of ash available throughout\\u000a the continent, the spread of this destructive insect is likely to continue. We estimate that the insect has been moving along\\u000a a “front” at about 20 km\\/year since about 1998, but

  6. Identification of a coffee berry borer-associated yeast: does it break down caffeine?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando E. Vega; Michael B. Blackburn; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Patrick F. Dowd

    2003-01-01

    Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers ( Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)) and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Candida fermentati (Saito) Bai, based on sequencing of the nuclear large subunit 26S rDNA variable D1\\/D2 domain. Liquid culture experiments using P. burtonii in media containing different caffeine

  7. ?-Amylases of the coffee berry borer ( Hypothenemus hampei) and their inhibition by two plant amylase inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnubio Valencia; Alex E Bustillo; Gustavo E Ossa; Maarten J Chrispeels

    2000-01-01

    The adult coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari [Coleoptera: Scolytidae]), a major insect pest of coffee, has two major digestive ?-amylases that can be separated by isoelectric focusing. The ?-amylase activity has a broad pH optimum between 4.0 and 7.0. Using pH indicators, the pH of the midgut was determined to be between 4.5 and 5.2. At pH5.0, the coffee

  8. Comparative studies on the sex pheromones of Ostrinia spp. in Japan: the burdock borer, Ostrinia zealis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukio Ishikawa; Takuma Takanashi; Yongping Huang

    1999-01-01

    Summary.   To gain insight into the evolution of the sex pheromone communication system in Ostrinia (Lepidoptera Pyralidae), the sex pheromone of the burdock borer, O. zealis was analyzed by means of gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), GC-mass spectrometry and a series of\\u000a bioassays. Four EAD-active compounds were detected in the female sex pheromone gland extract, and these were identified as\\u000a tetradecyl

  9. Characterization of Acetylcholinesterase Purified from the Lesser Grain Borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. C Guedes; K. Y Zhu; S Kambhampati; B. A Dover

    1998-01-01

    1. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) purified from the lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica) was significantly inhibited by higher concentrations of the substrates acetylthiocholine (ATC), acetyl-(?-methyl) thiocholine (A?MTC) and propionylthiocholine (PTC). 2. The efficiency of AChE for hydrolyzing different substrates was ATC > A?MTC > PTC > S-butyrylthiocholine. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by 10?5 M eserine or BW284C51, but

  10. Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites. PMID:24498741

  11. Inducible maize defense mechanisms against the corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides: a transcriptome and biochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Víctor M; Santiago, Rogelio; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2012-01-01

    In spite of multiple studies elucidating individual defense mechanisms against stalk borer feeding, little information is available about the plant response to these members of Lepidoptera. Four maize inbred lines were cultivated in a greenhouse and challenged with larvae of the corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides. Transcriptome and biochemical analyses were performed to elucidate the maize response mechanisms to this insect. General plant defense mechanisms were activated, including the jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway, proteinase inhibitors, and four defense-related transcription factors. Interestingly, gene ontology analysis shows that maize plants undergo cell-wall reorganization after being attacked. These results were confirmed through biochemical analyses showing that the concentration of some cell-wall-related compounds significantly changed after plant infestation in a genotype-dependent way. In conclusion, maize plants respond to the attack of the corn borer S. nonagrioides through cell-wall fortification, activating genes involved in cell-wall organization, which finally is reflected in a higher concentration of some cell-wall components, especially in resistant genotypes. PMID:21916555

  12. 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 11 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS: THE DYNAMICS OF ASH

    E-print Network

    2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 11 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH at ksknight@fs.fed.us. The effects of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) on forest ecosystems FORESTS: THE DYNAMICS OF ASH MORTALITY AND THE RESPONSES OF OTHER PLANT SPECIES Kathleen S. Knight, Daniel

  13. Issue: White fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus) has been found attacked by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) by Don Cipollini, a professor at Wright State University in Ohio

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Issue: White fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus) has been found attacked by emerald ash borer.wright.edu/web1/newsroom/2014/10/17/emerald-ash- borer-research/ 2. Fringe Tree: http been collected in areas where the abundance of dead ash trees suggest that local populations of EAB

  14. Should I Use Pesticides to Protect My Ash Trees From Emerald Ash Borer? Dr. Cliff Sadof and Jodie Ellis, Purdue Department of Entomology

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Should I Use Pesticides to Protect My Ash Trees From Emerald Ash Borer? Dr. Cliff Sadof and Jodie Ellis, Purdue Department of Entomology The use of pesticides approved as preventatives for emerald ash borer (EAB) in Indiana is certainly an option for homeowners in Indiana who wish to protect their ash

  15. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

  16. Lost trust: a yellow fever patient response.

    PubMed

    Runge, John S

    2013-12-01

    In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care. PMID:24348220

  17. Epidemic yellow fever in eastern Nigeria, 1986.

    PubMed

    De Cock, K M; Monath, T P; Nasidi, A; Tukei, P M; Enriquez, J; Lichfield, P; Craven, R B; Fabiyi, A; Okafor, B C; Ravaonjanahary, C

    1988-03-19

    An epidemic of yellow fever occurred in the eastern part of Nigeria during the second half of 1986. Oju, in Benue State, was the most heavily affected region, but yellow fever also occurred in surrounding areas, particularly Ogoja, in Cross River State. In Oju, the mean attack and mortality rates were 4.9% and 2.8%, respectively. Sex and age specific rates were highest in males and in the 20-29 yr age group. The overall case fatality rate was approximately 50%. Diagnosis was confirmed by IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and complement fixation (CF) tests. Entomological investigations implicated Aedes africanus as the epidemic vector. Oju alone probably had about 9800 cases of yellow fever with jaundice, and some 5600 deaths. Outbreaks of this nature could be prevented by inclusion of yellow fever in the Expanded Programme on Immunisation, in areas subject to recurrent epidemics. PMID:2894558

  18. Human maximization testing of D&C Yellow no. 10 and Yellow no. 11.

    PubMed

    Kita, S; Kobayashi, T; Kutsuna, H; Kligman, A M

    1984-10-01

    By the maximization test, using 0.5% D&C Yellow no. 11 in pet., 15 of 20 human volunteers became contact sensitized. All reacted to a challenge concentration of 1000 ppm and one down to 1 ppm. The high allergenic potential of this dyestuff was confirmed. There were no cross reactions to purified samples of D&C Yellow no. 10. In contrast, 5% solutions of pure D&C Yellow no. 10 failed to sensitize human subjects. Cross reactions to this substance in persons sensitized to D&C Yellow no. 11 are due to impurities. PMID:6541989

  19. Contact allergic reaction to D & C Yellow No. 11 and Quinoline Yellow.

    PubMed

    Björkner, B; Niklasson, B

    1983-07-01

    D & C Yellow No. 11 and Quinoline Yellow belong to a group of quinophtalone dyes with a common basic structure. D & C Yellow No. 11 is used mostly in plastics, spirit lacquers, coloured smokes and cosmetics, but it is also increasingly used as a dye in soaps and shampoos. Quinoline Yellow is used for dyeing wool, silk and nylon in cases where good light fastness is not required, but is most commonly used as a drug and food colouring agent. A patient, extremely sensitive to D & C Yellow No. 11 with a positive patch test reaction down to 0.00001%, also reacted to Quinoline Yellow at a test concentration of 0.1%. To establish if any cross-reactivity occurs between the two compounds, a high pressure liquid chromatograph was used for analysis, purification and separation of the two colours. The patient was then patch tested with the two colours and the pure fraction of Quinoline Yellow. The test results confirm a true sensitivity to Quinoline Yellow and to D & C Yellow No. 11, and may indicate cross-reactivity between the colours. PMID:6684529

  20. Redox alters yellow dragonflies into red

    PubMed Central

    Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema

    2012-01-01

    Body color change associated with sexual maturation—so-called nuptial coloration—is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait. PMID:22778425

  1. Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer

    PubMed Central

    Whitehill, Justin G. A.; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B.; Koch, Jennifer L.; Herms, Daniel A.; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion. PMID:21949771

  2. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion. PMID:21949771

  3. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

    2011-02-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important. PMID:21404843

  4. Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel-borer design for application to single-entry coal-mine development

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1982-02-15

    The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

  5. Host-plant-associated genetic differentiation in Northern French populations of the European corn borer.

    PubMed

    Martel, C; Réjasse, A; Rousset, F; Bethenod, M-T; Bourguet, D

    2003-02-01

    The phytophagous insects that damage crops are often polyphagous, feeding on several types of crop and on weeds. The refuges constituted by noncrop host plants may be useful in managing the evolution in pest species of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxins produced by transgenic crops. However, the benefits of these refuges may be limited because host-plant diversity may drive genetic divergence and possibly even host-plant-mediated sympatric speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the main pest of maize in Europe and North America, where it was introduced early in the 20th century. It has a wide host range but feeds principally on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). O. nubilalis is found on mugwort only in the northern part of France, whereas it is found on maize throughout France. The extent of genetic variation at allozyme markers was investigated in populations collected from the two host plants over the entire geographical distribution of the European corn borer on mugwort in France. Allelic differentiation between pairs of populations and hierarchical analyses of pools of samples from each host plant indicate that the group of populations feeding on maize differed from the group of populations feeding on mugwort. Our results suggest (1) host-plant-related divergent selection at the genomic region surrounding the Mpi locus and (2) limited gene flow between the populations feeding on mugwort and those infesting maize fields. These data indicate that adults emerging from mugwort would not be useful for managing the evolution of resistance to the B. thuringiensis toxins in European corn borer populations. PMID:12634820

  6. Spatial distribution of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in Virginia vineyards and implications for sampling.

    PubMed

    Rijal, J P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

    2014-06-01

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ?2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ?1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations. PMID:24709345

  7. Laboratory rearing of the rice stalk borer, Chilo plejadellus (Zincken) and notes on its biology 

    E-print Network

    Supharngkasen, Phaisal

    1966-01-01

    '0 ~ The duration of the egg, X~ -sad: pupal ~se were 4-j~ -~ amX . ~ ~? woxixw xg ~ Btuky and . control of insect. -pestsa 1936g Kisc. ? Pubis kg Res. Bura China Ho ~ 5s (Bepo '1935)t2'7-33 ' I' I fletcher and. Ghosh (1())21) noted that Che rice stalk boxer...LABORATORY REARXICG OP THE RXQE STALK BORER~ QHHG PLEJA3X(L~X8 (ZXHGKEM) AND HOTES 05 X'TS BXOLOGY Ayyrcvsd. as to style an@ ccntent bye sn 0 0 88 I F F. ~ F en 81' msy, less F. F The author wishes to thank Hr. E. H. Randolph, for his...

  8. Laboratory rearing of the rice stalk borer, Chilo plejadellus (Zincken) and notes on its biology

    E-print Network

    Supharngkasen, Phaisal

    1966-01-01

    '0 ~ The duration of the egg, X~ -sad: pupal ~se were 4-j~ -~ amX . ~ ~? woxixw xg ~ Btuky and . control of insect. -pestsa 1936g Kisc. ? Pubis kg Res. Bura China Ho ~ 5s (Bepo '1935)t2'7-33 ' I' I fletcher and. Ghosh (1())21) noted that Che rice stalk boxer...LABORATORY REARXICG OP THE RXQE STALK BORER~ QHHG PLEJA3X(L~X8 (ZXHGKEM) AND HOTES 05 X'TS BXOLOGY Ayyrcvsd. as to style an@ ccntent bye sn 0 0 88 I F F. ~ F en 81' msy, less F. F The author wishes to thank Hr. E. H. Randolph, for his...

  9. Caffeine and resistance of coffee to the berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Guerreiro Filho, Oliveiro; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2003-11-19

    The role of caffeine as a chemical defense of coffee against the berry borer Hypothenemus hampei was investigated. No positive correlation was observed between resistance and caffeine content in experiments in which seeds from several coffee species presenting genetic variability for the alkaloid were exposed to adult insects. The same was observed in an experiment with coffee seeds that had their caffeine content doubled by imbibition with caffeine aqueous solutions. Other experiments showed that the attractiveness to insects was not related to the caffeine content of mature fruits. These results indicate that H. hampei has evolved an adaptation to handle the toxic effects of caffeine. PMID:14611159

  10. Identification of molecular markers for the detection of the yellow rust resistance gene Yr17 in wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Robert; Christine Abelard; Françoise Dedryver

    1999-01-01

    The Yr17 gene, which is present in many European wheat cultivars, displays yellow rust resistance at the seedling stage. The\\u000a gene introduced into chromosome 2A from Aegilops ventricosa was previously found to be closely linked (0.5 cM) to leaf and\\u000a stem rust resistance genes Lr37 and Sr38, respectively. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers linked\\u000a to the

  11. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is cons...

  12. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in far eastern Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in southern Khabarovskiy Kray (Khabarovsk area) and Primorskiy Kray (Vladivostok area) to investigate the occurrence of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. Survey findings ind...

  13. Transgenic Bt corn varietal resistance against the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Cramibidae) and implications to sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), attacks crops including corn, Zea mays L.; rice, Oryza sativa L.; sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench; and sugarcane, Saccharum spp., but strongly resistant varieties of any kind, native or otherwise, have not been identified. A field plot corn varie...

  14. Nosema pyrausta and Cry1Ab-incorporated Diet Led to Decreased Survival and Developmental Delays in European Corn Borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high dose/refuge strategy for delaying evolution of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn relies on random mating between heterozygous-resistant European corn borers, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and susceptible O. nubilalis from the refuge. However, difference...

  15. Factors influencing the temporal and spatial patterns of dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in newly planted apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal and spatial patterns of infestation by larval dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was studied during 2002–2004 in two newly planted apple orchards in West Virginia and Virginia. The orchards contained several rootstock-variety combinations grown under different cultural manage...

  16. Transcript analysis and comparative evaluation of shaker and slowmo gene homologues from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The movement and dispersal of larval Lepidoptera are factors that govern their survival and distribution within the natural landscape. Homologs of the Drosophila behavior-linked genes slowmo and shaker involved in larval locomotion were identified from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (L...

  17. EXPLORATORY SURVEY FOR THE EMERALD ASH BORER, AGRILUS PLANIPENNIS (COLEOPTERA: BUPRESTIDAE), AND ITS NATURAL ENEMIES IN CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was conducted in China during October and November 2003. We examined 29 field plots in six provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. pennsylvanica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina then peeled off the bark in search of A. planipennis and associated natural enemies.

  18. Genetic Mapping and Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Stalk Tunneling by the European Corn Borer in Maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea J. Cardinal; Michael Lee; Natalya Sharopova; Wendy L. Woodman-Clikeman; Mary J. Long

    2001-01-01

    al., 1997). Some of these difficulties could be addressed and resolved through genetic analysis facilitated by mo- The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is lecular genetic maps (Paterson et al., 1991). Information an important pest of temperate maize (Zea mays L.). Damage to the stalk could be minimized by breeding for resistant genotypes but from such analysis could

  19. Effects of host plant and larval density on intraspecific competition in larvae of the Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many insects, competition for food, mate, and/or space among different individuals of the same species is a pervasive phenomenon with ecological consequences such as density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Col...

  20. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The biological control agent, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB), an invasive phloem-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. 2. Tetrastichus planipennisi is known to pre...

  1. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, USA, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 200...

  2. The Effect of Bark Borer Herbivory on BVOC Emissions in Boreal Forests and Implications for SOA Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, Celia; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Holopainen, Jarmo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kokkola, Harri; Blande, James; Guenther, Alex; Virtanen, Annele

    2015-04-01

    Herbivore outbreaks are expected to increase as a result of climate change. These outbreaks can have significant effects on the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) from vegetation, which contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We have synthesized the published results investigating changes to BVOC emissions from herbivory by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis--a bark borer herbivore. Previous lab experiments have shown that bark borer herbivory on Scots pine trees increases monoterpene emissions 4-fold and sesquiterpene emissions 7-fold. Norway spruce exhibits a similar response. The BVOCs most impacted were linalool, beta-phellandrene, limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, and sesquiterpenes like beta-farnesene, beta-bourbonene, and longifolene. The quantitative results from these studies were used to estimate potential impacts of bark borer herbivory on BVOC emissions at a regional scale using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). MEGAN was run under baseline and herbivore outbreak conditions for a typical boreal forest environment in spring. Emissions output from MEGAN was used to run a microphysical box model to estimate the SOA formation potential under baseline and outbreak conditions. This estimate could provide us with an upper limit to the potential impact of bark borer outbreaks on SOA formation in a boreal forest.

  3. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is cons...

  4. Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots using Spectral Vegetation Indices Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology was used to distinguish corn infested with European corn borers, Ostrinia nubilalis, from corn that was not infested. In 2004 and 2005, eleven spectral vegetation indices that emphasize foliar plant pigments were calculated using airborne hyperspectral imagery. Manual inocu...

  5. PHENOTYPIC VS MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION FOR STALK STRENGTH AND SECOND GENERATION EUROPEAN CORN BORER RESISTANCE IN MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) stalk lodging is breakage of the stalk at or below the ear, which may result in loss of the ear at harvest. Stalk lodging is often intensified by the stalk tunneling action of the second-generation of the European corn borer (2-ECB) (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)). Rind penetrome...

  6. The role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The biological control agent, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB), an invasive phloem-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. 2. Tetrastichus planipennisi is known to pre...

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci from the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), represents a major insect pest of corn in North America and Europe, and there is a growing need for molecular markers for population genetics studies. Obtaining useful microsatellites for population studies of O. nubilalis is very challenging, a...

  8. Response of the shot-hole borer of tea, Xyleborus fornicatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to conspecifics and plant semiochemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Subodhi Karunaratne; Vijaya Kumar; Jan Pettersson; N. Savitri Kumar

    2008-01-01

    The responses of the tea shot-hole borer beetle, Xyleborus fornicatus, to conspecific and host plant odours were tested in an olfactometer. Males showed greater attraction to unmated females than to mated females and mated females showed a negative density dependent response with extremely significant repulsion shown when 10 mated females were present. Plants of the susceptible tea cultivar TRI2025 were

  9. Impact of Pesticides Borate and Imidacloprid on Insect Emergence from Logs Infested by the Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Nzokou; Samuel Tourtellot; D. Pascal

    2008-01-01

    The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was discovered on North American soil in the summer of 2002 near Detroit, Michigan, U.S., and has since spread to six states\\/provinces. To alleviate these costs, a method of sanitization is urgently needed. This study evaluated four different chemical sanitation methods in laboratory and field conditions. Treatments included two borate treatments, spray and dip, with

  10. Effects of Chipping, Grinding, and Heat on Survival of Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in Chips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah G. Mccullough; Therese M. Poland; David Cappaert; Erin L. Clark; Ivich Fraser; Victor Mastro; Sarah Smith; Christopher Pell

    2007-01-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect from Asia, was identiÞed in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus sp.) mortality in southeastern Michigan and Essex County, Ontario. Most larvae overwinter as nonfeeding prepupae in the outer sapwood or thick bark of large trees. In a series of studies, we evaluated effects of grinding,

  11. Host-seeking behavior and parasitism by Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Yi Wang; Zhong-Qi Yang; Juli R. Gould; Hui Wu; Jian-Hai Ma

    2010-01-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a newly described and important idiobiont ectoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB) that has excellent potential as a biological control agent against EAB populations in the USA. In order to understand the ecological factors involved in the search and discovery of concealed hosts by S. agrili, we investigated the behavioral responses of adult

  12. Development of life tables to assess the establishment and population impact of parasitoids for control of the emerald ash borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Life tables may be used as a quantitative tool to assess the establishment and impact of introduced natural enemies. One of the critical challenges in constructing life tables for concealed insects such as emerald ash borer is to establish cohorts of the pest. The present study investigates and co...

  13. Relationships between the emergence and oviposition of ectoparasitoid Spathius agrili Yang and its host emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyi Wang; Zhongqi Yang; Guijun Liu; Enshan Liu

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), (= A. marcopoli Obenberger), is an important bark beetle attacking ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). It is very difficult to detect and control because of its highly concealed life history. This pest mainly distributed\\u000a in partial Asian countries (China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia) and Far East Russia, while in China it presented in

  14. Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yong, a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid, is one of three hymenopteran parasitoids being released in the U.S. for biological control of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmair, EAB), an invasive beetle from Asia causing mortality of the ash trees (Fraxinus s...

  15. Ash decline assessment in emerald ash borer-infested regions: A test of tree-level, hyperspectral technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Pontius; Mary Martin; Lucie Plourde; Richard Hallett

    2008-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an exotic insect pest currently threatening ash species in the Great Lakes region. Because of the potential impact on forests in this area, multiple government agencies are currently focusing their efforts on developing new technologies to detect, monitor and control this insect pest. Previous work has shown that hyperspectral remote sensing technologies can produce

  16. douBlE-dECKERs And ToWERs: EmERAld Ash BoRER TRAPs in 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea C. Anulewicz

    Effective and efficient methods to detect and monitor emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus plani- pennis Fairmaire, have been a high priority for scientists since this invasive pest was identified in 2002. In 2006, our objectives included development of a practical trap design suitable for operational programs and evaluation of lures. In 2007, we continued this work and assessed additional trap

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB-BASED TOOL FOR PROJECTING COSTS OF MANAGING EMERALD ASH BORER IN MUNICIPAL FORESTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford S. Sadof

    2009-01-01

    City managers faced with the invasion of emerald ash borer into their urban forests need to plan for the invasion in order to obtain the resources they need to protect the public from harm caused by dying ash trees. Currently, city foresters can avoid harm from falling trees by removing, replacing, or treating them with insecticides. Costs for these activities

  18. Population responses of hymenopteran parasitoids to the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in recently invaded areas in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of hymenopteran parasitoids associated with immature stages of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were surveyed in 2009 and 2010 in the recently invaded areas in Michigan, where the two introduced EAB larval parasitoids, Tetrastic...

  19. Interactive Influence of Leaf Age, Light Intensity, and Girdling on Green Ash Foliar Chemistry and Emerald Ash Borer Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yigen Chen; Therese M. Poland

    2009-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance\\u000a to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected

  20. Microbial control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: Greenhouse and field trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    In 2003–2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against A. planipennis adults in greenhouse studies. However, efficacy was improved in the field when B.

  1. Combination treatments with diatomaceous earth and methoprene to control the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in stored rough rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, is a major insect pest of stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a natural inert dust that can be used to control stored-grain beetles, however, R. dominica is more tolerant to DE compared to other beetle species. Mortality of ad...

  2. Issatchenkia hanoiensis, a new yeast species isolated from frass of the litchi fruit borer Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vu Nguyen Thanh; Dao Anh Hai; Marc-André Lachance

    2003-01-01

    The new ascogenous yeast species Issatchenkia hanoiensis was discovered in the frass of the litchi fruit borer Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen. The yeast forms unconjugated persistent asci containing one to two roughened ascospores. The yeast has a CoQ-7 system, which is typical for the genus Issatchenkia. The closest species to I. hanoiensis as indicated by analysis of the partial ribosomal DNA

  3. Impact of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as an augmentative biocontrol agent for sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to find an appropriate biological control agent for release in rice, a 2-year field cage experiment was conducted in Beaumont, Texas to estimate parasitism of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), by Cotesia flavipes (Cameron). The effective search rate was 0.0049 square meter gro...

  4. Dendrochronological parameters of northern red oak ( Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae)) infested with red oak borer ( Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae))

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Haavik; F. M. Stephen; M. K. Fierke; V. B. Salisbury; S. W. Leavitt; S. A. Billings

    2008-01-01

    Oak-dominated forests in northwestern Arkansas have recently experienced an oak mortality event associated with an unprecedented outbreak of a native insect, the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). To determine whether prior drought was associated with increased E. rufulus infestation level of Quercus rubra L. trees, we employed a suite of dendrochronological measurements from Q. rubra in affected forest stands.

  5. Host Stage Selection and Suitability in Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a Parasitoid of the Coffee Berry Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Lauzière; Jacques Brodeur; Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud

    2001-01-01

    Paired choice experiments were used to evaluate host feeding and oviposition preferences of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a solitary ectoparasitoid of the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Immature and ovipositing females may feed on all developmental stages of the host, but prefer eggs and adults. Parasitoid females parasitize prepupae, pupae, and full-grown larvae of H. hampei, the

  6. The chemotaxonomy of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) isolates from the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Bridge; Y. J. Abraham; M. C. Cornish; C. Prior; D. Moore

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary chemotaxonomic analysis was carried out on 16 isolates ofBeauveria bassiana from adults of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) from 10 countries in Latin America, Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Thirteen formed an homogeneous group with very similar electrophoretic and physiological profiles. Two isolates differed in esterase and acid phosphatase band patterns, one of which was also deficient in

  7. Insect gladiators II: Competitive interactions within and between bethylid parasitoid species of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim P. Batchelor; Ian C. W. Hardy; Juan F. Barrera; Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud

    2005-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) causes substantial reductions in coffee production. It originates from Africa but is now present in almost all of the major coffee producing countries. Classical biological control attempts around the world, including South and Central America, the Caribbean, Indian sub-continent, Indonesia, and Polynesia, including introductions of the African bethylid wasps Prorops nasuta

  8. Natural parasitism of Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi is a relatively new nematode species found attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Mexico. We assessed the natural parasitism and distribution of this nematode in 20 coffee plantations in the state of Chiapas, at elevations ranging from 223 to 1458 m...

  9. Biological control of coffee berry borer: the role of DNA-based gut-content analysis in assessment of predation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...

  10. Karnyothrips flavipes, a previously unreported predatory thrips of the coffee berry borer: DNA-based gut content analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new predator of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was found in the coffee growing area of Kisii in Western Kenya. Field observations, laboratory trials and gut content analysis using molecular tools have confirmed the role of the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Phlaeothrip...

  11. Chemical cues used in host location by Phymastichus coffea, a parasitoid of coffee berry borer adults, Hypothenemus hampei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio C. Rojas; Alfredo Castillo; Armando Virgen

    2006-01-01

    The wasp Phymastichus coffea LaSalle is a primary parasitoid that attacks adults of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari, the most serious pest of coffee in the world. We carried out a series of experiments in the laboratory to elucidate the role of chemical cues used by P. coffea during host location. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, P. coffea females

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of the Impact of Entomopathogenic Fungi on Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a Parasitoid of the Coffee Berry Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. de la Rosa; H. R. Segura; J. F. Barrera; T. Williams

    2000-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and the bethylid parasitoid Prorops nasuta Waterston are natural enemies of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and are considered valuable biocontrol agents in the coffee-growing regions of Central and South America. Laboratory evaluations were made on the impact of three isolates of each fungus on adult

  13. Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae): a hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of a hyperparasitod of the primary parasitoid of the coffee berry borer Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Aphanogmus sp is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of larval and pupal stages of P. nasuta, which was found in coffee berry samples collected on the ground o...

  14. Characterization of Some Beauveria bassianaIsolates and Their Virulence toward the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Varela; Esperanza Morales

    1996-01-01

    Some morphological and physiological characteristics and electrophoretic esterase profiles of six isolates ofBeauveria bassianawere evaluated, and laboratory bioassays were performed to assess their virulence against the coffee berry borerHypothenemus hampei. The relationship among these characteristics and virulence againstH. hampeiand their utility in selecting isolates for further studies are discussed.

  15. Behavior and Activity Pattern of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) Attacking the Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Lauzière; Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud; Jacques Brodeur

    2000-01-01

    We describe behavioral sequences and daily activities of pre-ovipositing and ovipositing females of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), an ectoparasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Noticeable behavioral differences among preovipositing and ovipositing females include host examination, host stinging—probing, host feeding, and the oviposition per se. The female of C. stephanoderis feeds primarily on host eggs, but pupae

  16. Insect gladiators: competitive interactions between three species of bethylid wasps attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud; Ian C. W Hardy; Jean-Paul Lachaud

    2002-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), originates from Africa and has since invaded all major coffee growing areas in the world. The parasitoid species, Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem and Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) have been introduced into many countries as biological control agents. Recently, a further bethylid, Cephalonomia hyalinipennis Ashmead, was found naturally attacking the coffee berry

  17. The effect of an ant-hemipteran mutualism on the coffee berry borer ( Hypothenemus hampei) in southern Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivette Perfecto; John Vandermeer

    2006-01-01

    The indirect effect of an ant-hemipteran mutualism was investigated in the coffee agroecosystem of Southern Mexico. The ant, Azteca instabilis, forms a mutualistic relationship with the coccid, Coccus viridis, on coffee plants. Through field surveys and experimental studies, the indirect effect of this mutualism on the main coffee pest in the region, Hypothenemus hampei, the coffee berry borer (CBB), was

  18. Susceptibility of the peachtree borer, Synanthedon Exitiosa, to Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema riobrave in laboratory and field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach that attacks the trunk and roots at, and just below, soil level. At present, a trunk-applied insecticide is the only control used against this pest throughout the southeastern US. We investigated the susc...

  19. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF LONG, SHORT, AND MEDIUM-GRAIN RICE TO RHYZOPERTHA DOMINICA (F.), THE LESSER GRAIN BORER (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) can infest long, short, and medium grain rough rice. There is little current information regarding susceptibility of these types or of individual varieties within these general classifications. A series of tests were conducted in which lesser grain b...

  20. A curious case of yellow nail syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cri?an-Dabija, Radu; Mih?escu, Traian

    2015-01-01

    The Yellow Nail Syndrome is a rare clinical entity, first described in 1967 by P.D. Samman and W.F. White. The triad slow-growing dystrophic yellow nails, lymphedema and chronic respiratory disorders is the typical manifestation of the disease but some variations have been described as well as associations with chylothorax, chylous ascites, intestinal lymphangiectasia, thyroid abnormalities, malignancies and immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency. We present a case of a 55-years-old woman that had an insidious onset of respiratory disorders and chronic sinusitis, suspected to be infectious throughout the hospitalizations, associated with therapeutically neglected autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:26016054

  1. Effects of rearing conditions on reproduction of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Gould, Juli R; Ayer, Tracy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-04-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) can be successfully reared on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), larvae feeding in chambers drilled in small ash twigs that are wrapped with floral tape. Females maintained in groups with males for one week can receive enough sperm for production of female progeny throughout their lives. Volatiles released by emerald ash borer adults feeding on ash foliage increased parasitoid fecundity over ash foliage alone or no stimulus. The temperature at which the parasitoids were reared ranged from 20 to 25 degrees C in a daily cycle; however, raising the daily maximum temperature to 28 degrees C did not affect parasitoid longevity or fecundity. Adult females lived between 12 and 127 d, with an average of 60.8 +/- 4.5 d. Males lived slightly longer, with an average of 66 +/- 4.5 d. The first clutch of eggs was laid when the female was between 2 and 42 d old, with the average preoviposition period lasting 11.4 +/- 1.4 or 19.5 +/- 2.0 d in 2007 and 2009 trials, respectively. A higher proportion of the emerald ash borer larvae were feeding and thus attractive to parasitoids in the 2009 trial, and female S. agrili laid an average of 9.5 +/- 1.0 clutches containing 5.4 +/- 0.2 eggs, for an average of 51.2 eggs per female. Approximately three quarters of the progeny were female. The number of eggs per clutch was significantly greater when deposited on larger emerald ash borer larvae, further highlighting the need for quality larvae in rearing. Chilling S. agrili pupae at 10 degrees C to stockpile them for summer release was not successful; chilling resulted in lower survival and lower fecundity of emerging progeny. Female S. agrili proved capable of attacking emerald ash borer larvae through even the thickest bark of an ash tree that was 30-cm diameter at breast height. Even emerald ash borer larvae that were creating overwintering chambers in the outer sapwood of the tree were successfully attacked, suggesting that S. agrili could be reared on field collected logs infested with emerald ash borer. PMID:21510183

  2. The biology and ecology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, En-shan

    2010-01-01

    The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed. PMID:20879922

  3. The Biology and Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, EnShan

    2010-01-01

    The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed. PMID:20879922

  4. Stem cells, cancer, and cancer stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tannishtha Reya; Sean J. Morrison; Michael F. Clarke; Irving L. Weissman

    2001-01-01

    Stem cell biology has come of age. Unequivocal proof that stem cells exist in the haematopoietic system has given way to the prospective isolation of several tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells, the initial delineation of their properties and expressed genetic programmes, and the beginnings of their utility in regenerative medicine. Perhaps the most important and useful property of stem cells

  5. Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell States, Fates,

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Carsten

    and Stem Cell Research, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden 4Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, LundCell Stem Cell Review Stem Cell States, Fates, and the Rules of Attraction Tariq Enver,1 Martin

  6. Stemming the Stem Cell Setback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Fleis

    2003-01-01

    This Comment highlights the recent federal funding setbacks in the biotechnology industry and considers the resulting challenges to future research collaboration. After providing a historical background to stem cell technology, Mr. Fleis examines the passionately opposed public responses to the technology's use of embryos and to its future applications. Fleis continues by noting past legislative initiatives that have accelerated the

  7. An assessment of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, stocking contributions in eastern South Dakota

    E-print Network

    An assessment of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, stocking contributions in eastern South Dakota, USA Abstract The success and value of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), stocking programmes, oxytetracycline, stocking, yellow perch. Introduction Panfish [yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), crappies

  8. Emergence of larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in South Dakota lakes: potential implications for

    E-print Network

    Emergence of larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in South Dakota lakes: potential implications and hatch dates were described for larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), captured in surface, otoliths, Perca flavescens, yellow perch. Introduction Yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), support

  9. 21 CFR 184.1973 - Beeswax (yellow and white).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...extract impurities. The resulting wax is referred to as yellow beeswax. White beeswax is produced by bleaching the constituent pigments of yellow beeswax with peroxides, or preferably it is bleached by sun light. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  10. Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    E-print Network

    Severson, David

    Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti with Drosophila melanogaster aegypti, and Culex pipiens, the primary vectors for malaria, yellow fever and dengue, and lymphatic 103

  11. Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance. PMID:22251643

  12. Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 107GTR-NRS-P-105 EMERALD ASH BORER MODELING METHODS

    E-print Network

    Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 107GTR-NRS-P-105 EMERALD. Huggett, Jr., Ruhong Li, David N. Wear, and Patrick D. Miles1 Abstract.--The emerald ash borer (Agrilus

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF AND ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE LARGER GRAIN BORER PROSTEPHANUS TRUNCATUS (HORN) (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE) AND THE MAIZE WEEVIL SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS MOTSCHULSKY (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) IN MAIZE STORES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecific interactions between the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera Curculionidae) were studied during two storage seasons in maize stores, in Bénin. Maize ears, randomly sampled from far...

  14. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United St...

  15. Wind-driven effects on the Yellow Sea Warm Current

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea C. Mask; James J. O'Brien; Ruth Preller

    1998-01-01

    The Yellow Sea is a shallow basin with an average depth of 44 m located between China_and the Korean Peninsula. One of the dominant ocean circulation features of the Yellow Sea is a warm water intrusion known as the Yellow Sea Warm Current. This feature is present throughout the year but reaches its farthest northward extension in winter. The circulation

  16. Yellow Sea Acoustic Uncertainty Caused by Hydrographic Data Error

    E-print Network

    Chu, Peter C.

    Yellow Sea Acoustic Uncertainty Caused by Hydrographic Data Error Peter C. Chu, Carlos J. Cintron is presented by Prof. Kevin Smith at NPS #12;Yellow Sea Bottom Sediment Chart · Four Bottom Sediment types 1. Mud 2. Sand 3. Gravel 4. Rock #12;Yellow Sea Bottom Topography · Water depth in most of the region

  17. YELLOW SEA ACOUSTIC UNCERTAINTY CAUSED BY HYDROGRAPHIC DATA ERROR

    E-print Network

    Chu, Peter C.

    YELLOW SEA ACOUSTIC UNCERTAINTY CAUSED BY HYDROGRAPHIC DATA ERROR PETER C. CHU AND CARLOS J) Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System (MODAS) model in shallow water (such as the Yellow Sea) mine errors) on the acoustic uncertainty in the Yellow Sea is investigated using CASS/GRAB. 2 Environment

  18. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...

  19. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...

  20. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...

  1. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...

  2. Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

    2014-01-01

    The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

  3. Wind-driven effects on the Yellow Sea Warm Current

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea C. Mask; James J. O'Brien; Ruth Preller

    1998-01-01

    The Yellow Sea is a shallow basin with an average depth of 44 m located between China and the Korean Peninsula. One of the dominant ocean circulation features of the Yellow Sea is a warm water intrusion known as the Yellow Sea Warm Current. This feature is present throughout the year but reaches its farthest northward extension in winter. The

  4. Seedling emergence of yellow woodsorrel in eastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow woodsorrel is a perennial weed invading no-till rotations in eastern South Dakota. This study quantified the seedling emergence pattern of yellow woodsorrel across a four-year period. Yellow woodsorrel began emerging in early May and continued for 14 weeks. Approximately 80% of seedlings em...

  5. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF KNAPWEEDS AND YELLOW STARTHISTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant genus Centaurea (family Asteraceae) includes many species that are important invasive alien weeds in the western U.S. These include spotted, diffuse, squarrose and meadow knapweeds and yellow starthistle. Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) is closely related and was once included in th...

  6. Lettuce necrotic yellows virus in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Fry; R. C. Close; C. H. Procter; R. Sunde

    1973-01-01

    Lettuce necrotic yellows virus, found in lettuce (Lactuca saliva L.) and sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) near Blenheim in 1965 caused severe losses in an Auckland lettuce crop in 1969. The virus was transmitted between S. oleraceus plants by the aphid Hyperomyzus lactucae L., which occurs throughout the year but is least plentiful during winter. Most infectivity in sap extracts was

  7. Yellow-bellied marmots are generalist herbivores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Frase; K. B. Armitage

    1989-01-01

    Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) eat a wide variety of grasses, forbs, and seeds, but do not feed on all items in proportion to their abundance in the environment. In this study, relationships between the marmot diet and estimated protein, water, caloric value, relative biomass, and toxicity of the available plant species were investigated. The epidermis of all forb species did

  8. Phytoplankton and sediments in Yellow Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sediment and phytoplankton cloud the waters of the Yellow Sea in this true-color MODIS image acquired March 18, 2002. The swirls of sediment appear as a murky brownish blue color, while the phytoplankton are purely blue green and are concentrated around the small island in the lower right corner of the image.

  9. Cryopreservation of Muskellunge and Yellow Perch Semen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Glogowski; Andrzej Ciereszko; Konrad Dabrowski

    1999-01-01

    Effect of four extenders on the success of cryopreservation of the semen of muskellunge Esox masquinongy and yellow perch Perca flavescens was tested. These extenders consisted of 0.45 M sucrose and were supplemented with either (1) 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), (2) 15% DMSO and 10% hen's egg yolk, (3) 15% dimethylacetamide (DMA), or (4) 15% DMA and 10% egg yolk.

  10. A Western Yellow-Billed Cuckoo

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The western yellow-billed cuckoo is a shy, neotropical migrant bird once common throughout the American West; it is currently a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act. After spending the winter in South America, western cuckoos arrive in the Western United States beginning in June...

  11. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. PMID:25531105

  12. Symptomology and etiology of a new disease, yellow stunt, and root rot of standing milkvetch caused by Embellisia sp. in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan Zhong; Nan, Zhi Biao

    2007-06-01

    An Embellisia sp. has been established as the cause of a new disease of the herbaceous perennial forage legume, 'standing milkvetch' (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) in Northern China, which severely reduces plant density and degrades A. adsurgens stands. The disease was common at an experimental location in Gansu Province where it was recognized by the occurrence of stunted plants with reddish-brown stems and yellow and necrotic leaf blades. An Embellisia sp. was isolated from symptomatic stem, leaf blade, petiole, and root tissues at varying frequencies of up to 90%. Single-spore isolates grew very slowly on PCA, PDA, V-8 and, wheat hay decoction agar. Pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation of seeds, dipping 2-day-old pre-germinated seedlings in inoculum and spraying inoculum on 6-month-old plants. Symptoms on test plants included yellow leaf lesions, brown lesions on stems and petioles, stunted side-shoots with yellow, small, distorted and necrotic leaves, shoot blight, bud death, crown rot, root rot, and plant death. The disease is named as 'yellow stunt and root rot' of A. adsurgens to distinguish it from diseases caused by other known pathogens. Embellisia sp. is also pathogenic to A. sinicus but not to 11 other tested plant species. PMID:17492492

  13. Patch test sensitization to D & C yellow No. 11 and simultaneous reaction to quinoline yellow.

    PubMed

    Björkner, B; Magnusson, B

    1981-01-01

    The quinoline color D & C Yellow No. 11 was added to a standard test series. Of 88 patients tested with 1% in PEG, four showed unexplained positive test reactions. One patient had a "flare-up" reaction after 14 days. At rechallenge he reacted to a dilution down to 0.00001%. Simultaneous reaction with the chemically related commonly used food color Quinoline Yellow (E 104) suggests cross-sensitivity. PMID:7195788

  14. Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Paul Liu; John D. Milliman; Shu Gao; Peng Cheng

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution seismic profiles from the North Yellow Sea reveal a 20–40-m-thick subaqueous clinoform delta that wraps around the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, extending into the South Yellow Sea. This complex sigmoidal-oblique clinoform, containing an estimated 400 km3 of sediment, overlies prominent relict transgressive surfaces. The nearshore topset of the clinoform, <30-m water depth, has a ?1:1000 gradient, with

  15. A unique Yellow River-derived distal subaqueous delta in the Yellow Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. S. Yang; J. P. Liu

    2007-01-01

    Newly acquired high-resolution Chirp sonar profiles reveal a unique Yellow River-derived, alongshore distributed, bidirectional (landward and seaward) across-shelf transported, omega-shaped (“?”) distal subaqueous deltaic lobe deposited around the eastern tip of the Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea. This clinoform deposit directly overlies the postglacial transgressive surface, featured by convex-up seafloor morphology, up to 40 m thick locally. Radiocarbon-14 dates from

  16. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense’ is the phytoplasma associated with Australian grapevine yellows, papaya dieback and Phormium yellow leaf diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lia W. Liefting; Anna C. Padovan; Karen S. Gibb; Ross E. Beever; Mark T. Andersen; Richard D. Newcomb; David L. Beck; Richard L. S. Forster

    1998-01-01

    Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes and the 16S\\/23S spacer regions of the phytoplasmas associated with Australian grapevine yellows, papaya dieback and Phormium yellow leaf diseases revealed minimal nucleotide differences between them resulting in the formation of a monophyletic group. Therefore, along with Australian grapevine yellows, the phytoplasmas associated with Phormium yellow leaf and papaya dieback

  17. Mapping and characterization of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance against second-generation European corn borer in maize with the aid of RFLPs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris C Schön; Michael Lee; Albrecht E Melchinger; Wilbur D Guthrie; Wendy L Woodman

    1993-01-01

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) is an important pest in the global production of maize (Zea mays L.). In this study, we mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci (QTLs) significantly affecting resistance against second-generation European corn borer (2ECB) and plant height with the aid of RFLP markers. A total of 300 F3 lines derived from cross B73 (susceptible)

  18. Education research Making STEM

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Education research Working Together: Making STEM happen in secondary schools #12;STEM education | 1 The Camden School STEM Initiative Interdisciplinary STEM education stimulates interest in science, technology on the combined application of all four subjects. Students of Maria Fidelis consider how to use their STEM garden

  19. Stem cell niches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Terskikh; A. V. Vasiliev; E. A. Vorotelyak

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the stem cell niche and its interaction with stem cells is one of fundamental problems in the biology of stem\\u000a cells. Stem cell niches are formed during ontogeny. A niche can remain vacant and exist independently of stem cells; however,\\u000a stem cell self-renewal cannot be maintained for long periods outside of the niche except for particular conditions,

  20. Sticky trap and stem-tap sampling protocols for the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling statistics were obtained to develop a sampling protocol for estimating numbers of adult Diaphorina citri in citrus using two different sampling methods: yellow sticky traps and stem–tap samples. A 4.0 ha block of mature orange trees was stratified into ten 0.4 ha strata and sampled using...

  1. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    PubMed

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality. PMID:24112110

  2. A review of the biology and control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Damon, A

    2000-12-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari, is a serious problem for the majority of the world's coffee growers and has proved to be one of the most intractable of present day pests. Despite a great deal of research, control still depends largely on the application of the organochlorine insecticide endosulfan, which is damaging to the environment, or a series of cultural and biological control methods which give variable and unpredictable results. This review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology and ecology of H. hampei and its control and identifies weak points in the knowledge about this pest. Emphasis is placed upon an analysis of the non-chemical control methods available and suggestions are offered for novel ecological and environmental factors worthy of further research, in the search for viable and sustainable control methods. PMID:11107248

  3. Sugarcane Giant Borer Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Genes Related to Digestion

    PubMed Central

    de Assis Fonseca, Fernando Campos; Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; de Sousa Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; de Góis, Luiz Avelar Brandão; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus), a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB) transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN) cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect’s biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control. PMID:25706301

  4. Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:822563

  5. The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Bu-prestidae), is a flatheaded borer new to California that poses a significant

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    -colored spots on their forewings, hence the common name. Eggs are extremely small (0.01 inch), dull colored, and rarely observed on trees. They likely are laid singly or in clusters in bark cracks on the main stem

  6. Thinkfinity: STEM

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Verizon Foundation's Thinkfinity website has a very large section of STEM resources for students and teachers. Near the bottom of the homepage visitors will find "Lesson Plans", "Podcasts", and "Resources and Tools". In addition, there is a community forum where members discuss their thoughts on some of the resources from the website they have found useful, or how they have modified them to suit their classroom situation. Visitors to the site can easily register for free to join the community. The "At Home and Afterschool" tab near the top of the page has a "games and tools" section that includes activities, videos, and collections, as well as other types of resources. The literacy section of the "Afterschool" area has many resources for families and games for early literacy. Visitors can also use the "Professional Development" tab to find information on how to utilize the many Thinkfinity resources.

  7. Effects of selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition on corn borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and Crambidae) damage.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Pedro; Malvar, Rosa A; Velasco, Pablo; Butrón, Ana; Tracy, William F; Abedon, Bruce G; Ordás, Amando

    2005-06-01

    In maize, Zea mays L., the timing of vegetative phase transition from juvenile to adult vegetative phases can be modified through selection. A reduction in the juvenile vegetative phase has been associated with resistance to diseases and pests. The major maize pest in temperate areas is Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and in Europe Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of divergent selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition in maize on resistance to corn borers. Three cycles of divergent selection for early and late phase transition in a field corn synthetic and in a sweet corn population were evaluated separately under S. nonagrioides and O. nubilalis artificial infestation. For the field corn experiment, yield and moisture improved with selection for phase transition in both directions, but improvement was due to artifacts of selection, rather than to the change in phase transition. There were no correlated responses for corn borer damage, yield, or grain moisture due to selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition. In the sweet corn experiment, selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition had no significant effects on corn borer damage in sweet corn harvested at the fresh stage. Our results do not support the use of phase transition as an indirect criterion for improving resistance to corn borers in maize. The relationship between phase transition and pest resistance reported by other studies could depend on the genotypes or could be too weak to be detected in a selection program with wild-type maize. PMID:16022330

  8. Efficacy of inundative release of Trichogramma chilonis in the management of the sugarcane internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (K.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Mukunthan

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the factors governing the efficacy ofTrichogramma chilonis and the basis for its popularity as a management tool for sugarcane internode borer. Published evidences were taken as the\\u000a basis for the analysis. The factors taken in to consideration in the analysis are, the capabilities of egg parasitoids as\\u000a prime tool to manage pests, attributes in the biology and

  9. Spinosad and the Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta: A Bioinsecticide, an Invasive Pest Threat, and High Insecticide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Mateus R.; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S.; Silva, Wellington M.; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M.; Silva, Vitória Regina F.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest’s phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h2?=?0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level (?=??0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to prevent rapid selection of high levels of resistance and the potential for its spread to new areas. PMID:25122089

  10. Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in commercial vineyards in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Rijal, Jhalendra P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

    2014-10-01

    Larval grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), feed on roots of wild Vitis and commercially important Vitis species and rootstocks in portions of the eastern United States. Grape root borer pupal exuviae sampling in Virginia vineyards from 2008 to 2012 revealed that infestation levels varied substantially among 48 vineyard blocks. Data on horticultural (cultivar, rootstock, vine age, and planting area), cultural (insecticide use, ground cover, weed control, and irrigation), and environmental variables (proximity to forest, soil composition, soil moisture holding capacity, pH, organic matter, bulk density, and cation exchange capacity) from each block were subjected to optimal quantification using categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA). Variables with component loading values ?0.70 from the CATPCA were used as predictors and pupal exuviae density as the dependent variable in binary logistic regression. A prediction model was developed by including statistically significant variables in the logistic regression. CATPCA showed that seven vineyard factors (ground cover, soil texture, soil mass moisture, soil pH, clay/sand ratio, clay/silt ratio, and sand/silt ratio) based on three selected principal components were significant for subsequent regression analysis. Binary logistic regression showed that soil mass moisture and clay/sand ratio were statistically significant factors contributing to differences in infestation among vineyard blocks. Based on these two factors, a risk prediction model for calculating the probability of grape root borer infestation in vineyards was developed and validated using receiver operating characteristic curve. Results are discussed in relation to the practical implications of a predictive, risk assessment model for grape root borer management. PMID:25198500

  11. Impacts of the emerald ash borer (EAB) eradication and tree mortality: potential for a secondary spread of invasive plant species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constance E. HausmanJohn; John F. Jaeger; Oscar J. Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of the emerald ash borer in 2002, eradication efforts have been implemented in an attempt to eliminate\\u000a or contain the spread of this invasive beetle. The eradication protocol called for the removal of every ash tree within a\\u000a 0.8 km radius around an infested tree. In 2005 this study was established to identify environmental changes attributed to\\u000a the

  12. Dispersal of Adult Diatraea grandiosella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Its Implications for Corn Borer Resistance Management in Bacillus thuringiensis Maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jawwad A. Qureshi; Lawrent L. Buschman; James E. Throne; Sonny B. Ramaswamy

    2006-01-01

    Dispersal of the southwestern corn borer,Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, was examined by release and recapture of dye-marked adults and by capture of feral adults in and around 50-ha center pivot irrigated Þelds of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize. Pheromone and blacklight traps were used to capture the adults. In 1999, 2000, and 2001, a total of 177, 602, and 1,292 marked males,

  13. Isolation and characterization of Isaria farinosa and Purpureocillium lilacinum associated with emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shajahan Johny; George Kyei-Poku; Debbie Gauthier; Kees van Frankenhuyzen

    2012-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi of the genera Isaria and Purpureocillium were recovered from infestation sites of emerald ash borer (EAB) in southern Ontario, Canada. Isolates were identified using morphological characters and by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal DNA gene and partial ?-tubulin gene. Phylogenetic analysis and constructed trees based on the ITS and ?-tubulin gene explicitly confirm isolates L66B, SY17-a and LHY46-a as

  14. Synthesis of (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, a Potential Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. I. MaGee; P. D. Mayo; P. J. Silk; B. Beattie

    2012-01-01

    Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), AgrilusplanipennisFairmaire, is an invasive insect that has killed millions of ash trees in the USA and Canada. A concise synthesis of a potential EAB pheromone component, (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, using a highly stereoselective Julia-Kocienski olefination as the key step, is reported.Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Synthetic Communications® to view

  15. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions. PMID:19568811

  16. Electrophysiological Response and Attraction of Emerald Ash Borer to Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs) Emitted by Host Foliage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter de Groot; Gary G. Grant; Therese M. Poland; Roger Scharbach; Linda Buchan; Reginald W. Nott; Linda Macdonald; Doug Pitt

    2008-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) function as host attractants, pheromone synergists, or sexual kairomones for a number of coleopteran\\u000a folivores. Hence, we focused on host GLVs to determine if they were attractive to adults of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), which feeds on ash (Fraxinus) foliage. Eight GLVs were identified by chromatography-electroantennogram (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry in foliar

  17. Phylogenetic origins of African and Neotropical Beauveria bassiana s.l. pathogens of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A. Rehner; Francisco Posada; Ellen P. Buckley; Francisco Infante; Alfredo Castillo; Fernando E. Vega

    2006-01-01

    A phylogenetic epidemiological study of Beauveria bassiana s.l. was conducted for African and Neotropical pathogens of the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, based on inferences from two nuclear intergenic regions, EFutr and Bloc. CBB pathogens were distributed among four terminal clades, however, the majority of African and Neotropical isolates cluster in a well-supported monophyletic group, informally designated AFNEO_1. Although

  18. Genetic hitchhiking associated with life history divergence and colonization of North America in the European corn borer moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik B. Dopman

    2011-01-01

    A primary goal for evolutionary biology is to reveal the genetic basis for adaptive evolution and reproductive isolation.\\u000a Using Z and E pheromone strains the European corn borer (ECB) moth, I address this problem through multilocus analyses of\\u000a DNA polymorphism. I find that the locus Triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi) is a statistically significant outlier in coalescent simulations of demographic histories

  19. Dominicalure 1 and 2: Components of aggregation pheromone from male lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Williams; R. M. Silverstein; W. E. Burkholder; A. Khorramshahi

    1981-01-01

    Volatiles from lesser grain borers,Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), were collected on Porapak Q, and those from the male beetles were shown to contain two compounds, that were attractive individually and in combination to both sexes. These compounds were identified as (S)-(+)-1-methylbutyl (E)-2-methyl-2-pentenoate and (S)-(+)-1-methylbutyl (E)-2,4-dimethyl-2-pentenoate by spectrometry and comparison with synthesized compounds. The two compounds have been assigned the

  20. Bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the greater Yellowstone area during four postfire years. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, L.A.; Amman, G.D.; Vandygriff, J.C.; Oakes, R.D.; Munson, A.S.

    1996-03-01

    Surveys of bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the Greater Yellowstone Area were conducted from 1991 through 1993 to determine the effect of delayed tree mortality on mosaics of fire-killed and green tree stands, the relationship between fire injury and infestation, but both types of mortality greatly altered the mosaics immediately apparent after the 1988 fires. The high level of infestation suggests that insects built up in fire-injured trees and then caused increased infestation of uninjured trees.

  1. Efficacy of multifunnel traps for capturing emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): effect of color, glue, and other trap coatings.

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2011-06-01

    Tens of thousands of adhesive-coated purple prism traps are deployed annually in the United States to survey for the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). A reusable, more user-friendly trap is desired by program managers, surveyors, and researchers. Field assays were conducted in southeastern Michigan to ascertain the feasibility of using nonsticky traps as survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer. Three nonsticky trap designs, including multifunnel (Lindgren), modified intercept panel, and drainpipe (all painted purple) were compared with the standard purple prism trap; no statistical differences in capture of emerald ash borer adults were detected between the multifunnel design and the prism. In subsequent color comparison assays, both green- and purple-painted multifunnel traps (and later, plastic versions of these colors) performed as well or better than the prism traps. Multifunnel traps coated with spray-on adhesive caught more beetles than untreated traps. The increased catch, however, occurred in the traps' collection cups and not on the trap surface. In a separate assay, there was no significant difference detected between glue-coated traps and Rain-X (normally a glass treatment)-coated traps, but both caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than untreated traps. PMID:21735910

  2. Economic injury level for the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) using attractive traps in Brazilian coffee fields.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S

    2011-12-01

    The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively. PMID:22299352

  3. Epidermal Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Terskikh; A. V. Vasil'ev

    2001-01-01

    Epidermis contains a compartment of stem cells but currently there is no common criterion to recognize individual stem cells with any confidence. Epidermis appears to contain stem cells of different levels of maturity and it is very likely that the main repository of epidermal stem cells is located in the hair follicle from which cells can emigrate into epidermis and

  4. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sanderson, Stephen N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A valve stem and lock include a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  5. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, J.E.; Sanderson, S.N.

    1981-10-27

    A valve stem and lock is disclosed which includes a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  6. Stem cells in urology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamer Aboushwareb; Anthony Atala

    2008-01-01

    The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem

  7. Toward ‘SMART’ stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Stem cell research is at the heart of regenerative medicine, which holds great promise for the treatment of many devastating disorders. However, in addition to hurdles posed by well-publicized ethical issues, this emerging field presents many biological challenges. What is a stem cell? How are embryonic stem cells different from adult stem cells? What are the physiological bases for therapeutically

  8. Stem Cell 101 What is a stem cell?

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Stem Cell 101 What is a stem cell? A stem cell is a parent cell in the body that has two specific into all types of tissue in the body ­ this is called differentiation. Where are stem cells found? There are two types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, found in embryos, and adult stem cells, which can

  9. Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. H. Kim; K. S. Kim; N. J. Kwak; K. H. Lee; S. A. Kweon; Y. Lim

    2003-01-01

    The present study was carried out to observe the cytotoxicity of yellow sand in comparison with silica and titanium dioxide\\u000a in a rat alveolar type II cell line (RLE-6TN). Yellow sand (China Loess) was obtained from the loess layer in the Gunsu Province\\u000a of China. The mean particle diameter of yellow sand was about 0003 ± 0.001 mm. Major elements

  10. Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca

    E-print Network

    Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca flavescens, Fingerling for juvenile yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchell), in eastern South Dakota. Age-0 yellow perch were held. Yellow perch production, temperature, growth, South Dakota, Perca flavescens INTRODUCTION The yellow

  11. Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Van der Stuyft, P; Gianella, A; Pirard, M; Cespedes, J; Lora, J; Peredo, C; Pelegrino, J L; Vorndam, V; Boelaert, M

    1999-05-01

    Until recently, urban yellow fever had not been reported from the Americas since 1954, but jungle yellow fever increasingly affects forest dwellers in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The reinvasion by Aedes aegypti of cities in the Americas now threatens to urbanize yellow fever. After yellow fever infection was identified in a resident of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December 1997, all subsequent suspected cases were investigated. Active surveillance of yellow fever was introduced in the Santa Cruz area, with hospitals and selected urban and rural health centers reporting all suspected cases. Patients were serologically screened for yellow fever, dengue, hepatitis A and B, and leptospirosis; clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients' records and through interviews; and a population-based serosurvey was conducted in the neighborhood of one case. Between December 1997 and June 1998, symptomatic yellow fever infection was confirmed in 6 residents of Santa Cruz, of whom 5 died. 5 lived in the southern sector of the city. 2 cases did not leave the city during their incubation period, and 1 had visited only an area in which sylvatic transmission was deemed impossible. Of the 281 people covered in the serosurvey, 16 (6%) were positive for IgM antibody to yellow fever. Among 5 people for whom that result could not be explained by recent vaccination, there were 2 pairs of neighbors. This instance of urban yellow fever transmission was limited in both time and space. PMID:10334253

  12. The Yellow Fever Vaccine: A History

    PubMed Central

    Frierson, J. Gordon

    2010-01-01

    After failed attempts at producing bacteria-based vaccines, the discovery of a viral agent causing yellow fever and its isolation in monkeys opened new avenues of research. Subsequent advances were the attenuation of the virus in mice and later in tissue culture; the creation of the seed lot system to avoid spontaneous mutations; the ability to produce the vaccine on a large scale in eggs; and the removal of dangerous contaminants. An important person in the story is Max Theiler, who was Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health at Yale from 1964-67, and whose work on virus attenuation created the modern vaccine and earned him the Nobel Prize. PMID:20589188

  13. A numerical study of transport dynamics and seasonal variability of the Yellow River sediment in the Bohai and Yellow seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Qiao, F. L.; Wang, X. H.; Wang, Y. G.; Teng, Y.; Xia, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    A sediment numerical model was embedded into a wave-tide-circulation coupled model to simulate the transport processes of the Yellow River-derived sediment considering the wave-induced vertical mixing (Bv) and the wave-current coupled bottom shear stress (BSS). Numerical results show that the main stream of the Yellow River-derived sediment moves first eastward off the northern Shandong Peninsula and then southward into the South Yellow Sea all year round. In spring, the sediment moves northeastward in the Bohai Sea. In summer, there is a northeastward branch of sediment in the Bohai Sea off the west coast of the Liaodong Peninsula, while the main part goes eastward to the Yellow Sea. The Yellow River-derived sediment transport from the Bohai Sea to the North Yellow Sea across the Bohai Strait is mainly limited to the top 10 m, and with a maximum centered at 37.9°N in summer. The transport from the North Yellow Sea to the South Yellow Sea across the transect of 37°N is mainly in the 0-30 m layer with a maximum around 123.7°E in autumn. The simulated Yellow River-discharged sediment deposits along the Shandong Peninsula and between 20 and 30 m isobaths in the Yellow Sea, which is consistent with observation. If surface waves are not considered in the model, the sediment deposits westward to the nearshore area in the South Yellow Sea. The sediment would deposit further southward in the numerical experiment results without wind influence. In the numerical experiment of no tide, there is hardly any sediment deposited on the Yellow Sea floor, while in the Bohai Sea most of the sediment is transported southward and northwestward around the river mouth instead of eastward as in the Control Run, indicating the tides play a key role in forming the deposition pattern.

  14. Aerosol optical thickness of yellow sand over the yellow sea derived from NOAA satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Y.; Takashima, T.

    To derive the optical thickness of desert yellow sand from China crossing over the sea, first of all a comparison was made of the NOAA satellite data in a clear area with that in the area polluted by yellow sand. Secondly, the upward radiance emerging from a model atmosphere-ocean system was computed with and without yellow sand, where it is assumed that the yellow sand is homogeneously concentrated in the sublayer at altitudes between 2 and 4 km. Finally, the optical thickness was derived by comparing the satellite data with the computed upward radiation. Out of the sunglint, the optical thickness of the dust was estimated to range from 0.17 to 0.60 in the visible and near infrared channels, but the radiance computed is rather overestimated in the sunglint. To estimate the effect of water vapor absorption on the radiation in the near infrared channel, use was made of 11 ?m data. However, it was difficult to estimate this effect precisely using the one channel, partly due to insufficient information on surface temperatures and verticle distributions of temperature and water vapour. The combined use of 3.7 and 11-?m data should help to remedy this deficiency.

  15. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

  16. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

  17. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

  18. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

  19. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

  20. Solid State Yellow and Orange Lasers for Flow Cytometry

    E-print Network

    Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    Solid State Yellow and Orange Lasers for Flow Cytometry Veena Kapoor,1 Vladimir Karpov,2 Claudette Linton,2 Fedor V. Subach,3 Vladislav V. Verkhusha,3 William G. Telford1 * Abstract Diode and DPSS lasers no practical technology existed for generating yellow or orange laser light for flow cytometry

  1. Yellow River's water and sediment discharge decreasing steadily

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. S. Yang; J. D. Milliman; J. Galler; J. P. Liu; X. G. Sun

    1998-01-01

    The amount of water and sediment discharged by the Yellow River in northern China has been decreasing steadily over the past 20-25 years, such that in recent years it has contributed relatively little sediment to the Gulf of Bohai. This is quite at odds with the well-known story in which the Yellow River has been regarded as a primary contributor

  2. SPATIOTEMPORAL VARIATION IN SURVIVAL OF MALE YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOTS

    E-print Network

    Grether, Gregory

    SPATIOTEMPORAL VARIATION IN SURVIVAL OF MALE YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOTS NATALIA BORREGO,a ARPAT OZGUL variation in age-specific survival rates of male yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) in Colorado in survival rates. Our results suggest that male marmots of different ages respond differentially to temporal

  3. YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOTS (MARMOTA FLAVIVENTRIS) HIBERNATE SOCIALLY

    E-print Network

    Grether, Gregory

    YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOTS (MARMOTA FLAVIVENTRIS) HIBERNATE SOCIALLY DANIEL T. BLUMSTEIN,* SOYEON IM Drive South, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606, USA Of 14 species of marmots (genus Marmota, Family Sciuridae), only 2, the woodchuck (M. monax) and yellow- bellied marmot (M. flaviventris

  4. Recent current observations in the eastern Yellow Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Hsueh

    1988-01-01

    Observations of current velocity, pressure, and temperature in the eastern Yellow Sea from January 10 through April 12, 1986, together with geostrophic winds calculated from surface atmospheric pressure distributions, are analyzed for a study of the synoptic band response of the Yellow Sea to the wintertime winds. North wind pulses in the winter monsoon are found to give rise to

  5. Westward shift of the Yellow Sea warm salty tongue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daji Huang; Xiaopeng Fan; Dongfeng Xu; Yuanzheng Tong; Jilan Su

    2005-01-01

    The accumulated in situ hydrographic survey as well as the satellite observed sea surface temperature (SST) show consistent westward shifting of the Yellow Sea Warm Salty Tongue (YSWST) in winter. A 2-D thermal model is used to show the westward shifting of the YSWST due to cooling and advection. The MITgcm is applied to simulate the circulation in the Yellow

  6. Papaya Varietal Resistance to Internal Yellowing: Reducing Food Safety Risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya fruit that is caused by the enteric bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. The disease is characterized by yellow discoloration of flesh, tissue softening and a foul or rotten odor that reduces the quality of fresh fruit and value-added pr...

  7. Wind-driven effects on the Yellow Sea Warm Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mask, Andrea C.; O'Brien, James J.; Preller, Ruth

    1998-12-01

    The Yellow Sea is a shallow basin writh an average depth of 44 m located between China and the Korean Peninsula. One of the dominant ocean circulation features of the Yellow Sea is a warm wrater intrusion known as the Yellow Sea Warm Current. This feature is present throughout the year but reaches its farthest northward extension in winter. The circulation of the Yellow, East China, and Bohai Seas was modeled using the Princeton Ocean Model to better understand the dynamics of the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The horizontal resolution of the model varies from 8 km in the Yellow Sea to 25 km in the East China Sea. Twenty-four sigma levels are used to define the vertical structure. The model uses daily atmospheric forcing from the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System for 1993. Open boundary conditions are applied at the Taiwan Strait, the Tsushima (Korea) Strait, an area south of Taiwan, and the Tokara Strait, with a closed boundary south of the Ryukyu Islands. The model results are examined to determine the effect of the wind on the northward extension of the warm water intrusion, using both water mass characteristics and northward velocity components. Sensitivity tests and spectrum analyses, performed to study the influence of the wind on the Yellow Sea Warm Current, show that winds modify the pathway and extent of the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The current's origin, however, appears to be due to external forcing from the current systems developed in the East China Sea.

  8. NOTE / NOTE Age determination in yellow-pine chipmunks

    E-print Network

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

    NOTE / NOTE Age determination in yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus): a comparison of eye lens distinguish among adults of different ages. We determined the age of yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus différents groupes d'âge. Nous avons déterminé l'âge de tamias amènes (Tamias amoenus) des Montagnes

  9. Clopyralid effects on yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) and nontarget species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly J. Reever Morghan; Elizabeth A. Leger; Kevin J. Rice

    2003-01-01

    Yellow starthistle is a problematic invasive plant in the western United States. At- tempts to control it often include the use of herbicides although herbicides can have detrimental effects on desired native species. We studied the effect of clopyralid on a native bunchgrass and vernal pool community in the Central Valley of California. Areas invaded by yellow starthistle were treated

  10. Sonochemical degradation of martius yellow dye in aqueous solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ritu Singla; Franz Grieser; Muthupandian Ashokkumar

    2009-01-01

    The sonolytic degradation of the textile dye martius yellow, also known as either naphthol yellow or acid orange 24, was studied at various initial concentrations in water. The degradation of the dye followed first-order kinetics under the conditions examined. Based on gas chromatographic results and sonoluminescence measurements of sonicated aqueous solutions of the dye, it is concluded that pyrolysis does

  11. A description of unique fluorescent yellow pigments in penguin feathers

    E-print Network

    McGraw, Kevin J.

    A description of unique fluorescent yellow pigments in penguin feathers Kevin J. McGraw1 *, Matthew bird feathers--carotenoids, melanins, porphyrins, psittacofulvins, and iron oxides (Hill and McGraw, 2006). However, we have recently gathered preliminary data on yellow feathers from sev- eral species

  12. INFLUENCE OF YELLOW FOXTAIL ON CORN GROWTH AND YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies investigated the effect of yellow foxtail competition on corn growth and yield at two locations on the western edge of the United States Corn Belt: Brookings, SD, and Morris, MN, in 1995 and 1996. Treatments included four densities of yellow foxtail, a weed-free control and, at Morris,...

  13. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252

  14. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

    2014-08-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae. PMID:25195418

  15. Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

    2014-01-01

    The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha-1) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

  16. Microanalytical identification of Pb-Sb-Sn yellow pigment in historical European paintings and its differentiation from lead tin and Naples yellows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Hradil; Tomáš Grygar; Janka Hradilová; Petr Bezdi?ka; Veronika Gr?nwaldová; Igor Fogaš; Costanza Miliani

    2007-01-01

    The work is focused on identification of lead tin yellow types I and II, Naples yellow, and also on discrimination of a less common, distinct yellow pigment, the ternary Pb-Sb-Sn oxide.The knowledge about all those Pb-based yellows was in fact forgotten after introduction of modern synthetic yellows in 19th century. As late as in the last decade of the 20th

  17. OPT STEM EXTENSION APPLICATION What is the OPT STEM Extension?

    E-print Network

    OPT STEM EXTENSION APPLICATION What is the OPT STEM Extension? The OPT STEM Extension is a 17-month based on a bachelor's, master's, or Ph.D in certain STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) fields. Who is Eligible for the OPT STEM Extension? F-1 students who: 1). hold a STEM degree (see pg. 2

  18. Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. PMID:24625634

  19. Artificial carbon dioxide source to attract lesser cornstalk borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Mack, T P

    2001-08-01

    Different combinations of urea, urease (in jack bean meal, Canavalia DC.), and water were tested as carbon dioxide sources to attract larvae of lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalus lignosellus (Zeller), by using olfactory bioassays with an olfactometer and infrared gas analysis. A combination of urea, jack bean meal, and water was necessary to release a high level of carbon dioxide to attract the larvae. Different proportions of the three ingredients had different carbon dioxide release rates and exhibited different levels of attraction to the larvae. When carbon dioxide concentration was too high, attractiveness declined. Combinations with different amounts of water remained attractive for a period of up to 3 d, depending on the moisture of the samples. When Zonolite was used to simulate the soil conditions in the olfactometer, significantly more larvae located the area near the artificial carbon dioxide sources compared with the control. When combined with the artificial carbon dioxide sources, three insecticides (Lorsban, Temik, and Force) did not obviously affect the release rates of carbon dioxide, and more larvae were attracted to samples with the carbon dioxide source than to the samples without carbon dioxide. PMID:11561844

  20. Analysis of gene expression in emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) using quantitative real time-PCR.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Binny; Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Rivera-Vega, Loren; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2010-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is an exotic invasive pest, which has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp) in North America. EAB continues to spread rapidly and attacks ash trees of different ages, from saplings to mature trees. However, to date very little or no molecular knowledge exists for EAB. We are interested in deciphering the molecular-based physiological processes at the tissue level that aid EAB in successful colonization of ash trees. In this report we show the effective use of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to ascertain mRNA levels in different larval tissues (including midgut, fat bodies and cuticle) and different developmental stages (including 1(st)-, 2(nd)-, 3(rd)-, 4(th)-instars, prepupae and adults) of EAB. As an example, a peritrophin gene (herein named, AP-PERI1) is exemplified as the gene of interest and a ribosomal protein (AP-RP1) as the internal control. Peritrophins are important components of the peritrophic membrane/matrix (PM), which is the lining of the insect gut. The PM has diverse functions including digestion and mechanical protection to the midgut epithelium. PMID:20445495

  1. Core RNAi machinery and gene knockdown in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Alvarez Gonzales, Miguel A; Poland, Therese M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong RNAi machinery that is capable of degrading target mRNA as a response to exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction, we identified three RNAi pathway core component genes, Dicer-2, Argonaute-2 and R2D2, from the A. planipennis genome sequence. Characterization of these core components revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the proteins to function in the RNAi pathway. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they are closely related to homologs derived from other coleopteran species. We also delivered the dsRNA fragment of AplaScrB-2, a ?-fructofuranosidase-encoding gene horizontally acquired by A. planipennis as we reported previously, into A. planipennis adults through microinjection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on the dsRNA-treated beetles demonstrated a significantly decreased gene expression level of AplaScrB-2 appearing on day 2 and lasting until at least day 6. This study is the first record of RNAi applied in A. planipennis. PMID:25541004

  2. Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calandra, Laura

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

  3. Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

  4. Chemical cues from the coffee berry borer influence the locomotory behaviour of its bethylid parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Chiu-Alvarado, P; Valle-Mora, J; Rojas, J C

    2010-12-01

    Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta are two bethylid wasps released into several Latin American countries for classical biological control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most serious insect pest of coffee worldwide. Recent studies on the host location behaviour of these parasitoids have shown that females of both species are attracted to volatile compounds released by immature stages and dust and frass of H. hampei. In this study, we investigated the role of the contact chemicals present in dust and frass of H. hampei on the behaviour of P. nasuta and C. stephanoderis females. Parasitoids remained longer on patches treated with methanol extracts than on acetone and hexane extracts. Females spent more time on the patch treated with the methanol extract of dust and frass than on the patches treated with the methanol extract of dry coffee and methanol control. The concentration of the methanol extracts from dust and frass influenced the locomotory activity of parasitoids of both species. The time that females spent in the patch tended to increase as the concentration of the methanol extracts increased. A further experiment aimed to identify other behavioural descriptors and gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response of parasitoids to methanol extracts was performed. Females of both species spent more time, covered more distance, turned more (per unit time and per unit distance), and decreased their speed when they contacted patches treated with methanol extracts in comparison to patches treated with methanol control. PMID:20307343

  5. Genetic similarity of eggplant shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis, populations.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Murugan; Perumal, Yasodha; Salim, Abida Puthenpeedikal; Sharma, Gautam

    2009-12-01

    Shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee) (Pyraustidae: Lepidoptera), has become a production constraint in all eggplant (Solanum melongena Linn. [Solanaceae])-growing countries. In India, transgenic eggplants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins have been tested in fields by private- and public-sector agencies. Understanding population diversity is important in designing strategies for better pest management. In the present investigation, random-amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of L. orbonalis population collected from different field locations in the Tamilnadu State of India. Of 17 random-amplified polymorphic DNA primers screened, only 11 primers generated polymorphic bands (up to 14 bands). According to their level of similarities, only two major clusters with no variation among population were deduced. Our results indicated that there is a steady genetic flow among the present population of L. orbonalis alleviating genetic variation, which may be attributed to passive and active dispersal of the insect besides absence of host-induced variations among the population. As molecular variability of L. orbonalis population is an important consideration for shoot and fruit damage of the eggplant, constant monitoring is essential to study the possible development of Cry protein resistance in L. orbonalis. PMID:19715478

  6. Nutritional Performance of the Tomato Fruit Borer, Helicoverpa armigera, on Different Tomato Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Kouhi, Davoud; Naseri, Bahram; Golizadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify alternative methods to chemical control. Nutritional performance of the larval stages (fourth, fifth, and sixth instars) of H. armigera on fruit of eight tomato cultivars, including SUN 6108 f1, Rio grande UG, Korral, Super strain B, CH falat, Hed rio grande, Cal.JN3, and Super crystal, was studied under laboratory conditions. Fourth instars reared on CH falat and SUN 6108 f1 respectively showed the highest and lowest values of approximate digestibility. The highest values of efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food of fifth instars were on Super strain B. The relative consumption rate and relative growth rate values of the sixth instars were the highest on Korral. The highest and lowest values of consumption index of sixth instars were on Super strain B and Hed rio grande, respectively. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values of whole larval instars were the highest on Hed rio grande and lowest on Rio grande UG. The results of nutritional indices indicated that Rio grande UG is an unsuitable host for H. armigera. PMID:25204681

  7. Lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica, select rough rice kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Arthur, Frank H; Throne, James E

    2012-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine whether the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), selects rough rice (Oryza sativa L. (Poales: Poaceae)) kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction when these kernels are mixed with intact kernels. Differing amounts of kernels with cracked hulls (0, 5, 10, and 20%) of the varieties Francis and Wells were mixed with intact kernels, and the number of adult progeny emerging from intact kernels and from kernels with cracked hulls was determined. The Wells variety had been previously classified as tolerant to R. dominica, while the Francis variety was classified as moderately susceptible. Few F 1 progeny were produced in Wells regardless of the percentage of kernels with cracked hulls, few of the kernels with cracked hulls had emergence holes, and little firass was produced from feeding damage. At 10 and 20% kernels with cracked hulls, the progeny production, number of emergence holes in kernels with cracked hulls, and the amount of firass was greater in Francis than in Wells. The proportion of progeny emerging from kernels with cracked hulls increased as the proportion of kernels with cracked hulls increased. The results indicate that R. dominica select kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction. PMID:22943499

  8. UW Summer STEM Undergraduate

    E-print Network

    Kaminsky, Werner

    UW Summer STEM Undergraduate Research Poster SessionWednesday, August 21st, 2013 9:00 am--12 noon to conduct research in STEM fields. For more information, contact the Undergraduate Research Program at: urp

  9. Choosing a STEM Career

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-11-10

    Students will view video clips about graduate and middle school students with interests in STEM careers and compare technologies from yesterday with today. They will explore careers on-line before writing about their futures as STEM professionals.

  10. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medicine Reproductive cloning Signals Somatic cell Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) Somatic (adult) stem cell Stem cells ... refer to an animal produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or parthenogenesis . Cloning —See Clone . Cord ...

  11. Plant Disease Note 2007 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus, and Garlic common latent virus in Garlic in Oregon Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals

    E-print Network

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    Plant Disease Note 2007 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus-2007 The American Phytopathological Society First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus. With recent findings of Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), and Garlic common

  12. Sediment discharge of the Yellow River (China) and its effect on the sedimentation of the Bohai and the Yellow Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei-E. Ren; Yun-Liang Shi

    1986-01-01

    The Yellow River is noted for its small water discharge and huge sediment load, which amounts to about11 × 108 tons every year, contributing 17% of the world's fluvial sediment discharge to the ocean. This has a profound effect on the sedimentation of the Bohai and the Yellow Sea. Changes of the outlet in the modern delta every 10 y

  13. Umbilical Cord Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy E. Mitchell

    The two most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue\\u000a types (1–3). Generally, stem cells are categorized as one of three types: embryonic stem cells (ES), embryonic germ cells (EG), or adult\\u000a stem cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastula (Fig. 1). They

  14. STEM Bridge Scholarship Program

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    2015-2016 STEM Bridge Scholarship Program Virginia Space Grant Consortium (VSGC) provides renewable STEM Bridge Scholarships of $1,000 to sophomore students from any federally recognized minority group enrolled full-time in a program of study in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) at one

  15. Understanding Embryonic Stem Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Douglas A. Melton, Ph.D. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute; )

    2008-04-10

    This indexed webcast video along with synchronized lecture slides is from Howard Hughes Medical Institute's 2006 Holiday LecturesPotent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regeneration. Douglas A. Melton presents an introduction to stem cells, as well as answers to questions about the role of stem cells in the human body. This video requires RealPlayer 10.

  16. Understanding STEM: Current Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan; Brown, Joshua; Reardon, Kristin; Merrill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    In many ways, the push for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education appears to have grown from a concern for the low number of future professionals to fill STEM jobs and careers and economic and educational competitiveness. The proponents of STEM education believe that by increasing math and science requirements in…

  17. Spectral tuning of photoactive yellow protein.

    PubMed

    Yamato, T; Ishikura, T; Kakitani, T; Kawaguchi, K; Watanabe, H

    2007-01-01

    We report a theoretical study on the optical properties of a small, water-soluble photosensory receptor, photoactive yellow protein (PYP). A hierarchical ab initio molecular orbital calculation accurately evaluated the optical absorption maximum of the wild-type, as well as the lambda(max) values of 12 mutants. Electronic excitation of the chromophore directly affects the electronic state of nearby atoms in the protein environment. This effect is explicitly considered in the present study. Furthermore, the spectral tuning mechanism of PYP was investigated at the atomic level. The static disorder of a protein molecule is intimately related to the complex nature of its energy landscape. By using molecular dynamics simulation and quantum mechanical structure optimization, we obtained multiple minimum energy conformations of PYP. The statistical distribution of electronic excitation energies of these minima was compared with the hole-burning experiment (Masciangioli, T. [2000] Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 639), a direct observation of the distribution of excitation energies. PMID:17017845

  18. Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close. PMID:24690169

  19. Io's Sodium Cloud (Green-yellow Filter)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Jupiter's moon Io and its surrounding sky is shown in false color. North is at the top, and east is to the right. Most of Io's visible surface is in shadow, though one can see part of a white crescent on its western side. This crescent is being illuminated mostly by 'Jupitershine' (i.e. sunlight reflected off Jupiter).

    The striking burst of white light near Io's eastern equatorial edge is sunlight being scattered by the plume of the volcano Prometheus. Prometheus lies just beyond the visible edge of the moon on Io's far side. Its plume extends about 100 kilometers above the surface, and is being hit by sunlight just a little east of Io's eastern edge.

    Scattered light from Prometheus' plume and Io's lit crescent also contribute to the diffuse yellowish emission which appears throughout much of the sky. However, much of this emission comes from Io's Sodium Cloud: sodium atoms within Io's extensive material halo are scattering sunlight at the yellow wavelength of about 589 nanometers.

    This image was taken at 5 hours 30 minutes Universal Time on Nov. 9, 1996 through the green-yellow filter of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Galileo was then in Jupiter's shadow, and located about 2.3 million kilometers (about 32 Jovian radii) from both Jupiter and Io.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington D.C. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  20. Constituents of wing gland and abdominal hair pencil secretions of male African sugarcane borer, Eldana saccharina walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Burger; A. E. Nell; D. Smit; H. S. C. Spies; W. M. Mackenroth; D. Groche; P. R. Atkinson

    1993-01-01

    In addition totrans-3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-4-olide (eldanolide), vanillin, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, identified by French workers in the wing gland and abdominal hair pencil secretions of the male African sugarcane borer,Eldana saccharina, we have, in an earlier note, reported the presence of several other terpenoid, aromatic, and unbranched-chain compounds such as, (Z)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoic acid, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanol, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol, 1-octadecane thiol, 16-hexadecanolide, and 18-octadecanolide in these secretions. In

  1. Inter- and intra-specific variation in stem phloem phenolics of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) and European white birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Muilenburg, V L; Phelan, P L; Bonello, P; Herms, D A

    2011-11-01

    Outbreaks of bronze birch borer (BBB) (Agrilus anxius), a wood-boring beetle endemic to North America, have been associated with widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.). There is substantial inter- and intra-specific variation in birch resistance to BBB. Species endemic to North America, such as paper birch (B. papyrifera), have coevolved with BBB and are more resistant than European and Asian birch species, such as European white birch (B. pendula), which lack an evolutionary history with BBB. Borer larvae feed on stem phloem tissue. Therefore, in search of potential resistance mechanisms against BBB, we compared the constitutive phenolic profile of stem phloem tissue of paper birch with that of European white birch. We also analyzed intraspecific variation in phenolic composition among clones and/or half-siblings of both species. Three phenolics (coumaroylquinic acid, betuloside pentoside A, and a diarylheptanoid hexoside) were detected only in paper birch, and concentrations of six other phenolics were significantly higher in paper birch. These differences may contribute to the high resistance of paper birch to BBB relative to European white birch. There was significant intraspecific variation in four of 17 phenolics found in paper birch and in five of 14 found in European white birch, but clones and half-siblings within each species could not be distinguished by phenolic composition using multivariate analysis. PMID:22012323

  2. Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics What is a Stem Cell?

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics What is a Stem Cell? Stem cells are the starting point from to line blood vessels. All of these highly specialized cells have to grow from unspecialized stem cells. Stem cells produce new cells by dividing. In the right conditions, these new cells can then continue

  3. Weed suscepts of the potato yellow dwarf virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Younkin

    1942-01-01

    Summary  Fifteen new weed suscepts of the potato yellow dwarf virus are reported.\\u000a \\u000a Limited evidence is presented which indicates thatChrysanthemum leucanthemum var.pinnatifidum may be a more important source of the potato yellow dwarf virus under field conditions than Medium Red clover.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The presence of the yellow dwarf virus was demonstrated in naturally infected plants of the following species:Chrysanthemum leucanthemum var.pinnatifidum, Trifolium

  4. Foxc1 is a critical regulator of haematopoietic stem/progenitor cell niche formation.

    PubMed

    Omatsu, Yoshiki; Seike, Masanari; Sugiyama, Tatsuki; Kume, Tsutomu; Nagasawa, Takashi

    2014-04-24

    Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are maintained by special microenvironments known as niches in bone marrow. Many studies have identified diverse candidate cells that constitute niches for haematopoietic stem cells in the marrow, including osteoblasts, endothelial cells, Schwann cells, ?-smooth muscle actin-expressing macrophages and mesenchymal progenitors such as CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, stem cell factor-expressing cells, nestin-expressing cells and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFR-?)(+)Sca-1(+)CD45(-)Ter119(-) (P?S) cells. However, the molecular basis of the formation of the niches remains unclear. Here we find that the transcription factor Foxc1 is preferentially expressed in the adipo-osteogenic progenitor CAR cells essential for haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell maintenance in vivo in the developing and adult bone marrow. When Foxc1 was deleted in all marrow mesenchymal cells or CAR cells, from embryogenesis onwards, osteoblasts appeared normal, but haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells were markedly reduced and marrow cavities were occupied by adipocytes (yellow adipose marrow) with reduced CAR cells. Inducible deletion of Foxc1 in adult mice depleted haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and reduced CXCL12 and stem cell factor expression in CAR cells but did not induce a change to yellow marrow. These data suggest a role for Foxc1 in inhibiting adipogenic processes in CAR progenitors. Foxc1 might also promote CAR cell development, upregulating CXCL12 and stem cell factor expression. This study identifies Foxc1 as a specific transcriptional regulator essential for development and maintenance of the mesenchymal niches for haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. PMID:24590069

  5. Fitness costs and stability of Cry1Ab resistance in sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Leonard, B Rogers; Chen, Mao; Clark, Thomas; Anilkumar, Konasale; Huang, Fangneng

    2014-03-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a major target species of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in South America and the U.S. mid-south region. In this study, the fitness of seven insect genotypes of D. saccharalis were assayed on non-toxic diet, which included a Cry1Ab-susceptible strain (SS-2009), two Cry1Ab-resistant strains (RR-43A(BC), RR-L5B(BC)), and four F1 hybrids (F1-R43A(m)S(f), F1-R43A(f)S(m), F1-R5B(m)S(f), and F1-R5B(f)S(m)). The F1 hybrids were generated by reciprocal crosses of SS-2009 with RR-43ABC and RR-L5BBC, respectively. Biological parameters measured were neonate-to-pupa survivorship, neonate-to-pupa development time, pupal mass, pupa-to-adult emergence rate, and progeny (neonates) production. The overall performance of the two resistant strains and the four F1 genotypes was either similar or better than SS-2009 for all biological parameters measured, suggesting a lack of fitness costs associated with the Cry1Ab resistance traits in both RR-43A(BC) and RR-L5B(BC). In addition, resistance stability was evaluated by measuring the Cry1Ab susceptibility of RR-43A(BC) and RR-L5B(BC) in the absence of selection pressure. Laboratory bioassays showed that larval mortality of the two resistant strains did not significantly increase after selection pressure was removed for 16 generations across all Cry1Ab concentrations assayed. The results provide valuable information on assessing resistance risk and developing effective management strategies for the sustainable use of Bt corn technology. PMID:24503242

  6. New Artificial Diet for Continuous Rearing of the Bean Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pan; Lu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Xia-Lin; Chen, Li-Zhen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pantropical pest of grain legumes. A suitable artificial diet is desirable for producing uniform insects for commercial purposes or research. Three previously described artificial diets, 1 newly-developed artificial diet, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)), the natural hostplant of M. vitrata, were used for rearing M. vitrata, and the life parameters were examined. The results indicated that insects completed a full life cycle only when the larvae were fed cowpea or the diet reported by Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero (1993), called the “D-OO diet.” However, the rearing efficiency (i.e., larval and pupal survival, longevity of adults, and fecundity) on the D-OO diet was inferior to the rearing efficiency on cowpea. Subsequently, a new artificial diet was formulated based on soybean powder, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and wheat germ, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The egg production, egg hatching, larval developmental duration, and pupal survival of the M. vitrata reared on the new artificial diet were found to be significantly improved relative to the D-OO diet, but were not significantly better than on the host-plant cowpea. The optimum rearing density was 15–25 larvae per box. There were no significant changes in reproductive potential after 8 successive generations of rearing on the new diet. These results indicated that the newly developed diet could serve as a viable alternative to cowpea plant for continuous rearing of M. vitrata. PMID:24785903

  7. Low-temperature methyl bromide fumigation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in ash logs.

    PubMed

    Barak, Alan V; Elder, Peggy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-02-01

    Ash (Fraxinus spp.) logs, infested with fully developed, cold-acclimated larval and prepupal emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were fumigated with methyl bromide (MeBr) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C for 24 h. Concentrations X time dosages of MeBr obtained were 1579 and 1273 g-h/m3 (24-h exposure) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C after applied doses of 112 and 96 g/m3, respectively. MeBr concentrations were simultaneously measured with a ContainIR infrared monitor and Fumiscope thermal conductivity meter calibrated for MeBr to measure the effect of CO2 on Fumiscope concentration readings compared with the infrared (IR) instrument. The presence of CO2 caused false high MeBr readings. With the thermal conductivity meter, CO2 measured 11.36 g/m3 MeBr per 1% CO2 in clean air, whereas the gas-specific infrared ContainIR instrument measured 9.55% CO2 as 4.2 g/m3 MeBr (0.44 g/m3 per 1% CO2). The IR instrument was 0.4% as sensitive to CO2 as the thermal conductivity meter. After aeration, fumigated and control logs were held for 8 wk to capture emerging beetles. No A. planipennis adults emerged from any of the fumigated logs, whereas 262 emerged from control logs (139 and 123/m2 at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C, respectively). An effective fumigation dose and minimum periodic MeBr concentrations are proposed. The use of a CO2 scrubber in conjunction with nonspecific thermal conductivity instruments is necessary to more accurately measure MeBr concentrations. PMID:21404841

  8. Concerted evolution of male and female display traits in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

    PubMed Central

    Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2009-01-01

    Background Sexual reproduction entails the encounter of the sexes and the multiplicity of rituals is parallel to the diversity of mating systems. Evolutionary mechanisms such as sexual selection and sexual conflict have led to the elaboration of traits to gain attention and favours from potential partners. A paradox exists about how coordinated systems can evolve and diverge when there would seem to be a stabilising selection acting. Moth display traits – pheromones – constitute an advantageous model with which to address questions about the evolution of mating systems in animals. Both males and females can possess pheromones that are involved either in close- or long-range communication. Female and male pheromones appear to have different origins and to be under different evolutionary constraints, thus they might be envisioned as independently evolving traits. We conducted laboratory experiments to explore the role of scents released during courtship by males of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Results Information provided by the male pheromone appears critical for female acceptance. The composition of this male pheromone varies in an age-dependent manner and females show mating preference towards older males in choice experiments. Furthermore, male signals may allow species discrimination and reinforce reproductive isolation. Finally, we found evidence for a genetic correlation between male and female signals, the evolution of which is best explained by the constraints and opportunities resulting from the sharing of gene products. Conclusion In this study we used an integrative approach to characterise the male sex pheromone in a moth. Interestingly, the male chemical signal is analogous to the female signal in that structurally similar compounds are being used by both sexes. Hence, in systems where both sexes possess display traits, the pleiotropy of genes generating the traits could influence the evolutionary trajectories of sexual signals and lead to their divergence, with speciation being the ultimate result. PMID:19257880

  9. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence and Expression Profiling for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Margam, Venu M.; Coates, Brad S.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Sun, Weilin; Ba, Malick N.; Sanon, Antoine; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2011-01-01

    We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21311752

  10. Quantifying the Impact of Woodpecker Predation on Population Dynamics of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Duan, Jian J.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

  11. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    PubMed

    Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

  12. Molecular characterization of mariner-like elements in emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera, Polyphaga).

    PubMed

    Rivera-Vega, L; Mittapalli, O

    2010-08-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis), an exotic invasive pest, has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America and continues to threaten the very survival of the entire Fraxinus genus. Despite its high-impact status, to date very little knowledge exists for this devastating insect pest at the molecular level. Mariner-like elements (MLEs) are transposable elements, which are ubiquitous in occurrence in insects and other invertebrates. Because of their low specificity and broad host range, they can be used for epitope-tagging, gene mapping, and in vitro mutagenesis. The majority of the known MLEs are inactive due to in-frame shifts and stop codons within the open reading frame (ORF). We report on the cloning and characterization of two MLEs in A. planipennis genome (Apmar1 and Apmar2). Southern analysis indicated a very high copy number for Apmar1 and a moderate copy number for Apmar2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both elements belong to the irritans subfamily. Based on the high copy number for Apmar1, the full-length sequence was obtained using degenerate primers designed to the inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequences of irritans MLEs. The recovered nucleotide sequence for Apmar1 consisted of 1,292 bases with perfect ITRs, and an ORF of 1,050 bases encoding a putative transposase of 349 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Apmar1 contained the conserved regions of mariner transposases including WVPHEL and YSPDLAP, and the D,D(34)D motif. Both Apmar1 and Apmar2 could represent useful genetic tools and provide insights on EAB adaptation. PMID:20602451

  13. Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2014-02-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years. PMID:24398125

  14. Antioxidant genes of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): gene characterization and expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mamidala, Praveen; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2011-06-01

    Phytophagous insects frequently encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) from exogenous and endogenous sources. To overcome the effect of ROS, insects have evolved a suite of antioxidant defense genes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive insect pest from Asia has killed millions of ash trees and continues to invade North America at a rapid pace. From an on-going expressed sequence tag (EST) project of A. planipennis larval tissues, we identified ESTs coding for a Cu-Zn SOD (ApSOD1), a CAT (ApCAT1) and a GPX (ApGPX1). A multiple sequence alignment of the derived A. planipennis sequences revealed high homology with other insect sequences at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis of ApSOD1 grouped it with Cu-Zn SODs of other insect taxa. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different larval tissues (midgut, fat body, Malpighian tubule and cuticle) revealed high mRNA levels of ApCAT1 in the midgut. Interestingly, high mRNA levels for both ApSOD1 and ApGPX1 were observed in the Malpighian tubules. Assay of mRNA levels in developmental stages (larva, prepupa and adults) by qRT-PCR indicated high transcript levels of ApCAT1 and ApGPX1 in larval and prepupal stages with a decline in adults. On the other hand, the transcript levels of ApSOD1 were observed to be constitutive in all the developmental stages assayed. Results obtained reflect a plausible role of these A. planipennis antioxidant genes in quenching ROS from both diet (ash allelochemicals) as well as endogenous sources. These studies further help in understanding the adaptation/invasiveness of A. planipennis. PMID:21439289

  15. Glutathione-S-transferase profiles in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-05-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is a recently discovered invasive insect pest of ash, Fraxinus spp. in North America. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are a multifunctional superfamily of enzymes which function in conjugating toxic compounds to less toxic and excretable forms. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and expression patterns of different classes of GST genes in different tissues and developmental stages plus their specific activity. Multiple sequence alignment of all six A. planipennis GSTs (ApGST-E1, ApGST-E2, ApGST-E3, ApGST-O1, ApGST-S1 and ApGST-?1) revealed conserved features of insect GSTs and a phylogenetic analysis grouped the GSTs within the epsilon, sigma, omega and microsomal classes of GSTs. Real time quantitative PCR was used to study field collected samples. In larval tissues high mRNA levels for ApGST-E1, ApGST-E3 and ApGST-O1 were obtained in the midgut and Malpighian tubules. On the other hand, ApGST-E2 and ApGST-S1 showed high mRNA levels in fat body and ApGST-?1 showed constitutive levels in all the tissues assayed. During development, mRNA levels for ApGST-E2 were observed to be the highest in feeding instars, ApGST-S1 in prepupal instars; while the others showed constitutive patterns in all the developmental stages examined. At the enzyme level, total GST activity was similar in all the tissues and developmental stages assayed. Results obtained suggest that A. planipennis is potentially primed with GST-driven detoxification to metabolize ash allelochemicals. To our knowledge this study represents the first report of GSTs in A. planipennis and also in the family of wood boring beetles. PMID:23499941

  16. Emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) attraction to stressed or baited ash trees.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Anulewicz, Andrea C; Cappaert, David

    2009-12-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus sp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. Efficient methods to detect low-density A. planipennis populations remain a critical priority for regulatory and resource management agencies. We compared the density of adult A. planipennis captured on sticky bands and larval density among ash trees that were girdled for 1 or 2 yr, wounded, exposed to the stress-elicitor methyl jasmonate, baited with Manuka oil lures, or left untreated. Studies were conducted at four sites in 2006 and 2007, where A. planipennis densities on untreated trees ranged from very low to moderate. In 2006, 1-yr girdled trees captured significantly more adult A. planipennis and had higher larval densities than untreated control trees or trees treated with methyl jasmonate or Manuka oil. Open-grown trees captured significantly more A. planipennis beetles than partially or fully shaded trees. In 2007, A. planipennis population levels and captures of adult A. planipennis were substantially higher than in 2006. The density of adults captured on sticky bands did not differ significantly among canopy exposure classes or treatments in 2007. Larval density was significantly higher in untreated, wounded, and 1-yr girdled trees (girdled in 2007) than in 2-yr girdled trees (girdled in 2006), where most phloem was consumed by A. planipennis larvae the previous year. A total of 36 trees (32 in 2006, 4 in 2007) caught no beetles, but 16 of those trees (13 in 2006, 3 in 2007) had A. planipennis larvae. In 2006, there was a positive linear relationship between the density of adults captured on sticky bands and larval density in trees. Our results show that freshly girdled and open grown trees were most attractive to A. planipennis, especially at low-density sites. If girdled trees are used for A. planipennis detection or survey, debarking trees to locate larval galleries is crucial. PMID:20021763

  17. Characterization and virulence of Beauveria spp. recovered from emerald ash borer in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George; Gauthier, Debbie; Frankenhuyzen, Kees van; Krell, Peter J

    2012-09-15

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive wood boring beetle that is decimating North America's ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To find effective and safe indigenous biocontrol agents to manage EAB, we conducted a survey in 2008-2009 of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) infecting EAB in five outbreak sites in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A total of 78 Beauveria spp. isolates were retrieved from dead and mycosed EAB cadavers residing in the phloem tissues of dead ash barks, larval frass extracted from feeding galleries under the bark of dead trees. Molecular characterization using sequences of the ITS, 5' end of EF1-? and intergenic Bloc region fragments revealed that Beauveria bassiana and Beauveria pseudobassiana were commonly associated with EAB in the sampled sites. Based on phylogenetic analysis inferred from ITS sequences, 17 of these isolates clustered with B. bassiana, which further grouped into three different sub-clades. However, the combined EF1-? and Bloc sequences detected five genotypes among the three sub-clades. The remaining 61 isolates clustered with B. pseudobassiana, which had identical ITS sequences but were further subdivided into two genotypes by variation in the EF1-? and Bloc regions. Initial virulence screening against EAB adults of 23 isolates representing the different clades yielded 8 that produced more than 90% mortality in a single concentration assay. These isolates differed in virulence based on LC(50) values estimated from multiple concentration bioassay and based on mean survival times at a conidia concentration of 2×10(6) conidia/ml. B. bassiana isolate L49-1AA was significantly more virulent and produced more conidia on EAB cadavers compared to the other indigenous isolates and the commercial strain B. bassiana GHA suggesting that L49-1AA may have potential as a microbiological control agent against EAB. PMID:22664171

  18. A Biologically Active Analog of the Sex Pheromone of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Silk, P J; Ryall, K; Mayo, P; MaGee, D I; Leclair, G; Fidgen, J; Lavallee, R; Price, J; McConaghy, J

    2015-03-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (EAB), is an invasive species causing unprecedented levels of mortality to ash trees in its introduced range. The female-produced sex pheromone of EAB has been shown to contain the macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide. This compound and its geometrical isomer, (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, have been demonstrated previously to be EAG active and, in combination with a host-derived green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol, to be attractive to male EAB in green prism traps deployed in the ash tree canopy. In the current study, we show that the saturated analog, dodecan-12-olide, is similarly active, eliciting an antennal response and significant attraction of EAB in both olfactometer and trapping bioassays in green traps with (3Z)-hexenol. Conformational modeling of the three lactones reveals that their energies and shapes are very similar, suggesting they might share a common receptor in EAB antennae. These findings provide new insight into the pheromone ecology of this species, highlighting the apparent plasticity in response of adults to the pheromone and its analog. Both of the unsaturated isomers are costly to synthesize, involving multistep, low-yielding processes. The saturated analog can be made cheaply, in high yield, and on large scale via Mitsunobu esterification of a saturated ?-hydroxy acid or more simply by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of commercially available cyclododecanone. The analog can thus provide an inexpensive option as a lure for detection surveys as well as for possible mitigation purposes, such as mating disruption. PMID:25786893

  19. Differential response in foliar chemistry of three ash species to emerald ash borer adult feeding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic wood-boring beetle that has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources since its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In this study, we investigated the phytochemical responses of the three most common North American ash species (black, green, and white ash) in northeastern USA to EAB adult feeding. Black ash was the least responsive to EAB adult feeding in terms of the induction of volatile compounds, and levels of only two (indole and benzyl cyanide) of the 11 compounds studied increased. In green ash, levels of two [(E)-?-ocimene and indole] of the 11 volatile compounds studied were elevated, while the levels of two green leaf volatiles [hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal] decreased. White ash showed the greatest response with an increase in levels of seven of the 11 compounds studied. Qualitative differences among ash species were detected. Among the phenolic compounds detected, ligustroside was the only one detected in all three species. Oleuropein aglycone and 2 unidentified compounds were found only in black ash; coumaroylquinic acid and feruloylquinic acid were detected only in green ash; and verbascoside hexoside was detected only in white ash. EAB adult feeding did not elicit or decrease concentrations of any selected individual phenolic compounds. However, although levels of total phenolics from black and green ash foliage were not affected by EAB adult feeding, they decreased significantly in white ash. EAB adult feeding elevated chymotrypsin inhibitors in black ash. The possible ecological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21153046

  20. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    PubMed Central

    Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

  1. Estimating potential emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations using ash inventory data.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W

    2007-10-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding pest native to Asia, was identified in June 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.), mortality in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Localized populations of A. planipennis have since been found across lower Michigan and in areas of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, and Ontario. Officials working to contain A. planipennis and managers of forestlands near A. planipennis infestations must be able to compare alternative strategies to allocate limited funds efficiently and effectively. Empirical data from a total of 148 green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., and white ash, Fraxinus americana L., trees were used to develop models to estimate surface area of the trunk and branches by using tree diameter at breast height (dbh). Data collected from 71 additional F. pennsylvanica and F. americana trees killed by A. planipennis showed that on average, 88.9 +/- 4.6 beetles developed and emerged per m2 of surface area. Models were applied to ash inventory data collected at two outlier sites to estimate potential production of A. planipennis beetles at each site. Large trees of merchantable size (dbh > or = 26 cm) accounted for roughly 6% of all ash trees at the two sites, but they could have contributed 55-65% of the total A. planipennis production at both sites. In contrast, 75- 80% of the ash trees at the outlier sites were < or =13 cm dbh, but these small trees could have contributed only < or =12% of the potential A. planipennis production at both sites. Our results, in combination with inventory data, can be used by regulatory officials and resource managers to estimate potential A. planipennis production and to compare options for reducing A. planipennis density and slowing the rate of spread for any area of interest. PMID:17972635

  2. Distinguishing defensive characteristics in the phloem of ash species resistant and susceptible to emerald ash borer.

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Don; Wang, Qin; Whitehill, Justin G A; Powell, Jeff R; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-05-01

    We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high soluble protein concentration, low trypsin inhibitor activities, and intermediate levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentration. The EAB-susceptible white ash (F. americana, cv. Autumn Purple) was characterized by a slow wound browning rate and low levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentrations. An EAB-susceptible green ash cultivar (F. pennsylvanica, cv. Patmore) and a wild accession were similar to each other on the basis of several chemical defense traits, and were characterized by high activities of peroxidase and trypsin inhibitor, a high total soluble phenolic concentration, and an intermediate rate of wound browning. Lignin concentration and polyphenol oxidase activities did not differentiate resistant and susceptible species. Of 33 phenolic compounds separated by HPLC and meeting a minimum criterion for analysis, nine were unique to Manchurian ash, five were shared among all species, and four were found in North American ashes and not in the Manchurian ash. Principal components analysis revealed clear separations between Manchurian, white, and green ashes on the basis of all phenolics, as well as clear separations on the basis of quantities of phenolics that all species shared. Variation in some of these constitutive chemical defense traits may contribute to variation in resistance to EAB in these species. PMID:21537902

  3. Impact of Beauveria bassiana and imidacloprid, alone and in combination, used against emerald ash borer in a newly-infested ash nursery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are investigating the potential of Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA), alone or in combination with imidacloprid, for use against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. We treated approximately 400 Fraxinus pennsylvanica and F. americana (height ca. 5-6 m) at a commercial tree nursery wit...

  4. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  5. 12 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 COST OF POTENTIAL EMERALD ASH BORER DAMAGE

    E-print Network

    12 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 COST OF POTENTIAL EMERALD ASH is corresponding author; to contact, call (651) 649-5178 or email at rhaight@fs.fed.us Emerald ash borer (EAB

  6. Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)leaf feeding damage and its effect on larval growth on diets prepared from lyophilized corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, are economically important pests of maize (Zea mays L.) in the southeastern United States. These insects attack plants in both the vegetative and reproductive stages of growth. Plant resistan...

  7. ASOCIACIÓN ENTRE PUDRICIÓN TEXANA (Phymatotrichopsis omnivora) E INSECTOS BARRENADORES DEL NOGAL (Carya illinoensis)* ASSOCIATION BETWEEN COTTON ROOT ROT (Phymatotrichopsis omnivore) AND BORER INSECT OF PECAN TREE (Carya illinoensis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Alfredo Samaniego-Gaxiola; Manuel Ramírez-Delgado; Aurelio Pedroza-Sandoval; Urbano Nava-Camberos

    Euplatypus segnis (Chapuis) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) causes severe damage to pecan (Carya illinoensis) trees at Coahuila, Mexico. The present study was carried out during 1999-2001 in a 90 ha pecan orchard, divided in eight lots, during 1999-2001. The trees were counted and clasified in four categories: attacked by borer insects and with symptoms of cotton root rot (Phymatotrichopsis omnivora); only attacked

  8. Serine proteases SP1 and SP13 mediate the melanization response of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, against entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yuan; Liu, Yang; Shen, Dongxu; Hong, Fang; Wang, Guirong; An, Chunju

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to entomopathogenic fungi is one approach for insect pest control. Little is known about the immune interactions between fungus and its insect host. Melanization is a prominent immune response in insects in defending against pathogens such as bacteria and fungi. Clip domain serine proteases in insect plasma have been implicated in the activation of prophenoloxidase, a key enzyme in the melanization. The relationship between host melanization and the infection by a fungus needs to be established. We report here that the injection of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana induced both melanin synthesis and phenoloxidase activity in its host insect, the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). qRT-PCR analysis showed several distinct patterns of expression of 13 clip-domain serine proteases in response to the challenge of fungi, with seven increased, two decreased, and four unchanged. Of special interest among these clip-domain serine protease genes are SP1 and SP13, the orthologs of Manduca sexta HP6 and PAP1 which are involved in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway. Recombinant O. furnacalis SP1 was found to activate proSP13 and induce the phenoloxidase activity in corn borer plasma. Additionally, SP13 was determined to directly cleave prophenoloxidase and therefore act as the prophenoloxidase activating protease. Our work thus reveals a biochemical mechanism in the melanization in corn borer associated with the challenge by B. bassiana injection. These insights could provide valuable information for better understanding the immune responses of Asian corn borer against B. bassiana. PMID:25900291

  9. The southern cornstalk borer (Diatraea crambidoides (Grote), Lepidoptera: Crambidae)a new pest of eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides (L.)L., Poaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern corn stalk borer [Diatraea crambidoides (Grote)] has become a serious pest to eastern gamagrass [Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L.]. Controlling this insect will be important to the future of this forage crop in the United States. An experiment was conducted to understand the life cycle of...

  10. Where to sample? Ecological implications of sampling strata in determining abundance and impact of natural enemies of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta are two of the three parasitoids of African origin that have been introduced to coffee producing areas of the Americas as biological control agents of the coffee berry borer (CBB; Hypothenemus hampei). Both bethylid parasitoids have become established in...

  11. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER: MEASURING HISTORICAL FARMER PERCEPTIONS AND ADOPTION OF TRANSGENIC BT CORN AS A PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year, multi-state survey of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn farmers was conducted to evaluate perceptions of Bt corn performance and its utility as a European corn borer management option. A questionnaire was sent to farmers who had grown Bt corn during the previous field season...

  12. Spatial and Temporal Genetic Analyses Show High Gene Flow Among European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations Across the Central U.S. Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720 km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and two generations later at 4 of the same sites separated by 150-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 moths from each sample location and time were genoty...

  13. Attitudes of Residents Toward Street Trees on Four Streets in Toledo, Ohio, U.S. Before Removal of Ash Trees (Fraxinus spp.) from Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Heimlich; T. Davis Sydnor; Matthew Bumgardner; Patrick O'Brien

    2008-01-01

    Toledo, Ohio, U.S. residents on four streets in an area with mature street trees, including ash, scheduled for removal as a result of attack by emerald ash borer were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward their street trees. Toledo is in the process of removing some 5,000 trees. Large trees with a variety of summer and fall foliar characteristics were

  14. POPULATION CHARACTERIZATION OF INTRODUCED BALCHA INDICA (MANI & KAUL) (HYMENOPTERA: EUPELMIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA, A PARASITOID OF EMERALD ASH BORER, AGRILUS PLANIPENNIS FAIRMAIRE (COLEOPTERA: BUPRESTIDAE).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Old World eupelmid wasp, Balcha indica(Mani & Kaul), has been known from North America since its collection in Virginia in 1995. It was subsequently discovered parasitizing the Emerald Ash Borer in Michigan in 2003 and suburban Maryland later that same year. This wasp appears to be parth...

  15. Development of methods for the field evaluation of Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in North America, a newly introduced egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Michael D. Ulyshen; Juli R. Gould; Roy Van Driesche

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted in forested plots near Lansing, Michigan in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the newly introduced egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for control of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). To measure parasitism by O. agrili, laboratory-reared “sentinel EAB eggs” were deployed under bark flaps on trunks

  16. Distribution of trunk-injected 14C-imidacloprid in ash trees and effects on emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Mota-Sanchez; Bert M. Cregg; Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Robert M. Hollingworth

    2009-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a destructive exotic pest of North American ash (Fraxinus sp.) trees. Trunk injection of imidacloprid is commonly used to protect landscape ash trees from A. planipennis damage. Efficacy can vary and little is known about the distribution, accumulation and persistence of this compound in trees. Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and

  17. Evaluation of potential strategies to SLow Ash Mortality (SLAM) caused by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): SLAM in an urban forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah G. McCullough; Rodrigo J. Mercader

    2012-01-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive pest native to Asia, has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since it was first discovered there in 2002. As of autumn 2011, A. planipennis has been detected in 15 US states and two Canadian provinces. A pilot project to slow the onset and progression of

  18. Assessing deposition and persistence of Beauveria bassiana GHA (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) applied for control of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in a commercial tree nursery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louela A. Castrillo; Michael H. Griggs; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; John D. Vandenberg

    2010-01-01

    Determining the deposition and field persistence of mycoinsecticides is essential in the development of effective and economical application strategies, including specifically the timing and frequency of spray applications. In this study we used three methods to evaluate the persistence of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA applied for control of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, an invasive pest attacking ash

  19. The impact of biotic factors on populations of the emerald ash borer: a comparison between its native northeast asian and newly invaded north american ranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Between its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002 and 2010, the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), spread to 15 US states and two provinces in Canada. Understanding population dynamics in both the pest’s native range of northeast Asia and the newly invaded r...

  20. Quantitative detection of Beauveria bassiana GHA (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), a potential microbial control agent of the emerald ash borer, by use of real-time PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louela A. Castrillo; Michael H. Griggs; John D. Vandenberg

    2008-01-01

    Accurate monitoring of an introduced, mass-released microbial control agent is essential in evaluating its persistence and in designing application strategies for insect pest control. As part of our multi-year study on the development and use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against the emerald ash borer, a major invasive pest of ash trees, we are determining persistence of the fungus

  1. Development of methods for the field evaluation of Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in North America, a newly introduced egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study was conducted in forested plots near Lansing, Michigan in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the newly introduced egg parasitoid, Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), for control of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)...

  2. Effects of host size on the sex ratio, clutch size, and size of adult Spathius agrili, an ectoparasitoid of emerald ash borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Yi Wang; Zhong-Qi Yang; Hui Wu; Juli R. Gould

    2008-01-01

    The idiobiont ectoparasitoid, Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), parasitizes the concealed larvae of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), which feed on the inner bark of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of host larval size on parasitoid clutch size, offspring sex allocation, and adult body length. Results

  3. Evaluation of vacuum technology to kill larvae of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhangjing Chen; Marshall S. White; Melody A. Keena; Therese M. Poland; Erin L. Clark

    The potential for using vacuum technology to kill larvae of the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Bupres- tidae), in solid-wood packing materials (SWPM) and other wood products was assessed. Current regulations require that SWPM be heat treated or fumigated prior to export. Vacuum treatment may be a

  4. The influence of satellite populations of emerald ash borer on projected economic costs in U.S. communities, 2010–2020

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent F. Kovacs; Rodrigo J. Mercader; Robert G. Haight; Nathan W. Siegert; Deborah G. McCullough; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2011-01-01

    The invasion spread of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is characterized by the formation of satellite populations that expand and coalesce with the continuously invading population front. As of January 2010, satellite infestations have been detected in 13 states and two Canadian provinces. Understanding how newly established satellite populations may affect economic costs can help program

  5. Assessing the potential for ash canopy tree replacement via current regeneration following emerald ash borer-caused mortality on southeastern Michigan landscapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M. Kashian; John A. Witter

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) has killed millions of ash trees in Michigan and at least fourteen other states since its first detection near its introduction point in metropolitan Detroit in 2002. Despite overstory ash mortality near 100% in many areas, ash seedling and saplings remain unaffected and provide the potential for ash re-establishment into the canopy of deciduous forests

  6. Delimitation and management of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) at an outlier infestation in southwestern New York State, United States of America: case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research objectives were to develop an adaptive delimitation technique and to implement and evaluate management of emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis in the first infestation discovered in New York State. Delimitation was accomplished using 91 girdled “sentinel” trap trees deployed up to 1...

  7. Potential Effects of Large-Scale Elimination of Oaks by Red Oak Borers on Breeding Neotropical Migrants in the Ozarks1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly G. Smith; Frederick M. Stephen

    The Arkansas Ozarks are currently experiencing an outbreak of the red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus), a native insect that has previously not been considered an important forest pest species. As many as 50 percent of the trees in the Ozarks, which has the highest density of oaks in the United States, may be dead by the year 2006. The Ozarks

  8. GENOTYPIC CORRELATION AND MULTIVARIATE QTL ANALYSES FOR CELL WALL COMPONENTS AND RESISTANCE TO STALK TUNNELING BY THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correlations between concentrations of cell wall components (CWCs) in the leaf sheath and stalk and resistance to stalk tunneling by the European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) have been reported in some maize (Zea mays L.) populations. Evaluations of resistance to ECB stalk tunneling (...

  9. Comparison of two release techniques for the use of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), to control the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Soconusco, southeastern Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Damon; J Valle

    2002-01-01

    Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is one of the few known natural enemies of the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), the most important pest of coffee throughout the world. The response of this parasitoid to its host, in field cages and small field sites, was shown to be highly variable and unpredictable and between 62% and

  10. Exploiting the genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana for improving the biological control of the coffee berry borer through the use of strain mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina P. Cruz; Alvaro L. Gaitan; Carmenza E. Gongora

    2006-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogen widely used to control the coffee berry borer in Colombia, as part of an Integrated Pest Management strategy. Traditionally, the development of fungal insect pathogens as biocontrol agents in crop pests has been oriented towards the selection and formulation of elite clonal strains. Instead, we explored the potential application of genetic diversity in B. bassiana

  11. Genetic variation and inheritance of diapause induction in two distinct voltine populations of the European Corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European Corn Borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), displays a larval diapause in response to short photoperiods, and is adapted to a variety of local conditions throughout North America. Hence, the effective photoperiod inducing larval diapause will differ among geographic populations. This...

  12. Seasonal Mean Circulation in the Yellow Sea A ModelGenerated Climatology

    E-print Network

    Seasonal Mean Circulation in the Yellow Sea ­ A Model­Generated Climatology Christopher E. Naimie 1 by deep return flow -- the Yellow Sea Warm Current -- in the central trough of the Yellow Sea, penetrating. In summer, a water mass produced by winter cooling -- the Yellow Sea Cold Water -- is isolated in the deep

  13. Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 62, pp. 617 to 638, 2006 Yellow and East

    E-print Network

    Chu, Peter C.

    ). Moreover, the subsurface temperature/salinity evolution on the fronts in the Yellow Sea differs from thermocline above the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water. cent water (Lie, 1989; Hao et al., 2003; Liu et al., 2003. Since both Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea 1. Introduction The Yellow/East China Seas (YES

  14. Extra Exercises for Chapter 8. Epidemic Dynamics The Case of Yellow Fever

    E-print Network

    Ford, Andrew

    Extra Exercises for Chapter 8. Epidemic Dynamics The Case of Yellow Fever Yellow Fever has been and sent one of three residents fleeing into the countryside." Yellow fever is transmitted in urban areas" (Benneson 1990, 486). These exercises introduce you to a model to simulate the spread of Yellow Fever

  15. Metabolism of carbaryl, chloropyrifos, DDT, and parathion in the European corn borer: effects of microsporidiosis on toxicity and detoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Tetreault, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, /sup 14/C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle.

  16. Protection of individual ash trees from emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with basal soil applications of imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Smitley, D R; Rebek, E J; Royalty, R N; Davis, T W; Newhouse, K F

    2010-02-01

    We conducted field trials at five different locations over a period of 6 yr to investigate the efficacy of imidacloprid applied each spring as a basal soil drench for protection against emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Canopy thinning and emerald ash borer larval density were used to evaluate efficacy for 3-4 yr at each location while treatments continued. Test sites included small urban trees (5-15 cm diameter at breast height [dbh]), medium to large (15-65 cm dbh) trees at golf courses, and medium to large street trees. Annual basal drenches with imidacloprid gave complete protection of small ash trees for three years. At three sites where the size of trees ranged from 23 to 37 cm dbh, we successfully protected all ash trees beginning the test with <60% canopy thinning. Regression analysis of data from two sites reveals that tree size explains 46% of the variation in efficacy of imidacloprid drenches. The smallest trees (<30 cm dbh) remained in excellent condition for 3 yr, whereas most of the largest trees (>38 cm dbh) declined to a weakened state and undesirable appearance. The five-fold increase in trunk and branch surface area of ash trees as the tree dbh doubles may account for reduced efficacy on larger trees, and suggests a need to increase treatment rates for larger trees. PMID:20214376

  17. Cell Stem Cell Dear Student: Stem Cell Scientists' Advice

    E-print Network

    Cell Stem Cell Forum Dear Student: Stem Cell Scientists' Advice to the Next Generation Emily L on Stem Cells in Society, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 2Department of Family Practice, University of British@stanford.edu (C.T.S.) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2013.05.007 For the field of pluripotent stem cell biology

  18. Original article Compatible stem taper and stem volume functions

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    as merchantable vol- ume at any stem diameter along the trunk. Such functions may be used on their ownOriginal article Compatible stem taper and stem volume functions for oak (Quercus robur L and Q - In this paper we develop compatible stem taper and stem volume functions for oak (Quercus robur L and Q petraea

  19. Puccinia jaceae var.solstitialis teliospore priming on yellow starthistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis to California for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae), teliospores, pycnia, and multiple urediniospore generations have been observed in the field. Because urediniospores have a relatively short...

  20. Yellow steam and electrical pipes across from Bright Angel Lodge. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Yellow steam and electrical pipes across from Bright Angel Lodge. Note control valve to right of control box, view E. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ