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Yellowstemborer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellowstemborer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On
Yellowstemborer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellowstemborer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On the other hand, a good level of resistance against the widespread yellowstemborer has been rare in the rice germplasm. Resistance to insects has been demonstrated in transgenic plants expressing genes for delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), protease inhibitors, enzymes and plant lectins. The performance of insect resistant GM rice in trials in China has been quite impressive. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in biotechnological intervention for yellowstemborer resistance in rice. PMID:19811767
Bt-transgenics of elite indica rice breeding lines (IR-64, Pusa Basmati-1 and Karnal Local) were generated through biolistic or Agrobacterium-mediated approaches. A synthetic cry1Ac gene, codon optimised for rice and driven by the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter, was used. Over 200 putative transformants of IR-64 and Pusa Basmati-1 and 26 of the Karnal Local were regenerated following use of the hpt (hygromycin phosphotransferase) selection system. Initial transformation frequency was in the range of 1 to 2% for particle bombardment while it was comparatively higher (approximately 9%) for Agrobacterium. An improved selection procedure, involving longer selection on the antibiotic-supplemented medium, enhanced the frequency of Bt-transformants and reduced the number of escapes. Molecular evaluation revealed multiple transgene insertions in transformants, whether generated through biolistic or Agrobacterium. In the latter case, it was also observed that all genes on the T-DNA do not necessarily get transferred as an intact insert. Selected Bt-lines of IR-64 and Pusa Basmati-1, having Bt-titers of 0.1% (of total soluble protein) and above were evaluated for resistance against manual infestation of freshly hatched neonate larvae of yellowstemborers collected from a hot spot stemborer infested area in northern India. Several Bt-lines were identified showing 100% mortality of larvae, within 4-days of infestation, in cut-stem as well as vegetative stage whole plant assays. However, there was an occasional white head even among such plants when assayed at the reproductive stage. Results are discussed in the light of resistance management strategies for deployment of Bt-rice. PMID:12212843
InfoCrop, a generic crop–pest simulation model, was used to validate yellowstemborer, Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk., damage mechanism on two rice cultivars, Pusa Basmati 1 and Ratna. Data sets consisted of three experiments, one under natural infestation of the pest and two involving artificial detillering. The simulated yields showed less than 10% variation from the observed yields, except in one
Lepidopterous stemborers seriously affect production of maize, Zea mays L., in sub-Saharan Africa. Intercropping maize with legumes such as lablab, Lablab purpurens (L.), is one of the effective systems to control stemborers. Sole culture maize and maize/lablab intercrop system of different lablab densities were planted at two locations to investigate the effects of intercrop system on incidence and severity of stemborers with particular reference to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Stemborer infestation was found to be more severe in sole culture maize than maize in maize/lablab intercrop. There was a significantly negative relationship between lablab densities and maize grain yields, suggesting a possible competition for resources between the two crops. It was concluded that density of lablab and date of planting of lablab in maize/lablab intercropping have significant affects on stemborer populations and maize grain yields. PMID:15889728
Maluleke, Mary H; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Ayisi, Kingsley K
Super rice has the potential to deliver very high yields but is also susceptible to attack by the striped rice stemborer, Chilo suppressalis. In this study, surveys and field trials were performed to examine this problem and efficient ways were found to lower the borer’s population density. It was found that larger super rice plants provided more refuges for
Weihua Jiang; Xiaojing Jiang; Jianren Ye; Qiang Fu; Yongbin Feng; Ju Luo; Zhaojun Han
Cereals (maize, sorghum, millet, rice) are extremely important crops grown in Africa for human consumption. Of the various insect pests attacking cereal crops in Africa, lepidopteran stemborers are by far the most injurious. All 21 economically important stemborers of cultivated grasses in Africa are indigenous except Chilo partellus, which invaded the continent from India, and C. sacchariphagus, which has recently been found in sugarcane in Mozambique. C. partellus is competitively displacing indigenous stemborers in East and southern Africa. A parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes, was introduced from Pakistan for biological control of C. partellus and caused a 32-55% decrease in stemborer densities. This article is an attempt to summarize the status of knowledge about economically important cereal stemborers in Africa with emphasis on their distribution, pest status and yield losses, diapause, natural enemies, cultural control, host plant resistance, and biological control. Special attention is given to Busseola fusca and C. partellus, the most important pests of maize and grain sorghum. PMID:11729089
The stemborer, Chilo agamemnon Bles., is the most serious insect pest in rice fields of the Egyptian Nile Delta. To induce rice plant resistance to Chilo agamemnon, the cry1Ia5 gene was introduced to rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). The integration of the cry1Ia5 gene into the plant genome was confirmed using PCR and Southern blot analyses. The obtained plantlets were transferred to the greenhouse until seeds were collected. Northern blot analysis of the T1 plants confirmed the expression of the cry1Ia5 gene. The insecticidal activity of the transgenic plants against the rice stemborer Chilo agamemnon were tested. The third larval instars were fed on stem cuts from three transgenic lines (L1, L2 and L3) as well as cuts from the control (gfp-transgenic) plants for one week and the mortality percentage was daily recorded. Transgenic line-3 showed the highest mortality percentage after one day (50%) followed by L2 (25%) then L1 (0%). Two days post treatment the mortality percentage increased to 70, 45 and 25% for transgenic lines 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Mortality of 100% was recorded four days post treatment, while those fed on the gfp-transgenic rice (control) showed 0% mortality. Thus, transgenic plants showed high resistance to stemborers and can serve as a novel genetic resource in breeding programs. Transgenic plants expressing BT protein were normal in phenotype with as good seed setting as the nontransgenic control plants. PMID:21844686
The field evaluation of Nimbokil (a neem derivative), Tracer and Abamectin alongwith Cyperemthrin was studied on infestation level of maize stemborer (Chilo partellus). In Tracer treated plots, the infestation was reduced from 10.72% before spray to 3.05% seven day after first spray and to 0.74% at seven day of second spray which was done one week after first spray.
Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellowstem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and ?-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-?-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass.
In this study either early sown (May 1st) or lately sown (June 2nd) corn plants were treated with Phosphorin & Rhizobactrin as biofertilizers and sprayed with six selected foliar nutrients, i.e. Polymex; Greenzit SP100, Greenzit NPK, Potasin-F, Copper sulphate and Ascorbic acid; in mono-, bi-, and/or tri-sequential applications. Such practices were conducted to show their beneficial effects compared with the chemical treatment in checking the incidence of the stemborers and hence increasing the corn yield. The obtained results could be summarized in the following chief points: (a) the lately sown biofertilized plants showed somewhat higher levels of infestation than the early planted ones., (b) in general, spraying the biofertilized corn plants in both sowing dates with the tested foliar nutrients, significantly decreased the rate of the stemborers infestation than the untreated plants of control., (c) the foliar sprays of Greenzit NPK alone, bi- or tri-sequential applications of Potasin-F, Polymex, Ascorbic acid and Copper sulphate achieved considerable success in reducing larval numbers of the borers species. For example, in case of using the bi-sequential nutrients (Polymex/Ascorbic acid) the numbers were 1.2, 1.5 and 1.2 larvae/5 plants, whereas the numbers were 1.3, 1.0 and 0.7 larvae/5 plants as a result, of the tri-sequential applications (Potasin-F/Ascorbic acid/Polymex) for the pink stemborer, Sesamia cretica, (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon, (Bels.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.), in respect, vs. 4.8, 4.5 and 2.9 larvae/5 plants for the same stemborers, respectively, in case of the untreated corn plants. In addition, the other trisequential applications (Polymex/ascorbic acid/Copper sulphate), (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/ascorbic acid) and (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) reduced the stemborers infestation; (d) from the view point of the interaction effects of sowing dates and the tested foliar nutrients, it was found that the tri-sequential sprayings (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) and/or (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Ascorbic acid) have lowered the rate of the stemborers infestation to 3.3 and 3.3 and 5.7 and 4.3 larvae/5 plants for the tri-applications in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates, respectively. Such reductions in the levels of infestation led to an increase in the grain yield up to 6.9 and 7.2 and 5.4 and 5.8 ton/fed, for the early and lately sown corn plants, in respect, and (e) All the foliar nutrients, with no exception, proved to be efficient in managing the stemborers infestation as compared with the insecticide treatment using Polytrin. Although the chemical application had lowered the level of infestation to 2.3 and 5.7 larvae/5 plants in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates as compared with 9.7 and 14.7 larvae/5 untreated plants for the same sowing dates, lesser grain yield of 5.6 and 4.4 ton/fed. was obtained in the first and second dates of planting, successively, in comparison to the grain yield resulted from the tri-applications of Potasin-F/Copper sulphate with either Polymex or Ascorbic acid. The abovementioned results assured the profitable effects of using foliar nutrients as well as the biofertilizers for attaining healthy corn plants, which would be capable of tolerating the injury inflicted by the studied stemborers and compensating for the harmful effects of insects infestation, so high grain yields could be obtained than those of the untreated and/or the insecticide treated plants. PMID:12696416
Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; el-Kady, Magda B; Haroun, Nagah S
Two field trials were conducted from 2003 to 2005 on the effects of neem pesticides on whorl larva, stem-borer and panicle pests of sorghum. In the first trial (2003–2004) the effect of neem seed granules (NSG) and carbofuran (furadan 3G®) inserted into the sorghum whorl at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing (DAS) were tested on whorl larva, stem
Octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of adrenaline and noradrenaline, plays a key role in regulation of many physiological and behavioral processes in insects. It modulates these functions through binding to specific octopamine receptors, which are typical rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptors. A cDNA encoding a seven-transmembrane receptor was cloned from the nerve cord of the rice stemborer, Chilo suppressalis, viz. CsOA2B2, which shares high sequence similarity to CG6989, a Drosophila ?-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (DmOct?2R). We generated an HEK-293 cell line that stably expresses CsOA2B2 in order to examine the functional and pharmacological properties of this receptor. Activation of CsOA2B2 by octopamine increased the production of cAMP in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50)=2.33 nmol l(-1)), with a maximum response at 100 nmol l(-1). Tyramine also activated the receptor but with much less potency than octopamine. Dopamine and serotonin had marginal effects on cAMP production. Using a series of known agonists and antagonists for octopamine receptors, we observed a rather unique pharmacological profile for CsOA2B2 through measurements of cAMP. The rank order of potency of the agonists was naphazoline > clonidine. The activated effect of octopamine is abolished by co-incubation with phentolamine, mianserin or chlorpromazine. Using in vivo pharmacology, CsOA2B2 antagonists mianserin and phentolamine impaired the motor ability of individual rice stemborers. The results of the present study are important for a better functional understanding of this receptor as well as for practical applications in the development of environmentally sustainable pesticides. PMID:22786641
This paper is based on a survey of the parasites of the lepidopterous stemborers of graminaceous crops throughout East Africa\\u000a and on laboratory studies of the more abundant species. In the survey emphasis was placed on the borers of maize and sorghum,\\u000a but samples of other cultivated Graminae and wild grasses were also taken.\\u000a \\u000a Notes on the distribution and
The Dectes stemborer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is currently receiving increased attention as a pest of soybeans in the Great Plains of North America. Field surveys were conducted in 1999 and in 2008 to record the distribution of this pest in Kansas. These surveys documented an increase in the abundance of the pest and an expansion in the range of this insect westward and eastward. The percentage of fields with more than 50% of plants infested also increased from 4% in 1999 to 11% in 2008. The far eastern counties still had surprisingly few infested fields even though much of the Kansas soybean acreage is located in these counties. It is not clear if D. texanus simply haven't expanded into eastern Kansas yet or if there is an ecological barrier that keeps them from doing so. Field crop entomologists from across eastern North America were sent an email questionnaire and their responses indicate that this pest is now well established as a pest of soybeans in at least 14 states across eastern North America.
The rice stemborer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stemborer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac.
Two transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) lines, KMD1 and KMD2 at the R4 generation, transformed with a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, were first evaluated for stemborer resistance in the field during the rice growing season of 1998 in two areas of Zhejiang Province, China. Both KMD1 and KMD2 were highly resistant to the stemborers Chilo suppressalis (Walker) and Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker), and were completely undamaged during the whole rice growing season. In contrast, damage to the plants of the untransformed parental control (Xiushui 11) was in the form of deadhearts or whiteheads. Under natural infestation by the C. suppressalis, the damage to control plants reached a peak of 88.7% of plants and 20.1% of tillers encountered with deadhearts. Under artificial and natural infestation of neonate striped stemborers at the vegetative stage and booting stage, 100% of plants and 25.6% of tillers, 78.9% of plants and 15.6% of productive tillers among artificially infested control plants were observed with the symptom of deadhearts and whiteheads, respectively. Damage to the control plants from artificial infestation by the S. incertulas reached a peak of 97.0% of plants and 22.9% of tillers damaged. The field research indicated that both KMD1 and KMD2 show great potential for protecting rice from attack by these two stemborers. PMID:11233125
Ye, G Y; Shu, Q Y; Yao, H W; Cui, H R; Cheng, X Y; Hu, C; Xia, Y W; Gao, M W; Altosaar, I
Six transgenic rice, Oryza sativa L., lines (G6H1, G6H2, G6H3, G6H4, G6H5, and G6H6) expressing a fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein, were evaluated for resistance against the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and the stemborer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory and field. The bioassay results indicated that the mortality of Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens neonate larvae on six transgenic lines from seedling to filling stage was up to 100% at 168 h after infestation. The cumulative feeding area by Asiatic rice borer neonate larvae on all transgenic lines was significantly reduced compared with the untransformed parental 'Xiushui 110' rice. A 2-yr field evaluation showed that damage during the vegetative stage (deadheart) or during the reproductive stage (whitehead) caused by Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens for transgenic lines was much lower than the control. For three lines (G6H1, G6H2, and G6H6), no damage was found during the entire growing period. Estimation of fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein concentrations using PathoScreen kit for Bt-Cry1Ab/1Ac protein indicated that the expression levels of Cry1Ab protein both in main stems (within the average range of 0.006-0.073% of total soluble protein) and their flag leaves (within the average range of 0.001-0.038% of total soluble protein) were significantly different among six transgenic lines at different developmental stages. Both laboratory and field researches suggested that the transgenic rice lines have considerable potential for protecting rice from attack by both stemborers. PMID:20857760
Stemborers are the most important maize pests in the humid forest zone of Cameroon. Field trials were conducted in the long and short rainy seasons of 2002 and 2003 to assess the level of damage and yield reductions caused by stemborers in monocropped maize and in maize intercropped with non-host plants such as cassava, cowpea and soybean. The intercrops were planted in two spatial arrangements, i.e. alternating hills or alternating rows. All intercrops and the maize monocrop were grown with and without insecticide treatment for assessment of maize yield loss due to borer attacks. The land-use efficiency of each mixed cropping system was evaluated by comparing it with the monocrop. The temporal fluctuation of larval infestations followed the same pattern in all cropping systems, but at the early stage of plant growth, larval densities were 21.3-48.1% higher in the monocrops than in intercrops, and they tended to be higher in alternating rows than alternating hills arrangements. At harvest, however, pest densities did not significantly vary between treatments. Maize monocrops had 3.0-8.8 times more stems tunnelled and 1.3-3.1 times more cob damage than intercrops. Each percentage increase in stem tunnelling lowered maize grain yield by 1.10 and 1.84 g per plant, respectively, during the long and short rainy season in 2002, and by 5.39 and 1.41 g per plant, respectively, in 2003. Maize yield losses due to stemborer were 1.8-3.0 times higher in monocrops than in intercrops. Intercrops had generally a higher land-use efficiency than monocrops, as indicated by land-equivalent-ratios and area-time-equivalent-ratios of >1.0. Land-use efficiency was similar in both spatial arrangements. At current price levels, the net production of mixed cropping systems was economically superior to controlling stemborers with insecticide in monocropped maize. The maize-cassava intercrop yielded the highest land equivalent ratios and the highest replacement value of the intercrop. At medium intensity cropping this system is thus recommended for land-constrained poor farmers who do not use external inputs such as fertilizer and insecticides. PMID:16197562
Chabi-Olaye, A; Nolte, C; Schulthess, F; Borgemeister, C
IT would seem to me that the great difficulty of conceiving yellow as a compound colour is the brightness or lightness of yellow, as compared with its components. In the spectrum, we have the maximum of light in the yellow, and it is against our experience to put two dark colours together and form one light one, as, for example,
Over 2,600 transgenic rice plants in nine strains were regenerated from >500 independently selected hygromycin-resistant calli after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The plants were transformed with fully modified (plant codon optimized) versions of two synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) coding sequences from Bacillus thuringiensis as well as the hph and gus genes, coding for hygromycin phosphotransferase and beta -glucuronidase, respectively. These sequences were
The Cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily is a large group of ancient proteins with enzymatic activities involved in various physiological processes. The rice striped stemborer, Chilo suppressalis, is an important insect pest in rice production. Here, we report the identification and characterization of 77 CYP genes from rice striped stemborer (SSB) through genome and transcriptome sequence analyses. All these CYP genes were confirmed by RT-PCR and direct sequencing. Twenty-eight CYP transcripts have full open reading frame (ORF) and four additional transcripts have a nearly full length coding region. The SSB CYP genes were classified into four clans, the mitochondrial, CYP2, CYP3, and CYP4. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there was an apparent expansion of the CYP3 clan in insects. The CYP6AB subfamily of the CYP3 clan had nine members in SSB. Evolutionary analysis showed that this subfamily was expanded only in lepidopteran insects. In this study, we identified a new P450 subfamily, CYP321F, which is unique to SSB and located in the genome as tandem repeats. Our work provided a foundation for future studies on the functions and mechanism of P450s in the destructive rice pest. PMID:24361403
2600 Anthers from T0 modified cry1 Ac-transgenic rice lines of Minghui 81, an elite restoring line of commercial CMS indica hybrid rice, were cultured on SK3 media. 83 green plantlets were recovered, 43 double haploid (DH) and 40 haploid among them. Results of PCR analyzes indicated that 55 plants of 83 were harbored the cry1Ac gene, and the ratio of cry1Ac-positive against cry1Ac-negative was 2:1 (55/28). 36 putative transgenic DH plants were further confirmed by Southern blot. ELISA detection showed that Cry1Ac level in different transgenic rice plants of the same cry1Ac-DH clone was almost equal and the highest one amount to 0.25% of the total soluble protein. Pest insect-resistant bioassay at field trials demonstrated that some of the homozygous cry1Ac-transgenic rice plants not only showed high-level resistance against striped stemborer (Chilo suppressalis) but also retained elite agronomy characters. These results demonstrated that rice anther culture has a great value in rice molecular breeding. PMID:12385240
Heat shock protein 60 is an important chaperonin. In this paper, hsp60 of the stemborer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was cloned by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) reactions. The full length cDNA of hsp6 degrees Consisted of 2142 bp, with an ORF of 1719 bp, encoding 572 amino acid residues, with a 5'UTR of 158 bp and a 3'UTR of 265 bp. Cluster analysis confirmed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity with the reported sequences from other insects (77%-86%). To investigate whether hsp60 in C. suppressalis responds to thermal stress, the expression levels of hsp60 mRNA in larval haemocytes across temperature gradients from 31 to 39 degrees C were analysed by real-time quantitative PCR. There was no significant difference for hsp60 expression from 28 to 31 degrees C. he temperatures for maximal induction of hsp60 expression in haemocytes was close to 36 degrees C. Hsp60 expression was observed by using flow cytometry. These results revealed that thermal stress significantly induced hsp60 expression and Hsp60 synthesis in larval haemocytes, and the expression profiles of Hsp60 at the mRNA and protein levels were in high agreement with each other from 33 to 39 degrees C. PMID:20673188
Cui, Ya-Dong; Du, Yu-Zhou; Lu, Ming-Xing; Qiang, Cheng-Kui
PDF containing seed stock profile information for and illustration of the F1 and F2 Non-Purple Stem, Yellow-Green Leaf variety of Brassica rapa (Fast Plants). This also includes some brief suggestions for their use as a model organism in teaching Mendelian genetics with a monohybrid cross using Wisconsin Fast Plants.
BACKGROUND: Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB) are two maize stemborers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73). Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and
Bernardo Ordas; Rosa A Malvar; Rogelio Santiago; Ana Butron
Certain cultivars of magnolia are desirable in landscapes for their uncommon yellow fl owers. While cultivars derived from Magnolia acuminata L. (cucumbertree mag- nolia) are diffi cult to propagate by stem cuttings, some with mixed parentage appear easier to propagate in this manner. We propagated six yellow-fl owered cultivars vegetatively by applying 0, 8, 16, or 30 g·kg -1 (0,
Blue-green algae as a soil-based inoculum was applied to short-duration Indica rice in combination with 72 kg N/ha and compared with just N fertilization applied as 144 kg N/ha. Fertilizer N was applied in two equal doses 25 days after transplanting and at mid-tillering stage. The algal inoculum, which containedAnabaena cylindrica, Anabaena oryzae, Nostoc muscorum andTolypothrix tenuis, was applied at 100 kg/ha fresh material (90% moisture) 5 days after transplanting. Five different combinations of microelements were sprayed as a foliar application simultaneously with fertilizer N. Plant performance was enhanced by inoculation with algae and microelements compared with complete N fertilization only. Natural infestation with the stemborer,Chilo agamemnon, and leaf miner,Hydrellia prosternalis, decreased significantly during growth and up to harvesting with application of algae, Endosulfan, and increased with application of microelements. PMID:24430137
Pin oak, Quercus palustris Muenchhausen, is the primary host for the gall wasp Callirhytis cornigera (Osten Sacken). Woody stem galls formed by C. cornigera may be infested by the dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), an important pest of flowering dogwood, Cornus florida L. Previous research has shown that S. scitula has a bimodal seasonal flight pattern, with peaks in late spring and midsummer. We tested the hypothesis that moths emerging from dogwoods largely account for the first flight pulse, whereas emergence from stem galls contributes disproportionately to the second pulse. Seasonal flight activity of S. scitula was monitored with pheromone traps baited with Z,Z-3,13-octadecadien-1-ol acetate. Traps were hung near plantings of dogwoods in suburban landscapes or near heavily galled pin oaks. Borer emergence from dogwood was monitored by sampling infested trees for pupal exuviae, and from galls that were collected and held in outdoor rearing cages. The impact of S. scitula on C. cornigera larvae was assessed by weighing, measuring, and dissecting galls. Flight activity of S. scitula began on 5 May and ended on 13 October 1999, with peaks in late May and in late July to early August. The flight pattern was similar for the two types of trapping sites, and moths emerged from both hosts during both flight periods. Proportionately more moths emerged from dogwoods during the first flight pulse than during the second, but emergence from galls was nearly evenly divided between the two flight peaks. We therefore reject the hypothesis that emergence of borers from galls contributes disproportionately to the second flight period. Approximately 12-15% of stem galls (2-3 yr old) contained S. scitula larvae. Feeding and tunneling by borers contributed to gall desiccation and reduced horn development, but rarely killed C. cornigera larvae. This study has implications for management of S. scitula because borers emerging from horned oak galls may represent a threat to dogwood. PMID:10902327
Generation of insect-resistant, transgenic crop plants by expression of the insecticidal crystal protein (ICP) gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a standard crop improvement approach. In such cases, adequate expression of the most appropriate ICP against the target insect pest of the crop species is desirable. It is also considered advantageous to generate Bt-transgenics with multiple toxin systems to control
Pritilata Nayak; Debabrata Basu; Sampa Das; Asitava Basu; Dipankar Ghosh; Neeliyath A. Ramakrishnan; Maloy Ghosh; Soumitra K. Sen
Mollusks, crustaceans and other groups of invertebrates attack underwater structures causing great loss. This article describes shipworms (teredos) and other marine borers. Among the mollusks the most destructive are Teredo and Bankia (pelecypoda). Three ...
Six chemical wood preservatives were selected for evaluation over long periods of exposure in extremely borer-active marine environments. Southern Yellow Pine and Douglas Fir were full-cell pressure-treated with these chemicals and exposed in tropical sea...
The root borer, Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become a serious pest of date palm trees in southwest Tunisia. Under natural conditions, mated females lay eggs in different parts of palm tree: between the hairy roots, all along the stem at the leaf axils and at the base of cut branches. Larvae bore into targeted places of the plant
Rasmi Soltani; Ikbel Chaieb; Med Habib Ben Hamouda
The Mediterranean corn borer or pink stemborer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) causes important yield losses as a consequence of stalk tunneling and direct kernel damage. B73 and Mo17 are the\\u000a source of the most commercial valuable maize inbred lines in temperate zones, while the intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) population\\u000a is an invaluable source for QTL identification. However, no or few
Bernardo Ordas; Rosa A. Malvar; Rogelio Santiago; German Sandoya; Maria C. Romay; Ana Butron
The report describes procedures to follow and characteristics to consider in selecting superior yellow birch trees. The first selection should be on the basis of tree quality. Characteristics to consider are as follows: for the stem - straightness, roundn...
The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a stalk-boring insect which occurs in Texas and Mexico. This insect attacks sugarcane sorghum, corn, rice, wheat, oats, and wild grasses. The Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is also a stalk-boring insect of sugarcane, sorghum, corn, rice, and wild grasses occurring in the West Indies, the American tropics,
Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR) in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB), we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21), each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety. The resulting plants were analyzed to determine their LIBR response, growth, yield, and borer resistance. Results In the synthetic variety EPS20 (Reid germplasm), reduction of the LIBR improved resistance against the MCB. The LIBR selection was also effective in the synthetic variety EPS21 (non-Reid germplasm), although there was no relationship detected between the LIBR and MCB resistance. The LIBR did not show correlations with agronomic traits such as plant height and yield. Compared with upper sections, the internode basal ring area contained lower concentrations of cell wall components such as acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and diferulates. In addition, some residual 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H)-one (DIMBOA), a natural antibiotic compound, was detected in the basal area at 30 days after silking. Conclusion We analyzed maize selections to determine whether the basal area of maize internodes is involved in borer resistance. The structural reinforcement of the cell walls was the most significant trait in the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Lower contents of ADF and ADL in the rind of the basal section facilitated the entry of larvae in this area in both synthetic varieties, while lower concentrations of diferulates in the pith basal section of EPS20 facilitated larval feeding inside the stem. The higher concentrations of DIMBOA may have contributed to the lack of correlation between the LIBR and borer resistance in EPS21. This novel trait could be useful in maize breeding programs to improve borer resistance.
The report summarizes effort completed during the first year of a proposed three-year effort to design, fabricate, and test a conical self-advancing and self-rotating boring machine. The conical borer will use a proven and economical mechanical fragmentat...
Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash
... tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to humans by the ... Maps Maps of yellow fever endemic areas in Africa and South America Links & References Publications and links ...
... liver, and kidney. Bleeding disorders, seizures, coma, and delirium may also occur. Symptoms may include: Irregular heartbeats ( ... Bleeding (may progress to hemorrhage) Coma Decreased urination Delirium Fever Headache Yellow skin and eyes (jaundice) Muscle ...
Wood destruction in test panels of Shorea leprosulawas related to the percentage of fouling, types of wood borers and the number of wood borers. The natural durability of Shorea leprosulapanels was estimated to be 4-5 months in Malaysian marine waters. A higher fouling cover resulted in lower rates of wooden panel deterioration. Larger numbers of wood borers brought about greater panel deterioration. Primary wood destruction was caused by bivalve wood borers, mainly Martesia striata, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Bankia campanellata, Teredo furciferaand Teredo bartschi. Martesia striatawas the important wood destroying agent in the intertidal zone and, together with the shipworms, was also responsible for panel destruction in the subtidal zone.
Our objective was to characterize the rate at which ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees decline in areas adjacent to the leading edge of visible ash canopy thinning due to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Trees in southeastern Michigan were surveyed from 2003 to 2006 for canopy thinning and dieback by comparing survey trees with a set of 11 standard photographs. Freeways stemming from Detroit in all directions were used as survey transects. Between 750 and 1,100 trees were surveyed each year. A rapid method of sampling populations of emerald ash borer was developed by counting emerald ash borer emergence holes with binoculars and then felling trees to validate binocular counts. Approximately 25% of the trees surveyed for canopy thinning in 2005 and 2006 also were sampled for emerald ash borer emergence holes using binoculars. Regression analysis indicates that 41-53% of the variation in ash canopy thinning can be explained by the number of emerald ash borer emergence holes per tree. Emerald ash borer emergence holes were found at every site where ash canopy thinning averaged > 40%. In 2003, ash canopy thinning averaged 40% at a distance of 19.3 km from the epicenter of the emerald ash borer infestation in Canton. By 2006, the point at which ash trees averaged 40% canopy thinning had increased to a distance of 51.2 km away from Canton. Therefore, the point at which ash trees averaged 40% canopy thinning, a state of decline clearly visible to the average person, moved outward at a rate of 10.6 km/yr during this period. PMID:18950047
Yellow nails are seen in the 'yellow nail syndrome' in which there is thickening and yellow to yellow-green discoloration of all nails. Lymphedema, especially of the ankles, and compromised respiration ...
The black twig borer (Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff), first discovered in Hawaii in 1961, has become widespread on many host plants throughout the islands. Beetle infestations have caused heavy damage to trees but only recently have attacks been associat...
Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by yellow nails that lack a cuticle, grow slowly, and are loose or detached (onycholysis). Yellow nail syndrome is most commonly associated with lung disorders, and ...
Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB) are two maize stemborers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73). Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits.
The author's son has been an engineer since birth. He never asked "why" as a toddler, it was always "how's it work?" So that he wanted a STEM-based home education was no big surprise. In this article, the author considers what kind of curricula would work best for her complex kid.
Damage to Japanese cedars caused by the sugi bark borer in plots with low, medium and high planting density (1,700, 3,200, and 7,300 trees\\/ha, respectively) was examined in a 20-year-old sugi plantation. Radial growth and annual ring-width at breast height of three trees sampled per plot were measured by stem analysis. Stand age when each pupal chamber formed on the
Recurrent selection has been reported as successful for improving maize resistance against corn borers. This study was conducted to determine if phenolics concentration in maize changes during recurrent selection to improve stalk resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer. Three cycles of selection [EPS12(S)C0, ESP12(S)C2, and EPS12(S)C3] from the maize synthetic population EPS12 and test crosses to inbred lines A639, B93, and EP42 were field grown and artificially infested with Mediterranean corn borer larvae, and the pith tissues were sampled for biochemical analyses. Two major simple phenolic acids [p-coumaric (p-CA) and trans-ferulic (E-FA) acids] were identified in free and cell-wall fractions, whereas four isomers of diferulic acid (DFA) (8-5'l, 5-5', 8-o-4', and 8-5' benzofuran form) were present in the cell-wall bound fraction. The selection cycles EPS12(S)C0 and EPS12(S)C3 showed less damage and higher cell wall phenolics concentrations than the cycle EPS12(S)C2. In addition, higher concentrations of total DFAs were associated with shorter tunnel length and lower numbers of larvae per stem. The current study shows new and concrete evidence that the cell-wall bound phenolics could have a determinative role in the resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer, although future development of recurrent and divergent selection cycles will clarify this point. PMID:18656924
Santiago, Rogelio; Sandoya, German; Butrón, Ana; Barros, Jaime; Malvar, Rosa A
The biological activity of analogs of the pheromone components of the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis, (Z)- and (E)-11-tetradecen1-ol acetate, in which modifications were made in the terminal alkyl portion were studied in the three pheromonal types of the insect. European corn borer males respond to pheromonal stimuli at three levels of behavioral activity, i.e., short-range sexual stimulation, activation in the flight tunnel, and response in the field. Structural requirements for elicitation of response at these levels were found to be increasingly restrictive, respectively. Flighttunnel activity was induced only by compounds that had a total chain length of 13 or 14 carbons and in which branching at carbon 13 was limited to one methyl group or a cyclopropyl group. Three new analogs were active in the flight tunnel, viz., (E and (Z)-13-methyl-11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate and (Z)-12-cyclopropyl-11-dodecen-1-ol acetate. The cyclopropyl analog was the most active analog against theZZ type of the European corn borer. TheE isomer, however, was pheromonally inactive in theEE type and was shown to be a pheromone antagonist. This dissimilarity is most likely due to differences in structure of the receptors in the European corn borer strains. Analogs that were biologically active against the European corn borer were tested against the redbanded leafroller,Argyrotaenia velutinana, which also uses (Z)- and (E)-11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate as part of its pheromone. Results showed that the redbanded leafroller pheromone acceptor system is different from that of the European com borer; marginal behavioral response was elicited by only one of the new analogs. Thus, although both species use 11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate isomers as their pheromone, the mechanisms by which they are perceived are different. PMID:24271802
Schwarz, M; Klun, J A; Fritz, G L; Uebel, E C; Raina, A K
Herbivore-induced plant responses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize (Zea mays) responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinianubilalis) larvae revealed the presence of inducible acidic diterpenoid phytoalexins, termed kauralexins, and increases in the benzoxazinoid 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucose (HDMBOA-Glc) after 24 h of herbivory. Despite these rapidly activated defenses, larval growth was not altered in short-term feeding assays. Unexpectedly, ECB growth significantly improved in assays using stem tissue preconditioned by 48 h of larval tunneling. Correspondingly, measures of total soluble protein increased over 2.6-fold in these challenged tissues and were accompanied by elevated levels of sucrose and free linoleic acid. While microarray analyses revealed up-regulation of over 1100 transcripts, fewer individual protein increases were demonstrable. Consistent with induced endoreduplication, both wounding and ECB stem attack resulted in similar significant expansion of the nucleus, nucleolus and levels of extractable DNA from challenged tissues. While many of these responses are triggered by wounding alone, biochemical changes further enhanced in response to ECB may be due to larval secreted effectors. Unlike other Lepidoptera examined, ECB excrete exceedingly high levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in their frass which is likely to contact and contaminate the surrounding feeding tunnel. Stem exposure to a metabolically stable auxin, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), promoted significant protein accumulation above wounding alone. As a future testable hypothesis, we propose that ECB-associated IAA may function as a candidate herbivore effector promoting the increased nutritional content of maize stems. PMID:24023868
Dafoe, Nicole J; Thomas, James D; Shirk, Paul D; Legaspi, Michelle E; Vaughan, Martha M; Huffaker, Alisa; Teal, Peter E; Schmelz, Eric A
The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are exotic forest insects that have had severe impacts on host tree species where they have become established in North America in recent years. Several other exotic forest arthropods have also appeared recently in North America, but have gained less notoriety. Although their potential impacts are less, the
Surveys were conducted in the major apple growing regions of New York state to determine the incidence of borers infesting burrknots on clonal apple rootstocks. Dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was generally prevalent throughout the state, but American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis (Walker), was limited to western New York apple orchards near infested stone fruit trees. Insecticides evaluated in the field for efficacy against both borers were chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, indoxacarb plus oil, methoxyfenozide, fenpropathrin, and kaolin clay. Also, white latex paint was tested alone and mixed with chlorpyrifos. One application of chlorpyrifos applied at the petal fall developmental stage was equivalent to chlorpyrifos applied at petal fall and again in mid-July, and it provided season-long control of dogwood borer and American plum borer. One application of chlorpyrifos applied any time between the half-inch green developmental stage and petal fall, or after harvest the previous season, controlled both overwintered and summer brood larvae of dogwood borer. Multiple applications of fenpropathrin, indoxacarb plus oil, and endosulfan applied during the dogwood borer flight period controlled the summer brood. PMID:15154480
Kain, David P; Straub, Richard W; Agnello, Arthur M
Interactive predictive model uses years of past weather data and a model of the European corn borer's life cycle under different temperatures to calculate the net benefit of planting Bt corn versus non-Bt corn in a certain geographic area. Great data visualization. Requires Flash. This is an excellent tool incorporating a large volume of data. The tool should be quite useful for IPM classes.
In light of catastrophic tree losses caused by Dutch elm disease, foresters recommended that the urban forest be diversified. The intent was to create a more sustainable urban forest that would not be decimated by a single pathogen or insect pest. However, recent introductions of deadly borers such as Asian longhorned beetle and emerald ash borer reveal that new introductions
Michael J. Raupp; Anne Buckelew Cumming; Erin C. Raupp
HE OBSERYA'fIOX of yellow discoloration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dates back to the earliest of lumbar punctures. In 1902 Milian and Chiray, 1 in their description of the supernatant fluid in subarachnoid hemorrhage, proposed the term \\
A survey of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) in cereal crops in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania was carried out between 18 September and 4 October 1963.BYDV was identified by symptolllli in the field and confirmed in New Zealand by transmission tests with Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) fed on the leaf and stem samples of cereals and grasses collected
Background The study of coffee polysaccharides-degrading enzymes from the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei, has become an important alternative in the identification for enzymatic inhibitors that can be used as an alternative control of this dangerous insect. We report the cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of a mannanase gene that was identified in the midgut of the coffee berry borer and is responsible for the degradation of the most abundant polysaccharide in the coffee bean. Methods The amino acid sequence of HhMan was analyzed by multiple sequence alignment comparisons with BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) and CLUSTALW. A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of the enzyme. The mannanase activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS) and the hydrolitic properties were detected by TLC. Results An endo-1,4-?-mannanase from the digestive tract of the insect Hypothenemus hampei was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein in the Pichia pastoris system. This enzyme is 56% identical to the sequence of an endo-?-mannanase from Bacillus circulans that belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 5 (GH5) family. The purified recombinant protein (rHhMan) exhibited a single band (35.5 kDa) by SDS-PAGE, and its activity was confirmed by zymography. rHhMan displays optimal activity levels at pH 5.5 and 30°C and can hydrolyze galactomannans of varying mannose:galactose ratios, suggesting that the enzymatic activity is independent of the presence of side chains such as galactose residues. The enzyme cannot hydrolyze manno-oligosaccharides such as mannobiose and mannotriose; however, it can degrade mannotetraose, likely through a transglycosylation reaction. The Km and kcat values of this enzyme on guar gum were 2.074 mg ml-1 and 50.87 s-1, respectively, which is similar to other mannanases. Conclusion This work is the first study of an endo-1,4-?-mannanase from an insect using this expression system. Due to this enzyme’s importance in the digestive processes of the coffee berry borer, this study may enable the design of inhibitors against endo-1,4-?-mannanase to decrease the economic losses stemming from this insect.
In the Mediterranean area, the main corn borer species are Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Mediterranean corn borer) and Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (European corn borer). In the overall context of integrated pest control, it is possible to reduce the effect of a pest without having a negative effect on the environment by varying the sowing date. Benefits are possible if the most susceptible stages of the crop no longer coincide with the peak of the pest. We used different cycles of selection (0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of two populations (Purdue A and Purdue B) of maize selected for early flowering to get a more precise estimation of the relationship between maturity of plant tissues and corn borer damage. We found a relationship between the damage produced by corn borers and the number of days from flowering to infestation. We conclude that, after flowering, a later stage of plant development at the moment of the infestation by corn borers reduces the damage caused by the larvae. Based on our results, we recommend to plant as early as possible so the tissues would be as mature as possible at the moment of insect attack. PMID:23865188
Ordas, B; Alvarez, A; Revilla, P; Butron, A; Malvar, R A
There exists a need in the oceanography community to be able to produce climatologies of remote or poorly sampled shallow water areas through remote sensing techniques. Our goal was to construct a three-dimensional thermal structure of the Yellow Sea base...
The root borer, Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become a serious pest of date palm trees in southwest Tunisia. Under natural conditions, mated females lay eggs in different parts of palm tree: between the hairy roots, all along the stem at the leaf axils and at the base of cut branches. Larvae bore into targeted places of the plant and were never seen outside. Pupation takes place in the plant and emergence of the adults begins in June. Larval feeding causes extensive damage to the respiratory roots. To examine the life cycle more closely, the O. agamemnon life cycle was studied under laboratory conditions. Different larval stages were collected from infested oases in Tozeur and placed in plastic boxes with natural food that was collected from the oases. After emergence, adults were paired in opaque plastic boxes for mating with the same food substrate which also served as an oviposition site. Eggs were collected daily and isolated in new boxes. Hatched eggs were recorded. The number of larval instars was determined by measuring the width of cephalic capsules. Under laboratory conditions (23 ± 2'C and 55 ± 6% RH)embryogenesis took 14.3 ± 1.42 days and the first, second and third larval instars were 33.1 ± 2.69, 63.88 ± 6.6 and 118.3 ± 13.38 days respectively. The pupal period lasted 24.1 ± 3.02 days and the adult 65.27 ± 9.48 days. These facts indicated that O. agamemnon is univoltine.
Soltani, Rasmi; Chaieb, Ikbel; Hamouda, Med Habib Ben
The Asian black twig borer (Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff 1875) became naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands in the 1960s. It attacks economically important plants (e.g. coffee) as well as endan- gered endemic trees. This study examined the impact of the black twig borer on koa (Acacia koa), an economically important native tree that is harvested for its fine wood. The black
tural methods, plant resistance potentially provides the most economic and environmentally effective means of The sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis (Frabricius)) causes control available to the production industry (Hensley, significant damage to sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), rendering cultivar resistance important. Researchers assess borer-induced damage using 1981). Hence, cultivar characterization and selection for up to five different measures: percentage bored internodes, percentage resistance
The European corn borer is one of the most damaging insect pests to maize in the United States. Different methods exist for the estimation of time of damage to corn by first generation European corn borer. The most commonly used method is the linear thermal constant concept of phenology which by convention calculates cumulative thermal units from January 1 or another arbitrary date. Linear and nonlinear models based on the thermal units concept developed were to predict and simulate postdiapause development of the European corn borer and subsequent infestation of the maize crop using early spring temperatures (May 1-15) in central Missouri. The developmental rates of European corn borer were obtained from growth chamber investigations that simulated those temperatures, the operational temperatures being selected from a compilation of archival meteorological data from 1948 to 1989. The linear and polynomial regression models were developed to predict phenological stages of the European corn borer using thermal units as developmental rates. The models were compared against each other to determine the better predictor of estimation values: each explained 94 and 98% of the variation in developmental stages, respectively. In addition, the models were tested against independent field data and both models gave good predictions of developmental stages, indicating that either model would be a good predictor.
Magai, Robert N.; Decker, W. L.; Keaster, Armon J.
The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies. PMID:19689904
Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C
This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively. PMID:17461064
McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A
Chromatographic and mass spectrometry studies of heptane extracts of the ovipositors of the iris borer,Macronoctua onusta, showed that the females produce several compounds that are the same as those produced by females of the tobacco budworm,Heliothis virescens. In trapping experiments, a mixture of (Z)-11-hexadecenal, (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol, and (Z)-9-tetradecenal (94?4?2) proved to be the minimum set of compounds required to cause effective capture of iris borer males in the field. PMID:24272098
Diatraea saccharalis F. is one of the greatest pests of the sugar cane culture. This report aimed to characterize the germarium region of the sugarcane borer by light and transmission electron microscopy, emphasizing the morphological steps of the ovarian cluster formation. In the germarium of this insect, four zones could be morphologically identified during the cluster formation. In the most apical end of each ovariole--Zone I--the germ line stem cells undergo complete mitotic division, originating the cystoblasts. In the Zone II, each cystoblast produces a group of eight cells, the cystocytes, which are interconnected by the ring canals. Clusters containing all the cystocytes in the meiosis, characterizes the Zone III. Germ cells with ultrastructural features of apoptosis are also detected in this Zone. In the Zone IV the cystocytes differentiate, morphologically, into one oocyte and seven nurse cells. Interstitial somatic cells and pre-follicle cells exhibit, in their cytoplasm, heterogeneous vacuoles containing degenerated cellular fragments, characterized as apoptotic bodies. Our results pointed out to the morphological evidences related with important control mechanisms for new clusters/follicles production and for the cellular arrangement into the germarium, resulting from the programmed cell death. We believe that the morphological characterization of ovarian cluster formation in D. saccharalis provided valuable information for the understanding of the initial steps of oogenesis and contributed for the knowledge of the cellular mechanisms related with the oocyte production and with reproduction in insects. PMID:17144137
Pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an important crop worldwide. In Israel, approximately 2,500 ha are grown all year round for the local and export markets.\\u000a Herein, we report the identification of a viral pathogen causing a new devastating disease in pepper crops. The disease syndrome\\u000a includes shortening of stem internodes, interveinal yellowing, and upward rolling of the leaf blade, accompanied by fruit
Aviv Dombrovsky; Eyal Glanz; Mali Pearlsman; Oded Lachman; Yehezkel Antignus
Yellow intraocular filters are common among the teleosts, especially highly diurnal species. This yellow pigmentation may be uniform, more dense dorsally, or localized to a narrow dorsal ring near the limbus. Certain species possess occlusable yellow corneas and can vary the corneal colour in response to the level of illumination. Yellow lenses and corneas function as hi-pass filters, with the cutoff points varying depending on species. Thus, the amount of short-wavelength light reaching the retina can be regulated. Three distinct yellow pigments may be present in each of the lens, cornea and the retina of certain South American cichlids. The spectral absorbance of the yellow corneal pigment bears a close resemblance to that of beta-carotene. Possible functions of these yellow filters are: a reduction in chromatic aberration, the reduction of glare and dazzle, the improvement of detail by the absorption of "blue haze", the improvement of contrast vision, and the rendering of bioluminescence more conspicuous. Yellow intraocular filters may result in a loss of scotopic sensitivity due to absorption of short wavelengths. Various adaptations in diurnal teleosts to avoid the loss of sensitivity resulting from a yellow filter are presented. Normally, bottom-dwelling fishes lack yellow filters. These filters cause the effective absorbance maximum of scotopic visual pigments to be shifted to longer wavelengths. No correlation has been found between the presence of such filters and the water colour, diet or spectral absorbance of the visual pigment. A possible explanation for the lack of correlation with visual pigments is discussed. Investigation of cone spectral sensitivities may possibly reveal such a correlation. PMID:6398222
Insect activity has long been associated with Fusarium infection. The objectives of the current study were 1) to estimate the impact of Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre, damage on fumonisin contamination in the maize kernel by comparing fumonisin contamination under infestation and protected conditions, and 2) to measure the potential use of genotypes resistant to this borer as controlling factors of fumonisin contamination. Genotypes with increased kernel damage by borers tended to increase fumonisin accumulation under infestation conditions. In particular environments, other factors influenced fumonisin contamination more than damage by borers. When ear damage by borers is significant, maize resistance to ear damage could contribute to the reduction of fumonisin contamination in the kernels. Genotype such as EP42 x EP77 that combines low ear damage by borers and low fumonisin level across environments is a good choice to control fumonisin contamination. The use of an applicable methodology to identify Mediterranean corn borer-resistant genotypes to ear attack under artificial infestations might be a promising approach. PMID:24224270
Santiago, Rogelio; Cao, Ana; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Butrón, Ana
The Russian Peat Borer designed and fabricated by Aquatic Research Instruments was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in April and May 1999 at sites in EPA Regions 1 and 5, respectively. In additio...
The use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in agriculture has been on the rise since 1995. Scientists have been working to develop a high-dose refuge management plan that can effectively delay European corn borer resistance to pesticidal GMO corn. This paper develops a stochastic agricultural production model to assess and provide insight into the reasons why refuge recommendations remain controversial.
Terrance M. Hurley; Silvia Secchi; Bruce A. Babcock
BackgroundThe insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little
Omprakash Mittapalli; Xiaodong Bai; Praveen Mamidala; Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms; Michael N. Nitabach
The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall. PMID:24498801
Larviposition by the Tachinid fly, Sturmiopsis inferens Tns. on sugarcane shoot borer larvae was studied. One adult female laid on an average 285 maggots (range 126–521). More than 90% of the maggots extruded were free of the enveloping chorion. Less than 4% were found to be unfertilized and undeveloped. The mean number of maggots laid per host was 1.21 and
H. David; S. Easwaramoorthy; V. Nandagopal; N. K. Kurup; M. Shanmugasundaram; G. Santhalakshmi
Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to characterize the chemical communication system of the date palm fruit stalk borer, Oryctes elegans, and to develop pheromone-based trapping in Eastern Iran. Adults of both sexes feeding on date palm pieces attracted conspecifics, whereas date palm alone was minimally attractive. Males were twice as attractive as females. More beetles were captured at
Didier Rochat; Kazem Mohammadpoor; Christian Malosse; Arman Avand-Faghih; Martine Lettere; Josiane Beauhaire; Jean-Paul Morin; Adeline Pezier; Michel Renou; Gholam Abbas Abdollahi
We investigated the mating system and population genetic structure of the invasive haplodiploid palm-seed borer Coccotrypes dactyliperda in California. We focused on whether these primarily inbreeding beetles have a 'mixed- breeding' system that includes occasional outbreeding, and whether local inbreeding coefficients (FIS) varied with dominant environmental factors. We also analysed the genetic structure of C. dactyliperda populations across local and
J. P. Holzman; A. J. Bohonak; L. R. Kirkendall; D. Gottlieb; A. R. Harari; S. T. Kelley
The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive species that has colonized oak woodlands in southern California. To better define its seasonal flight activity, assist with forest and integrated pest management activities, and define the current distribution in California, an effective monitoring technique for A. auroguttatus is necessary. We assessed the efficacy of two colors of flight-intercept prism traps, the placement of these traps at three heights, and several commercially available lures [Manuka oil, Phoebe oil, and a green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol] for monitoring the flight of adult A. auroguttatus. Landing rates and the densities of D-shaped emergence holes of A. auroguttatus adults were assessed on the lower stems of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, of varying size and crown health classes. Purple flight-intercept prism traps placed at heights of 3 m and 4.5 m caught significantly more female A. auroguttatus than green prism traps. In one experiment, males also responded at a significantly higher level to purple than to green prism traps placed at 3 m height. The addition of commercially available lures significantly enhanced male, but not female, A. auroguttatus trap catch when compared with unbaited control traps. There were no differences among male flight responses to the three lures. A. auroguttatus landing rates and emergence hole densities were significantly greater on the largest-diameter trees (>76.2 cm diameter at breast height) and on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. The annual increment in emergence hole densities was also significantly greater on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. In three trapping studies over multiple years in southern California, the adult flight period began as early as mid-May, peaked in mid-June to early July, and ended in early- to mid-September. To demonstrate the efficacy of the detection method for A. auroguttatus (unbaited purple traps at 3 m height), a delimitation survey conducted from 2009 to 2012 confirmed that the species was only present in San Diego Co., but that the distribution was expanding northward. PMID:24755194
Coleman, Tom W; Chen, Yigen; Graves, Andrew D; Hishinuma, Stacy M; Grulke, Nancy E; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J
Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...
A sequential and quantitative survey of brain and liver of suckling mice for infective virus and complement-fixing antigen, after infection with yellow fever virus, showed that while there was progressive increase of infective virus content in both organs, only the brain showed a corresponding rise in CF antigen. Histopathological examination revealed that the liver was not significantly involved. The target organ was the brain, where the progressive pathological changes culminated in an acute encephalitis by the 3rd day of experiment. Organ destruction began with the molecular layer of the grey matter. But by the 4th day after infection the entire cerebral cortex was involved. At the initial stages the hippocampus was particularly affected. Tissue damage did not appear to be entirely due to the differential quantitative localization of infective virus. It was hypothesized that the CF antigen acting singly or in conjunction with some hypothetical proteins may be principally involved in the pathological outcome of the disease. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6
The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine
This SeaWiFS image shows complex phytoplankton distribution patterns in the Bohai and Yellow seas. A wide band of brownish water along the coast north and south of the mouth of the Yangtze River indicates a heavy load of suspended sediment. The air over eastern central China and the Yellow Sea is thick with aerosols. Farther north over the Manchurian Plain and Greater Khingan Range, the air is much clearer.
Earlier population genetic spatial analysis of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), indicated no genetic differentiation even between locations separated by 720 km. This result suggests either high dispersal resulting in high gene flow, or that populations are not in...
Ultrastructural examination of diapause and nondiapause larval brains of the European corn borer disclosed anatomical differences that may be related to the insect's 'blood-brain barrier.' The perineurial type I cells are quite closely appressed in the di...
...Emerald Ash Borer; Host Material from Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...the importation of certain articles from Canada to prevent the introduction and spread...the importation of certain articles from Canada to prevent the introduction and...
Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn, Zea mays L., has been widely used to manage a corn borer complex in the mid-southern region of the United States. The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has become a dominant cornstalk boring species in some areas of this region, especially in Louisiana. Therefore, management of sugarcane borer resistance to Bt corn is critical to ensure the long-term sustainability of Bt corn for the region. This study screened 280 two-parent family-lines of sugarcane borer from four geographical populations in Louisiana during 2005 to determine whether Bt resistance allele frequency in sugarcane borer is sufficiently low to meet the rare resistance assumption of the current "high dose/refuge" resistance management strategy for Bt corn. These sugarcane borer family-lines were examined for Bt resistance by using novel F2 screening procedures. No major Bt resistance alleles were detected in these four populations. The estimated frequency of major Bt resistance alleles was < 0.0027, with a 95% probability and a detection power of 94%. The estimated minor resistance allele frequency was 0.0063, with a 95% CI of 0.0025-0.0117. During a previous study, a major Bt resistance allele was detected in one individual from 213 family-lines of another Louisiana population of sugarcane borer. Combining these data with the current screen, the frequency of major Bt resistance alleles across the five populations was 0.001, with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0001-0.0028 and a detection power of 95%. Major Bt resistance allele frequencies in Louisiana sugarcane borer populations seem to be low, and they should support the rare resistance allele requirement of the high dose/refuge strategy. PMID:18459416
Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Moore, Steven H; Cook, Donald R; Baldwin, Jack; Tindall, Kelly V; Lee, Donna R
The effect of selected agronomic practices on the incidence of sugarcane shoot borerChilo infuscatellus Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was examined. In an experiment on critical periods of crop-weed competition, wherein sugarcane\\u000a crop was maintained with different weed regimes, the incidence of borer was significantly lower in weedy crop than in weed-free\\u000a crop. The study suggested that crop-weed vegetational diversity maintained up
J. Srikanth; K. P. Salin; S. Easwaramoorthy; C. Kailasam
Foliar and soil-drench insecticide treatments were used in attempts to manipulate infestation of cultivated sunflower plants, Helianthus annuus LeConte (Asterales: Asteraceae) by Dectes texanus LeConte, (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) a serious pest of sunflowers in the High Plains of the USA. Seed yields were assessed on a per-plant basis for both oilseed and confection type sunflower hybrids in two years. Both insecticide treatments (foliar ë-cyhalothrin and soil-drench carbofuran) improved yield of oilseed sunflowers in 2004, but not in 2005. Yield of confection hybrids was improved by a systemic fungicide (thiophanate methyl) in 2005, but insecticides did not improve yield in either year. Both insecticide treatments gave good control of various stalk-boring insects such as Cylindrocopturus adspersus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Mordellistena sp. (Coleoptera: Mordellidae), and Pelochrista womanana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but neither gave better than 50% control of D. texanus. Plants were sorted according to the presence or absence of D. texanus larvae and no reduction was found in total seed weight, seed size, or oil content as a result of infestation. However, mature larvae of D. texanus girdle stalks at the base in preparation for overwintering, a behavior that reduced stalk breakage force by 34–40%, leading to yield losses through lodging. At harvest in 2005, there were differences between cultivars and among treatments in the proportions of D. texanus larvae that had girdled their plants at harvest. It was concluded that further research aimed at reducing crop losses to D. texanus should focus on means of delaying stalk desiccation and/or deterioration, factors that appear to trigger girdling behavior.
Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.
The male sexual behavior-stimulating and inhibiting properties of a series of analogs of the European corn borer sex pheromone were determined in a flight tunnel. The structural requirements for inhibition of pheromonal response were far less restrictive than those for elicitation of that response. Analogs that by themselves elicited upwind flight response from males at a low dose were generally less inhibitory to male response than many of the analogs that had no pheromonal activity. These findings suggest that many pheromone analogs bind to pheromone receptors without provoking behavioral response and possibly undergo slower degradation on the antenna than pheromonally active compounds. The disparity of response to analogs by two pheromonal types of the European corn borer indicates that the pheromone receptor and pheromone catabolic systems are biochemically very different in the two types. PMID:24263829
European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn. PMID:22928300
In November 2003 and June 2004, the insect borers and their spatial distribution within Pinus massoniana were investigated in Zhoushan City, in East China’s Zhejiang Province, where pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) are typically found. The niche width, proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap of dominant species of dying\\u000a trees were computed. Results show that five insect species
The changes in the population density of sugarcane internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Kapur), and their causes were quantified on susceptible sugarcane variety Co.6304 planted during early and late main season in 1979 and on susceptible Co.6304 and resistant CoJ.64 during 1980 under artificial infestation conditions. The 1979 life tables showed an increasing trend index of 1.24 and 1.16 of
A Louisiana strain of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was selected for resistance to the CrylAb protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) by using an F2 screening procedure. Survival of Bt-resistant, -susceptible, and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer was evaluated on vegetative and reproductive stages of five non-Bt and seven Bt field corn, Zea mays L., hybrids in a greenhouse study. Larval survival was recorded 21 d after infestation of neonates on potted plants. Larval survival across the three sugarcane borer genotypes and five non-Bt corn hybrids after 21 d ranged from 23.6 +/- 5.2% (mean +/- SEM) to 57.5 +/- 5.2%. Mean survival of Cry1Ab-resistant larvae on vegetative and reproductive plant stages was 12 and 21%, respectively. During the vegetative stages, all seven Bt corn hybrids were highly efficacious against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer, with a larval survival rate of <2% for the Bt-susceptible genotype and < or =5% for the heterozygotes. However, 8-18% of the heterozygous genotype survived on reproductive stage plants for four of the seven Bt corn hybrids tested. The variation in performance of Bt corn cultivars at vegetative and reproductive growth stages against Cry1Ab resistant sugarcane borer suggests differential seasonal expression that may hasten resistance in the field. Bt corn hybrids expressing a "high dose" for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), may not produce a sufficient high dose for the sugarcane borer. PMID:18232406
Wu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Moore, Steven H
The study investigated airborne visual reconnaissance with and without yellow sunglasses under conditions of moderate haze and high ambient, midday illumination. One group of five observers wore Bausch and Lomb Kalichrome C yellow glasses. A second group ...
D. F. McKechnie E. P. Hanavan H. C. Self J. L. Porterfield S. A. Heckart
This report presents the results of seawater immersion tests. After six and one-half years exposure, unpainted panels treated with Copper Sulphonate showed remarkable resistance to marine borer activity. There were spasmodic evidences of embryonic Bankia ...
The goals of this project were to evaluate locally developed yellow mustard cultivars, experiment with the biodiesel made from them through stationary engine and on-road testing and to sponsor and host the tenth biennial bioenergy conference. A 2001 Volks...
Some features of the circulation in the Yellow Sea (hereafter referred to as YS) in the cold season (mid-November through\\u000a mid-April) are analyzed emphatically by using the observations of several large-scale surveys in recent years together with\\u000a historical data. Compared with the previous studies, a wealth of observed data have firstly been used in this study to further\\u000a discuss the
Lignin in plant cell wall is a source of useful chemicals and also the major barrier for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass for producing biofuel and bioproducts. Enzymatic lignin degradation/modification process could bypass the need for chemical pretreatment and thereby facilitate bioprocess consolidation. Herein, we reveal our new discovery in elucidating the process of hardwood lignin modification/degradation by clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae . The wood-boring clearwing borer, P. robiniae , effectively tunnels hardwood structures during the larval stage; its digestion products from wood components, however, has not yet been investigated. A series of analysis conducted in this study on tunnel walls and frass produced provided evidence of structural alterations and lignin degradation during such hardwood digestion process. The analysis included solid state (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis; the results strongly suggest that the structural alteration of lignin primarily involved a preferential degradation of syringyl units accompanied by oxidation on the side chains of lignin guaiacyl moieties. This study also further indicated that unlike the wood-feeding termite the clearwing borer does not target cellulose as an energy source, and thus its lignin degradation ability should provide potential information on how to disassemble and utilize hardwood lignin. Overall, this biological model with an efficient lignin disruption system will provide the new insight into novel enzyme system required for effective plant cell wall disintegration for enhanced cellulose accessibility by enzymes and production of value-added lignin derived products. PMID:21405063
Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813
Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C
Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ?2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ?1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations. PMID:24709345
The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) is one of the most damaging insect pests to corn. Current yield losses attributed to the European corn borer are in the region of 400 million annually. Even though the European corn borer (ECB) has been extensively studied, few models exist that attempt to accurately predict its early infestation on corn. The basic problem encountered in formulating a first generation infestation prediction model is when to start calculating the temperature index. The exact conditions required to terminate diapause and the resumption of normal development are not well established. One of the old methods used in Missouri to predict the earliest date of ECB infestation involves the use of growing degree days, and by convention the heat units are arbitrarily calculated from January 1. This study was conducted to formulate prediction, and simulation-decision models for corn and first generation ECB infestation. The effects of variable maximum and minimum temperatures on the growth and development of the ECB were studied both in the laboratory and field designed experiments. Archival biological data from the IPM programs in three Missouri counties and weather data from weather stations were also used in corn phenology studies and to determine the dates of earliest ECB infestation on corn, for the period covering 1984 through 1989. Results from laboratory experiments suggest that the total growth and development period of ECB reared at variable temperatures is a constant value. However, the phenological development of the ECB stages does not follow a linear trend as earlier assumed during the introduction of the growing degree day model, but assumes a cubic curve. The starting point for the calculation of the temperature index in early spring occurs under conditions of longer than 13.0 hours of day length and a daily mean temperature of 60^ circF and above for at least five consecutive days. Three prediction models were developed. These are, the temperature departure model (R^2 = 0.36), and two time sequence models (R^2 = 0.68 and 0.90, respectively) using mean weekly temperatures for weeks 4, 5, and 6, coded from April 1. A single corn phenology model developed in this study can universally be applied to corn planted at any time during the growing season (R^2 = 0.79). Damage to corn by ECB can only occur when the first instar of the corn borer larvae coincides with the sixth stage of corn or greater.
Essential oils isolated from leaves (LO), bast (BO), heartwood (HO), and ethereal extract of resin (EER) of Shorea robusta were bioassayed with electroantennograph (EAG) and wind tunnel to study the behavioral response of male and female beetles, Hoplocerambyx spinicornis Newm., the most injurious heartwood borer of the tree. LO, BO, HO, and EER were shown to exhibit the electrophysiological activity in the female beetle, while LO and BO in the male beetle. In wind-tunnel studies, only BO elicited the attractant activity to both the sexes. A possible correlation of the constituents of the BO identified by GC/MS with the bioactivity is also presented. PMID:17192022
In the literature, controversial information could be found whether the yellow filters may improve the quality of vision. To find out what is the effect of yellow filters on the quality of vision, 27 individuals were examined for the contrast sensitivity using the Pelli-Robson chart, under normal (photopic) and reduced (mesopic) illumination. The measurements were carried out with and without yellow filters (light transmission 67%, measured with an Ocean Optic spectrometer). Also, the measurements were taken using a grey filter with transmission close to that of the yellow filter (73%). The results did not show statistically significant improvement when looking through yellow filters. However, 56% of the individuals asserted that under reduced illumination they found it more agreeable to look through yellow filters. Two persons were extra tested for low contrast visual acuity using a computerized test and objective measurements by the visual evoked potentials (VEP) method. These visual measurements also did not show statistically significant improvement of the visual contrast sensitivity when yellow filters were used. Our measurements do not confirm the data found in literature about the vision improvement owing to yellow filters. However, the mentioned above subjective improvement at using yellow filters in mesopic conditions shows that under very low illumination such filters may slightly increase the visual quality.
The pheromone of the macadamia nut borer, Cryptophlebia ombrodelta (Lower), was evaluated for its suitability as a monitoring tool. The first objective was to establish a correlation between the number of males recovered from pheromone traps and oviposition. When data on numbers of eggs recovered was adjusted using an empirical formula to predict when oviposition occurred, a reasonable correlation between
R. A. Vickers; D. A. Ironside; S. McLean; A. Coates; G. Campbell
The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was discovered on North American soil in the summer of 2002 near Detroit, Michigan, U.S., and has since spread to six states\\/provinces. To alleviate these costs, a method of sanitization is urgently needed. This study evaluated four different chemical sanitation methods in laboratory and field conditions. Treatments included two borate treatments, spray and dip, with
Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23,
Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister; Sean Rands
Recent outbreaks of red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus Haldeman) are causing unprecedented economic devaluation of red oak timber in many areas of the Ozarks in the Midwestern United States. Managers have few guidelines for coping with this problem in the long-term. Here we present a retrospective analysis of degrade in wood quality and value focused on cumulative degrade caused by
Richard P. Guyette; Rose-Marie Muzika; Aaron Stevenson
In 2003–2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against A. planipennis adults in greenhouse studies. However, efficacy was improved in the field when B.
One hundred and fifteen wood species have been exposed to marine borers in three different tropical waters for periods up to 90 months. Underwater sites were in the Panama Canal Zone and included two oceans and a brackish-water lake. Over 30 species of ma...
C. R. Southwell J. D. Bultman B. W. Forgeson C. W. Hummer
Summary The effect of a juvenile hormone mimetic, fenoxycarb, Ro 13-5223, was tested on the larval instars of the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis, by dipping or topical application. When larvae were treated in instars 2, 3 or 4, the duration of the fifth instar was modified. More permanent and fewer supernumerary larvae were obtained when treatment occurred in the early
fied QTLs for resistance to 1ECB and 2ECB. Schone t al. (1991) identified four QTLs for resistance to 1ECB European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), family on chromosomes 1, 4, 6, and 9 in F3 families from the Crambidae, order Lepidoptera, is a serious insect pest of maize (Zea mays L.) in the USA. Understanding the genetic basis for
Chaba Jampatong; Michael D. McMullen; B. Dean Barry; Larry L. Darrah; Patrick F. Byrne; Heike Kross
Inheritance patterns for sex pheromone production in females, pheromone detection on male antennal olfactory receptor cells, and male pheromone behavioral responses were studied in pheromonally distinct populations of European corn borers from New York State. Gas chromatographic analyses of pheromone glands, single sensillum recordings, and flight tunnel behavioral analyses were carried out on progeny from reciprocal crosses, as well as
Wendell Roelofs; Thomas Glover; Xian-Han Tang; Isabelle Sreng; Paul Robbins; Charles Eckenrode; Christer Lofstedt; Bill S. Hansson; Bengt O. Bengtsson
This report summarizes the results of a study on the effects of early- versus late-season fire on yellow sweetclover. The study was motivated by a desire to develop realistic management methods for yellow sweetclover at Badlands National Park. Limitations imposed by an inability to apply fire treatments at the times required made it impossible to test the hypothesis that late summer fires would be effective at reducing sweetclover. Nonetheless, I summarize data on yellow sweetclover stem counts, cover of plant species, and proportion of native and exotic cover with respect to the fire treatments in this report. In addition, I present results of a germination study, in which scarified sweetclover seeds were planted at 2-week intervals. The data summarized in the report, and included in the accompanying spreadsheet, may prove useful in future studies of effects of fire on prairie vegetation in general, and yellow sweetclover in particular.
We determined the 3?-terminal primary and secondary structures required for replication of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) RNA in oat protoplasts. Computer predictions, nuclease probing, phylogenetic comparisons, and replication assays of specific mutants and chimeras revealed that the 3?-terminal 109 nucleotides (nt) form a structure with three to four stem-loops followed by a coaxially stacked helix incorporating the last four
Gennadiy Koev; Sijun Liu; Randy Beckett; W. Allen Miller
Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl) was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson). A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS). The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-?-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10). The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was shown to be a potent inhibitor of this xylanase, suggesting that its deployment has potential as a strategy to control coffee berry borer colonization of coffee plants.
The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed.
There are many groups and organizations in the United States working to encourage young people to enter STEM-related careers, and this website represents one of those endeavors. The STEM Career website was created by Professor Rich Feller of Colorado State University to help encourage young people to select just such a career path. The website contains updates on STEM career possibilities, and basic answers to questions like "Why STEM?" and "Why STEM Centric Career Development?" Visitors should also scan through the "STEM Disciplines" area on the homepage, as it contains resources about the job outlook for related STEM disciplines, such as biochemical engineering and engineering managers. Moving on, the site also features news updates from Professor Feller and his colleagues on subjects that include the ways in which corporations are promoting STEM education and women in STEM.
An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity was detergent-solubilized from the chloroplast membranes of Chinese cabbage leaves infected with turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV). The template-dependent, micrococcal nuclease-treated activity synthesized full-length minus strands from TYMV RNA and 3?-fragments as short as a 28-nucleotide-long RNA comprising the amino acid acceptor stem of the 3?-tRNA-like structure (TLS). Minus strands were shown to arise
Hybridoma clones secreting specific monoclonal antibodies against the aster yellows agent, a mycoplasma-like organism, were produced by using partially purified salivary gland preparations from infected leafhopper vectors as the immunogen. After 3947 hybridomas from 20 independent fusions were screened for specific antibody against the aster yellows agent, two table clones were obtained. With these monoclonal antibodies the aster yellows agent in diseased lettuce, periwinkles, and inoculative insects was specifically identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The aster yellows agent was serologically differentiated from the mycoplasma-like organisms associated with ash yellows, loofah witches'-broom, paulownia witches'-broom, sweet potato witches'-broom, peanut rosette, maize bushy stunt, and elm phloem necrosis. PMID:17757867
The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) is an important pest in the global production of maize (Zea mays L.). In this study, we mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci (QTLs) significantly affecting resistance against second-generation European corn borer (2ECB) and plant height with the aid of RFLP markers. A total of 300 F3 lines derived from cross B73 (susceptible)
Chris C Schön; Michael Lee; Albrecht E Melchinger; Wilbur D Guthrie; Wendy L Woodman
Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) pod borer (Leguminivora glycinivorella (Mats.) Obraztsov) (SPB) results in severe loss in soybean yield and quality in certain regions of the world, especially\\u000a in Northeastern China, Japan and Russia. The aim here was to evaluate the inheritance of pod borer resistance and to identify\\u000a quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying SPB resistance for the acceleration of
Two independent studies show that, if push comes to shove, differentiated cells of the stomach and lung can act as adult stem cells generating various cell types of the tissue, including a pool of stem cells.
Between 1994 and 2003, employment in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields grew by a remarkable 23 percent, compared with 17 percent in non-STEM fields, according to federal data. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts continued strong growth in STEM job openings through 2014, with emphasis on life sciences, environmental…
During an epidemic of yellow fever in the Jos Plateau area of Nigeria, 9 adult males with clinically diagnosed yellow fever were studied by haematological, biochemical, virological, serological, and liver biopsy methods. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 55 years and the duration of illness was 3-62 days. No virus was isolated from any patient but all patients should biochemical evidence of severe hepatocellular damage. Leucopenia was a feature of the late acute stage of the disease. Five sera had antibodies to yellow fever at titres greater than 1: 32, 3 of them being monospecific for yellow fever. The classical histological features of yellow fever were present only in the acute or late acute stages, when complement-fixation tests may be negative. With convalescence and the production of complement-fixing antibodies in high titres, the histological features resembled those of a persisting nonspecific hepatitis. In an endemic area, the histological features of yellow fever will depend on the stage of the disease and a picture of nonspecific hepatitis would not exclude yellow fever in the absence of confirmation from serological tests. PMID:4538039
Francis, T I; Moore, D L; Edington, G M; Smith, J A
During an epidemic of yellow fever in the Jos Plateau area of Nigeria, 9 adult males with clinically diagnosed yellow fever were studied by haematological, biochemical, virological, serological, and liver biopsy methods. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 55 years and the duration of illness was 3-62 days. No virus was isolated from any patient but all patients should biochemical evidence of severe hepatocellular damage. Leucopenia was a feature of the late acute stage of the disease. Five sera had antibodies to yellow fever at titres greater than 1: 32, 3 of them being monospecific for yellow fever. The classical histological features of yellow fever were present only in the acute or late acute stages, when complement-fixation tests may be negative. With convalescence and the production of complement-fixing antibodies in high titres, the histological features resembled those of a persisting nonspecific hepatitis. In an endemic area, the histological features of yellow fever will depend on the stage of the disease and a picture of nonspecific hepatitis would not exclude yellow fever in the absence of confirmation from serological tests. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2AFig. 2BFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6
Francis, T. I.; Moore, D. L.; Edington, G. M.; Smith, J. A.
Clara Louise Maass, a 25-year-old American nurse, died of yellow fever on August 24, 1901, following experimental inoculation by infected mosquitoes in Havana, Cuba. The human yellow fever experiments were initially conducted by MAJ Walter Reed, who first used written informed consent and proved the validity of Finlay's mosquito-vector hypothesis. Despite informed consent form and an incentive of $100 in U.S. gold, human subjects were exposed to a deadly virus. The deaths of Clara Maass and two Spanish immigrants resulted in a public outcry and the immediate cessation of yellow fever human experiments in Cuba. PMID:23756016
The cocoa pod borer,Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is the most serious pest of cocoa in Southeast Asia. Analyses of ovipositor washings and entrained volatiles from virgin female moths by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography (EAG), and comparison of EAG responses from the male moth to synthetic compounds indicated the presence of theE,Z,Z andE,E,Z isomers of 4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetate and the corresponding alcohols, and of hexadecyl alcohol. Amounts of pheromone produced were less than 0.1 ng/female, and no peaks for the unsaturated components were observed on GC analysis. Extensive field testing of synthetic mixtures in Sabah, East Malaysia, showed that traps baited with a polyethylene vial impregnated with 1.2 mg of a mixture of the above five components in 40?60?4?6?10 ratio caught more maleC. cramerella moths than traps baited with a virgin female moth. PMID:24306393
Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; Nesbitt, B F; Day, R K; Mumford, J D
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari, is a serious problem for the majority of the world's coffee growers and has proved to be one of the most intractable of present day pests. Despite a great deal of research, control still depends largely on the application of the organochlorine insecticide endosulfan, which is damaging to the environment, or a series of cultural and biological control methods which give variable and unpredictable results. This review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology and ecology of H. hampei and its control and identifies weak points in the knowledge about this pest. Emphasis is placed upon an analysis of the non-chemical control methods available and suggestions are offered for novel ecological and environmental factors worthy of further research, in the search for viable and sustainable control methods. PMID:11107248
The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, is a serious pest of corn, sorghum, and cotton in China and other Asian countries. The present study is the first attempt to establish the transgenic line in O. furnacalis using a piggyBac transposon, which will shed light on the future genetic control of O. furnacalis. A piggyBac vector pBac[A3EGFP] was constructed to express enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)under the control of Bombyx mori actin3 promoter. Transient EGFP expression was detected 48 h after preblastodermic microinjection of pBac[A3EGFP] and the excision assay showed the transgenic vector was precisely excised. In G1 animals, PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-based investigations revealed that the exogenous gene had been introduced into O. furnacalis genome and expressed at the transcriptional level. Western blot analysis showed EGFP expression at the protein level, indicating the heritability of the transgene. PMID:22696097
Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality. PMID:24112110
Growers that plant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids are required to plant non-Bt corn for resistance management. Refuge in a bag (RIB) is an emerging approach for resistance management where, for some hybrids having multiple Bt traits for a target species, the refuge is planted as a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn. Studies were conducted to evaluate how southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella Dyar), when infested at different densities and growth stages, affected the yield of infested, non-Bt plants and neighboring Bt plants. Infesting non-Bt corn plants with southwestern corn borer larvae caused significant injury. Both the number of larvae infested on plants and the timing of these infestations affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Infestation timing was more important than the number of larvae inoculated onto plants, with pretassel infestations causing more yield loss. There was little compensation by Bt plants that were adjacent to infested plants. Thus, the risk of yield loss from stalk tunneling larvae in a refuge in a bag scenario should be directly proportional to the percentage of non-Bt plants and the level of yield loss observed in these non-Bt plants. Because current refuge in a bag systems have five or 10% non-Bt corn plants within the seed unit, the likelihood of substantial yield losses from infestations of corn boring larvae is remote given our results, especially for infestations that occur after silking has begun. PMID:23786069
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.
In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care.
In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care. PMID:24348220
Proposes that teachable fiction is efficient, strategically sound, and very visual. Analyzes Stephen Crane's "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" to show it fulfills these three characteristics. Suggests the story should be taught later in the semester. (PM)
This contract targeted improved growth of photoactive yellow protein (PYP) and evaluation of its optical signal processing capabilities. The growth experiments were highly successful. Ectothiorhodopsin halophila bacteria were grown and plenty of PYP isola...
H. Gibbs G. Khitrova T. Meyer G. Tollin M. Cusanovich
The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using protein crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the enexpected hypothesis that the virus release its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have farly flat coats, but in TYMV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early studies of TYMV, but McPhereson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central viod on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides liked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the voild. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine.
A primary goal for evolutionary biology is to reveal the genetic basis for adaptive evolution and reproductive isolation.\\u000a Using Z and E pheromone strains the European corn borer (ECB) moth, I address this problem through multilocus analyses of\\u000a DNA polymorphism. I find that the locus Triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi) is a statistically significant outlier in coalescent simulations of demographic histories
In maize, Zea mays L., the timing of vegetative phase transition from juvenile to adult vegetative phases can be modified through selection. A reduction in the juvenile vegetative phase has been associated with resistance to diseases and pests. The major maize pest in temperate areas is Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and in Europe Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of divergent selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition in maize on resistance to corn borers. Three cycles of divergent selection for early and late phase transition in a field corn synthetic and in a sweet corn population were evaluated separately under S. nonagrioides and O. nubilalis artificial infestation. For the field corn experiment, yield and moisture improved with selection for phase transition in both directions, but improvement was due to artifacts of selection, rather than to the change in phase transition. There were no correlated responses for corn borer damage, yield, or grain moisture due to selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition. In the sweet corn experiment, selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition had no significant effects on corn borer damage in sweet corn harvested at the fresh stage. Our results do not support the use of phase transition as an indirect criterion for improving resistance to corn borers in maize. The relationship between phase transition and pest resistance reported by other studies could depend on the genotypes or could be too weak to be detected in a selection program with wild-type maize. PMID:16022330
Revilla, Pedro; Malvar, Rosa A; Velasco, Pablo; Butrón, Ana; Tracy, William F; Abedon, Bruce G; Ordás, Amando
Four pheromonal components have been detected in ovipositor washings and volatiles from female sugarcane stalk borers,Chilo auricilius Dudgeon (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), using combined gas chromatography-electroantennography. The components have been identified as (I) (Z)-7-do-decenyl acetate, (II) (Z)-8-tridecenyl acetate, (III) (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, and (IV) (Z)-10-pentadecenyl acetate by comparison of their gas chromatographic behavior with that of synthetic standards. In field tests carried out
Brenda F. Nesbitt; P. S. Beevor; A. Cork; D. R. Hall; H. David; V. Nandagopal
Two isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Bb1 and Bb5 strains) were grown in solid-state and submerged cultures (SSC and SbC, respectively) in order to obtain conidia and dry mycelium preparations. The samples obtained at laboratory scale were tested as alternatives for their further use as mycoinsecticides to control the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis. The spore yields obtained in SSC indicated that
1.Lipophorin was isolated from the hemolymph of diapausing larvae of the southwestern corn borer,Diatraea grandiosella, and shown to have a density of 1:11 g\\/ml and a molecular weight of 520,000.2.The holoprotein was comprised of apolipoprotein-I (Mr=231,000) and apolipoprotein-II (Mr=74,000), and contained about 38% lipid (28% neutral lipids, 10% polar lipids), and 3% carbohydrate.3.The major neutral lipids present were diacylglycerol and
Since the discovery of the emerald ash borer in 2002, eradication efforts have been implemented in an attempt to eliminate\\u000a or contain the spread of this invasive beetle. The eradication protocol called for the removal of every ash tree within a\\u000a 0.8 km radius around an infested tree. In 2005 this study was established to identify environmental changes attributed to\\u000a the
Constance E. HausmanJohn; John F. Jaeger; Oscar J. Rocha
Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB), an alien invasive wood-boring buprestid beetle, is causing large-scale decline and mortality of the most\\u000a widely distributed species of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees endemic to eastern North America. We determined which arthropod species that are associated with ash may become\\u000a threatened, endangered, and co-extinct with the demise of ash as a dominant tree
Body color change associated with sexual maturation—so-called nuptial coloration—is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait.
Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema
The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Texas; it can attack several grassy crop and noncrop host plants and has spread into Louisiana. Through small-plot, commercial field, and pheromone trap experiments, this study demonstrates that the pest uses corn, Zea mays L., more than sugarcane and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, but when corn is harvested in late summer, injury to nearby sugarcane strongly increases during the next approximately equal to 2 mo to harvest. Corn was more infested than sugarcane and sorghum in commercial fields regardless of whether sampling occurred on field edges or farther into field interiors. Differences in numbers of infested stalks and in numbers of larval entry holes between field edges and interiors were not detected. We found that Mexican rice borer infestation of corn can cause loss of ears, and lodging, shattering, and complete destruction of maturing stalks. The larger quantities of adult Mexican rice borers captured in pheromone-based traps placed at corn field edges compared with sorghum and sugarcane field edges further indicates that corn is preferred to sugarcane and sorghum. The basis for the pest's attraction to corn and implications to potential range expansion to other U.S. sugarcane-growing regions are discussed. PMID:23156155
Showler, Allan T; Wilson, Blake E; Reagan, Thomas E
Field-cage methods were developed to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-season releases at both a northern (Michigan) and a southern (Maryland) location within the current North American range of A. planipennis. In August, September and October of 2009, five young green ash trees were selected at each location. Tetrastichus planipennisi and S. agrili were each randomly assigned to one of two cages attached to each tree, surrounding separate sections of trunk in which late-instar A. planipennis had been inserted. The following April, the caged trunk sections were dissected to determine the fate of each A. planipennis larva and the developmental stages of all recovered parasitoid progeny. At both locations, T. planipennisi and S. agrili were able to parasitize hosts and successfully overwinter (i.e., reach adulthood the following spring). For T. planipennisi, successful parasitism (i.e., parasitoid progeny reached adulthood) occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August and September releases in Michigan. At both locations, percent parasitism by T. planipennisi was higher in August and September than in October. For S. agrili, successful parasitism occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August release in Michigan. In Maryland, percent parasitism by S. agrili in August and September was higher than in October. The caging method described here should be useful in determining the climatic suitability of other regions before proceeding with large-scale releases of either species and may have utility in other wood-borer parasitoid systems as well.
Ulyshen, Michael D.; Duan, Jian J.; Bauer, Leah S.; Gould, Juli; Taylor, Phil; Bean, Dick; Holko, Carol; Driesche, Roy Van
Ethylene production from florets of Shogun harvested broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) held at 20C in darkness increased as the sepal tissues yellowed. The pattern of respiration rate and ethylene production from branchlets or entire heads was similar, although the magnitude of ethylene and carbon dioxide production appeared to be diluted by the other fleshy stem tissues. The reproductive structures, stamens and pistil, may have a role in determining the rate of sepal degreening, since removing them from florets reduced the yellowing rate. The pistil and stamens also had 7-fold higher levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase activity and more than double the ethylene production of other tissues within the floret. Stamen ACC oxidase activity was high on the first day after harvest, before yellowing became obvious. Changes in ACC oxidase activity of the pistil and stamens mirrored changes in ACC content in these tissues. The climacteric status of harvested broccoli was confirmed by exposure to 0.5% propylene. Propylene stimulated respiration and ethylene production and accelerated yellowing. Broccoli tissues did not respond to propylene immediately after harvest. In tissues aged in air before treatment, the time for response to propylene was shorter, a result suggesting a change in tissue sensitivity. Ethylene exposure induced a dose-dependent decline in hue angle, with 1 ppm ethylene giving the maximum response.
Tian, M.S.; Downs, C.G.; Lill, R.E.; King, G.A. (New Zealand Inst. for Crop and Food Research, Levin (New Zealand). Levin Research Center)
Floral and faunal biodiversity is relevant to pest management in many ways. In the present paper emphasis is given to the use of alternative wild and cultivated host plants as trap plants, mixed cropping and management of soil nutrients through mineral nutrition and use of legu- minous cover crops in crop rotation systems for integrated control of maize cob and
Adenirin CHABI-OLAYE; Christian BORGEMEISTER; Christian NOLTE; Fritz SCHULTHESS; Saka GOUNOU; Rose NDEMAH
Yellow rust of barley is an invasive disease that was found in the past 10 years in North America. The causal agent, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, was introduced into Colombia, South America, from Europe in 1975. It spread to all major barley-producing areas in South America by 1982. In 1988 it was found in Mexico and in 1991 in Texas. Since then it has been found in all major barley-producing areas of the American West. Originally described as race (R) 24, barley yellow rust in North America is now known to be a very heterogeneous population. Resistance has been identified, evaluated, and is being introduced into commercial malting and other barley cultivars. Cultural and chemical controls are effective and available. An integrated approach using general field resistance and other tactics is described for sustainable management of barley yellow rust. PMID:11701870
We evaluated the efficacy of the systemic insecticides dinotefuran, emamectin benzoate, fipronil, and imidacloprid for preventing attacks and brood production of southern pine engraver beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on standing, stressed trees and bolt sections of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., in eastern Texas. Emamectin benzoate significantly reduced the colonization success of engraver beetles and associated wood borers in both stressed trees and pine bolt sections. Fipronil was nearly as effective as emamectin benzoate in reducing insect colonization of bolts 3 and 5 mo after injection but only moderately effective 1 mo after injection. Fipronil also significantly reduced bark beetle-caused mortality of stressed trees. Imidacloprid and dinotefuran were ineffective in preventing bark beetle and wood borer colonization of bolts or standing, stressed trees. The injected formulation of emamectin benzoate was found to cause long vertical lesions in the sapwood-phloem interface at each injection point. PMID:16573328
Yellow fever is a mosquito-transmitted hemorrhagic viral disease that is endemic to tropical regions in South America and Africa. It remains a significant health concern for deploying military personnel, accordingly vaccination is frequently performed on troops. Although the vaccine is generally administered with only minor complications, rare severe complications are also reported. Herein, we report a mild case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease 4 days after administration of the vaccine. The various complications of the vaccine and their pathogenesis are also reviewed. PMID:22594140
Rowland, Michael; Plackett, Timothy P; Smith, Richard
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252
Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P
The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha-1) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs.
French populations of the European corn borer consist of two sympatric and genetically differentiated host races. As such, they are well suited to study processes that could be involved in sympatric speciation, but the initial conditions of host-race divergence need to be elucidated. Gene genealogies can provide insight into the processes involved in speciation. We used DNA sequences of four nuclear genes to (1) document the genetic structure of the two French host races previously delineated with allozyme markers, (2) find genes directly or indirectly involved in reproductive isolation between host races, and (3) estimate the time since divergence of the two taxa and see whether this estimate is compatible with this divergence being the result of a host shift onto maize after its introduction into Europe ?500 years ago. Gene genealogies revealed extensive shared polymorphism, but confirmed the previously observed genetic differentiation between the two host races. Significant departures from the predictions of neutral molecular evolution models were detected at three loci but were apparently unrelated to reproductive isolation between host races. Estimates of time since divergence between French host races varied from ?75,000 to ?150,000 years, suggesting that the two taxa diverged recently but probably long before the introduction of maize into Europe.
Malausa, Thibaut; Leniaud, Laurianne; Martin, Jean-Francois; Audiot, Philippe; Bourguet, Denis; Ponsard, Sergine; Lee, Siu-Fai; Harrison, Richard G.; Dopman, Erik
Plants can recognize the insect elicitors and activate its defense mechanisms. European Corn Borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) saliva, produced from the labial salivary glands and released through the spinneret, is responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Glucose oxidase (GOX) present in the ECB saliva induced direct defenses in tomato. By contrast, GOX activity in ECB saliva was insufficient to trigger defenses in maize, suggesting that host-specific salivary elicitors are responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Our current study further examined whether ECB saliva can trigger indirect defenses in tomato. Relative expression levels of TERPENE SYNTHASE5 (TPS5) and HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE (HPL), marker for indirect defenses in host plants, were monitored. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that ECB saliva can induce the expression of TPS5 and HPL, suggesting that salivary signals can induce indirect defenses in addition to the direct defenses. Further experiments are required to identify different ECB elicitors that are responsible for inducing direct and indirect defenses in host plants.
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250
Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M
Field surveys were conducted to evaluate the occurrence of the isopod borer Sphaeroma terebrans (Crustacea) in aerial roots (prop roots) of the red mangrove Rhizophora mucronata on several different spatial scales (m to 100 km) in East Africa. In 6 out of 17 sites studied in Kenya and on Zanzibar Island, Tanzania, no signs of the isopods were found. When the isopods were present the frequency of infestation was high. Trees in muddy substrates in the lower intertidal, in particular at fringing channels or the open sea, showed high prevalence and intensity of infestation, with large part of their roots damaged or dead. Trees at the upper range of Rhizophora, in sandy and muddy areas, showed no signs of isopod infestation. This pattern recurred in mangrove forests on large spatial scales and there was no indication that island forests differed from the mainland forests. This indicates that sediment characteristics, vertical height in the tidal zone, and direct exposure to incoming water are the major factors controlling the abundance of S. terebrans. The isopod may play an important role in determining the lower intertidal limits of R. mucronata. Trees with numerous dead or nongrowing roots, as result of Sphaeroma attack, are likely to tumble due to a lack of root support and this is most likely to occur along channels at the lower, muddy intertidal. Tumbled trees were frequently observed along channels in the lower, muddy intertidal, but rarely in the mid or high intertidal. Implications for management of mangrove forests are discussed. PMID:12572825
Svavarsson, Jörundur; Osore, Melckzedeck K W; Olafsson, Emil
In order to determine the type, distribution, and structures of sensilla, the antennae of the red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus Marsham (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), were examined by light and electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission). Four different types of sensilla were identified in the club, and one type of chaetica was found in the scape and funicle of both male and female individuals. Chaetica and basiconica were the most abundant sensilla types in the club. They were present in the three sensory bands described, totaling approximately 80% of sensilla in the antennal club of H. obscurus. Chaetica were predominantly mechanoreceptors, although gustatory function could not be excluded. Basiconica forms showed characteristics typical of olfactory sensilla. Trichoidea were not found in the proximal sensory band, and they exhibited abundant pores, suggesting olfactory function. Styloconica were the least abundant sensillum type, and their shape was similar to that reported as having hygro- and thermoreceptor functions. There was no difference in the relative abundance of antennal sensilla between males and females. Finally, the sensillar configuration and abundance of receptors in the H. obscurus antennae suggest that these sensilla have chemoreceptive and other functions.
Palma, Ruben; Mutis, Ana; Isaacs, Rufus; Quiroz, Andres
The soursop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with soursop was conducted to study the life cycle under field conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00h and 13:00h (35ºC, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. PMID:20877987
Hernández-Fuentes, Luis M; Urias-López, Mario A; Bautista-Martínez, Nestor
Of 12 potential reproductive isolating barriers between closely related Z and E pheromone strains of the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis), seven significantly reduced gene flow but none were complete, suggesting that speciation in this lineage is a gradual process in which multiple barriers of intermediate strength accumulate. Estimation of the cumulative effect of all barriers was nearly complete isolation (> 99%), but geographic variation in seasonal isolation allowed as much as ~10% gene flow. With the strongest barriers arising from mate-selection behavior or ecologically relevant traits, sexual and natural selection are the most likely evolutionary processes driving population divergence. A recent multilocus genealogical study corroborates the roles of selection and gene flow (Dopman et al. 2005), because introgression is supported at all loci besides Tpi, a sex-linked gene. Tpi reveals strains as exclusive groups, possesses signatures of selection, and is tightly linked to a QTL that contributes to seasonal isolation. With more than 98% of total cumulative isolation consisting of prezygotic barriers, Z and E strains of ECB join a growing list of taxa in which species boundaries are primarily maintained by the prevention of hybridization, possibly because premating barriers evolve during early stages of population divergence.
This paper describes the main distinguishing characteristics of female and male pupae and adults of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Two pairs of tubercles present on the sterna of segments IX and X of the female pupae are useful in differentiating female from male pupae. The female genital opening is located anterior to the first pair of tubercles and forms a plateau in which the center has a light brown longitudinal depression that indicates the female genital opening. The male genital opening is a conspicuous, brown, longitudinal slit located between the two pairs of tubercles. The sex of the adult moth can be determined by examining the ventrocaudal segments of the abdomen. The last segment of the female abdomen is white, compressed laterally and at the tip, and the hairy anal papillae can be seen. In the male, the ventrocaudal end of the abdomen is black and robust. This information will be useful for laboratory and field diagnosis and while working on sex ratios of this important pest of cocoa.
Although sex pheromone communication in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been studied intensively, acoustic communication in this genus has not been explored. In this study, we report that male-produced ultrasound serves as a courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, O. furnacalis. Upon landing close to a pheromone-releasing female, a male showed a series of courtship behaviors involving emission of ultrasound. The sounds were produced when the wings were vibrated quickly in an upright position. The male song was composed of chirps, i.e., groups of pulses (duration of a chirp = 58.9 ms, 8.8 pulses/chirp), with a broadband frequency of 25-100 kHz. In flight tunnel experiments, deaf and hearing females showed a significant difference in the incidence of three behavioral responses to courting males, i.e., immediate acceptance, acceptance after walking, and rejection. Deaf females showed more ‘rejection’ and less ‘acceptance after walking’ than hearing females, indicating that the detection of male-produced ultrasound plays an important role in the acceptance of a male. The findings are discussed in the context of exploitation of receiver bias and mate choice.
Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is an exotic invasive pest, which has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp) in North America.EAB continues to spread rapidly and attacks ash trees of different ages, from saplings to mature trees. However, to date very little or no molecular knowledge exists for EAB. We are interested in deciphering the molecular-based physiological processes at the tissue level that aid EAB in successful colonization of ash trees. In this report we show the effective use of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to ascertain mRNA levels in different larval tissues (including midgut, fat bodies and cuticle) and different developmental stages (including 1st-, 2nd-, 3rd-, 4th-instars, prepupae and adults) of EAB. As an example, a peritrophin gene (herein named, AP-PERI1) is exemplified as the gene of interest and a ribosomal protein (AP-RP1) as the internal control. Peritrophins are important components of the peritrophic membrane/matrix (PM), which is the lining of the insect gut. The PM has diverse functions including digestion and mechanical protection to the midgut epithelium.
The bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pantropical pest of grain legumes. A suitable artificial diet is desirable for producing uniform insects for commercial purposes or research. Three previously described artificial diets, 1 newly-developed artificial diet, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)), the natural hostplant of M. vitrata, were used for rearing M. vitrata, and the life parameters were examined. The results indicated that insects completed a full life cycle only when the larvae were fed cowpea or the diet reported by Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero (1993), called the “D-OO diet.” However, the rearing efficiency (i.e., larval and pupal survival, longevity of adults, and fecundity) on the D-OO diet was inferior to the rearing efficiency on cowpea. Subsequently, a new artificial diet was formulated based on soybean powder, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and wheat germ, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The egg production, egg hatching, larval developmental duration, and pupal survival of the M. vitrata reared on the new artificial diet were found to be significantly improved relative to the D-OO diet, but were not significantly better than on the host-plant cowpea. The optimum rearing density was 15–25 larvae per box. There were no significant changes in reproductive potential after 8 successive generations of rearing on the new diet. These results indicated that the newly developed diet could serve as a viable alternative to cowpea plant for continuous rearing of M. vitrata.
The maize-derived secondary chemical 6-methyoxybenzoxazolinone (MBOA) and a tritiated derivative were prepared synthetically for a detailed examination of their toxicity and toxicokinetics in the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis. During feeding trials with MBOA incorporated into meridic diets, the mean time population and adult emergence was significantly lengthened at concentrations of 1.5 mg MBOA/g diet and above. Increased mortality occurred at concentrations at 1.5 mg/g and above. A decrease in the sex ratio (female/total) and fecundity was observed at concentrations of 0.5 mg/g and above. The latter observations represent new biological effects related to MBOA. In tracer studies, both uptake and excretions of MBOA administered in diets to larvae increased linearly with concentration. Body burden values indicated that the ECB larvae were capable of excreting enough compound to maintain total tissue levels at approximately 50% of the dietary concentration. Total amount of label increased with larval stage, but decreased in adults due to a large amount of label eliminated in the pupal case. In topical application studies, elimination of the label in the frass was rapid, reaching 60% by 6 hr and 82% of applied dose by 24 hr. Accumulation of label in tissues other than hemolymph was small. The results show that MBOA is toxic to ECB, but the insect has efficient methods for minimizing these effects.
Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with ( n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C25 had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.
Silk, Peter J.; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D.; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping
...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products Â§ 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal...
...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products Â§ 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow...
Chylous ascites has rarely been reported in yellow nail syndrome. A case of chylous ascites in yellow nail syndrome is described which was treated successfully with dietary restriction of fat and supplements of medium chained triglycerides.
The upgrade and improvement of life support systems has always been a priority for the United States Air Force. A study is currently underway to determine the feasibility of replacing the emergency passenger protective breathing device used on USAF transport aircraft. The present system, the “yellow dixie cup”, provides supplemental oxygen in the event of a rapid decompression. The system
Yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been used for prevention of YF since 1937 with over 500 million doses administered. However, rare reports of severe adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns about the vaccine’s safety. We reviewed reports of adverse events following YF vaccination reported to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from 2000 to 2006. We used
Nicole P. Lindsey; Betsy A. Schroeder; Elaine R. Miller; M. Miles Braun; Alison F. Hinckley; Nina Marano; Barbara A. Slade; Elizabeth D. Barnett; Gary W. Brunette; Katherine Horan; J. Erin Staples; Phyllis E. Kozarsky; Edward B. Hayes
Photoinduced anisotropy of photoactive yellow protein film in polyvinyl alcohol matrix was investigated. Studies were done for wavelengths longer than 446 nm, the location of the absorption maximum. Dicroism and birefringence of the sample were found to be wavelength dependent but intensity independent.
Vanhanen, J.; Leppanen, V. P.; Jaaskelainen, T.; Parkkinen, S.; Parkkinen, J. P. S.
Sediment and phytoplankton cloud the waters of the Yellow Sea in this true-color MODIS image acquired March 18, 2002. The swirls of sediment appear as a murky brownish blue color, while the phytoplankton are purely blue green and are concentrated around the small island in the lower right corner of the image.
The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826
Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar
The Yellow Sea is a shallow basin with an average depth of 44 m located between China and the Korean Peninsula. One of the dominant ocean circulation features of the Yellow Sea is a warm water intrusion known as the Yellow Sea Warm Current. This feature is present throughout the year but reaches its farthest northward extension in winter. The
An inexpensive live attenuated vaccine (the 17D vaccine) against yellow fever has been effectively used to prevent yellow fever for more than 70 years. Interest in developing new inactivated vaccines has been spurred by recognition of rare but serious, sometimes fatal adverse events following live virus vaccination. A safer inactivated yellow fever vaccine could be useful for vaccinating people at
Yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L.) is a tropical fruit with increasing acceptance in both national and international fruit markets. The aim of this work was to evaluate the centesimal composition, mineral content, total phenolics, antioxidant activity, and characterize the carotenoids of frozen yellow mombin pulp. Results indicated that the yellow mombin pulp contained an important amount of potassium and copper.
Júlia Hauck Tiburski; Amauri Rosenthal; Rosires Deliza; Ronoel L. de Oliveira Godoy; Sidney Pacheco
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 Â§ 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...
The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region.
Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar
The Yellow Sea is a shallow basin with an average depth of 44 m located between China_and the Korean Peninsula. One of the dominant ocean circulation features of the Yellow Sea is a warm water intrusion known as the Yellow Sea Warm Current. This feature is present throughout the year but reaches its farthest northward extension in winter. The circulation
The purpose of this study was to investigate suprathreshold contrast perception in white and yellow light. The contrast of black-on-white letters was adjusted to match the perceived contrast of yellow-on-yellow letters presented simultaneously on a video ...
Structure-activity relationship (SAR) observations were made for theZ-type European corn borer moth pheromone, (Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, and a series of analogs with fluorination in the alcohol portion of the molecule. The attractiveness of these analogs and the pheromone was compared to the electrostatic potential map of the molecular mechanics (MM) minimized lowest energy conformation for each compound. A critical range of electrostatic potential on the protons of the double-bond appears to be essential for optimal acceptor fit and attractiveness. PMID:24233896
Warthen, J D; Klun, J A; Schwarz, M; Wakabayashi, N
High-resolution seismic profiles from the North Yellow Sea reveal a 20–40-m-thick subaqueous clinoform delta that wraps around the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, extending into the South Yellow Sea. This complex sigmoidal-oblique clinoform, containing an estimated 400 km3 of sediment, overlies prominent relict transgressive surfaces. The nearshore topset of the clinoform, <30-m water depth, has a ?1:1000 gradient, with
J. Paul Liu; John D. Milliman; Shu Gao; Peng Cheng
The last imported case of yellow fever seen in this country was in 1924. We report a case of yellow fever acquired by an American tourist who visited the jungles of Brazil along the Rio Negro and Amazon Rivers. The patient died 6 days after hospital admission and 10 days after his first symptoms appeared. Yellow fever virus was recovered from clinical specimens, and the isolate was genetically similar to the E genotype IIB of South American yellow fever viruses. This patient's illness represents a case of vaccine-preventable death since he failed to be immunized with a recommended preexposure yellow fever vaccine. PMID:9402373
McFarland, J M; Baddour, L M; Nelson, J E; Elkins, S K; Craven, R B; Cropp, B C; Chang, G J; Grindstaff, A D; Craig, A S; Smith, R J
In order to develop efficient lures for soybean pod borer Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura) in China, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienyl acetate (EE-8,10-12:Ac), the main component of the pheromone of L. glycinivorella, and 12 structurally-related compounds were synthesised in good overall yields, regiospecificities, and stereo-selectivities via coupling reactions catalysed by Li?CuCl?. The effect of different synthetic compounds, alone or in combination with EE-8,10-12:Ac, on numbers of captured L. glycinivorella males was evaluated. EE-8,10-12:Ac, (E)-10-dodecenyl acetate (E-10-12:Ac), (E)-8-dodecenol (E-8-12:OH), tetradecyl acetate (14:Ac), and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z-9-14:Ac) alone displayed different attractiveness to L. glycinivorella males. 14:Ac, E-8-12:OH, E-10-12:Ac, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienal (EE-8,10-12:Ald), (E)-8-dodecenal (E-8-12:Ald), (E)-10-dodecenal (E-10-12:Ald) and Z-9-14:Ac all showed a synergistic effect to EE-8,10-12:Ac at certain dosages. The binary mixtures of EE-8,10-12:Ac and E-10-12:Ald, Z-9-14:Ac,14:Ac, E-8-12:Ald, EE-8,10-12:Ald, E-8-12:OH, or E-10-12:Ac in suitable ratios give 17.00-, 10.98-, 10.67-, 6.73-, 5.54-, 4.30- and 4.50-fold increases in trap catch, respectively, over the standard pheromone lure, and as novel pheromone blends, demonstrated potential use in pheromone traps to monitor or control L. glycinivorella populations in China. PMID:23085661
Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis.
Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.
Background Sexual reproduction entails the encounter of the sexes and the multiplicity of rituals is parallel to the diversity of mating systems. Evolutionary mechanisms such as sexual selection and sexual conflict have led to the elaboration of traits to gain attention and favours from potential partners. A paradox exists about how coordinated systems can evolve and diverge when there would seem to be a stabilising selection acting. Moth display traits – pheromones – constitute an advantageous model with which to address questions about the evolution of mating systems in animals. Both males and females can possess pheromones that are involved either in close- or long-range communication. Female and male pheromones appear to have different origins and to be under different evolutionary constraints, thus they might be envisioned as independently evolving traits. We conducted laboratory experiments to explore the role of scents released during courtship by males of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Results Information provided by the male pheromone appears critical for female acceptance. The composition of this male pheromone varies in an age-dependent manner and females show mating preference towards older males in choice experiments. Furthermore, male signals may allow species discrimination and reinforce reproductive isolation. Finally, we found evidence for a genetic correlation between male and female signals, the evolution of which is best explained by the constraints and opportunities resulting from the sharing of gene products. Conclusion In this study we used an integrative approach to characterise the male sex pheromone in a moth. Interestingly, the male chemical signal is analogous to the female signal in that structurally similar compounds are being used by both sexes. Hence, in systems where both sexes possess display traits, the pleiotropy of genes generating the traits could influence the evolutionary trajectories of sexual signals and lead to their divergence, with speciation being the ultimate result.
When physiologically excessive amounts of the female sex pheromone of the European corn borer (ECB) or esters analogous to the pheromone were applied to the antennae of males, their behavioral responsiveness to pheromone in a flight tunnel was significantly impaired for 2 hr. Concurrent quantitative analyses of heptane extracts of the male antennae by gasliquid chromatography showed that the compounds applied to antennae were hydrolyzed and, at 2 and 4 hr posttreatment, little or none of the compound applied or hydrolysis product was detectable in the antennal extracts. After 4 hr of in vivo incubation, male responsiveness to pheromone was restored among moths treated with the analogs but not among moths treated with pheromone. Esterase activity on the antennae was moderately inhibited in vivo by a pheromone analog that is a so-called transition-state esterase inhibitor, 1,1, 1-trifluoro-14-heptadecen-2-one. However, the analog did not inhibit male behavior when it was coevaporated with pheromone in a flight-tunnel assay. Therefore, in the presence of pheromone, the analog did not compete well for esterase or the pheromone receptor. Treating the antennae of intact males with tetrahydrofuran obliterated sex pheromone response capability in males, but the treatment did not significantly attenuate esterase and other catabolic activity of the antennae. Indications are that degradation of esters on the ECB antennae involves substrate-nonspecific esterase activity and other metabolic processes that in turn remove hydrolysis products from the antennae. Maintenance of a male's ability to respond to pheromone is linked to these processes. PMID:24258728
Lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an important pest of sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) in southern Florida. Cultural controls for E. lignosellus were evaluated in preparation for the potential loss of effective insecticides. Field studies conducted in 2006 compared the effects of harvest residues from green-harvested sugarcane (no preharvest burning to remove leaf matter) on E. lignosellus stalk damage and yield. Damage by E. lignosellus was significantly lower in plant cane plots that were covered with harvest residues collected from a green-harvested field before shoot emergence compared with plots without harvest residue. There were no yield differences between plots with and without harvest residues in plant or ratoon sugarcane fields in the 2006 study. The effects of three postharvest tillage levels (conventional, intermediate, and no tillage) were evaluated in preharvest burned and green-harvested fields in 2008 and 2009. Significantly less E. lignosellus damage was observed in the green- versus preharvest burned fields in both years. Intermediate and no-tillage plots had very little damage in green-harvested field. Conventional tillage plots had the greatest damage in the green-harvested field and the lowest damage in the preharvest burned field. In 2008, biomass yield was greater in the intermediate than conventional tillage in the green-harvested field, but it was greater in the conventional than in other tillage levels in the preharvest burned field. These studies demonstrated that cultural controls could greatly reduce E. lignosellus damage in sugarcane without the use of insecticides. PMID:21404853
Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A; Webb, Susan E
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is a recently discovered invasive insect pest of ash, Fraxinus spp. in North America. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are a multifunctional superfamily of enzymes which function in conjugating toxic compounds to less toxic and excretable forms. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and expression patterns of different classes of GST genes in different tissues and developmental stages plus their specific activity. Multiple sequence alignment of all six A. planipennis GSTs (ApGST-E1, ApGST-E2, ApGST-E3, ApGST-O1, ApGST-S1 and ApGST-?1) revealed conserved features of insect GSTs and a phylogenetic analysis grouped the GSTs within the epsilon, sigma, omega and microsomal classes of GSTs. Real time quantitative PCR was used to study field collected samples. In larval tissues high mRNA levels for ApGST-E1, ApGST-E3 and ApGST-O1 were obtained in the midgut and Malpighian tubules. On the other hand, ApGST-E2 and ApGST-S1 showed high mRNA levels in fat body and ApGST-?1 showed constitutive levels in all the tissues assayed. During development, mRNA levels for ApGST-E2 were observed to be the highest in feeding instars, ApGST-S1 in prepupal instars; while the others showed constitutive patterns in all the developmental stages examined. At the enzyme level, total GST activity was similar in all the tissues and developmental stages assayed. Results obtained suggest that A. planipennis is potentially primed with GST-driven detoxification to metabolize ash allelochemicals. To our knowledge this study represents the first report of GSTs in A. planipennis and also in the family of wood boring beetles. PMID:23499941
A series of tests were conducted to determine the susceptibility of eggs and neonates of the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae = Bostrychidae), exposed to the insect growth regulator, methoprene, on filter paper and on rough rice. In the first test, the hatch rate of eggs exposed on filter paper treated with methoprene at the label rate of 0.003 mg [AI]/cm2 when used as a surface treatment in structures was 52.0 ± 7.3% compared to 93.0 ± 3.3% on untreated controls. In the second test, eggs were exposed to a dose-response series of 0.00003 to 0.03 mg[AI]/cm2. Egg hatch was directly proportional to concentration and ranged from 85.0 ± 2.0% on untreated controls to 26.7 ± 8.3% at the highest concentration tested. In the third test, 1 ppm of methoprene was sprayed on long grain rough rice (paddy) (Cocodrie variety), and then individual kernels were cracked and an egg of R. dominica was placed directly on the kernel. On untreated rice kernels, 67.5 ± 11.6% of the eggs hatched and were able to bore inside, and all of these larvae emerged as adults. In contrast, 40.0 ± 5.3% of the eggs placed on treated cracked kernels were able to develop to where the larvae were visible through X-ray detection, but none emerged as adults. In the final test, newly-emerged adults were exposed on rough rice treated with 1 ppm methoprene. The number of eggs from adults on untreated rice was 52.1 ± 4.3 eggs per female, and on treated rice the average egg production was 12.5 ± 1.1 eggs per female. Methoprene applied on a surface or on rough rice affected development of egg hatch also reduced fecundity of parent adults exposed on the treated rough rice.
Arthur, F. H.; Wilde, G. E.; Throne, J. E.; Subramanyam, Bh.
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.
Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Duan, Jian J.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.
The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly
terization of native resistance to stalk tunneling by the European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)), indicative of the identification of the underlying genetic components has importance of this pest and the difficulty in obtaining conclusive been hindered by environmental variation, a laborious results. In this study, 191 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of B73 and lengthy screening process, and the
M. D. Krakowsky; M. Lee; W. L. Woodman-Clikeman; M. J. Long; N. Sharopova
The potential for using vacuum technology to kill larvae of the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Bupres- tidae), in solid-wood packing materials (SWPM) and other wood products was assessed. Current regulations require that SWPM be heat treated or fumigated prior to export. Vacuum treatment may be a
Zhangjing Chen; Marshall S. White; Melody A. Keena; Therese M. Poland; Erin L. Clark
European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...
Euplatypus segnis (Chapuis) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) causes severe damage to pecan (Carya illinoensis) trees at Coahuila, Mexico. The present study was carried out during 1999-2001 in a 90 ha pecan orchard, divided in eight lots, during 1999-2001. The trees were counted and clasified in four categories: attacked by borer insects and with symptoms of cotton root rot (Phymatotrichopsis omnivora); only attacked
José Alfredo Samaniego-Gaxiola; Manuel Ramírez-Delgado; Aurelio Pedroza-Sandoval; Urbano Nava-Camberos
Accurate monitoring of an introduced, mass-released microbial control agent is essential in evaluating its persistence and in designing application strategies for insect pest control. As part of our multi-year study on the development and use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against the emerald ash borer, a major invasive pest of ash trees, we are determining persistence of the fungus
Louela A. Castrillo; Michael H. Griggs; John D. Vandenberg
The purpose of this study was to investigate suprathreshold contrast perception in white and yellow light. The contrast of black-on-white letters was adjusted to match the perceived contrast of yellow-on-yellow letters presented simultaneously on a video display. At lower contrasts (7-15%), the apparent contrast of yellow letters was slightly enhanced compared to black-on-white letters (mean enhancement = 23%), but this effect diminished with increasing contrast. The slight enhancement in yellow light was independent of letter size, and could not be explained by luminance differences between yellow and white displays. This effect may relate to the subjective improvement often reported when wearing yellow (blue-blocking) lenses. PMID:8729569
... cells? What are embryonic stem cells? What are adult stem cells? What are the similarities and differences between embryonic and adult stem cells? What are induced pluripotent stem cells? What are ...
The biosynthesis of female moth sex pheromone blends is controlled by a number of different enzymes, many of which are encoded by members of multigene families. One such multigene family, the acyl-CoA desaturases, is composed of certain genes that function as key players in moth sex pheromone biosynthesis. Although much is known regarding the function of some of these genes, very little is known regarding how novel genes have evolved within this family and how this might impact the establishment of new sex pheromone blends within a species. We have discovered that several cryptic ?11 and ?14 desaturase genes exist in the genomes of the European and Asian corn borers (Ostrinia nubilalis and Ostrinia furnacalis, respectively). Furthermore, an entirely novel class of desaturase gene has arisen in the Ostrinia lineage and is derived from duplication of the ?11 desaturase gene and subsequent fusion with a retroposon. Interestingly, the genes have been maintained over relatively long evolutionary time periods in corn borer genomes, and they have not been recognizably pseudogenized, suggesting that they maintain functional integrity. The existence of cryptic desaturase genes in moth genomes indicates that the evolution of moth sex pheromone desaturases in general is much more complex than previously recognized.
Examination of sequence variation at nuclear loci can give insights into population history and gene flow that cannot be derived from other commonly used molecular markers, such as allozymes. Here, we report on sequence variation at a single nuclear locus, the pheromone-binding protein (PBP) locus, in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). The European corn borer has been divided into three races in New York State on the basis of differences in pheromone communication and life history. Previous allozyme data have suggested that there is a small but significant amount of genetic differentiation between these races. The PBP does not appear to be involved in the pheromone differences between these races. Examination of variation at the PBP locus in the three races reveals no fixed differences between races despite high levels of polymorphism. There also appears to have been considerable recombination in the history of the pheromone-binding protein alleles. Observation of both recombination between alleles and lack of significant nucleotide or insertion/deletion divergence between races leads us to suggest that these populations are either recently diverged or have continued to exchange genetic material subsequent to divergence in pheromone communication and life history.
A Brazilian isolate of Beauveria bassiana (CG425) that shows high virulence against the coffee berry borer (CBB) was examined for the production of subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) cuticle-degrading proteases. Fungal growth was either in nitrate-medium or in CBB cuticle-containing medium under both buffered and unbuffered conditions. In unbuffered medium supplemented with cuticle, the pH of cultures dropped and Pr1 and Pr2 activities were detected in high amounts only at a pH of 5.5 or higher. In buffered cultures, Pr1 and Pr2 activities were higher in medium supplemented with cuticle compared to activities with nitrate-medium. The Pr1 and Pr2 activities detected were mostly in the culture supernatant. These data suggest that Pr1 and Pr2 proteases produced by strain CG425 are induced by components of CBB cuticle, and that the culture pH influences the expression of these proteases, indicating the occurrence of an efficient mechanism of protein secretion in this fungus. The results obtained in this study extend the knowledge about protease production in B. bassiana CG425, opening new avenues for studying the role of secreted proteases in virulence against the coffee berry borer during the infection process.
A high-efficiency optically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser emitting 20 W at a wavelength around 588 nm is demonstrated. The semiconductor gain chip emitted at a fundamental wavelength around 1170-1180 nm and the laser employed a V-shaped cavity. The yellow spectral range was achieved by intra-cavity frequency doubling using a LBO crystal. The laser could be tuned over a bandwidth of ~26 nm while exhibiting watt-level output powers. The maximum conversion efficiency from absorbed pump power to yellow output was 28% for continuous wave operation. The VECSEL's output could be modulated to generate optical pulses with duration down to 570 ns by directly modulating the pump laser. The high-power pulse operation is a key feature for astrophysics and medical applications while at the same time enables higher slope efficiency than continuous wave operation owing to decreased heating. PMID:24663985
Kantola, Emmi; Leinonen, Tomi; Ranta, Sanna; Tavast, Miki; Guina, Mircea
Stem cells have the ability to both differentiate into other mature cell types and maintain an undifferentiated state by self-renewal. These unique properties form the basis for stem cell use in organ replacement and tissue regeneration in clinical medicine. Currently, embryonic stem cells are the best-studied stem cell type. However alternative stem cells such as induced pluripotent stem cells and
Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11
IN this communication we report some of the results of the early stages of an X-ray diffraction study of crystals of turnip yellow mosaic virus1,2. The two most important conclusions from the interpretation of the X-ray diagrams concern: (a) the packing of the virus particles in the crystal; and (b) the arrangement of protein sub-units in the individual virus particle.
A new saponin, 3-O-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1?2)-?-D-glucopyranosyl(1?2)-?-D-glucuronopyranosyl]soyasapogenol B carboxylate (6) has been isolated from the medicinal plant yellow sweetclover together with azukisaponin II(7), robinin(8), and clovin(9). 7, 8, and9 are reported for the first time from this plant. The new saponin(6) exhibited inhibitory action on leucocyte migration in inflammation.
Many animals extract, synthesize and refine chemicals for colour display, where a range of compounds and structures can produce a diverse colour palette. Feather colours, for example, span the visible spectrum and mostly result from pigments in five chemical classes (carotenoids, melanins, porphyrins, psittacofulvins and metal oxides). However, the pigment that generates the yellow colour of penguin feathers appears to represent a sixth, poorly characterized class of feather pigments. This pigment class, here termed ‘spheniscin’, is displayed by half of the living penguin genera; the larger and richer colour displays of the pigment are highly attractive. Using Raman and mid-infrared spectroscopies, we analysed yellow feathers from two penguin species (king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus; macaroni penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus) to further characterize spheniscin pigments. The Raman spectrum of spheniscin is distinct from spectra of other feather pigments and exhibits 17 distinctive spectral bands between 300 and 1700 cm?1. Spectral bands from the yellow pigment are assigned to aromatically bound carbon atoms, and to skeletal modes in an aromatic, heterocyclic ring. It has been suggested that the penguin pigment is a pterin compound; Raman spectra from yellow penguin feathers are broadly consistent with previously reported pterin spectra, although we have not matched it to any known compound. Raman spectroscopy can provide a rapid and non-destructive method for surveying the distribution of different classes of feather pigments in the avian family tree, and for correlating the chemistry of spheniscin with compounds analysed elsewhere. We suggest that the sixth class of feather pigments may have evolved in a stem-lineage penguin and endowed modern penguins with a costly plumage trait that appears to be chemically unique among birds.
Thomas, Daniel B.; McGoverin, Cushla M.; McGraw, Kevin J.; James, Helen F.; Madden, Odile
Investigations concerning the life history of the Yellow-throat were made in southern Michigan during the spring and summer of 1938. Supplementary information was also obtained at Arlington, Virginia, in 1940 and at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, in 1947.....Resident males established territories almost immediately upon arrival in spring. In southern Michigan some resident males arrived at least as soon as, if not before, transient males. Most females appeared on their nesting ground about a week later. Adults were engaged in nesting activities from the time of their arrival in spring until the advent of the post-nuptial molt in late summer.....Typical Yellow-throat habitat consists of a mixture of a dense herbaceous vegetation and small woody plants in damp or wet situations. At Ann Arbor, the Yellow-throat was a common breeding species in its restricted suitable habitat. The population density in one area of suitable habitat was about 69 territorial males per 100 acres. Of 11 territorial males that were intensively studied, one was polygamous (with two mates), nine were monogamous, and one was probably monogamous (with at least one mate).....The song of the individual Yellow-throat was heard throughout the breeding season except for the courtship period. Two major types of song were the common song given while perched, and an occasional, more elaborate, flight song. Most males sing in spurts, singing at fairly regular intervals for a considerable period and then abruptly ceasing for another period. The vocabulary of both sexes included several types of call notes that appeared either to have special functions or to represent outward expressions of distinct emotional states of the bird.....Resident males were antagonistic toward each other throughout the breeding season. Most remained on well-established territories during this period. Territories of 10 monogamous males ranged in size from .8 to 1.8 acres but the territory of one polygamous male occupied. 3.4 acres. The behavior of males during inter-territorial encounters was similar in some respects to their behavior when courting females.....While courting females, the males are very attentive and seldom sing for about one week. During the courtship period the female locates the nesting site and builds the nest without assistance from the male.....Nests, constructed of dried plant materials, were situated on or near the ground and were supported on all sides by stems of herbaceous plants or limbs of shrubs. Many nests were composed of three layers with the coarser materials being used in the outer layer.....The full clutch of eggs in 12 nests ranged from 4 to 6 (average, 4.6). Early clutches seem to be larger than later ones. After the first egg is laid, one is laid on each succeeding day until the clutch is complete. Incubation period is about 12 days. Incubation is only by the female. Records of daytime incubation schedules of three females about half way through incubation indicate that the periods spent on and off the nests average about 61 and 16 minutes, respectively.....Young Yellow-throats usually remain in the nest for eight or nine days. During this period they grow and develop rapidly. Their weight quintuples in six days. Both sexes are active in feeding the young and in removing excreta from the nest. Records of feeding at three nests showed a range of one feeding per 5 1/2 minutes to one feeding per 22 minutes, the rate increasing with age of young. Adults care for the young for at least two weeks after the young leave the nest.....Ten of 12 females that were intensively studied were successful in raising young beyond the nestling stage. Only one of these raised two broods, although three females built at least three nests each. In 19 nests, 11 (58 per cent) produced nestlings and 7 (37 per cent) produced fledglings. In total, the 19 nests produced an average of one fledgling Yellow-throat per nest. Of 22 nests that were found near Ann Arbor, 10 (45
Stem cell biology has come of age. Unequivocal proof that stem cells exist in the haematopoietic system has given way to the prospective isolation of several tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells, the initial delineation of their properties and expressed genetic programmes, and the beginnings of their utility in regenerative medicine. Perhaps the most important and useful property of stem cells
Tannishtha Reya; Sean J. Morrison; Michael F. Clarke; Irving L. Weissman
Improved detection tools are needed for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive forest insect from Asia that has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. We evaluated attraction of adult A. planipennis to artificial traps incorporating visual (e.g., height, color, silhouette) and olfactory cues (e.g., host volatiles) at field sites in Michigan. We developed a double-decker trap consisting of a 3-m-tall polyvinyl pipe with two purple prisms attached near the top. In 2006, we compared A. planipennis attraction to double-decker traps baited with various combinations of manuka oil (containing sesquiterpenes present in ash bark), a blend of four ash leaf volatiles (leaf blend), and a rough texture to simulate bark. Significantly more A. planipennis were captured per trap when traps without the rough texture were baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil lures than on traps with texture and manuka oil but no leaf blend. In 2007, we also tested single prism traps set 1.5 m above ground and tower traps, similar to double-decker traps but 6 m tall. Double-decker traps baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil, with or without the addition of ash leaf and bark extracts, captured significantly more A. planipennis than similarly baited single prism traps, tower traps, or unbaited double-decker traps. A baited double-decker trap captured A. planipennis at a field site that was not previously known to be infested, representing the first detection event using artificial traps and lures. In 2008, we compared purple or green double-decker traps, single prisms suspended 3-5 m above ground in the ash canopy (canopy traps), and large flat purple traps (billboard traps). Significantly more A. planipennis were captured in purple versus green traps, baited traps versus unbaited traps, and double-decker versus canopy traps, whereas billboard traps were intermediate. At sites with very low A. planipennis densities, more A. planipennis were captured on baited double-decker traps than on other traps and a higher percentage of the baited double-decker traps captured beetles than any other trap design. In all 3 yr, peak A. planipennis activity occurred during late June to mid-July, corresponding to 800-1200 growing degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD10). Nearly all (95%) beetles were captured by the end of July at approximately 1400 DD10. PMID:21510200
Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Anulewicz, Andrea C
Background Sex pheromone communication systems may be a major force driving moth speciation by causing behavioral reproductive isolation via assortative meeting of conspecific individuals. The ‘E’ and ‘Z’ pheromone races of the European corn borer (ECB) are a textbook example in this respect. ‘Z’ females produce and ‘Z’ males preferentially respond to a ‘Z’ pheromone blend, while the ‘E’ race communicates via an ‘E’ blend. Both races do not freely hybridize in nature and their populations are genetically differentiated. A straightforward explanation would be that their reproductive isolation is a mere consequence of “assortative meeting” resulting from their different pheromones specifically attracting males towards same-race females at long range. However, previous laboratory experiments and those performed here show that even when moths are paired in a small box – i.e., when the meeting between sexual partners is forced – inter-race couples still have a lower mating success than intra-race ones. Hence, either the difference in attractivity of E vs. Z pheromones for males of either race still holds at short distance or the reproductive isolation between E and Z moths may not only be favoured by assortative meeting, but must also result from an additional mechanism ensuring significant assortative mating at close range. Here, we test whether this close-range mechanism is linked to the E/Z female sex pheromone communication system. Methodology/Principal Findings Using crosses and backcrosses of E and Z strains, we found no difference in mating success between full-sisters emitting different sex pheromones. Conversely, the mating success of females with identical pheromone types but different coefficients of relatedness to the two parental strains was significantly different, and was higher when their genetic background was closer to that of their male partner's pheromone race. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the close-range mechanism ensuring assortative mating between the E and Z ECB pheromone races is unrelated to the difference in female sex pheromone. Although the nature of this mechanism remains elusive, our results show that it is expressed in females, acts at close range, segregates independently of the autosome carrying Pher and of both sex chromosomes, and is widely distributed since it occurs both in France and in the USA.
Juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in many physiological processes in insect development, diapause and reproduction. An appropriate JH titer in hemolymph is essential for normal development in insects. Information concerning its carrier partner protein, juvenile hormone binding protein (JHBP), provides an alternative approach to understanding how JH regulates metamorphosis. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the Omphisa juvenile hormone binding protein (OfJHBP). The full-length OfJHBP cDNA sequence is comprised of 849 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 726bp encoding 242 amino acids. The molecular mass of the protein was estimated to be 26.94kDa. The deduced protein sequence of OfJHBP showed moderate homology with the lepidopteran, Heliothis virescens JHBP (52% amino acid identity) and lower homology with the Bombyx mori JHBP (45%) and the Manduca sexta JHBP (44%). The OfJHBP was expressed mainly in the fat body. OfJHBP transcripts in the fat body was moderately high during 3rd, 4th and 5th instars, then rapidly increased, reaching a peak during early diapause. The expression remained high in mid-diapause, then decreased in late-diapause until the pupal stage. Both juvenile hormone analog (JHA), methoprene, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) exhibited a similar stimulatory pattern in OfJHBP expression of diapausing larvae. OfJHBP mRNA levels gradually increased and showed a peak of gene expression on the penultimate, then declined to low levels in the pupal stage. For in vitro gene expression, both of JHA and 20E induced OfJHBP mRNA expression in fat body. Fat body maintenance in vitro in the presence of 0.1?g/50?l JHA induced OfJHBP mRNA expression to high levels within the first 30min whereas 0.1?g/50?l 20E induced gene expression at 120min. To study the synergistic effect of these two hormones, fat body was incubated in vitro with 0.1?g/50?l JHA or 0.1?g/50?l 20E or a combination of both hormone for 30min. Induction of OfJHBP expression by JHA and 20E was significantly greater than that of either hormone alone. These results should contribute to our understanding of how JHBP and JH regulate the termination of larval diapause in the bamboo borer. PMID:23000738
Ritdachyeng, Eakartit; Manaboon, Manaporn; Tobe, Stephen S; Singtripop, Tippawan
STEM Planet is a well designed website that is aimed at students of all levels and ages. The site is comprised of "employees of the National Network of Digital Schools (NNDS), a non-profit developer of the Lincoln Interactive online curriculum." These employees believe that students "succeed when their educational program offers a wide variety of learning opportunities." Visitors to the site will find that the learning opportunities consist of DIY experiments, discussion topics, polls, quizzes and activities. Some examples include making a homemade battery, origami engineering, taking a quiz on space phenomena, and exploring quantum mechanics. Visitors can join and comment on the Science, Technology, Engineering and Math "discussions" by simply registering on the site. Those only interested in reading the comments made in the forums under the discussion tab need not register. The "Experts" tab allows visitors to see all the great minds behind STEM Planet, including an extremely bright 14 year old.
This one-year project is being led by the Center for Occupational Research and Development (CORD). Funded by the U.S. Department of Education Office of Vocational and Adult Education under cooperative agreement with the League for Innovation in the Community College, the project is building on the work of the College and Career Transitions Initiative begun by the League in 2003. At the heart of the project are the six Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) career clusters that have provided the context for instructional materials that demonstrate the convergence of academic and technical content at the community college level. CORD staff, in conjunction with 38 faculty conferees from community colleges across the country, have developed 63 integrated curriculum projects for use in math, science, and technical courses in the six STEM-related clusters health science; information technology; manufacturing; transportation; science, technology, engineering and mathematics; and agriculture. The classroom-ready projects are intended to aid in student mastery of essential mathematics and science concepts while motivating students to pursue STEM-related careers.
TAQMAN® ASSAYS TOWARDS THE DETECTION OF PARSNIP YELLOW FLECK VIRUS AND ANTHRISCUS YELLOWS VIRUS. - Latv. entomol., 41: 87-92. Abstract: Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV), type member of the genus Sequiviridae, may be transmitted mechanically or vectored semi-persistently by the carrot-willow aphid (Cavariella aegopodii Scopoli) (Murant, Gould, 1968). Vector transmission can only occur after the acquisition of the waikavirus helper,
JULIE NORTH; ANNE MORTON; DEZ BARBARA; NICOLA SPENCE; DEREK MORGAN; NEIL BOONHAM
Transgenic maize engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become widely adopted in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million hectares, constituting 63% of the U.S. crop. Using statistical analysis of per capita growth rate estimates, we found that areawide suppression of the primary pest Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) is associated with Bt maize use. Cumulative benefits over 14 years are an estimated $3.2 billion for maize growers in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, with more than $2.4 billion of this total accruing to non-Bt maize growers. Comparable estimates for Iowa and Nebraska are $3.6 billion in total, with $1.9 billion for non-Bt maize growers. These results affirm theoretical predictions of pest population suppression and highlight economic incentives for growers to maintain non-Bt maize refugia for sustainable insect resistance management. PMID:20929774
Hutchison, W D; Burkness, E C; Mitchell, P D; Moon, R D; Leslie, T W; Fleischer, S J; Abrahamson, M; Hamilton, K L; Steffey, K L; Gray, M E; Hellmich, R L; Kaster, L V; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Pecinovsky, K; Rabaey, T L; Flood, B R; Raun, E S
Strategies proposed for delaying resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins expressed by transgenic maize require intense gene flow between individuals that grew on transgenic and on normal (referred to as refuges) plants. To investigate gene flow in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), the genetic variability at 29 sampled sites from France was studied by comparing allozyme frequencies at six polymorphic loci. Almost no deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations occurred, and a high stability of allelic distribution was found among samples collected in the same site over two or three different generations, indicating a high stability of the genetic structure over time. The overall genetic differentiation was low at the region and whole country level, suggesting a high and homogeneous gene flow. These results are discussed in relation to the sustainability of transgenic insecticidal maize.
A primary goal for evolutionary biology is to reveal the genetic basis for adaptive evolution and reproductive isolation. Using Z and E pheromone strains the European corn borer (ECB) moth, I address this problem through multilocus analyses of DNA polymorphism. I find that the locus Triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi) is a statistically significant outlier in coalescent simulations of demographic histories of population divergence, including strict allopatric isolation, restricted migration, secondary contact, and population growth or decline. This result corroborates a previous QTL study that identified the Tpi chromosomal region as a repository for gene(s) contributing to divergence in life history. Patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at Tpi suggest a recent selective sweep and genetic hitchhiking associated with colonization of North America from Europe ~200 generations ago. These results indicate that gene genealogies initially diverge during speciation because of selective sweeps, but differential introgression may play a role in the maintenance of differentiation for sympatric populations. PMID:21104111
Bark volatiles from two peach cultivars (Bisco and Redskin) were obtained by vacuum steam distillation and fractionated by preparative gas chromatography. The fractions were then assayed with the electroantenno- gram (EAG) method on antennae of female lesser peachtree borer [Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson)]. With both cultivars, two fractions elicited the largest responses. Analysis of this material by GC-MS revealed a complex mixture made up of aromatic alcohols, esters, ketones, and acids, as well as phenols, aliphatic aldehydes, and aliphatic acids. EAG responses to pure samples of all identified components were recorded, and many of these compounds were found to be quite active. Among the most stimulatory were guaiacol, methyl benzoate, and l-phenyl-1,2-propanedione. Also tested were six-carbon aliphatic aldehydes and alcohols which are components of the foliar tissue of most plants. Of these, 1-hexanol showed moderate activity, while the aldehydes and unsaturated alcohols were only weakly active. PMID:24301543
Two isolates of fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were grown on cooked rice using diphasic liquid-solid fermentation in plastic bags to produce and harvest spore powder. The cultures were dried and significant differences were found for isolates and time of harvest. The spores were harvested manually and mechanically and after the cultures were dried for nine days, when moisture content was near 10%. After harvesting, spores were submitted to quality control to assess concentration, germination, purity, moisture content, particle size and pathogenicity to the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Spore productivity on cooked rice was less than 1×1010 spores/g using both manually and mechanically harvesting methodologies. Germination at 24 hours was over 75% and pathogenicity against H. hampei was over 92.5%. This methodology is suitable for laboratory and field studies, but not for industrial production when a high concentration of spores are required for formulation and field applications.
Four pheromonal components have been detected in ovipositor washings and volatiles from female sugarcane stalk borers,Chilo auricilius Dudgeon (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), using combined gas chromatography-electroantennography. The components have been identified as (I) (Z)-7-do-decenyl acetate, (II) (Z)-8-tridecenyl acetate, (III) (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, and (IV) (Z)-10-pentadecenyl acetate by comparison of their gas chromatographic behavior with that of synthetic standards. In field tests carried out in northern India during 1982-1984, a combination of II, III, and IV in their naturally occurring ratio (8?4?1) was shown to provide a highly attractive synthetic source for trap use. (Z)-7-Dodecenyl acetate was found to reduce catches of maleC. auricilius, both when dispensed with the other three components and when released from dispensers surrounding a trap baited with the other three components. PMID:24307117
Nesbitt, B F; Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; David, H; Nandagopal, V
Reproductive development of female European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), was investigated and a classification system proposed. Females collected in a blacklight trap during 1982 and 1983 were dissected and their reproductive system examined. Female reproductive systems were divided into six stages based on ovum development within the ovarioles, ovum depletion, ovariole appearance, and fat body color and shape. The female reproductive systems were also staged on the basis of spermatophore appearance. The time necessary to classify a female is also reported. Based on the classification system, the relationship between female age and stage of ovarian development was quantified under three temperature regimes. Females were found to experience a 3- to 5-d preoviposition period before initiation of egg deposition under optimal temperature conditions. This delay between adult emergence and initiation of egg laying corresponded with more advanced ovarian developmental stages collected in blacklight traps and indicates that actively ovipositing females are primarily being collected in blacklight traps. PMID:15279261
Xingquan, Kuang; Calvin, Dennis D; Knapp, Mary C; Poston, F L
The biological activity of the limonoids prieurianin and epoxyprieurianin isolated from Entandrophragma candolei (Harms) (Meliaceae) and their respective acetates was assessed using the gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The compounds exhibited strong antifeedant activity in a diet choice bioassay with epoxyprieurianin acetate being most effective with 48.3 ppm deterring feeding by 50% (DI50) and prieurianin the least effective (DI50 = 91.4 ppm). The effect on growth of larvae was concomitant with the reduced feeding by neonate and third instar larvae. In nutritional assays, all the compounds reduced growth and consumption when fed to larvae without any effect on efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), suggesting antifeedant activity alone. No toxicity was observed nor was there any significant affect on nutritional indices following topical application, further suggesting that prieurianin-type limonoids act specifically as feeding deterrents. PMID:14640569
To quantitatively understand the transport timescales of dissolved material discharged from large rivers into a semienclosed sea, the age of Yellow River water in the Bohai Sea was calculated with the constituent-oriented age and residence time theory (CART) and particle-tracking method. Yellow River water has a mean age of 3.0 years for the entire Bohai Sea. The spatial variation of the water age is significant: 1.2 years near the Yellow River estuary but 3.9 years in the Liaodong Bay. However, the temporal variation in water age is insignificant. The water particles released at the river mouth need only several days to reach the estuary area. The great water age (1.2 years) near the Yellow River estuary is caused by the presence of old water particles that initially left this area but returned to this area again. Without the reentry of Yellow River water from the Yellow Sea to the Bohai Sea, the mean age of Yellow River water in the entire Bohai Sea decreases to 1.2 years. Calculations without tidal forcing give a reduction in water age by more than 50%, suggesting that tidal forcing plays the most dominant role in controlling the age of Yellow River water in the Bohai Sea. Calculations without winds give an increase in water age by 20-30%, suggesting that wind forcing is secondary factor to the age of Yellow River water. Changes in discharge of the Yellow River and in thermal stratification have limited influence on the age of Yellow River water.
What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every living thing is made up of cells — including the human body. ... can become new cells like this. Blood Stem Cells When you hear about stem cell transplants, they ...
Outbreaks of bronze birch borer (BBB) (Agrilus anxius), a wood-boring beetle endemic to North America, have been associated with widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.). There is substantial inter- and intra-specific variation in birch resistance to BBB. Species endemic to North America, such as paper birch (B. papyrifera), have coevolved with BBB and are more resistant than European and Asian birch species, such as European white birch (B. pendula), which lack an evolutionary history with BBB. Borer larvae feed on stem phloem tissue. Therefore, in search of potential resistance mechanisms against BBB, we compared the constitutive phenolic profile of stem phloem tissue of paper birch with that of European white birch. We also analyzed intraspecific variation in phenolic composition among clones and/or half-siblings of both species. Three phenolics (coumaroylquinic acid, betuloside pentoside A, and a diarylheptanoid hexoside) were detected only in paper birch, and concentrations of six other phenolics were significantly higher in paper birch. These differences may contribute to the high resistance of paper birch to BBB relative to European white birch. There was significant intraspecific variation in four of 17 phenolics found in paper birch and in five of 14 found in European white birch, but clones and half-siblings within each species could not be distinguished by phenolic composition using multivariate analysis. PMID:22012323
Muilenburg, V L; Phelan, P L; Bonello, P; Herms, D A
We describe the female reproductive parameters of yellow baboons at the Tana River National Primate Reserve, Kenya. We present data on menarche, cycle length, pregnancy, birth, postpartum amenorrhea, interbirth interval, and infant survival. We also briefly compare our data to those reported for yellow baboon females at the Amboseli Reserve, Kenya. Our results indicate statistically significant differences in some of
Yellow tulp (Moraea pallida Bak.), collected predominantly during the flowering stage from a number of sites in South Africa, showed large variation in digoxin equivalent values, indicating variability in yellow tulp toxicity. Very low values were recorded for tulp collected from certain sites in the Northern Cape. PMID:22135929
Zanthoxtylum flavum Vahl, commonly known as aceitillo, yellow-sanders, West Indian satinwood, and noyer (5), is a medium-sized tree with a straight trunk very hard bark, a narrow crown, and a small amount of foliage. Its beautiful yellow heartwood has a h...
Adsorption of cadmium ions onto Yellow River sediment was studied in a batch reactor. Equilibrium adsorption of cadmium ions onto Yellow River sed- iment can be well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In view of common experimental conditions in the batch reactor, a set of equations for describing variations of both the dissolved heavy metal pollutant concentration and the
The accumulated in situ hydrographic survey as well as the satellite observed sea surface temperature (SST) show consistent westward shifting of the Yellow Sea Warm Salty Tongue (YSWST) in winter. A 2-D thermal model is used to show the westward shifting of the YSWST due to cooling and advection. The MITgcm is applied to simulate the circulation in the Yellow
Daji Huang; Xiaopeng Fan; Dongfeng Xu; Yuanzheng Tong; Jilan Su
Observations of current velocity, pressure, and temperature in the eastern Yellow Sea from January 10 through April 12, 1986, together with geostrophic winds calculated from surface atmospheric pressure distributions, are analyzed for a study of the synoptic band response of the Yellow Sea to the wintertime winds. North wind pulses in the winter monsoon are found to give rise to
This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed species richness was simple, ranging from four to five of all the 16S rRNA clone libraries. When using Trichoderma fermentation liquids as additives, the percentages of the dominant flora in the total bacterial community in larval midgut changed significantly. The community of the genus Ochrobactrum in the midgut decreased significantly when the larvae were fed with the fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4. However, the Enterococcus community increased and then occupied the vacated niche of the Ochrobactrum members. Furthermore, the Shannon–Wiener (H) and the Simpson (1-D) indexes of the larval midgut bacterial library treated by feeding fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4 was the lowest compared with the culture medium, fermentation liquids of the wild type strain T30, and the sterile artificial diet. The Enterococcus sp. strain was isolated and characterized from the healthy larvae midgut of the Asian corn borer. An infection study of the Asian corn borer larvae using Enterococcus sp. ACB-1 revealed that a correlation existed between the increased Enterococcus community in the larval midgut and larval mortality. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Trichoderma strain could affect the composition of the midgut bacterial community. The change of the midgut bacterial community might be viewed as one of the factors resulting in the increased mortality of the Asian corn borer larvae.
Field experiments were conducted in 2004 and 2005 to determine the effect of different levels of hand-infested third instar European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hiibner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on whole-plant yield and plant growth stage in corn, Zea mays L., grown for silage. In 2004 and 2005, European corn borer infestation level had a significant negative impact on whole-plant yield (grams of dry matter per plant) with increasing infestation; however, whole-plant yield was not significantly affected by plant growth stage in either year. In 2004, the six larvae per plant treatment caused the greatest percentage of reduction (23.4%) in mean (+/-SEM) whole-plant yield (258.5 +/- 21.0 g dry matter per plant) compared with the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) CrylAb control (337.3 +/- 11.1 g dry matter per plant). In 2005, the five larvae per plant treatment caused the greatest percentage of reduction (8.3%) in mean whole-plant yield (282.3 +/- 10.8 g dry matter per plant) compared with the Bt CrylAb control (307.8 +/- 8.3 g dry matter per plant). The relationship between mean whole-plant yield and European corn borer larvae infestation level from the pooled data of both years was described well by using an exponential decay model (r2 = 0.84, P = 0.0038). The economic injury level for silage corn was estimated to be approximately 73% higher than for corn grown for grain based on similar control costs and crop values. In addition, plant growth stage and European corn borer infestation level had no effect on percentage of acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein values in either year of the study. PMID:20069843
Tiwari, S; Youngman, R R; Laub, C A; Brewster, C C; Jordan, T A; Teutsch, C
The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among quantitative trait loci (QTL) detected for European corn borer (ECB) tunneling and cell-wall components (CWC) neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) content in leaf-sheath and stalk tissues in a maize recombinant inbred line population derived from inbred lines B73 and B52. Most
This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed species richness was simple, ranging from four to five of all the 16S rRNA clone libraries. When using Trichoderma fermentation liquids as additives, the percentages of the dominant flora in the total bacterial community in larval midgut changed significantly. The community of the genus Ochrobactrum in the midgut decreased significantly when the larvae were fed with the fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4. However, the Enterococcus community increased and then occupied the vacated niche of the Ochrobactrum members. Furthermore, the Shannon-Wiener (H) and the Simpson (1-D) indexes of the larval midgut bacterial library treated by feeding fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4 was the lowest compared with the culture medium, fermentation liquids of the wild type strain T30, and the sterile artificial diet. The Enterococcus sp. strain was isolated and characterized from the healthy larvae midgut of the Asian corn borer. An infection study of the Asian corn borer larvae using Enterococcus sp. ACB-1 revealed that a correlation existed between the increased Enterococcus community in the larval midgut and larval mortality. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Trichoderma strain could affect the composition of the midgut bacterial community. The change of the midgut bacterial community might be viewed as one of the factors resulting in the increased mortality of the Asian corn borer larvae. PMID:23457472
The Virus Research Laboratory of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, was notified on 23 October 1969 that cases of suspected yellow fever had occurred in the Jos area. The diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolation and the existence of a widespread outbreak on the Jos Plateau and adjacent areas was established. This was the first recognized epidemic of yellow fever in Nigeria since 1953. Between September and the end of December 1969, an estimated total of 252 patients with yellow fever were hospitalized. The case-fatality ratio for hospitalized patients was approximately 40%. The diagnosis of yellow fever was confirmed by virus isolation, serology, or pathology in 55 patients. It is estimated that up to 100 000 cases of yellow fever may have occurred during the epidemic. PMID:4538037
Carey, D E; Kemp, G E; Troup, J M; White, H A; Smith, E A; Addy, R F; Fom, A L; Pifer, J; Jones, E M; Brès, P; Shope, R E
The Virus Research Laboratory of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, was notified on 23 October 1969 that cases of suspected yellow fever had occurred in the Jos area. The diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolation and the existence of a widespread outbreak on the Jos Plateau and adjacent areas was established. This was the first recognized epidemic of yellow fever in Nigeria since 1953. Between September and the end of December 1969, an estimated total of 252 patients with yellow fever were hospitalized. The case—fatality ratio for hospitalized patients was approximately 40%. The diagnosis of yellow fever was confirmed by virus isolation, serology, or pathology in 55 patients. It is estimated that up to 100 000 cases of yellow fever may have occurred during the epidemic.
Carey, D. E.; Kemp, G. E.; Troup, J. M.; White, H. A.; Smith, E. A.; Addy, R. F.; Fom, A. L. M. D.; Pifer, J.; Jones, E. M.; Bres, P.; Shope, R. E.
Stem Up is a pilot program to aid the disadvantaged youth of Boyle Heights in Los Angeles. The intent of the program was to integrate STEM career pathways into schools and local communities. Visitors will find the K-12 Students tab near the top of the page to be filled with almost two dozen links for all levels of student learning about science and technology. Some of the sites include "Arrick Robotics", for 9-12 graders, "Extreme Science", for all ages, and "Fun Engineering" for kids aged 10-14. The "Boyle Heights" link is a great resource for residents of the LA neighborhood, as well as informative for those visitors unfamiliar with it. There is full contact information for the city and state representatives of the neighborhood, the Police Activities League, and a live theatre that performs outreach through theatre, and classical plays. The "Parents" link also provides a number of science and technology links that parents and kids can visit together.
The yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (L.) (Diptera: Scathophagidae) is a widespread and locally abundant fly associated with the dung of large mammals, especially farm animals. This species has recently become a standard test organism for evaluating toxic effects of veterinary pharmaceuticals in livestock dung. In this context, a review of its natural history and a general description of the field and laboratory rearing methods of this species are provided here to benefit the scientific community as well as government regulators and applicants of eco-toxicological studies. For guidance, means and ranges are included for all relevant standard life history traits stemming from previously published data on Swiss populations.
Twelve virus isolates from pea, broad bean, red clover and yellow lupin have been compared with the B25 strain of bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV-B25), the E198 strain of pea mosaic virus (PMV-E198) and the pea necrosis virus (E178), which were described earlier (Bos, 1970).
The Yellow River is noted for its small water discharge and huge sediment load, which amounts to about11 × 108 tons every year, contributing 17% of the world's fluvial sediment discharge to the ocean. This has a profound effect on the sedimentation of the Bohai and the Yellow Sea. Changes of the outlet in the modern delta every 10 y
This image of Jupiter's moon Io and its surrounding sky is shown in false color. North is at the top, and east is to the right. Most of Io's visible surface is in shadow, though one can see part of a white crescent on its western side. This crescent is being illuminated mostly by 'Jupitershine' (i.e. sunlight reflected off Jupiter).
The striking burst of white light near Io's eastern equatorial edge is sunlight being scattered by the plume of the volcano Prometheus. Prometheus lies just beyond the visible edge of the moon on Io's far side. Its plume extends about 100 kilometers above the surface, and is being hit by sunlight just a little east of Io's eastern edge.Scattered light from Prometheus' plume and Io's lit crescent also contribute to the diffuse yellowish emission which appears throughout much of the sky. However, much of this emission comes from Io's Sodium Cloud: sodium atoms within Io's extensive material halo are scattering sunlight at the yellow wavelength of about 589 nanometers.This image was taken at 5 hours 30 minutes Universal Time on Nov. 9, 1996 through the green-yellow filter of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Galileo was then in Jupiter's shadow, and located about 2.3 million kilometers (about 32 Jovian radii) from both Jupiter and Io.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington D.C. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.
We report infection of Arabidopsis thaliana with the legume nanovirus Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV) by its insect vector Aphis craccivora. Symptoms of FBNYV infection on A. thaliana include stunting and reduced apical dominance, and are rather mild, compared to the severe necrosis and early plant death induced by the virus in the natural host Vicia faba. An inoculation access period of 6h is sufficient to transmit FBNYV to A. thaliana. FBNYV is readily transmitted back from A. thaliana to V. faba, where it induces the characteristic severe disease symptoms. Hence, passage through A. thaliana does not affect FBNYV pathogenicity. FBNYV accumulates to the highest levels in roots and stems, compared to cauline and rosette leaves. In cauline leaves, the kinetics of virus accumulation correlates with the amount of master Rep protein accumulation. PMID:17512075
Vega-Arreguín, Julio C; Gronenborn, Bruno; Ramírez, Bertha Cecilia
A single stranded circular RNA was isolated from grapevines infected with yellow speckle disease. The RNA which we have called grapevine yellow speckle viroid (GYSV), contains 367 nucleotide residues and has the potential to form the rod-like secondary structure characteristic of viroids. GYSV has 37% sequence homology with the recently described apple scar skin viroid (ASSV; 330 residues) and has some sequence homology with the viroids in the potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) group. The sequence of GYSV has characteristics which fit the structural domains described for the PSTV group. However, GYSV lacks the PSTV central conserved sequence. Instead, there is a conserved sequence in the central region of GYSV and ASSV which has the potential to form a stem loop configuration and a stable palindromic structure as does the central conserved region of the PSTV group. These structural features suggest there is a different central conserved region for GYSV and ASSV. The results support the viroid nature of GYSV and its inclusion into a separate viroid group which we suggest should be represented by ASSV. Images
This study reports results of a cross-sectional study based on interviews and seroepidemiological methods to identify risk factors for yellow fever infection among personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. Clinical symptoms and signs observed among yellow fever cases are also described. Humoral immune response to yellow fever, Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche, and dengue 2 infection was assessed by evaluating IgM and IgG specific antibodies. A yellow fever attack rate of 13% (44/341, with 3 fatal cases) was observed among military personnel. Signs of digestive track bleeding (14.6%) and hematuria (4.9%) were observed among the yellow fever cases. In 32.2% of the cases, we measured high levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase with maximum levels of 6,830 and 3,500, respectively. Signs of bleeding or jaundice were observed in some cases, and high levels of transaminases were seen. The epidemiological and laboratory investigations demonstrated that the military personnel were affected by a yellow fever outbreak. The association between clearing the rainforest and also being at the detachments with yellow fever infection confirms that clearing is the main factor in the jungle model of transmission, which takes place deep in the Amazonian rainforest.
Izurieta, Ricardo O; Macaluso, Maurizio; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B; Guerra, Bolivar; Cruz, Ligia M; Galwankar, Sagar; Vermund, Sten H
A valve stem and lock is disclosed which includes a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.
A valve stem and lock include a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.
Deveney, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Sanderson, Stephen N. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM
The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem
Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of crude sex pheromone gland extracts revealed that virgin Synanthedon tipuliformis (Clerck), currant borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) females, produced 6 compounds, structurally related to sex pheromone components of clearwing moths. By comparison of retention times and mass spectra of natural products with corresponding properties of synthetic standards, these compounds were identified as: (2E,13Z)-octadeca-2,13-dien-1-yl acetate (E2,Z13-18:OAc), (3E,13Z)-octadeca-3,13-dien-1-yl acetate (E3,Z13-18:OAc), (13Z)-octadec-13-en-1-yl acetate (Z13-18:OAc), (2E,13Z)-octadeca-2,13-dien-1-ol (E2,Z13-18:OH), (13Z)-octadec-13-en-1-ol (Z13-18:OH) and octadecan-1-ol (18:OH) in the ratio 100:0.7:2.7:3.2:traces:traces. The first 3 compounds were previously known to occur in the sex pheromone gland extracts of currant borers, while the last 3 chemicals are now reported for the first time. Trapping tests carried out in the black currant field revealed that E2,Z13-18:OAc, when tested separately, attracted S. tipuliformis males, while addition of E3,Z13-18:OAc to the main component increased the effectiveness of E2,Z13-18:OAc over seven times. The attractiveness of 6 component lures did not differ significantly from the one of the binary mixture, confirming that E2,Z13-18:OAc and E3,Z13-18:OAc in the ratio100:0.7 are essential sex pheromone components of S. tipuliformis. Trapping tests carried out at the dwelling place of Synanthedon scoliaeformis (Borkhausen) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) revealed that, in addition to intraspecific synergistic effect, E3,Z13-18:OAc increased the specificity of the pheromone signal of S. tipuliformis, acting by intraspecific mode as an attraction antagonist against S. scoliaeformis males. By this way, it ensured the specificity of the sex attraction signal of the currant borer. Consequently, both compounds E2,Z13-18:OAc and E3,Z13-18:OAc have to be present in pheromone formulations used for monitoring and/or control of S. tipuliformis to avoid effecting non-target species. Other compounds identified from the sex pheromone gland of S. tipuliformis did not show any significant interspecific activity for males of S. scoliaeformis, however, they provide a basis to achieve specificity of a pheromone signal of S. tipuliformis and could act as attraction antagonists against other clearwing moth species which, like S. tipuliformis, employ E2,Z13-18:OAc as their sex pheromone component. PMID:16729590
Moz?raitis, Raimondas; Karalius, Vidmantas; B?da, Vincas; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
Summary Fifteen new weed suscepts of the potato yellow dwarf virus are reported.\\u000a \\u000a Limited evidence is presented which indicates thatChrysanthemum leucanthemum var.pinnatifidum may be a more important source of the potato yellow dwarf virus under field conditions than Medium Red clover.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The presence of the yellow dwarf virus was demonstrated in naturally infected plants of the following species:Chrysanthemum leucanthemum var.pinnatifidum, Trifolium
Globally, yellow fever virus infects nearly 200,000 people, leading to 30,000 deaths annually. Although the virus is endemic to Latin America, only a single genome from this region has been sequenced. Here, we report 12 Brazilian yellow fever virus complete genomes, their genetic traits, phylogenetic characterization, and phylogeographic dynamics. Variable 3? noncoding region (3?NCR) patterns and specific mutations throughout the open reading frame altered predicted secondary structures. Our findings suggest that whereas the introduction of yellow fever virus in Brazil led to genotype I-predominant dispersal throughout South and Central Americas, genotype II remained confined to Bolivia, Peru, and the western Brazilian Amazon.
Palacios, Gustavo; Cardoso, Jedson F.; Martins, Livia C.; Sousa, Edivaldo C.; de Lima, Clayton P. S.; Medeiros, Daniele B. A.; Savji, Nazir; Desai, Aaloki; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Carvalho, Valeria L.; Lipkin, W. Ian
...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products Â§ 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal....
...2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products Â§ 137.215...
The yellow luminescence of n-type GaN has been studied with selective excitation using a combination of Ar ion and dye lasers. Narrower structures whose peak energies follow the excitation photon energy over the width of the yellow luminescence have been observed. Unlike the yellow luminescence excited by above band gap excitations, these fine structures exhibits thermal activated quenching behavior. We propose that these fine structures are due to emission occurring at complexes of shallow donors and deep acceptors which can be resonantly excited by photons with energies below the band gap. The activation energy deduced from their intensity is that for delocalization of electrons out of the complexes. Our results therefore suggest that there is more than one recombination channel (usually assumed to be due to distant donor-acceptor pairs) to the yellow luminescence in GaN.
A recent article in the New England Journal of Medicine examined the percentage of physicians listed under specialty headings in a Yellow Pages publication who were board certified. The authors presented findings that many of the physicians listed in the Yellow Pages, particularly under the heading of "Plastic Surgery," were not board certified. The source data employed in that article were obtained and reexamined, and it was found that the assumptions used were inaccurate and the methodology flawed. Almost every physician listed under "Plastic Surgery" in the Yellow Pages is board certified. We discuss the conclusions of the original article and its recommendations for control of Yellow Pages listings. We believe that these recommendations are not in the public's best interests and may be illegal as well. PMID:3190865
This report results from a contract tasking TNO Human Factors as follows: The Grantee will investigate the physiological mechanisms behind the perceived glare reduction obtained when using a yellow filter. The proposed project aims to place the reported h...
The geometry, stratigraphy, and structure of recently deposited Huanghe (Yellow River) Delta sediments were examined by high resolution subbottom profiles and medium-penetration boomer profiles. The results indicate that the active (post-1976) subaqueous ...
B. D. Bornhold D. B. Prior G. H. Keller W. J. Wiseman Z. S. Yang
The subaqueous delta of the Huanghe (Yellow River -- China) has been studied using high-resolution acoustic systems. There are many subtle variations in sea floor morphology and sediment geometries; smooth, featureless areas are rare. The main components ...
B. D. Bornhold D. B. Prior G. H. Keller Z. H. Lin Z. S. Yang
Yellow steam and electrical pipes across from Bright Angel Lodge. Note control valve to right of control box, view E. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ
Ever since its development in 1937, the live-attenuated 17D yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been one of the most effective vaccines available to man. In this review we highlight the major steps in the development of 17D YF vaccine. We discuss the use of neutralizing antibodies as a surrogate marker for protection, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of the current plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), a technique developed in the 1960s that continues to be superior to every modern test in both sensitivity and specificity. The neutralizing antibodies demonstrated by the PRNT can be detected for several decades after vaccination, possibly even for the remainder of the recipient’s natural life. We review the available evidence on the duration of protection after primary vaccination, a topic that has been the subject of controversy over the last few months. For persons who are immunocompromised due to disease, medication or advancing age, the duration of protection may be shorter: they should always have their vaccine response checked by PRNT. Due to the higher risk of severe adverse events after vaccination with 17D YF in this group, the development of a new, inactivated vaccine will have substantial benefits in this population.
Evidence for and against the spiroplasmal etiology of aster yellows (AY) disease is examined. A spiroplasma, serologically identical to Spiroplasma citri, was cultivated by some workers from lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants claimed to be naturally infected with AY. The isolated spiroplasma was shown to be infectious by injecting Macrosteles fascifrons with the cultured organisms and then confining the injected leafhoppers on healthy plants. The reports claiming that a spiroplasma is the etiological agent of AY, however, exist only in astract form, and several essential questions still need to be answered to substantiate the claim. Evidence against the claim is based on significant differences that have been observed between the behavior of S. citri and the AY agent in the leafhoppers as well as in the plant. Also, helical organisms could not be found in AY-infected plants by either scanning or immunosorbent electron microscopy, and S. citri is serologically unrelated to the mycoplasma-like organisms found in AY-infected plants. These results strongly support the conclusion that the classical AY disease is not caused by a variant of S. citri. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8
The signal transduction of photosensory receptors is intimately related to the energy relaxation associated with the relevant functional motion. To understand this energy conversion process, it is useful to analyse the energy flux vector field in a polypeptide chain matrix. Recently, we developed a new formalism for energy flux, JAB, between two different sites A and B in a protein. Flexibility is one of the attractive points of this method, namely, sites A/B can be consisted of an atom or any groups of atoms. In addition, huge computation resource is not required for this method. Since this method is based on the linear response theory, the energy flux, JAB, can be obtained from a classical molecular dynamics simulation trajectory. We can define energy conductivity between the sites A and B in terms of the time-correlation function of JAB. This quantity corresponds to the transport coefficient of heat and potential energy, representing the strength of the direct energetic coupling between the two sites. We applied this method to a photosensory receptor, photoactive yellow protein (PYP). We calculated the energy conductivity between the chromophore and the surrounding amino acid residues, Tyr42, Glu46, Thr50, Arg52, and Tyr98. As a result, we observed the values of energy conductivity decreased in this order. We will discuss the possibility of finding energy transfer pathway in PYP with this method.
Sedimentary basins in the Yellow Sea can be grouped tectonically into the North Yellow Sea Basin (NYSB), the northern basin of the South Yellow Sea (SYSNB) and the southern basin of the South Yellow Sea (SYSSB). The NYSB is connected to Anju Basin to the east. The SYSSB extends to Subei Basin to the west. The acoustic basement of basins in the North Yellow Sea and South Yellow Sea is disparate, having different stratigraphic evolution and oil accumulation features, even though they have been under the same stress regime since the Late Triassic. The acoustic basement of the NYSB features China-Korea Platform crystalline rocks, whereas those in the SYSNB and SYSSB are of the Paleozoic Yangtze Platform sedimentary layers or metamorphic rocks. Since the Late Mesozoic terrestrial strata in the eastern of the NYSB (West Korea Bay Basin) were discovered having industrial hydrocarbon accumulation, the oil potential in the Mesozoic strata in the west depression of the basin could be promising, although the petroleum exploration in the South Yellow Sea has made no break-through yet. New deep reflection data and several drilling wells have indicated the source rock of the Mesozoic in the basins of South Yellow Sea, and the Paleozoic platform marine facies in the SYSSB and Central Rise could be the other hosts of oil or natural gas. The Mesozoic hydrocarbon could be found in the Mesozoic of the foredeep basin in the SYSNB that bears potential hydrocarbon in thick Cretaceous strata, and so does the SYSSB where the same petroleum system exists to that of oil-bearing Subei Basin.
An abundance analysis of the yellow symbiotic system BD-21 3873 reveals it to be a metal-poor K-giant ([Fe\\/H]=-1.3) which is enriched in the heavy s-process elements. In that respect, this star appears to be a twin of AG Dra, another yellow symbiotic system analyzed in a previous paper (Smith et al., 1996A&A...315..179S). The heavy-element abundance distributions of AG Dra and
V. V. Smith; K. Cunha; A. Jorissen; H. M. J. Boffin
Summary. ?The name tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) has been given to several whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses affecting tomato\\u000a cultures in many tropical and subtropical regions. Hybridization tests with two DNA probes derived from a cloned isolate of\\u000a TYLCV from Israel (TYLCV-ISR) were used to assess the affinities of viruses in naturally infected tomato plants with yellow\\u000a leaf curl or leaf curl
The Yellow River Delta supports the ecological function as a typical estuarine foreshore wetland. The wetland area is changing\\u000a greatly every year because of sediment deposition and erosion, which influences the wetland function tremendously. Application\\u000a of environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC) to the Yellow River Delta is on the basis of the mobile bed dynamic model and\\u000a wetting-drying process. Careful
Yellow sweet-clover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall.) is a biennial or perennial grassy plant of Fabaceae family, which widely occurs in the European part of Russia, Western and Eastern Siberia, and Far East . The above-ground part of this medicinal plant was included into the State Pharmacopoeia (Eds. I – VIII) . Preparations of yellow sweet-clover (YSC) are officinal in Germany,
Alternating patches of black and yellow pigment are a ubiquitous feature of mammalian color variation that contributes to camouflage, species recognition, and morphologic diversity. X-linked determinants of this pattern—recognized by variegation in females but not in males—have been described in the domestic cat as Orange, and in the Syrian hamster as Sex-linked yellow (Sly), but are curiously absent from other
Azita Alizadeh; Lewis Z. Hong; Christopher B. Kaelin; Terje Raudsepp; Hermogenes Manuel; Gregory S. Barsh
The resonance spectra of iodine vapor in vacuum excited by the two yellow mercury lines from the Cooper-Hewitt glass lamp have been analyzed. The spectra excited by the yellow line at 5771.2A is found to consist of a series of doublets the main lines of which conform closely to the formula set up by Mecke from Wood's experimental data. No
This paper presents an analysis on the space\\/time statistical thermal structure in the Yellow Sea from the Navy's Master Observation Oceanography Data Set during 1929-1991. This analysis is for the establishment of an Optimum Thermal Interpolation System of the Yellow Sea (a shallow sea), for the assimilation of observational data into coastal o- coordinate ocean prediction models (e.g., the Princeton
Peter C. Chu; Susan K. Wells; Steven D. Haeger; Carl Szczechowski; Michael Carron
The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes are present, of which 631 have orthologs within the Bombyx mori gene model. A homology-based analysis assigned M. vitrata genes into a group of paralogs, but these were subsequently partitioned into putative orthologs following phylogenetic analyses. Following sequence quality filtering, a total of 1542 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were predicted within M. vitrata contig assemblies. Seventy one of 1078 designed molecular genetic markers were used to screen M. vitrata samples from five collection sites in West Africa. Population substructure may be present with significant implications in the insect resistance management recommendations pertaining to the release of biological control agents or transgenic cowpea that express Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins. Mutation data derived from transcriptome sequencing is an expeditious and economical source for genetic markers that allow evaluation of ecological differentiation.
Margam, Venu M.; Coates, Brad S.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Sun, Weilin; Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.
Crops producing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted and enable management of key insect pests while reducing the use of conventional insecticides. However, the evolution of Bt resistance could diminish these benefits. Fitness costs of Bt resistance occur in the absence of Bt toxin when individuals with resistance alleles show a reduction in fitness relative to susceptible individuals, and they can delay the evolution of resistance. Ecological factors including host-plant variety can affect the magnitude of fitness costs, and consequently, the degree to which fitness costs delay resistance. In this study, we measured fitness costs of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1F in the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) using Cry1F-resistant and Cry1F-susceptible strains sharing a similar genetic background. Fitness costs were tested on three lines of maize, Zea mays L., by measuring larval survival and development in two greenhouse experiments with plants in either the vegetative or reproductive stage. Both experiments showed that maize line significantly affected larval survival and developmental rate. However, larval survival, mass, and developmental rate did not differ between the Cry1F-resistant and susceptible strains, indicating a lack of fitness costs of resistance to Cry1F for the larval fitness components measured in this experiment. Future experiments should test for fitness costs of Cry1F resistance affecting survival to adulthood and adult life-history parameters. PMID:24772559
The population genetics and phylogeography of African phytophagous insects have received little attention. Some, such as the maize stalk borer Busseola fusca, display significant geographic differences in ecological preferences that may be congruent with patterns of molecular variation. To test this, we collected 307 individuals of this species from maize and cultivated sorghum at 52 localities in West, Central and East Africa during the growing season. For all collected individuals, we sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b. We tested hypotheses concerning the history and demographic structure of this species. Phylogenetic analyses and nested clade phylogeographic analyses (NCPA) separated the populations into three mitochondrial clades, one from West Africa, and two--Kenya I and Kenya II--from East and Central Africa. The similar nucleotide divergence between clades and nucleotide diversity within clades suggest that they became isolated at about the same time in three different refuges in sub-Saharan Africa and have similar demographic histories. The results of mismatch distribution analyses were consistent with the demographic expansion of these clades. Analysis of molecular variance (amova) indicated a high level of geographic differentiation at different hierarchical levels. NCPA suggested that the observed distribution of haplotypes at several hierarchical levels within the three major clades is best accounted for by restricted gene flow with isolation by distance. The domestication of sorghum and the introduction of maize in Africa had no visible effect on the geographic patterns observed in the B. fusca mitochondrial genome. PMID:16448409
Sezonlin, M; Dupas, S; Le Rü, B; Le Gall, P; Moyal, P; Calatayud, P-A; Giffard, I; Faure, N; Silvain, J-F
The effect of three strains of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and two strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin upon the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), was studied in three coffee farms at different altitudes (450-1,100 m above sea level) in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico. The maximum average percentage mycosis varied according to altitude. At 450 m asl (El Rincon) mycosis was 14.3% for B. bassiana and 6.3% for M. anisopliae; at 880 m asl (Santa Anita) mycosis was 40.6% for B. bassiana and 12.6% for M. anisopliae, and at 1,100 m asl (Alpujarras) 33.9% for B. bassiana and 22. 1% for M. anisopliae. The effect of fungal mycosis through time was not significant (P > 0.01) in any of the farms, but there was a significant difference between the strains of the fungus (P < 0.01); the best strains being Bb25 and Ma4 at the lower altitude, Bb26 and Ma4 for the middle altitude and Bb26 and Ma4 at the higher altitude. Environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity and rain were not correlated with the percentage mycosis caused by B. bassiana and M. anisopliae. However, in the case of B. bassiana there was a significant, positive correlation (P < 0.01) between the infestation levels of the pest and the mycosis response of the entomopathogen. PMID:11057711
De la Rosa, W; Alatorre, R; Barrera, J F; Toreillo, C
Isomers of [11,12-(3)H2]-11-tetradecenyl acetate (57 Ci/mM) were synthesized. Behavioral assay of the two compounds using Z- and E-type European corn borer (ECB) males showed that introduction of tritons into the double bond of the pheromone caused a significant isotope effect in the E-type ECB but not in the Z-type ECB. Measurements of tritium associated with the male antennae after a 3-min exposure showed that radioactivity equivalent to 10(-7) mol pheromone was adsorbed onto male antennae. Time-course in vivo metabolic studies with picogram amounts of compound applied topically to antennae of E- and Z-type males and Z-type females showed that they metabolized pheromone similarly but females degraded pheromone more slowly than males. Pheromone was hydrolyzed, and the only other major radiolabeled metabolite observed by combined high-pressure liquid chromatography-radiodetection was tritiated water. Capillary gas chromatography and radiomonitoring permitted detection of a trace amount of 11-tetradecenoic acid, which indicated alcohol oxidase activity is associated with the antennae. Evidence shows that clearing of pheromone from the ECB male antennae involves hydrolysis and oxidation of the alcohol to fatty acid, which in turn is degraded, probably via ?-oxidation, to carbon dioxide and water. PMID:24254937
The E and Z pheromone strains of the European corn borer (ECB) provide an exceptional model system for examining the genetic basis of sexual isolation. Differences at two major genes account for variation in female pheromone production and male behavioral response, components of the pheromone communication system known to be important for mate recognition and mate choice. Strains of ECB are morphologically indistinguishable, and surveys of allozyme and DNA sequence variation have revealed significant allele frequency differences at only a single sex-linked locus, Tpi. Here we present a detailed genetic linkage map of ECB using AFLP and microsatellite markers and map the factors responsible for pheromone production (Pher) and male response (Resp). Our map covers 1697 cM and identifies all 31 linkage groups in ECB. Both Resp and Tpi map to the Z (sex) chromosome, but the distance between these markers (>20 cM) argues against the hypothesis that patterns of variation at Tpi are explained by tight linkage to this "speciation gene." However, we show, through analysis of marker density, that Tpi is located in a region of low recombination and suggest that a second Z-linked reproductive barrier could be responsible for the origin and/or persistence of differentiation at Tpi.
Dopman, Erik B; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Harrison, Richard G
Some lepidopteran lysozymes have been reported to display activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, in contrast to most lysozymes that are active only against Gram-positive bacteria. OstrinLysC, a c-type lysozyme, was purified from the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and shows activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequence was determined by Edman degradation and used in a homology cloning strategy. The gene coding for OstrinLysC contains three exons and two introns. The expression profile of the OstrinlysC gene was examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Following injection of the larvae with bacteria, the OstrinlysC gene is strongly up-regulated in immune tissues. Transcripts were also detected in gut tissue. After feeding the larvae with bacteria, OstrinlysC transcripts increased in immune tissues. A very low level of transcript abundance was also detected in gut tissue. These results suggested that the OstrinlysC gene is involved in immune responses. The three dimensional structure of OstrinLysC was predicted. Based on comparison of the 3-D structure of OstrinLysC with that of silkworm lysozyme and chicken lysozyme, we hypothesize that the positive charge-rich surface and the short loop-2, which is close to the cluster of hydrophobic residues, may play important roles in the interaction with the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls.
The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis.
Farias, Juliano R.; Costa, Ervandil C.; Guedes, Jerson V. C.; Arbage, Alessandro P.; Neto, Armando B.; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F.
Abstract The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131
Farias, Juliano R; Costa, Ervandil C; Guedes, Jerson V C; Arbage, Alessandro P; Neto, Armando B; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F
Upland oak-hickory forests in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma experienced oak decline in the late 1990s and early 2000s during an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle, the red oak borer (ROB), Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). Although remote sensing supports frequent monitoring of continuously changing forests, comparable in situ observations are critical for developing an understanding of past and potential ROB damage in the Ozark Mountains. We categorized forest change using a normalized difference water index (NDWI) applied to multitemporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (1990, 2001, and 2006). Levels of decline or growth were categorized using simple statistical thresholds of change in the NDWI over time. Corresponding decline and growth areas were then observed in situ where tree diameter, age, crown condition, and species composition were measured within variable radius plots. Using a machine learning decision tree classifier, remote sensing-derived decline and growth was characterized in terms of in situ observation. Plots with tree quadratic mean diameter at breast height ?21.5 cm were categorized remotely as in severe decline. Landsat TM/ETM+-based NDWI derivatives reveal forest decline and regrowth in post-ROB outbreak surveys. Historical and future Landsat-based canopy change detection should be incorporated with existing landscape-based prediction of ROB hazard.
Jones, Joshua S.; Tullis, Jason A.; Haavik, Laurel J.; Guldin, James M.; Stephen, Fred M.
An international seminar on the treatment and laboratory diagnosis of yellow fever, sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and held in 1984, differed from previous meetings on yellow fever because of its emphasis on the care and management of patients and because the participants included specialists from several branches of medicine, such as hepatology, haematology, cardiology, infectious diseases, pathology and nephrology. The meeting reviewed the current status of yellow fever and problems associated with case-finding and notification; features of yellow fever in individual countries of Latin America; health services and facilities for medical care as they relate to diagnosis and management of cases; prevention strategies for and current status of immunization programmes; clinical and pathological aspects of yellow fever in humans; pathogenesis and pathophysiology of yellow fever in experimental animal models; clinical and specific laboratory diagnosis; treatment of the disease and of complications in the functioning of individual organ systems; prognosis and prognostic indicators; and directions for future clinical and experimental research on pathophysiology and treatment.
According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches.
Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Semiz, Gurkan; Blande, James D.
The Yellow River is the second longest river in China, a total course of 5464 km. The Yellow River traverses 30 gorges within its main course and the last one is the Sanmen Gorge. The timing of cut through the Sanmen Gorge indicates the final integration of the Yellow River. Previous geological surveys identify a paleolake in the Weihe Basin located west of the Sanmen Gorge; the lake was drained when the gorge was cut through. Using cosmogenic nuclide burial dating, we obtain ages of transition from lake to fluvial environments in the Weihe Basin and formation of fluvial terraces within the Sanmen Gorge. The timing of cut through the Sanmen Gorge is constrained to 1.3-1.5 Ma. Zircon U-Pb age distributions further suggest that the Weihe, the largest tributary of the Yellow River running from west to east along the northern section of the Qinling Mountains, primarily flowed over the Sanmen Gorge, followed by the upper and middle Yellow River traversing 1.3-1.4 Ma ago. It appears that formation and integration of the Yellow River occurred in a short duration in the early Pleistocene, probably related to global climate changes.
The ecological environment in the Yellow Sea has changed greatly from the 1950s to 1990s and this has had significant impact on marine organisms. In this study, data on soft-sediment macrobenthos occurring in depths from 25 m to 81 m in the South Yellow Sea were used to compare changes in community structure. The agglomerative classification (CLUSTER) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) methods were applied. Five communities were recognized by cluster analysis: 1. The Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass community dominated by cold water species, which changed slightly in species composition since the 1950s; 2. The mixed community with the coexistence of cold water species and warm water species, as had been reported previously; 3. The polychaete-dominated eurythermal community in which the composition changed considerably as some dominant species disappeared or decreased; 4. The Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuarine community, with some typical estuarine species; 5. The community affected by the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The greatest change occurred in the coastal area, which indicated that the change may be caused by human activities. Macrobenthos in the central region remained almost unchanged, particularly the cold water species shielded by the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass. The depth, temperature and median grain size of sediments were important factors affecting the distributions of macrobenthos in the South Yellow Sea.
Since 1970 yellow stripe disease of leek (Allium porrum) has developed epidemically in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands coincident with increasing year-around cultivation\\u000a of the crop. Many autumn and winter crops now become totally infected. Apparently similar attacks, first reported in Germany\\u000a in 1937, are increasingly attracting attention in various European countries.\\u000a \\u000a This paper describes the leek yellow stripe
Relocation of the Yellow River estuary has significant impacts on not only terrestrial environment and human activities, but also sedimentary and ecological environments in coastal seas. The responses of regional geochemical characteristics to the relocation event, however, have not been well studied. In the present study, we performed detailed geochemical elemental analyses of a sediment core from the northern Yellow Sea and studied their geochemical responses to the 1855 AD relocation of the Yellow River estuary. The results show that TOC/TN, Co/Al2O3, Cr/Al2O3, Ni/Al2O3 and Se/Al2O3 ratios all decreased abruptly after 1855 AD, and similar decreases are observed in the sediments of the mud area southwest off the Cheju Island. These abrupt changes are very likely caused by the changes in source materials due to the relocation of the Yellow River estuary from the southern Yellow Sea to the Bohai Sea, which the corresponding decreasing trends caused by the changes in main source materials from those transported by the Liaohe River, the Haihe River and the Luanhe River to those by the Yellow River. Because the events have precise ages recorded in historical archives, these obvious changes in elemental geochemistry of sediments can be used to calibrate age models of related coastal sea sediments.
1. It was possible to study in the ultracentrifuge by optical methods the behavior of yellow fever virus particles directly in the unaltered serum from infected monkeys. 2. The virus showed an extremely high light absorption in the spectral range of 320 to 440 mµ, which seemed to be its intrinsic property. In a 1 cm. thickness of fluid, the small amount of virus present in unaltered infective serum absorbed about as much light (approximately 25 per cent) in the middle of this range as did all the normal serum proteins present in a combined concentration some 1000 times as great. 3. The concentration of virus in the unaltered serum was found to be of the order of 0.00005 gm. per cc. 1 cc. of a 10–9 dilution, which, as has been shown, may constitute a minimal infective dose for monkeys, would contain approximately 10,000 virus particles. The probability that most of the virus particles were in the inactive form is discussed. 4. In infective serum having a viscosity of 14 millipoises, the particles sediment with a blurred boundary at rates lying between approximately 18 and 30 x 10–13 cm./sec./dyne. Evidence indicates that this spread is the result of an aggregation or association phenomenon. 5. Computations of size are in approximate agreement with those made from ultrafiltration studies. On the assumption that the density of the virus particle is near that of protein, its volume is computed to be at least that of a spherical particle having a diameter of 12 mµ. An assumed density of 1.15 gm. per cc. yields a diameter of 19 mµ, considering the shape as spherical.
Neuroendocrine light yellow cells of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis express a neuropeptide gene encoding three different peptides. The morphology of the cell system has been studied by in situ hybridization, using two synthetic oligonucleotides encoding parts of light yellow cell peptides I and III, and by immunocytochemistry with antisera to synthetic light yellow cell peptide II and to two
H. H. Boer; Cora Montagne-Wajer; F. G. Smith; D. C. Parish; Marja D. Ramkema; R. M. Hoek; J. Minnen; P. R. Benjamin
This project aims to identify adult prostate stem cells, using tissue recombination techniques. To date, we have initiated studies utilizing mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells as outlined in the original statement of work. We have made progress tow...
The UK distribution of N. melanura is reported, based on records from museum collections, government laboratories and a field survey of wooden marine structures and driftwood along the English and Welsh coastlines. The global distribution is also reported, based on a questionnaire survey. The life cycle of the wharf borer under different environmental conditions is described and the environmental conditions over the adult emergence period presented. The cellulase complex, xylanase and a range of dissacharases were present in the larval digestive tract when tunnelling archaeological oak. PMID:14618726
The responsiveness pf 3-day-old European corn borer males to three concentrations of 97?3 Z?E 11-tetradecenyl acetate, the female sex pheromone, was studied over a range of relative humidities (43-100%) in a wind tunnel. The proportion of males taking flight and reaching the source decreased, while the proportion exhibiting in-flight arrestment of upwind progress increased under high humidity conditions at all three concentrations of pheromone tested. The relationships between relative humidity and these behaviors were best described by polynomial equations. PMID:24248511
To develop a more robust understanding of the relationship between non-formal, school-based STEM activities and students' success and persistence in STEM fields, this study evaluates how math club participation influences math GPA and how science club participation influences science GPA. Additionally, this study evaluates how math or science…
\\u000a The purpose of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is to replace diseased, damaged, or absent hematopoietic stem\\u000a cells (HSCs) with healthy HSCs. In general, allogeneic transplants are used when the hematopoietic stem cells are diseased\\u000a (e.g., leukemia), damaged (e.g., sickle cell disease), or absent (e.g., severe immunodeficiency disease). Autologous transplants\\u000a are used to provide stem cell rescue after higher doses
Stem cells possess two basic characteristics: they are able to renew themselves and to develop into different cell types.\\u000a The link between normal stem cells and tumor cells could be examined in three aspects: what are the differences and similarities\\u000a in the control of self-renewal capacity between stem cells and tumor cells; whether tumor cells arise from stem cells; do
The two most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue\\u000a types (1–3). Generally, stem cells are categorized as one of three types: embryonic stem cells (ES), embryonic germ cells (EG), or adult\\u000a stem cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastula (Fig. 1). They
The workshop on Hair Follicle Stem Cells brought together investigators who have used a variety of approaches to try to understand the biology of follicular epithelial stem cells, and the role that these cells play in regulating the hair cycle. One of the main concepts to emerge from this workshop is that follicular epithelial stem cells are multipotent, capable of
Robert M. Lavker; Tung-Tien Sun; Hideo Oshima; Yann Barrandon; Masashi Akiyama; Corinne Ferraris; Genevieve Chevalier; Bertrand Favier; Colin A. B. Jahoda; Danielle Dhouailly; Andrei A. Panteleyev; Angela M. Christiano
The STEM-Works website was created to provide DoD personnel and other users around the world with access to high-quality, engaging science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) content to aid in advocating STEM content and skills to students. D...
The Yellow River is sourced to the northern piedmont of the Bayanhar Mountain Range in the Qinghai Province. It is the second longest river in China, traversing 5464 km. The Yellow River bends like a square in its middle course before traversing the Sanmen Gorge. The Sanmen Gorge is the last gorge in the main course of the Yellow River. After the Sanmen Gorge, the Yellow River flows into vast plains without any barrier, and finally emptys into the Bohai Bay. Thus, the timing of cut-through the Sanmen Gorge implies a true sense of formation and connection of the Yellow River. Drilling in the Weihe Basin, located west of the Sanmen Gorge, shows deposition of over 1000 m lacustrine/fluvial sediments and suggests existence of a paleolake in the basin before the Sanmen Gorge was cut through. The lacustrine/fluvial sequence outcrops at the west bank of the Youhe reservoir is composed of the Sanmen Formation and the Youhe Formation, typical of the sediments in the Weihe Basin. We studied five lacustrine/fluvial phase samples collected from the Youhe reservoir section and three fluvial sand samples relating to transition from lake to fluvial environments from Xihoudu. Our cosmogenic nuclide burial ages suggest that the paleolake formed 2 Ma ago, the transition of the Youhe Formation to the Sanmen Formation occurred 1.8 Ma ago, and the transition from lake to fluvial environment occurred 1.4-1.5 Ma ago. Thick fluvial sands, 90-120 m and 60 m higher than the current water level of the Yellow River, are preserved at Liujiahou and Mapo, respectively, located within the Sanmen Gorge. Dating of these fluvial sands suggests their deposition ages over 1.3 Ma. Zircon U-Pb age distributions of the sands further suggest that Weihe primarily flowed over the Sanmen Gorge 1.3-1.5 Ma ago, followed by the Yellow River cutting through the gorge 1.3-1.4 Ma ago. Previous studies show that the Yellow River appeared at Lanzhou 1.7 Ma ago and running through to the Bohai Bay in the Early Pleistocene (Hu et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2001). All these age constraints suggest that the Yellow River first appeared at Lanzhou, and flowed into the Weihe Basin then to the Bohai Bay within only a few hundred thousand years. Thus, the formation and connection of the Yellow River occurred in a short-term in the early Pleistocene. We propose that the fast connection of the Yellow River from Lanzhou to the Weihe Basin and to the Bohai Bay most probably reflects flooding events associated with melting of glaciers in the early Pleistocene. References Hu, X., Kirby, W., Pan, B., Granger, D.E., Su, H., 2011. Cosmogenic burial ages reveal sediment reservoir dynamics along the Yellow River. Geology, 39, 839-842. Yang, S., Cai, J., Li, C., Deng, B., 2001. New discussion about the run-through time of the Yellow River. Mar. Geol. Quat. Geol., 21, 15-20.
In soybean seeds, numerous variations in colors and pigmentation patterns exist, most of which are observed in the seed coat. Patterns of seed coat pigmentation are determined by four alleles (I, ii, ik and i) of the classically defined I locus, which controls the spatial distribution of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in the seed coat. Most commercial soybean cultivars produce yellow seeds with yellow cotyledons and nonpigmented seed coats, which are important traits of high-quality seeds. Plants carrying the I or ii allele show complete inhibition of pigmentation in the seed coat or pigmentation only in the hilum, respectively, resulting in a yellow seed phenotype. Classical genetic analyses of the I locus were performed in the 1920s and 1930s but, until recently, the molecular mechanism by which the I locus regulated seed coat pigmentation remained unclear. In this review, we provide an overview of the molecular suppressive mechanism of seed coat pigmentation in yellow soybean, with the main focus on the effect of the I allele. In addition, we discuss seed coat pigmentation phenomena in yellow soybean and their relationship to inhibition of I allele action.
Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity. PMID:24743951
Stem cell niches are special microenvironments that maintain stem cells and control their behavior to ensure tissue homeostasis and regeneration throughout life. The liver has a high regenerative capacity that involves stem/progenitor cells when the proliferation of hepatocytes is impaired. In recent years progress has been made in the identification of potential hepatic stem cell niches. There is evidence that hepatic progenitor cells can originate from niches in the canals of Hering; in addition, the space of Disse may also serve as a stem cell niche during fetal hematopoiesis and constitute a niche for stellate cells in adults.
The winter water mass along the Yellow Sea Trough (YST), especially on the western side of the trough, is considerably warmer and saltier than the ambient shelf water mass. This observed tongue-shape hydrographic feature implies the existence of a winter along-trough and onshore current, often referred to as the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC). However, the YSWC has not been confirmed by direct current measurements and therefore skepticism remains regarding its existence. Some studies suggest that the presence of the warm water could be due to frontal instability, eddies, or synoptic scale wind bursts. It is noted that in situ observations used in most previous studies were from the central and eastern sides of the YST even though it is known that the warm water core is more pronounced along the western side. Data from the western side have been scarce. Here we present a set of newly available Chinese observations, including some from a coordinated effort involving three Chinese vessels in the western YST during the 2006-2007 winter. The data show unambiguously the existence of the warm current on the western side of YST. Both the current and hydrography observations indicate a dominant barotropic structure of YSWC. The westward deviation of YSWC axis is particularly obvious to the south of 35°N and is clearly associated with an onshore movement of warm water. To the north of 35°N, the YSWC flows along the bathymetry with slightly downslope movement. We conclude that the barotropic current is mainly responsible for the warm water intrusion, while the Ekman and baroclinic currents play an important but secondary role. These observations help fill an observational gap and establish a more complete view of the YSWC.
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a widely distributed and serious economic pest to corn production in the U.S. Genetic variability of O. nubilalis was studied in 18 sub-populations in the upper Midwestern United States using amplified fragment length polymorphism. The relatively low GST values indicate that more variation exists within populations than between populations. High gene flow (Nm) values were indicated across the entire O. nubilalis population; the lowest degree of gene flow was in the northern samples (Nm = 1.96) and the highest degree of gene flow was in the southern samples (Nm = 2.77). The differences observed in the respective regions (north vs. south) may be explained by the voltinism patterns (univoltine vs. multivoltine, respectively) of O. nubilalis: southern multivoltine populations have opportunities for multiple matings for the duration of the year, further mix alleles. AMOVA results also indicated that most of the genetic variation was within sub-populations (? 81% of total variation); less variation (? 13%) was detected among populations within each of the three regions as designated for this study. However, the most striking and unexpected result was the low percentage of variation between all groups (? 6%), further supporting implications of a high degree of gene flow. These results provide support for current requirements of refugia corn planting in Bt-corn management. These results also indicate that if resistance to Bt were to evolve in O. nubilalis, quick action would be necessary to deter the rapid spread of the gene for resistance.
Krumm, Jeffrey T.; Hunt, Thomas E.; Skoda, Steven R.; Hein, Gary L.; Lee, Donald J.; Clark, Pete L.; Foster, John E.
The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa. The application of population genetic tools is important in the management of insect pests but such data on M. vitrata is lacking. We applied a set of six microsatellite markers to assess the population structure of M. vitrata collected at five sites from Burkina Faso, Niger and Nigeria. Observed polymorphisms ranged from one (marker 3393) to eight (marker 32008) alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 and 0.0 to 0.6, respectively. Three of the loci in samples from Nigeria and Burkina Faso deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), whereas no loci deviated significantly in samples from Niger. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 67.3% level of the genetic variation was within individuals compared to 17.3% among populations. A global estimate of F ST=0.1 (ENA corrected F ST=0.1) was significant (P?0.05) and corroborated by pairwise F ST values that were significant among all possible comparisons. A significant correlation was predicted between genetic divergence and geographic distance between subpopulations (R2=0.6, P=0.04), and cluster analysis by the program STRUCTURE predicted that co-ancestry of genotypes were indicative of three distinct populations. The spatial genetic variance among M. vitrata in West Africa may be due to limited gene flow, south-north seasonal movement pattern or other reproductive barriers. This information is important for the cultural, chemical and biological control strategies for managing M. vitrata. PMID:22717014
Agunbiade, T A; Coates, B S; Kim, K S; Forgacs, D; Margam, V M; Murdock, L L; Ba, M N; Binso-Dabire, C L; Baoua, I; Ishiyaku, M F; Tamò, M; Pittendrigh, B R
Field assays were conducted in southeastern and south-central Michigan in 2011 and 2012 to optimize green and purple multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps for use as a survey tool for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Larger sized (12- and 16-unit) multifunnel traps caught more beetles than their smaller-sized (4- and 8-unit) counterparts. Green traps coated with untinted (white) fluon caught almost four times as many adult A. planipennis as Rain-X and tinted (green) fluon-coated traps and almost 33 times more beetles than untreated control traps. Purple multifunnel traps generally caught much lower numbers of A. planipennis adults than green traps, and trap catch on them was not affected by differences in the type of coating applied. However, trap coating was necessary as untreated control purple traps caught significantly less beetles than traps treated with Rain-X and untinted or tinted (purple) fluon. Proportions of male beetles captured were generally much higher on green traps than on purple traps, but sex ratios were not affected by trap coating. In 2012, a new shade of purple plastic, based on a better color match to an attractive purple paint than the previously used purple, was used for trapping assays. When multifunnel traps were treated with fluon, green traps caught more A. planipennis adults than both shades of purple and a prism trap that was manufactured based on the same color match. Trap catch was not affected by diluting the fluon concentration applied to traps to 50% (1:1 mixture in water). At 10%, trap catch was significantly lowered. PMID:24498742
Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Mastro, Victor C
Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35°C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20–30°C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32°C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1–2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1°C rise in thermal optimum (Topt.), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (rmax) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2.
Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E.; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian
Captures of the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) were assessed in traps in the field. IAPAR designed traps [plastic bottles (2 L) lured with methanol:ethanol (1:1) in a vessel] were placed either at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5m high from the ground or simultaneously tested in the 2004 fructification season. Traps placed at the three heights trapped 5.5 times more CBB than the others, mostly at the traps placed at 0.5 m (75%). Treatments using the IAPAR designed trap placed at 1.2 m high; IAPAR trap with a white plastic plate above (IAPAR modified I) at 1.2 m high; IAPAR at 0.5 m high and two additional vessels at 1.0 and 1.5m high (IAPAR modified II) and T-163 trap [three red plastic cups (300 ml) and a red plastic plate as a cover] lured with M:E (1:1) at 1.2m height were compared in the vegetative (2005) and fructification (2006) periods. IAPAR modified II (dispenser vessels placed at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m) trapped more beetles than the remaining types (2.72 times more beetles than IAPAR design); and IAPAR modified I traps trapped more beetles than T 163 and IAPAR traps in the vegetative period. In the reproductive period, IAPAR modified II trapped less beetles than IAPAR and IAPAR modified I. In 2007 vegetative season, IAPAR modified II trap were compared with IAPAR trap and trapped 2.8 times more beetles. The positive responses to a vertical distribution of the volatile attractants in the vegetative period of the planting allow the development of more efficient trapping systems for CBB. PMID:21271060
Uemura-Lima, Daliana H; Ventura, Maurício U; Mikami, Adriana Y; Silva, Flávia C Da; Morales, Lauro
The coffee berry borer (CBB; Hypothenemus hampei) is a major pest of coffee responsible for significant crop losses worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana represents a natural means of controlling this insect pest; however, little is known concerning the molecular determinants that contribute to the virulence of the fungus towards the CBB. In order to examine genes involved in insect virulence, two expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, representing germinating conidia and growing hyphae/mycelia of B. bassiana cells grown on cuticular extracts of the CBB were constructed and analysed. In total, 4186 cDNA transcripts were obtained, which included 2141 from the cuticle-germinated conidia and 2045 from the cuticle-grown mycelium libraries, respectively. The average sequence length obtained was 470 bp and transcript assembly resulted in a set of 1271 and 1305 unique gene sequences for the conidial and mycelia libraries, respectively. Around 50?% of the sequences in each library could be annotated by gene ontology terms. An analysis of the two generated libraries as well as a previously reported EST library of B. bassiana grown on chitin was performed. Between the cuticle-germinated conidia and the cuticle-grown mycelia libraries, 322 unique gene sequences were shared, of which 90?% could be annotated, leaving 949 unique cuticle-germinated conidial genes and 983 unique growing hyphae/mycelia genes of which around 65?% were annotated. ESTs shared between the libraries indicated a basic response pattern for B. bassiana against H. hampei, which included genes implicated in pathogenicity. The expression profiles of four genes were evaluated with a cyclophilin, an alkaline-like serine protease and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), showing elevated expression during initial phases of infection, i.e. conidia germinating on insect extracts. These data provide clues and gene candidates for further exploration concerning the biology and molecular mechanisms of entomopathogenicity by this fungus. PMID:22461485
Mantilla, Javier Guillermo; Galeano, Narmer F; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Cristancho, Marco A; Keyhani, Nemat O; Góngora, Carmenza E
Shoot herbivory by the sapling specialist shoot-borer Cromarcha stroudagnesia (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Chrysauginae) is shown to have large direct and indirect effects on the rates of height increment and mortality of saplings of its host tree, Tabebuia ochracea (Bignoniaceae), in the secondary successional tropical dry forests of the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Experiments and field observations over 3-4 years show a substantial reduction in sapling height increments due to C. stroudagnesia herbivory, of equivalent magnitude to the difference in height increments between undamaged saplings in canopy gaps and full understorey shade. Extrapolating this data at average amounts of C. stroudagnesia herbivory increases the duration of the pre-reproductive sapling life stage by about 40% relative to undamaged plants. This is an underestimate, as top shoot herbivory by C. stroudagnesia also increased the probability of canopy gap saplings being overtopped and shaded by surrounding vegetation. Sapling mortality was increased by C. stroudagnesia herbivory, with 11.8% of the most heavily damaged young saplings dying in 3 years while no undamaged saplings died. Cromarcha stroudagnesia herbivory strongly increases with the number of conspecific T. ochracea saplings and the number of conspecific shoots within 50 m of focal saplings. It is therefore likely to disproportionately decrease the number of saplings and rate of recruitment to reproductive age in areas of high conspecific sapling density. These results suggest that sapling herbivory, especially herbivory of terminal meristems, has an important but largely unexplored influence on the population dynamics of tropical tree species. They further demonstrate that sapling herbivory by insects, in addition to the well-studied insect predation and herbivory of seedlings, is likely to influence tree species coexistence in tropical forests. PMID:12684860
Competition for food, mates, and space among different individuals of the same insect species can affect density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees, with its larvae feeding in serpentine galleries between the interface of sapwood and phloem tissues of ash trees. Using artificial infestation of freshly cut logs of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical ash (Fraxinus uhdei [Wenzig] Lingelsh) with a series of egg densities, we evaluated the mechanism and outcome of intraspecific competition in larvae of A. planipennis in relation to larval density and host plant species. Results from our study showed that as the egg densities on each log (1.5-6.5 cm in diameter and 22-25 cm in length) increased from 200 to 1,600 eggs per square meter of surface area, larval survivorship declined from ?68 to 10% for the green ash logs, and 86 to 55% for tropical ash logs. Accordingly, larval mortality resulting from cannibalism, starvation, or both, significantly increased as egg density increased, and the biomass of surviving larvae significantly decreased on both ash species. When larval density was adjusted to the same level, however, larval mortality from intraspecific competition was significantly higher and mean biomasses of surviving larvae was significantly lower in green ash than in tropical ash. The role of intraspecific competition of A. planipennis larvae in density-dependent regulation of its natural population dynamics is discussed. PMID:24280666
Duan, Jian J; Larson, Kristi; Watt, Tim; Gould, Juli; Lelito, Jonathan P
Background Insects are associated with microorganisms that contribute to the digestion and processing of nutrients. The European Corn Borer (ECB) is a moth present world-wide, causing severe economical damage as a pest on corn and other crops. In the present work, we give a detailed view of the complexity of the microorganisms forming the ECB midgut microbiota with the objective of comparing the biodiversity of the midgut-associated microbiota and explore their potential as a source of genes and enzymes with biotechnological applications. Methodological/Principal Findings A high-throughput sequencing approach has been used to identify bacterial species, genes and metabolic pathways, particularly those involved in plant-matter degradation, in two different ECB populations (field-collected vs. lab-reared population with artificial diet). Analysis of the resulting sequences revealed the massive presence of Staphylococcus warneri and Weissella paramesenteroides in the lab-reared sample. This enabled us to reconstruct both genomes almost completely. Despite the apparently low diversity, 208 different genera were detected in the sample, although most of them at very low frequency. By contrast, the natural population exhibited an even higher taxonomic diversity along with a wider array of cellulolytic enzyme families. However, in spite of the differences in relative abundance of major taxonomic groups, not only did both metagenomes share a similar functional profile but also a similar distribution of non-redundant genes in different functional categories. Conclusions/Significance Our results reveal a highly diverse pool of bacterial species in both O. nubilalis populations, with major differences: The lab-reared sample is rich in gram-positive species (two of which have almost fully sequenced genomes) while the field sample harbors mainly gram-negative species and has a larger set of cellulolytic enzymes. We have found a clear relationship between the diet and the midgut microbiota, which reveals the selection pressure of food on the community of intestinal bacteria.
The neural coding of human color vision begins in the retina. The outputs of long (L), middle (M) and short (S) wavelength sensitive cone photoreceptors combine antagonistically to produce “red-green” and “blue-yellow” spectrally opponent signals (Hering, 1878; Hurvich and Jameson, 1957). Spectral opponency is well-established in primate retinal ganglion cells (Reid and Shapley, 1992; Dacey and Lee, 1994; Dacey, et al., 1996) but the retinal circuitry creating the opponency remains uncertain. Here we find, from whole cell recordings of photoreceptors in macaque monkey, that “blue-yellow” opponency is already present in the center-surround receptive fields of S cones. The inward current evoked by blue light derives from phototransduction within the outer segment of the S cone. The outward current evoked by yellow light is caused by feedback from horizontal cells that are driven by surrounding L and M cones. Stimulation of the surround modulates calcium conductance in the center S cone.
Packer, Orin S.; Verweij, Jan; Li, Peter H.; Schnapf, Julie L.; Dacey, Dennis M.
The yellow nail syndrome, a combination of yellow discolouration of and dystrophic changes in the nails, pleural effusions and lymphedema, is thought to be relatively rare; to date 44 cases have been reported. Of a further three patients with this syndrome, one had all three features, one had the yellow nails alone and the other had pleural effusions and lymphedema without classic nail changes. Each had recurrent lower respiratory tract infections; and of all 47, chronic pulmonary infections occurred in approximately one quarter and were frequently associated with chronic sinus infections. The underlying abnormality is presumed to be a congenital defect of the lymphatics, but so far this has not been demonstrated to be the cause of the nail changes, the pathogenesis of which remains obscure. Images FIG. 1
The Asiatic rice borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) occurs mainly on rice Oryza sativa L. and water-oat Zizania latifolia (Turcz). Certain ecological and physiological differentiations between rice and water-oat populations have been shown. To determine whether there is host-associated differentiation in supercooling capacity, seasonal changes in supercooling points, glycerol content, and other physiological parameters of naturally occurring C. suppressalis larvae overwintering in rice and water-oat plants were compared over the winter. Supercooling points were low in the winter (November and December), significantly higher in March, and significantly lower in the water-oat population than in the rice population in the winter. Larvae from the water-oat population experienced a significant weight loss from December to March and were heavier than those from the rice population in the winter. Body water content (percentage of fresh weight) was low in the winter and increased significantly in March; no population differences were detected. Hemolymph glycerol content was high in the winter and dropped significantly in March; interpopulation differences were significant in December. Hemolymph trehalose content increased in the winter, and no population differences were detected. Whole body glucose and lipid content varied differently between the rice and the water-oat populations over the winter. It was found that variations in hemolymph glycerol content were responsible for the host-associated seasonal changes in supercooling capacity of overwintering larvae of the Asiatic rice borer. PMID:19689898
The chit42 gene cloned from Metarhizium anisopliae lacks chitin-binding domain (chBD), which plays important roles in binding insoluble chitin. Five kinds of hybrid chitinase Trichoderma transformants were constructed in this study, where the chit42 gene was fused to chBDs derived from plant, bacterial, and insect sources. The transformant Mc4 harboring chBDs from bitter melon (Momordica charantia) displayed the highest chitinase activity among all chBDs. The chitinase activities of Mc4, chit42 Trichoderma transformant Mchit3, and wild-type strain T30 were 44.94, 32.48, and 12.38 U/mL, respectively. The mortality rate of corn borer larvae in Mc4 fermentation liquid treatment increased by 10% and 30% compared with Mchit3 and T30, respectively. The midgut microvilli and goblet cell microvilli of the corn borer larvae exhibited distinct pathological changes after 48 h of feeding in Mc4 treatment. Mc4 also exhibited the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Rhizoctonia solani. PMID:23431975
Remote sensing technique is useful for monitoring large crop area at a single time point, which is otherwise not possible by visual observation alone. Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) is a serious constraint in soybean production in India. However, hardly any basic information is available for monitoring YMD by remote sensing. Present study examines spectral reflectance of soybean leaves due to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) infection in order to identify YMD sensitive spectral ratio or reflectance. Spectral reflectance measurement indicated significant (p < 0.001) change in reflectance in the infected soybean canopy as compared to the healthy one. In the infected canopy, reflectance increased in visible region and decreased in near infra-red region of spectrum. Reflectance sensitivity analysis indicated wavelength ~642, ~686 and ~750 nm were sensitive to YMD infection. Whereas, in yellow leaves induced due to nitrogen deficiency, the sensitive wavelength was ~589 nm. Due to viral infection, a shift occurred in red and infra-red slope (called red edge) on the left in comparison to healthy one. Red edge shift was a good indicator to discriminate yellow mosaic as chlorophyll gets degraded due to MYMIV infection. Correlation of reflectance at 688 nm (R688) and spectral reflectance ratio at 750 and 445 nm (R750/R445) with the weighted mosaic index indicated that detection of yellow mosaic is possible based on these sensitive bands. Our study for the first time identifies the yellow mosaic sensitive band as R688 and R750/R445, which could be utilized to scan satellite data for monitoring YMD affected soybean cropping regions. PMID:24426282
Gazala, I F Saad; Sahoo, R N; Pandey, Rakesh; Mandal, Bikash; Gupta, V K; Singh, Rajendra; Sinha, P
RNA interference (RNAi) is a technology for conducting functional genomic studies and a potential tool for crop protection against insect pests. Development of reliable methods for production and delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is the major challenge for efficient pest control. In this study, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) was fed with CiHR3 dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The dsRNA ingested by C. infuscatellus successfully triggered silencing of the molt-regulating transcription factor CiHR3, an important gene for insect growth and development, and caused significant abnormalities and weight loss in insects within seven days of treatment. This study is an ideal example of feeding-based RNAi mediated by dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The results also suggested that feeding-based RNA interference is a potential method for the management of C. infuscatellus.
Appropriate administration of yellow fever or Japanese encephalitis vaccines to travelers requires an assessment of the traveler's risk for infection with these vector-borne flaviviruses during their travels and the presence of risk factors for adverse events following immunization. Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever vaccines have been more frequently associated with serious adverse events following immunization since the early 1980s and the late 1990s, respectively. This article describes the adverse events, the magnitude of their risk, and associated risk factors. PMID:15701552
Marfin, Anthony A; Eidex, Rachel S Barwick; Kozarsky, Phyllis E; Cetron, Martin S
Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is an uncommon clinical syndrome characterized by yellow-green discoloration of nails and recurrent respiratory tract lesions, pleural effusions and lymphedema. A 38-year-old woman was referred to the emergency complaining of chronic cough and increasing dyspnea within last 2 weeks. She had given birth 1 month ago. On examination, the patient exhibited dystrophic yellowish nails and mild peripheral lymphedema. A chest roentgenogram revealed a large right pleural effusion and a small left pleural effusion. YNS is a rare clinical entity but should be taken into consideration in patients with massive pleural effusions and persistent lymphedemas on the postpartum period. PMID:24279775
In this study, we examined the spatial and seasonal variability in the concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC) of the Yellow River. Weekly samples of water and suspended solids were collected along the main stem channel between July 2011 and July 2012 for the upstream Toudaoguai and Tongguan stations, and between August 2008 and July 2012 for the downstream Lijin station near the river mouth. The DOC export at the upstream two stations was primarily controlled by hydrological events such as melting of ice and snow with high DOC concentrations occurring in spring. In contrast, it was more affected by human activities, mainly reservoir regulation, at the lowermost Lijin station. Lower DOC concentration in the wet season indicates that most of the leachable DOC in surface soils may have largely been flushed away by spring floods. In addition, it is also likely due to dilution effect of the rapidly increased water discharge. As a result of low organic carbon content in the parent soils, the Yellow River sediments were characterized by low POC content (POC%). The averaged POC% at Toudaoguai, Tongguan, and Lijin was 0.48%, 0.47%, and 0.37%, respectively, which is significantly lower than the global mean of around 0.95%. The POC% decreased exponentially with total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. This is likely due to the dilution of riverine POC, because high TSS generally means a higher proportion of coarse sediments that have more mineral matter. During the study period, the total DOC and POC fluxes into the ocean were estimated at 0.06 × 1012 g/yr and 0.41 × 1012 g/yr, respectively. Combining our previous estimate of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) export shows that the Yellow River transports a carbon flux of 1.52 × 1012 g/yr into the Bohai Sea, accounting for about 0.19% of the global total riverine carbon flux (DOC + POC + DIC). The extremely low DOC/POC ratio represents the lowest level among major world rivers, which is consistent with its intense soil erosion and highlights the effect of soil erosion on organic carbon export.
Evidence has accumulated that cancer develops from a population of quiescent tissue committed\\/pluripotent stem cells (TCSC\\/PSC) or cells developmentally closely related to them that are distributed in various organs. To support this notio n, stem cells (SC) are long lived cells and thus may become the subject of accumulating mutations that are crucial for initiation\\/progression of cancer. More important, they
One larval body color mutant, yellow larva (yl), was isolated from a newly established cyclic colony of Anopheles sundaicus. The inheritance pattern revealed that yellow larva was an autosomal recessive mutant. PMID:9249662
Neuroendocrine light yellow cells of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis express a neuropeptide gene encoding three different peptides. The morphology of the cell system has been studied by in situ hybridization, using two synthetic oligonucleotides encoding parts of light yellow cell peptides I and III, and by immunocytochemistry with antisera to synthetic light yellow cell peptide II and to two fragments of light yellow cell peptide I. One large cluster of light yellow cells was observed in the ventro-lateral protrusion of the right parietal ganglion, smaller clusters lying in the posterior dorsal part of this ganglion and in the visceral ganglion. The cells had an extended central neurohaemal area. Immunopositive axons projected into all nerves of the ganglia of the visceral complex, into the superior cervical and the nuchal nerves, and into the connective tissue surrounding the central nervous system. Axon tracts ramified between the muscle cells of the walls of the anterior aorta and of smaller blood vessels. Peripheral innervation by the light yellow cell system was only found in muscular tissue of the ureter papilla. The antisera to the two peptide fragments of light yellow cell peptide I not only stained the light yellow cells, but also the identified yellow cells, which have previously been shown to produce the sodium influx-stimulating neuropeptide. The latter cells were negative to the in situ hybridization probes and antisera specific to the light yellow cell system. It is therefore unlikely that the yellow cells express the light yellow cell neuropeptide gene. Nevertheless, the cells contain a neuropeptide sharing antigenic determinants with light yellow cell peptide I.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8111842
Boer, H H; Montagne-Wajer, C; Smith, F G; Parish, D C; Ramkema, M D; Hoek, R M; van Minnen, J; Benjamin, P R
One of characteristics of normal age-related vision losses depends on yellow-intensity in the lens of the eye. (1) We investigated discrimination between seven intensities of yellow in 303 elderly people aged from late 60s to early 90s. The results demonstrated that the failures of vision increase with age, and the losses depend on yellow intensity. (2) We got a yellow
Two well-defined deltaic sequences in the Bohai Sea and in the South Yellow Sea represent post-glacial accumulation of Yellow River-derived sediments. Another prominent depocenter on this epicontinental shelf, a pronounced clinoform in the North Yellow Sea, wraps around the northeastern and southeastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, extending into the South Yellow Sea. This Shandong mud wedge is 20 to
Since the initial discovery of leukemia stem cells nearly a decade ago, a great deal of cancer research has focused on the\\u000a identification of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in many types of solid tumors, including breast cancer. Through analysis of cell\\u000a surface markers and xenotransplant models, a subpopulation of putative human breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) that is CD24-negative\\/CD44-positive\\u000a (CD24?\\/CD44+)
Stem cells, which have a great capacity for self-renewal and can differentiate into at least one committed cell type, exist\\u000a in embryonic and adult organisms of many phyla. Although stem cells of various types from mice and other lower organisms have\\u000a been studied for many years, it was not until the derivation of stem cell lines from human embryos in
The tremendous capacity of bone to regenerate is indicative of the presence of stem cells with the capability, by definition,\\u000a to self-renew as well as to give rise to daughter cells. These primitive progenitors, termed mesenchymal stem cells or bone\\u000a marrow stromal stem cells, exist postnatally, and are multipotent with the ability to generate cartilage, bone, muscle, tendon,\\u000a ligament, and
Richard O. C. Oreffo; Cyrus Cooper; Christopher Mason; Mark Clements
\\u000a Stem cells are functionally defined as long-lived cells that can both self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types.\\u000a Embryonic stem cells, considered totipotent cells, give rise to all embryonic tissue layers and, consequently, all tissue\\u000a types. Hematologists\\/oncologists are perhaps most familiar with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): the single pluripotent cell\\u000a that can give rise to all lymphoid, myeloid and erythroid
Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring provides objective measures of nervous system function that are of value when operating in proximity to the brain stem. Real-time measurements of function can be correlated to operative manipulations in order to reduce the risk of damage in critically important regions. Techniques for evaluating brain stem function clinically and electrophysiologically are presented along with their applications during surgery of the brain stem. PMID:8353442
Sclabassi, R J; Kalia, K K; Sekhar, L; Jannetta, P J
Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for transportation or transported by rail, highway, or water, must be packaged in water or dry in packagings conforming to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I performance level, as...
Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for transportation or transported by rail, highway, or water, must be packaged in water or dry in packagings conforming to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I performance level, as...
The disclosure relates to a process for removing foreign components, especially zinc, from the product cycle during the production of yellow phosphorus inside and electrothermal furnace. To this end, the disclosure provides for molten ferrophosphorus and a calcium metasilicate slag and also a dust-containing gas mixture consisting essentially of carbon monoxide and phosphorus in vapor form to be taken from
When emerging from the nest, sea turtle hatchlings primarily orient using visual stimuli, with light pollution known to disrupt effective sea localization behavior. Previous studies have shown that sea turtle hatchlings respond differently to different wavelengths of light but Loggerhead hatchlings, exclusively among species tested, have a strong aversion to yellow light (at 600?nm). This study repeats these experiments with
1. Some isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) differing in vector transmission characteristics and in host plant reactions were studied in single and mixed inoculations in glass-house trials.2. The symptoms obtained depended on the isolate of BYDV, and the interval between the protective and test inoculation and the variety of host plant.3. Two of the isolates showed complete protection
RESEARCH PROBLEM Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) is a problem weed in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) that escapes most weed control programs. Postemergence herbicide ap- plications are required for season-long control. The physiological characteristics of C. esculentus inhibit the absorption and translocation of herbicides so application timing is critical. This research tests the hypothesis that the direction of carbohydrate flow in
Frank E. Groves; Kenneth L. Smith; Nilda R. Burgos; J. Brad Murphy
We have synthesized ultrasmall yellow luminescent Si nanoparticles that are ultrabright under uv single photon excitation or under two-photon near infrared excitation. The brightness is comparable to that of rhodamine dye molecules. Monte Carlo quantum calculations yield a Si66 prototype structure. Previously we synthesized ultrabright blue luminescent particles (Si29 prototype). Direct imaging of single particles using transmission electron microscopy and
Gennadiy Belomoin; Nick Barry; Adam Smith; Osman Akcakir; Laila Abuhassan; Enrico Gratton; Munir Nayfeh
Yellow mold of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seedlings caused by Aspergillus flavus was first observed during May 1984 in a commercial peanut farm in south Texas. The mold caused preemergence rotting of peanut seed and seedlings. On emerged seedlings the infection was largely restricted to cotyledons. The diseased plants were chlorotic, stunted, and leaflets were reduced in size with pointed tips
P. Subrahmanyam; D. H. Smith; R. A. Raber; E. Shepherd
In 1964 Samman and White described 13 patients with lymphoedema of the lower extremities associated with an unusual dystrophy of the finger and toe nails: this they termed the 'yellow-nail' syndrome. Affected nails were thickened, excessively curved along both axes, very slow growing and of yellowish-grey hue; cuticle and lunula were usually absent and onycholysis was frequently evident. Lower limb
Dave Slager (Ohio State Univ.) tracks a radio-tagged yellow-rumped warbler to determine habitat use and length of stay during migration stopover at Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge. This was a collaborative project involving USGS, USFWS and Ohio State Univ....
Mirror-image stimulation (MIS) was used to determine the individual behavioral phenotypes of 90 adult, 132 yearling, and 135 young yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). Linear typal analysis (LTA) was used to group individuals based on similarities in their MIS scores. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the patterns of variation in behaviors and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used
Tolyltriazole (TT) is fed continuously into recirculating cooling water systems to inhibit corrosion of copper (Cu)-alloy heat exchangers. The adsorption isotherm and the corrosion rate profile for TT and butylbenzotriazole (BBT) were presented as functions of immersion time in triazole solution. Formation of a triazole film on a yellow metal surface was shown to play a major role in corrosion
F. Lu; N. M. Rao; B. Yang; J. E. Hoots; R. S. Budrys
Seed yield in 8- and 9-year-old yellow birch varied among families and years but averaged more than 1,500 seeds per tree. Long catkins contained more seed than short ones. Seed quality was poor due to insufficient pollination and to differences among tree...
The fabrication of a novel organic yellow-light-emitting device using Rhodamine B as dopant with double quantum-well (DQW) structure was introduced in the present article. The structure and thickness of this device is ITO/CuPc (6 nm) /NPB (20 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm)/Alq3 : Rhodamine B (3 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm) /Al q3 : Rhodamine B(3 nm) /Alq3 (30 nm) /Liq (5 nm)/Al (30 nm). With the detailed investigation of electroluminescence of the novel organic yellow-light-emitting device, the authors found that the doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) had a very big influence on luminance and efficiency of the organic yellow-light-emitting device. When doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) was 1.5 wt%, the organic yellow-light-emitting device was obtained with the maximum current efficiency of 1.526 cd x A(-1) and the maximum luminance of 1 309 cd x m(-2). It can be seen from the EL spectra of the devices that there existed energy transferring from Alq3 to RhB in the organic light-emitting layers. When the doping concentration of RhB increased, lambda(max) of EL spectra redshifted obviously. The phenomenon was attributed to the Stokes effect of quantum wells and self-polarization of RhB dye molecules. PMID:18844143
SUMMARY Protoplasts from a Triticum monococcum cell culture line were successfully infected with barley yellow dwarf virus. Both purified virions and extracted RNA were shown to be infectious using a polyethylene glycol inoculation procedure. Up to 209\\/00 of the protoplasts contained viral antigens as judged by immunofluorescence assay. ELISA analysis showed that virus antigen expression was both dose- and time-dependent.
M. J. Young; P. J. Larkin; W. A. Miller; P. M. Waterhouse; W. L. Gerlach
Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da \\
The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of b-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the bacterial carotene desaturase (CRTI), is lycopene, which has a red color. The absence of lycopene in Golden Rice shows that the pathway proceeds beyond
Patrick Schaub; Salim Al-Babili; Rachel Drake; Peter Beyer
During January 2007–July 2012, a total of 3,220 suspected yellow fever cases were reported in the Central African Republic; 55 were confirmed and 11 case-patients died. Mean delay between onset of jaundice and case confirmation was 16.6 days. Delay between disease onset and blood collection could be reduced by increasing awareness of the population.
The enzyme system for the synthesis of the yellow pteridine pigment, sepiapterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-lactoyl-7,8-dihydropteridine), from 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(D-erythro-1',2',3'-trihydroxypropyl) 7,8-dihydropteridine triphosphate (H-neopterin-PPP) has bee...
The insect attractants of the present invention are highly specific for yellow jackets (Vespula spp.), attracting few other insects and no beneficial species such as honey bees. These attractants are organic esters having a total of from 9 to 12 carbon at...
A web-based brainstorm was conducted in the summer of 2007 within the Sandia Restricted Network. This brainstorming experiment was modeled around the yellow sticky brainstorms that are used in many face-to-face meetings at Sandia National Laboratories. Th...
C. C. Dornburg G. S. Davison J. C. Forsythe S. M. Stevens
A web-based brainstorm was conducted in the summer of 2007 within the Sandia Restricted Network. This brainstorming experiment was modeled around the 'yellow sticky' brainstorms that are used in many face-to-face meetings at Sandia National Laboratories. This document discusses the implementation and makes suggestions for future implementations.
Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Davidson, George S.; Forsythe, James Chris
This paper, based on records obtained from the Entomology Department of the South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg, gives a summary of the distribution, adult habits, and breeding-places of the proved and potential vectors of yellow fever in South Africa.
From an early age, so much emphasis goes into teaching children the fundamentals of color theory, in particular the primary colors of red, yellow, and blue. Toys, building blocks, furniture, and so many other items used in a preschool environment are manufactured in these three colors. Yet, recent research has uncovered that babies as young as…
A geophysical survey of the East China Sea, Yellow Sea, and Ryukyu Island arc and trench was conducted during Oct.-Nov. 1968 by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office. More than 12,000 km of continuous seismic reflection profiling, magnetic, and bathymetric ...
This paper presents an analysis on the space/time statistical thermal structure in the Yellow Sea from the Navy's Master Observation Oceanography Data Set during 1929-1991. This analysis is for the establishment of an Optimum Thermal Interpolation System ...
C. Szczechowski M. Carron P. C. Chu S. D. Haeger S. K. Wells
Determination of mean currents and tides are particularly difficult in coastal regions. Flows are often nongeostrophic and short lived. Bathymetry is frequently not adequately known and can greatly influence coastal dynamics. To better quantify tides and currents in the southern Yellow Sea, three pressure gauges and three acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) were bottom moored for 4-6 month intervals at
W. J. Teague; H. T. Perkins; Z. R. Hallock; G. A. Jacobs
Populations of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coocyzus americanus, west of the Rocky Mountains have average wing lengths slightly greater than those of eastern North America, but the difference is not sufficient for taxonomic recognition. There is no geographically oriented variation in bill size or color, and the species is best considered monotypic.
Production of summer squash in Alabama and the southeastern United States is generally limited to spring and early summer due to the abundance of aphid transmitted viruses during the late summer and fall. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV) are the most common viruses affecting Cucurbits in
The mission of the Stem Cell Resources website is "to provide timely, reliable, high-quality and scientifically credible stem cell information for the educational community worldwide." The website is a division of Bioscience Network which publishes online science education materials. On the site, visitors will find a stem cell image library, a multimedia area, and a special section titled "For Educators". In the "For Educators" area, visitors will find links to a primer on stem cells and links to educational resources on stem cells from curriculum to case studies to lesson plans from such trusted sources as the Australian Stem Cell Centre and the National Institutes of Health. Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes videos that show how embryonic stem cell lines are made, along with other animations and graphics on the topic. Additionally, the site's "SCR Library" area includes the link to the Stem Cell Image Library, which provides dozens of photos of stem cells taken from researchers at the University of Cambridge and other institutions.
Purpose of review To review the latest developments in reproductive tract stem cell biology. Recent findings In 2004, two studies indicated that ovaries contain stem cells which form oocytes in adults and that can be cultured in vitro into mature oocytes. A live birth after orthotopic transplantation of cyropreserved ovarian tissue in a woman whose ovaries were damaged by chemotherapy demonstrates the clinical potential of these cells. In the same year, another study provided novel evidence of endometrial regeneration by stem cells in women who received bone marrow transplants. This finding has potential for the use in treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the cause of endometriosis, which may have its origin in ectopic transdifferentiation of stem cells. Several recent studies have demonstrated that fetal cells enter the maternal circulation and generate microchimerism in the mother. The uterus is a dynamic organ permeable to fetal stem cells, capable of transdifferentiation and an end organ in which bone marrow stem cells may differentiate. Finally stem cell transformation can be an underlying cause of ovarian cancer. Summary Whereas we are just beginning to understand stem cells, the potential implications of stem cells to reproductive biology and medicine are apparent.
Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. In the past few years, major efforts have been made to define more precisely the medium composition in which stem cells grow or differentiate. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness, and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh's plane. PMID:20803548
van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier
The Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem is a semi-enclosed shelf sea with distinctive bathymetry, hydrography, productivity, and trophically dependent populations. Shallow but rich in nutrients and resources, the Yellow Sea LME has productive and varied coastal, offshore, and transboundary fisheries. Over the past several decades, the resource populations in the Yellow Sea have changed greatly. Many valuable resources are threatened
Historically, the climatological mean northward flow in the Yellow Sea trough has been referred to as the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) since it was thought to originate as a branch of the Tsushima Current which transports warm Kuroshio waters. However, the Tsushima Current does not penetrate into the Yellow Sea interior during winter. The onset of what is referred
Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus preyed upon larval yellow perch Perca flavescens during late April and early May in a Lake Ontario embayment. Based on stomach analyses of 1,308 alewives collected during the springs of 1984–1986, predation on larval yellow perch occurred primarily at night in littoral areas during the 2 weeks immediately following peak hatch of yellow perch. Among stomachs of
Stephen B. Brandt; Doran M. Mason; David B. Macneill; Thomas Coates; John E. Gannon
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect from Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus sp.) mortality in southeastern Michigan and Essex County, Ontario. Most larvae overwinter as nonfeeding prepupae in the outer sapwood or thick bark of large trees. In a series of studies, we evaluated effects of grinding, chipping, and heat treatment on survival of A. planipennis prepupae in ash material. Heavily infested ash bolts containing roughly 8,700 prepupae were processed by a horizontal grinder with either a 2.5- or 10-cm screen. There was no evidence of A. planipennis survival in chips processed with the 2.5-cm screen, but eight viable prepupae were recovered from chips processed with the 10-cm screen. We chiseled additional sentinel chips with prepupae from ash logs and buried 45 in each chip pile. In total, six prepupae in sentinel chips survived the winter, but we found no sign of adult A. planipennis emergence from the processed chips. Subsequently, we assessed prepupal survival in chips processed by a chipper or a horizontal grinder fit with 5-, 10-, or 12.7-cm screens. An estimated 1,565 A. planipennis prepupae were processed by each treatment. Chips from the chipper were shorter than chips from the grinder regardless of the screen size used. No live prepupae were found in chips produced by the chipper, but 21 viable prepupae were found in chips from the grinder. Infested wood and bark chips chiseled from logs were held in ovens at 25, 40, or 60 degrees C for 8, 24, or 48 h. Prepupal survival was consistently higher in wood chips than bark chips at 40 degrees C, whereas no prepupae survived exposure to 60 degrees C for eight or more hours. In a second study, prepupae in wood chips were exposed to 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 degrees C for 20 or 120 min. Some prepupae survived 20 min of exposure to all temperatures. No prepupae survived exposure to 60 degrees C for 120 min, but 17% survived exposure to 55 degrees C for 120 min, suggesting that some fraction of the population may survive internationally recognized phytosanitary standards (ISPM-15) for treatment of wood packing material. PMID:17849884
McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Cappaert, David; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor; Smith, Sarah; Pell, Christopher
The sweet potato vine borer moth, Omphisa anastomosalis (Pyraloidea: Crambidae), is a serious pest in tropical and subtropical Asia-Pacific regions. In previous work using a population from Okinawa, Japan, (10E,14E)-10,14-hexadecadienal (E10,E14-16:Ald) was identified as the major pheromone component, with hexadecanal, (E)-10-hexadecenal, and (E)-14-hexadecenal as minor components. However, traps baited with the synthetic compounds were less effective at attracting males in the field than those baited with virgin females. While Pyraloidea females usually produce only Type I pheromone components (unsaturated fatty alcohols and their derivatives), the pheromones of some Pyraloidea species have been shown to involve a combination of both Type I and Type II components (unsaturated hydrocarbons and their epoxides). We examined an extract of the pheromone glands of female O. anastomosalis from Vietnam by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and detected (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-tricosatriene (Z3,Z6,Z9-23:H) in addition to the compounds identified previously. All four isomers of 10,14-16:Ald were synthesized. A mixture of synthetic E10,E14-16:Ald and Z3,Z6,Z9-23:H in a ratio of 1:0.2-1:2 was attractive to male moths in Vietnam, indicating the strong synergistic effect of the Type II compound. Addition of the other minor pheromone components to the binary blend did not increase the number of male moths captured. Combinations of Z3,Z6,Z9-23:H with the other three geometrical isomers of E10,E14-16:Ald attracted no males, further substantiating the 10E,14E configuration of the natural diene component. E10,E14-16:Ald mixed with other polyunsaturated hydrocarbons showed that mixtures that included a C21 triene, a C22 triene, or a C23 pentaene attracted as many males as did the mixture with Z3,Z6,Z9-23:H. The identification of a highly attractive sex pheromone will help in developing efficient strategies for monitoring and control of O. anastomosalis populations in sweet potato fields. PMID:24879602
Background Reproductive proteins often evolve rapidly and are thought to be subject to strong sexual selection, and thus may play a key role in reproductive isolation and species divergence. However, our knowledge of reproductive proteins has been largely limited to males and model organisms with sequenced genomes. With advances in sequencing technology, Lepidoptera are emerging models for studies of sexual selection and speciation. By profiling the transcriptomes of the bursa copulatrix and bursal gland from females of two incipient species of moth, we characterize reproductive genes expressed in the primary reproductive tissues of female Lepidoptera and identify candidate genes contributing to a one-way gametic incompatibility between Z and E strains of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Results Using RNA sequencing we identified transcripts from ~37,000 and ~36,000 loci that were expressed in the bursa copulatrix or the bursal gland respectively. Of bursa copulatrix genes, 8% were significantly differentially expressed compared to the female thorax, and those that were up-regulated or specific to the bursa copulatrix showed functional biases toward muscle activity and/or organization. In the bursal gland, 9% of genes were differentially expressed compared to the thorax, with many showing reproduction or gamete production functions. Of up-regulated bursal gland genes, 46% contained a transmembrane region and 16% possessed secretion signal peptides. Divergently expressed genes in the bursa copulatrix were exclusively biased toward protease-like functions and 51 proteases or protease inhibitors were divergently expressed overall. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive characterization of female reproductive genes in any lepidopteran system. The transcriptome of the bursa copulatrix supports its role as a muscular sac that is the primary site for disruption of the male ejaculate. We find that the bursal gland acts as a reproductive secretory body that might also interact with male ejaculate. In addition, differential expression of proteases between strains supports a potential role for these tissues in contributing to reproductive isolation. Our study provides new insight into how male ejaculate is processed by female Lepidoptera, and paves the way for future work on interactions between post-mating sexual selection and speciation.
The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between cattle breeds and deposit of adipose tissues in different positions and the gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM), which are associated with lipid metabolism and are valuable for understanding the physiology in fat depot and meat quality. Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle reared under the same conditions display different fat proportions in the carcass. To understand this difference, the expression of PPAR?, FASN, and ACADM in different adipose tissues and longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) in these two breeds were analyzed using the Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR). The result showed that PPAR? gene expression was significantly higher in adipose tissue than in LD in both breeds. PPAR? expression was also higher in abdominal fat, in perirenal fat than in the subcutaneous fat (p<0.05) in Yanbian yellow cattle, and was significantly higher in subcutaneous fat in Yan yellow cattle than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. On the other hand, FASN mRNA expression levels in subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat in Yan yellow cattle were significantly higher than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. Interestingly, ACADM gene shows greater fold changes in LD than in adipose tissues in Yan yellow cattle. Furthermore, the expressions of these three genes in lung, colon, kidney, liver and heart of Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle were also investigated. The results showed that the highest expression levels of PPAR? and FASN genes were detected in the lung in both breeds. The expression of ACADM gene in kidney and liver were higher than that in other organs in Yanbian yellow cattle, the comparison was not statistically significant in Yan yellow cattle.
Introduction The yellow nail syndrome is usually described as the combination of yellow nails with lymphoedema and often with respiratory manifestations such as pleural effusions, chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis. The syndrome is most often seen in the middle-aged individuals. Case presentation We present a 6-year-old girl with yellow nail syndrome having pansinusitis and bronchiectasis. Conclusion The components comprising the classical triad of yellow nail syndrome in children may not necessarily be present altogether. Therefore, yellow nail syndrome should be suspected in children having only typical nail changes.
The increasing use of the hair follicle as a stem cell paradigm is due in part to the complex interplay between epithelial, dermal and other cell types, each with interesting differentiation potential and prospective therapeutic applications. This review focuses on research into the environmental niche, gene expression profiles and plasticity of hair follicle stem cell populations, where many recent advances
James M. Waters; Gavin D. Richardson; Colin A. B. Jahoda
Stem cell therapy and translational stem cell research require large-scale supply of stem cells at high purity and viability, thus leading to the development of stem cell separation technologies. This review covers key technologies being applied to stem cell separation, and also highlights exciting new approaches in this field. First, we will cover conventional separation methods that are commercially available and have been widely adapted. These methods include Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), Magnet-activated cell sorting (MACS), pre-plating, conditioned expansion media, density gradient centrifugation, field flow fractionation (FFF), and dielectrophoresis (DEP). Next, we will introduce emerging novel methods that are currently under development. These methods include improved aqueous two-phase system, systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), and various types of microfluidic platforms. Finally, we will discuss the challenges and directions towards future breakthroughs for stem cell isolation. Advancing stem cell separation techniques will be essential for clinical and research applications of stem cells. PMID:23505616
Preclinical and clinical research have shown that stem cell therapy could be a promising therapeutic option for many diseases in which current medical treatments do not achieve satisfying results or cure. This article describes stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications in dermatology today.
The isolation of human embryonic stem cells (ESC) in 1998 has created the hope that stem cells will one day be used to regenerate tissues and organs, even though it is obvious that a number of hurdles will need to be overcome for such therapies to become reality. The cloning of “Dolly” in 1997, more than 40 years after the first
A quantitative comparison of reactive and nonreactive Mach stems was made. It was found that the triple point structure is unaffected by the presence of reaction but that the trajectory of the Mach stem is slightly affected by the presence of reaction. Th...
Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh’s plane.
Van Der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, Francois; Wion, Didier
The objective of this research was to identify mouse mammary gland stem cells, with the ultimate goal being their isolation. We hypothesized that mammary gland stem cells can be identified by generating transgenic mice using a LEF/TCF-dependent reporter g...
Simple, cheap device locks valve stem so its setting cannot be changed by unauthorized people. Device covers valve stem; cover locked in place with standard padlock. Valve lock made of PVC pipe and packing band. Shears, drill or punch, and forming rod only tools needed.
Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the potential regenerative mechanisms and the roles of different cell populations in the regeneration process are discussed. Although intraoperative stem cell therapies have been shown to be safe and effective for several indications, there are still critical challenges to be tackled prior to adoption into the standard surgical armamentarium.
Coelho, Monica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M.S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.
The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has developed a multi-pronged approach to remedying the lack of academic emphasis on the STEM subjects, from preschool through college, as well as the lack of interest in STEM subjects on the part of youth in the United States. Visitors can read about the University's four goals under the "Goals" tab at the top of any page. The "STEM Ed Projects" tab contains a directory of externally funded projects divided into four categories, and which are then further divided into subcategories. Visitors will find such projects as "Improving Supply and Demand Data for the Preparation of Secondary Science and Math Teachers" and "Clean Energy Education Workshop", under the category that aims to shape policy and advocate for STEM education. The "Resources" tab contains half a dozen categories under which visitors will find Outreach Resources, Teacher Development and Resources, and Policy and Advocacy for STEM Ed.
The complete sequence of 9871 nucleotides (nts) of parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV; isolate P-121) was determined from cDNA clones and by direct sequencing of viral RNA. The RNA contains a large open reading frame between nts 279 and 9362 which encodes a polyprotein of 3027 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 336212 (336K). A PYFV polyclonal antiserum reacted with the proteins expressed from phage carrying cDNA clones from the 5' half of the PYFV genome. Comparison of the polyprotein sequence of PYFV with other viral polyprotein sequences reveals similarities to the putative NTP-binding and RNA polymerase domains of cowpea mosaic comovirus, tomato black ring nepovirus and several animal picornaviruses. The 3' untranslated region of PYFV RNA is 509 nts long and does not have a poly(A) tail. The 3'-terminal 121 nts may form a stem-loop structure which resembles that formed in the genomic RNA of mosquito-borne flaviviruses. PMID:1469358
Turnbull-Ross, A D; Reavy, B; Mayo, M A; Murant, A F
Yield loss in soft red winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L., caused by aphid-transmitted barley yellow dwarf virus (family Luteoviridae, genus Luteovirus, BYDV) was measured over a 2-yr period in central Missouri. Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) was the most common and economically important species, accounting for > 90% of the total aphids. Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), and Sitobion avenae (F.) made up the remainder of the aphids. Aphid numbers peaked at wheat stem elongation in 2003 with 771 R. padi per meter-row. In the 2003-2004 growing season, aphid numbers averaged seven aphids per meter-row in the fall and peaked at 18 aphids per meter-row at jointing. Wheat grain yield was reduced 17 and 13% in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Thousand kernel weights were reduced 10 and 5% in the untreated plots compared with the treated control in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Padi avenae virus was the predominate strain, accounting for 81 and 84% of the symptomatic plots that tested positive for BYDV in 2003 and 2004. Our results indicate that economic thresholds for R. padi are 16 aphids per meter-row in the fall and 164 aphids per meter-row at jointing. PMID:16539127
Zwiener, C M; Conley, S P; Bailey, W C; Sweets, L E
Artificial feeding assays were used to study the effect of purified galactose-specific lectins from African yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) on development of larvae of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) and the legume pod-borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera : Pyrialidae). Inhibition of development of C. maculatus was observed when larvae were fed on artificial cowpea seeds containing 0.2%, 2.0% and 5.0% (wt/wt) of dietary lectin. Larval mortality was between 30% and 88%, while delays in total developmental time ranged between 7 and 13 days. The lectin had no effect on development of larvae of M. vitrala, when tested through topical artificial diet incorporation assays, except at the extremely high dose of 35% dietary level. PMID:10746879
Machuka, J S; Okeola, O G; Chrispeels, M J; Jackai, L E
The E and Z pheromonal strains of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, are characterized by female production of and male preference for opposite blends of (E)-11-and (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate. It is known that the pheromone production is controlled by an autosomal gene and that the males' behavior is determined by a sex-linked gene. A third gene, autosomally inherited, has been shown to determine the organization of the male pheromone receptors. In the present study the linkage relationship between the autosomal genes controlling sex pheromone production and male olfactory sensilla was investigated. A recombination experiment showed unequivocally that the genes determining the variation in pheromone production and male pheromone receptors are not closely linked and are most likely inherited independently.
Lofstedt, C.; Hansson, B. S.; Roelofs, W.; Bengtsson, B. O.
Pseudorecombination studies in Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrate that Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV) and Eupatorium yellow vein virus (EpYVV) can functionally interact with DNA-beta satellites associated with AYVV, EpYVV, cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV) and honeysuckle yellow vein virus (HYVV). In contrast, CLCuMV shows some specificity in its ability to interact with distinct satellites and HYVV is able to interact only with its own satellite. Using an N. benthamiana leaf disk assay, we have demonstrated that HYVV is unable to trans-replicate other satellites. To investigate the basis of trans-replication compatibility, deletion mutagenesis of AYVV DNA-beta has been used to localize the origin of replication to approximately 360 nt, encompassing the ubiquitous nonanucleotide/stem-loop structure, satellite conserved region (SCR) and part of the intergenic region immediately upstream of the SCR. Additional deletions within this intergenic region have identified a region that is essential for replication. The capacity for DNA-beta satellites to functionally interact with distinct geminivirus species and its implications for disease diversification are discussed. PMID:19008407
Aqueous solutions of neem oil and aqueous extracts of neem seeds and leaves were sprayed on coffee fruits for laboratory evaluation of their efficiency in reducing infestation of the coffee borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), in multi-choice preference assays in laboratory. Neem oil and extracts reduced infestation of fruits in a dose-dependent manner, acting as a repellent. At 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%, the oil reduced fruit infestation by 30.2%, 42.5% (P > 0.05), and 58.6% (P < 0.05), respectively, as compared with the control. Seed extracts at 1%, 2% and 4% (w/v) reduced infestation by 30.9%, 38.3% (P > 0.05) and 70.2% (P < 0.05), respectively; seed extracts at 0.15%, 1.5% and 15% (w/v) reduced fruit infestation by 16.5%, 38.5% (P > 0.05) and 56.9% (P < 0.05), respectively. Spraying the emulsifiable oil at 1% on coffee fruits and adult borers was compared with spraying on fruits or adults only. Adult-only spraying caused low mortality (P > 0.05) and low reduction on the number of damaged fruits (P > 0.05). Fruit-only spraying significantly reduced insect survival rates and the number of damaged fruits (P < 0.05). However, spraying on adults and fruits caused the greatest reduction in adult survival (55.6%; P < 0.05) and in fruit infestation (78.7%; P < 0.05), probably due to insect mortality and neem oil repellence acting together. PMID:20878003
1. The yellow fever virus was found in infectious form in Aedes ægypti throughout the entire period of the extrinsic incubation, as demonstrated by the injection of the bodies of mosquitoes into normal rhesus monkeys at daily intervals after the insects had fed on an infected animal. 2. The virus was transmitted through the bite of the mosquitoes, in one experiment on and after the 9th day, and in two experiments on the 12th day after the initial infecting feed. 3. The pathologic changes produced by the injection of the infected mosquitoes into normal monkeys during the extrinsic incubation were in every respect those of typical experimental yellow fever. 4. The monkeys withstand easily the subcutaneous injection of the mosquito emulsion. No acute inflammatory reaction was observed at the site of injection in any of the seventeen animals inoculated with this material in these three experiments.
Mosquito-borne diseases cause significant problems for the human health. For this reason, the genomes of three most dangerous species of mosquitoes, including the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, were sequenced in last decade. The efficient vector of arboviruses. Ae. aegypti, is also a convenient model for laboratory research. The intensive genetic mapping of morphological and molecular markers conducted for this mosquito in the past was very successful. This mapping was also used as a tool to localize a number of quantitative trait loci related to the mosquito's ability to transmit various pathogens. However, physical mapping of the Ae. aegypti genome is difficult due to the lack of high-quality polytene chromosomes. Here, we review different mapping approaches that help improving genome sequence assembly and also integrate linkage, chromocome and genome maps the yellow fever mosquito. PMID:23875456
Larval anisakids found in the yellow corvina (Pseudosciaena manchurica), a marine fish caught in the Yellow Sea, were classified by their morphological types. Total 1,068 anisakid larvae were collected from 30 fish examined, with the average number per fish of 35.6. They were classified into Anisakis type I larvae of Berland (859 in number, 80.4%), Contracaecum type A of Koyama et al. (13, 1.2%), Contracaecum type C'(new type) (55, 5.1%), Contracaecum type D of Koyama et al.(18, 1.7%), Contracaecum type D'(new type) (77, 7.2%), Contracaecum type V of Yamaguti(3, 0.28%), Raphidascaris sp. of Koyama et al. (1, 0.09%) and unidentified (42, 3.9%). Contracaecum type C' and D' were considered new in the literature. PMID:12886102
Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a legume crop containing a large amount of protein in its seeds. In this study, we constructed a seed-protein catalog to provide a foundation for further study of the seeds. A total of 736 proteins were identified in 341 2DE spots by nano-LC-MS/MS. Eight storage proteins were found as multiple spots in the 2DE gels. The 736 proteins correspond to 152 unique proteins as shown by UniRef50 clustering. Sixty-seven of the 152 proteins were associated with KEGG-defined pathways. Of the remaining proteins, 57 were classified according to a GO term. The functions of the remaining 28 proteins have yet to be determined. This is the first yellow lupin seed-protein catalog, and it contains considerably more data than previously reported for white lupin (L. albus L.). PMID:24723484
Conformational dynamics in protein functioning covers a wide range of time scales from nanosecond fluctuations around a conformation to the large-amplitude conformational changes of milliseconds or longer. We illustrate a picture of cooperative coupling among such motions of different time scales in a model protein, photoactive yellow protein, by proposing a model that can consistently explain the experimental results on the photocycle of photoactive yellow protein. The model provides a scenario in which the global collective motion induced by the unfolding of the N-terminal domain promotes the loosening of the atomistic packing around the chromophore, which produces the favorable molecular environment for the photoexcited chromophore, thereby stabilizing the partially unfolded intermediate in the photocycle. The proteinquake, the large conformational change triggered by the local structural disturbance, plays a decisive role in controlling the kinetics of functioning.
The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings.
The Apollo 15 yellow impact glasses are characterized by moderate TiO/sub 2/ (approx.4.8%) and high abundances of the large ion lithophile elements (e.g., K, P, Hf, Th, REE). Since the chemistry of these glasses cannot be duplicated by any combination of local components presently known to occur at the Apollo 15 landing site, these yellow glasses seem to be exotic to that area. Chemical and petrologic constraints suggest that these samples were produced by impact melting of an immature mare regolith developed upon an unusual variety of mare basalt. We speculate that the target basalt were the youngest lava flows known to exist on the moon (i.e., Eratosphenian-age lavas in Oceanus Procellarum and Mare Imbrium). Specific tests are proposed for evaluating this provocative hypothesis.
Delano, J.W.; Lindsley, D.H.; Ma, M.; Schmitt, R.A.
The lower Yellow Creek area is located in Rio Blanco and Moffat Counties of northwestern Colorado, about midway between the towns of Rangely and Meeker. The study area is in the northwestern part of the Piceance Creek basin, a very deep structural and sedimentary basin that formed during the Laramide orogeny. Potentially important resources in the area are oil shale and related minerals, oil and gas, coal, and uranium. Topics discussed in the report include: Stratigraphy (Subsurface rocks, Cretaceous rocks, Tertiary rocks, and Quaternary deposits); Structure (Midland anticline, graben at Pinyon Ridge, and Crooked Wash syncline, Folds and faults in the vicinity of the White River, Red Wash syncline and central graben zone, Yellow Creek anticlinal nose); Economic geology (Oil shale and associated minerals, Coal, Oil and gas, Uranium, Gravel).
Researchers studying plant growth under different lamp types often attribute differences in growth to a blue light response. Lettuce plants were grown in six blue light treatments comprising five blue light fractions (0, 2, 6% from high-pressure sodium [HPS] lamps and 6, 12, 26% from metal halide [MH] lamps). Lettuce chlorophyll concentration, dry mass, leaf area and specific leaf area under the HPS and MH 6% blue were significantly different, suggesting wavelengths other than blue and red affected plant growth. Results were reproducible in two replicate studies at each of two photosynthetic photon fluxes, 200 and 500 mumol m-2 s-1. We graphed the data against absolute blue light, phytochrome photoequilibrium, phototropic blue, UV, red:far red, blue:red, blue: far red and 'yellow' light fraction. Only the 'yellow' wavelength range (580-600 nm) explained the differences between the two lamp types.
Based on geomorphological, tectonic and sedimentary data, a Kunlun Yellow River Tectonic Movement has been recog-nized in\\u000a 1.10–0.60 Ma B. P. This tectonic movement, which leads to uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau from 1 500 to 3 000–3\\u000a 500 m. is periodic, abrupt and changeable in the movement rate of uplifting and slide slipping.
Yellow pages advertisements of 252 hospitals in 13 geographically separated metropolitan areas are content analyzed. Nearly 2,000 content items are classified into 13 categories and approximately 60% of them deal with specific hospital services. Discrepancies between some of the hospitals' advertisement contents and previously identified hospital attributes favored by consumers are discovered. Recommendations regarding hospitals' use of this promotional media are made. PMID:10272417
1. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is the most important disease affecting cereal crops in New Zealand.2. Losses from BYDV in the total wheat crop have been up to 25 per cent in recent years.3. Effective control of BYDV in autumn- and early winter-sown wheat in New Zealand has been achieved by 1 application of a good systemic organo-phosphate spray
To study the seasonality and causes of the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) in detail, rotated empirical orthogonal function\\u000a (REOF) and extended associate pattern analysis are adopted with daily sea surface salinity (SSS), sea surface temperature\\u000a (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) datasets covering 1126 days from American Navy Experimental Real-Time East Asian Seas Ocean\\u000a Nowcast System in the present
Antibodies were produced against the 22-kDa coat protein (CP) of Barley yellow dwarf virus strain PAV (BYDV-PAV) by DNA immunization. A cDNA sequence encoding the 22-kDa CP was cloned into a mammalian expression vector (pcDNA22K), entrapped in liposomes, and injected intramuscularly into BALB\\/c mice. To target the antigen to sites of immune induction and, thereby, enhance the immune response, the
Narinder Pal; Jae Sun Moon; Jagdeep Sandhu; Leslie L. Domier; Cleora J. DArcy
Impoundments and dams are frequently used in wetlands to stabilize water levels and maintain breeding habitat for waterfowl.\\u000a The objective of the study was to examine the effect of reduced water level fluctuations and connectivity on fish parasitism\\u000a in wetlands caused by the installation of such structures. We compared parasites of juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from two enhanced wetlands
Micheline Bertrand; David J. Marcogliese; Pierre Magnan
During the 1990s, our knowledge and understanding of the current system in the Yellow and East China Seas have grown significantly\\u000a due primarily to new technologies for measuring surface currents and making high-resolution three-dimensional numerical model\\u000a calculations. One of the most important new findings in this decade is direct evidence of the northward current west of Kyushu\\u000a provided by satellite-tracked
The absorption dynamics of two model chromophores of the photoactive yellow protein were studied in gas-phase experiments. Using different time-resolving techniques with an overall sensitivity ranging from seconds down to a few nanoseconds, complex dynamics were revealed for the p -coumaric acid anion, involving both fragmentation and electron detachment as possible photoresponse channels. For the trans-thiophenyl- p -coumarate model, despite its more complex molecular structure, simpler decay dynamics showing only fragmentation were observed.
This is a description sheet (with illustration) for the standard rapid cycling ideotype (RCI) or ideal form for the yellow-green leaf phenotype. RCI phenotype is selected for uniformity in flowering time and plant form. Forty days seed to seed, 14 days sowing to flowering. Standard, RCI, is the common genetic background of most RBR mutants.Published info:Williams, P.H. and C. Hill 1986. Rapid-Cycling Populations of Brassicas. Science 232, pp. 1385-89.
The present study was conducted to investigate whether safflor yellow B (SYB) had a protective effect on cerebral ischemic\\u000a injury and to determine the possible mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, Male Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats were used to make\\u000a the model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The behavioral test was used to measure neurological deficit scores\\u000a for
Chaoyun Wang; Dalei Zhang; Guisheng Li; Juntian Liu; Jingwei Tian; Fenghua Fu; Ke Liu
Fully expanded rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.) leaves were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, SmartFresh™) at a concentration of 0.5?ll?1 for 4h at 10°C before storage for 10 days in air or in air with ethylene (1?ll?1). The untreated leaves stored in air showed a progressive yellowing during storage, resulting in a shelf life of about 10 days. The presence of exogenous
Athanasios Koukounaras; Anastasios S. Siomos; Evangelos Sfakiotakis
Many mineralogists believe that fluorite emits violet fluorescence under UV light, but a special fluorite from Japan emits yellow fluorescence under UV light. The analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) shows that this fluorite includes high concentrations of Dy together with various rare-earth (RE) impurities other than Pm and Eu. Photoluminescence (PL) emission and excitation spectra of the fluorite
Aircraft measurements of air pollutants were made to investigate the characteristic features of long-range transport of sulfur compounds over the Yellow Sea for the periods of 26–27 April and 7–10 November in 1998, and 9–11 April and 19 June in 1999, together with aerosol measurements at the Taean background station in Korea. The overall mean concentrations of SO2, O3 and
During the 1990s, our knowledge and understanding of the current system in the Yellow and East China Seas have grown significantly due primarily to new technolo- gies for measuring surface currents and making high-resolution three-dimensional numerical model calculations. One of the most important new findings in this decade is direct evidence of the northward current west of Kyushu provided by
Using a box-sampler, surface and core sediment samples were collected from the Bohai and Yellow Seas in 1998–1999. The sediments were sequentially extracted to determine six phosphorus fractions, and non-sequentially extracted for total P (TP) and inorganic P (IP), where the difference between TP and IP was assumed to be organic P (OP). It was found that more than 70%
Nutrient species were analyzed from samples collected in the Yellow Sea in May 1998, including NO3?, NO2?, NH4+, PO43?, SiO32?, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), particulate nitrogen, dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), particulate phosphorus, etc. The exchange fluxes of nutrients across the sediment\\/water interface were determined by incubation of sediment on board the ship. The concentrations of N, P and Si compounds
S. M Liu; J Zhang; S. Z Chen; H. T Chen; G. H Hong; H Wei; Q. M Wu
This short article suggests the use of the Sure/Pac cylinder system as an alternative to glass stoppered bottles for the storage of solutions of yellow phosphorous in carbon dioxide. The cylinders are virtually unbreakable, and their wider base makes them more resistant to tipping over than a glass bottle. The ball valve allows a positive, leak resistant closure which may be additionally secured by the use of a brass cylinder plug.
Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process by which cytoplasmic components are sequestered in autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis as well as remodeling during normal development, and dysfunctions in autophagy have been associated with a variety of pathologies including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and neurodegenerative disease. Stem cells are unique in their ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cells in the body, which are important in development, tissue renewal and a range of disease processes. Therefore, it is predicted that autophagy would be crucial for the quality control mechanisms and maintenance of cellular homeostasis in various stem cells given their relatively long life in the organisms. In contrast to the extensive body of knowledge available for somatic cells, the role of autophagy in the maintenance and function of stem cells is only beginning to be revealed as a result of recent studies. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of autophagy in embryonic stem cells, several tissue stem cells (particularly hematopoietic stem cells), as well as a number of cancer stem cells. We discuss how recent studies of different knockout mice models have defined the roles of various autophagy genes and related pathways in the regulation of the maintenance, expansion and differentiation of various stem cells. We also highlight the many unanswered questions that will help to drive further research at the intersection of autophagy and stem cell biology in the near future.
The possible influence of parasites on the short-term and long-term growth and condition of yellow perch Perca flavescens was examined by investigating correlations between parasite abundance and specific growth variables. The following parasites were enumerated in age-1 yellow perch collected from Lake St. Pierre in June 2008: Apophallus brevis, Diplostomum spp., Ichthyocotylurus spp., Tylodelphys scheuringi, Phyllodistomum superbum, and Raphidascaris acus. Short-term growth was estimated using RNA/DNA ratios and long-term growth via the total length and condition as measured by the Fulton index. No correlation was found between parasite abundance and short-term growth, but a negative influence of combined infections of T. scheuringi and P. superbum on long-term growth was detected. In addition, the abundance of Ichthyocotylurus spp. was positively correlated with the condition of the yellow perch. Together these results suggest that limited or subtle pathogenic effects in juvenile fish are not discernable in recent growth but only in long-term growth indices. Furthermore, in future studies examination of parasite effects on fish growth should account for multiple infections. PMID:22838080
Field data from a population of yellow perch Perca flavescens in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, were used to evaluate the ability of two energetic models to predict consumption by yellow perch. Field estimates of daily ration for age-l-4 fish during May through October 1987 and 1988 were compared with independent predictions made by the Wisconsin energetic model and an energetic model developed by Karas and Thoresson. Predictions of daily ration using the Wisconsin model were lower than daily rations estimated from field data for all ages, primarily due to poor model-field agreement at temperatures above 22??C. This caused estimates of cumulative consumption from the Wisconsin model to be 25-50% lower than field estimates. Predictions of daily ration by the Karas-Thoresson model agreed with field estimates over a temperature range of 1026??C for age-1-3 yellow perch but not for older fish. Despite improvement, model predictions of cumulative consumption were 2-35% lower than field estimates. Although these tests of predicted and estimated rations may provide insight into which model produced more accurate results, it must be emphasized that field measures of daily ration are also estimates and may be in error, particularly at temperatures above 22??C where gastric evacuation rates were estimated. The Karas-Thoresson modification of the Wisconsin energetic model produced better fits to field ration data and is recommended for model applications.
Schaeffer, J. S.; Haas, R. C.; Diana, J. S.; Breck, J. E.
The central Yellow Sea is a typical intracratonic rifted basin that consists of 4 major depressions bounded by aligned listric faults along horst blocks of uplifted basement (Kunsan, West Kunsan, Yellow Sea sub-basins, and Central Trough). The depressions are half grabens caused by pull-apart extensional stresses. Core analysis and micropaleotologic study indicate that more than 5 km of lacustrine sediments were accumulated in the central part of the West Kunsan basin. Two distinctive sedimentary successions are recognized in the core descriptions: alternation of reddish-brown siltstones and sandstones containing evaporites and marlstones, and an overlying progradational sequence including minor limestone beds in the lower part of the sequence. The progradational sequence is interpreted as lacustrine deltaic deposits. Abundant palynofloral occurrence of freshwater green algae, Pediastrum, and absence of marine fauna such as dinoflagellates are also supporting evidence for a lacustrine environment. The lithofacies and tectonic framework of the Yellow Sea are very similar to those of Cretaceous lacustrine sediments of the Korea Peninsula onshore and Pohai coastal basin in China.
Background and purpose Many clinical reports have indicated that polished hip stems show better clinical results than rough stems of the same geometry. It is still unknown, however, what the mechanical effects are of different surface finishes on the cement at the cement-bone interface. We compared mechanical effects in an in vitro cemented hip arthroplasty model. Methods Two sizes of double-taper polished stems and matt-processed polished stems (rough stems) were fixed into composite femurs. A 1-Hz dynamic load was applied to the stems for 1 million cycles. An 8-h no-load period was set after every 16 h of load. Stem subsidence within the cement, and compressive force and horizontal cement creep at the cement-bone interface, were measured. Results Compared to rough stems, stem subsidence, compressive force and cement creep for polished stems were a maximum of 4, 12, and 7-fold greater, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between stem subsidence and compressive force for polished stems. In contrast, a strong negative correlation was found between stem subsidence and compressive force for rough stems. There was also a statistically significant relationship between compressive force on the cement and cement creep for the polished stems, but no significant relationship was found for rough stems. Interpretation This is the first evidence that different surface finishes of stems can have different mechanical effects on the cement at the cement-bone interface. Stem subsidence in polished stems resulted in compressive force on the cement and cement creep. The mechanical effects that polished taper stems impart on cement at the cement-bone interface probably contribute to their good long-term fixation and excellent clinical outcome.
Despite the discovery over 60 years ago by Huggins and Hodges 1 that prostate cancers respond to androgen deprivation therapy, hormone-refractory prostate cancer remains a major clinical challenge. There is now mounting evidence that solid tumours originate from undifferentiated stem cell-like cells coexisting within a heterogeneous tumour mass that drive tumour formation, maintain tumour homeostasis and initiate metastases. This review focuses upon current evidence for prostate cancer stem cells, addressing the identification and properties of both normal and transformed prostate stem cells.
This game uses a modified Uno deck to review concepts related to stem cell research and diabetes. Specifically, it covers material in the "Pulse-Chase Primer," "Pancreatic Beta Cells," and "Microarrays and Stem Cells" activities from the same resource which may or may not be necessary to complete prior to this activity (depending on learner's prior knowledge). Learners accumulate points and answer questions about stem cells, development, and microarrays so that they can be the first to differentiate into a pancreatic beta (Î²) cell. This activity is recommended for learners studying Biology at the High School (honors, IB and AP) or Undergraduate level.
Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in
Timon C. Liu; Rui Duan; Yan Li; Xue-Feng Li; Li-Ling Tan; Songhao Liu
The net energy (NE) content of canola meals (CM; i.e. Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow) in growing pigs was determined using an indirect calorimetry chamber or published prediction equations. The study was conducted as a completely randomized design (n?=?6), with (i) a basal diet and (ii) 2 diets containing 700?g/kg of the basal diet and 300?g/kg of either of the two varieties of CM. A total of 18 growing barrows were housed in metabolism crates for the determination of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy. Thereafter, pigs were transferred to the indirect calorimetry chamber to determine heat production (HP). The NE contents of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow determined with the direct determination technique and prediction equations were 9.8 versus 10.3 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 10.2 versus 10.4 MJ/kg DM, respectively. Retained energy (RE) and fasting heat production (FHP) of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were 5.5 versus 5.7 MJ/kg and 4.3 versus 4.5 MJ/kg, respectively, when measured with the direct determination technique and prediction equations. The NE contents of Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were determined to be 8.8 and 9.8 MJ/kg DM, respectively, using the direct determination technique. PMID:24720508
The cry1Ac7 gene of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 234, showing activity against the sugarcane borer Eldana saccharina, was cloned under the control of the tac promoter. The fusion was introduced into the broad-host- range plasmid pKT240 and the integration vector pJFF350 and without the tac promoter into the broad-host- range plasmids pML122 and pKmM0. These plasmids were introduced into a Pseudomonas
KATRINA J. DOWNING; GRAEME LESLIE; JENNIFER A. THOMSON
Abstract Six new species of Agrilus Curtis, 1825 with affinities to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888, are described from the Oriental Region: Agrilus crepuscularis sp. n. (Malaysia); Agrilus pseudolubopetri sp. n. (Laos); Agrilus sapphirinus sp. n.(Laos); Agrilus seramensis sp. n.(Indonesia); Agrilus spineus sp. n. (Malaysia); and Agrilus tomentipennis sp. n. (Laos). The genus Sarawakita Obenberger, 1924 syn. nov. is considered a junior synonym of Agrilus.
Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as control and respective group of animals received 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of food colors by gavaging up to 30 days. Results: The serological study showed a decrease in total protein and albumin and an increase in alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and total bilirubin. The results revealed that oral administration of these blend did not affect the body weight gain. Conclusion: The prolonged consumption of the blend may cause adverse effect on human health.
Background Ecosystem engineering may influence community structure and biodiversity by controlling the availability of resources and/or habitats used by other organisms. Insect herbivores may act as ecosystem engineers but there is still poor understanding of the role of these insects structuring arthropod communities. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the effect of ecosystem engineering by the stem-borer Oncideres albomarginata chamela on the arthropod community of a tropical dry forest for three consecutive years. The results showed that ecosystem engineering by O. albomarginata chamela had strong positive effects on the colonization, abundance, species richness and composition of the associated arthropod community, and it occurred mainly through the creation of a habitat with high availability of oviposition sites for secondary colonizers. These effects cascade upward to higher trophic levels. Overall, ecosystem engineering by O. albomarginata chamela was responsible for nearly 95% of the abundance of secondary colonizers and 82% of the species richness. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that ecosystem engineering by O. albomarginata chamela is a keystone process structuring an arthropod community composed by xylovores, predators and parasitoids. This study is the first to empirically demonstrate the effect of the ecosystem engineering by stem-boring insects on important attributes of arthropod communities. The results of this study have important implications for conservation.
Calderon-Cortes, Nancy; Quesada, Mauricio; Escalera-Vazquez, Luis H.
Two genes from Streptomyces albidoflavus, one exochitinase (905-bp) and an endochitinase (1100-bp) were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli in form of a fusion protein with a maltose binding protein (MBP). The goal was to produce and test proteins that inhibit both the coffee berry borer insect Hypothenemus hampei and the coffee rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. Both recombinant proteins MBP/exochitinase and MBP/endochitinase showed chitinolytic activity. When recombinant purified proteins were added to an artificial coffee-based diet for the coffee berry borer, MBP/exochitinase at a concentration of 0.5% W/W caused delayed growth of larvae and 100% mortality between days 8 and 15, while MBP/endochitinase caused 100% mortality at day 35. H. vastatrix urediniospores presented total cell wall degradation in their germinative tubes within 18 h of exposure to the proteins at enzyme concentrations of 5 and 6 mg ml-1, with exochitinase having the greatest effect. The dual deleterious effect of S. albidoflavus chitinases on two of the most limiting coffee pests worldwide, the coffee borer and the coffee rust, make them potential elements to be incorporated in integrated control strategies. PMID:22464210
Martínez, Claudia P; Echeverri, Claudia; Florez, Juan C; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Góngora, Carmenza E
Two genes from Streptomyces albidoflavus, one exochitinase (905-bp) and an endochitinase (1100-bp) were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli in form of a fusion protein with a maltose binding protein (MBP). The goal was to produce and test proteins that inhibit both the coffee berry borer insect Hypothenemus hampei and the coffee rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. Both recombinant proteins MBP/exochitinase and MBP/endochitinase showed chitinolytic activity. When recombinant purified proteins were added to an artificial coffee-based diet for the coffee berry borer, MBP/exochitinase at a concentration of 0.5% W/W caused delayed growth of larvae and 100% mortality between days 8 and 15, while MBP/endochitinase caused 100% mortality at day 35. H. vastatrix urediniospores presented total cell wall degradation in their germinative tubes within 18 h of exposure to the proteins at enzyme concentrations of 5 and 6 mg ml-1, with exochitinase having the greatest effect. The dual deleterious effect of S. albidoflavus chitinases on two of the most limiting coffee pests worldwide, the coffee borer and the coffee rust, make them potential elements to be incorporated in integrated control strategies.
The Works is a museum in central Ohio that was created by local citizens in the 1990s who were "interested in preserving Licking County's industrial past." The museum is an official affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution and a member of the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Visitors will find that the "Educator Info" link has many resources for teachers, such as "Literature Links", with book lists for various ages that build on the educational programs at the museum. The "STEM Education" link will be of particular interest to those who are interested in holding their own STEM activities for the kids and adults in their community. Some of the activities highlighted for visitors to the website are STEM Industry Tours, STEM Science night to "show kids the "WOW" factor of science through a variety of hands-on demonstrations and experiments", and a festival to engage high school students, called STEMfest.
There is a new impetus for encouraging students to become more knowledgeable about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and perhaps encourage them to choose a career in science-related fields. Several groups and individuals, including
This brief video from WPSU introduces a diverse group of graduate students with interests in STEM careers. From deep sea diving to creating video games, each graduate student is pursuing activities beyond the stereotypical view of a nerdy scientist.
This brief video from WPSU introduces a diverse group of middle school students with interests in STEM careers. Whether creating robots or designing solar cars, each student dreams of activities beyond the stereotypical view of a nerdy scientist.
\\u000a \\u000a Just a few short years ago, we still used to think that we were born with a finite number of irreplaceable neurons. However,\\u000a in recent years, there has been increasingly persuasive evidence that suggests that neural stem cell (NSC) maintenance and\\u000a differentiation continue to take place throughout the mammal’s lifetime. Studies suggest that neural stem cells not only persist\\u000a to
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is now an important treatment for numerous diseases. Donation of hematopoietic stem cells, either through bone marrow (BM) harvesting or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection, is a well-established and generally accepted procedure. The BM is aspirated from the posterior iliac crest under spinal or general anesthesia, and common side effects include fatigue and local pain. PBSC collection requires 4-6 days of G-CSF injections and leukapheresis 1-2 times. Common side effects of these procedures include bone pain, fatigue, and headache. The side effects of BM and PBSC collections are mostly transient and well tolerated. Severe adverse events are uncommon in healthy donors. At present, there is no definitive evidence to show that the stem cell donation increases the risk of marrow failure or cancer development. Nevertheless, all donors must be carefully evaluated and fully informed before donation. Donors must be able to provide informed consent without being coerced or pressured. Donors and graft products must be examined for potential agents to avoid transmitting infections and other diseases that may jeopardize donor's health during stem cell collection or recipient's well being after transplantation. Understanding the potential physical and psychological complications of stem cell donation and factors that may increase risks is very important to ensure that transplantation physicians maintain positive attitude in conducting this benevolent practice. PMID:23420184
The identification of a fraction of cancer stem cells (CSCs) associated with resistance to chemotherapy in most solid tumors leads to the dogma that eliminating this fraction will cure cancer. Experimental data has challenged this simplistic and optimistic model. Opposite to the classical cancer stem cell model, we introduced the stemness phenotype model (SPM), which proposed that all glioma cells possess stem cell properties and that the stemness is modulated by the microenvironment. A key prediction of the SPM is that to cure gliomas all gliomas cells (CSCs and non-CSCs) should be eliminated at once. Other theories closely resembling the SPM and its predictions have recently been proposed, suggesting that the SPM may be a useful model for other type of tumors. Here, we review data from other tumors that strongly support the concepts of the SPM applied to gliomas. We include data related to: (1) the presence of a rare but constant fraction of CSCs in established cancer cell lines, (2) the clonal origin of cancer, (3) the symmetrical division, (4) the ability of “non-CSCs” to generate “CSCs,” and (5) the effect of the microenvironment on cancer stemness. The aforenamed issues that decisively supported the SPM proposed for gliomas can also be applied to breast, lung, prostate cancer, and melanoma and perhaps other tumors in general. If the glioma SPM is correct and can be extrapolated to other types of cancer, it will have profound implications in the development of novel modalities for cancer treatment.
Cruz, M. H.; Siden, A.; Calaf, G. M.; Delwar, Z. M.; Yakisich, J. S.
Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments at 56 stations during two cruises in the Yellow Sea in summer and winter, 2011 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The pollution status was assessed via the Geoaccumulation index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. Higher concentrations of heavy metals (except for Mn) were found in the central Southern Yellow Sea and the western Northern Yellow Sea. The higher contents of Mn were much closer to Shandong Peninsula. Correlation analyses indicated that Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Co probably had the same origin and were controlled by grain size and total organic carbon. Pollution assessment showed that most areas of the Yellow Sea were not or lowly contaminated with the exception of the northwest and south parts of the Southern Yellow Sea showing Cd-contamination. The pollution status of the Yellow Sea in summer was worse than that in winter. PMID:24703395
The ocular surface consists of two distinct types of epithelial cells; conjunctival and corneal. Although anatomically continuous, these epithelia comprise two distinct cell populations. Corneal stem cells are located at the limbus. The microenvironment of the limbus is important in maintaining “stemness” of the stem cells and also acts as a barrier to conjunctival epithelial cells preventing them from migration onto the corneal surface.Damage to the limbus results in varying degrees of limbal stem cell deficiency with characteristic clinical features including conjunctivalization of the cornea. Regenerative management of corneal conjunctivalization utilizing stem cells comprises of two approaches; limbal auto- or allografts by using existing stem cells and induction and regeneration of ocular tissues from embryonic stem cells. Herein, we review stem cells and limbal stem cells in particular, types of epithelial cells in the cornea, markers of corneal epithelial cells in different stages, as well as the current approach to corneal epithelial regeneration.
Yellow mosaic disease of cultivated legumes in South-East Asia, is caused by Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) and Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) belonging to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae. Efforts to engineer resistance against the genus Begomovirus are focused mainly on silencing of complementary-sense virus genes involved in virus replication. Here we have targeted a\\u000a complementary-sense
Twenty-five sera from patients with high titers of both honeybee- and yellow-jacket-venom-specific IgE were analyzed in RAST inhibition experiments, using each venom as the coupling and inhibiting antigen. Eight sera had unique antibody activity with no cross-reactivity between yellow-jacket- and honeybee-venom-specific IgE. In 5 sera, the IgE antibody activity was directed at a major allergen in yellow jacket venom cross-reacting
Serological surveys undertaken to define the geographic limits of the 1970 rural yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that surrounding areas of Benue Plateau State and East Central State were not involved. However, the surveys uncovered a separate focus of unrecognized, recent epidemic yellow fever in Mbawsi, in southern East Central State. The highest proportions of yellow-fever-immune sera outside the Okwoga and Mbawsi foci were found in zones of Guinea savannah in the Benue River basin.
Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Stroh, G.; Lee, V. H.; Smith, E. A.
Yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis(D. Don) Spach) are the oldest known coniferous trees in Canada. This paper reports on the first dendrochronological investigation of yellow-cedar trees at montane sites on Vancouver Island. Mature yellow-cedar trees were selected for study at four sites along a 200-km northwest-southeast transect. Trees older than 500 years were common at three of the four sites, with numerous
Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by ungual dystrophy, lower limb lymphedema, and pleural effusions or bronchiectasis. Rheumatoid arthritis is the autoimmune disorder most often associated with yellow nail syndrome. We report two new cases of yellow nail syndrome in patents receiving thiol compound therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Eight similar cases have been reported since 1979, suggesting a possible causative effect of this class of drugs. PMID:12184439
Lehuédé, Gaëlle; Toussirot, Eric; Despaux, Jacques; Michel, Fabrice; Wendling, Daniel
Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC–MS revealed striking similarity\\u000a of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained\\u000a only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51%
Ralf M. Schweiggert; Christof B. Steingass; Annerose Heller; Patricia Esquivel; Reinhold Carle
Does saline water of Kuroshio origin intrude into the Yellow Sea interior by a persistent mean current through the Yellow Sea Warm Current or by an intermittently generated wind-driven current? This very fundamental question is discussed by analyzing comprehensive conductivity-temperature-depth data collected over the entire southern Yellow Sea basin and by analyzing satellite-tracked drifter trajectories collected in 1996 and 1997.
A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with res