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Sample records for yellow stem borer

  1. Silencing of CYP6 and APN Genes Affects the Growth and Development of Rice Yellow Stem Borer, Scirpophaga incertulas

    PubMed Central

    Kola, Vijaya Sudhakara Rao; Renuka, P.; Padmakumari, Ayyagari Phani; Mangrauthia, Satendra K.; Balachandran, Sena M.; Ravindra Babu, V.; Madhav, Maganti S.

    2016-01-01

    RNAi is a powerful tool to target the insect genes involved in host-pest interactions. Key insect genes are the choice for silencing to achieve pest derived resistance where resistance genes are not available in gene pool of host plant. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of dsRNA designed from two genes Cytochrome P450 derivative (CYP6) and Aminopeptidase N (APN) of rice yellow stem borer (YSB) on growth and development of insect. The bioassays involved injection of chemically synthesized 5′ FAM labeled 21-nt dsRNA into rice cut stems and allowing the larvae to feed on these stems which resulted in increased mortality and observed growth and development changes in larval length and weight compared with its untreated control at 12–15 days after treatment. These results were further supported by observing the reduction in transcripts expression of these genes in treated larvae. Fluorescence detection in treated larvae also proved that dsRNA was readily taken by larvae when fed on dsRNA treated stems. These results from the present study clearly show that YSB larvae fed on dsRNA designed from Cytochrome P450 and Aminopeptidase N has detrimental effect on larval growth and development. These genes can be deployed to develop YSB resistance in rice using RNAi approach. PMID:26903874

  2. Breeding for stem borer resistance in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem borers are arguably the most important group of insect pests of sugarcane. Stem borers primarily belong to the insect order Lepidoptera, although a few species belong to the order Coleoptera. The larvae of these insects bore into the sugarcane stalk and heavy infestations can cause severe losse...

  3. Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  4. Parasitism of lepidopterous stem borers in cultivated and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  5. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

  6. Breeding Resistant Sugarcane for Managing the Stem Borer Diatraea saccharalis: Progress and Prospects for Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stem borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is an important insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Growing resistant varieties is a component of the Integrated Pest Management Program as practiced in Louisiana for managing this insect; however, the release of stem borer resistant varieties is intermi...

  7. Factors affecting stem borer parasitoid species diversity and parasitism in cultivated and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Calatayud, Paul-André; Dupas, Stéphane

    2010-02-01

    The effects of biotic and abiotic factors on stem borer parasitoid diversity, abundance, and parasitism were studied in cultivated and natural habitats in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Comparing habitat types, we found partial support for the "natural enemy" hypothesis, whereby, across all localities, parasitoid diversity was higher in more diverse host plant communities in natural habitats, whereas parasitoid abundance was higher in cultivated habitats. For both habitats, parasitoid richness was mainly influenced by stem borer density and/or its interaction with stem borer richness, whereas parasitoid abundance was mainly affected by stem borer abundance. Parasitoid richness was higher in localities (with bimodal rainfall distribution) with increased spatial and temporal availability of host plants that harbored the borers. Across seasons, parasitoid richness was lower in both cultivated and natural habitats in the driest locality, Mtito Andei. Overall, parasitoid diversity was low in Suam and Mtito Andei, where maize cultivation was practiced on a commercial scale and intense grazing activities persist across seasons, respectively. Across localities, habitats, and seasons, stem borer parasitism was positively correlated with parasitoid richness and abundance. Furthermore, the interaction of rainfall and altitude influenced the presence and absence of parasitoids, and consequently, stem borer parasitism. Parasitism was positively and negatively correlated with temperature in cultivated and natural habitats, respectively. Overall, natural habitats seem to serve as important refugia for sustaining parasitoid diversity, which in turn can affect stem borer parasitism in the cereal cropping system. PMID:20146840

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin binding to brush border membrane vesicles of rice stem borers.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Edwin P; Aguda, Remedios M; Curtiss, April; Dean, Donald H; Cohen, Michael B

    2004-04-01

    The receptor binding step in the molecular mode of action of five delta-endotoxins (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1C, Cry2A, and Cry9C) from Bacillus thuringiensis was examined to find toxins with different receptor sites in the midgut of the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis (Walker) and yellow stem borer (YSB) Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Homologous competition assays were used to estimate binding affinities (K(com)) of (125)I-labelled toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). The SSB BBMV affinities in decreasing order was: Cry1Ab = Cry1Ac > Cry9C > Cry2A > Cry1C. In YSB, the order of decreasing affinities was: Cry1Ac > Cry1Ab > Cry9C = Cry2A > Cry1C. The number of binding sites (B(max)) estimated by homologous competition binding among the Cry toxins did not affect toxin binding affinity (K(com)) to both insect midgut BBMVs. Results of the heterologous competition binding assays suggest that Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac compete for the same binding sites in SSB and YSB. Other toxins bind with weak (Cry1C, Cry2A) or no affinity (Cry9C) to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac binding sites in both species. Cry2A had the lowest toxicity to 10-day-old SSB and Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac were the most toxic. Taken together, the results of this study show that Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac could be combined with either Cry1C, Cry2A, or Cry9C for more durable resistance in transgenic rice. Cry1Ab should not be used together with Cry1Ac because a mutation in one receptor site could diminish binding of both toxins. PMID:15027071

  9. Aerial Insecticide Treatments for Management of Dectes Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Sloderbeck, P. E.; Buschman, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an increasingly important pest of soybean and sunflower in central North America. Nine large-scale field trials were conducted over a 3-year period to determine if Dectes stem borer could be managed with insecticide treatments. Aerial applications of lambda on July 6, 12 and 15 were successful in significantly reducing adults, but applications on July 1, 20 and 24 were less successful. These data suggest that for central Kansas two aerial applications may be required to control Dectes stem borers in soybean. Based on our experience the first application should be made at the peak of adult flight about July 5th and the second application 10 days later. The local treatment schedule should be developed to follow the local Dectes stem borer adult emergence pattern. Treated aerial strips 59 m (195 ft) wide were not large enough to prevent reinfestation, but treated half-circles (24 ha or 60 acres) were successful in reducing in Dectes stem borer infestation of soybean. Sweep net samples of adults were not successful in identifying a treatment threshold, so treatment decisions will need to be based on field history of infestation. Further studies are needed to identify better sampling methods that can be used to establish treatment thresholds and to refine the best timing for treatments. PMID:21861653

  10. New insights into an RNAi approach for plant defence against piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect pests.

    PubMed

    Li, Haichao; Guan, Ruobing; Guo, Huimin; Miao, Xuexia

    2015-11-01

    Insect double-stranded (ds)RNA expression in transgenic crops can increase plant resistance to biotic stress; however, creating transgenic crops to defend against every insect pest is impractical. Arabidopsis Mob1A is required for organ growth and reproduction. When Arabidopsis roots were soaked in dsMob1A, the root lengths and numbers were significantly suppressed and plants could not bolt or flower. Twenty-four hours after rice roots were immersed in fluorescent-labelled dsEYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein), fluorescence was observed in the rice sheath and stem and in planthoppers feeding on the rice. The expression levels of Ago and Dicer in rice and planthoppers were induced by dsEYFP. When rice roots were soaked in dsActin, their growth was also significantly suppressed. When planthoppers or Asian corn borers fed on rice or maize that had been irrigated with a solution containing the dsRNA of an insect target gene, the insect's mortality rate increased significantly. Our results demonstrate that dsRNAs can be absorbed by crop roots, trigger plant and insect RNAi and enhance piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect mortality rates. We also confirmed that dsRNA was stable under outdoor conditions. These results indicate that the root dsRNA soaking can be used as a bioinsecticide strategy during crop irrigation. PMID:25828885

  11. Abundance and Spatial Dispersion of Rice Stem Borer Species in Kahama, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Alfonce; Rwegasira, Gration M.

    2015-01-01

    Species diversity, abundance, and dispersion of rice stem borers in framer’s fields were studied in four major rice growing areas of Kahama District. Stem borer larvae were extracted from the damaged tillers in 16 quadrants established in each field. Adult Moths were trapped by light traps and collected in vials for identification. Results indicated the presence of Chilo partellus, Maliarpha separatella, and Sesamia calamistis in all study areas. The most abundant species was C. partellus (48.6%) followed by M. separatella (35.4%) and S. calamistis was least abundant (16.1%). Stem borers dispersion was aggregated along the edges of rice fields in three locations (wards) namely: Bulige, Chela, and Ngaya. The dispersion in the fourth ward, Kashishi was uniform as established from two of the three dispersion indices tested. Further studies would be required to establish the available alternative hosts, the extent of economic losses and the distribution of rice stem borers in the rest of the Lake zone of Tanzania. PMID:26411785

  12. Abundance and Spatial Dispersion of Rice Stem Borer Species in Kahama, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Alfonce; Rwegasira, Gration M

    2015-01-01

    Species diversity, abundance, and dispersion of rice stem borers in framer's fields were studied in four major rice growing areas of Kahama District. Stem borer larvae were extracted from the damaged tillers in 16 quadrants established in each field. Adult Moths were trapped by light traps and collected in vials for identification. Results indicated the presence of Chilo partellus, Maliarpha separatella, and Sesamia calamistis in all study areas. The most abundant species was C. partellus (48.6%) followed by M. separatella (35.4%) and S. calamistis was least abundant (16.1%). Stem borers dispersion was aggregated along the edges of rice fields in three locations (wards) namely: Bulige, Chela, and Ngaya. The dispersion in the fourth ward, Kashishi was uniform as established from two of the three dispersion indices tested. Further studies would be required to establish the available alternative hosts, the extent of economic losses and the distribution of rice stem borers in the rest of the Lake zone of Tanzania. PMID:26411785

  13. Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass. PMID:23990056

  14. Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K.; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass. PMID:23990056

  15. Oviposition and larval development of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini, on rice and non-crop grass hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse study compared oviposition preference and larval development duration of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on rice, Oryza sativa L. (cv. Cocodrie), and four primary non-crop hosts of Gulf Coast Texas rice agroecosystems. Rice and two perennials, johnsongrass...

  16. Erianthus: A sugarcane relative with potential as a source of resistance to the stem borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant resistance can play an important role in IPM strategies to reduce damage from infestations of stem borers. However, resistance, when it is present, is often negatively associated with yield potential. There exists then, a need to identify sources of resistance that have no adverse effect on su...

  17. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Chilo auricilius and comparison with three other rice stem borers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-09-15

    The mitogenome of Chilo auricilius (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae) was a circular molecule made up of 15,367 bp. Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas, and C. auricilius, are closely related, well known rice stem borers that are widely distributed in the main rice-growing regions of China. The gene order and orientation of all four stem borers were similar to that of other insect mitogenomes. Among the four stem borers, all AT contents were below 83%, while all AT contents of tRNA genes were above 80%. The genomes were compact, with only 121-257 bp of non-coding intergenic spacer. There are 56 or 62-bp overlapping nucleotides in Crambidae moths, but were only 25-bp overlapping nucleotides in the noctuid moth S. inferens. There was a conserved motif 'ATACTAAA' between trnS2 (UCN) and nad1 in Crambidae moths, but this same region was 'ATCATA' in the noctuid S. inferens. And there was a 6-bp motif 'ATGATAA' of overlapping nucleotides, which was conserved in Lepidoptera, and a 14-bp motif 'TAAGCTATTTAAAT' conserved in the three Crambidae moths (C. suppressalis, C. auricilius and T. incertulas), but not in the noctuid. Finally, there were no stem-and-loop structures in the two Chilo moths. PMID:25042162

  18. Evaluation for potential Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) strains for control of the striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. Nine Trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the Greater Mekong Subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential Trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. In the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains showed higher parasitism rates on 0-24-h eggs than on the two older age groups (24-48 and 48-72 h). Wasp emergence rate was also higher from parasitized 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs, while Trichogramma immature duration was significantly prolonged on 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs. Parasitism rates differed among Trichogramma strains, with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii CJ strain showing significantly higher parasitism rate than any other strains. In the field tests, parasitism of sentinel striped stem borer eggs by Trichogramma strains released at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 wasps per hectare was low, with marginal yet significant differences between strains. The highest parasitism was achieved by T. chilonis CJ strain at the high and medium release rates. Hence, it can be concluded that T. chilonis CJ strain released at 100,000 wasps per hectare may be a cost-effective control tactic for field releases targeting striped stem borer. PMID:25026653

  19. Ongoing ecological speciation in Cotesia sesamiae, a biological control agent of cereal stem borers

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Laure; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kaoula, Ferial; Paillusson, Corentin; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Obonyo, Julius Ochieng; Herniou, Elisabeth A; Jancek, Severine; Branca, Antoine; Calatayud, Paul-André; Silvain, Jean-François; Dupas, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    To develop efficient and safe biological control, we need to reliably identify natural enemy species, determine their host range, and understand the mechanisms that drive host range evolution. We investigated these points in Cotesia sesamiae, an African parasitic wasp of cereal stem borers. Phylogenetic analyses of 74 individual wasps, based on six mitochondrial and nuclear genes, revealed three lineages. We then investigated the ecological status (host plant and host insect ranges in the field, and host insect suitability tests) and the biological status (cross-mating tests) of the three lineages. We found that one highly supported lineage showed all the hallmarks of a cryptic species. It is associated with one host insect, Sesamia nonagrioides, and is reproductively isolated from the other two lineages by pre- and postmating barriers. The other two lineages had a more variable phylogenetic support, depending on the set of genes; they exhibited an overlapping and diversified range of host species and are not reproductively isolated from one another. We discuss the ecological conditions and mechanisms that likely generated this ongoing speciation and the relevance of this new specialist taxon in the genus Cotesia for biological control. PMID:26366198

  20. Pest Status and Distribution of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Buschman, Lawrent L.; Sloderbeck, Phillip E.

    2010-01-01

    The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is currently receiving increased attention as a pest of soybeans in the Great Plains of North America. Field surveys were conducted in 1999 and in 2008 to record the distribution of this pest in Kansas. These surveys documented an increase in the abundance of the pest and an expansion in the range of this insect westward and eastward. The percentage of fields with more than 50% of plants infested also increased from 4% in 1999 to 11% in 2008. The far eastern counties still had surprisingly few infested fields even though much of the Kansas soybean acreage is located in these counties. It is not clear if D. texanus simply haven't expanded into eastern Kansas yet or if there is an ecological barrier that keeps them from doing so. Field crop entomologists from across eastern North America were sent an email questionnaire and their responses indicate that this pest is now well established as a pest of soybeans in at least 14 states across eastern North America. PMID:21268702

  1. Pest status and distribution of the stem borer, Dectes texanus, in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Buschman, Lawrent L; Sloderbeck, Phillip E

    2010-01-01

    The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is currently receiving increased attention as a pest of soybeans in the Great Plains of North America. Field surveys were conducted in 1999 and in 2008 to record the distribution of this pest in Kansas. These surveys documented an increase in the abundance of the pest and an expansion in the range of this insect westward and eastward. The percentage of fields with more than 50% of plants infested also increased from 4% in 1999 to 11% in 2008. The far eastern counties still had surprisingly few infested fields even though much of the Kansas soybean acreage is located in these counties. It is not clear if D. texanus simply haven't expanded into eastern Kansas yet or if there is an ecological barrier that keeps them from doing so. Field crop entomologists from across eastern North America were sent an email questionnaire and their responses indicate that this pest is now well established as a pest of soybeans in at least 14 states across eastern North America. PMID:21268702

  2. Exploring the Midgut Transcriptome and Brush Border Membrane Vesicle Proteome of the Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chuanhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lin, Yongjun

    2012-01-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac. PMID:22666467

  3. Persistent seropositivity for yellow fever in a previously vaccinated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Tsunemine, Hiroko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Mawatari, Momoko; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Kei; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-08-01

    The duration of a protective level of yellow fever antibodies after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a previously vaccinated person is unclear. The case of a patient who had previously been vaccinated for yellow fever and who remained seropositive for 22 months after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma is described herein. PMID:26068870

  4. Dopamine modulates hemocyte phagocytosis via a D1-like receptor in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Xu, Gang; Stanley, David; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a signal moiety bridging the nervous and immune systems. DA dysregulation is linked to serious human diseases, including addiction, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. However, DA actions in the immune system remain incompletely understood. In this study, we found that DA modulates insect hemocyte phagocytosis using hemocytes prepared from the rice stem borer (RSB), Chilo suppressalis. We investigated whether insect hemocytes are capable of de novo DA production. Here we show that exposing hemocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to induction of DA-generating enzymes. Exogenous DA induced rapid phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in naïve hemocytes. Activation of ERK was inhibited by preincubating with a DOP1 receptor antagonist. Thus, DA signaling via the DOP1 receptor may contribute to early hemocyte activation. DA synthesized and released from hemocytes may act in an autocrine mechanism to stimulate or maintain phagocytic activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that inhibition of DA synthesis with α-methyl-DL-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride or blockage of DOP1 receptor with antagonist SCH23390 impaired hemocyte phagocytosis. Topical DA application also significantly decreased RSB mortality following challenge with the insect pathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. We infer that a DA-dependent signaling system operates in hemocytes to mediate phagocytotic functions. PMID:26179416

  5. Identification and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Song, Qi-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Fang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In insects, neuropeptides play important roles in the regulation of multiple physiological processes by binding to their corresponding receptors, which are primarily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The genes encoding neuropeptides and their associated GPCRs in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis were identified by a transcriptomic analysis and were used to identify potential targets for the disruption of physiological processes and the protection of crops. Forty-three candidate genes were found to encode the neuropeptide precursors for all known insect neuropeptides except for arginine-vasopressin-like peptide (AVLP), CNMamide, neuropeptide-like precursors 2-4 (NPLP2-4), and proctolin. In addition, novel alternative splicing variants of three neuropeptide genes (allatostatin CC, CCHamide 1, and short neuropeptide F) are reported for the first time, and 51 putative neuropeptide GPCRs were identified. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that 44 of these GPCRs belong to the A-family (or rhodopsin-like), 5 belong to the B-family (or secretin-like), and 2 are leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs. These GPCRs and their likely ligands were also described. qRT-PCR analyses revealed the expression profiles of the neuropeptide precursors and GPCR genes in various tissues of C. suppressalis. Our study provides fundamental information that may further our understanding of neuropeptidergic signaling systems in Lepidoptera and aid in the design of peptidomimetics, pseudopeptides or small molecules capable of disrupting the physiological processes regulated by these signaling molecules and their receptors. PMID:27353701

  6. Identification and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Song, Qi-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Fang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In insects, neuropeptides play important roles in the regulation of multiple physiological processes by binding to their corresponding receptors, which are primarily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The genes encoding neuropeptides and their associated GPCRs in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis were identified by a transcriptomic analysis and were used to identify potential targets for the disruption of physiological processes and the protection of crops. Forty-three candidate genes were found to encode the neuropeptide precursors for all known insect neuropeptides except for arginine-vasopressin-like peptide (AVLP), CNMamide, neuropeptide-like precursors 2-4 (NPLP2-4), and proctolin. In addition, novel alternative splicing variants of three neuropeptide genes (allatostatin CC, CCHamide 1, and short neuropeptide F) are reported for the first time, and 51 putative neuropeptide GPCRs were identified. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that 44 of these GPCRs belong to the A-family (or rhodopsin-like), 5 belong to the B-family (or secretin-like), and 2 are leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs. These GPCRs and their likely ligands were also described. qRT-PCR analyses revealed the expression profiles of the neuropeptide precursors and GPCR genes in various tissues of C. suppressalis. Our study provides fundamental information that may further our understanding of neuropeptidergic signaling systems in Lepidoptera and aid in the design of peptidomimetics, pseudopeptides or small molecules capable of disrupting the physiological processes regulated by these signaling molecules and their receptors. PMID:27353701

  7. Polydnavirus CrV1 gene expression in larvae of the African maize stem borer Busseola fusca (Fuller) parasitized by virulent and avirulent biotypes of the endoparasitoid Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The braconid Cotesia sesamiae Cameron is the most common endoparasitoid of the stem borers Busseola fusca Fuller and Sesamia calamistis Hampson in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, the C. sesamiae population from the western highlands completes development in B. fusca whereas the coastal population does...

  8. The role of wild grasses in the management of lepidopterous stem-borers on maize in the humid tropics of western Africa.

    PubMed

    Ndemah, R; Gounou, S; Schulthess, F

    2002-12-01

    Sites in the humid forest of Cameroon and the derived savanna of Benin were selected to evaluate the effect of planting border rows of wild host plants on lepidopterous stem-borer infestations and on maize yield. Grass species were chosen that in surveys and greenhouse trials were highly attractive to ovipositing female moths but with offspring mortality of close to 100%, thus acting as trap plants. In Cameroon, elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Moench significantly lowered infestations of Busseola fusca (Fuller), Sesamia calamistis Hampson and Eldana saccharina Walker and increased yields of maize though the differences were not significant during all three cropping seasons. In 1998 in Benin, the only grass tested, Pennisetum polystachion L., significantly increased parasitism of mainly S. calamistis eggs by Telenomus spp. and larvae by Cotesia sesamiae Cameron and reduced numbers of the cob-borer Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot. In 1999, three grass species; P. polystachion, Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf and Panicum maximum Jacq. were tested. Panicum maximum was the most efficient species for suppressing S. calamistis and M. nigrivenella infestations and enhancing egg and larval parasitism. In the Benin trials, with the exception of M. nigrivenella damage to cobs, the grass species tested had no beneficial effect on yield because pest densities were too low and also rodent damage to maize was enhanced with grasses in the vicinity of the crop. By contrast, stand losses due to Fusarium verticillioides Sacc. (Nirenberg), were significantly reduced by border rows of grasses. PMID:17598302

  9. Predicting the Impact of Temperature Change on the Future Distribution of Maize Stem Borers and Their Natural Enemies along East African Mountain Gradients Using Phenology Models.

    PubMed

    Mwalusepo, Sizah; Tonnang, Henri E Z; Massawe, Estomih S; Okuku, Gerphas O; Khadioli, Nancy; Johansson, Tino; Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Lepidopteran stem borers are among the most important pests of maize in East Africa. The objective of the present study was to predict the impact of temperature change on the distribution and abundance of the crambid Chilo partellus, the noctuid Busseola fusca, and their larval parasitoids Cotesia flavipes and Cotesia sesamiae at local scale along Kilimanjaro and Taita Hills gradients in Tanzania and Kenya, respectively. Temperature-dependent phenology models of pests and parasitoids were used in a geographic information system for mapping. The three risk indices namely establishment, generation, and activity indices were computed using current temperature data record from local weather stations and future (i.e., 2055) climatic condition based on downscaled climate change data from the AFRICLIM database. The calculations were carried out using index interpolator, a sub-module of the Insect Life Cycle Modeling (ILCYM) software. Thin plate algorithm was used for interpolation of the indices. Our study confirmed that temperature was a key factor explaining the distribution of stem borers and their natural enemies but other climatic factors and factors related to the top-down regulation of pests by parasitoids (host-parasitoid synchrony) also played a role. Results based on temperature only indicated a worsening of stem borer impact on maize production along the two East African mountain gradients studied. This was attributed to three main changes occurring simultaneously: (1) range expansion of the lowland species C. partellus in areas above 1200 m.a.s.l.; (2) increase of the number of pest generations across all altitudes, thus by 2055 damage by both pests will increase in the most productive maize zones of both transects; (3) disruption of the geographical distribution of pests and their larval parasitoids will cause an improvement of biological control at altitude below 1200 m.a.s.l. and a deterioration above 1200 m.a.s.l. The predicted increase in pest activity

  10. Predicting the Impact of Temperature Change on the Future Distribution of Maize Stem Borers and Their Natural Enemies along East African Mountain Gradients Using Phenology Models

    PubMed Central

    Mwalusepo, Sizah; Tonnang, Henri E. Z.; Massawe, Estomih S.; Okuku, Gerphas O.; Khadioli, Nancy; Johansson, Tino; Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Lepidopteran stem borers are among the most important pests of maize in East Africa. The objective of the present study was to predict the impact of temperature change on the distribution and abundance of the crambid Chilo partellus, the noctuid Busseola fusca, and their larval parasitoids Cotesia flavipes and Cotesia sesamiae at local scale along Kilimanjaro and Taita Hills gradients in Tanzania and Kenya, respectively. Temperature-dependent phenology models of pests and parasitoids were used in a geographic information system for mapping. The three risk indices namely establishment, generation, and activity indices were computed using current temperature data record from local weather stations and future (i.e., 2055) climatic condition based on downscaled climate change data from the AFRICLIM database. The calculations were carried out using index interpolator, a sub-module of the Insect Life Cycle Modeling (ILCYM) software. Thin plate algorithm was used for interpolation of the indices. Our study confirmed that temperature was a key factor explaining the distribution of stem borers and their natural enemies but other climatic factors and factors related to the top-down regulation of pests by parasitoids (host-parasitoid synchrony) also played a role. Results based on temperature only indicated a worsening of stem borer impact on maize production along the two East African mountain gradients studied. This was attributed to three main changes occurring simultaneously: (1) range expansion of the lowland species C. partellus in areas above 1200 m.a.s.l.; (2) increase of the number of pest generations across all altitudes, thus by 2055 damage by both pests will increase in the most productive maize zones of both transects; (3) disruption of the geographical distribution of pests and their larval parasitoids will cause an improvement of biological control at altitude below 1200 m.a.s.l. and a deterioration above 1200 m.a.s.l. The predicted increase in pest activity

  11. Genome-wide analysis of chitinase genes and their varied functions in larval moult, pupation and eclosion in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Su, C; Tu, G; Huang, S; Yang, Q; Shahzad, M F; Li, F

    2016-08-01

    Some insect chitinases are required to degrade chitin and ensure successful metamorphosis. Although chitinase genes have been well characterized in several model insects, no reports exist for the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, a highly destructive pest that causes huge yield losses in rice production. Here, we conducted a genome-level analysis of chitinase genes in C. suppressalis. After amplification of full-length transcripts with rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we identified 12 chitinase genes in C. suppressalis. All these genes had the conserved domains and motifs of glycoside hydrolase family 18 and grouped phylogenetically into five subgroups. C. suppressalis chitinase 1 (CsCht1) was highly expressed in late pupae, whereas CsCht3 was abundant in early pupae. Both CsCht2 and CsCht4 were highly expressed in larvae. CsCht2 was abundant specifically in the third-instar larvae and CsCht4 showed periodic high expression in 2- to 5-day-old larvae in each instar. Tissue specific expression analysis indicated that CsCht1 and CsCht3 were highly expressed in epidermis whereas CsCht2 and CsCht4 were specifically abundant in the midgut. Knockdown of CsCht1 resulted in adults with curled wings, indicating that CsCht1 might have an important role in wing expansion. Silencing of CsCht2 or CsCht4 arrested moulting, suggesting essential roles in larval development. When the expression of CsCht3 was interfered, defects in pupation occurred. Overall, we provide here the first catalogue of chitinase genes in the rice striped stem borer and have elucidated the functions of four chitinases in metamorphosis. PMID:27080989

  12. Persistence of Yellow Fever vaccine-induced antibodies after cord blood stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Rocha, Vanderson; Rodrigues, Celso Arrais; Novis, Yana Sarkis; Sabino, Ester C; Kallas, Esper Georges

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a cord blood haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient who was vaccinated for Yellow Fever (YF) 7 days before initiating chemotherapy and had persistent YF antibodies more than 3 years after vaccination. Since the stem cell donor was never exposed to wild YF or to the YF vaccine, and our patient was not exposed to YF or revaccinated, this finding strongly suggests the persistence of recipient immunity. We briefly discuss potential consequences of incomplete elimination of recipient's leukocytes following existing haematopoietic cancer treatments. PMID:26618995

  13. Lipophilic metabolite profiling of maize and sorghum seeds and seedlings, and their pest spotted stem borer larvae: a standardized GC-MS based approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dhillon, Mukesh K

    2015-03-01

    In order to better understand the biochemical interactions and to identify new biomarkers for plant resistance against insects, we proposed a suitable lipophilic profiling method for insects and their host plants. The critical components of GC-MS based analysis are: sample amount, extraction, derivatization, temperature gradient, run time, and identification of peaks. For lipophilic metabolite profiling of maize and sorghum, and their insect pest, spotted stem borer larvae, we recommend 100 mg sample weight for seeds and insect samples (whole insect body), and 200 mg for seedlings. Maize and sorghum seeds required less time for fat extraction in comparison to their seedlings and the pest fed on these seedlings. GC-MS was standardized for better separation and intensity of peaks using different temperature gradients in the range of 180-300 C. A total of 48 lipophilic compounds encompassing various classes based on their functional groups such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, hydrocarbons, sterols and terpenoids, vitamin derivative, etc. were separated in the seedlings (30), seeds (14), and the pest (26) in the retention time range of 3.22 to 29.41 min. This method could be useful to study nutritional aspects of different field crops in relation to various stresses apart from the analysis of lipophilic compounds for better understanding of insect-plant interactions. PMID:25872248

  14. Transgenic elite indica rice plants expressing CryIAc ∂-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis are resistant against yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas)

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Pritilata; Basu, Debabrata; Das, Sampa; Basu, Asitava; Ghosh, Dipankar; Ramakrishnan, Neeliyath A.; Ghosh, Maloy; Sen, Soumitra K.

    1997-01-01

    Generation of insect-resistant, transgenic crop plants by expression of the insecticidal crystal protein (ICP) gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a standard crop improvement approach. In such cases, adequate expression of the most appropriate ICP against the target insect pest of the crop species is desirable. It is also considered advantageous to generate Bt-transgenics with multiple toxin systems to control rapid development of pest resistance to the ICP. Larvae of yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas, a major lepidopteran insect pest of rice, cause massive losses of rice yield. Studies on insect feeding and on the binding properties of ICP to brush border membrane receptors in the midgut of YSB larvae revealed that cryIAb and cryIAc are two individually suitable candidate genes for developing YSB-resistant rice. Programs were undertaken to develop Bt-transgenic rice with these ICP genes independently in a single cultivar. A cryIAc gene was reconstructed and placed under control of the maize ubiquitin 1 promoter, along with the first intron of the maize ubiquitin 1 gene, and the nos terminator. The gene construct was delivered to embryogenic calli of IR64, an elite indica rice cultivar, using the particle bombardment method. Six highly expressive independent transgenic ICP lines were identified. Molecular analyses and insect-feeding assays of two such lines revealed that the transferred synthetic cryIAc gene was expressed stably in the T2 generation of these lines and that the transgenic rice plants were highly toxic to YSB larvae and lessened the damage caused by their feeding. PMID:9122157

  15. The Impact of Climate Change on the Potential Distribution of Agricultural Pests: The Case of the Coffee White Stem Borer (Monochamus leuconotus P.) in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Kutywayo, Dumisani; Chemura, Abel; Kusena, Winmore; Chidoko, Pardon; Mahoya, Caleb

    2013-01-01

    The production of agricultural commodities faces increased risk of pests, diseases and other stresses due to climate change and variability. This study assesses the potential distribution of agricultural pests under projected climatic scenarios using evidence from the African coffee white stem borer (CWB), Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an important pest of coffee in Zimbabwe. A species distribution modeling approach utilising Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) and Generalized Linear Models (GLM) was applied on current and projected climate data obtained from the WorldClim database and occurrence data (presence and absence) collected through on-farm biological surveys in Chipinge, Chimanimani, Mutare and Mutasa districts in Zimbabwe. Results from both the BRT and GLM indicate that precipitation-related variables are more important in determining species range for the CWB than temperature related variables. The CWB has extensive potential habitats in all coffee areas with Mutasa district having the largest model average area suitable for CWB under current and projected climatic conditions. Habitat ranges for CWB will increase under future climate scenarios for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutare districts while it will decrease in Mutasa district. The highest percentage change in area suitable for the CWB was for Chimanimani district with a model average of 49.1% (3 906 ha) increase in CWB range by 2080. The BRT and GLM predictions gave similar predicted ranges for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutasa districts compared to the high variation in current and projected habitat area for CWB in Mutare district. The study concludes that suitable area for CWB will increase significantly in Zimbabwe due to climate change and there is need to develop adaptation mechanisms. PMID:24014222

  16. Differential Expression Patterns in Chemosensory and Non-Chemosensory Tissues of Putative Chemosensory Genes Identified by Transcriptome Analysis of Insect Pest the Purple Stem Borer Sesamia inferens (Walker)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Jin, Jun-Yan; Jin, Rong; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Deng, Jian-Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 39 for odorant receptors (ORs) and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs). The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. Conclusion Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as well as other

  17. Induced defenses in maize following attack by the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the course of the past two decades, insect pests such as the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) annually resulted in losses to US maize production exceeding one billion dollars. Despite the global significance of O. nubilalis and other stem borers, relatively little is known about the nat...

  18. A Tale of Two Borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer has historically been the most important insect pest of sugarcane wherever the crop is grown in the US. It can also be a pest of corn, rice, and grain sorghum. In 1980 this situation changed when the Mexican rice borer moved into south Texas. The Mexican rice borer quickly became...

  19. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) induced defenses in maize enhance susceptibility in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbivore-induced plant defenses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) larvae revealed the prese...

  20. Stem pitting and seedling yellows symptoms of Citrus tristeza virus infection may be determined by minor sequence variants.

    PubMed

    Cerni, Silvija; Ruscić, Jelena; Nolasco, Gustavo; Gatin, Zivko; Krajacić, Mladen; Skorić, Dijana

    2008-02-01

    The isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), the most destructive viral pathogen of citrus, display a high level of variability. As a result of genetic bottleneck induced by the bud-inoculation of CTV-infected material, inoculated seedlings of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka displayed different symptoms. All successfully grafted plants showed severe symptoms of stem pitting and seedling yellows, while plants in which inoculated buds died displayed mild symptoms. Since complex CTV population structure was detected in the parental host, the aim of this work was to investigate how it changed after the virus transmission, and to correlate it with observed symptoms. The coat protein gene sequence of the predominant genotype was identical in parental and grafted plants and clustered to the phylogenetic group 5 encompassing severe reference isolates. In seedlings displaying severe symptoms, the low-frequency variants clustering to other phylogenetic groups were detected, as well. Indicator plants were inoculated with buds taken from unsuccessfully grafted C. wilsonii seedlings. Surprisingly, they displayed no severe symptoms despite the presence of phylogenetic group 5 genomic variants. The results suggest that the appearance of severe symptoms in this case is probably induced by a complex CTV population structure found in seedlings displaying severe symptoms, and not directly by the predominant genomic variant. PMID:18074213

  1. Hydroxycinnamate Synthesis and Association with Mediterranean Corn Borer Resistance.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rogelio; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Barros-Rios, Jaime; Samayoa, Luis Fernando; Butrón, Ana

    2016-01-27

    Previous results suggest a relationship between maize hydroxycinnamate concentration in the pith tissues and resistance to stem tunneling by Mediterranean corn borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) larvae. This study performs a more precise experiment, mapping an F2 derived from the cross between two inbreds with contrasting levels for hydroxycinnamates EP125 × PB130. We aimed to co-localize genomic regions involved in hydroxycinnamate synthesis and resistance to MCB and to highlight the particular route for each hydroxycinnamate component in relation to the better known phenylpropanoid pathway. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for p-coumarate, two QTLs for ferulate, and seven QTLs for total diferulates explained 81.7, 26.9, and 57.8% of the genotypic variance, respectively. In relation to borer resistance, alleles for increased hydroxycinnamate content (affecting one or more hydroxycinnamate compounds) could be associated with favorable effects on stem resistance to MCB, particularly the putative role of p-coumarate in borer resistance. PMID:26690311

  2. The History of Attack and Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on White Fringetree in Southwestern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Thiemann, Danielle; Lopez, Vanessa; Ray, Ann M; Cipollini, Don

    2016-08-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive insect that has caused widespread mortality of ash species in North America. The ability of emerald ash borer to utilize white fringetree as an alternate host was reported recently. We aimed to determine how long white fringetree has been under attack from emerald ash borer, the degree of attack, and the overall success of this beetle on this novel host. Stems from three of nine infested white fringetrees collected from the Dayton and Cincinnati, OH, areas in the winter of 2015 yielded four live adult emerald ash borers after being held in rearing containers, and numerous older exit holes were observed. Measurement and aging of feeding galleries on these stems indicated that emerald ash borer has been using this species since 2011, at least, with peak gallery densities reached in 2012 and 2013 on most of the harvested trees. On average, 32 galleries per square meter were found in these stems with about one-third of them being indicative of fourth-instar larvae. This supports the assertion that emerald ash borer has been using white fringetree as a host plant with moderate to good success for as long as ash species in these particular areas have been utilized. PMID:27325628

  3. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  4. Maize defense response against the european corn borer (Ostrinia nubilaslis): a losing battle?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this research is to understand how maize stems respond to European corn borer (ECB) damage and how these defense tactics affect the invading ECB. We measured the levels of the plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene, as well as the transcript levels of their key biosynthetic en...

  5. Plant responses to hidden herbivores: European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) attack on maize induces both defense and susceptibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbivore-induced plant defenses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems or roots. Early attempts to characterize maize responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) larv...

  6. Covalent cross-linking of cell-wall polysaccharides through esterified diferulates as a maize resistance mechanism against corn borers.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rios, Jaime; Santiago, Rogelio; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Malvar, Rosa A

    2015-03-01

    There is strong evidence to suggest that cross-linking of cell-wall polymers through ester-linked diferulates has a key role in plant resistance to pests; however, direct experimentation to provide conclusive proof is lacking. This study presents an evaluation of the damage caused by two corn borer species on six maize populations particularly selected for divergent diferulate concentrations in pith stem tissues. Maize populations selected for high total diferulate concentration had 31% higher diferulates than those selected for low diferulates. Stem tunneling by corn borer species was 29% greater in the population with the lowest diferulates than in the population with the highest diferulates (31.7 versus 22.6 cm), whereas total diferulate concentration was negatively correlated with stem tunneling by corn borers. Moreover, orthogonal contrasts between groups of populations evaluated showed that larvae fed in laboratory bioassays on pith stem tissues from maize populations with higher diferulates had 30-40% lower weight than larvae fed on the same tissues from maize populations with lower diferulates. This is the first report that shows a direct relationship between diferulate deposition in maize cell walls and corn borer resistance. Current findings will help to develop adapted maize varieties with an acceptable level of resistance against borers and be useful in special kinds of agriculture, such as organic farming. PMID:25619118

  7. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  8. Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to people by the ... fever Maps of Yellow fever endemic areas in Africa and South America Yellow fever vaccination Prevention Vaccine ...

  9. YELLOW BERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow berry refers to the non-vitreous form of the wheat kernel. Individual kernels may be vitreous, non-vitreous (yellow berry) or have varying proportions of each (“mottled”). Yellow berry, in and of itself, represents no defect of the kernel. As in maize, rice and other cereals, the non-vitre...

  10. Genome-wide RNA profiling of long-lasting stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells induced by Yellow Fever vaccination in humans.

    PubMed

    Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A; Soneson, Charlotte; Delorenzi, Mauro; Speiser, Daniel E

    2015-09-01

    The live-attenuated Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine YF-17D induces a broad and polyfunctional CD8 T cell response in humans. Recently, we identified a population of stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells induced by YF-17D that persists at stable frequency for at least 25 years after vaccination. The YF-17D is thus a model system of human CD8 T cell biology that furthermore allows to track and study long-lasting and antigen-specific human memory CD8 T cells. Here, we describe in detail the sample characteristics and preparation of a microarray dataset acquired for genome-wide gene expression profiling of long-lasting YF-specific stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells, compared to the reference CD8 T cell differentiation subsets from total CD8 T cells. We also describe the quality controls, annotations and exploratory analyses of the dataset. The microarray data is available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) public repository with accession number GSE65804. PMID:26484272

  11. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    PubMed Central

    Haavik, Laurel J.; Coleman, Tom W.; Flint, Mary Louise; Venette, Robert C.; Seybold, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole) of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae) produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus). On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface), yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2). In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus), exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae) that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative. PMID:26462589

  12. Genome-wide association study reveals a set of genes associated with resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides L.) in a maize diversity panel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn borers are the primary maize pest in many environments; their feeding on the pith of the stem results in yield losses because stem damage interferes with assimilate movement to developing kernels. In this study, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify SNPs associated with ...

  13. Tree height influences flight of lesser peachtree borer and peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capture of males of the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson), and the peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in pheromone traps positioned at 0, 1.8, 3.6, and 5.5 m above ground was affected by tree height in different habitats. In a peach orchard wit...

  14. Ecosystem engineering and manipulation of host plant tissues by the insect borer Oncideres albomarginata chamela.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Cortés, Nancy; Uribe-Mú, Claudia A; Martínez-Méndez, A Karen; Escalera-Vázquez, Luis H; Cristobal-Pérez, E Jacob; García-Oliva, Felipe; Quesada, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem engineering by insect herbivores occurs as the result of structural modification of plants manipulated by insects. However, only few studies have evaluated the effect of these modifications on the plant responses induced by stem-borers that act as ecosystem engineers. In this study, we evaluated the responses induced by the herbivory of the twig-girdler beetle Oncideres albomarginata chamela (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) on its host plant Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae), and its relationship with the ecosystem engineering process carried out by this stem-borer. Our results demonstrated that O. albomarginata chamela branch removal induced the development of lateral branches increasing the resources needed for the development of future insect generations, of its own offspring and of many other insect species. Detached branches represent habitats with high content of nitrogen and phosphorous, which eventually can be incorporated into the ecosystem, increasing nutrient cycling efficiency. Consequently, branch removal and the subsequent plant tissue regeneration induced by O. albomarginata chamela represent key mechanisms underlying the ecosystem engineering process carried out by this stem-borer, which enhances arthropod diversity in the ecosystem. PMID:26654885

  15. Is the basal area of maize internodes involved in borer resistance?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR) in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB), we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21), each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety. The resulting plants were analyzed to determine their LIBR response, growth, yield, and borer resistance. Results In the synthetic variety EPS20 (Reid germplasm), reduction of the LIBR improved resistance against the MCB. The LIBR selection was also effective in the synthetic variety EPS21 (non-Reid germplasm), although there was no relationship detected between the LIBR and MCB resistance. The LIBR did not show correlations with agronomic traits such as plant height and yield. Compared with upper sections, the internode basal ring area contained lower concentrations of cell wall components such as acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and diferulates. In addition, some residual 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H)-one (DIMBOA), a natural antibiotic compound, was detected in the basal area at 30 days after silking. Conclusion We analyzed maize selections to determine whether the basal area of maize internodes is involved in borer resistance. The structural reinforcement of the cell walls was the most significant trait in the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Lower contents of ADF and ADL in the rind of the basal section facilitated the entry of larvae in this area in both synthetic varieties, while lower concentrations of diferulates in the pith basal section of EPS20 facilitated larval feeding inside the stem. The higher concentrations of DIMBOA may have contributed to the lack of correlation between the LIBR and borer resistance in

  16. Lethal and sublethal effects of lufenuron on sugarcane borer Diatraea flavipennella and its parasitoid Cotesia flavipes.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Paula Pereira; Marques, Edmilson Jacinto; Torres, Jorge Braz; Silva, Liliane Marques; Siqueira, Herbert Álvaro Abreu

    2015-11-01

    The combination of chemical and biological controls is a historic goal of integrated pest management, but has rarely been achieved due to lethal and sublethal impact of insecticides on natural enemies altering their performance. In this context, the susceptibility of the yellow sugarcane borer, Diatraea flavipennella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to the insect growth regulator lufenuron and the consequent effects upon its endoparasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) encountering exposed but surviving larvae were studied. Neonate and 10-day-old larvae were subjected to one of seven concentrations of lufenuron (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100 mg a.i./L). Further, effects of lufenuron to the host larvae and to the parasitoid were assessed using low lethal LC20 and LC50. Lufenuron at concentrations up to 12.5 mg a.i./L allowed partial survival of borer larvae; and concentrations over 12.5 mg a.i./L caused 100 % larval mortality before pupation in both ages. Neonate larvae exhibited lower pupal weights only at concentrations 12.5 mg a.i./L; while 10-day-old larvae treated with the LC50 exhibited delayed development. Egg viability was reduced for adult borers from surviving larvae of both ages treated with low lethal concentrations. The parasitoid C. flavipes successfully parasitized surviving low lethal treated larvae. Among the studied life history characteristics of C. flavipes, only a delayed development was observed. The results showed that lufenuron can be effective against D. flavipennella at concentrations over 25 mg a.i./L, and that surviving larvae can be successfully parasitized by C. flavipes. The insecticide lufenuron and the parasitoid C. flavipes seem to be compatible for sugarcane borer control. PMID:26250937

  17. Breeding for sugarcane borer resistance in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing resistant varieties is a key component of the Integrated Pest Management Program for managing the sugarcane borer in Louisiana; however, the release of resistant varieties to growers is sporadic. The challenge facing the Louisiana industry is how to increase resistance in its varieties witho...

  18. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected ...

  19. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa ... How can I prevent yellow fever?Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. ... only at designated vaccination centers. After getting the vaccine, you ...

  20. Microbial Control of Plum Curculio and Peachtree Borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of stone and pome fruits. Stone fruits are also plagued by clear-winged moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), e.g., peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) and lesser peachtree borer (Synanthedon pictipes). Microbial control agents have potential as a...

  1. Flight behavior of European corn borer infected with Nosema pyrausta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microsporidian Nosema pyrausta is a common and widespread pathogen of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), in North America and Europe. Nosema negatively affects European corn borer longevity and fecundity. In this study, we used flight mills to examine the effects of Nosema infec...

  2. STEM?!?!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The author's son has been an engineer since birth. He never asked "why" as a toddler, it was always "how's it work?" So that he wanted a STEM-based home education was no big surprise. In this article, the author considers what kind of curricula would work best for her complex kid.

  3. Yield Response to Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Injury in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Vanweelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2015-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an invasive stem borer of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), and poses a threat against the production of dedicated bioenergy feedstocks in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. A 2-yr field study was conducted in Jefferson County, TX, to evaluate yield losses associated with E. loftini feeding on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane and sorghum under natural and artificially established E. loftini infestations. Bioenergy sugarcane (energycane) 'L 79-1002' and 'Ho 02-113' and sweet sorghum 'M81E' exhibited reduced E. loftini injury; however, these cultivars, along with high-biomass sorghum cultivar 'ES 5140', sustained greater losses in fresh stalk weight. Negative impacts to sucrose concentration from E. loftini injury were greatest in energycane, high-biomass sorghum, and sweet sorghum cultivars. Even under heavy E. loftini infestations, L 79-1002, Ho 02-113, and 'ES 5200' were estimated to produce more ethanol than all other cultivars under suppressed infestations. ES 5200, Ho 02-113, and L 79-1002 hold the greatest potential as dedicated bioenergy crops for production of ethanol in the Gulf Coast region; however, E. loftini management practices will need to be continued to mitigate yield losses. PMID:26453718

  4. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno P.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed. PMID:26462824

  5. Management of feeding damage and survival of southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic field corn.

    PubMed

    Castro, Boris A; Leonard, B Rogers; Riley, Thomas J

    2004-12-01

    The efficacy of transgenic corn hybrids expressing an insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta-endotoxin from different transformation events was evaluated in field corn, Zea mays L., against the southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.). Susceptibilities of neonates and third instars were determined on Bt and non-Bt corn plants (V6 and R1 stages) in field plots and corn leaf tissue feeding exposure in laboratory bioassays. Bt corn hybrids associated with MON810 and CBH351 transformation events sustained significantly less injury by southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer during mid-whorl stage infestations compared with their respective non-Bt hybrid equivalents. Southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer feeding injury to ear leaf-sheath and husk tissues during the silking stage of corn was significantly reduced in MON810 and CBH351 Bt corn compared with their respective non-Bt hybrids. However, resistance levels to feeding injury in Bt hybrids associated with the MON810 event were significantly higher than that in the hybrid associated with the CBH351 event. Southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer caused more feeding injury to husk tissue than to ear leaf-sheath tissue in both Bt and non-Bt hybrids infested during the silking stage. Laboratory performance of the MON810 event against southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer varied among hybrids associated with the same event. Third instars of southwestern corn borer were highly susceptible to MON810 Bt corn hybrids in leaf tissue experiments. However, sugarcane borer larvae were susceptible to the MON810 event only in one of the Bt hybrids evaluated. Sugarcane borer mortality was significantly lower after 96 h of feeding exposure on CBH351 Bt corn leaf tissue than on MON810 Bt corn leaf tissue. Plant resistance to southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer increased as plants matured, independent of the presence of a Bt construct. These

  6. Semiautomated Identification of European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Przybyłowicz, Łukasz; Pniak, Michał; Tofilski, Adam

    2016-02-01

    The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner, 1796) is a serious and widely studied pest of corn. The most common method of its control is by means of insecticides. However, biological control is becoming more and more popular. The hymenopteran parasitoid Trichogramma sp. is the most promising and effective one among the biological agents and is now widely used in North America and Europe. Its application should occur at the time when the European corn borer is at the beginning of the eggs laying period. However, the discrimination between the European corn borer and some other species occurring in agricultural landscapes at the same time can be difficult, especially for farmers which are neither familiar with the morphological nor molecular methods of identification. The scope of this study is to test the ability of the automatic computer equipment to determine the European corn borer and to separate it from the most common Lepidoptera pests found in corn plantations. The experiment showed that the 97.0% of the 247 specimens belonging to four common pestlepidopterans were correctly classified by the use of a personal computer, desktop scanner, and the special software. The obtained results showed that this technique based on wing measurements can be an effective tool for monitoring of the European corn borer. In the future, this method can be used by farmers to identify this pest and apply control measures at optimal time. PMID:26487742

  7. European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Induced Responses Enhance Susceptibility in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Dafoe, Nicole J.; Thomas, James D.; Shirk, Paul D.; Legaspi, Michelle E.; Vaughan, Martha M.; Huffaker, Alisa; Teal, Peter E.; Schmelz, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant responses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize (Zea mays) responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinianubilalis) larvae revealed the presence of inducible acidic diterpenoid phytoalexins, termed kauralexins, and increases in the benzoxazinoid 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucose (HDMBOA-Glc) after 24 h of herbivory. Despite these rapidly activated defenses, larval growth was not altered in short-term feeding assays. Unexpectedly, ECB growth significantly improved in assays using stem tissue preconditioned by 48 h of larval tunneling. Correspondingly, measures of total soluble protein increased over 2.6-fold in these challenged tissues and were accompanied by elevated levels of sucrose and free linoleic acid. While microarray analyses revealed up-regulation of over 1100 transcripts, fewer individual protein increases were demonstrable. Consistent with induced endoreduplication, both wounding and ECB stem attack resulted in similar significant expansion of the nucleus, nucleolus and levels of extractable DNA from challenged tissues. While many of these responses are triggered by wounding alone, biochemical changes further enhanced in response to ECB may be due to larval secreted effectors. Unlike other Lepidoptera examined, ECB excrete exceedingly high levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in their frass which is likely to contact and contaminate the surrounding feeding tunnel. Stem exposure to a metabolically stable auxin, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), promoted significant protein accumulation above wounding alone. As a future testable hypothesis, we propose that ECB-associated IAA may function as a candidate herbivore effector promoting the increased nutritional content of maize stems. PMID:24023868

  8. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) induced responses enhance susceptibility in maize.

    PubMed

    Dafoe, Nicole J; Thomas, James D; Shirk, Paul D; Legaspi, Michelle E; Vaughan, Martha M; Huffaker, Alisa; Teal, Peter E; Schmelz, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant responses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize (Zea mays) responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinianubilalis) larvae revealed the presence of inducible acidic diterpenoid phytoalexins, termed kauralexins, and increases in the benzoxazinoid 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucose (HDMBOA-Glc) after 24 h of herbivory. Despite these rapidly activated defenses, larval growth was not altered in short-term feeding assays. Unexpectedly, ECB growth significantly improved in assays using stem tissue preconditioned by 48 h of larval tunneling. Correspondingly, measures of total soluble protein increased over 2.6-fold in these challenged tissues and were accompanied by elevated levels of sucrose and free linoleic acid. While microarray analyses revealed up-regulation of over 1100 transcripts, fewer individual protein increases were demonstrable. Consistent with induced endoreduplication, both wounding and ECB stem attack resulted in similar significant expansion of the nucleus, nucleolus and levels of extractable DNA from challenged tissues. While many of these responses are triggered by wounding alone, biochemical changes further enhanced in response to ECB may be due to larval secreted effectors. Unlike other Lepidoptera examined, ECB excrete exceedingly high levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in their frass which is likely to contact and contaminate the surrounding feeding tunnel. Stem exposure to a metabolically stable auxin, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), promoted significant protein accumulation above wounding alone. As a future testable hypothesis, we propose that ECB-associated IAA may function as a candidate herbivore effector promoting the increased nutritional content of maize stems. PMID:24023868

  9. REPORT ON THE 2006 BORER YIELD REDUCTION EVALUATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important that farmers and their crop consultants know how newly released varieties of sugarcane will respond to infestations of its key insect pest the sugarcane borer. In an effort to provide this information, varieties are routinely evaluated for their response to season-long infestations o...

  10. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  11. Curative control of the peachtree borer using entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of stone fruit trees in North America. Current management relies upon preventative control using broad spectrum chemical insecticides, primarily chlorpyrifos, applied in the late summer or early fall. However, due to missed applications, p...

  12. Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Colecptera: Curculiondae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. Eggs are deposited inside coffee berries, and insects feed on the coffee seed, severely reducing yields. Conventional chemical control is a very limited option, and there has been a concerted effort to develop biolo...

  13. Development of Harmonic Radar Systems for Tracking Emerald Ash Borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borers (EAB) have killed millions of ash trees since they were identified in North America in the summer of 2002. Data are needed on EAB behavior to aid development of treatment and management strategies and enable more effectively schedule and target control measures. Entomological ra...

  14. Control of the peachtree borer using beneficial nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of peaches and other stone fruits. Our research indicates that entomopathogenic nematodes, also known as beneficial nematodes, can be used effectively to control the insect. We conducted replicated experiments in randomized block designs ov...

  15. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272

  16. SUPPLEMENTING NATIVE SUGARCANE BORER INFESTATIONS BY ARTIFICIAL INFESTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When conducting assessments of the response of sugarcane varieties to feeding by the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), we routinely intercrop sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) rows with a row of corn (Zea mays) and infest these corn plants with laboratory reared, first-instar...

  17. Results from the 2013 sugarcane borer yield reduction study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) is the key pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. As the key pest, some insecticide is required every year to avoid economic damage by this insect. The current economic damage threshold is 10% bored internodes at harvest time (beginning the first of October). To...

  18. Incidence and control of dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) and American plum borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infesting burrknots on clonal apple rootstocks in New York.

    PubMed

    Kain, David P; Straub, Richard W; Agnello, Arthur M

    2004-04-01

    Surveys were conducted in the major apple growing regions of New York state to determine the incidence of borers infesting burrknots on clonal apple rootstocks. Dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was generally prevalent throughout the state, but American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis (Walker), was limited to western New York apple orchards near infested stone fruit trees. Insecticides evaluated in the field for efficacy against both borers were chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, indoxacarb plus oil, methoxyfenozide, fenpropathrin, and kaolin clay. Also, white latex paint was tested alone and mixed with chlorpyrifos. One application of chlorpyrifos applied at the petal fall developmental stage was equivalent to chlorpyrifos applied at petal fall and again in mid-July, and it provided season-long control of dogwood borer and American plum borer. One application of chlorpyrifos applied any time between the half-inch green developmental stage and petal fall, or after harvest the previous season, controlled both overwintered and summer brood larvae of dogwood borer. Multiple applications of fenpropathrin, indoxacarb plus oil, and endosulfan applied during the dogwood borer flight period controlled the summer brood. PMID:15154480

  19. Cross-resistance between the Mexican Rice Borer and the Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): A Case Study Using Sugarcane Breeding Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer (SCB) (Diatraea saccharalis) and Mexican rice borer (MRB) (Eoreuma loftini) are two economically important pests of sugarcane in the USA. Because of similarities in larval feeding behavior, selecting for resistance to one species could provide resistance to the other, a phenomeno...

  20. [Diagnosing Low Health and Wood Borer Attacked Trees of Chinese Arborvitae by Using Thermography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Wu, De-jun; Zhai, Guo-feng; Zang, Li-peng

    2015-12-01

    Water and energy metabolism of plants is very important actions in their lives. Although the studies about these actions by using thermography were often reported, seldom were found in detecting the health status of forest trees. In this study, we increase the measurement accuracy and comparability of thermo-images by creating the difference indices. Based on it, we exam the water and energy status in stem of Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco) by detecting the variance of far infrared spectrum between sap-wood and heart-wood of the cross-section of felling trees and the cores from an increment borer using thermography. The results indicate that the sap rate between sapwood and heartwood is different as the variance of the vigor of forest trees. Meanwhile, the image temperature of scale leaves from Chinese arborvitae trees with different vigor is also dissimilar. The far infrared spectrum more responds the sap status not the wood percentage in comparing to the area rate between sapwood and heartwood. The image temperature rate can be used in early determining the health status of Chinese arborvitae trees. The wood borers such as Phloeosinus aubei Perris and Semanotus bifasciatus Motschulsky are the pests which usually attack the low health trees, dying trees, wilted trees, felled trees and new cultivated trees. This measuring technique may be an important index to diagnose the health and vigor status after a large number of measurements for Chinese arborvitae trees. Therefore, there is potential to be an important index to check the tree vigor and pest damage status by using this technique. It will be a key in the tending and management of ecological and public Chinese arborvitae forest. PMID:26964220

  1. Transgenic Sugarcane with a cry1Ac Gene Exhibited Better Phenotypic Traits and Enhanced Resistance against Sugarcane Borer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiwu; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Chunfeng; Guo, Jinlong; Zhou, Dinggang; Wu, Qibin; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    We developed sugarcane plants with improved resistance to the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F). An expression vector pGcry1Ac0229, harboring the cry1Ac gene and the selectable marker gene, bar, was constructed. This construct was introduced into the sugarcane cultivar FN15 by particle bombardment. Transformed plantlets were identified after selection with Phosphinothricin (PPT) and Basta. Plantlets were then screened by PCR based on the presence of cry1Ac and 14 cry1Ac positive plantlets were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the copy number of cry1Ac gene in the transgenic lines varied from 1 to 148. ELISA analysis showed that Cry1Ac protein levels in 7 transgenic lines ranged from 0.85 μg/FWg to 70.92 μg/FWg in leaves and 0.04 μg/FWg to 7.22 μg/FWg in stems, and negatively correlated to the rate of insect damage that ranged from 36.67% to 13.33%, respectively. Agronomic traits of six transgenic sugarcane lines with medium copy numbers were similar to the non-transgenic parental line. However, phenotype was poor in lines with high or low copy numbers. Compared to the non-transgenic control plants, all transgenic lines with medium copy numbers had relatively equal or lower sucrose yield and significantly improved sugarcane borer resistance, which lowered susceptibility to damage by insects. This suggests that the transgenic sugarcane lines harboring medium copy numbers of the cry1Ac gene may have significantly higher resistance to sugarcane borer but the sugarcane yield in these lines is similar to the non-transgenic control thus making them superior to the control lines. PMID:27093437

  2. Transgenic Sugarcane with a cry1Ac Gene Exhibited Better Phenotypic Traits and Enhanced Resistance against Sugarcane Borer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shiwu; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Chunfeng; Guo, Jinlong; Zhou, Dinggang; Wu, Qibin; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping

    2016-01-01

    We developed sugarcane plants with improved resistance to the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F). An expression vector pGcry1Ac0229, harboring the cry1Ac gene and the selectable marker gene, bar, was constructed. This construct was introduced into the sugarcane cultivar FN15 by particle bombardment. Transformed plantlets were identified after selection with Phosphinothricin (PPT) and Basta. Plantlets were then screened by PCR based on the presence of cry1Ac and 14 cry1Ac positive plantlets were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the copy number of cry1Ac gene in the transgenic lines varied from 1 to 148. ELISA analysis showed that Cry1Ac protein levels in 7 transgenic lines ranged from 0.85 μg/FWg to 70.92 μg/FWg in leaves and 0.04 μg/FWg to 7.22 μg/FWg in stems, and negatively correlated to the rate of insect damage that ranged from 36.67% to 13.33%, respectively. Agronomic traits of six transgenic sugarcane lines with medium copy numbers were similar to the non-transgenic parental line. However, phenotype was poor in lines with high or low copy numbers. Compared to the non-transgenic control plants, all transgenic lines with medium copy numbers had relatively equal or lower sucrose yield and significantly improved sugarcane borer resistance, which lowered susceptibility to damage by insects. This suggests that the transgenic sugarcane lines harboring medium copy numbers of the cry1Ac gene may have significantly higher resistance to sugarcane borer but the sugarcane yield in these lines is similar to the non-transgenic control thus making them superior to the control lines. PMID:27093437

  3. Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is the most widespread and economically important virus disease of cereals. The viruses causing BYD were initially grouped based on common biological properties, including persistent and often strain-specific transmission by aphids and induction of yellowing symptoms. The...

  4. Yellow fever: an update.

    PubMed

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers. PMID:11871403

  5. Classical Biological Control of Emerald Ash Borer and Asian Longhorned Beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), are both invasive plant pests recently introduced to North America from the Far East. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an oligophagous buprestid on Fraxinus spp., whereas the Asi...

  6. Impact of Plant Resistance on Southwestern Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Biology and Plant Damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a major insect pest of corn in the southern United States. Germplasm lines with resistance to southwestern corn borer have been developed and released by USDA-ARS. Two single-cross hybrids produced by crossing germplasm...

  7. Alternate crop and weed host plant oviposition preferences by the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is the key pest of sugarcane, Saccharum hybrids, in south Texas, having largely displaced the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and it is moving into rice- and sugarcane-growing areas of east Texas and Louisiana. While a number of alternativ...

  8. Sugarcane borer resistance in sugarcane as affected by silicon applications in potting medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is the most important insect pest of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum) in the Americas, and the key insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Although the release of borer resistant varieties is sporadic in Louisiana, p...

  9. Post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was examined in a young apple orchard planted on size-controlling rootstock in Virginia. All female dogwood borers captured while exhibiting casting flight near the base of trees were mated, base...

  10. Cell wall composition as a maize defense mechanism against corn borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European and Mediterranean corn borers are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith and rind tissues of diverse inbred lines as possible corn borer resistance traits. Ce...

  11. The coffee berry borer: the centenary of a biological invasion in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is a bark beetle endemic to Africa. This species was first detected in the field in 1897 in Mount Coffee, Liberia, and years later was reported as a pest of coffee in several African countries. In 1913 the coffee berry borer was accidentally introduced in...

  12. A predator of the coffee berry borer: is it present in your country?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) was reported in Kenya as a predator of coffee berry borer eggs and larvae. The 1-2 mm long thrips enters the hole bored by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on the coffee berry,...

  13. Identifying resistance in corn to southwestern corn borer, fall armyworm, and corn earworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar; fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith); and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie, are major insect pests of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Corn germplasm with resistance to leaf feeding by southwestern corn borer a...

  14. PENICILLIUM BROCAE A NEW SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatán, Chiapas, or from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Imp...

  15. White Fringetree as a Novel Larval Host for Emerald Ash Borer.

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Don

    2015-02-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive Asian pest of ash species in North America. All North American species of ash tested so far are susceptible to it, but there are no published reports of this insect developing fully in non-ash hosts in the field in North America. I report here evidence that emerald ash borer can attack and complete development in white fringetree, Chionanthus virginicus L., a species native to the southeastern United States that is also planted ornamentally. Four of 20 mature ornamental white fringetrees examined in the Dayton, Ohio area showed external symptoms of emerald ash borer attack, including the presence of adult exit holes, canopy dieback, and bark splitting and other deformities. Removal of bark from one of these trees yielded evidence of at least three generations of usage by emerald ash borer larvae, several actively feeding live larvae, and a dead adult confirmed as emerald ash borer. PMID:26470141

  16. Stem-boring caterpillars of switchgrass in the midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lepidopteran stem-borers were collected from switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., tillers showing symptoms of infestation at seven locations in Illinois and Iowa, with additional observations made on larval and adult activity. Blastobasis repartella (Dietz)(Coleophoridae), whose only known host is swit...

  17. Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.

    2008-05-01

    The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

  18. Yellow leaf blotch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow leaf blotch occurs worldwide in temperate climates. The disease is reported from countries in Asia, Australasia, Oceania, Europe, North America, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. In the northern Great Plains of North America, it is often the major leaf disease on alfalfa....

  19. Barley Yellow Dwarf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley yellow dwarf is the most economically important virus disease affecting most cereal crops world wide. This manuscript summarizes the current knowledge of the disease etiology, epidemiology and management. This information is incorporated into the latest revision of the American Phytopathologi...

  20. Cloning and biochemical characterization of an endo-1,4-β-mannanase from the coffee berry borer hypothenemus hampei

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    system. Due to this enzyme’s importance in the digestive processes of the coffee berry borer, this study may enable the design of inhibitors against endo-1,4-β-mannanase to decrease the economic losses stemming from this insect. PMID:23965285

  1. Visualizing the mesothoracic spiracles in a bark beetle: The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study aimed at determining whether the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) possesses mycangia, we fortuitously detected the mesothoracic spiracles, which are usually concealed. The mesothoracic s...

  2. Illustrated guide to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire and related species (Coleoptera, Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 33 species of Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) hypothesized to be most closely related to Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash borer), are described and illustrated. Morphology (adults and immatures), biology, distribution, detailed taxonomic history and systematics are presented fo...

  3. Free amino acids - determinant of sugarcane resistance/susceptibility to stalk borer and sap feeders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two relatively new key species in Louisiana that conform to the plant stress hypothesis are the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner). High performance liquid chromatography differentiated insect resistant and susceptible sugarcane cultiva...

  4. Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Thoeny, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    This research evaluated the impacts of herbivorous insects, emphasizing the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, on black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., coppice production on a coal surface-mine spoil site in southeastern Kentucky. The natural history of E. insiticiana was also studied. The locust twig borer was a persistent and damaging pest in first-year coppice, which provided suitable larval habitat throughout the growing season. The locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), fed minimally on first-year coppice foliage except during 1983, when trees were severely drought-stressed. Soil-applied granular carbofuran significantly reduced infestations. Lindane stem treatments were not effective, but entire-tree applications did reduce herbivory. Stump sprouts with reduced levels of herbivory grew significantly taller than controls at both spacings in 1983, but only at the more dense spacing in 1984. Blacklight trap collections revealed two generations/year, and adults were present from early May until late August. Four species of hymenopterous and two species of dipterous parasitoids were recovered from E. insiticiana larvae.

  5. Barley yellow dwarf viruses.

    PubMed

    Miller, W A; Rasochová, L

    1997-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses represent one of the most economically important and ubiquitous groups of plant viruses. This review focuses primarily on four research areas in which progress has been most rapid. These include (a) evidence supporting reclassification of BYDVs into two genera; (b) elucidation of gene function and novel mechanisms controlling gene expression; (c) initial forays into understanding the complex interactions between BYDV virions and their aphid vectors; and (d) replication of a BYDV satellite RNA. Economic losses, symptomatology, and means of control of BYD are also discussed. PMID:15012520

  6. The life cycle of the root borer, Oryctes agamemnon, under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Rasmi; Chaieb, Ikbel; Ben Hamouda, Med Habib

    2008-01-01

    The root borer, Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become a serious pest of date palm trees in southwest Tunisia. Under natural conditions, mated females lay eggs in different parts of palm tree: between the hairy roots, all along the stem at the leaf axils and at the base of cut branches. Larvae bore into targeted places of the plant and were never seen outside. Pupation takes place in the plant and emergence of the adults begins in June. Larval feeding causes extensive damage to the respiratory roots. To examine the life cycle more closely, the O. agamemnon life cycle was studied under laboratory conditions. Different larval stages were collected from infested oases in Tozeur and placed in plastic boxes with natural food that was collected from the oases. After emergence, adults were paired in opaque plastic boxes for mating with the same food substrate which also served as an oviposition site. Eggs were collected daily and isolated in new boxes. Hatched eggs were recorded. The number of larval instars was determined by measuring the width of cephalic capsules. Under laboratory conditions (23 +/- 2'C and 55 +/- 6% RH)embryogenesis took 14.3 +/- 1.42 days and the first, second and third larval instars were 33.1 +/- 2.69, 63.88 +/- 6.6 and 118.3 +/- 13.38 days respectively. The pupal period lasted 24.1 +/- 3.02 days and the adult 65.27 +/- 9.48 days. These facts indicated that O. agamemnon is univoltine. PMID:20302536

  7. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  8. Artificial diet sandwiches reveal sub-social behavior in the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A diet sandwich, consisting of coffee berry borer artificial diet within two glass panes, has been developed to elucidate the behavior of the coffee berry borer, an insect that in nature spends most of its life cycle inside the coffee berry. Various types of behavior have been observed for the first...

  9. 75 FR 45601 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... introduction and spread of EAB, a destructive wood-boring insect that attacks ash trees, in the United States... Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host Material from Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... emerald ash borer in the United States. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or...

  10. Monitoring the establishment and abundance of introduced parasitoids of emerald ash borer larvae in Maryland, U.S.A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical biological control can be an important tool for managing invasive species such as emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Emerald ash borer is now widespread throughout the United States, and was first detected in Maryland in 2003. The biological control program to manage emera...

  11. Susceptibility of Cry1Ab-resistant and -susceptible Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: crambidae) to Four Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a primary corn stalk borer pest targeted by transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in many areas of the mid-southern region of the United States. Recently, genes encoding for Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 Bt proteins were transferred in...

  12. Yellow fever vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral communicable disease transmitted by an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus. It is primarily a zoonotic disease, especially the monkeys. Worldwide, an estimated 200 000 cases of yellow fever occurred each year, and the case-fatality rate is ~15%. Forty-five endemic countries in Africa and Latin America, with a population of close to 1 billion, are at risk. Up to 50% of severely affected persons from YF die without treatment. During 2009, 55 cases and 18 deaths were reported from Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. Brazil reported the maximum number of cases and death, i.e., 42 cases with 11 deaths. From January 2010 to March 2011, outbreaks of YF were reported to the WHO by Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Senegal, and Uganda. Cases were also reported in three northern districts of Abim, Agago, and Kitugun near the border with South Sudan. YF usually causes fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. Most patients improve, and their symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 d. Half of the patients who enter the toxic phase die within 10–14 d, while the rest recover without significant organ damage. Vaccination has been the single most important measure for preventing YF. The 17D-204 YF vaccine is a freeze-dried, live attenuated, highly effective vaccine. It is available in single-dose or multi-dose vials and should be stored at 2–8 °C. It is reconstituted with normal saline and should be used within 1 h of reconstitution. The 0.5 mL dose is delivered subcutaneously. Revaccination is recommended every 10 y for people at continued risk of exposure to yellow fever virus (YFV). This vaccine is available worldwide. Travelers, especially to Africa or Latin America from Asia, must have a certificate documenting YF vaccination, which is required by certain countries for entry under the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the WHO. PMID

  13. Simulation models for European corn borer postdiapause morphogenesis and early infestation of maize in Missouri, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magai, Robert N.; Decker, W. L.; Keaster, Armon J.

    The European corn borer is one of the most damaging insect pests to maize in the United States. Different methods exist for the estimation of time of damage to corn by first generation European corn borer. The most commonly used method is the linear thermal constant concept of phenology which by convention calculates cumulative thermal units from January 1 or another arbitrary date. Linear and nonlinear models based on the thermal units concept developed were to predict and simulate postdiapause development of the European corn borer and subsequent infestation of the maize crop using early spring temperatures (May 1-15) in central Missouri. The developmental rates of European corn borer were obtained from growth chamber investigations that simulated those temperatures, the operational temperatures being selected from a compilation of archival meteorological data from 1948 to 1989. The linear and polynomial regression models were developed to predict phenological stages of the European corn borer using thermal units as developmental rates. The models were compared against each other to determine the better predictor of estimation values: each explained 94 and 98% of the variation in developmental stages, respectively. In addition, the models were tested against independent field data and both models gave good predictions of developmental stages, indicating that either model would be a good predictor.

  14. STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces integrative STEM (science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics) education and discusses the importance of the program. The notion of integrative STEM education includes approaches that explore teaching and learning between/among any two or more of the STEM subject areas, and/or between a STEM subject…

  15. Spiroacetals in the Colonization Behaviour of the Coffee Berry Borer: A ‘Push-Pull’ System

    PubMed Central

    Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1∶1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a ‘push-pull’ system, whereby frontalin acts as the ‘push’ (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the ‘pull’ (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135

  16. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively. PMID:17461064

  17. Monitoring the Blind Shaft Borer Project, Oak Grove, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Amstutz, R.; Danowski, T.

    1982-03-01

    In 1974, plans of the United States to obtain energy self-sufficiency included a significant increase in coal production, primarily from new underground mines in the Eastern states. The poor condition of coal shaft sinking companies was a major concern. The US Bureau of Mines perceived similarities between shaft sinking and tunnel boring and felt that a machine could be produced for faster, safer shaft sinking. In January 1975, the Robbins Co., a major producer of tunnel boring machines, submitted an unsolicited proposal to the Bureau of Mines to develop, design, build and demonstrate a Blind Shaft Borer (BSB). In June 1975, a contract was initiated to start work on a BSB. After the Department of Energy was formed, the project was transferred to their Department of Fossil Fuel. In late 1978, while the BSB was being assembled for the field trial near Oak Grove, Alabama, the DOE contracted with Williams Brothers Engineering Company to monitor the site activities and provide technical advice to the Technical Project Manager. This report reviews the BSB project prior to the field trial, describes field trial operations as observed by Williams Brothers Engineering Company personnel and provides a summary of daily activities. It also details project problems, interim efforts to resolve them, results obtained and recommendations to preclude their re-occurrence on future BSB projects.

  18. Yellow Fever Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    David-West, Tam. S.; Smith, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    A sequential and quantitative survey of brain and liver of suckling mice for infective virus and complement-fixing antigen, after infection with yellow fever virus, showed that while there was progressive increase of infective virus content in both organs, only the brain showed a corresponding rise in CF antigen. Histopathological examination revealed that the liver was not significantly involved. The target organ was the brain, where the progressive pathological changes culminated in an acute encephalitis by the 3rd day of experiment. Organ destruction began with the molecular layer of the grey matter. But by the 4th day after infection the entire cerebral cortex was involved. At the initial stages the hippocampus was particularly affected. Tissue damage did not appear to be entirely due to the differential quantitative localization of infective virus. It was hypothesized that the CF antigen acting singly or in conjunction with some hypothetical proteins may be principally involved in the pathological outcome of the disease. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6 PMID:5582071

  19. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

  20. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  1. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  2. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    PubMed

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood. PMID:20568603

  3. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SEDIMENT SAMPLING TECHNOLOGY, AQUATIC RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS, RUSSIAN PEAT BORER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Russian Peat Borer designed and fabricated by Aquatic Research Instruments was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in April and May 1999 at sites in EPA Regions 1 and 5, respectively. In additio...

  4. Morphological characterization of the antennal sensilla of the dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The external morphology of the dogwood borer antennae and their sensilla was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. Male and female antennaes were clavate before tapering to an apical point and consisted of three main segments; the scape, pedicel, and flagellum. Although, there...

  5. On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

  6. Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae): A candidate biological control agent of the sugarcane borer in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...

  7. Talent Developed: Conversations with Masters of the Arts and Sciences. Jeffrey Borer: Research Cardiologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Rena F.

    1994-01-01

    This interview with Jeffrey Borer, who directs cardiovascular research at Cornell Medical College, addresses his research interests, the status of research compared to practice, ways to meet educational needs of students with science talent, the role of contests and mentors, and the importance of exposing children to many types of learning…

  8. Diallel Analysis of Southwestern Corn Borer Leaf Feeding Damage in Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southwestern corn borer [Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar)] is an important pest of maize in the southern United States. It feeds extensively within the leaf whorls of plants in the vegetative stages of growth. This reduces both the quantity and quality of harvestable grain. Germplasm lines with resistan...

  9. Putative pheromone for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was about 10 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by both male and female antennae...

  10. Acoustic detection of arthropod infestation of grape roots: scouting for grape root borer (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is the key pest of grapes in Florida. Chlorpyrifos is the only chemical registered in Florida for control, but it is not an ideal control tool because it is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees, and its recommended timing...

  11. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  12. Influence of drought stress on Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera:Crambidae) oviposition preference in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), has been spreading northward from Mexico and Texas sugarcane and rice, and invasion of Louisiana is projected. This study showed drought stress increases water potential in sugarcane plants and results in >3.4-fold more dry leaves than in well-watered...

  13. Laboratory virulence and orchard efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is indigenous to eastern North America where it is a pest of commercially grown Prunus spp., especially to southeastern peach orchards where earlier regulatory changes affected pesticide usage on peach and fa...

  14. Genetic transformation mediated by piggyBac in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, is a serious pest of corn, sorghum and cotton in China and other Asian countries. The present study is the first attempt to establish the transgenic line in O. furnacalis using a piggyBac transposon, which will shed light on the future genetic control of O....

  15. Parasitization by Macrocentrus cingulum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) influences expression of prophenoloxidase in Asian Corn Borer Ostrinia furnacalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prophenoloxidase (PPO) cDNA (OfPPO) was cloned from the Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis. Sequence analysis revealed a full length transcript of the OfPPO cDNA with 2686 bp, containing a 2079 bp open reading frame (ORF), a 73-bp 5’-untranslated region, and a 534-bp 3’-untranslated region with ...

  16. Associations between host plant concentrations of selected biochemical nutrients and Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini, infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an economic pest of sugarcane and other graminaceous host crops, and it attacks grassy weeds. Oviposition preference has been known to be for plants with leaves that form folds. This study is the first to associate the nutr...

  17. Electrophysiological response of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) to apple volatile compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coupled gas chromatography and electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analyses of headspace volatiles from apple host tissues revealed a total of 16 antennal responses to which female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), responded. There were no differences in the amplitude of the response o...

  18. Dispenser and trap design affect the effectiveness of sex pheromone on trap capture of dogwood borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

  19. Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...

  20. Parasitoids for biocontrol of coffee berry borer: past, present and future.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detailed surveys for coffee berry borer parasitoids were initiated in October 2006 in two coffee growing areas of Kenya (Kisii and Embu). The most abundant parasitoid species are Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae). Our preliminary findings indica...

  1. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: A short review with recent findings and future research directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. Adult females bore a hole in the coffee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the coffee seeds inside the berry, thus reducing yield and quality of the marketable product. The ins...

  2. SUGARCANE BORER (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) MANAGEMENT THRESHOLD ASSESSMENT ON FOUR SUGARCANE CULTIVARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Judicious application of insecticides is an important component of integrated pest management of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in Louisiana. Timing of these applications if critical for effective control and applications of insecticides has been traditionally set at a 5% infested st...

  3. Hymenopteran Parasitoids Attacking the Invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Western and Central Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated larval parasitoids in western and central Pennsylvania (Cranberry and Granville Townships) in the spring and fall of 2009. The survey procedure involved destructively debarking sections of the m...

  4. Sex Pheromone Receptor Specificity in the European Corn Borer Moth, Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, exists as two separate sex pheromone races. ECB(Z) females produce a 97:3 blend of Z11- and E11-14:OAc whereas ECB(E) females produce an opposite 1:99 ratio of the Z and E isomers. Males of each race respond specifically to their conspecific female...

  5. The mitochondrial genome of the American lotus borer, Ostrinia penitalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American lotus borer, Ostrinia penitalis, is the most ancestral among more than 20 species described in the genus Ostrinia, and the near complete mitochondrial genome sequence described here is important for phylogenetic comparisons. The 12,612 bp contiguous fragment contains 13 protein coding ...

  6. A Life History of the Squash Vine Borer, Melittia Cucurbitae (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life history of the squash vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was investigated in South Carolina. Duration of life stages, numbers of progeny, and mortality rates for SVB were determined in cages held at 25 plus minus 2C, 65-70% humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h in a rearing room, and ...

  7. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the assembly of the 14,146 base pairs (bp) near complete mitochondrial sequencing of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which was used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. Arrangement and orientation of 13 protein c...

  8. Antennally active macrolide from the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis emitted predominantly by females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was at least 8 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by both male and female antenn...

  9. Use of Beauveria bassiana and imidacloprid for control of emerald ash borer in an ash nursery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We wish to determine the potential of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, alone or in combination with imidacloprid, for control and management of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. We have undertaken this work at a commercial tree nursery in southern Michigan within the EAB-infested area. App...

  10. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are among the most prevalent natural enemies attacking the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in North America, but there can be considerable variation in the levels of EAB predation on ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus) within and between sites as wel...

  11. Evidence for Obligate Migratory Flight Behavior in Young European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, flight behavior was examined in laboratory experiments. Adults were each tethered to one of 16 round-about flight mills in an environmental chamber, and the data relayed to a computer. Parameters analyzed included duration, distance, and speed of the longes...

  12. Aflatoxin in corn hybrids infested at different growth stages with southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin is a potent toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Contamination of corn, Zea mays L., with aflatoxin greatly reduces the value of corn grain and is a major impediment to profitable corn production in the South. Infestation of developing corn ears with southwestern corn borer, D...

  13. Development of a rearing methodology for the dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A continuous rearing method for dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was devised using standardized procedures at each developmental stage. The mating success of pairs of moths in 30 and 60 cm(3) cages and exposed to natural daylight or artificial light did not diffe...

  14. Utilizing Diapause in a Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Laboratory Colony as a Cost Saving Measure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to rear insects in the laboratory broadens the scope of research opportunities available to the scientist. We routinely rear the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), for our research in host plant resistance and biological control of this important sugarcane pest. Unfortunately, i...

  15. Re-evaluation of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) bioeconomics in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key insect pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., grown in Louisiana. For more than 40 years Louisiana sugarcane farmers have used a value of 10% internodes bored at harvest as the Economic Damage level (ED) because damage l...

  16. Increasing coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Curculionidae: Scolytinae) female density in artificial diet decreases fecundity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the influence of number of coffee berry borer females (1, 2, or 5) reared in artificial diet on fecundity and subsequent development of larvae, pupae and adults. When data for the three different experiments were analyzed, decreased fecundity was observe...

  17. Orientation of European corn borer first instar larvae to synthetic green leaf volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European corn borer (ECB) neonate larvae are capable of orienting toward maize odors and of avoiding spinach odors. We previously reported that maize odors attraction was dependent on the stimulus regime. This led us to propose that maize odors could have a repellent or attractive effect depending o...

  18. Suitability of immature emerald ash borers to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since first detected in Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a buprestid native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees in northeastern North America and continues to expand into new areas. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregar...

  19. GENETIC BASIS OF RESISTANCE TO FALL ARMYWORM AND SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER LEAF FEEDING DAMAGE IN MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To clarify the genetic basis of resistance to leaf feeding damage by fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer a study was undertaken to compare quantitative trait loci involved in two related resistant maize lines, Mp704 and Mp708. Models containing four and seven QTL explaining southwestern corn ...

  20. Chemical control of the Mexican rice borer in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are no reliably effective controls for the Mexican rice borer on sugarcane in South Texas, and the pest is spreading to rice-growing areas of Texas and Louisiana. A small-plot insecticide test comparing six insecticides was conducted in South Texas during the summer of 2008 to identify compou...

  1. 76 FR 1338 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...We are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the regulations to add areas in Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin to the list of areas quarantined because of emerald ash borer (EAB). The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of EAB into noninfested areas of the United States. As a......

  2. 75 FR 29189 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...We are amending the emerald ash borer regulations by adding portions of Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and the entire State of West Virginia to the list of quarantined areas. This action will restrict the interstate movement of regulated articles from areas in the States of Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.......

  3. EXPANDED EXPLORATIONS FOR EMERALD ASH BORER IN ASIA AND IMPLICATIONS FOR GENETIC ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) is considered native to northeast China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Mongolia, and eastern Russia. We are using genetic analyses to determine the origin of North America’s EAB infestations; however, acquiring samples from countries other than China has been difficult. To increase t...

  4. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer (EAB) larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, Michigan by caging gravid EAB females or placing laboratory-reared eg...

  5. POSSIBLE DEGRADATIVE ROLES OF A COFFEE BERRY BORER-ASSOCIATED YEAST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Pichia guilliermondii based on 26s ribosomal gene sequences. Liquid culture experiments with media containing different caffeine lev...

  6. Explorations for Natural Enemies of Emerald Ash Borer in China, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was made in China during July-August, 2006. We visited 11 field plots in four provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina, then peel...

  7. Effect of seasonal variations on jackfruit trunk borer (Batocera rufomaculata De Geer) infestation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Alam, M Z; Hossain, M M; Miah, M G

    2013-04-01

    The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall. PMID:24498801

  8. Cell Wall Composition as a Maize Defense Mechanism Against Corn Borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European and Mediterranean corn borers (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner and Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith tissues of diverse inbr...

  9. Effect of emerald ash borer on structure and material properties of ash trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) currently occurs in fifteen states in the United States, as well as Ontario and Quebec in Canada. A decline in ash tree strength following EAB infestation is potentially hazardous to public safety, particularly when trees are left standing for several years after dying. Dead ...

  10. Response of grape root borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) neonates to root extracts from vitaceae species and rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observations at regular intervals of the location of newly hatched grape root borer larvae moving freely within Petri dish bioassays were used to measure and compare their response to filter paper discs treated with ethanol- and hexane-based extracts of roots from known and potential Vitaceae hosts ...

  11. Feasibility of grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, larval acoustic detection in Florida vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer (GRB) is an important pest of grapes in the Eastern U.S. The larvae feed on grape roots, reducing vine vigor and increasing susceptibility to pathogens and drought. A study was conducted in 3 vineyards to test whether infestations could be identified using acoustic methods. Sound...

  12. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  13. Monitoring and First Discovery of the Mexican Rice Borer Eoreuma loftini (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini, has expanded its range from the Lower Rio Grande Valley to east Texas, and now into southwest Louisiana. Louisiana Department of Agricultural and Forestry and Louisiana State University AgCenter scientists forecast that natural and unintended movement will r...

  14. Proteins induced in corn (Zea mays) in response to the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) is a major pest of corn. ECB begin by feeding in the whorl tissue and then eventually tunnel into the stalk of the corn where they cause most of the damage. Tunneling can disrupt the transport of water and nutrients in the plant and it provides sites...

  15. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

  16. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Woodpeckers are an important source of mortality for EAB in their native range, and understanding their effect on the pop...

  17. Study on Bt Susceptibility and Resistance Mechanisms in the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dose response and growth inhibition of Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, were evaluated with Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac toxins. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the Cry1Ab-resistant strain was estimated to be >80- and 45-fold greater than that of...

  18. Developing monitoring techniques for the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Tom W; Chen, Yigen; Graves, Andrew D; Hishinuma, Stacy M; Grulke, Nancy E; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2014-06-01

    The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive species that has colonized oak woodlands in southern California. To better define its seasonal flight activity, assist with forest and integrated pest management activities, and define the current distribution in California, an effective monitoring technique for A. auroguttatus is necessary. We assessed the efficacy of two colors of flight-intercept prism traps, the placement of these traps at three heights, and several commercially available lures [Manuka oil, Phoebe oil, and a green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol] for monitoring the flight of adult A. auroguttatus. Landing rates and the densities of D-shaped emergence holes of A. auroguttatus adults were assessed on the lower stems of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, of varying size and crown health classes. Purple flight-intercept prism traps placed at heights of 3 m and 4.5 m caught significantly more female A. auroguttatus than green prism traps. In one experiment, males also responded at a significantly higher level to purple than to green prism traps placed at 3 m height. The addition of commercially available lures significantly enhanced male, but not female, A. auroguttatus trap catch when compared with unbaited control traps. There were no differences among male flight responses to the three lures. A. auroguttatus landing rates and emergence hole densities were significantly greater on the largest-diameter trees (>76.2 cm diameter at breast height) and on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. The annual increment in emergence hole densities was also significantly greater on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. In three trapping studies over multiple years in southern California, the adult flight period began as early as mid-May, peaked in mid-June to early July, and ended in early- to mid-September. To demonstrate the efficacy of the detection method for A

  19. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  20. Breeding habitat use by sympatric and allopatric populations of Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruth, J.M.; Stanley, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    We studied Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) and Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) habitat use in allopatric and sympatric populations in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming in order to better understand the different habitat needs and interactions of these two species. Foraging Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers used very similar habitat, both selecting larger, more open shrubs. In spite of similar foraging habitat, comparisons of habitat use by the two species at the sympatric sites yielded no evidence of foraging habitat partitioning or exclusion. There was evidence of nesting habitat partitioning. Wilson's Warblers nested on the ground, with some evidence that they used smaller, more densely stemmed shrubs under which to nest. Yellow Warblers are shrub nesters and selected larger, more open shrubs in which to nest. Results provide no evidence that Yellow Warblers can be blamed for population declines in Wilson's Warblers.

  1. Genetic structure and gene flow among European corn borer populations from the Great Plains to the Appalachians of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earlier population genetic spatial analysis of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), indicated no genetic differentiation even between locations separated by 720 km. This result suggests either high dispersal resulting in high gene flow, or that populations are not in...

  2. Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel borer design for application to single entry coal mine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    A health and safety analysis of a single entry coal tunnel borer system is given. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rule, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagen and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

  3. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  4. Release and recovery of parasitiods of the emerlad ash borer agrilus planipennis in Michigan, Ohio and Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hymenotperan parasitoid species were introduced to the United State from China for biological control of emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis in 2007. These species are Tetrastichus planipennisi (Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid; Oobius agrili (Encyrtidae), a solitary pa...

  5. Photodegradation of emamectin benzoate and its influence on efficacy against the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emamectin benzoate is a novel insecticide with characteristics of translaminar movement into plant leaf tissue. The compound was derived from the avermectin family and improved with thermal stability, greater water solubility, and a broader spectrum of insecticidal activity than avermectin. To deter...

  6. Functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in the purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-N; Zhang, J; Yan, S-W; Chang, H-T; Liu, Y; Wang, G-R; Dong, S-L

    2014-10-01

    The sex pheromone communication system in moths is highly species-specific and extremely sensitive, and pheromone receptors (PRs) are thought to be the most important factors in males. In the present study, three full-length cDNAs encoding PRs were characterized from Sesamia inferens antennae. These three PRs were all male-specific in expression, but their relative expression levels were very different; SinfOR29 was 17- to 23-fold higher than the other two PRs. Phylogenetic and motif pattern analyses showed that these three PRs were allocated to different PR subfamilies with different motif patterns. Functional analysis using the heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that SinfOR29 specifically and sensitively responded to the major pheromone component, Z11-16:OAc [concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50 ) = 3.431 × 10(-7) M], while SinfOR21 responded robustly to a minor pheromone component Z11-16:OH (EC50  = 1.087 × 10(-6) M). SinfOR27, however, displayed no response to any of the three pheromone components, but, interestingly, it was sensitive to a non-sex pheromone component Z9,E12-14:OAc (EC50  = 1.522 × 10(-6) M). Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of specificity and sensitivity of the sex pheromone communication system in moths. PMID:25039606

  7. Impact of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, on Yield of the Cultivated Sunflower, Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, J.P.; Grant, Angela K.; Jyoti, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Foliar and soil-drench insecticide treatments were used in attempts to manipulate infestation of cultivated sunflower plants, Helianthus annuus LeConte (Asterales: Asteraceae) by Dectes texanus LeConte, (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) a serious pest of sunflowers in the High Plains of the USA. Seed yields were assessed on a per-plant basis for both oilseed and confection type sunflower hybrids in two years. Both insecticide treatments (foliar ë-cyhalothrin and soil-drench carbofuran) improved yield of oilseed sunflowers in 2004, but not in 2005. Yield of confection hybrids was improved by a systemic fungicide (thiophanate methyl) in 2005, but insecticides did not improve yield in either year. Both insecticide treatments gave good control of various stalk-boring insects such as Cylindrocopturus adspersus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Mordellistena sp. (Coleoptera: Mordellidae), and Pelochrista womanana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but neither gave better than 50% control of D. texanus. Plants were sorted according to the presence or absence of D. texanus larvae and no reduction was found in total seed weight, seed size, or oil content as a result of infestation. However, mature larvae of D. texanus girdle stalks at the base in preparation for overwintering, a behavior that reduced stalk breakage force by 34–40%, leading to yield losses through lodging. At harvest in 2005, there were differences between cultivars and among treatments in the proportions of D. texanus larvae that had girdled their plants at harvest. It was concluded that further research aimed at reducing crop losses to D. texanus should focus on means of delaying stalk desiccation and/or deterioration, factors that appear to trigger girdling behavior. PMID:20307233

  8. Changes in insecticide resistance of the rice striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Su, Jianya; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wu, Min; Gao, Congfen

    2014-02-01

    Application of insecticides is the most important method to control Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and continuous use of individual insecticides has driven the rapid development of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis during the past 30 yr. Monitoring insecticide resistance provides information essential for integrated pest management. Insecticide resistance of field populations to monosultap, triazophos, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin in China was examined in 2010 and 2011. The results indicated that the resistance levels of 14 field populations to four insecticides were significantly different. Four populations showed moderate resistance, and other populations possessed low-level resistance or were susceptible to monosultap. Nine populations displayed an extremely high or a high level of resistance to triazophos, whereas four populations were sensitive to this agent. Five populations exhibited a low level of resistance to abamectin, while the others remained sensitive. When compared with historical data, resistance to monosultap and triazophos decreased significantly, and the percentage of populations with high-level or extremely high-level resistance was obviously reduced. By contrast, the resistance to abamectin increased slightly. The increasing and decreasing resistance levels reported in this study highlight the different evolutionary patterns of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis. An overreliance on one or two insecticides may promote rapid development of resistance. Slow development of resistance to abamectin, which was used mainly in mixtures with other insecticides, implies that the use of insecticide mixtures may be an effective method to delay the evolution of resistance to insecticides. PMID:24665718

  9. Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

    2014-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

  10. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new virus disease has emerged in the Midsouth and Southeastern United States and was named blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD). Originally, it was thought the disease was caused by Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) as the virus was found in many diseased plants and symptoms were very similar to thos...

  11. The Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) Invades Hawaii: Preliminary Investigations on Trap Response and Alternate Hosts.

    PubMed

    Messing, Russell H

    2012-01-01

    In August 2010 the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was first reported to have invaded the Kona coffee growing region of Hawaii, posing a severe economic challenge to the fourth largest agricultural commodity in the State. Despite its long and widespread occurrence throughout the tropics as the most serious pest of coffee, there are still discrepancies in the literature regarding several basic aspects of berry borer biology relevant to its control. In Kona coffee plantations, we investigated the beetles' response to several trap and lure formulations, and examined the occurrence of beetles in seeds of alternate host plants occurring adjacent to coffee farms. While traps were shown to capture significant numbers of beetles per day, and the occurrence of beetles in alternate hosts was quite rare, the unique situation of coffee culture in Hawaii will make this pest extremely challenging to manage in the Islands. PMID:26466620

  12. The Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) Invades Hawaii: Preliminary Investigations on Trap Response and Alternate Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Messing, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    In August 2010 the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was first reported to have invaded the Kona coffee growing region of Hawaii, posing a severe economic challenge to the fourth largest agricultural commodity in the State. Despite its long and widespread occurrence throughout the tropics as the most serious pest of coffee, there are still discrepancies in the literature regarding several basic aspects of berry borer biology relevant to its control. In Kona coffee plantations, we investigated the beetles’ response to several trap and lure formulations, and examined the occurrence of beetles in seeds of alternate host plants occurring adjacent to coffee farms. While traps were shown to capture significant numbers of beetles per day, and the occurrence of beetles in alternate hosts was quite rare, the unique situation of coffee culture in Hawaii will make this pest extremely challenging to manage in the Islands. PMID:26466620

  13. Purification of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus.

    PubMed

    Luisoni, E; Milne, R G; Vecchiati, M

    1995-07-01

    Attempts were made to find a good purification procedure for tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a dangerous and continuously spreading whitefly-transmitted germinivirus, up to now only partially purified. Electron microscopy, serology and spectrophotometry were used to evaluate different procedures. The scheme finally adopted was the following: collect leaves and stems from Nicotiana benthamiana graft-infected 45-60 days previously (5-10 g/plant); homogenize with 0.5 M phosphate buffer pH 6 containing 2.5 mM NaEDTA, 10 mM Na2SO3, 0.1% 2-mercaptoethanol, 1% Triton X-100 and 0.1% Driselase (3-4 ml of buffer for each g of material); incubate overnight on ice with gentle agitation; filter; emulsify with 15% cold chloroform; centrifuge at low speed; ultracentrifuge supernatant; resuspend pellets in 0.5 M phosphate buffer pH 7 containing 2.5 mM NaEDTA; centrifuge at low speed; repeat resuspension of the pellets and low-speed centrifugation; ultracentrifuge the pooled supernatant on a Cs2SO4 gradient (e.g. for 5 h at 41,000 rpm); collect the virus band and dialyse or ultracentrifuge the virus. The virus yield was 5-10 mg per kg of tissue. PMID:7553359

  14. Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites. PMID:24498741

  15. Factors promoting infestation of newly planted, nonbearing apple orchards by dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher

    2005-12-01

    The initiation and level of infestation by dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was tracked over three consecutive years in two nonbearing apple (Malus spp.) orchards in West Virginia and Virginia. The orchards were planted on a number of rootstock-variety (approximately cultivar) combinations and grown using different cultural practices. Infestations were detected during the first season after planting and continued to increase annually. The amount of burr knot tissue had the greatest impact on dogwood borer populations, because increasing amounts of burr knot tissue resulted in higher infestation rates. The use of plastic spiral wrap tree guards seemed to increase the development of burr knot tissue, resulting in significantly greater infestation compared with trees without tree guards in the West Virginia orchard. Variety also had a significant effect, because 'Idared' trees on M.26 had significantly greater levels of infestation compared with 'Buckeye Gala' on M.26, with or without tree guards, in the Virginia orchard. Mounding soil around the rootstock to a height just above the graft union prevented or tremendously curtailed infestation by dogwood borer, but it led to scion rooting that seemed to have an impact on size-controlling features of dwarfing rootstocks. Removal of the mounds at the beginning of the third growing season resulted in infestation of the rooted tissue during the same season. As long as apple cultivars continue to be planted on size-controlling rootstocks, dogwood borer will likely remain a serious pest, requiring either chemical treatments or a behavioral control strategy, such as mating disruption, to protect trees from infestation and damage. PMID:16539141

  16. Rubidium marking technique for the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in corn

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, D.E.; Chiang, H.C.

    1984-04-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments conducted in 1980 showed that rubidium (Rb) could be used to mark corn plants and emergent European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), moths. Rb had no adverse effects on pre-adult mortality, moth deformity, or fecundity. The best application method for marking ECB moths was an over-the-top + directed foliar spray to the corn plants. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  17. Evaluation of pheromone-based management strategies for dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in commercial apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher; Walgenbach, James F; Zhang, Aijun

    2009-06-01

    The dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious wood-boring pest of apple in eastern North America. The recent identification of its sex pheromone and systematic documentation of the effect of a potent behavioral antagonist affords the opportunity to develop pheromone-based management strategies for this important pest. Here we evaluated the potential of pheromone-based mass trapping of males to reduce dogwood borer infestations and conducted preliminary evaluations of an antagonist-based pheromone blend for disruption of dogwood borer mate finding in commercial apple orchards in North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. In the mass trapping study, treatments included a conventional trunk-drench application of chlorpyrifos, a low-density mass trapping regime of 5 traps/ha, a higher-density mass trapping regime of 20 traps/ha, and an untreated control. We removed large numbers of males from orchards at all locations, with 27,155, 8,418, and 7,281 removed from high-density trapping plots in North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia, respectively, over 2 yr. After 2 yr under each of these treatment regimes, infestation in high- and low-density mass trapping plots was not reduced to the level of chlorpyrifos-treated plots. An antagonist-based dispenser deployed at a rate of 250/ha effectively disrupted mate-finding by male dogwood borer. In plots with mating disruption dispensers, captures in pheromone-baited traps were virtually eliminated, and no males were captured in traps baited with virgin females. PMID:19610423

  18. Dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Razze, J M; Mason, C E

    2012-08-01

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn. PMID:22928300

  19. Betalains in red and yellow varieties of the Andean tuber crop ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus).

    PubMed

    Svenson, Johan; Smallfield, Bruce M; Joyce, Nigel I; Sansom, Catherine E; Perry, Nigel B

    2008-09-10

    The betalain pigments in ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus), a tuberous crop native to the Andes, have been investigated for the first time using LC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS(2) analyses. Five red, yellow, and red-spotted accessions introduced into New Zealand as a new food crop plus two red tetraploid lines were investigated. Thirty-two different betalains were identified. Both the yellow and red tubers were rich in yellow betaxanthins, and the most prominent among the 20 identified were histidine-betaxanthin, arginine-betaxanthin and glutamine-betaxanthin. Arginine-betaxanthin has been reported to occur naturally only once before and was found in yellow ulluco but not in the red tubers. Twelve betacyanins were found in red tubers, with roughly 50% of this content being betanin/isobetanin. Betacyanin levels were up to 70 microg/g fresh weight in red tubers, but were below quantifiable levels in yellow tubers. Betaxanthin levels were up to 50 microg/g fresh weight in yellow tubers. Interference by betacyanins in measuring levels of betaxanthins by visible spectrophotometry is discussed. Low concentrations of betalains were detected in leaves, whereas stems contained total levels similar to the tubers, with dopamine-betaxanthin and betanin being the major pigments. This is the first report describing both the betacyanin and betaxanthin patterns in a plant from the Basellaceae family. PMID:18662012

  20. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

  1. Yellow nails following hemodialysis in chronic renal failure: is it yellow nail syndrome or a variant?

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vandana; Vasanth, Vani; Balachandran, C

    2008-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is triad of yellow nails, lymphedema, and respiratory tract involvement. The exact pathogenesis of nail changes in YNS is unknown. We present a case of yellow nails and localized lymphedema secondary to artificial AV fistula in a 55-year-old chronic renal failure patient on hemodialysis for 5 years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of yellow nail syndrome reported in association with artificial AV fistula. PMID:19094857

  2. Flesh color inheritance and gene interactions among canary yellow, pale yellow and red watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two loci, C and i-C were previously reported to determine flesh color between canary yellow and red watermelon. Recently LCYB was found as a color determinant gene for canary yellow (C) and co-dominant CAPS marker was developed to identify canary yellow and red alleles. Another report suggested th...

  3. Commercial yellow sticky strips more attractive than yellow boards to western cherry fruit fly (Dipt., Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bright yellow sticky rectangles made of paper boards were previously identified as the most effective traps for capturing western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae). Thin rectangular sheets of yellow plastic allow higher light passage than yellow boards and may b...

  4. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    We have carried out a meticulous time-space-analysis of the incidence of yellow fever in humans in Brazil from 1954 to 1972 and especially from 1973 to 1999. This study has added to our knowledge of the epidemiology of yellow fever and enabled us to redefine epidemiological zones and determine their geographical limits. The endemic area is located within the Amazon basin; here cases are scattered and generally limited in number. However, there are also "foci of endemic emergence" within this area, where cases are less rare, although occurrence remains irregular. The epidemic area is for the most part situated outside the Amazon basin, to the north east and particularly to the south. It has been divided into two parts according to whether the occurrence of yellow fever is cyclic or sporadic. The epidemics, which are all sylvatic, follow either a circular path (in the forest area) or a linear path (in forest-galleries of the savannah area). The study of the development of the 3 main epidemics (1972-74; 1979-82; 1986-92) in the cyclic emergence area showed that, on each occasion, the yellow fever virus appeared at a particularly active outbreak site located in the "serra dos Carajás", and from there, it followed the courses of the Tocantins and Araguaia rivers upstream, moving southwards during the "pre-epidemic phase" which may be visible due to the occurrence of a few cases, or may remain invisible. Subsequently the virus reached the emergence area, where it appeared in the form of epidemics. In this zone, it also followed privileged south-western pathways, moving from one hydraulic basin to another along the upstream courses of the rivers. Almost exactly the same pathways have been identified for each of the 3 epidemics studied. The distances travelled by the virus over a period of one year--when it goes rapidly--can reach several hundred kilometers. On the other hand, it may be stationary for a period of one or two consecutive years, occasionally three, remaining

  5. Can prescribed fire be used to control Yellow Sweetclover (Meliotus officinalis) in a cool-season mixed-grass prairie?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study on the effects of early- versus late-season fire on yellow sweetclover. The study was motivated by a desire to develop realistic management methods for yellow sweetclover at Badlands National Park. Limitations imposed by an inability to apply fire treatments at the times required made it impossible to test the hypothesis that late summer fires would be effective at reducing sweetclover. Nonetheless, I summarize data on yellow sweetclover stem counts, cover of plant species, and proportion of native and exotic cover with respect to the fire treatments in this report. In addition, I present results of a germination study, in which scarified sweetclover seeds were planted at 2-week intervals. The data summarized in the report, and included in the accompanying spreadsheet, may prove useful in future studies of effects of fire on prairie vegetation in general, and yellow sweetclover in particular.

  6. Field damage to yellow starthistle infected by Synchytrium solstitiale, and greenhouse maintenance and host range of the fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synchytrium solstitiale damaged yellow starthistle (YST) plants in the field in France, causing reductions of 58, 82, 20, and 56 percent in plant height, plant area, stem diameter, and capitula production, respectively, compared to controls. It was therefore evaluated for biological control in the ...

  7. Epidemiology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease is one of the most important diseases of blackberry in the United States. Several viruses are found associated with the symptomology but Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV) appears to be the most prevalent of all, leading to the need for a better understand...

  8. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2003

    PubMed Central

    Onyango, Clayton O.; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Gibson, Georgina V.F.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Sow, Abdourahmane; Swanepoel, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, an outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic fever, caused by yellow fever virus, occurred in southern Sudan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus belonged to the East African genotype, which supports the contention that yellow fever is endemic in East Africa with the potential to cause large outbreaks in humans. PMID:15498174

  9. Control strategies for yellow nutsedge and nightshade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow nutsedge is a perennial weed that is difficult to control in several crops once established. It is particularly problematic in onion production. Yellow nutsedge reproduces and is dispersed primarily by tubers that are formed at the apical ends of underground rhizomes. Tubers may remain viable...

  10. History of Epidemiological Aspects of Yellow Fever

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Wilbur G.

    1982-01-01

    This review attempts to follow the trail of the development of epidemiological aspects and concepts of yellow fever and yellow fever transmission (vectors, vertebrate hosts, spacing of epidemic outbreaks) with less emphasis on well-documented early history and more emphasis on epidemiological problems still remaining, plus discussion of possible means of resolving certain of these problems. PMID:6758368

  11. PROSPECTIVE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS FOR YELLOW STARTHISTLE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow starthistle is an important alien weed that has invaded 20 million acres in the western U.S. Yellow starthistle is spiny plant that interferes with grazing livestock and outdoors recreation, it is fatally poisonous to horses, and it outcompetes desirable vegetation. Previously released agen...

  12. Evaluation of conventional resistance to European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in experimental maize lines developed from a backcross breeding program.

    PubMed

    Abel, C A; Berhow, M A; Wilson, R L; Binder, B F; Hibbard, B E

    2000-12-01

    Plant resistance is a promising control method for the two most damaging insect pests of maize, Zea mays L.: the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Fifteen experimental lines of maize, derived from a backcross breeding program designed to introgress resistance to European corn borer from Peruvian maize into two U.S. Corn Belt adapted inbred lines, were evaluated for resistance to European corn borer and western corn rootwonrm. The experimental lines were in the second generation of backcrossing. All experimental lines were resistant to leaf blade feeding by European corn borer. These lines had low levels of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one, a chemical commonly associated with leaf blade feeding resistance, indicating that this was not the mechanism of resistance to leaf blade feeding in these lines. Eleven experimental lines were resistant to leaf sheath and collar feeding by European corn borer. Useful sources of European corn borer ovipositional nonpreference and root feeding resistance to western corn rootworm were not identified. Some of the lines evaluated in this study may provide useful sources of resistance to both leaf blade and leaf sheath and collar feeding by European corn borer. PMID:11142317

  13. Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel-borer design for application to single-entry coal-mine development

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1982-02-15

    The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

  14. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides to Emerald Ash Borer Larvae.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2016-04-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues. PMID:26721288

  15. Behavioral response of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) neonates to grape root volatiles.

    PubMed

    Rijal, J P; Zhang, A; Bergh, J C

    2013-12-01

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is an oligophagous and potentially destructive pest of grape in commercial vineyards throughout much of the eastern United States. Larvae feed on vine roots, although little is known about their below-ground interactions with host plants. The behavioral response of groups of grape root borer neonates to stimuli from host and nonhost roots was evaluated in single and paired stimuli bioassays in which stimuli were presented in opposing wells attached to the bottom of petri dish arenas. Stimulus sources included root pieces and root headspace volatiles from 3309 and 420-A grape rootstocks (host) and apple (nonhost) and ethanol-based extracts of 3309 and 420-A roots. In single stimulus assays, significantly more larvae were recovered from wells containing grape roots, apple roots, grape extracts, and grape root volatiles than from control wells, but there was no significant response to volatiles collected from the headspace of apple roots. In paired stimuli assays, significantly more larvae were recovered from wells containing grape than apple roots. There was no difference in larval distribution between wells when 420-A and 3309 roots were presented simultaneously, although a significantly greater response to 3309 than 420-A root extract was recorded. When soil was added to the assays, significantly more larvae were recovered from wells containing grape roots than from those containing only soil, but this response was not detected in assays using buried apple roots. These results are discussed in relation to the plant-insect interactions between grape root borer larvae and their Vitaceae hosts. PMID:24216488

  16. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813

  17. Host-plant-associated genetic differentiation in Northern French populations of the European corn borer.

    PubMed

    Martel, C; Réjasse, A; Rousset, F; Bethenod, M-T; Bourguet, D

    2003-02-01

    The phytophagous insects that damage crops are often polyphagous, feeding on several types of crop and on weeds. The refuges constituted by noncrop host plants may be useful in managing the evolution in pest species of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxins produced by transgenic crops. However, the benefits of these refuges may be limited because host-plant diversity may drive genetic divergence and possibly even host-plant-mediated sympatric speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the main pest of maize in Europe and North America, where it was introduced early in the 20th century. It has a wide host range but feeds principally on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). O. nubilalis is found on mugwort only in the northern part of France, whereas it is found on maize throughout France. The extent of genetic variation at allozyme markers was investigated in populations collected from the two host plants over the entire geographical distribution of the European corn borer on mugwort in France. Allelic differentiation between pairs of populations and hierarchical analyses of pools of samples from each host plant indicate that the group of populations feeding on maize differed from the group of populations feeding on mugwort. Our results suggest (1) host-plant-related divergent selection at the genomic region surrounding the Mpi locus and (2) limited gene flow between the populations feeding on mugwort and those infesting maize fields. These data indicate that adults emerging from mugwort would not be useful for managing the evolution of resistance to the B. thuringiensis toxins in European corn borer populations. PMID:12634820

  18. The mitochondrial genome of the American lotus borer, Ostrinia penitalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Coates, Brad S; Abel, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    The American lotus borer, Ostrinia penitalis, is the most ancestral among more than 20 species described in the genus Ostrinia, and the near complete mitochondrial genome sequence described here is important for phylogenetic comparisons. The 12,612 bp contiguous fragment contains 13 protein coding genes, 20 tRNAs and a partial rRNA gene complement. Compared to two previously sequenced Ostrinia mitochondrial genomes, gene order and orientation remains identical. In contrast, complete stop codons of cox2 (TAG) and atp6 (TAA) in O. penitalis show that completion of truncated stop codons in other Ostrinia are derived. PMID:25329261

  19. A synopsis of the pin-hole borers of Thailand (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae).

    PubMed

    Beaver, R A; Liu, L Y

    2013-01-01

    The present state of knowledge of the pin-hole borers of Thailand is summarised to provide a basis for future studies of the fauna and its economic importance in forestry and timber production. A checklist of the fauna is provided with information on local and world distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. Six faunal elements based on geographical distribution, and the host preferences of species are discussed. Ninety-two species have now been recorded in Thailand, of which forty-three are recorded here for the first time. Three species are endemic to Thailand. The following new combinations are given: Dinoplatypus piniperda (Schedl), Treptoplatypusfulgens (Schedl), both transferred from Platypus. PMID:26213774

  20. Temperature-Dependent Models for Predicting European Corn Borer Early Feeding on Corn in Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magai, Robert Nthipe

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) is one of the most damaging insect pests to corn. Current yield losses attributed to the European corn borer are in the region of 400 million annually. Even though the European corn borer (ECB) has been extensively studied, few models exist that attempt to accurately predict its early infestation on corn. The basic problem encountered in formulating a first generation infestation prediction model is when to start calculating the temperature index. The exact conditions required to terminate diapause and the resumption of normal development are not well established. One of the old methods used in Missouri to predict the earliest date of ECB infestation involves the use of growing degree days, and by convention the heat units are arbitrarily calculated from January 1. This study was conducted to formulate prediction, and simulation-decision models for corn and first generation ECB infestation. The effects of variable maximum and minimum temperatures on the growth and development of the ECB were studied both in the laboratory and field designed experiments. Archival biological data from the IPM programs in three Missouri counties and weather data from weather stations were also used in corn phenology studies and to determine the dates of earliest ECB infestation on corn, for the period covering 1984 through 1989. Results from laboratory experiments suggest that the total growth and development period of ECB reared at variable temperatures is a constant value. However, the phenological development of the ECB stages does not follow a linear trend as earlier assumed during the introduction of the growing degree day model, but assumes a cubic curve. The starting point for the calculation of the temperature index in early spring occurs under conditions of longer than 13.0 hours of day length and a daily mean temperature of 60^ circF and above for at least five consecutive days. Three prediction models were developed. These are

  1. Types of Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... stem cells blog from the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Learn About Stem Cells From Lab to You ...

  2. Experimental therapies for yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Julander, Justin G

    2013-02-01

    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

  3. [Pleuritis in yellow nail syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kossakowski, C A; Schmiegelow, P; Müller, K-M

    2012-03-01

    A 76-year-old man presented clinically with coughing and shortness of breath and was diagnosed radiologically to have massive pleural effusion as a combined feature of yellow nail syndrome. A lung biopsy was taken and revealed histologically: chronic non-specific inflammation in the pleuropulmonary border, intrapleural edema with eightfold pleural thickening in comparison to normal, angiogenesis in both the nutritive and functional intrapleural blood vessels, no abnormalities of lymphatic vessels with normal topographical distribution as detected by immunohistochemistry for antibody D2-40, granulomatous chronic foreign body reaction as a consequence of pleural effusion therapy by talcum pleurodesis.The histopathological findings of chronic non-specific pleuritis with angiogenesis and increased permeability of blood vessels led to massive intrapleural edema with pleural effusion. Abnormalities of lymphatic vessels could not be confirmed. Considering the features of this disease, they are probably secondary to chronic r infectious or immunological inflammation or paraneoplastic complications with angiogenesis (in about 19%). PMID:22048329

  4. Simulated Impacts of Emerald Ash Borer on Throughfall and Stemflow Inputs of Water and Nitrogen in Black Ash Wetlands in Northern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pypker, T. G.; Davis, J.; Van Grinsven, M. J.; Bolton, N. W.; Shannon, J.; Kolka, R. K.; Nelson, J.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB)) is an invasive insect that effectively kills ash trees (genus: Fraxinus) greater than 2.5 cm in diameter, resulting in near-complete stand mortality within 3-4 years. Black ash wetlands occupy approximately 270,000 ha in Michigan, and have 40 to 90% of the basal area occupied by black ash (F. nigra Marshall); hence the loss of black ash may result in dramatic changes in the canopy hydrology and nutrient deposition. We assessed the impact of a simulated EAB invasion on throughfall and stemflow quantity and nitrogen (N) content in 9 uninfected black ash wetlands located in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Within the 9 stands, 3 stands were left untreated ('Control'), 3 stands had all the black ash trees manually girdled ('Girdled') and 3 had all the black ash trees felled by chainsaw ('Clearcut'). We measured the quantity and inorganic-N content of throughfall using an array of randomly placed collectors (n = 16 per site). Stemflow was monitored at 2 sites (n = 12 trees) on the 3 most common tree species (black ash, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) and red maple (Acer rubra L.)). Preliminary results indicate that relative to the Control, average monthly throughfall was 25% and 1% greater in the Clearcut and Girdled sites, respectively. While the loss of the ash trees resulted in greater throughfall inputs in the Clearcut sites, water table heights did not significantly change as a result of the treatments. Stemflow from live black ash trees was lower than from the yellow birch and red maple trees. As a result, we predict stemflow will increase over time as species with smoother bark and less upright branching begin replacing the black ash. Hence, the change in tree species may result in a greater concentration of inorganic-N inputs to the base of the trees, thereby altering the distribution of inorganic-N inputs into the wetland. Our preliminary results show no significant change in the total

  5. A new species of genus Oobius (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from the Russian Far East that parasitizes eggs of Emerald Ash Borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the Russian Far East, Oobius primorskyensis Yao et Duan is described. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from the previ...

  6. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) revealed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer...

  7. Transgenic Bt corn varietal resistance against the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Cramibidae) and implications to sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), attacks crops including corn, Zea mays L.; rice, Oryza sativa L.; sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench; and sugarcane, Saccharum spp., but strongly resistant varieties of any kind, native or otherwise, have not been identified. A field plot corn varie...

  8. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coffee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...

  9. From forest to plantation? Obscure papers reveal alternate host plants for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...

  10. The Effect of Bark Borer Herbivory on BVOC Emissions in Boreal Forests and Implications for SOA Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, Celia; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Holopainen, Jarmo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kokkola, Harri; Blande, James; Guenther, Alex; Virtanen, Annele

    2015-04-01

    Herbivore outbreaks are expected to increase as a result of climate change. These outbreaks can have significant effects on the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) from vegetation, which contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We have synthesized the published results investigating changes to BVOC emissions from herbivory by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis--a bark borer herbivore. Previous lab experiments have shown that bark borer herbivory on Scots pine trees increases monoterpene emissions 4-fold and sesquiterpene emissions 7-fold. Norway spruce exhibits a similar response. The BVOCs most impacted were linalool, beta-phellandrene, limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, and sesquiterpenes like beta-farnesene, beta-bourbonene, and longifolene. The quantitative results from these studies were used to estimate potential impacts of bark borer herbivory on BVOC emissions at a regional scale using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). MEGAN was run under baseline and herbivore outbreak conditions for a typical boreal forest environment in spring. Emissions output from MEGAN was used to run a microphysical box model to estimate the SOA formation potential under baseline and outbreak conditions. This estimate could provide us with an upper limit to the potential impact of bark borer outbreaks on SOA formation in a boreal forest.

  11. Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots using Spectral Vegetation Indices Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology was used to distinguish corn infested with European corn borers, Ostrinia nubilalis, from corn that was not infested. In 2004 and 2005, eleven spectral vegetation indices that emphasize foliar plant pigments were calculated using airborne hyperspectral imagery. Manual inocu...

  12. Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yong, a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid, is one of three hymenopteran parasitoids being released in the U.S. for biological control of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmair, EAB), an invasive beetle from Asia causing mortality of the ash trees (Fraxinus s...

  13. Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), injury to corn greater than to sorghum and sugarcane under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is the key pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in Texas; it can attack a number of grassy crop and noncrop host plants, and has spread into Louisiana. Through small plot, commercial field, and pheromone trap experiments, this study demonstrates that the...

  14. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  15. Natural parasitism of Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi is a relatively new nematode species found attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Mexico. We assessed the natural parasitism and distribution of this nematode in 20 coffee plantations in the state of Chiapas, at elevations ranging from 223 to 1458 m...

  16. Combination treatments with diatomaceous earth and methoprene to control Rhyzopertha dominica, the lesser grain borer, in stored rough rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, is a major insect pest of stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a natural inert dust that can be used to control stored-grain beetles, however, R. dominica is more tolerant to DE compared to other beetle species. Mortality of ad...

  17. Combination treatments with diatomaceous earth and methoprene to control the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in stored rough rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, is a major insect pest of stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a natural inert dust that can be used to control stored-grain beetles, however, R. dominica is more tolerant to DE compared to other beetle species. Mortality of ad...

  18. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) populations in West Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa, and contributes to food shortages and malnutrition in native human populations. The genetic structure of Maruca vitrata was investigated among five sites from Burkin...

  19. Landing surface color preferences of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...

  20. Treatment of California stone fruit with methyl bromide or phosphine to eliminate peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this project is to develop postharvest chamber fumigations that ensure complete mortality of peach twig borer (PTB) in California stone fruit exports; results from preliminary toxicological and phytotoxicological research are presented. Fumigations with 1500 ppm phosphine over a 24 h ex...

  1. A novel approach to biological control with entomopathogenic nematodes: Prophylactic control of the peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of stone fruits in North America. In this study, we compared the virulence of four entomopathogenic nematode species in the laboratory. The highest virulence was observed in Steinernema carpocapsae followed by the two heterorhabditids spec...

  2. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, USA, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 200...

  3. Monitoring Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Peach Twig Borer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with Clear Delta-shaped Traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies evaluated the relative performance of a clear versus several colored delta traps baited with sex pheromone or a food bait for two key moth pests of stone fruits: oriental fruit moth, Graphollita molesta (Busck); and peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller. Preliminary studies found...

  4. Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae): a hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of a hyperparasitod of the primary parasitoid of the coffee berry borer Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Aphanogmus sp is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of larval and pupal stages of P. nasuta, which was found in coffee berry samples collected on the ground o...

  5. Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...

  6. Effects of host plant and larval density on intraspecific competition in larvae of the Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many insects, competition for food, mate, and/or space among different individuals of the same species is a pervasive phenomenon with ecological consequences such as density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Col...

  7. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...

  8. Transcript analysis and comparative evaluation of shaker and slowmo gene homologues from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The movement and dispersal of larval Lepidoptera are factors that govern their survival and distribution within the natural landscape. Homologs of the Drosophila behavior-linked genes slowmo and shaker involved in larval locomotion were identified from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (L...

  9. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species that is destructive to crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of West Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, ...

  10. Identification and antennal electrophysiology of ash bark volatiles for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biologically active bark volatiles from ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) might be used as tools in monitoring the presence of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. Two compounds have been identified from the volatile emissions from white ash bark. These two compounds were readily sen...