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1

Overview on current status of biotechnological interventions on yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance in rice.  

PubMed

Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On the other hand, a good level of resistance against the widespread yellow stem borer has been rare in the rice germplasm. Resistance to insects has been demonstrated in transgenic plants expressing genes for delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), protease inhibitors, enzymes and plant lectins. The performance of insect resistant GM rice in trials in China has been quite impressive. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in biotechnological intervention for yellow stem borer resistance in rice. PMID:19811767

Deka, Sikha; Barthakur, Sharmistha

2

Mechanisms of compensation of rice plants to yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of stem borer injury on the physiology and yield response of irrigated rice. The compensation mechanisms investigated included increased tillering, increased percentage of productive tillers, and increased grain weight. Assimilates were translocated from stem borer-injured tillers to healthy tillers. The photosynthesis rate of green leaves in stem borer-injured tillers increased.

E. G. Rubia; K. L. Heong; M. Zalucki; B. Gonzales; G. A. Norton

1996-01-01

3

Transgenic fertile japonica rice plants expressing a modified cryIA(b) gene resistant to yellow stem borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The japonica rice variety Taipei 309 was cotransformed by particle bombardment of immature embryo-derived embryogenic calli\\u000a with a modified ?-endotoxin gene cryIA(b) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) under the control of the rice Actin1 promoter, and the hygromycin resistance gene, hph driven by the CaMV35S promoter. Selected transgenic rice plants showed enhanced insecticidal activity against yellow stem\\u000a borer (Scirpophaga incertulas), with

C. Wu; Y. Fan; C. Zhang; N. Oliva; S. K. Datta

1997-01-01

4

Integrated Management of Rice Stem Borers in the Yangtze Delta, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker), the yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker), and the pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) are the most injurious insect pests of rice in the Yangtze Delta, one of the country's rice \\

Z. R. Zhu; J. Cheng; W. Zuo; X. W. Lin; Y. R. Guo; Y. P. Jiang; X. W. Wu; K. Teng; B. P. Zhai; J. Luo; X. H. Jiang; Z. H. Tang

5

The impact of predators on maize stem borers in coastal Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage caused by Lepidopteran stem borers is one of the most important constraints to maize production in East and southern Africa. Of the stem borer complex, Chilo partellus Swinhoe is the most abundant species in lowland areas. Although control strategies exist, many are not effective or feasible for small-scale subsistence farmers to practice. Consequently, stem borers are rarely actively controlled.

M. J. Bonhof

2000-01-01

6

Determination of Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis (delta)-Endotoxin Receptors to Rice Stem Borer Midguts  

PubMed Central

Insecticidal activity and receptor binding properties of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins to yellow and striped rice stem borers (Sciropophaga incertulas and Chilo suppresalis, respectively) were investigated. Yellow stem borer (YSB) was susceptible to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry2A, and Cry1C toxins with similar toxicities. To striped stem borer (SSB), Cry1Ac, Cry2A, and Cry1C were more toxic than Cry1Aa toxin. Binding assays were performed with (sup125)I-labeled toxins (Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry2A, and Cry1C) and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) prepared from YSB and SSB midguts. Both Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac toxins showed saturable, high-affinity binding to YSB BBMV. Cry2A and Cry1C toxins bound to YSB BBMV with relatively low binding affinity but with high binding site concentration. To SSB, both Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac exhibited high binding affinity, although these toxins are less toxic than Cry1C and Cry2A. Cry1C and Cry2A toxins bound to SSB BBMV with relatively low binding affinity but with high binding site concentration. Heterologous competition binding assays were performed to investigate the binding site cross-reactivity. The results showed that Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac recognize the same binding site, which is different from the Cry2A or Cry1C binding site in YSB and SSB. These data suggest that development of multitoxin systems in transgenic rice with toxin combinations which recognize different binding sites may be useful in implementing deployment strategies that decrease the rate of pest adaptation to B. thuringiensis toxin-expressing rice varieties.

Lee, M. K.; Aguda, R. M.; Cohen, M. B.; Gould, F. L.; Dean, D. H.

1997-01-01

7

Tolerance of Bt corn (MON 810) to maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic corn (MON 810), expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, Cry1Ab, was evaluated under greenhouse conditions for its tolerance to the maize stem borer, Chilo partellus. Bt corn (MON 810) provided effective protection against the stem borer even under a high level of larval infestation in the greenhouse. The observed tolerance is examined and discussed in the light of the

Ramkumar Singh; K. C. Ravi; Farah Deeba; J. N. Nandi; K. S. Mohan; T. M. Manjunath

2005-01-01

8

Effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice lines on mortality and feeding behavior of rice stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Ten transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Bt rice, Oryza sativa L., lines with different Bt genes (two Cry1Ac lines, three Cry2A lines, and five Cry9C lines) derived from the same variety Minghui 63 were evaluated in both the laboratory and the field. Bioassays were conducted by using the first instars of two main rice lepidopteran insect species: yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) and Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). All transgenic lines exhibited high toxicity to these two rice borers. Field evaluation results also showed that all transgenic lines were highly insect resistant with both natural infestation and manual infestation of the neonate larvae of S. incertulas compared with the nontransformed Minghui63. Bt protein concentrations in leaves of 10 transgenic rice lines were estimated by the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cry9C gene had the highest expression level, next was cry2A gene, and the cry1Ac gene expressed at the lowest level. The feeding behavior of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer to three classes of Bt transgenic rice lines also was detected by using rice culm cuttings. The results showed that 7-d-old larvae of Asiatic rice borer have the capacity to distinguish Bt and non-Bt culm cuttings and preferentially fed on non-Bt cuttings. When only Bt culm cuttings with three classes of different Bt proteins (CrylAc, Cry2A, and Cry9C) were fed, significant distribution difference of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer in culm cuttings of different Bt proteins also was found. In the current study, we evaluate different Bt genes in the same rice variety in both the laboratory and the field, and also tested feeding behavior of rice insect to these Bt rice. These data are valuable for the further development of two-toxin Bt rice and establishment of appropriate insect resistance management in the future. PMID:18330134

Chen, Hao; Zhang, Guoan; Zhang, Qifa; Lin, Yongjun

2008-02-01

9

Rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), overwintering in super rice and its control using cultivation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Super rice has the potential to deliver very high yields but is also susceptible to attack by the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. In this study, surveys and field trials were performed to examine this problem and efficient ways were found to lower the borer’s population density. It was found that larger super rice plants provided more refuges for

Weihua Jiang; Xiaojing Jiang; Jianren Ye; Qiang Fu; Yongbin Feng; Ju Luo; Zhaojun Han

2011-01-01

10

Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin binding to brush border membrane vesicles of rice stem borers.  

PubMed

The receptor binding step in the molecular mode of action of five delta-endotoxins (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1C, Cry2A, and Cry9C) from Bacillus thuringiensis was examined to find toxins with different receptor sites in the midgut of the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis (Walker) and yellow stem borer (YSB) Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Homologous competition assays were used to estimate binding affinities (K(com)) of (125)I-labelled toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). The SSB BBMV affinities in decreasing order was: Cry1Ab = Cry1Ac > Cry9C > Cry2A > Cry1C. In YSB, the order of decreasing affinities was: Cry1Ac > Cry1Ab > Cry9C = Cry2A > Cry1C. The number of binding sites (B(max)) estimated by homologous competition binding among the Cry toxins did not affect toxin binding affinity (K(com)) to both insect midgut BBMVs. Results of the heterologous competition binding assays suggest that Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac compete for the same binding sites in SSB and YSB. Other toxins bind with weak (Cry1C, Cry2A) or no affinity (Cry9C) to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac binding sites in both species. Cry2A had the lowest toxicity to 10-day-old SSB and Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac were the most toxic. Taken together, the results of this study show that Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac could be combined with either Cry1C, Cry2A, or Cry9C for more durable resistance in transgenic rice. Cry1Ab should not be used together with Cry1Ac because a mutation in one receptor site could diminish binding of both toxins. PMID:15027071

Alcantara, Edwin P; Aguda, Remedios M; Curtiss, April; Dean, Donald H; Cohen, Michael B

2004-04-01

11

Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?*  

PubMed Central

The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice.

Shi, Sheng-wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-hua; Jiang, Ming-xing; Cheng, Jia-an

2008-01-01

12

Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?  

PubMed

The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice. PMID:18600788

Shi, Sheng-Wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-Hua; Jiang, Ming-Xing; Cheng, Jia-An

2008-07-01

13

Quantifying rice farmers’ pest management decisions: beliefs and subjective norms in stem borer control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces the pest belief model and Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action to analyze farmers’ decisions in stem borer management. Farmers spent an average of $39\\/ha (median $18) on insecticides believing that if they had not controlled an average loss of 1004 kg\\/ha or $402 (median 592, $237) would occur. Farmers’ estimates of the worst attack averaged

K. L. Heong; M. M. Escalada

1999-01-01

14

Economic assessment of controlling stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with insecticides in Texas rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-year field study was conducted to evaluate insecticide applications on infestations of the stem borers Diatraea saccharalis (F.) and Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) in rice, Oryza sativa L. Except for rice yield in 2002, whiteheads per square meter and rice yield were significantly affected by insecticide treatments in each year of the study. Biorational insecticides (diflubenzuron, novaluron and tebufenozide) did

F. P. F. Reay-Jones; T. E. Reagan

2007-01-01

15

EFFECTIVENESS OF TRICHOGRAMMA CHILONIS (ISHII) (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) AGAINST SUGARCANE STEM BORER (CHILO INFUSCATELLUS SNELLEN) (LEPIDOTERA: PYRALLIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichogramma chilonis Ishii against sugarcane stem borer (Chilo infuscatellus Snellen) was evaluated in experimental plots of sugarcane in the field at Faisalabad, Pakistan. Among five treatments of T. chilonis, the treatment having 60,000 parasitized eggs per acre showed significant results causing 83% reduction in infestation of C. infuscatellus as compare to control having 30.67% infestation. Population of C. infuscatellus showed

Muhammad Rafiq Shahid; Anjum Suhail; Muhammad Dildar Gogi; Munir Ahmad Shahzad; Sabir Hussain

2007-01-01

16

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of ultraspiracle (USP) from the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

cDNA for ultraspiracle (USP) from the lepidopteran rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis was cloned using PCR techniques. The deduced amino acid sequence of C. suppressalis USP (CsUSP) was very similar to those of other lepidopteran USPs, especially to the Manduca sexta USP-2 isoform. Northern hybridization analysis detected a 6.5-kb message in the epidermis, fat body, and midgut of wandering larvae.

Chieka Minakuchi; Yoshiaki Nakagawa; Makoto Kiuchi; Atsushi Seino; Shuichiro Tomita; Manabu Kamimura

2003-01-01

17

Mutation in acetylcholinesterase1 associated with triazophos resistance in rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two full-length genes encoding different acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), designated as Ch-ace1 and Ch-ace2, were cloned from strains of the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis) susceptible and resistant to the organophosphate insecticide triazophos. Sequence analysis found an amino acid mutation A314S in Ch-ace1 (corresponding to A201 in Torpedo californica AChE) that was consistently associated with the occurrence of resistance. This mutation removed

Xiaojing Jiang; Mingjing Qu; Ian Denholm; Jichao Fang; Weihua Jiang; Zhaojun Han

2009-01-01

18

Triazophos resistance mechanisms in the rice stem borer ( Chilo suppressalis Walker)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field population of the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker) with 203.3-fold resistance to triazophos was collected. After 8-generation of continuous selection with triazophos in laboratory, resistance increased to 787.2-fold, and at the same time, the resistance to isocarbophos and methamidophos was also enhanced by 1.9- and 1.4-fold, respectively, implying some cross-resistance between triazophos and these two organophosphate insecticides.

Qu Mingjing; Han Zhaojun; Xu Xinjun; Yue lina

2003-01-01

19

Diapause induction, maintenance and termination in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, enters facultative diapause as fully grown larvae in response to short-day conditions during the autumn. Our results showed that the critical night length for diapause induction in C. suppressalis was between 10h 22min and 10h 45min at 22, 25 and 28°C, 11h 18min at 31°C, and between 10h 5min and 10h 20min under field

Hai-Jun Xiao; Feng-Chen Mou; Xing-Fen Zhu; Fang-Sen Xue

2010-01-01

20

Cold Hardiness of Diapausing Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the supercooling point (SCP), cold hardiness, and content of glycerol in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, larvae field-collected at different dates to understand the relationship between diapause and cold hardiness. Field-collected C. suppressalis larvae became cold-hardy from late autumn and higher level of survival was maintained from October to April. Lab-reared C.

Jum Rae Cho; Jeong Seok Lee; Jeong Jun Kim; Minho Lee; Hong Sun Kim; Kyung Saeng Boo

2005-01-01

21

Twelve nuclear microsatellite loci for rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis W.).  

PubMed

We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker). These loci were screened for 96 individuals from eight populations across China. The total number of alleles ranged from 3 to 33 and the expected heterozygosity at these loci ranged from 0.131 to 0.671. These molecular markers will be useful for fully investigating the population structure and host preference of C. suppressalis at fine spatial scales. PMID:21564596

Liu, Yu-Di; Hou, Mao-Lin; Hao, Li-Xia

2008-10-21

22

Differential fipronil susceptibility and metabolism in two rice stem borers from China.  

PubMed

The susceptibilities of larvae of two rice stem borers, namely, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Nocutidae) to fipronil and its metabolites were investigated, and then the activities of microsomal O-demethylase, and glutathione transferase (GST) in two species were measured. The metabolism of fipronil in both stem borers was determined in vivo and in vitro. The LD50 value of fipronil to S. inferens was 118.5-fold higher than that of C. suppressalis. The bioassay results offipronil metabolites showed that the toxicities of sulfone and sulfide were higher than fipronil for both species, and the differential toxicity between sulfone and fipronil was remarkable. Alternatively, the activities of microsomal O-demethylase and GST of C. suppressalis were 1.35- and 2.06-fold higher than S. inferens, respectively. The in vivo and in vitro studies on metabolism of fipronil showed that all of fipronil, sulfone, and sulfide were detected and the content of sulfone was higher than sulfide in both stem borers. The residue of sulfone in C. suppressalis was significantly higher than that in S. inferens. These results suggest that the higher activity of mixed function oxidases may cause the higher capacity of C. suppressalis to produce fipronil-sulfone, which is more toxic than fipronil leading to the higher susceptibility of this species. PMID:18767755

Fang, Qi; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Ye, Gong-Yin; Yao, Hong-Wei; Cheng, Jia-An; Akhtar, Zunnu-Raen

2008-08-01

23

Development of transgenic sorghum for insect resistance against the spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus).  

PubMed

Transgenic sorghum plants expressing a synthetic cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) under the control of a wound-inducible promoter from the maize protease inhibitor gene (mpiC1) were produced via particle bombardment of shoot apices. Plants were regenerated from the transformed shoot apices via direct somatic embryogenesis with an intermittent three-step selection strategy using the herbicide Basta. Molecular characterisation based on polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis revealed multiple insertions of the cry1Ac gene in five plants from three independent transformation events. Inheritance and expression of the Bt gene was confirmed in T(1) plants. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay indicated that Cry1Ac protein accumulated at levels of 1-8 ng per gram of fresh tissue in leaves that were mechanically wounded. Transgenic sorghum plants were evaluated for resistance against the spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe) in insect bioassays, which indicated partial resistance to damage by the neonate larvae of the spotted stem borer. Reduction in leaf damage 5 days after infestation was up to 60%; larval mortality was 40%, with the surviving larvae showing a 36% reduction in weight over those fed on control plants. Despite the low levels of expression of Bt delta-endotoxin under the control of the wound-inducible promoter, the transgenic plants showed partial tolerance against first instar larvae of the spotted stem borer. PMID:16172896

Girijashankar, V; Sharma, H C; Sharma, Kiran K; Swathisree, V; Prasad, L Sivarama; Bhat, B V; Royer, Monique; Secundo, Blanca San; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Altosaar, I; Seetharama, N

2005-09-20

24

Effective Social and Extension Factors Involved in adoption of Iintegrated Campaign in Control of Rice Stem Borer, (Chilo Suppressalis), A Case Study in Isfahan Province, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is an important part of the food diet in Iran. Rice stem borer, (Chilo suppressalis) is a dominant pest of rice crop in Mobarakeh and Lengan counties of Isfahan. The purpose of this study was to examine effective factors involved in adoption of integrated management of rice stem borer, in Isfahan province. The study utilized descriptive survey research. The

Gholamreza Pezeshki-Raad; Mohammad Masaeli; Jafar Yaghoubi

25

Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts  

PubMed Central

Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and ?-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-?-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass.

Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K.; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

2013-01-01

26

Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts.  

PubMed

Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and ?-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-?-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass. PMID:23990056

Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

2013-08-30

27

Cloning and characterization of serpin-like genes from the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.  

PubMed

Serpins, also called serine proteinase inhibitors, are widely distributed in eukaryotes. In insects, serpins play important roles in regulating immune responses, gut physiology, and other processes. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of 12 serpin-like cDNAs from the striped rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), a major rice pest. The putative proteins share significant sequence similarity with known insect serpins, especially those from lepidopterons. Analysis of functional domains revealed that nine of the cloned serpins are putative trypsin- or chymotrypsin-like inhibitors; two are mixed-type serpins that may act as inhibitors for trypsins, elastases, or thrombin; and the remaining one is truncate. The potential functions of these serpins in interacting with host plants were also investigated by analyzing tissue-specific expression and the impact of different host plant genotypes on gene expression. Our results provide a foundation for future studies on the role of serpins in gut physiology in the striped rice stem borer, and also useful information for comparative analyses of serpins from different insect species. PMID:23957676

Ge, Zhao-Yu; Wan, Pin-Jun; Cheng, Xiong-Feng; Zhang, Yang; Li, Guo-Qing; Han, Zhao-Jun

2013-07-16

28

Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems.  

PubMed

Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations. PMID:22251716

Beuzelin, J M; Mészáros, A; Reagan, T E; Wilson, L T; Way, M O; Blouin, D C; Showler, A T

2011-10-01

29

THE EFFECT OF DIAZINON ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILO SUPPRESSALIS WALKER (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE), RICE STRIPED STEM BORER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice striped stem borer is a cosmopolitan pest that widely distributed in different regions of northen Iran and spraying with diazinon is the most common procedure to control this pest. We evaluated comparative physiological effects of diazinon spraying on the three populations of Chilo suppresalis collected from Gourabzarmikh (Go), Sheikhmahale (Sh) and Rasht (Ra) in Iran. The determination of physiological

Arash Zibaee; Jalal Jalali Sendi; Kayvan Etebari; Faramarz Alinia; Mohammad Ghadamyari

30

Optimization of pheromone dispenser density for managing the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), by mating disruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is one of the most important rice pests worldwide. Rice is frequently grown in an intensive production system in areas adjacent to environmentally sensitive areas. Therefore, the use of insecticides is problematic and new techniques, including mating disruption, are being introduced. Due to the high cost of pheromones, it is

C. Alfaro; V. Navarro-Llopis; J. Primo

2009-01-01

31

Lipase and invertase activities in midgut and salivary glands of Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), rice striped stem borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice striped stem borer, Chilo supprressalis, was introduced to Iran in 1973 where it is now widely distributed and causes severe damages. Lipases, which catalyses the hydrolysis of fatty acid ester bonds, are widely distributed among animals, plants and microorganisms. Invertases (?- fructofuranosidase) are glycosidehydrolases that catalyze the cleavage of sucrose (?-D- glucopyranosyl-S-D-fructofuranoside) into the monosaccharides glucose and fructose.

S Ramzi

2008-01-01

32

Interactions between the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walk.) (Lep., Pyralidae) larvae and rice plants in response to nitrogen fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the damage and compensation in rice plants when injured by the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), larvae at tillering stage, as well as larval survival and development of the insect at different nitrogen (N) fertilization levels. Potted plants were fertilized at late seedling stage at the rates 0, 200, 400, 600 and

M. X. Jiang; J. A. Cheng

2003-01-01

33

A study on biochemical differences among five different groups of rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of biodiversity in different rice striped stem borer (Chilo supprressalis) populations is very important to adopt suitable integrated pest management procedures. Larvae were collected from five different regions in north of Iran including Gourabzarmikh (Go), Sheikhmahaleh (Sh), Rasht (Ra), Amol (Am) and Babol (Ba). Activity levels of five enzymes including alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and

F Alinia; K Etebari

34

Effect of sequential applications of foliar nutrients, biofertilizers and sowing dates on the incidence of corn stem borers in Egypt.  

PubMed

In this study either early sown (May 1st) or lately sown (June 2nd) corn plants were treated with Phosphorin & Rhizobactrin as biofertilizers and sprayed with six selected foliar nutrients, i.e. Polymex; Greenzit SP100, Greenzit NPK, Potasin-F, Copper sulphate and Ascorbic acid; in mono-, bi-, and/or tri-sequential applications. Such practices were conducted to show their beneficial effects compared with the chemical treatment in checking the incidence of the stem borers and hence increasing the corn yield. The obtained results could be summarized in the following chief points: (a) the lately sown biofertilized plants showed somewhat higher levels of infestation than the early planted ones., (b) in general, spraying the biofertilized corn plants in both sowing dates with the tested foliar nutrients, significantly decreased the rate of the stem borers infestation than the untreated plants of control., (c) the foliar sprays of Greenzit NPK alone, bi- or tri-sequential applications of Potasin-F, Polymex, Ascorbic acid and Copper sulphate achieved considerable success in reducing larval numbers of the borers species. For example, in case of using the bi-sequential nutrients (Polymex/Ascorbic acid) the numbers were 1.2, 1.5 and 1.2 larvae/5 plants, whereas the numbers were 1.3, 1.0 and 0.7 larvae/5 plants as a result, of the tri-sequential applications (Potasin-F/Ascorbic acid/Polymex) for the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica, (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon, (Bels.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.), in respect, vs. 4.8, 4.5 and 2.9 larvae/5 plants for the same stem borers, respectively, in case of the untreated corn plants. In addition, the other trisequential applications (Polymex/ascorbic acid/Copper sulphate), (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/ascorbic acid) and (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) reduced the stem borers infestation; (d) from the view point of the interaction effects of sowing dates and the tested foliar nutrients, it was found that the tri-sequential sprayings (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) and/or (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Ascorbic acid) have lowered the rate of the stem borers infestation to 3.3 and 3.3 and 5.7 and 4.3 larvae/5 plants for the tri-applications in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates, respectively. Such reductions in the levels of infestation led to an increase in the grain yield up to 6.9 and 7.2 and 5.4 and 5.8 ton/fed, for the early and lately sown corn plants, in respect, and (e) All the foliar nutrients, with no exception, proved to be efficient in managing the stem borers infestation as compared with the insecticide treatment using Polytrin. Although the chemical application had lowered the level of infestation to 2.3 and 5.7 larvae/5 plants in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates as compared with 9.7 and 14.7 larvae/5 untreated plants for the same sowing dates, lesser grain yield of 5.6 and 4.4 ton/fed. was obtained in the first and second dates of planting, successively, in comparison to the grain yield resulted from the tri-applications of Potasin-F/Copper sulphate with either Polymex or Ascorbic acid. The abovementioned results assured the profitable effects of using foliar nutrients as well as the biofertilizers for attaining healthy corn plants, which would be capable of tolerating the injury inflicted by the studied stem borers and compensating for the harmful effects of insects infestation, so high grain yields could be obtained than those of the untreated and/or the insecticide treated plants. PMID:12696416

Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; el-Kady, Magda B; Haroun, Nagah S

2002-01-01

35

Evaluation of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) rice varieties against stem borer (Chilo suppressalis).  

PubMed

Three transgenic rice varieties namely Khazar, Neda and Nemat, all containing a cry1Ab gene, were evaluated through PCR analysis and field examinations for their resistance at natural infestation of insect pests during 2007. The results showed that all transgenic varieties produced 1.2 kb PCR product derived from application of cry1Ab gene. In field conditions, transgenic varieties exhibited high levels of resistance against natural infestation of stem borer and the damaged plants based on dead heart or white heat for them were less than 1%. Moreover, in stem-cut bioassay 100% of released larvae died within four days after infestation. These results demonstrate that expression of cry1Ab gene in the genome of transgenic varieties provided season-long protection from the natural infestation of lepidopteran insects. PMID:18817142

Kiani, Ghaffar; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Ghareyazie, Behzad; Sattari, Majid

2008-02-15

36

Dispersal by Larvae of the Stem Borers Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Plots of Transplanted Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied larval dispersal behavior of two rice stem borers, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) and Chilo suppressalis (Walker), to evaluate the potential of seed mixtures for resistance management in B. thuringiensis (Bt) rice. Both species showed extensive movement among plants (or \\

Michael B. Cohen; Angelita M. Romena; Fred Gould

2000-01-01

37

Incidence, symptoms, and intensity of damage by three coffee stem borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in South Yunan, China.  

PubMed

Sampling studies were conducted in coffee plantations in South Yunan to assess the incidence, symptoms, and intensity of damage by three stem borers: Xylotrechus quadripes (Chevrolat), Acalolepta cervina (Hope), and Bacchisa sp. near pallidiventris (Thomson). Of 5,690 plants sampled in eight plantations, 440 were infested with A. cervina, 63 with X. quadripes, and three with B. pallidiventris. Plants 5-7 yr old were 10 times more heavily infested with X. quadripes than 3- to 4-yr-old plants, whereas both age groups of plants had similar levels of infestation with A. cervina. Larval galleries of the three borer species markedly differ: A. cervina and B. pallidiventris larvae develop in subcortical galleries in the main stem (A. cervina) and lateral branches (B. pallidiventris), whereas larval galleries of X. quadripes intermittently punctuate and transverse the xylem of main stems or lateral branches. Significantly more plant tissue was damaged in stems infested with X. quadripes than in those infested with A. cervina or B. pallidiventris. Stems infested with A. cervina or B. pallidiventris generally had only one or a few pupation chambers, whereas stems infested with X. quadripes contained numerous chambers. Quantitative and qualitative data collected through this study provide farmers with diagnostic tools to determine which borer species infested coffee plants. Comparison of life history traits and intensity of damage for the three borer species indicates that X. quadripes is the most severe pest of coffee in Yunan, and suggests that populations of X. quadripes have the greatest potential to steadily increase with time. PMID:11942744

Rhainds, Marc; Lan, Chin Chiew; Zhen, Mo Li; Gries, Gerhard

2002-02-01

38

Mutation in acetylcholinesterase1 associated with triazophos resistance in rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

Two full-length genes encoding different acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), designated as Ch-ace1 and Ch-ace2, were cloned from strains of the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis) susceptible and resistant to the organophosphate insecticide triazophos. Sequence analysis found an amino acid mutation A314S in Ch-ace1 (corresponding to A201 in Torpedo californica AChE) that was consistently associated with the occurrence of resistance. This mutation removed an MspA1 I restriction site from the wild type allele. An assay based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was developed to diagnose A314S genotypes in field populations. Results showed a strong correlation between frequencies of the mutation and phenotypic levels of resistance to triazophos. The assay offers a prospect for rapid monitoring of resistance and assisting with the appropriate choice of insecticide for combating damage caused by C. suppressalis. PMID:19028456

Jiang, Xiaojing; Qu, Mingjing; Denholm, Ian; Fang, Jichao; Jiang, Weihua; Han, Zhaojun

2008-11-24

39

The development of quantitative occurrence prediction of infestation by the rice stem-borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker , in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new method was developed with the objective to meet the universal demand for the prediction of the abundance of the rice\\u000a stem-borer,Chilo suppressalis\\u000a Walker, after 30 years’ pending state. The degrees of infestation were assessed by the sequential sampling test under the prevailing\\u000a three categories, low, moderate and high in terms of percentage infested rice hills. The numerical table

T. Torii

1971-01-01

40

Molecular cloning, expression analysis and functional confirmation of two ecdysone receptor isoforms from the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR techniques were used to clone and identify cDNAs for ecdysone receptor A and B1 (EcR-A and EcR-B1) isoforms from the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. They differ only in the N-terminal A\\/B regions and show high sequence identities to other insects’ EcRs. At the wandering stage, EcR-B1 mRNA was expressed more abundantly in the midgut than in the epidermis

C Minakuchi; Y Nakagawa; M Kiuchi; S Tomita; M Kamimura

2002-01-01

41

Characterization of ?-amylase in the midgut and the salivary glands of rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice striped stem borer, Chilo supprressalis, is a destructive pest of rice that was introduced to Iran in 1973 and has since become widely distributed. Amylases are hydrolytic enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the ?-d-(1,4)-glucan linkage in glycogen and other related carbohydrates. Laboratory-reared 4th stadium larvae were randomly selected; the midgut and the salivary glands were removed by

Arash Zibaee; Ali Reza Bandani; Maryam Kafil; Samar Ramzi

2008-01-01

42

An annoted list of the parasites of graminaceous stem borers in East Africa, with a discussion of their potential in biological control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a survey of the parasites of the lepidopterous stem borers of graminaceous crops throughout East Africa\\u000a and on laboratory studies of the more abundant species. In the survey emphasis was placed on the borers of maize and sorghum,\\u000a but samples of other cultivated Graminae and wild grasses were also taken.\\u000a \\u000a Notes on the distribution and

A. I. Mohyuddin; D. J. Greathead

1970-01-01

43

Diapause induction, maintenance and termination in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker).  

PubMed

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, enters facultative diapause as fully grown larvae in response to short-day conditions during the autumn. Our results showed that the critical night length for diapause induction in C. suppressalis was between 10 h 22 min and 10h 45 min at 22, 25 and 28 degrees C, 11 h 18 min at 31 degrees C, and between 10 h 5 min and 10 h 20 min under field conditions (average temperature ranged from 27.2 to 30.7 degrees C). The diapause incidence declined in ultra-long nights (18-22 h scotophases) and DD, and increased in ultra-short nights (2-6 h scotophases) and LL. Moreover, we found that the third instar was the stage most sensitive to the photoperiod, and night length played an essential role in the initiation of diapause. Night-interruption experiments with a 1-h light pulse at LD 12:12 (light 12:dark 12) exhibited two troughs of diapause inhibition, with one occurring in early scotophase and the other in late scotophase. Field observations for six years showed that most larvae entered winter diapause in August in response to declining day lengths, despite the high temperatures prevailing during August. By periodically transferring the field-collected overwintering larvae to different photoperiods and temperatures, the results showed that photoperiod had a significant influence on diapause development during the early phase of diapause, while high temperature significantly accelerated the termination of larval diapause. PMID:20546744

Xiao, Hai-Jun; Mou, Feng-Chen; Zhu, Xing-Fen; Xue, Fang-Sen

2010-05-28

44

Induction of serotonin accumulation by feeding of rice striped stem borer in rice leaves.  

PubMed

Tryptophan (Trp)-related secondary metabolism has been implicated in the defense against pathogen infection and insect feeding in various gramineous species. Recently, we also reported that rice plant accumulated serotonin and tryptamine as well as their amide compounds coupled with phenolic acids in response to the infection by fungal pathogen. These compounds were likely to play an important role in the formation of physical barrier to the invading pathogens. To extend our study to elucidate the defensive role of Trp-derived secondary metabolism in gramineous plants, we examined in this study whether it is activated in response to herbivore attack as well. Third leaves of rice plant were fed on by third instar larvae of rice striped stem borer for 24 h or 48 h. The analysis of four Trp-derived metabolites including tryptamine, serotonin feruloyltryptamine (FerTry) and p-coumaroylserotonin (CouSer) by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry revealed that their contents clearly increased in response to the larvae feeding. The respective amounts of tryptamine, serotonin, FerTry and CouSer in the larvae-fed leaves were 12-, 3.5-, 33- and 140-fold larger than those in control leaves 48 h after the start of feeding. PMID:19704837

Ishihara, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Yumi; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Wakasa, Kyo

2008-09-01

45

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of ultraspiracle (USP) from the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis.  

PubMed

cDNA for ultraspiracle (USP) from the lepidopteran rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis was cloned using PCR techniques. The deduced amino acid sequence of C. suppressalis USP (CsUSP) was very similar to those of other lepidopteran USPs, especially to the Manduca sexta USP-2 isoform. Northern hybridization analysis detected a 6.5-kb message in the epidermis, fat body, and midgut of wandering larvae. CsUSP mRNA expression in the epidermis varied little during the last larval instar. Gel mobility shift assays showed that in vitro translated C. suppressalis ecdysone receptor (CsEcR) and CsUSP proteins bound to the Pal1 or Drosophila melanogaster hsp27 ecdysone response element as a heterodimer. In a ligand-receptor binding assay, [(3)H]ponasterone A ([(3)H]PoA) did not bind to individual CsEcR or CsUSP protein, but bound strongly to the CsEcR/CsUSP complex. [(3)H]PoA binding to CsEcR/CsUSP complex was competed by 20-hydroxyecdysone and a non-steroidal ecdysteroid agonist, RH-5992, but not by cholesterol, indicating that compounds with molting hormone activity against C. suppressalis can bind specifically to the CsEcR/CsUSP complex. PMID:12459199

Minakuchi, Chieka; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Kiuchi, Makoto; Seino, Atsushi; Tomita, Shuichiro; Kamimura, Manabu

2003-01-01

46

Induction of serotonin accumulation by feeding of rice striped stem borer in rice leaves  

PubMed Central

Tryptophan (Trp)-related secondary metabolism has been implicated in the defense against pathogen infection and insect feeding in various gramineous species. Recently, we also reported that rice plant accumulated serotonin and tryptamine as well as their amide compounds coupled with phenolic acids in response to the infection by fungal pathogen. These compounds were likely to play an important role in the formation of physical barrier to the invading pathogens. To extend our study to elucidate the defensive role of Trp-derived secondary metabolism in gramineous plants, we examined in this study whether it is activated in response to herbivore attack as well. Third leaves of rice plant were fed on by third instar larvae of rice striped stem borer for 24 h or 48 h. The analysis of four Trp-derived metabolites including tryptamine, serotonin feruloyltryptamine (FerTry) and p-coumaroylserotonin (CouSer) by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry revealed that their contents clearly increased in response to the larvae feeding. The respective amounts of tryptamine, serotonin, FerTry and CouSer in the larvae-fed leaves were 12-, 3.5-, 33- and 140-fold larger than those in control leaves 48 h after the start of feeding.

Ishihara, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Yumi; Wakasa, Kyo

2008-01-01

47

The role of some agricultural practices and fertilizer type on both the incidence of stem borers infestation and corn yield in Egypt.  

PubMed

Maize, Zea mays, L. is one of the most important field crops in Egypt. It is used mainly for human, animal and poultry feeding. Corn plants are usually attacked by several injourious insect pests at different stages of development. Out of them, the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon (Bles.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.); which cause great damage and yield losses. It is profitable to adopt an effective and sustainable strategy for controlling these insect-pests. In this concern, sowing dates, planting spaces, foliar fertilizers (macro and micro-nutrients), mineral and/or biofertilization, were investigated to evaluate their role as tools in the so-called Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program of corn pests. In general, the used planting spaces of 60 and 70 cm apart between furrows insignificantly affected the level of stem borers infestation. It was clearly observed that the sowing dates have a role in the incidence of stem borers infestation throughout the corn growing seasons of 1994 and 1995. Moreover, The biofertilized corn plants were more tolerant to the infestation by the stem borers than the minerally fertilized ones. Application of Polytrin significantly decreased the mean numbers of larvae. The tested nutrients preparations affected to less extent, the infestation levels. Concerning the interaction effect of applied nutrients preparations, used sowing dates and/or fertilizer type on the deduced means of larval numbers, it was revealed that: (i) the application of the nutrients preparations decreased to a great extent the effect of the studied sowing dates on the stem borers infestation; particularly in case of spraying ascorbic acid alone or in sequence with Polymex, coppersulphate & Potasin-F, (ii) the dressing of corn grains with the biofertilizers Phosphorin & Rhizobacterin before sowing, lowered to some extent the levels of infestation by Ch. agamemnon and O. nubilalis, in comparison to the minerally fertilized corn plants, especially in case of spraying Potasin-F, copper sulphate and scorbic acid followed by Polymex for Ch. agamemnon. Spraying Ascorbic acid alone or in sequence with Polymex; Potasin-F followed by Copper sulphate gave promising results for the control of O. nubilalis. In comparison to insecticide treatment, the used foliar nutrients & fertilizer type in both sowing dates gave positive interaction effects in decreasing levels of stem borers infestation and greatly improved the yield and yield characteristics of corn plants. Such agricultural practices enabled corn plants to tackle the going on infestation; thus crop loss due to the attack of the stem borers could be compensated. PMID:12696425

Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; Massoud, M A; Abd el-Aziz, A A

2002-01-01

48

Cloning and characterization of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like genes in the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.  

PubMed

Serine proteinases including trypsins and chymotrypsins play various important roles in insects, including food digestion, immune defense, and zymogen activation. Studies on insect serine proteinases could reveal their feeding preference (polyphagous and monophagous) and facilitate identification of protease inhibitors, which can be engineered for pest management. In this paper, 11 transcripts encoding trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteins were cloned from the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). All the predicted proteins share high sequence similarity with known trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteins from either lepidopterans or dipterans, and most of the proteins have conserved motifs that are characteristics of serine proteinases. Among the 11 cloned genes, six were expressed predominantly and one exclusively in the midgut of the insect, three were expressed relatively evenly in examined tissues, and one was not expressed in either the gut or hemolymph based on RT-PCR results. The seven genes that were predominantly or exclusively expressed in the gut were also affected by feeding on different host plants. The genes that were expressed in the gut and were affected by host plants are likely to encode digestive proteinases. The identification of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like genes in this insect species is the first step towards further comparative studies and for identification of insect-specific proteinase inhibitors, which might be engineered to protect rice plants against the striped rice stem borer, which is one of the destructive pests of rice. PMID:22432944

Ge, Zhao-Yu; Wan, Pin-Jun; Han, Zhao-Jun

2012-03-20

49

Exploring the midgut transcriptome and brush border membrane vesicle proteome of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker).  

PubMed

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac. PMID:22666467

Ma, Weihua; Zhang, Zan; Peng, Chuanhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lin, Yongjun

2012-05-29

50

Exploring the Midgut Transcriptome and Brush Border Membrane Vesicle Proteome of the Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker)  

PubMed Central

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac.

Peng, Chuanhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lin, Yongjun

2012-01-01

51

Role of membrane transport of water and glycerol in the freeze tolerance of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overwintering larvae of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis accumulate glycerol and are freezing tolerant to about ?25°C. However, non-diapausing larvae cannot accumulate glycerol and are killed by freezing. We compared the extent of tissue damage, the effects of glycerol concentration, and the transport of glycerol and water in fat body tissues from these larvae at selected freezing temperatures. Tissues

Yohei Izumi; Shoji Sonoda; Hideya Yoshida; Hugh V. Danks; Hisaaki Tsumuki

2006-01-01

52

Diapause development and acclimation regulating enzymes associated with glycerol synthesis in the Shonai ecotype of the rice stem borer larva, Chilo suppressalis walker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overwintering larvae of the Shonai ecotype of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, enter diapause in early September and terminate diapause at the end of October. Cold acclimation at 0°C did not influence glycerol, trehalose or glycogen content in larvae collected on 22 September. Acclimation at 0°C increased the glycerol content and reduced the glycogen content significantly in larvae collected

Yi-Ping Li; Michiyo Goto; Lei Ding; Hisaaki Tsumuki

2002-01-01

53

Seasonal changes in glycerol content and cold hardiness in two ecotypes of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, exposed to the environment in the Shonai district, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is divided into at least two ecotypes in Japan, the Shonai ecotype (SN) which is distributed in the northern part of Japan, and the Saigoku ecotype (SG) which is distributed in the southwestern region. Cold hardiness is positively correlated with the level of glycerol in both ecotypes. To investigate whether ecological distribution affects glycerol

Shinichi Ishiguro; Yiping Li; Kazuto Nakano; Hisaaki Tsumuki; Michiyo Goto

2007-01-01

54

Transgenic rice plants expressing a fused protein of Cry1Ab/Vip3H has resistance to rice stem borers under laboratory and field conditions.  

PubMed

Six transgenic rice, Oryza sativa L., lines (G6H1, G6H2, G6H3, G6H4, G6H5, and G6H6) expressing a fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein, were evaluated for resistance against the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and the stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory and field. The bioassay results indicated that the mortality of Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens neonate larvae on six transgenic lines from seedling to filling stage was up to 100% at 168 h after infestation. The cumulative feeding area by Asiatic rice borer neonate larvae on all transgenic lines was significantly reduced compared with the untransformed parental 'Xiushui 110' rice. A 2-yr field evaluation showed that damage during the vegetative stage (deadheart) or during the reproductive stage (whitehead) caused by Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens for transgenic lines was much lower than the control. For three lines (G6H1, G6H2, and G6H6), no damage was found during the entire growing period. Estimation of fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein concentrations using PathoScreen kit for Bt-Cry1Ab/1Ac protein indicated that the expression levels of Cry1Ab protein both in main stems (within the average range of 0.006-0.073% of total soluble protein) and their flag leaves (within the average range of 0.001-0.038% of total soluble protein) were significantly different among six transgenic lines at different developmental stages. Both laboratory and field researches suggested that the transgenic rice lines have considerable potential for protecting rice from attack by both stem borers. PMID:20857760

Chen, Yang; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shen, Zhi-Chen; Peng, Yu-Fa; Hu, Cui; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Ye, Gong-Yin

2010-08-01

55

Studies for Determination of Wheat Harvest Losses Due to Yellow and Black Stem Rust Infection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yellow rust and stem rust were used on varieties of variable susceptibility to determine yield depression in contrast to control plots. Moderately strong yellow rust for four weeks, end May and June, depressed grain yield by 14% in a susceptible summer va...

G. Gassner W. Straib

1968-01-01

56

Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins with brush border membrane vesicles of maize stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe).  

PubMed

Maize stem borer (Chilo partellus) is a major insect pest of maize and sorghum in Asia and Africa. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) ?-endotoxins have been found effective against C. partellus, both in diet-overlay assay and in transgenic plants. Gene stacking as one of the resistance management strategies in Bt maize requires an understanding of receptor sharing and binding affinity of ?-endotoxins. In the present study, binding affinity of three fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled Cry1A toxins showed high correlation with the toxicity of respective ?-endotoxins. Competitive binding studies showed that Cry1Ab toxins share some of the binding sites with Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac with low affinity and that Cry1Ab may have additional binding sites that are unavailable to the other two toxins tested. PMID:20831871

Sharma, Priyanka; Nain, Vikrant; Lakhanpaul, Suman; Kumar, P A

2010-09-08

57

Characterization and Localization of the Ice-Nucleating Active Agents in Larvae of the Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical properties of the ice-nucleating active agents (INAs) distributed in the muscle of diapausing larvae of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker were studied. Sensitivity to protease indicated that the INAs were proteinaceous. The INAs were stable at at least 50°C for 5 min, and active over a broad pH range (pH 2.0 to 8.0) and after delipidation treatments.

Makoto Hirai; Hisaaki Tsumuki

1995-01-01

58

Molecular cloning, expression analysis and functional confirmation of two ecdysone receptor isoforms from the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis.  

PubMed

PCR techniques were used to clone and identify cDNAs for ecdysone receptor A and B1 (EcR-A and EcR-B1) isoforms from the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. They differ only in the N-terminal A/B regions and show high sequence identities to other insects' EcRs. At the wandering stage, EcR-B1 mRNA was expressed more abundantly in the midgut than in the epidermis and fat body, whereas expression levels of EcR-A mRNA were similar in the three tissues. In the epidermis of the last instar larvae, the maximal mRNA expression of both EcR-A and EcR-B1 was observed from the wandering to prepupal stages prior to the peak of ecdysteroid titer in the hemolymph. In gel mobility shift assays, in vitro translated C. suppressalis EcR-B1 (CsEcR-B1) and Bombyx mori ultraspiracle (BmUSP) proteins bound to the Pal 1 and Drosophila melanogaster hsp27 ecdysone response element as a heterodimer. These results indicate that the cDNAs isolated here encode functional ecdysone receptors. PMID:12213236

Minakuchi, C; Nakagawa, Y; Kiuchi, M; Tomita, S; Kamimura, M

2002-09-01

59

Role of membrane transport of water and glycerol in the freeze tolerance of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

Overwintering larvae of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis accumulate glycerol and are freezing tolerant to about -25 degrees C. However, non-diapausing larvae cannot accumulate glycerol and are killed by freezing. We compared the extent of tissue damage, the effects of glycerol concentration, and the transport of glycerol and water in fat body tissues from these larvae at selected freezing temperatures. Tissues from overwintering larvae, but not non-diapausing larvae, survive when frozen at -20 degrees C with 0.25 M glycerol, but the protection afforded by glycerol is offset by the water-channel inhibitor mercuric chloride. Glycerol in higher concentration (0.75 M) affords some protection even to the fat body of non-diapausing larvae. Radiotracer assays of overwintering larvae show that water leaves the tissues during freezing while glycerol enters, and that mercuric chloride disrupts this process. Transport is also disrupted after lethal freezing at -35 degrees C. Therefore, membrane transport of water and glycerol is involved in the avoidance of freezing injury to fat body cells of the rice stem borer, apparently by mediating the replacement of water with glycerol in freezing-tolerant tissues. PMID:16359699

Izumi, Yohei; Sonoda, Shoji; Yoshida, Hideya; Danks, Hugh V; Tsumuki, Hisaaki

2005-12-15

60

Expression of the maize proteinase inhibitor (mpi) gene in rice plants enhances resistance against the striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis): effects on larval growth and insect gut proteinases.  

PubMed

The maize proteinase inhibitor (mpi) gene was introduced into two elite japonica rice varieties. Both constitutive expression of the mpi gene driven by the maize ubiquitin 1 promoter and wound-inducible expression of the mpi gene driven by its own promoter resulted in the accumulation of MPI protein in the transgenic plants. No effect on plant phenotype was observed in mpi-expressing lines. The stability of transgene expression through successive generations of mpi rice lines (up to the T(4) generation) and the production of functional MPI protein were confirmed. Expression of the mpi gene in rice enhanced resistance to the striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), one of the most important pests of rice. In addition, transgenic mpi plants were evaluated in terms of their effects on the growth of C. suppressalis larvae and the insect digestive proteolytic system. An important dose-dependent reduction of larval weight of C. suppressalis larvae fed on mpi rice, compared with larvae fed on untransformed rice plants, was observed. Analysis of the digestive proteolytic activity from the gut of C. suppressalis demonstrated that larvae adapted to mpi transgene expression by increasing the complement of digestive proteolytic activity: the serine and cysteine endoproteinases as well as the exopeptidases leucine aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidases A and B. However, the induction of such proteolytic activity did not prevent the deleterious effects of MPI on larval growth. The introduction of the mpi gene into rice plants can thus be considered as a promising strategy to protect rice plants against striped stem borer. PMID:17173619

Vila, Laura; Quilis, Jordi; Meynard, Donaldo; Breitler, Jean Christophe; Marfà, Victoria; Murillo, Isabel; Vassal, Jean Michel; Messeguer, Joaquima; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; San Segundo, Blanca

2005-03-01

61

Influence of the developmental stage of transgenic rice plants (cv. Senia) expressing the cry1B gene on the level of protection against the striped stem borer ( Chilo suppressalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out a comparative assessment of the resistance against the striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis) of transgenic plants of a homozygous line (98-9) of rice (cv. Senia) harboring the cry1B endotoxin gene, at a vegetative stage (3-4 leaf stage) and two reproductive developmental stages (booting and heading-ripening). These three developmental stages match those attained by plants in paddy rice

V. Marfà; E. Melé; R. Gabarra; J. Vassal; E. Guiderdoni; J. Messeguer

2002-01-01

62

Sugarcane borer in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is one of the most important of the above-ground pests of sugarcane in Florida. This article presents information pertaining to the borer’s biology, damage to cane, scouting, biological control, cultural control and chemical control. ...

63

[Anther culture generated stem borer-resistance DH lines of Minghui 81(Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica) expressing modified cry1Ac gene].  

PubMed

2600 Anthers from T0 modified cry1 Ac-transgenic rice lines of Minghui 81, an elite restoring line of commercial CMS indica hybrid rice, were cultured on SK3 media. 83 green plantlets were recovered, 43 double haploid (DH) and 40 haploid among them. Results of PCR analyzes indicated that 55 plants of 83 were harbored the cry1Ac gene, and the ratio of cry1Ac-positive against cry1Ac-negative was 2:1 (55/28). 36 putative transgenic DH plants were further confirmed by Southern blot. ELISA detection showed that Cry1Ac level in different transgenic rice plants of the same cry1Ac-DH clone was almost equal and the highest one amount to 0.25% of the total soluble protein. Pest insect-resistant bioassay at field trials demonstrated that some of the homozygous cry1Ac-transgenic rice plants not only showed high-level resistance against striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis) but also retained elite agronomy characters. These results demonstrated that rice anther culture has a great value in rice molecular breeding. PMID:12385240

Zeng, Qian-Chun; Wu, Qian; Feng, De-Jiang; Zhou, Kai-Da; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Zhen

2002-07-01

64

Genome-wide transcriptional changes and defence-related chemical profiling of rice in response to infestation by the rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis.  

PubMed

How rice defends itself against pathogen infection is well documented, but little is known about how it defends itself against herbivore attack. We measured changes in the transcriptome and chemical profile of rice when the plant is infested by the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis. Infestation by SSBs resulted in changes in the expression levels of 4545 rice genes; this number accounts for about 8% of the genome and is made up of 18 functional groups with broad functions. The largest group comprised genes involved in metabolism, followed by cellular transport, transcription and cellular signaling. Infestation by SSBs modulated many genes responsible for the biosynthesis of plant hormones and plant signaling. Jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene were the major hormones that shaped the SSB-induced defence responses of rice. Many secondary signal transduction components, such as those involved in Ca²? signaling and G-protein signaling, receptor and non-receptor protein kinases, and transcription factors were involved in the SSB-induced responses of rice. Photosynthesis and ATP synthesis from photophosphorylation were restricted by SSB feeding. In addition, SSB infestation induced the accumulation of defence compounds, including trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TrypPIs) and volatile organic compounds. These results demonstrate that SSB-induced defences required rice to reconfigure a wide variety of its metabolic, physiological and biochemical processes. PMID:21534978

Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Xia; Yan, Feng; Wang, Xia; Li, Ran; Cheng, Jiaan; Lou, Yonggen

2011-06-09

65

Cloning, expression and functional analysis of a general odorant-binding protein 2 gene of the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

A full-length cDNA encoding a general odorant binding protein 2 (GOBP2) was cloned from the antennae of the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), by the combination of reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR (RACE-PCR). The cDNA contains a 489 bp open reading frame, which encodes a 162 amino acid protein, termed as Ch. suppressalis GOBP2 (CsupGOBP2). CsupGOBP2 is similar in the number of amino acids and protein sequence to GOBP2s in other species of Lepidoptera. RT-PCR results showed that CsupGOBP2 mRNA was highly expressed in the adult antennae of both females and males, as was CsupGOBP2 protein as revealed by Western blot analysis. CsupGOBP2 expressed in Escherichia coli was purified by affinity chromatography, refolding and gel filtration from the inclusion body. Fluorescence emission spectra and competitive binding assays by using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine as first binding ligand and odorants as potential competitors revealed that the CsupGOBP2 protein has significant affinity to cis-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald), the main component of Ch. suppressalis pheromone and to laurinaldehyd and benzaldehyde, two general plant volatile aldehydes. PMID:19523072

Gong, Z-J; Zhou, W-W; Yu, H-Z; Mao, C-G; Zhang, C-X; Cheng, J A; Zhu, Z-R

2009-06-01

66

Seasonal changes in glycerol content and cold hardiness in two ecotypes of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, exposed to the environment in the Shonai district, Japan.  

PubMed

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is divided into at least two ecotypes in Japan, the Shonai ecotype (SN) which is distributed in the northern part of Japan, and the Saigoku ecotype (SG) which is distributed in the southwestern region. Cold hardiness is positively correlated with the level of glycerol in both ecotypes. To investigate whether ecological distribution affects glycerol accumulation and cold hardiness development in these two ecotypes, overwintering larvae of the SN and SG ecotypes were concurrently exposed to the Shonai district. Obvious differences in the progress of glycerol accumulation and cold hardiness development in SN and SG larvae were found in early winter in the Shonai district. The levels of glycerol content and cold hardiness were low in October and high in January in both ecotypes, but those levels were different within this period (November and December) between ecotypes; the levels in SN larvae quickly reached their maximum, whereas, in SG larvae levels increased slowly. Under controlled conditions, the effect of the period of acclimation at 10 degrees C and subsequent low-temperature (5 degrees C) exposure on glycerol accumulation was investigated. These results indicated that glycerol accumulation in SN was stimulated by the progression of diapause termination, whereas a higher cumulative effect on glycerol production in SG was found when diapause was in a deep state. PMID:17336324

Ishiguro, Shinichi; Li, Yiping; Nakano, Kazuto; Tsumuki, Hisaaki; Goto, Michiyo

2007-01-31

67

Seasonal changes in glycerol content and enzyme activities in overwintering larvae of the Shonai ecotype of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker.  

PubMed

Enzymes associated with glycogen metabolism and glycerol synthesis in larvae of the Shonai ecotype of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, were investigated over the winter in 2000-2001. Glycerol content was scarcely detected in September and October, rapidly increased in November and December, peaked in January, and then decreased. Glycogen was converted to glycerol over the winter until February, and glycerol was reconverted to glycogen in March. The trehalose content remained constant over the winter. The activities of enzymes associated with glycerol synthesis changed with the season. Glycerol accumulation was accomplished by activation of glycogen phosphorylase, inhibition of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and pyruvate kinase, and activation of enzymes associated with glycerol synthesis, mainly glyceraldehyde-3-phosphatase and polyol dehydrogenase with glyceraldehyde activity. These changes led to a diversion of triose phosphates into the pathway of glycerol synthesis. However, activities of the two initial enzymes of the hexose monophosphate shunt were not activated and remained relatively constant, but high during the period of active glycerol synthesis. Both decreasing temperature in the field and the transition from the diapause to the post-diapause state may be responsible for the changes in activities of enzymes associated with glycerol synthesis. PMID:12173290

Li, Yi-Ping; Ding, Lei; Goto, Michiyo

2002-06-01

68

Cloning of the heat shock protein 60 gene from the stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, and analysis of expression characteristics under heat stress.  

PubMed

Heat shock protein 60 is an important chaperonin. In this paper, hsp60 of the stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was cloned by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) reactions. The full length cDNA of hsp6 degrees Consisted of 2142 bp, with an ORF of 1719 bp, encoding 572 amino acid residues, with a 5'UTR of 158 bp and a 3'UTR of 265 bp. Cluster analysis confirmed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity with the reported sequences from other insects (77%-86%). To investigate whether hsp60 in C. suppressalis responds to thermal stress, the expression levels of hsp60 mRNA in larval haemocytes across temperature gradients from 31 to 39 degrees C were analysed by real-time quantitative PCR. There was no significant difference for hsp60 expression from 28 to 31 degrees C. he temperatures for maximal induction of hsp60 expression in haemocytes was close to 36 degrees C. Hsp60 expression was observed by using flow cytometry. These results revealed that thermal stress significantly induced hsp60 expression and Hsp60 synthesis in larval haemocytes, and the expression profiles of Hsp60 at the mRNA and protein levels were in high agreement with each other from 33 to 39 degrees C. PMID:20673188

Cui, Ya-Dong; Du, Yu-Zhou; Lu, Ming-Xing; Qiang, Cheng-Kui

2010-01-01

69

Effects of diapause and cold-acclimation on the avoidance of freezing injury in fat body tissue of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker.  

PubMed

Overwintering freeze-tolerant larvae of Chilo suppressalis can survive at -25 degrees C, but non-diapausing larvae cannot. We reported earlier that to prevent intracellular freezing, which causes death in overwintering larvae of the Saigoku ecotype distributed in southwestern Japan, water leaves and glycerol enters fat body cells through water channels during freezing. However, it is still unclear how diapause and low-temperature exposure are related to the acquisition of freeze tolerance. We compared the extent of tissue damage, accumulation of glycerol, and transport of glycerol and water in fat body tissues between cold-acclimated and non-acclimated non-diapausing and diapausing larvae. The tissue from cold-acclimated diapausing larvae could survive only when frozen in Grace's insect medium with 0.25 M glycerol at -20 degrees C. The protection provided by glycerol was offset by mercuric chloride, which is a water-channel inhibitor. Fat body tissue isolated from non-acclimated diapausing larvae was injured by freezing even though glycerol was added to the medium, but the level of freezing injury was significantly lower than in non-diapausing larvae. Radiotracer assays in cold-acclimated diapausing larvae showed that during freezing, water left the cells into the medium and glycerol entered the cells from the medium at the same time. Therefore, in Saigoku ecotype larvae of the rice stem borer, both diapause and cold-acclimation are essential to accumulate glycerol and activate aquaporin for the avoidance of freezing injury. PMID:17543330

Izumi, Yohei; Sonoda, Shoji; Tsumuki, Hisaaki

2007-04-25

70

The Impact of Climate Change on the Potential Distribution of Agricultural Pests: The Case of the Coffee White Stem Borer (Monochamus leuconotus P.) in Zimbabwe  

PubMed Central

The production of agricultural commodities faces increased risk of pests, diseases and other stresses due to climate change and variability. This study assesses the potential distribution of agricultural pests under projected climatic scenarios using evidence from the African coffee white stem borer (CWB), Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an important pest of coffee in Zimbabwe. A species distribution modeling approach utilising Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) and Generalized Linear Models (GLM) was applied on current and projected climate data obtained from the WorldClim database and occurrence data (presence and absence) collected through on-farm biological surveys in Chipinge, Chimanimani, Mutare and Mutasa districts in Zimbabwe. Results from both the BRT and GLM indicate that precipitation-related variables are more important in determining species range for the CWB than temperature related variables. The CWB has extensive potential habitats in all coffee areas with Mutasa district having the largest model average area suitable for CWB under current and projected climatic conditions. Habitat ranges for CWB will increase under future climate scenarios for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutare districts while it will decrease in Mutasa district. The highest percentage change in area suitable for the CWB was for Chimanimani district with a model average of 49.1% (3 906 ha) increase in CWB range by 2080. The BRT and GLM predictions gave similar predicted ranges for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutasa districts compared to the high variation in current and projected habitat area for CWB in Mutare district. The study concludes that suitable area for CWB will increase significantly in Zimbabwe due to climate change and there is need to develop adaptation mechanisms.

Kutywayo, Dumisani; Chemura, Abel; Kusena, Winmore; Chidoko, Pardon; Mahoya, Caleb

2013-01-01

71

The Impact of Climate Change on the Potential Distribution of Agricultural Pests: The Case of the Coffee White Stem Borer (Monochamus leuconotus P.) in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

The production of agricultural commodities faces increased risk of pests, diseases and other stresses due to climate change and variability. This study assesses the potential distribution of agricultural pests under projected climatic scenarios using evidence from the African coffee white stem borer (CWB), Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an important pest of coffee in Zimbabwe. A species distribution modeling approach utilising Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) and Generalized Linear Models (GLM) was applied on current and projected climate data obtained from the WorldClim database and occurrence data (presence and absence) collected through on-farm biological surveys in Chipinge, Chimanimani, Mutare and Mutasa districts in Zimbabwe. Results from both the BRT and GLM indicate that precipitation-related variables are more important in determining species range for the CWB than temperature related variables. The CWB has extensive potential habitats in all coffee areas with Mutasa district having the largest model average area suitable for CWB under current and projected climatic conditions. Habitat ranges for CWB will increase under future climate scenarios for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutare districts while it will decrease in Mutasa district. The highest percentage change in area suitable for the CWB was for Chimanimani district with a model average of 49.1% (3 906 ha) increase in CWB range by 2080. The BRT and GLM predictions gave similar predicted ranges for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutasa districts compared to the high variation in current and projected habitat area for CWB in Mutare district. The study concludes that suitable area for CWB will increase significantly in Zimbabwe due to climate change and there is need to develop adaptation mechanisms. PMID:24014222

Kutywayo, Dumisani; Chemura, Abel; Kusena, Winmore; Chidoko, Pardon; Mahoya, Caleb

2013-08-27

72

Emerald ash borer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The emerald ash borer is an insect that was introduced to the United States on accident. The larvae of this insect feed on essential parts of the ash tree. This non-native species has killed several million trees already.

N/A N/A (USDA;Forest Service)

2004-11-13

73

Polyvalent display of RGD motifs on turnip yellow mosaic virus for enhanced stem cell adhesion and spreading.  

PubMed

Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) is a stable 28 nm icosahedral plant virus that can be isolated in gram quantities. In order to study the polyvalent effect of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) clustering on the response of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), an RGD motif was genetically displayed on the coat protein of the TYMV capsid. Composite films composed of either wild-type TYMV or TYMV-RGD44, in combination with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), were fabricated by a layer-by-layer adsorption of virus and PAH. The deposition process was studied by quartz crystal microbalance, UV-visible spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. BMSC adhesion assays showed enhanced cell adhesion and spreading on TYMV-RGD44 coated substrates compared to native TYMV. These results demonstrate the potential of TYMV as a viable scaffold for bioactive peptide display and cell culturing studies. PMID:22522012

Zan, Xingjie; Sitasuwan, Pongkwan; Powell, Joshua; Dreher, Theo W; Wang, Qian

2012-04-20

74

Transgenic indica rice cultivar ‘Swarna’ expressing a potato chymotrypsin inhibitor pin2 gene show enhanced levels of resistance to yellow stem borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic rice was developed from ‘Swarna’, the most popular indica rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L.) in South East Asia, with a potato chymotrypsin inhibitor gene (pin2) through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Four out of nine primary transgenic plants had a single-copy T-DNA insertion while other five plants\\u000a had two copies. Mendelian pattern of inheritance of the transgene (pin2) was observed in the

M. V. Ramana Rao; K. S. Behera; N. Baisakh; S. K. Datta; G. J. N. Rao

2009-01-01

75

Cloning of heat shock protein genes (hsp90 and hsc70) and their expression during larval diapause and cold tolerance acquisition in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker.  

PubMed

The complete cDNA sequences of heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and of heat shock cognate protein 70 (hsc70) were cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker. They potentially encode a 717-amino-acids (hsp90) and a 652-amino-acids (hsc70) protein, with calculated molecular weight of 82.5 and 71.3 kDa, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of hsp90 showed the highest homology of 97.2% to Spodoptera frugiperda hsp90. The closest match of C. suppressalis hsc70 was with Manduca sexta hsc70 at 98.0% identity. Expression of hsp90 in diapausing larvae was higher than that in non-diapausing larvae. No such up-regulation in diapausing larvae was observed for hsc70. In non-diapausing larvae, but not in diapausing ones, hsp90 expression was up-regulated by cold acclimation. Hsc70 expression slightly decreased during cold acclimation irrespective of the state of diapause. Involvement of hsp90 and hsc70 in larval diapause and cold tolerance acquisition in C. suppressalis is discussed. PMID:16921518

Sonoda, Shoji; Fukumoto, Katsue; Izumi, Yohei; Yoshida, Hideya; Tsumuki, Hisaaki

2006-09-01

76

Apple Burrknot Borers in New York - Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

After reports of severe damage to dwarf apple trees caused by American plum borer, a survey was conducted in the major apple growing regions of New York State to determine the incidence of borers infesting burrknots on clonal apple rootstocks. Dogwood borer was prevalent throughout the state, in general. However, in western NY apple orchards, American plum borer was sometimes

DAVID P. KAIN; RICHARD W. STRAUB; ARTHUR M. AGNELLO

77

A review of bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) life history, ecology, and management.  

PubMed

Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a specialist wood-borer endemic to North America, is prone to periodic outbreaks that have caused widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) in boreal and north temperate forests. It is also the key pest of birch in ornamental landscapes. Amenity plantings have extended the distribution of birch in North America, for which we report an updated map. Life history and phenology also are summarized. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue of stems and branches, which can girdle and kill trees. Stressors such as drought, elevated temperature, and defoliation predispose trees to bronze birch borer colonization and trigger outbreaks, which implicates the availability of suitable host material in the bottom-up regulation of populations. Stress imposed by climate change may increase the frequency of outbreaks and alter the distribution of birch. Bronze birch borer has a diverse array of natural enemies, but their role in top-down population regulation has not been studied. There is substantial interspecific variation in resistance to this insect. North American species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer and are much more resistant than Eurasian species, which are evolutionarily naïve. Potential resistance mechanisms are reviewed. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia create high risk of widespread birch mortality in Eurasia if the borer was inadvertently introduced. Bronze birch borer can be managed in amenity plantings through selection of resistant birch species, plant health care practices, and insecticides. PMID:23321083

Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

2012-12-01

78

A method of assessing rice yield losses caused by the stem borers Rupela albinella and Diatraea saccharalis in surinam and the aspect of economic thresholds  

Microsoft Academic Search

By comparing the mean panicle weight (a) per uninfested stem to the mean panicle weight (b) per infested stem, yield loss\\u000a can be calculated from the equation loss=(a?b) n.p. where n represents the number of panicles per sq.m. or ha and p the percentage\\u000a of infestation.\\u000a \\u000a Losses caused byRupela turn out to be small or moderate. Larval development takes place

J. B. M. van Dinther

1971-01-01

79

Emerald ash borer life cycle  

Treesearch

USA.gov Government Made Easy ... Title: Emerald ash borer life cycle ... Morgantown, WV: U.S. Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise ... Please contact Sharon Hobrla, shobrla@fs.fed.us if you notice any errors which make this ...

80

Emerald ash borer biological control  

Treesearch

Description: Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive ... in North America via infested solid wood packaging materials from China in the early 1990s ... Please contact Sharon Hobrla, shobrla@fs.fed.us if you notice any errors ...

81

Shipworms and Other Marine Borers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mollusks, crustaceans and other groups of invertebrates attack underwater structures causing great loss. This article describes shipworms (teredos) and other marine borers. Among the mollusks the most destructive are Teredo and Bankia (pelecypoda). Three ...

M. Castagna

1973-01-01

82

Biological Deterioration of Woods in Tropical Environments. Part 3. Chemical Wood Treatments for Long-Term Marine-Borer Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six chemical wood preservatives were selected for evaluation over long periods of exposure in extremely borer-active marine environments. Southern Yellow Pine and Douglas Fir were full-cell pressure-treated with these chemicals and exposed in tropical sea...

C. R. Southwell J. D. Bultman

1970-01-01

83

Maize defense response against the european corn borer (Ostrinia nubilaslis): a losing battle?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of this research is to understand how maize stems respond to European corn borer (ECB) damage and how these defense tactics affect the invading ECB. We measured the levels of the plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene, as well as the transcript levels of their key biosynthetic en...

84

Yellow Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to humans by the ... Maps Maps of yellow fever endemic areas in Africa and South America Links & References Publications and links ...

85

Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.  

PubMed

Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

2013-09-20

86

Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch  

PubMed Central

Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

2013-01-01

87

Nontarget effects on aquatic decomposer organisms of imidacloprid as a systemic insecticide to control emerald ash borer in riparian trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imidacloprid is effective against emerald ash borer when applied as a systemic insecticide. Following stem or soil injections to trees in riparian areas, imidacloprid residues could be indirectly introduced to aquatic systems via leaf fall or leaching. Either route of exposure may affect non-target, aquatic decomposer organisms. Leaves from ash trees treated with imidacloprid at two field rates and an

David Kreutzweiser; Kevin Good; Derek Chartrand; Taylor Scarr; Dean Thompson

2007-01-01

88

Yellow nails (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Yellow nails are seen in the 'yellow nail syndrome' in which there is thickening and yellow to yellow-green discoloration of all nails. Lymphedema, especially of the ankles, and compromised respiration ...

89

Control of Marine Borer Attack on Wood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application pertains to substances that are used in treating wood, which are normally subject to deterioration due to marine borers. These materials are preserved by applying to the substance certain 4-(3-phenylpropenylidene)-2,5-cyclohexadien...

J. D. Bultman L. Jurd R. D. Turner

1976-01-01

90

Yellow nail syndrome (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by yellow nails that lack a cuticle, grow slowly, and are loose or detached (onycholysis). Yellow nail syndrome is most commonly associated with lung disorders, and ...

91

Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash

Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester

92

EXPLORATION FOR EMERALD ASH BORER IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in greater than 2,500 square miles of southeastern Michigan and southwestern Ontario; more recent infestations were found in Ohio, Maryland, and Virginia in 2003. Federal and state agencies adopted a strategy of

Houping Liu; Toby R. Petrice; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao

2003-01-01

93

Diferulate content of maize sheaths is associated with resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

The leaf sheaths of selected inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) with variable levels of stem resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèvbre) were evaluated for antibiotic effect on insect development. Phytochemical analyses of leaf sheaths were conducted for cell wall phenylpropanoid content to gain a better understanding of maize-resistance mechanisms. Laboratory bioassays established that sheath tissues from different genotypes significantly affected the growth of neonate larvae. Three hydroxycinnamates, p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, and cis-ferulic acids, and three isomers of diferulic acid, 8-5', 8-O-4', and 8-5' b (benzofuran form), were identified. Significant negative correlations were found between larvae weight and diferulic acid content for six genotypes. These results are in agreement with previous studies concerning the role of cell wall structural components in stem borer resistance. PMID:17117802

Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Reid, Lana M; Arnason, John T; Sandoya, German; Souto, Xose C; Malvar, Rosa A

2006-11-29

94

Progression of ash canopy thinning and dieback outward from the initial infestation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southeastern Michigan.  

PubMed

Our objective was to characterize the rate at which ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees decline in areas adjacent to the leading edge of visible ash canopy thinning due to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Trees in southeastern Michigan were surveyed from 2003 to 2006 for canopy thinning and dieback by comparing survey trees with a set of 11 standard photographs. Freeways stemming from Detroit in all directions were used as survey transects. Between 750 and 1,100 trees were surveyed each year. A rapid method of sampling populations of emerald ash borer was developed by counting emerald ash borer emergence holes with binoculars and then felling trees to validate binocular counts. Approximately 25% of the trees surveyed for canopy thinning in 2005 and 2006 also were sampled for emerald ash borer emergence holes using binoculars. Regression analysis indicates that 41-53% of the variation in ash canopy thinning can be explained by the number of emerald ash borer emergence holes per tree. Emerald ash borer emergence holes were found at every site where ash canopy thinning averaged > 40%. In 2003, ash canopy thinning averaged 40% at a distance of 19.3 km from the epicenter of the emerald ash borer infestation in Canton. By 2006, the point at which ash trees averaged 40% canopy thinning had increased to a distance of 51.2 km away from Canton. Therefore, the point at which ash trees averaged 40% canopy thinning, a state of decline clearly visible to the average person, moved outward at a rate of 10.6 km/yr during this period. PMID:18950047

Smitley, David; Davis, Terrance; Rebek, Eric

2008-10-01

95

STEM?!?!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author's son has been an engineer since birth. He never asked "why" as a toddler, it was always "how's it work?" So that he wanted a STEM-based home education was no big surprise. In this article, the author considers what kind of curricula would work best for her complex kid.|

Merrill, Jen

2012-01-01

96

Behavior of the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult males of the lesser grain borer,Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), produce a pheromone that attracts both sexes. The volatiles from males collected on filter paper or Porapak-Q were attractive in two laboratory bioassays. The mating behavior is described and the function of the phen infested with the borer.

A. Khorramshahi; W. E. Burkholder

1981-01-01

97

Facultative Intraguild Predation of Red Oak Borer Larvae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Ozark National forests of Arkansas and Missouri, an outbreak of a native cerambycid beetle, the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), seems responsible for widespread oak mortality. The underlying reasons for this outbreak are being studied. Historically, a small portion of within-tree red oak borer mortality has been attributed to natural enemies (wood- peckers and nitidulid larvae), but

V. L. Ware; F. M. Stephen

2006-01-01

98

Keys to immatures of the Sugarcane Borer and Neotropical Cornstalk Borer from Mexico intercepted on corn in Southeastern Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diatraea larvae and pupae intercepted on corn from northeastern Mexico at south Texas ports of entry were reared to adults and identified as the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis) and the neotropical cornstalk borer (Diatraea lineolata). Keys to aid in the identification of larvae and pupae of t...

99

USDA Forest Service: Emerald Ash Borer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Emerald Ash Borer(EAB) has become a pesky problem in North America in recent years, after being introduced into the ecosystem in the early 1990s. This information site from the USDA Forest Service is dedicated to providing the northeastern part of North America (where the bug has become a big problem) with information on identifying the insect, its infestations, and quarantine information, as well as control and management resources. The "Infestations" section contains several maps outlining the infected and quarantined ares of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maryland, and the United States as a whole. This is a great resource for anyone interested or concerned about the current EAB problem.

2008-02-25

100

Emerald Ash Borer Microbial Control with the Entomopathogen ...  

Treesearch

Emerald ash borer research and development meeting; 2007 October 23-24; Pittsburgh ... wood-boring pest native to northeastern Asia, was found attacking ash trees ... Please contact Sharon Hobrla, shobrla@fs.fed.us if you notice any errors ...

101

Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire), Biological Control Release Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These New Pest Response Guidelines contain information to guide a management program for the emerald ash borer (EAB) beetle, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire), (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The guidelines are intended to assist Plant Protection and Quarantine ...

J. Duan J. H. Buck J. S. Gould L. S. Bauer

2010-01-01

102

Modeling the spread of the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, an invasive Asian beetle known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Coleoptera: Buprestidae) has emerged as a threat to ash trees in the Midwestern United States and Canada [McCullough, D.G., Katovich, S.A., 2004. Pest Alert: Emerald Ash Borer. United States Forest Service, Northeastern Area. NA-PR-02-04]. Significant infestations in Michigan and nearby areas have all but doomed nearly

Todd K. BenDor; Sara S. Metcalf; Lauren E. Fontenot; Brandi Sangunett; Bruce Hannon

2006-01-01

103

Macadamia pests in Malawi. IV. Control of bugs and borers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Details of the field trials which led to the discovery of an insecticide efficacious against both bug (Nezara spp.) and borer (Cryptophlebia spp.) attacking the fruit of macadamia in Malawi are given. Cypermethrin as a 002% a.i. mist application has been shown to be the best all?round insecticide but in the absence of borer a 0.1% a.i. application of fenitrothion

E. A. S. La Croix; H. Z. Thindwa

1986-01-01

104

Life history studies of Prorops nasuta , a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life history studies were conducted in the laboratory on the African parasitoid Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The female wasp enters an infested coffee berry, kills the adult borer and seals the entrance of the berry with the body of the borer, impeding the entry of other organisms

Francisco Infante; John Mumford; Peter BAKER

2005-01-01

105

Yellow Legged Frog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists found this adult mountain yellow-legged frog on June 10 in Tahquitz Creek, a rediscovered population of the endangered frog in the San Jacinto Wilderness, San Bernardino National Forest, California....

2009-07-23

106

Marine Protective Elements Against Marine Borers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wood coupons, 3 in. x 4 in. x 3/4 in. of all sapwood Southern Yellow Pine and all heartwood Douglas Fir comprising 27 systems of various marine protective treatments are being exposed at Boston, Massachusetts, and the samples from Boston showed no evidenc...

B. R. Richards

1967-01-01

107

Silicon-mediated rice plant resistance to the Asiatic rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): effects of silicon amendment and rice varietal resistance.  

PubMed

The Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most destructive pests in rice, Oryza sativa L., throughout Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of applied silicon in mediating rice plant resistance to C. suppressalis in a susceptible (Shanyou63) and a moderately resistant (Yanfeng47) rice cultivar. Silicon-treated plants showed significant increases in silicon content compared with the control. Silicon addition significantly decreased borer penetration, weight gain, and stem damage, and it prolonged penetration duration and larval development; some of the effects were manifested more strongly in the susceptible rice cultivar compared with the moderately resistant cultivar. Therefore, silicon amendment may contribute to the suppression of C. suppressalis directly through reduced feeding damage and performance and indirectly through increased exposure time of young larvae to natural enemies and control measures. PMID:20857756

Hou, Maolin; Han, Yongqiang

2010-08-01

108

European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Induced Responses Enhance Susceptibility in Maize  

PubMed Central

Herbivore-induced plant responses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize (Zea mays) responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinianubilalis) larvae revealed the presence of inducible acidic diterpenoid phytoalexins, termed kauralexins, and increases in the benzoxazinoid 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucose (HDMBOA-Glc) after 24 h of herbivory. Despite these rapidly activated defenses, larval growth was not altered in short-term feeding assays. Unexpectedly, ECB growth significantly improved in assays using stem tissue preconditioned by 48 h of larval tunneling. Correspondingly, measures of total soluble protein increased over 2.6-fold in these challenged tissues and were accompanied by elevated levels of sucrose and free linoleic acid. While microarray analyses revealed up-regulation of over 1100 transcripts, fewer individual protein increases were demonstrable. Consistent with induced endoreduplication, both wounding and ECB stem attack resulted in similar significant expansion of the nucleus, nucleolus and levels of extractable DNA from challenged tissues. While many of these responses are triggered by wounding alone, biochemical changes further enhanced in response to ECB may be due to larval secreted effectors. Unlike other Lepidoptera examined, ECB excrete exceedingly high levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in their frass which is likely to contact and contaminate the surrounding feeding tunnel. Stem exposure to a metabolically stable auxin, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), promoted significant protein accumulation above wounding alone. As a future testable hypothesis, we propose that ECB-associated IAA may function as a candidate herbivore effector promoting the increased nutritional content of maize stems.

Dafoe, Nicole J.; Thomas, James D.; Shirk, Paul D.; Legaspi, Michelle E.; Vaughan, Martha M.; Huffaker, Alisa; Teal, Peter E.; Schmelz, Eric A.

2013-01-01

109

[Evaluation on control efficacy of Scleroderma guani against borer].  

PubMed

Scleroderma guani is an ectoparasitic insect of some borer, especially the larvae or the pupae of longicorn. In Pingyi county of Shandong province, Scleroderma guani was found when it naturally parasitized Xylotrechus grayii in 1980. Passed more than ten years systematic studies, it has been found that this harpactophayeous insect has great boring ability and can be parasitize many hosts. In the fields to release Scleroderma guani for controlling Xylotrechus grayii, Phytoecia rufiventris, Anoplophora glabripennis etc. have achieved good results and kept steady effects. Therefore, spreading Scleroderma guani to control the borer is a new technology in sustaining plant protection. PMID:12858762

Cheng, Huizhen; Meng, Xianhua; Chen, Jun; Shi, Chenghua

2003-01-01

110

Media Online Yellow Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Media Online Yellow Pages is another good place (along with the Big List and Newslink mentioned last week) to find media sources on the Internet. Does not appear to be searchable but the index is well-organized for browsing.

111

Survival of emerald ash borer in wood chips  

Treesearch

USA.gov Government Made Easy ... Emerald ash borer research and technology development meeting; 2003 ... Quarantine regulations have been imposed which restrict movement of all life stages of the beetle in ash trees, limbs or ... Please contact Sharon Hobrla, shobrla@fs.fed.us if you notice any errors which make this ...

112

Chemical Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted,\\u000a based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical

Damon J. Crook; Victor C. Mastro

2010-01-01

113

Beyond the Asian Longhorned Beetle and Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are exotic forest insects that have had severe impacts on host tree species where they have become established in North America in recent years. Several other exotic forest arthropods have also appeared recently in North America, but have gained less notoriety. Although their potential impacts are less, the

Robert K. Lawrence

114

Development of Harmonic Radar Systems for Tracking Emerald Ash Borer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emerald ash borers (EAB) have killed millions of ash trees since they were identified in North America in the summer of 2002. Data are needed on EAB behavior to aid development of treatment and management strategies and enable more effectively schedule and target control measures. Entomological ra...

115

Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.  

PubMed

Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272

Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

2012-02-01

116

Treatment of yellow fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever (YF) is a life-threatening mosquito-borne flaviviral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) characterized by severe hepatitis, renal failure, hemorrhage, and rapid terminal events with shock and multi-organ failure. A live, attenuated vaccine (YF 17D), in wide use for over 60 years, causes a disease identical to wild-type virus at an incidence of 2.5×10?6. Our current understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment

Thomas P. Monath

2008-01-01

117

Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is

Justin G. A. Whitehill; Alexandra Popova-Butler; Kari B. Green-Church; Jennifer L. Koch; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi Bonello; Haibing Yang

2011-01-01

118

Lithium and Thorium Content in Yellow Podzolic Soils (Soderzhanie Litiya i Toriya v Zheltozemno-Podzolistykh Pochvakh).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Study of the content of trace elements in yellow soils has definite scientific interest. This interest stems from the peculiarities of the genetic development of these particular soils. This paper examines the lithium and thorium content, as well as quest...

A. I. Baeva

1970-01-01

119

Bt Corn and the European Corn Borer: Evaluation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive predictive model uses years of past weather data and a model of the European corn borer's life cycle under different temperatures to calculate the net benefit of planting Bt corn versus non-Bt corn in a certain geographic area. Great data visualization. Requires Flash. This is an excellent tool incorporating a large volume of data. The tool should be quite useful for IPM classes.

0002-11-30

120

A study in yellow: mona caird's “ The yellow drawing room”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to further our understanding of Mona Caird, an important feminist writer in the late nineteenth century, whose work merits further consideration. Caird's short story “The Yellow Drawing-Room” is of interest because it highlights the significance of the colour yellow in the 1890s, and also introduces some of the key themes that preoccupied women writers at that time.

Stephanie Forward

2000-01-01

121

Classical Biological Control of Emerald Ash Borer and Asian Longhorned Beetle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), are both invasive plant pests recently introduced to North America from the Far East. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an oligophagous buprestid on Fraxinus spp., whereas the Asi...

122

Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 2009–2019  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered near Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario in 2002. As of March 2009, isolated populations of emerald ash borer (EAB) have been detected in nine additional states and Quebec. EAB is a highly invasive forest pest that has the potential to spread and kill native ash trees

Kent F. Kovacs; Robert G. Haight; Deborah G. McCullough; Rodrigo J. Mercader; Nathan W. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold

2010-01-01

123

Impact of Plant Resistance on Southwestern Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Biology and Plant Damage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a major insect pest of corn in the southern United States. Germplasm lines with resistance to southwestern corn borer have been developed and released by USDA-ARS. Two single-cross hybrids produced by crossing germplasm...

124

Alternate crop and weed host plant oviposition preferences by the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is the key pest of sugarcane, Saccharum hybrids, in south Texas, having largely displaced the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and it is moving into rice- and sugarcane-growing areas of east Texas and Louisiana. While a number of alternativ...

125

76 FR 3077 - Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer...public of our decision to revise a heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash borer...schedule T314-a, which provides a heat treatment schedule for ash logs,...

2011-01-19

126

Post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) in apple orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was examined in a young apple orchard planted on size-controlling rootstock in Virginia. All female dogwood borers captured while exhibiting casting flight near the base of trees were mated, base...

127

SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER DAMAGE AND AFLATOXIN ACCUMULATION IN CONVENTIONAL AND TRANSGENIC CORN HYBRIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, is a major pest of corn, Zea mays, L., in the southern United States. In addition to the direct yield losses caused by southwestern corn borer, larval feeding on developing ears provides a site for fungi to enter the ear. Aspergillus flavus infe...

128

DIVERSITY OF PENICILLIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (CBB) causes great damage to coffee crops around the world. Borer eggs are laid in developing coffee berries, and the larvae feed on tissue of the berry. It has been hypothesized that fungal growth in insect galleries provides exogenous sterols needed for...

129

PENICILLIUM BROCAE A NEW SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatán, Chiapas, or from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Imp...

130

MORE ON IRIS YELLOW SPOT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Iris yellow spot, caused by Iris yellow spot tospovirus, is an emerging disease of onion in the U.S. and world. Yield losses vary, but may range from undetectable to nearly 100% in onion seed crops. This article presents recent advances in understanding the etiology, epidemiology, and management o...

131

Phosphonate applied by trunk injection controls stem canker and decreases Phytophthora pod rot (black pod) incidence in cocoa in Sulawesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem canker and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR) or black pod caused by Phytophthora palmivora are serious diseases of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Sulawesi, Indonesia, causing high yield losses for smallholders, possibly exceeded only by losses due to the cocoa\\u000a pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella. Potassium phosphonate (phosphite) applied by trunk injection has been demonstrated to effectively control canker and

P. J. McMahon; A. Purwantara; A. Wahab; M. Imron; S. Lambert; P. J. Keane; D. I. Guest

2010-01-01

132

STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author introduces integrative STEM (science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics) education and discusses the importance of the program. The notion of integrative STEM education includes approaches that explore teaching and learning between/among any two or more of the STEM subject areas, and/or between a STEM subject…

Sanders, Mark

2009-01-01

133

Emerald Ash Borer Program Manual, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire), Ver. 1.1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These New Pest Response Guidelines contain information to guide a management program for the emerald ash borer (EAB) beetle, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire), (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The guidelines are intended to assist Plant Protection and Quarantine ...

J. H. Buck S. Frappier

2009-01-01

134

Engineering Services in Connection with an Investigation of Marine Protective Elements Against Marine Borers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biological and chemical evaluation of effectiveness against marine borers, particularly Limnoria tripunctata, of creosote and creosote preceded by waterborne copper compounds in wood coupons is made. Assays of outer 1/8 in. of exposed surfaces performed a...

B. R. Richards R. H. Baechler A. P. Richards H. G. Roth

1969-01-01

135

Safety Analysis of the Blind Shaft Borer. Volume 1. Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, sponsored by the Bureau of Mines, presents the results of an examination of the safety of the Blind Shaft Borer (BSB) shaft sinking system and an alternative modified BSB design concept in comparison to conventional shaft sinking technology. ...

C. A. Geffen-Fowler J. M. Hobbs J. J. Jacobsen J. M. Oylear T. B. Powers

1981-01-01

136

Safety Analysis of the Blind Shaft Borer. Volume 3. Supplementary Reports F through J.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, sponsored by the Bureau of Mines, presents the results of an examination of the safety of the Blind Shaft Borer (BSB) shaft sinking system and an alternative modified BSB design concept in comparison to conventional shaft sinking technology. ...

C. A. Geffen-Fowler J. J. Jacobsen J. M. Hobbs J. M. Oylear T. B. Powers

1981-01-01

137

Safety Analysis of the Blind Shaft Borer. Volume 2. Supplementary Reports A through E.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, sponsored by the Bureau of Mines, presents the results of an examination of the safety of the Blind Shaft Borer (BSB) shaft sinking system and an alternative modified BSB design concept in comparison to conventional shaft sinking technology. ...

C. A. Geffen-Fowler J. J. Jacobsen J. M. Hobbs J. M. Oylear T. B. Powers

1981-01-01

138

Integrated Pest Management Plan for Control of the Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research program sponsored by California Department of Transportation on the Eucalyptus longhorned borer has produced a multi-faceted and integrated pest management program for control of the insect. Tree stress, particularly water stress, has been id...

T. D. Paine J. G. Millar

1994-01-01

139

The influence of wild and cultivated Gramineae and Cyperaceae on populations of sugarcane borers and their parasites in North India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane borers frequently inhabit wild and semi-cultivated grasses growing in the proximity of cane fields. In India, in\\u000a view of the year-round cultivation of sugarcane, wild grasses are not necessary for the perpetuation of borer species, but\\u000a observations indicate that certain borer species migrate from wild or other cultivated grasses to cane, thereby increasing\\u000a levels of infestation in cane during

Sudha Nagarkatti; K. Ramachandran Nair

1973-01-01

140

Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight. PMID:20021772

Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

2009-12-01

141

Interspecific variation in resistance to emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) among North American and Asian ash (Fraxinus spp.).  

PubMed

We conducted a 3-yr study to compare the susceptibility of selected North American ash and an Asian ash species to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive wood-boring beetle introduced to North America from Asia. Because of a coevolutionary relationship between Asian ashes and emerald ash borer, we hypothesized an Asian ash species, Manchurian ash, is more resistant to the beetle than its North American congeners. Consistent with our hypothesis, Manchurian ash experienced far less mortality and yielded far fewer adult beetles than several cultivars of North American green and white ash. Surprisingly, a black ash (North American) x Manchurian ash hybrid was highly susceptible to emerald ash borer, indicating this cultivar did not inherit emerald ash borer resistance from its Asian parent. A corollary study investigated the efficacy of soil-applied imidacloprid, a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide, for controlling emerald ash borer in each of the five cultivars. Imidacloprid had no effect on emerald ash borer colonization of Manchurian ash, which was low in untreated and treated trees. In contrast, imidacloprid did enhance survival of the North American and hybrid cultivars and significantly reduced the number of emerald ash borer adults emerging from green and white ash cultivars. We identify a possible mechanism of resistance of Manchurian ash to emerald ash borer, which may prove useful for screening, selecting, and breeding emerald ash borer-resistant ash trees. PMID:18348816

Rebek, Eric J; Herms, Daniel A; Smitley, David R

2008-02-01

142

Yellow fever in Swansea, 1865.  

PubMed Central

A cargo of copper ore from Cuba was discharged at Swansea in mid-September 1865, during a spell of exceptionally hot weather. A small number of mosquitoes infected with the yellow fever virus, disembarking at the same time, established an epidemic of yellow fever in the town. In the next 25 days, at least 27 inhabitants were infected and 15 of them died. The quality of contemporary observation and recording has encouraged a re-examination of the events in the light of knowledge unavailable at the time. It cannot be assumed that the episode will not be repeated.

Meers, P. D.

1986-01-01

143

Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

SciTech Connect

This research evaluated the impacts of herbivorous insects, emphasizing the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, on black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., coppice production on a coal surface-mine spoil site in southeastern Kentucky. The natural history of E. insiticiana was also studied. The locust twig borer was a persistent and damaging pest in first-year coppice, which provided suitable larval habitat throughout the growing season. The locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), fed minimally on first-year coppice foliage except during 1983, when trees were severely drought-stressed. Soil-applied granular carbofuran significantly reduced infestations. Lindane stem treatments were not effective, but entire-tree applications did reduce herbivory. Stump sprouts with reduced levels of herbivory grew significantly taller than controls at both spacings in 1983, but only at the more dense spacing in 1984. Blacklight trap collections revealed two generations/year, and adults were present from early May until late August. Four species of hymenopterous and two species of dipterous parasitoids were recovered from E. insiticiana larvae.

Thoeny, W.T.

1986-01-01

144

Breeding habitat use by sympatric and allopatric populations of Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) and Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) habitat use in allopatric and sympatric populations in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming in order to better understand the different habitat needs and interactions of these two species. Foraging Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers used very similar habitat, both selecting larger, more open shrubs. In spite of similar foraging habitat, comparisons of habitat use by the two species at the sympatric sites yielded no evidence of foraging habitat partitioning or exclusion. There was evidence of nesting habitat partitioning. Wilson's Warblers nested on the ground, with some evidence that they used smaller, more densely stemmed shrubs under which to nest. Yellow Warblers are shrub nesters and selected larger, more open shrubs in which to nest. Results provide no evidence that Yellow Warblers can be blamed for population declines in Wilson's Warblers.

Ruth, J. M.; Stanley, T. R.

2002-01-01

145

Yellow Fever Unwelcome Visitor Now in Residence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The editorial reviews the history of yellow fever in Ethiopia and the progress of the current vaccination campaign around the Sidamo administrative region. The need for a vaccination team capable of responding rapidly to a Yellow Fever outbreak anywhere i...

1975-01-01

146

The Life Cycle of the Root Borer, Oryctes agamemnon, Under Laboratory Conditions  

PubMed Central

The root borer, Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become a serious pest of date palm trees in southwest Tunisia. Under natural conditions, mated females lay eggs in different parts of palm tree: between the hairy roots, all along the stem at the leaf axils and at the base of cut branches. Larvae bore into targeted places of the plant and were never seen outside. Pupation takes place in the plant and emergence of the adults begins in June. Larval feeding causes extensive damage to the respiratory roots. To examine the life cycle more closely, the O. agamemnon life cycle was studied under laboratory conditions. Different larval stages were collected from infested oases in Tozeur and placed in plastic boxes with natural food that was collected from the oases. After emergence, adults were paired in opaque plastic boxes for mating with the same food substrate which also served as an oviposition site. Eggs were collected daily and isolated in new boxes. Hatched eggs were recorded. The number of larval instars was determined by measuring the width of cephalic capsules. Under laboratory conditions (23 ± 2'C and 55 ± 6% RH)embryogenesis took 14.3 ± 1.42 days and the first, second and third larval instars were 33.1 ± 2.69, 63.88 ± 6.6 and 118.3 ± 13.38 days respectively. The pupal period lasted 24.1 ± 3.02 days and the adult 65.27 ± 9.48 days. These facts indicated that O. agamemnon is univoltine.

Soltani, Rasmi; Chaieb, Ikbel; Hamouda, Med Habib Ben

2008-01-01

147

Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry.  

PubMed

The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study, changes in volatile and non-volatile foliar phytochemicals of potted 2-yr-old black ash, Fraxinus nigra Marshall, seedlings were observed in response to EAB larval feeding in the main stem. EAB larval feeding affected levels of six compounds [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-?-ocimene, methyl salicylate, and (Z,E)-?-farnesene] with patterns of interaction depending upon compounds of interest and time of observation. Increased methyl salicylate emission suggests similarity in responses induced by EAB larval feeding and other phloem-feeding herbivores. Overall, EAB larval feeding suppressed (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate emission, elevated (E)-?-ocimene emission in the first 30days, but emissions leveled off thereafter, and generally increased the emission of (Z,E)-?-farnesene. Levels of carbohydrates and phenolics increased overall, while levels of proteins and most amino acids decreased in response to larval feeding. Twenty-three amino acids were consistently detected in the foliage of black ash. The three most abundant amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, while the four least abundant were ?-aminobutyric acid, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, methionine, and sarcosine. Most (16) foliar free amino acids and 6 of the 9 detected essential amino acids decreased with EAB larval feeding. The ecological consequences of these dynamic phytochemical changes on herbivores harbored by ash trees and potential natural enemies of these herbivores are discussed. PMID:21802697

Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

2011-07-28

148

Detectability of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in asymptomatic urban trees by using branch samples.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an exotic invasive insect causing extensive mortality to ash trees, Fraxinus spp., in Canada and the United States. Detection of incipient populations of this pest is difficult because of its cryptic life stages and a multiyear time lag between initial attack and the appearance of signs or symptoms of infestation. We sampled branches from open-grown urban ash trees to develop a sample unit suitable for detecting low density A. planipennis infestation before any signs or symptoms are evident. The sample unit that maximized detection rates consisted of one 50-cm-long piece from the base of a branch ?6 cm diameter in the midcrown. The optimal sample size was two such branches per tree. This sampling method detected ?75% of asymptomatic trees known to be infested by using more intensive sampling and ?3 times more trees than sampling one-fourth of the circumference of the trunk at breast height. The method is less conspicuous and esthetically damaging to a tree than the removal of bark from the main stem or the use of trap trees, and could be incorporated into routine sanitation or maintenance of city-owned trees to identify and delineate infested areas. This research indicates that branch sampling greatly reduces false negatives associated with visual surveys and window sampling at breast height. Detection of A. planipennis-infested asymptomatic trees through branch sampling in urban centers would provide landowners and urban foresters with more time to develop and implement management tactics. PMID:22251647

Ryall, Krista L; Fidgen, Jeffrey G; Turgeon, Jean J

2011-06-01

149

The Yellow River in transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many parts of the world, the Yellow River basin has problems associated with water scarcity, pollution, and flood risk. Analyses that focus only on the physical characteristics of these problems miss some of their most important social drivers. In this paper we identify some interlocking changes that have occurred as a consequence of economic reforms begun in China in

Michael Webber; Jon Barnett; Mark Wang; Brian Finlayson; Debbie Dickinson

2008-01-01

150

Anaphylaxis from yellow fever vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are very few reports of anaphylactic reactions to yellow fever (YF) vaccine in the literature, and these date from the 1940s. Objective: We sought to estimate the rate of YF vaccine–related anaphylaxis. Methods: All reports of adverse reactions to YF vaccine submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System between 1990 and 1997 were reviewed for those meeting

John M. Kelso; Gina T. Mootrey; Theodore F. Tsai

1999-01-01

151

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF YELLOW STARTHISTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Six insects that attack yellow starthistle have become established in California, but only two species are very abundant, and only the seedheads are attacked. Little impact on the weed has occurred except at low elevation sites in Oregon which are not overgrazed or disturbed (e.g., roadsides). Add...

152

Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.  

PubMed

Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed. PMID:22506996

Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

2012-04-01

153

Overwintering Yellow Perch Fry in Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild harvests of yellow perch Perca flavescens have failed to keep up with the strong market demand for the fish. Moreover, yellow perch has many attributes that make it attractive for commercial aquaculture in the USA. One drawback to yellow perch culture in the north-central region of the United States is that low winter water temperatures inhibit somatic growth. In

I. Patrick Saoud; Leonard Rodgers; Jesse Chappell; D. Allen Davis

2004-01-01

154

COMMUNICATIONS Overwintering Yellow Perch Fry in Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild harvests of yellow perch Perca fla- vescens have failed to keep up with the strong market demand for the fish. Moreover, yellow perch has many attributes that make it attractive for commercial aqua- culture in the USA. One drawback to yellow perch cul- ture in the north-central region of the United States is that low winter water temperatures inhibit

I. PATRICK SAOUD; LEONARD RODGERS; J ESSE CHAPPELL; D. ALLEN

155

Impact of plant resistance on southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) biology and plant damage.  

PubMed

Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a major insect pest of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Germplasm lines with resistance to southwestern corn borer have been developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Two single-cross hybrids produced by crossing germplasm lines with resistance to southwestern corn borer and a susceptible single-cross hybrid were infested with southwestern corn borer larvae in a 2-yr field test conducted in Mississippi. The susceptible hybrid sustained significantly more leaf damage and stalk tunneling than either resistant hybrid. The number of tunnels and the length of tunneling were significantly lower on the resistant hybrids. In 2003, up to 15 times more tunneling was observed on the susceptible hybrid. Larvae feeding on the resistant hybrids were delayed in their movement from the whorl to the stalk and larval survival was 50% lower on the resistant hybrids than on the susceptible hybrid. Larvae recovered from the susceptible hybrid 7-14 d after infestation weighed twice as much as those recovered from the resistant hybrids. Similar differences in larval weight were observed in the laboratory when larvae were reared on diets prepared from lyophilized tissue from the three hybrids. These results provide a foundation for other investigations designed to identify and determine the roles of specific genes and gene families associated with southwestern corn borer resistance in corn. PMID:17598563

Daves, C A; Williams, W P; Davis, F M

2007-06-01

156

The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis fairmaire (coleoptera: buprestidae).  

PubMed

Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of the emerald ash borer were investigated, and seasonal changes in these mechanisms monitored. The majority of emerald ash borers survive winter as freeze-intolerant prepupae. In winter, A. planipennis prepupae have low supercooling points (approximately -30°C), which they achieve by accumulating high concentrations of glycerol (approximately 4M) in their body fluids and by the synthesis of antifreeze agents. Cuticular waxes reduce inoculation from external ice. This is the first comprehensive study of seasonal changes in cold tolerance in a buprestid beetle. PMID:21070784

Crosthwaite, Jill C; Sobek, Stephanie; Lyons, D Barry; Bernards, Mark A; Sinclair, Brent J

2010-11-18

157

Effectiveness of differing trap types for the detection of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies. PMID:19689904

Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C

2009-08-01

158

Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood. PMID:20069830

Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

2009-12-01

159

Chemical ecology of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted, based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical research need to find an efficient survey method for detecting A. planipennis infestations. Here, we present a review of research that has led to the development of effective trapping methods for A. planipennis. Studies on the insect's biology and behavior have led to the identification of several potential attractants as well as the design of a visually attractive trap. The ongoing challenge in developing an optimally efficient trapping methodology for A. planipennis will involve finding the best combination of variables, such as trap shape, trap color (or other visual properties), trap placement, lure components, as well as the ratios and release rates of those components. PMID:20108026

Crook, Damon J; Mastro, Victor C

2010-01-28

160

Monitoring the Blind Shaft Borer Project, Oak Grove, Alabama  

SciTech Connect

In 1974, plans of the United States to obtain energy self-sufficiency included a significant increase in coal production, primarily from new underground mines in the Eastern states. The poor condition of coal shaft sinking companies was a major concern. The US Bureau of Mines perceived similarities between shaft sinking and tunnel boring and felt that a machine could be produced for faster, safer shaft sinking. In January 1975, the Robbins Co., a major producer of tunnel boring machines, submitted an unsolicited proposal to the Bureau of Mines to develop, design, build and demonstrate a Blind Shaft Borer (BSB). In June 1975, a contract was initiated to start work on a BSB. After the Department of Energy was formed, the project was transferred to their Department of Fossil Fuel. In late 1978, while the BSB was being assembled for the field trial near Oak Grove, Alabama, the DOE contracted with Williams Brothers Engineering Company to monitor the site activities and provide technical advice to the Technical Project Manager. This report reviews the BSB project prior to the field trial, describes field trial operations as observed by Williams Brothers Engineering Company personnel and provides a summary of daily activities. It also details project problems, interim efforts to resolve them, results obtained and recommendations to preclude their re-occurrence on future BSB projects.

Amstutz, R.; Danowski, T.

1982-03-01

161

Economic evaluation of the blind-shaft borer (BSB)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study is to assess the economic feasibility of Blind Shaft Boring versus alternate methods of shaft sinking. In Section 1 a review is made of two previous economic analyses. Comparisons have been made between projected performance of a fully commercialized Blind Shaft Borer (BSB) and the actual results of the DOE sponsored field trial at Oak Grove, Alabama. Problems encountered with the prototype are fully discussed and considered. The purpose of this review is to determine if the methodology used in the previous reports is valid. For a better familiarization of the reader with the details of the Paul Weir Co. and TRW studies, a rather comprehensive review of these two studies is given in Appendix A. In Section 2, the operating costs for a commercialized BSB, including amortization of capital costs, are determined. Probable costs associated with shaft sinking using a second generation BSB are predicted in dollars per foot and include mobilization, capital, and operating costs. In Section 3, BSB costs derived in Section 2 are compared with costs of alternate methods including: (1) Conventional Shaft Sinking, (2) Large Diameter Drilling, (3) Multi-Pass Reaming Methods. In Section 4, a Sensitivity Analysis is performed to determine the relative influence of parameters such as shaft diameter, shaft depth, penetration rate, etc. The conclusions of the report and the main topics addressed in the study are summarized in Section 5.

Not Available

1981-05-01

162

Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).  

PubMed

This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively. PMID:17461064

McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

2007-04-01

163

Yellow Fever Epidemic Sites Revisited: Possible Areas of Yellow Fever Endemicity in Ethiopia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yellow fever antibody of apparently recent origin has been found in two areas studied by the Institute Pasteur during the 1961-1962 yellow fever outbreak in Ethiopia. Yellow fever antibody in an eight year old child in Kulo Konta Awrajah would indicate th...

O. L. Wood V. H. Lee

1975-01-01

164

Enzymes of Glucose Metabolism in the Caecum of the Marine Borer Bankia Setacea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The caecum of the marine borer Bankia setacea was found to contain the enzymes for a modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway, a pentose cycle, and a complete citric acid cycle. The pathways are linked to the digestion of cellulose by the enzyme cellobiase. Signi...

D. L. Liu C. C. Walden

1969-01-01

165

Antennally active macrolide from the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis emitted predominantly by females  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was at least 8 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by both male and female antenn...

166

Male Aggregation Pheromone of Date Palm Fruit Stalk Borer Oryctes elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to characterize the chemical communication system of the date palm fruit stalk borer, Oryctes elegans, and to develop pheromone-based trapping in Eastern Iran. Adults of both sexes feeding on date palm pieces attracted conspecifics, whereas date palm alone was minimally attractive. Males were twice as attractive as females. More beetles were captured at

Didier Rochat; Kazem Mohammadpoor; Christian Malosse; Arman Avand-Faghih; Martine Lettere; Josiane Beauhaire; Jean-Paul Morin; Adeline Pezier; Michel Renou; Gholam Abbas Abdollahi

2004-01-01

167

European corn borer: Pheromonal catabolism and behavioral response to sex pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

When physiologically excessive amounts of the female sex pheromone of the European corn borer (ECB) or esters analogous to the pheromone were applied to the antennae of males, their behavioral responsiveness to pheromone in a flight tunnel was significantly impaired for 2 hr. Concurrent quantitative analyses of heptane extracts of the male antennae by gasliquid chromatography showed that the compounds

J. A. Klun; M. Schwarz; E. G. Uebel

1991-01-01

168

Aflatoxin in corn hybrids infested at different growth stages with southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin is a potent toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Contamination of corn, Zea mays L., with aflatoxin greatly reduces the value of corn grain and is a major impediment to profitable corn production in the South. Infestation of developing corn ears with southwestern corn borer, D...

169

Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Density and Canopy Dieback in Three North American Ash Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan, U.S. and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Little information about A. planipennis is available from its native range and it was not known whether this invasive pest would exhibit a preference for a

Andrea C. Anulewicz; Deborah G. McCullough; David L. Cappaert

2007-01-01

170

Antioxidant genes of the emerald ash borer ( Agrilus planipennis): Gene characterization and expression profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophagous insects frequently encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) from exogenous and endogenous sources. To overcome the effect of ROS, insects have evolved a suite of antioxidant defense genes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive insect pest from Asia has killed millions of

Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Praveen Mamidala; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi Bonello; Omprakash Mittapalli

2011-01-01

171

Dispersal of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis , in newly-colonized sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive forest insect pest threatening more than 8 billion ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America. Development of effective survey methods and strategies to slow the spread of A. planipennis requires an understanding of dispersal, particularly in recently established satellite populations. 2 We assessed the dispersal of A. planipennis beetles

Rodrigo J. Mercader; Nathan W. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough

2009-01-01

172

Preservative treatment of ash wood from emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) infested trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portions of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario have been infested by the emerald ash borer (EAB), an exotic pest believed to have been imported from Asia. The pest is reported to have killed 10 million to 15 million ash trees and continues to spread. Most of southern Michigan is under quarantine, and the movement of ash lumber, firewood, logs, and

Pascal Nzokou; Sedric M. Pankras; D. Pascal

173

The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of

Jill C. Crosthwaite; Stephanie Sobek; D. Barry Lyons; Mark A. Bernards; Brent J. Sinclair

2011-01-01

174

Genetic transformation and regeneration of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Oleaceae; Section Melioides), is a widely distributed native tree species, planted for timber production and popular for landscaping in North America. However, the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is attacking all North American ash spp. and it has become the most important pest of ash trees in North America. The objectives of this project were to develop

Ningxia Du

2008-01-01

175

Borate and imidacloprid treatment of ash logs infested with the emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

As of January 2006, portions of Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario were infested with the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, a destructive exotic Asian beetle that feeds within the inner bark of ash (Fraxinus) trees. This project evaluated borate (dissodium octaborate tetrahydrate) and imidacloprid to sanitize EAB-infested logs, which would then facilitate log transport to mills outside the quarantine

Pascal Nzokou; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack; D. Pascal Kamdem

2006-01-01

176

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little

Omprakash Mittapalli; Xiaodong Bai; Praveen Mamidala; Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms; Michael N. Nitabach

2010-01-01

177

Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cohorts of emerald ash borer (EAB) larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, Michigan by caging gravid EAB females or placing laboratory-reared eg...

178

Hymenopteran Parasitoids Attacking the Invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Western and Central Pennsylvania  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We conducted field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated larval parasitoids in western and central Pennsylvania (Cranberry and Granville Townships) in the spring and fall of 2009. The survey procedure involved destructively debarking sections of the m...

179

A Decision Support System for Emerald Ash Borer Eradication Using Spatial-Dynamic Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, an invasive Asian beetle known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) ( Agrilus planipennis Coleoptera: Buprestidae) has emerged as a threat to Ash trees in the Midwestern United States and Canada (McCullough and Katovich 2004). Significant infestations in Michigan and nearby areas have all but doomed nearly one billion native ash trees. This paper presents an argument for the

Todd K. BenDor; Sara S. Metcalf; Lauren E. Fontenot; Brandi Sangunett

180

Assessing the Hazard of Emerald Ash Borer and Other Exotic Stressors to Community Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic stressors such as emerald ash borer are an increasing concern to many communities across North America. One means of assessing the hazard these stressors may represent to a community's publicly managed trees is through an inventory of their street trees. The South Dakota Division of Resource Conservation and Forestry conducted street tree inventories in selected communities across the state

John Ball; Sarah Mason; Aaron Kiesz; Dan McCormick; Craig Brown

2007-01-01

181

Characteristics and distribution of potential ash tree hosts for emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a recently discovered (July 2002) exotic insect pest, which has caused the death of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in Detroit, MI, USA and has also spread into other areas of Michigan, isolated locations in Indiana, Ohio, Maryland and Virginia, and nearby Windsor, Ont., in Canada. Ash trees occur in many

David W. MacFarlane; Shawna Patterson Meyer

2005-01-01

182

An Assessment of the Relationship Between Emerald Ash Borer Presence and Landscape Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six years after its 2002 detection near Detroit, MI, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has spread hundreds of miles across the Upper Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Human-assisted transportation of infested ash materials is the primary mechanism of EAB dispersal over long distances. Natural spread occurs locally and is influenced by factors, such as

Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

183

A Potential Plan of Action for Emerald Ash Borer in Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u0009Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) (EAB) is an invasive insect pest. It feeds on the cambium tissues of ash tree species. It was first discovered in the United States in 2002 in Detroit, Michigan. Their effects on ash trees are deadly, and it is quickly spreading across the Midwest. Nebraska has not yet been invaded, but confirmed findings continue getting

Lee Wheeler

2010-01-01

184

Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has killed or infested millions of ash trees in Michigan and is fast spreading to neighboring states. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates that if EAB went unchecked in the rest of the country, the loss to the nation could range from $20 billion to $60 billion. One key requirement for the success of

Brahim Medjahed; William Grosky

185

UPDATE ON EMERALD ASH BORER NATURAL ENEMY SURVEYS IN MICHIGAN AND CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We began research on natural enemies of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis soon after its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. Regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada adopted a strategy of eradication for EAB in an effort to protect New World ash. Should eradication fail, however, conventional biological control will be needed to suppress populations of

Leah S. Bauer; Houping Liu; Robert A. Haack; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Deborah L. Miller

186

Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study,

Yigen Chen; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland

2011-01-01

187

Attraction of the emerald ash borer to ash trees stressed by girdling, herbicide treatment, or wounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilusplanipennis Fairmaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are diffi­ cult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennisto ash trees stressed by girdling (bark and phloem removed from a 15 cm wide band around the tree (2003­ 2(05», vertical wounding (same

Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; David Cappaert

2009-01-01

188

GENETIC BASIS OF RESISTANCE TO FALL ARMYWORM AND SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER LEAF FEEDING DAMAGE IN MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To clarify the genetic basis of resistance to leaf feeding damage by fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer a study was undertaken to compare quantitative trait loci involved in two related resistant maize lines, Mp704 and Mp708. Models containing four and seven QTL explaining southwestern corn ...

189

MYCOBIOTA ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER HYPOTHENEMUS HAMPEI (FERRARI) (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE) IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field surveys were carried out in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico, to collect and identify fungi associated with the cuticle, gut, feces and the galleries of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). Insects and coffee berries containing galleries were collected in three coffee fa...

190

Parasitoids for biocontrol of coffee berry borer: past, present and future.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Detailed surveys for coffee berry borer parasitoids were initiated in October 2006 in two coffee growing areas of Kenya (Kisii and Embu). The most abundant parasitoid species are Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae). Our preliminary findings indica...

191

Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...

192

Biological control of emerald ash borers: the role of indigenous North American parasitoids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated parasitoids were conducted in Cranberry Township, PA; Granville, PA; and Cheltenham, MD. Several species of parasitic Hymenoptera were collected from EAB-infested green ash trees or reared from late-instar E...

193

Damage and Loss Caused by the Larger Grain Borer Prostephanus truncatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of information on damage caused by the larger grain borer is provided, including details of early studies examining commodities that might be attacked and the importance of LGB field infestations in relation to storage losses. In addition, examples are given from published information on the weight losses that can result from LGB infestation in maize and cassava, with

R. A. Boxall

2002-01-01

194

Morphological characterization of the antennal sensilla of the dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The external morphology of the dogwood borer antennae and their sensilla was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. Male and female antennaes were clavate before tapering to an apical point and consisted of three main segments; the scape, pedicel, and flagellum. Although, there...

195

Sex pheromone dispenser type and trap design affect capture of dogwood borer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

196

Review of the biology and control of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lep: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology and control of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée, is reviewed. This insect is distributed from China to Australia and the Solomon Islands. In northern parts of its range the moths have one or a few generations per year, but in the tropics, generations are continuous and overlapping. The caterpillars can cause severe yield losses in corn,

D. M. Nafus; I. H. Schreiner

1991-01-01

197

Effect of emerald ash borer on structure and material properties of ash trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emerald ash borer (EAB) currently occurs in fifteen states in the United States, as well as Ontario and Quebec in Canada. A decline in ash tree strength following EAB infestation is potentially hazardous to public safety, particularly when trees are left standing for several years after dying. Dead ...

198

Shade over coffee: its effects on berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between different ecological features of shade and the incidence of coffee berry borer, coffee leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in rustic coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. Thirty-six 10 m by 10 m plots were established within coffee plantations. The following variables were measured or estimated: number of vegetation strata, percent

L. Soto-Pinto; I. Perfecto; J. Caballero-Nieto

2002-01-01

199

Monitoring and First Discovery of the Mexican Rice Borer Eoreuma loftini (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini, has expanded its range from the Lower Rio Grande Valley to east Texas, and now into southwest Louisiana. Louisiana Department of Agricultural and Forestry and Louisiana State University AgCenter scientists forecast that natural and unintended movement will r...

200

Susceptibility of eggs and adult fecundity of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, exposed to methoprene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of tests was conducted to determine the susceptibility of eggs of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the lesser grain borer, exposed to the insect growth regulator (IGR) methoprene on filter paper and on rough rice. In the first test, the hatch rate of eggs exposed on filter paper treated with met...

201

EXPANDED EXPLORATIONS FOR EMERALD ASH BORER IN ASIA AND IMPLICATIONS FOR GENETIC ANALYSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emerald ash borer (EAB) is considered native to northeast China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Mongolia, and eastern Russia. We are using genetic analyses to determine the origin of North America’s EAB infestations; however, acquiring samples from countries other than China has been difficult. To increase t...

202

Parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in western Pennsylvania  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin (USDA APHIS 2007; Liu et al. 2008). However, recent field surveys in Michigan indicate that...

203

Explorations for Natural Enemies of Emerald Ash Borer in China, 2006  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was made in China during July-August, 2006. We visited 11 field plots in four provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina, then peel...

204

Parasitoids attacking emerald ash borers in western Pennsylvania and their potential use in biological control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin (USDA APHIS 2007; Liu et al. 2008). However, recent field surveys in Michigan indicate that...

205

Use of Beauveria bassiana and imidacloprid for control of emerald ash borer in an ash nursery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We wish to determine the potential of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, alone or in combination with imidacloprid, for control and management of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. We have undertaken this work at a commercial tree nursery in southern Michigan within the EAB-infested area. App...

206

Suitability of immature emerald ash borers to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since first detected in Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a buprestid native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees in northeastern North America and continues to expand into new areas. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregar...

207

Acoustic detection of arthropod infestation of grape roots: scouting for grape root borer (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is the key pest of grapes in Florida. Chlorpyrifos is the only chemical registered in Florida for control, but it is not an ideal control tool because it is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees, and its recommended timing...

208

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH PLUS METHOPRENE FOR CONTROL OF LESSER GRAIN BORER, RHYZOPERTHA DOMINICA, IN ROUGH RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), is a major insect pest of all stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE), a natural inert dust, and methoprene, an insect growth regulator, are two insecticides registered for direct application for stored grains. However, methopre...

209

Critical nutritional requirements of juvenile yellow perch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) has increased in the North Central region of the United States despite the paucity of information on nutritional requirements of this new culture species. Thus, feeding studies were conducted to quantify key nutritional requirements of juvenile yellow perch. The studies included determination of the dietary arginine, lysine, total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) and choline

Ronald Glenn Twibell

2000-01-01

210

Yellowing viruses in sugarbeet; epidemiology and damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology and damage effects of beet yellows virus (BYV) and beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV) were studied.Chapter 2 . The incubation period (time between infection and symptom expression) was determined so that progress curves of the disease (symptoms) could be translated into progress curves of the infection. The incubation period increased during the season from 3 (BYV) or 4

Werf van der W

1988-01-01

211

Male-produced pheromone of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid introduced for the biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.  

PubMed

The braconid wasp, Spathius agrili, has been released in the U.S. as a biocontrol agent for the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilus planipennis), a destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). We identified and synthesized seven male-specific volatile compounds. Three of these, dodecanal, (4R,11E)-tetradecen-4-olide, and (Z)-10-heptadecen-2-one, were the key behaviorally active components in flight tunnel bioassays. Male specificity was demonstrated by gas chromatographic comparison of male and female volatile emissions and whole body extracts. Identifications were aided by coupled gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis, microchemical reactions, NMR, chiral GC analysis, and GC and MS comparison with authentic standards. Both the racemic and chiral forms of the ?-lactone, as well as both E- and Z-isomers were synthesized. Flight tunnel behavioral tests showed positive male and female S. agrili responses to both natural pheromone and synthetic blends, with upwind flight and landing on the source. Large field-cage tests, using yellow sticky traps baited with pheromone, captured approximately 50% of the released male and female wasps in 24-h periods. The use of pheromone-baited traps in the field could simplify the current detection method for determining parasitoid establishment (i.e., laboriously felling and peeling ash trees for recovery of S. agrili from infested EAB larvae). PMID:22456948

Cossé, Allard A; Petroski, Richard J; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Vermillion, Karl; Lelito, Jonathan P; Cooperband, Miriam F; Gould, Juli R

2012-03-29

212

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the First Caspase in the Striped Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is executed through the activity of the caspases that are aspartyl-specific proteases. In this study, we isolated the caspase gene (Cscaspase-1) of Chilo suppressalis (one of the leading pests responsible for destruction of rice crops). It possesses the open reading frame (ORF) of 295 amino acids including prodomain, large subunit and small subunits, and two cleavage sites (Asp23 and Asp194) were found to be located among them. In addition to these profiles, Cscaspase-1 contains two active sites (His134 and Cys176). Genomic analysis demonstrated there was no intron in the genome of Cscaspase-1. The Cscaspase-1 transcripts were found in all tissues of the fifth instar larvae, and higher levels were found in the midgut, hindgut and Malpighian tubules. Examination of Cscaspase-1 expression in different developmental stages indicated low constitutive levels in the eggs and early larvae stages, and higher abundances were exhibited in the last larvae and pupae stages. The relative mRNA levels of Cscaspase-1 were induced by heat and cold temperatures. For example, the highest increase of Cscaspase-1 transcription was at -3 °C and 36 °C respectively. In a word, Cscaspase-1 plays a role of effector in the apoptosis of C. suppressalis. It also correlates with development, metamorphosis and thermotolerance of C. suppreassalis. PMID:23676354

Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Pingyang; Li, Jianyong

2013-05-15

213

Photodegradation of emamectin benzoate and its influence on efficacy against the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emamectin benzoate, a novel insecticide with characteristics of translaminar movement into plant leaf tissue, was derived from the avermectin family with improved thermal stability, greater water solubility and a broader spectrum of insecticidal activity than avermectin. To quantify UV photodegradation of emamectin benzoate, HPLC analysis was conducted to quantify residues of MAB1a, the major component in emamectin benzoate, after exposure

Jun Zhu; Yueping He; Mingxing Gao; Weijun Zhou; Jun Hu; Jinliang Shen; Yu Cheng Zhu

2011-01-01

214

Genetic analysis of resistance of Bt rice to stripe stem borer ( Chilo suppressalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two transgenic Bt rice lines, KMD1 and KMD2, both containing a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bt, were crossed with conventional rice varieties. The inheritance of resistance to SSB of KMD1 and KMD2was investigated\\u000a through LSB and field examination of their progenies, e.g. F1, BC1 and F2 populations. In LSBs, 100.0% of newly hatched SSB larvae died on the second day

Zhonghua Wang; Qingyao Shu; Gongyin Ye; Hairui Cui; Dianxing Wu; Illimar Altosaar; Yingwu Xia

2002-01-01

215

Genetic analysis of resistance of Bt rice to stripe stem borer (Chilo suppressalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two transgenic Bt rice lines, KMD1 and KMD2, both containing a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bt, were crossed with conventional rice varieties. The inheritance of resistance to SSB of KMD1 and KMD2 was investigated through LSB and field examination of their progenies, e.g. F1 ,B C 1 and F2 populations. In LSBs, 100.0% of newly hatched SSB larvae died

Zhonghua Wang; Qingyao Shu; Gongyin Ye; Dianxing Wu; Illimar Altosaar; Yingwu Xia

2002-01-01

216

Photodegradation of emamectin benzoate and its influence on efficacy against the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emamectin benzoate is a novel insecticide with characteristics of translaminar movement into plant leaf tissue. The compound was derived from the avermectin family and improved with thermal stability, greater water solubility, and a broader spectrum of insecticidal activity than avermectin. To deter...

217

Impact of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, on Yield of the Cultivated Sunflower, Helianthus annuus.  

PubMed Central

Foliar and soil-drench insecticide treatments were used in attempts to manipulate infestation of cultivated sunflower plants, Helianthus annuus LeConte (Asterales: Asteraceae) by Dectes texanus LeConte, (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) a serious pest of sunflowers in the High Plains of the USA. Seed yields were assessed on a per-plant basis for both oilseed and confection type sunflower hybrids in two years. Both insecticide treatments (foliar ë-cyhalothrin and soil-drench carbofuran) improved yield of oilseed sunflowers in 2004, but not in 2005. Yield of confection hybrids was improved by a systemic fungicide (thiophanate methyl) in 2005, but insecticides did not improve yield in either year. Both insecticide treatments gave good control of various stalk-boring insects such as Cylindrocopturus adspersus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Mordellistena sp. (Coleoptera: Mordellidae), and Pelochrista womanana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but neither gave better than 50% control of D. texanus. Plants were sorted according to the presence or absence of D. texanus larvae and no reduction was found in total seed weight, seed size, or oil content as a result of infestation. However, mature larvae of D. texanus girdle stalks at the base in preparation for overwintering, a behavior that reduced stalk breakage force by 34–40%, leading to yield losses through lodging. At harvest in 2005, there were differences between cultivars and among treatments in the proportions of D. texanus larvae that had girdled their plants at harvest. It was concluded that further research aimed at reducing crop losses to D. texanus should focus on means of delaying stalk desiccation and/or deterioration, factors that appear to trigger girdling behavior.

Michaud, J.P.; Grant, Angela K.; Jyoti, J.L.

2007-01-01

218

Pulsational instability of yellow hypergiants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instability of population I ( X = 0.7, Z = 0.02) massive stars against radial oscillations during the post-main-sequence gravitational contraction of the helium core is investigated. Initial stellar masses are in the range 65 M ? ? M ZAMS ? 90 M ?. In hydrodynamic computations of self-exciting stellar oscillations we assumed that energy transfer in the envelope of the pulsating star is due to radiative heat conduction and convection. The convective heat transfer was treated in the framework of the theory of time-dependent turbulent convection. During evolutionary expansion of outer layers after hydrogen exhaustion in the stellar core the star is shown to be unstable against radial oscillations while its effective temperature is T eff > 6700 K for M ZAMS = 65 M ? and T eff > 7200 K for M ZAMS = 90 M ?. Pulsational instability is due to the ?-mechanism in helium ionization zones and at lower effective temperature oscillations decay because of significantly increasing convection. The upper limit of the period of radial pulsations on this stage of evolution does not exceed ?200 day. Radial oscillations of the hypergiant resume during evolutionary contraction of outer layers when the effective temperature is T eff > 7300 K for M ZAMS = 65 M ? and T eff > 7600 K for M ZAMS = 90 M ?. Initially radial oscillations are due to instability of the first overtone and transition to fundamental mode pulsations takes place at higher effective temperatures ( T eff > 7700 K for M ZAMS = 65 M ? and T eff > 8200 K for M ZAMS = 90 M ?). The upper limit of the period of radial oscillations of evolving blueward yellow hypergiants does not exceed ?130 day. Thus, yellow hypergiants are stable against radial stellar pulsations during the major part of their evolutionary stage.

Fadeyev, Yu. A.

2011-06-01

219

Evaluation of Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Corn Hybrids Against Cry1Ab-Susceptible and Resistant Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Louisiana strain of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was selected for resistance to the Cry1Ab protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) by using an F2 screening procedure. Survival of Bt-resistant, -susceptible, and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer was evaluated on vegetative and reproductive stages of Þve non-Bt and seven Bt Þeld corn, Zea mays L., hybrids in

Xiaoyi Wu; Fangneng Huang; B. Rogers Leonard; Steven H. Moore

2007-01-01

220

Evaluation of Thiamethoxam and Imidacloprid as Seed Treatments to Control European Corn Borer and Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

EfÞcacy of thiamethoxam (Cruiser) and imidacloprid (Gaucho) were evaluated as seed treatments for controlling European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) and Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) larvae in stored grain. At 22Ð26C, all Þfth instar European corn borers died after two o r4do fexposure to corn treated with 250and 50 0ppm thiamethoxam, respectively, while mortality of larvae exposed for two

Bisong Yue; Gerald E. Wilde; Frank Arthur

2003-01-01

221

Agrobacterium mediated transformation of sugarcane for borer resistance using Cry 1Aa 3 gene and one-step regeneration of transgenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane borers are the major biotic pest in sugarcane that accounts nearly 25–30% yield loses. Most of the present sugarcane\\u000a varieties are not resistant to borers. Development of borer resistance in sugarcane through transgenic technology could be\\u000a the best approach. Cry series of genes are known for development of insect pest resistance in plants in particular for the\\u000a most damaging

Raviraj M. Kalunke; Archana M. Kolge; K. Harinath Babu; D. Theertha Prasad

2009-01-01

222

Clara Maass, yellow fever and human experimentation.  

PubMed

Clara Louise Maass, a 25-year-old American nurse, died of yellow fever on August 24, 1901, following experimental inoculation by infected mosquitoes in Havana, Cuba. The human yellow fever experiments were initially conducted by MAJ Walter Reed, who first used written informed consent and proved the validity of Finlay's mosquito-vector hypothesis. Despite informed consent form and an incentive of $100 in U.S. gold, human subjects were exposed to a deadly virus. The deaths of Clara Maass and two Spanish immigrants resulted in a public outcry and the immediate cessation of yellow fever human experiments in Cuba. PMID:23756016

Chaves-Carballo, Enrique

2013-05-01

223

Hippocrates, cardiology, Confucius and the Yellow Emperor.  

PubMed

Although Hippocrates (460-c.375 BC) has been traditionally recognized as the Father of Medicine, the fact that he was seminal in the development of cardiology is much less well known. Evidence is presented to support the notion that Hippocrates could also be considered the Father of Cardiology. Hippocrates also had many of the teachings and practices in common with Confucius (c.551-c.479 BC) and the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC). Whereas Confucius was not a physician, the Yellow Emperor was an ancient Chinese physician whose Huang Di Neijing, the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine, is the oldest known treatise of medicine in existence. PMID:11744140

Cheng, T O

2001-12-01

224

Relative concentration of Cry1A in maize leaves and cotton bolls with diverse chlorophyll content and corresponding larval development of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on maize whorl leaf profiles.  

PubMed

To manage insect resistance to transgenic crops that express insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommends a refuge-based insect resistance management strategy where a percentage of non-Bt (refuge) crop is grown in proximity to a Bt-expressing crop. An important requirement for this strategy is that the toxin exists at a high effective dose for control of the target pest(s), so that heterozygous individuals in the population do not reach adulthood. Factors that cause reduced levels of toxin in the plant are a threat to this strategy. We quantified Cry1Ab from different areas of the maize, Zea mays L., leaf. In general, the distal tip of the V7 maize leaf had a higher concentration of Cry1Ab compared with the middle section of the V7 leaf, and the middle section of the developing V9 leaf had the lowest concentration of Cry1Ab. When these sections of maize tissue were fed to fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), and southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, there was not a reduction in development or an increase in mortality with tissue that had higher concentrations of toxin. Another study tested the relative concentration of Cry1Ab between the white-yellow, yellow-green, and green portions of the developing ninth leaf within the maize whorl. There were differences in Cry1Ab concentration among these leaf areas. The green tissue had the highest concentration of toxin followed by the yellow-green and white-yellow tissues. Correlations between concentration of Cry1Ab and 5-d fall armyworm larval weights among the three leaf color profiles were all significant and negative, i.e., decreased concentration of Cry1Ab in the leaf tissue resulted in increased 5-d larval weights. There was 100% mortality to the southwestern corn borer larvae fed Cry1Ab maize leaf tissue. Differences in the amount of Cry1Ab in the developing V9 leaf profiles did not alter the absolute susceptibility of the southwestern corn borer to the toxin. In cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., the amount of Cry1Ac was significantly lower in boll tips where flowers had remained attached compared with normal boll tips. Boll tips where the flowers remained attached are often the site where corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), penetrate Bt cotton bolls. This study demonstrated that, in two diverse plant species, tissue that has low chlorophyll content does not fully express Cry1A. Photosynthesis regulating factors related to mRNA transcription and translation should be studied for their effect on Cry1A production and insect control. PMID:15568367

Abel, Craig A; Adamczyk, John J

2004-10-01

225

The Original Haemorrhagic Fever: Yellow Fever.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monkeys infected with the Asibi strain of yellow fever virus developed multiple coagulation abnormalities 3-4 days after viral inoculation. These coagulation abnormalities occurred almost simultaneously with the development of fever, clinical illness and ...

L. H. Dennis B. E. Reisberg J. Crosbie D. Crozier M. E. Conrad

1969-01-01

226

21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137.285 Food and...Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms...

2013-04-01

227

Longitudinal myelitis associated with yellow fever vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe adverse reaction to yellow fever (YF) vaccine includes the yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease. This\\u000a terminology includes postvaccinal encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The objective\\u000a of this communication is to report a patient who received a YF vaccine in Argentina and subsequently developed longitudinal\\u000a myelitis with a symptom that had previously gone unreported in the literature. A

M. Chaves; P. Riccio; L. Patrucco; J. I. Rojas; E. Cristiano

2009-01-01

228

Redox alters yellow dragonflies into red  

PubMed Central

Body color change associated with sexual maturation—so-called nuptial coloration—is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait.

Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema

2012-01-01

229

EFFECT OF SEED TUBER SIZE AND PLANTING SPACE ON GROWTH, MELD AND TUBER SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF POTATO (SOLANW TUBEROSUM) IN IRRIGATED RED-YELLOW LATOSOLS OF THE DRY ZONE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of seed tuber size and planting space on tuber yield and tuber size of potato (S.tuberosum) was studied in red-yellow latosols of dry zone under irrigation. It was found that the number of stems and tubers produced per plant significantly increased with increasing seed tuber size and planting space. The numbers of stems and tubers per plant were significantly

S. RAJADURAT

230

Characterization of Acetylcholinesterase Purified from the Lesser Grain Borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) purified from the lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica) was significantly inhibited by higher concentrations of the substrates acetylthiocholine (ATC), acetyl-(?-methyl) thiocholine (A?MTC) and propionylthiocholine (PTC). 2. The efficiency of AChE for hydrolyzing different substrates was ATC > A?MTC > PTC > S-butyrylthiocholine. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by 10?5 M eserine or BW284C51, but

R. N. C Guedes; K. Y Zhu; S Kambhampati; B. A Dover

1998-01-01

231

Identification of a coffee berry borer-associated yeast: does it break down caffeine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers ( Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)) and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Candida fermentati (Saito) Bai, based on sequencing of the nuclear large subunit 26S rDNA variable D1\\/D2 domain. Liquid culture experiments using P. burtonii in media containing different caffeine

Fernando E. Vega; Michael B. Blackburn; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Patrick F. Dowd

2003-01-01

232

Sex pheromone blend discrimination by male moths from E and Z strains of European corn borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex pheromone behavioral responses were analyzed in a flight tunnel with European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), males from three distinct populations. Males from a bivoltine and a univoltine biotype using a 97.8:2.2 blend (Z strains) of (Z)- and (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate were assayed with treatments containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 3% of theE isomer. Males from neither population oriented in the

T. J. Glover; X.-H. Tang; W. L. Roelofs

1987-01-01

233

Distinguishing Defensive Characteristics in the Phloem of Ash Species Resistant and Susceptible to Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis\\u000a of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high

Don Cipollini; Qin Wang; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Jeff R. Powell; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms

2011-01-01

234

Modeling the invasive emerald ash borer risk of spread using a spatially explicit cellular model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is decimating native ashes (Fraxinus sp.) throughout midwestern North America, killing millions of trees over the years. With plenty of ash available throughout\\u000a the continent, the spread of this destructive insect is likely to continue. We estimate that the insect has been moving along\\u000a a “front” at about 20 km\\/year since about 1998, but

Anantha M. Prasad; Louis R. Iverson; Matthew P. Peters; Jonathan M. Bossenbroek; Stephen N. Matthews; T. Davis Sydnor; Mark W. Schwartz

2010-01-01

235

Antennally Active Macrolide from the Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis Emitted Predominantly by Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was ca. 10 times more abundant from females. It was\\u000a readily sensed by antennae of both males and females. Identification was confirmed by synthesis. The behavioral effects of\\u000a the lactone remain unstudied

Robert J. Bartelt; Allard A. Cossé; Bruce W. Zilkowski; Ivich Fraser

2007-01-01

236

Genetic analysis of emerald ash borer ( Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) populations in Asia and North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees first discovered outside of its native range of northeastern Asia in 2002. EAB spread from its initial zone of\\u000a discovery in the Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario metropolitan areas, in large part, from inadvertent human-assisted\\u000a movement of infested ash materials.

Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland; Robert A. Haack; Anthony I. Cognato; James J. Smith

237

Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis Fairmaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis, were examined to determine if there are differences in these compounds between the sexes. We also assessed feral male EAB\\u000a in the field for behavioral changes based on the application of a female-specific compound to dead, solvent-washed beetles.\\u000a Males in the field spent significantly more time attempting copulation with dead,

Jonathan P. Lelito; Katalin Böröczky; Tappey H. Jones; Ivich Fraser; Victor C. Mastro; James H. Tumlinson; Thomas C. Baker

2009-01-01

238

A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane\\u000a (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with (n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched

Peter J. Silk; Krista Ryall; D. Barry Lyons; Jon Sweeney; Junping Wu

2009-01-01

239

Genetic Components of Resistance to Stalk Tunneling by the European Corn Borer in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT,Cardinal et al., 2001). Identification of genetic compo- nents of resistance to tunneling,has been hindered,by Identification of the genes conferring resistance to European corn environmental variation, a laborious and lengthy screen- borer (ECB) [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hu ¨ bner)] is an important step in understanding how resistance is expressed and whether different ing process, and the polygenic nature of the trait;

M. D. Krakowsky; M. J. Brinkman; W. L. Woodman-Clikeman; M. Lee

2002-01-01

240

Managing the Risk of European Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

New pesticidal crops are taking advantage of advances in geneticengineering. For example, corn has been engineered to express\\u000a Bt proteinsthat are toxic to the European corn borer. These crops are effective pestmanagement tools for United States growers.\\u000a However, there is concern thatpests will develop resistance to these crops resulting in the increased useof more hazardous\\u000a pesticides. The purpose of this

Terrance M. Hurley; Silvia Secchi; Bruce A. Babcock; Richard L. Hellmich

2002-01-01

241

Dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt corn.  

PubMed

European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn. PMID:22928300

Razze, J M; Mason, C E

2012-08-01

242

Inheritance of central neuroanatomy and physiology related to pheromone preference in the male European corn borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, is a textbook example of pheromone polymorphism. Males of the two strains (Z and E) prefer opposite ratios of the two pheromone components, Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate, with a sex-linked factor underlying this difference in preference. The male antennal lobes of the two strains contain a pheromone sensitive macroglomerular complex (MGC) that

Zsolt Kárpáti; Shannon Olsson; Bill S Hansson; Teun Dekker

2010-01-01

243

Reversed functional topology in the antennal lobe of the male European corn borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) is a model of evolution of sexual communication in insects. Two pheromone strains produce and respond to opposite ratios of the two pheromone components, Z11 and E11-tetradecenylacetate. The Z-strain uses a ratio of 97:3 of Z11:E11 tetradecenylacetate, whereas the E-strain uses a ratio of 1:99. We studied how the difference in male

Z. Karpati; Teun Dekker; Bill S. Hansson

2008-01-01

244

Knockdown, Mortality, and Progeny Production of Lesser Grain Borers (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Rice Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Exposed for Short Intervals on Wheat Treated with Cyfluthrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and adult rice weevils, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), were exposed at bimonthly intervals for 2, 4, 8, and 24 h on wheat treated with 0, 1, 2, and 4 ppm cyfluthrin EC, then removed and held for 2 wk on untreated wheat. The percentage of lesser grain borers that were knocked down after they

FRANK H. ARTHUR

1999-01-01

245

Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

246

Monitoring and Modeling of Field Infestation and Damage by the Maize Ear Borer Mussidia nigrivenella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae ) in Benin, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many countries in West Africa, the pyralid ear borer Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot occasionally causes severe damage to pre- and postharvest maize. Between 1992 and 1995, the distribution of and damage caused by M. nigrivenella were studied in Benin using survey data and an on-station field experiment. The borer was distributed across the whole country, and at maturity an average

Mamoudou Sétamou; Fritz Schulthess; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister

2000-01-01

247

Titanium, sinusitis, and the yellow nail syndrome.  

PubMed

Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by nail changes, respiratory disorders, and lymphedema. In a yellow nail patient with a skeletal titanium implant and with gold in her teeth, we found high levels of titanium in nail clippings. This study aims to examine the possible role of titanium in the genesis of the yellow nail syndrome. Nail clippings from patients with one or more features of the yellow nail syndrome were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Titanium was regularly found in finger nails in patients but not in control subjects. Visible nail changes were present in only half of the patients. Sinusitis with postnasal drip and cough was the most common complaint. The dominant source of titanium ions was titanium implants in the teeth or elsewhere. The titanium ions were released through the galvanic action of dental gold or amalgam or through the oxidative action of fluorides. In other patients the titanium was derived from titanium dioxide in drugs and confectionary. Stopping galvanic release of titanium ions or canceling exposure to titanium dioxide led to recovery. In one patient with a titanium implant, the symptoms recurred after renewed exposure to titanium. Yellow nail syndrome is caused by titanium. PMID:20809268

Berglund, Fredrik; Carlmark, Björn

2010-09-01

248

Mass rearing of the pink corn borer, Sesamia cretica Led. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae, on semi artificial diets.  

PubMed

The effect of two different semi-artificial diets (S.A.D1 and S.A.D2) as well as a natural corn diet on the biology and bionomics of the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica was studied under laboratory conditions. The insect was successfully mass reared for ten successive generations at the conditions of 27 +/- 2 C degrees and 60-80% R.H. In addition, a photoperiod of 0:24 (L:D) for larvae and 12:12 (L:D) in concern to the other stages, respectively. ALong the ten successive generations, there were no significant differences between the larval periods for both the artificial diets. The S.A.D2 induced the shortest (24.0 days) larval period compared with the natural diet (27.5 days) and S.A.D1 (31.5 days). Rearing larvae on the natural diets revealed a pupal period of 11.0 days, while it was 10.0 days and 8.5 days for the artificial diets (S.A.D1) and in (S.A.D2), in respect. Moth longevity (pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods), to a certain extent, was affected by the larval diets. The maximal moth longevity (13.0 days) was observed for larva reared on corn plants (4, 8 and 1 days). On the other hand, the shortest period (10.5 days) of moth longevity was noticed in SAD2 (1, 9 and 0.5 days). S.A.D1 showed 11.0 days moth longevity (3,7 and 1 days). The longest oviposition period (9.0 days) was recorded in the artificial diet S.A.D2, while it was only 7.0 days in the artificial diet S.A.D1 compared with 8.0 days in case of the natural diet. The number of deposited eggs increased with the progress of the 10 successive generations (G1:G10) from 150 to 265 and from 384 eggs to 564 eggs / female for the S.A.D1 and S.A.D2, in sequence. The highest mean number of deposited eggs per female (564) was for the derived females from larvae fed on the artificial diet in G10 of S.A.D2. The rate of the deposited eggs in S.A.D2 was gradually increased (from 9.70 to 61.14% increase) more than those reared on the natural diet throughout the ten generations. The highest significant percent hatchability (92.69%) has been resulted from the artificial diet SAD2. But, it has been decreased to 85.59% in the artificial diet S.A.D1 in comparison to 65.71% in the natural diet. In addition, the significant shortest total generation period was 44.0 days resulted from the artificial diet S.A.D2, while it was 53.5 and 54.0 days for corn plants and the artificial diet S.A.D1, consequently. In short, results indicated that the S.A.D2 could be considered as a suitable artificial diet for a feasible mass rearing of the pink corn borer, Sesamia cretica led. The S.A.D2 showed the shortest larval, pupal and life span for the generation periods. Moreover, it induced the longest oviposition period and the highest mean number of deposited eggs per female and the highest significant percent of eggs hatchability/fertility. The utilization of this artificial diet (S.A.D2) would supply the researchers with high-quality insects in adequate numbers, at specified times and specific stages of development for the bioassay, toxicological and biological studies. PMID:21539247

Masoud, M A; Saad, A S S; Mourad, A K; Ghorab, M A S

2010-01-01

249

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. ...3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2010-10-01

250

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. ...3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2009-10-01

251

Induction of Yellow Pigmentation in Serratia marcescens  

PubMed Central

The appearance of yellow pigmentation in nonpigmented strains of Serratia sp. has been demonstrated to be due to the production of a muconic acid, 2-hydroxy-5-carboxymethylmuconic acid semialdehyde. The 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate 2,3-dioxygenase responsible for the synthesis of this muconic acid was induced in all strains tested. Another muconic acid, the ?-cis-cis-carboxymuconic acid, could also be synthesized from 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, but this product was not colored. Mutants that were unable to grow on tyrosine and produced yellow pigment were isolated from nonpigmented strains. These mutants had properties similar to those of the yellow-pigmented strains. The ability to produce pigment may be more widespread among Serratia marcescens strains than is currently known.

Trias, Joaquim; Vinas, Miquel; Guinea, Jesus; Loren, Jose G.

1988-01-01

252

Non-target effects on aquatic decomposer organisms of imidacloprid as a systemic insecticide to control emerald ash borer in riparian trees.  

PubMed

Imidacloprid is effective against emerald ash borer when applied as a systemic insecticide. Following stem or soil injections to trees in riparian areas, imidacloprid residues could be indirectly introduced to aquatic systems via leaf fall or leaching. Either route of exposure may affect non-target, aquatic decomposer organisms. Leaves from ash trees treated with imidacloprid at two field rates and an intentionally-high concentration were added to aquatic microcosms. Leaves from trees treated at the two field rates contained imidacloprid concentrations of 0.8-1.3 ppm, and did not significantly affect leaf-shredding insect survival, microbial respiration or microbial decomposition rates. Insect feeding rates were significantly inhibited at foliar concentrations of 1.3 ppm but not at 0.8 ppm. Leaves from intentionally high-dose trees contained concentrations of about 80 ppm, and resulted in 89-91% mortality of leaf-shredding insects, but no adverse effects on microbial respiration and decomposition rates. Imidacloprid applied directly to aquatic microcosms to simulate leaching from soils was at least 10 times more toxic to aquatic insects than the foliar concentrations, with high mortality at 0.13 ppm and significant feeding inhibition at 0.012 ppm. PMID:17512054

Kreutzweiser, David; Good, Kevin; Chartrand, Derek; Scarr, Taylor; Thompson, Dean

2007-05-23

253

Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  

PubMed

The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important. PMID:21404843

Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

2011-02-01

254

Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

PubMed Central

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

Whitehill, Justin G. A.; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B.; Koch, Jennifer L.; Herms, Daniel A.; Bonello, Pierluigi

2011-01-01

255

49 CFR 172.438 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. 172.438 Section 172.438 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.438 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. (a) Except...

2012-10-01

256

Dietary treatment of chylous ascites in yellow nail syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Chylous ascites has rarely been reported in yellow nail syndrome. A case of chylous ascites in yellow nail syndrome is described which was treated successfully with dietary restriction of fat and supplements of medium chained triglycerides.

Tan, W C

1989-01-01

257

Structural studies of yellow fever virus helicase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a pathogen of the flavivirus family. NS3, one of seven viral replicase proteins, has a protease domain and a helicase domain. The helicase is thought to separate plus and minus strands following replication. Helicase from YFV and WNV (West Nile virus) have been produced in E. coli and purified. ATPase activity of these recombinant helicase

Jinhua Wu

2004-01-01

258

Adverse event reports following yellow fever vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been used for prevention of YF since 1937 with over 500 million doses administered. However, rare reports of severe adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns about the vaccine’s safety. We reviewed reports of adverse events following YF vaccination reported to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from 2000 to 2006. We used

Nicole P. Lindsey; Betsy A. Schroeder; Elaine R. Miller; M. Miles Braun; Alison F. Hinckley; Nina Marano; Barbara A. Slade; Elizabeth D. Barnett; Gary W. Brunette; Katherine Horan; J. Erin Staples; Phyllis E. Kozarsky; Edward B. Hayes

2008-01-01

259

Planthopper transmission of Phormium yellow leaf phytoplasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonnium yellow leaf (PYL) phytoplasma was transmitted from diseased to healthy New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax) by the native planthopper, Oliarus atkinsoni (Homoptera: Cixiidae). By contrast, transmission was not effected by the introduced passionvine hopper, Scolypopa australis (Homoptera: Ricaniidae). Successful transmission of PYL phytoplasma from New Zealand flax to New Zealand flax by O. atkinsoni was demonstrated by symptomatology and

L. W. Liefting; R. E. Beever; C. J. Winksc; M. N. Pearson; R. L. S. Forster

1997-01-01

260

Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel-borer design for application to single-entry coal-mine development  

SciTech Connect

The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1982-02-15

261

Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813

Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

2012-04-01

262

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2012-10-01

263

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2011-10-01

264

49 CFR 172.438 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...YELLOW-II label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II must be as...complying with § 172.407, the background color on the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label must...except for the âIIâ which must be red. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR...

2011-10-01

265

Yellow fat disease” (Pansteatitis) in wild hares in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract“Yellow fat disease” is a disease of certain species of animals, characterized macroscopically by greyish-yellow discoloration and microscopically by inflammatory and degenerative reactions and the occurrence of a characteristic acid-fast pigment in the fat tissue. The terms “nonsuppurative panniculitis”, “pansteatitis”, or “yellow ear disease (chinchilla)” are synonyms.

J. E. Lohr; R. D. McLaren

1971-01-01

266

21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food and...Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of...

2013-04-01

267

21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and Drugs...Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of...

2013-04-01

268

21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280 Food and...and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of...

2013-04-01

269

Bright greenish-yellow fluorescence and aflatoxin in recently harvested yellow corn marketed in north carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn kernels that exhibited bright greenish-yellow fluorescence (BGYF) under long-wave ultraviolet light were hand-picked\\u000a from samples of yellow corn produced in eastern North Carolina. The BGYF kernels from 113 4-kg samples contained an average\\u000a of 8665 parts per billion (ppb) aflatoxin compared to an average of 46 ppb in the non-BGYF kernels. A regression analysis\\u000a between the ppb aflatoxin concentration

J. W. Dickens; T. B. Whitaker

1981-01-01

270

Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution seismic profiles from the North Yellow Sea reveal a 20–40-m-thick subaqueous clinoform delta that wraps around the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, extending into the South Yellow Sea. This complex sigmoidal-oblique clinoform, containing an estimated 400 km3 of sediment, overlies prominent relict transgressive surfaces. The nearshore topset of the clinoform, <30-m water depth, has a ?1:1000 gradient, with

J. Paul Liu; John D. Milliman; Shu Gao; Peng Cheng

2004-01-01

271

A unique Yellow River-derived distal subaqueous delta in the Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly acquired high-resolution Chirp sonar profiles reveal a unique Yellow River-derived, alongshore distributed, bidirectional (landward and seaward) across-shelf transported, omega-shaped (“?”) distal subaqueous deltaic lobe deposited around the eastern tip of the Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea. This clinoform deposit directly overlies the postglacial transgressive surface, featured by convex-up seafloor morphology, up to 40 m thick locally. Radiocarbon-14 dates from

Z. S. Yang; J. P. Liu

2007-01-01

272

Temperature-Dependent Models for Predicting European Corn Borer Early Feeding on Corn in Missouri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) is one of the most damaging insect pests to corn. Current yield losses attributed to the European corn borer are in the region of 400 million annually. Even though the European corn borer (ECB) has been extensively studied, few models exist that attempt to accurately predict its early infestation on corn. The basic problem encountered in formulating a first generation infestation prediction model is when to start calculating the temperature index. The exact conditions required to terminate diapause and the resumption of normal development are not well established. One of the old methods used in Missouri to predict the earliest date of ECB infestation involves the use of growing degree days, and by convention the heat units are arbitrarily calculated from January 1. This study was conducted to formulate prediction, and simulation-decision models for corn and first generation ECB infestation. The effects of variable maximum and minimum temperatures on the growth and development of the ECB were studied both in the laboratory and field designed experiments. Archival biological data from the IPM programs in three Missouri counties and weather data from weather stations were also used in corn phenology studies and to determine the dates of earliest ECB infestation on corn, for the period covering 1984 through 1989. Results from laboratory experiments suggest that the total growth and development period of ECB reared at variable temperatures is a constant value. However, the phenological development of the ECB stages does not follow a linear trend as earlier assumed during the introduction of the growing degree day model, but assumes a cubic curve. The starting point for the calculation of the temperature index in early spring occurs under conditions of longer than 13.0 hours of day length and a daily mean temperature of 60^ circF and above for at least five consecutive days. Three prediction models were developed. These are, the temperature departure model (R^2 = 0.36), and two time sequence models (R^2 = 0.68 and 0.90, respectively) using mean weekly temperatures for weeks 4, 5, and 6, coded from April 1. A single corn phenology model developed in this study can universally be applied to corn planted at any time during the growing season (R^2 = 0.79). Damage to corn by ECB can only occur when the first instar of the corn borer larvae coincides with the sixth stage of corn or greater.

Magai, Robert Nthipe

273

Antennally active macrolide from the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis emitted predominantly by females.  

PubMed

The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was ca. 10 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by antennae of both males and females. Identification was confirmed by synthesis. The behavioral effects of the lactone remain unstudied in A. planipennis, but a verified pheromonal function could lead to improved monitoring for this invasive pest. The lactone is part of the pheromone of Cryptolestes pusillus, an unrelated beetle species. PMID:18027429

Bartelt, Robert J; Cossé, Allard A; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Fraser, Ivich

2007-07-01

274

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE PEACHTREE BORER, SYNANTHEDON EXITIOSA, TO STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE AND STEINERNEMA RIOBRAVE IN LABORATORY AND FIELD TRIALS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach that attacks the trunk and roots at, and just below, soil level. At present, a trunk-applied insecticide is the only control used against this pest throughout the southeastern US. We investigated the susc...

275

EXPLORATORY SURVEY FOR THE EMERALD ASH BORER, AGRILUS PLANIPENNIS (COLEOPTERA: BUPRESTIDAE), AND ITS NATURAL ENEMIES IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was conducted in China during October and November 2003. We examined 29 field plots in six provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. pennsylvanica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina then peeled off the bark in search of A. planipennis and associated natural enemies.

Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

276

Ash decline assessment in emerald ash borer-infested regions: A test of tree-level, hyperspectral technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an exotic insect pest currently threatening ash species in the Great Lakes region. Because of the potential impact on forests in this area, multiple government agencies are currently focusing their efforts on developing new technologies to detect, monitor and control this insect pest. Previous work has shown that hyperspectral remote sensing technologies can produce

Jennifer Pontius; Mary Martin; Lucie Plourde; Richard Hallett

2008-01-01

277

DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB-BASED TOOL FOR PROJECTING COSTS OF MANAGING EMERALD ASH BORER IN MUNICIPAL FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

City managers faced with the invasion of emerald ash borer into their urban forests need to plan for the invasion in order to obtain the resources they need to protect the public from harm caused by dying ash trees. Currently, city foresters can avoid harm from falling trees by removing, replacing, or treating them with insecticides. Costs for these activities

Clifford S. Sadof

2009-01-01

278

Interactive Influence of Leaf Age, Light Intensity, and Girdling on Green Ash Foliar Chemistry and Emerald Ash Borer Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance\\u000a to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected

Yigen Chen; Therese M. Poland

2009-01-01

279

douBlE-dECKERs And ToWERs: EmERAld Ash BoRER TRAPs in 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective and efficient methods to detect and monitor emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus plani- pennis Fairmaire, have been a high priority for scientists since this invasive pest was identified in 2002. In 2006, our objectives included development of a practical trap design suitable for operational programs and evaluation of lures. In 2007, we continued this work and assessed additional trap

Andrea C. Anulewicz

280

Microbial control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: Greenhouse and field trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003–2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against A. planipennis adults in greenhouse studies. However, efficacy was improved in the field when B.

Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

2008-01-01

281

Landing surface color preferences of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...

282

Host-seeking behavior and parasitism by Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a newly described and important idiobiont ectoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB) that has excellent potential as a biological control agent against EAB populations in the USA. In order to understand the ecological factors involved in the search and discovery of concealed hosts by S. agrili, we investigated the behavioral responses of adult

Xiao-Yi Wang; Zhong-Qi Yang; Juli R. Gould; Hui Wu; Jian-Hai Ma

2010-01-01

283

Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tetrastichus planipennisi Yong, a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid, is one of three hymenopteran parasitoids being released in the U.S. for biological control of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmair, EAB), an invasive beetle from Asia causing mortality of the ash trees (Fraxinus s...

284

Population responses of hymenopteran parasitoids to the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in recently invaded areas in Michigan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Populations of hymenopteran parasitoids associated with immature stages of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were surveyed in 2009 and 2010 in the recently invaded areas in Michigan, where the two introduced EAB larval parasitoids, Tetrastic...

285

Effects of Chipping, Grinding, and Heat on Survival of Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in Chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect from Asia, was identiÞed in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus sp.) mortality in southeastern Michigan and Essex County, Ontario. Most larvae overwinter as nonfeeding prepupae in the outer sapwood or thick bark of large trees. In a series of studies, we evaluated effects of grinding,

Deborah G. Mccullough; Therese M. Poland; David Cappaert; Erin L. Clark; Ivich Fraser; Victor Mastro; Sarah Smith; Christopher Pell

2007-01-01

286

Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...

287

Relationships between the emergence and oviposition of ectoparasitoid Spathius agrili Yang and its host emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), (= A. marcopoli Obenberger), is an important bark beetle attacking ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). It is very difficult to detect and control because of its highly concealed life history. This pest mainly distributed\\u000a in partial Asian countries (China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia) and Far East Russia, while in China it presented in

Xiaoyi Wang; Zhongqi Yang; Guijun Liu; Enshan Liu

2007-01-01

288

Impact of Pesticides Borate and Imidacloprid on Insect Emergence from Logs Infested by the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was discovered on North American soil in the summer of 2002 near Detroit, Michigan, U.S., and has since spread to six states\\/provinces. To alleviate these costs, a method of sanitization is urgently needed. This study evaluated four different chemical sanitation methods in laboratory and field conditions. Treatments included two borate treatments, spray and dip, with

Pascal Nzokou; Samuel Tourtellot; D. Pascal

2008-01-01

289

African marigold as a trap crop for the management of the fruit borer Helicoverpa armigera on tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using okra, field bean, pigeon pea, sunflower, maize and marigold as trap crops for the management of the fruit borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) on tomato was evaluated. Initial experiments involved observational row trials with simultaneous planting\\/seeding of both tomato and trap crops in exploded blocks. One row of these crops was raised on either side and parallel

K. Srinivasan; P. N. Krishna Moorthy; T. N. Raviprasad

1994-01-01

290

Impact of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as an augmentative biocontrol agent for sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In an effort to find an appropriate biological control agent for release in rice, a 2-year field cage experiment was conducted in Beaumont, Texas to estimate parasitism of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), by Cotesia flavipes (Cameron). The effective search rate was 0.0049 square meter gro...

291

Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in far eastern Russia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in southern Khabarovskiy Kray (Khabarovsk area) and Primorskiy Kray (Vladivostok area) to investigate the occurrence of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. Survey findings ind...

292

The chemotaxonomy of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) isolates from the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary chemotaxonomic analysis was carried out on 16 isolates ofBeauveria bassiana from adults of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) from 10 countries in Latin America, Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Thirteen formed an homogeneous group with very similar electrophoretic and physiological profiles. Two isolates differed in esterase and acid phosphatase band patterns, one of which was also deficient in

P. D. Bridge; Y. J. Abraham; M. C. Cornish; C. Prior; D. Moore

1990-01-01

293

Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...

294

Quantitative Trait Loci for First and Second-Generation European Corn Borer Resistance Derived from the Maize Inbred Mo47  

Microsoft Academic Search

fied QTLs for resistance to 1ECB and 2ECB. Schone t al. (1991) identified four QTLs for resistance to 1ECB European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), family on chromosomes 1, 4, 6, and 9 in F3 families from the Crambidae, order Lepidoptera, is a serious insect pest of maize (Zea mays L.) in the USA. Understanding the genetic basis for

Chaba Jampatong; Michael D. McMullen; B. Dean Barry; Larry L. Darrah; Patrick F. Byrne; Heike Kross

2002-01-01

295

Genetic Mapping and Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Stalk Tunneling by the European Corn Borer in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

al., 1997). Some of these difficulties could be addressed and resolved through genetic analysis facilitated by mo- The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is lecular genetic maps (Paterson et al., 1991). Information an important pest of temperate maize (Zea mays L.). Damage to the stalk could be minimized by breeding for resistant genotypes but from such analysis could

Andrea J. Cardinal; Michael Lee; Natalya Sharopova; Wendy L. Woodman-Clikeman; Mary J. Long

2001-01-01

296

Genetic Variability of the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, Suggests Gene Flow Between Populations in the Midwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a widely distributed and serious economic pest to corn production in the U.S. Genetic variability of O. nubilalis was studied in 18 sub-populations in the upper Midwestern United States using amplified fragment length polymorphism. The relatively low GST values indicate that more variation exists within populations than between populations. High

Jeffrey T. Krumm; Thomas E. Hunt; Steven R. Skoda; Gary L. Hein; Donald J. Lee; Pete L. Clark; John E. Foster

2008-01-01

297

DISPERSAL OF NEWLY-ECLOSED EUROPEAN CORN BORER ADULTS (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) FROM CORN INTO SMALL-GRAIN AGGREGATION PLOTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetically-modified, insecticidal corn hybrids [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn] are used throughout the U.S. Corn Belt for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), control. To slow development of Bt-corn resistance, the EPA requires provision of nearby refugia. The appropriate distance...

298

Dendrochronological parameters of northern red oak ( Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae)) infested with red oak borer ( Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae))  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak-dominated forests in northwestern Arkansas have recently experienced an oak mortality event associated with an unprecedented outbreak of a native insect, the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). To determine whether prior drought was associated with increased E. rufulus infestation level of Quercus rubra L. trees, we employed a suite of dendrochronological measurements from Q. rubra in affected forest stands.

L. J. Haavik; F. M. Stephen; M. K. Fierke; V. B. Salisbury; S. W. Leavitt; S. A. Billings

2008-01-01

299

Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23,

Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister

2009-01-01

300

Transcript analysis and comparative evaluation of shaker and slowmo gene homologues from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The movement and dispersal of larval Lepidoptera are factors that govern their survival and distribution within the natural landscape. Homologs of the Drosophila behavior-linked genes slowmo and shaker involved in larval locomotion were identified from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (L...

301

LARVAL DISTRIBUTION AND SURVIVAL OF SECOND GENERATION EUROPEAN CORN BORER, OSTRINIA NUBILALIS (HUBNER) (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) ON EVENT 176 BT CORN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) larvae that have completed development on Event 176 Bt corn hybids have either survived exposure to sublethal doses of Cry1Ab Bt toxin or exploited plant tissues that do not express the toxin. To evaluate the impact of such exposure on larval establishment an...

302

Insect gladiators II: Competitive interactions within and between bethylid parasitoid species of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) causes substantial reductions in coffee production. It originates from Africa but is now present in almost all of the major coffee producing countries. Classical biological control attempts around the world, including South and Central America, the Caribbean, Indian sub-continent, Indonesia, and Polynesia, including introductions of the African bethylid wasps Prorops nasuta

Tim P. Batchelor; Ian C. W. Hardy; Juan F. Barrera; Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud

2005-01-01

303

Insect gladiators: competitive interactions between three species of bethylid wasps attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), originates from Africa and has since invaded all major coffee growing areas in the world. The parasitoid species, Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem and Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) have been introduced into many countries as biological control agents. Recently, a further bethylid, Cephalonomia hyalinipennis Ashmead, was found naturally attacking the coffee berry

Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud; Ian C. W Hardy; Jean-Paul Lachaud

2002-01-01

304

Response of the shot-hole borer of tea, Xyleborus fornicatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to conspecifics and plant semiochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of the tea shot-hole borer beetle, Xyleborus fornicatus, to conspecific and host plant odours were tested in an olfactometer. Males showed greater attraction to unmated females than to mated females and mated females showed a negative density dependent response with extremely significant repulsion shown when 10 mated females were present. Plants of the susceptible tea cultivar TRI2025 were

W. Subodhi Karunaratne; Vijaya Kumar; Jan Pettersson; N. Savitri Kumar

2008-01-01

305

Epidemiology of the Hemp Borer, Grapholita delineanaWalker (Lepidoptera: Oleuthreutidae), a Pest of Cannabis sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemp borer, Grapholita delineana, is newly described from feral hemp in Vermont, USA. It may pose a serious pest should hemp cultivation resume in the USA. A similar situation occurred in the 1960s, when G. delineanasuddenly became a serious pest in southeastern Europe. Evidence suggests the pest was imported from its native range via infested hemp seed. Larvae of

John M. McPartland

2002-01-01

306

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF LONG, SHORT, AND MEDIUM-GRAIN RICE TO RHYZOPERTHA DOMINICA (F.), THE LESSER GRAIN BORER (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) can infest long, short, and medium grain rough rice. There is little current information regarding susceptibility of these types or of individual varieties within these general classifications. A series of tests were conducted in which lesser grain b...

307

Application of indoxacarb for managing shoot and fruit borer of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoxacarb was applied at 75 and 150 g a.i. ha for two years to an eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) crop grown in the field plots in order to evaluate its efficacy for management of the lepidopteron pest, shoot and fruit borer. The residues of the insecticide were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean initial deposits of indoxacarb on

Jayakrishnan Saimandir; Madhuban Gopal

2009-01-01

308

The role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. The biological control agent, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB), an invasive phloem-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. 2. Tetrastichus planipennisi is known to pre...

309

Development of life tables to assess the establishment and population impact of parasitoids for control of the emerald ash borers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Life tables may be used as a quantitative tool to assess the establishment and impact of introduced natural enemies. One of the critical challenges in constructing life tables for concealed insects such as emerald ash borer is to establish cohorts of the pest. The present study investigates and co...

310

Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. The biological control agent, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB), an invasive phloem-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. 2. Tetrastichus planipennisi is known to pre...

311

Identification and antennal electrophysiology of ash bark volatiles for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biologically active bark volatiles from ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) might be used as tools in monitoring the presence of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. Two compounds have been identified from the volatile emissions from white ash bark. These two compounds were readily sen...

312

Diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from coffee plantations infested with the coffee berr y borer Hypothenemus hampei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) was first reported infecting Costa Rican cof fee plantations in the year 2000. Due to the impact that this plague has in the economy of the country, we were interested in seeking new alternatives for the biological control of H. hampei, based on the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. A total of

Glen Arrieta; Alejandro Hernández; Ana M. Espinoza

2004-01-01

313

Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae): a hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Kenya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is the first report of a hyperparasitod of the primary parasitoid of the coffee berry borer Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Aphanogmus sp is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of larval and pupal stages of P. nasuta, which was found in coffee berry samples collected on the ground o...

314

FIRST-FLIGHT ADULT EUROPEAN CORN BORER (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) DISTRIBUTION IN ROADSIDE VEGETATION RELATIVE TO CROPPING PATTERNS AND CORN PHENOLOGY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a serious pest of commercial maize throughout the U.S. Corn Belt. Adults aggregate in grassy areas around and within the cornfield where they spend the daylight hours resting, and where mating activity occurs at night. Mated females leave th...

315

The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) populations in West Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa, and contributes to food shortages and malnutrition in native human populations. The genetic structure of Maruca vitrata was investigated among five sites from Burkin...

316

Reduced Fusarium Ear Rot and Symptomless Infection in Kernels of Maize Genetically Engineered for European Corn Borer Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Munkvold, G. P., Hellmich, R. L., and Showers, W. B. 1997. Reduced Fusarium ear rot and symptomless infection in kernels of maize geneti- cally engineered for European corn borer resistance. Phytopathology 87: 1071-1077. Field experiments were conducted in 1994, 1995, and 1996 to evaluate the incidence and severity of Fusarium ear rot and the incidence of symp- tomless Fusarium infection

G. P. Munkvold; R. L. Hellmich; W. B. Showers

1997-01-01

317

Applications and mechanisms of wax-based semiochemical dispenser technology for disruption of grape root borer mating  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, is an important pest of cultivated grapes in the Eastern United States from North Carolina to Florida. There are few effective registered insecticides for effective control of this pest and their efficacy is limited. Pheromone-based mating disruption i...

318

Combination treatments with diatomaceous earth and methoprene to control Rhyzopertha dominica, the lesser grain borer, in stored rough rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, is a major insect pest of stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a natural inert dust that can be used to control stored-grain beetles, however, R. dominica is more tolerant to DE compared to other beetle species. Mortality of ad...

319

Combination treatments with diatomaceous earth and methoprene to control the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in stored rough rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, is a major insect pest of stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a natural inert dust that can be used to control stored-grain beetles, however, R. dominica is more tolerant to DE compared to other beetle species. Mortality of ad...

320

Cloning and expression of an endo-1,4-?-xylanase from the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei  

PubMed Central

Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl) was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson). A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS). The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-?-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10). The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was shown to be a potent inhibitor of this xylanase, suggesting that its deployment has potential as a strategy to control coffee berry borer colonization of coffee plants.

2012-01-01

321

Effects of rearing conditions on reproduction of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) can be successfully reared on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), larvae feeding in chambers drilled in small ash twigs that are wrapped with floral tape. Females maintained in groups with males for one week can receive enough sperm for production of female progeny throughout their lives. Volatiles released by emerald ash borer adults feeding on ash foliage increased parasitoid fecundity over ash foliage alone or no stimulus. The temperature at which the parasitoids were reared ranged from 20 to 25 degrees C in a daily cycle; however, raising the daily maximum temperature to 28 degrees C did not affect parasitoid longevity or fecundity. Adult females lived between 12 and 127 d, with an average of 60.8 +/- 4.5 d. Males lived slightly longer, with an average of 66 +/- 4.5 d. The first clutch of eggs was laid when the female was between 2 and 42 d old, with the average preoviposition period lasting 11.4 +/- 1.4 or 19.5 +/- 2.0 d in 2007 and 2009 trials, respectively. A higher proportion of the emerald ash borer larvae were feeding and thus attractive to parasitoids in the 2009 trial, and female S. agrili laid an average of 9.5 +/- 1.0 clutches containing 5.4 +/- 0.2 eggs, for an average of 51.2 eggs per female. Approximately three quarters of the progeny were female. The number of eggs per clutch was significantly greater when deposited on larger emerald ash borer larvae, further highlighting the need for quality larvae in rearing. Chilling S. agrili pupae at 10 degrees C to stockpile them for summer release was not successful; chilling resulted in lower survival and lower fecundity of emerging progeny. Female S. agrili proved capable of attacking emerald ash borer larvae through even the thickest bark of an ash tree that was 30-cm diameter at breast height. Even emerald ash borer larvae that were creating overwintering chambers in the outer sapwood of the tree were successfully attacked, suggesting that S. agrili could be reared on field collected logs infested with emerald ash borer. PMID:21510183

Gould, Juli R; Ayer, Tracy; Fraser, Ivich

2011-04-01

322

Semiochemicals used in host location by the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei is a serious pest in many coffee growing countries. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of H. hampei to volatiles of different phenological stages of coffee, Coffea arabica, fruits were studied in order to identify volatile semiochemicals used in host location. Volatiles were collected from different phenological stages of C. arabica fruit by air entrainment. Electrophysiological recordings were made from insect antennae. Behavioral assays were carried out using a Perspex four-arm olfactometer. Insects spent significantly more time in the region of the olfactometer where ripe and dry fruit volatiles were present compared to control regions. Coupled gas chromatography--electroantennography revealed the presence of six electrophysiologically active compounds in C. arabica volatiles. These were identified by using GC and GC-MS as methylcyclohexane, ethylbenzene, nonane, 1-octen-3-ol, (R)-limonene, and (R)-3-ethyl-4-methylpentanol. In the olfactometer bioassay, H. hampei showed a significant response to 3-ethyl-4-methylpentanol, methylcyclohexane, nonane, ethylbenzene, and a synthetic blend of these four compounds. Attraction to the synthetic blend was comparable to that for the natural sample. The significance of the study is discussed in terms of semiochemical based pest management methods of the coffee berry borer. PMID:19714284

Mendesil, Esayas; Bruce, Toby J A; Woodcock, Christine M; Caulfield, John C; Seyoum, Emiru; Pickett, John A

2009-08-01

323

The Biology and Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China  

PubMed Central

The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed.

Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, EnShan

2010-01-01

324

The biology and ecology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China.  

PubMed

The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed. PMID:20879922

Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, En-shan

2010-01-01

325

Understanding successful resistance management: the European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn hybrids that express toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt corn, has suppressed corn borer populations and reduced the pest status of this insect in parts of the Corn Belt. Continued suppression of this pest, however, will depend on managing potential resistance to Bt corn, currently through the high-dose refuge (HDR) strategy. In this review, we describe what has been learned with regard to O. nubilalis resistance to Bt toxins either through laboratory selection experiments or isolation of resistance from field populations. We also describe the essential components of the HDR strategy as they relate to O. nubilalis biology and ecology. Additionally, recent developments in insect resistance management (IRM) specific to O. nubilalis that may affect the continued sustainability of this technology are considered. PMID:22688691

Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L

2012-07-01

326

Yellow Fever Outbreak, Imatong, Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

In May 2003, the World Health Organization received reports about a possible outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease of unknown cause in the Imatong Mountains of southern Sudan. Laboratory investigations were conducted on 28 serum samples collected from patients in the Imatong region. Serum samples from 13 patients were positive for immunoglobulin M antibody to flavivirus, and serum samples from 5 patients were positive by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction with both the genus Flavivirus–reactive primers and yellow fever virus–specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons obtained with the genus Flavivirus oligonucleotide primers confirmed yellow fever virus as the etiologic agent. Isolation attempts in newborn mice and Vero cells from the samples yielded virus isolates from five patients. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis enabled an interagency emergency task force to initiate a targeted vaccination campaign to control the outbreak.

Ofula, Victor O.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Konongoi, Samson L.; Sow, Abdourahmane; De Cock, Kevin M.; Tukei, Peter M.; Okoth, Fredrick A.; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J.; Waters, Norman C.; Coldren, Rodney L.

2004-01-01

327

Yellow fever outbreak, Imatong, southern Sudan.  

PubMed

In May 2003, the World Health Organization received reports about a possible outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease of unknown cause in the Imatong Mountains of southern Sudan. Laboratory investigations were conducted on 28 serum samples collected from patients in the Imatong region. Serum samples from 13 patients were positive for immunoglobulin M antibody to flavivirus, and serum samples from 5 patients were positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with both the genus Flavivirus-reactive primers and yellow fever virus-specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons obtained with the genus Flavivirus oligonucleotide primers confirmed yellow fever virus as the etiologic agent. Isolation attempts in newborn mice and Vero cells from the samples yielded virus isolates from five patients. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis enabled an interagency emergency task force to initiate a targeted vaccination campaign to control the outbreak. PMID:15207058

Onyango, Clayton O; Ofula, Victor O; Sang, Rosemary C; Konongoi, Sanson L; Sow, Abourahmane; De Cock, Kenin M; Tukei, Peter M; Okoth, Fredrick A; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J; Waters, Norman C; Coldren, Rodney L

2004-06-01

328

Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance. PMID:22251643

Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

2011-06-01

329

Species Profile Yellow Perch, Perca flavescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow perch flesh is very high quality, with a firm, flaky texture and mild flavor. The meat has less fat (<1 percent) than other popu- lar cultured food fish, and also fewer calories per 100-gram serv- ing (91). Yet it is high in protein (19.5 percent) and contains a modest level of omega-3 fatty acids (0.3 percent). The lower fat

J. M. Hinshaw

330

Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.  

PubMed Central

Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11

Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

1976-01-01

331

Structure of Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN this communication we report some of the results of the early stages of an X-ray diffraction study of crystals of turnip yellow mosaic virus1,2. The two most important conclusions from the interpretation of the X-ray diagrams concern: (a) the packing of the virus particles in the crystal; and (b) the arrangement of protein sub-units in the individual virus particle.

A. Klug; J. T. Finch; Rosalind E. Franklin

1957-01-01

332

Yellow sea economic zone: Vision or reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a brief review of Sino-South Korean economic relations in the 1980s, and discusses domestic and international\\u000a factors that are likely to influence economic relations between the two countries in the 1990s. Two possible scenarios are\\u000a discussed for future Sino-South Korean economic relations: increasing trade and economic interaction within limited political\\u000a relations; active economic cooperation across the Yellow

Won Bae Kim

1991-01-01

333

Laboratory studies of biology and life history of Balcha indica (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), an ectoparasitoid attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Classical biological control efforts against emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB) in North America primarily have focused on introduction and releases of exotic parasitoid species collected from northern parts of China. Recently, field surveys in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio and ...

334

Biology and life history of Balcha indica (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), an ectoparasitoid attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Balcha indica (Hymenoptera:Eupelmidae) is a solitary ectoparasitoid attacking larvae, prepupae, and pupae of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire). Its fecundity, oviposition rate, longevity and development time were determined in the laboratory. Lifetime fecundity averaged 36 eggs...

335

Mapping and characterization of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance against second-generation European corn borer in maize with the aid of RFLPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) is an important pest in the global production of maize (Zea mays L.). In this study, we mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci (QTLs) significantly affecting resistance against second-generation European corn borer (2ECB) and plant height with the aid of RFLP markers. A total of 300 F3 lines derived from cross B73 (susceptible)

Chris C Schön; Michael Lee; Albrecht E Melchinger; Wilbur D Guthrie; Wendy L Woodman

1993-01-01

336

Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis cryIA(c) gene in transgenic peanut plants and its efficacy against lesser cornstalk borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasion of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) pods and seeds by aflatoxin-forming species of Aspergillus is linked to injury by the lesser cornstalk borer and frequently causes a severe reduction in crop quality. The lesser cornstalk borer is susceptible to the lepidopteran-active Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein. We have introduced a codon-modified Bacillus thuringiensis cryIA(c) gene into peanut using microprojectile

CHONG S INGSIT; M ICHAEL; J. A DANG; ROBERT E. LY NCH

1997-01-01

337

Vibrational spectroscopic analyses of unique yellow feather pigments (spheniscins) in penguins.  

PubMed

Many animals extract, synthesize and refine chemicals for colour display, where a range of compounds and structures can produce a diverse colour palette. Feather colours, for example, span the visible spectrum and mostly result from pigments in five chemical classes (carotenoids, melanins, porphyrins, psittacofulvins and metal oxides). However, the pigment that generates the yellow colour of penguin feathers appears to represent a sixth, poorly characterized class of feather pigments. This pigment class, here termed 'spheniscin', is displayed by half of the living penguin genera; the larger and richer colour displays of the pigment are highly attractive. Using Raman and mid-infrared spectroscopies, we analysed yellow feathers from two penguin species (king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus; macaroni penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus) to further characterize spheniscin pigments. The Raman spectrum of spheniscin is distinct from spectra of other feather pigments and exhibits 17 distinctive spectral bands between 300 and 1700 cm(-1). Spectral bands from the yellow pigment are assigned to aromatically bound carbon atoms, and to skeletal modes in an aromatic, heterocyclic ring. It has been suggested that the penguin pigment is a pterin compound; Raman spectra from yellow penguin feathers are broadly consistent with previously reported pterin spectra, although we have not matched it to any known compound. Raman spectroscopy can provide a rapid and non-destructive method for surveying the distribution of different classes of feather pigments in the avian family tree, and for correlating the chemistry of spheniscin with compounds analysed elsewhere. We suggest that the sixth class of feather pigments may have evolved in a stem-lineage penguin and endowed modern penguins with a costly plumage trait that appears to be chemically unique among birds. PMID:23516063

Thomas, Daniel B; McGoverin, Cushla M; McGraw, Kevin J; James, Helen F; Madden, Odile

2013-03-20

338

Sanitation options for managing oak wood infested with the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southern California.  

PubMed

Movement of invasive wood-boring insects in wood products presents a threat to forest health and a management challenge for public and private land managers. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new pest in San Diego and Riverside Cos., CA, believed to have been introduced on firewood. This beetle has caused elevated levels of oak mortality since 2002. From 2009-2011, we tested several sanitation methods, applicable to large and small land parcels, to reduce or prevent goldspotted oak borer emergence from infested oak wood. In most experiments, emergence of goldspotted oak borer adults from the positive controls demonstrated that the beetle could complete development in firewood-sized pieces of cut oak wood. In 2009, adult emergence from sun-exposed oak wood began and peaked 2- to 4-wks earlier at a low elevation site than at a high elevation site (late May to late June). However, there were no significant effects of elevation or host species on the emergence response of goldspotted oak borer by solarization treatment in this study. Solarization of infested wood with thick (6 mil) and thin (1 mil) plastic tarpaulins (tarps) did not significantly reduce emergence of adults despite recordings of greater mean and maximum daily temperatures in both tarped treatments and greater relative humidity in the thick-tarped treatment (all compared with nontarped controls). Grinding wood with a 3"-minus screen (< or = 7.6 cm) significantly reduced goldspotted oak borer emergence compared with control treatments, and this was the best method for reducing adult emergence among those tested. In a separate grinding study, no adults emerged when wood was ground to 9"-minus (22.9 cm), 2"-minus (5.1 cm), or 1"-minus (2.5 cm) screen sizes, but a low level of adult emergence from the positive controls limited any inferences from this experiment. Debarking cut wood pieces eliminated goldspotted oak borer emergence from the wood fraction, but adults emerged from the shaved bark and phloem. PMID:23448037

Jones, Michael I; Coleman, Tom W; Graves, Andrew D; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

2013-02-01

339

Methodology for Assessing Rice Varieties for Resistance to the Lesser Grain Borer, Rhyzopertha dominica  

PubMed Central

Several physical and chemical attributes of rice were evaluated to determine which character would be best to use to assess multiple rice varieties for resistance to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). Laboratory tests were conducted on single varieties of long-, short-, and medium grain-rice to develop procedures and methodologies that could be used for large-scale screening studies. Progeny production of R. dominica was positively correlated with the percentage of broken hulls. Although kernel hardness, amylose content, neonate preference for brown rice, and adult emergence from neonates varied among the three rice varieties tested they did not appear to be valid indicators of eventual progeny production, and may not be useful predictors of resistance or susceptibility. Soundness and integrity seem to be the best characters to use for varietal screening studies with R. dominica.

Chanbang, Y; Arthur, F. H; Wilde, G. E; Throne, J. E; Subramanyam, B. H

2008-01-01

340

Response of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) neonates to root extracts from Vitaceae species and rootstocks.  

PubMed

Observations at regular intervals of the location of newly hatched grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), larvae moving freely within circular petri dish bioassays were used to measure and compare their response to dry filter paper discs treated with ethanol- or hexane-based extracts of roots from known and potential Vitaceae hosts and a nonhost. Larvae responded most strongly to discs treated with ethanol extracts, suggesting the presence of behaviorally active, polar compounds associated with roots. In single extract bioassays comparing extract versus solvent treated discs, larvae responded positively to ethanol extracts from all Vitis species and rootstocks and Virginia creeper [Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.], but not to apple (Malus domestica Borkh). Paired extract bioassays, in which an extract from the commercially important 3309 rootstock was used as the standard and presented simultaneously with extracts from other root sources, revealed examples of equal, significantly weaker and significantly stronger responses to the 3309 extract. Extracts of the 420 A and V. riparia 'Gloire' rootstocks appeared to possess qualities that elicited a consistently greater response than to 3309 extract in these pair-wise comparisons. The active compounds were eluted in ethanol during a 30-min extraction; larvae responded equally to 30- and 60-min 3309 root extracts in paired extract bioassays. Larvae responded equally to extracts of 3309 roots from three spatially separate vineyards in northern Virginia. These results are discussed in relation to the subterranean, plant-insect interactions of grape root borer neonates with the numerous native and non-native Vitis species that may serve as hosts in the eastern United States. PMID:22251689

Bergh, J C; Zhang, A; Meyer, J R; Kim, D

2011-08-01

341

Injury and interplant compensation for southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) infestations in field corn.  

PubMed

Growers that plant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids are required to plant non-Bt corn for resistance management. Refuge in a bag (RIB) is an emerging approach for resistance management where, for some hybrids having multiple Bt traits for a target species, the refuge is planted as a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn. Studies were conducted to evaluate how southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella Dyar), when infested at different densities and growth stages, affected the yield of infested, non-Bt plants and neighboring Bt plants. Infesting non-Bt corn plants with southwestern corn borer larvae caused significant injury. Both the number of larvae infested on plants and the timing of these infestations affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Infestation timing was more important than the number of larvae inoculated onto plants, with pretassel infestations causing more yield loss. There was little compensation by Bt plants that were adjacent to infested plants. Thus, the risk of yield loss from stalk tunneling larvae in a refuge in a bag scenario should be directly proportional to the percentage of non-Bt plants and the level of yield loss observed in these non-Bt plants. Because current refuge in a bag systems have five or 10% non-Bt corn plants within the seed unit, the likelihood of substantial yield losses from infestations of corn boring larvae is remote given our results, especially for infestations that occur after silking has begun. PMID:23786069

Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

2013-04-01

342

Cadherin-like receptor from the European corn borer (Ostrinia Nubilalis) for Bacillus thuringiensis cry1A toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins are lethal to the corn pest European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) larvae. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac bind to a protein of ~205-kDa in the brush border membrane vesicles. In addition, Cry1Ab binds to proteins of ~ 150 and 170-kDa and Cry1Ac binds to proteins of ~ 120 kDa. A competition ligand blot using unlabeled Cry1Ab to

Salah A. Mostafa; W. S. A. Maaty; M. A. Madkour; L. A. Bulla

2003-01-01

343

Dominicalure 1 and 2: Components of aggregation pheromone from male lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatiles from lesser grain borers,Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), were collected on Porapak Q, and those from the male beetles were shown to contain two compounds, that were attractive individually and in combination to both sexes. These compounds were identified as (S)-(+)-1-methylbutyl (E)-2-methyl-2-pentenoate and (S)-(+)-1-methylbutyl (E)-2,4-dimethyl-2-pentenoate by spectrometry and comparison with synthesized compounds. The two compounds have been assigned the

H. J. Williams; R. M. Silverstein; W. E. Burkholder; A. Khorramshahi

1981-01-01

344

Geographic and voltinism differentiation among North American Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA sequence of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and II (cox2) genes were characterized and used for population genetic analysis. Twenty-six point mutations were identified from a 2,156 bp DNA sequence alignment. The frequency of polymorphic cox1 DdeI and HaeIII, and cox2 Sau3AI and MspI restriction sites were determined from 1,414

Brad S. Coates; Douglas V. Sumerford; Richard L. Hellmich

345

Isolation and characterization of Isaria farinosa and Purpureocillium lilacinum associated with emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entomopathogenic fungi of the genera Isaria and Purpureocillium were recovered from infestation sites of emerald ash borer (EAB) in southern Ontario, Canada. Isolates were identified using morphological characters and by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal DNA gene and partial ?-tubulin gene. Phylogenetic analysis and constructed trees based on the ITS and ?-tubulin gene explicitly confirm isolates L66B, SY17-a and LHY46-a as

Shajahan Johny; George Kyei-Poku; Debbie Gauthier; Kees van Frankenhuyzen

2012-01-01

346

Impacts of the emerald ash borer (EAB) eradication and tree mortality: potential for a secondary spread of invasive plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of the emerald ash borer in 2002, eradication efforts have been implemented in an attempt to eliminate\\u000a or contain the spread of this invasive beetle. The eradication protocol called for the removal of every ash tree within a\\u000a 0.8 km radius around an infested tree. In 2005 this study was established to identify environmental changes attributed to\\u000a the

Constance E. HausmanJohn; John F. Jaeger; Oscar J. Rocha

2010-01-01

347

Synthesis of (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, a Potential Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), AgrilusplanipennisFairmaire, is an invasive insect that has killed millions of ash trees in the USA and Canada. A concise synthesis of a potential EAB pheromone component, (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, using a highly stereoselective Julia-Kocienski olefination as the key step, is reported.Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Synthetic Communications® to view

D. I. MaGee; P. D. Mayo; P. J. Silk; B. Beattie

2012-01-01

348

Electrophysiological Response and Attraction of Emerald Ash Borer to Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs) Emitted by Host Foliage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) function as host attractants, pheromone synergists, or sexual kairomones for a number of coleopteran\\u000a folivores. Hence, we focused on host GLVs to determine if they were attractive to adults of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), which feeds on ash (Fraxinus) foliage. Eight GLVs were identified by chromatography-electroantennogram (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry in foliar

Peter de Groot; Gary G. Grant; Therese M. Poland; Roger Scharbach; Linda Buchan; Reginald W. Nott; Linda Macdonald; Doug Pitt

2008-01-01

349

North American arthropods at risk due to widespread Fraxinus mortality caused by the Alien Emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB), an alien invasive wood-boring buprestid beetle, is causing large-scale decline and mortality of the most\\u000a widely distributed species of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees endemic to eastern North America. We determined which arthropod species that are associated with ash may become\\u000a threatened, endangered, and co-extinct with the demise of ash as a dominant tree

Kamal J. K. GandhiDaniel; Daniel A. Herms

2010-01-01

350

Could phenotypic plasticity limit an invasive species? Incomplete reversibility of mid-winter deacclimation in emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a wood-boring invasive pest devastating North American ash (Fraxinus spp.). A. planipennis overwinters primarily as a freeze-avoiding prepupa within the outer xylem or inner bark of the host tree. The range of this\\u000a species is expanding outward from its presumed introduction point in southwestern Michigan. We hypothesized that loss of cold

Stephanie Sobek-SwantJill; Jill C. Crosthwaite; D. Barry Lyons; Brent J. Sinclair

351

Geostatistical analysis of the spatial variation of the berry borer and leaf miner in a coffee agroecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of geostatistics and geographical information systems has made it possible to analyze complex spatial patterns\\u000a of ecological phenomena over large areas in applied insect ecology and pest management. The objective of this study was to\\u000a use geostatistics to characterize the spatial structure and map the spatial variation of damage caused by the berry borer\\u000a (Hypothenemus hampei) and leaf

Marcelo C. de Alves; Fábio M. da Silva; Jair Campos Moraes; Edson A. Pozza; Marcelo S. de Oliveira; Júlio C. S. Souza; Luciana S. Alves

2011-01-01

352

Bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the greater Yellowstone area during four postfire years. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Surveys of bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the Greater Yellowstone Area were conducted from 1991 through 1993 to determine the effect of delayed tree mortality on mosaics of fire-killed and green tree stands, the relationship between fire injury and infestation, but both types of mortality greatly altered the mosaics immediately apparent after the 1988 fires. The high level of infestation suggests that insects built up in fire-injured trees and then caused increased infestation of uninjured trees.

Rasmussen, L.A.; Amman, G.D.; Vandygriff, J.C.; Oakes, R.D.; Munson, A.S.

1996-03-01

353

Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.  

PubMed

Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions. PMID:19568811

Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

2009-07-02

354

Alpha-amylases of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and their inhibition by two plant amylase inhibitors.  

PubMed

The adult coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari [Coleoptera: Scolytidae]), a major insect pest of coffee, has two major digestive alpha-amylases that can be separated by isoelectric focusing. The alpha-amylase activity has a broad pH optimum between 4.0 and 7.0. Using pH indicators, the pH of the midgut was determined to be between 4.5 and 5.2. At pH 5.0, the coffee berry borer alpha-amylase activity is inhibited substantially (80%) by relatively low levels of the amylase inhibitor (alphaAI-1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and much less so by the amylase inhibitor from Amaranthus. We used an in-gel zymogram assay to demonstrate that seed extracts can be screened to find suitable inhibitors of amylases. The prospect of using the genes that encode these inhibitors to make coffee resistant to the coffee berry borer via genetic engineering is discussed. PMID:10732988

Valencia, A; Bustillo, A E; Ossa, G E; Chrispeels, M J

2000-03-01

355

Efficacy of multifunnel traps for capturing emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): effect of color, glue, and other trap coatings.  

PubMed

Tens of thousands of adhesive-coated purple prism traps are deployed annually in the United States to survey for the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). A reusable, more user-friendly trap is desired by program managers, surveyors, and researchers. Field assays were conducted in southeastern Michigan to ascertain the feasibility of using nonsticky traps as survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer. Three nonsticky trap designs, including multifunnel (Lindgren), modified intercept panel, and drainpipe (all painted purple) were compared with the standard purple prism trap; no statistical differences in capture of emerald ash borer adults were detected between the multifunnel design and the prism. In subsequent color comparison assays, both green- and purple-painted multifunnel traps (and later, plastic versions of these colors) performed as well or better than the prism traps. Multifunnel traps coated with spray-on adhesive caught more beetles than untreated traps. The increased catch, however, occurred in the traps' collection cups and not on the trap surface. In a separate assay, there was no significant difference detected between glue-coated traps and Rain-X (normally a glass treatment)-coated traps, but both caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than untreated traps. PMID:21735910

Francese, Joseph A; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

2011-06-01

356

Field Test of Two Energetic Models for Yellow Perch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field data from a population of yellow perch Perca flavescens in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, were used to evaluate the ability of two energetic models to predict consumption by yellow perch. Field estimates of daily ration for age-1–4 fish during May through October 1987 and 1988 were compared with independent predictions made by the Wisconsin energetic model and an energetic

Jeffrey S. Schaeffer; Robert C. Haas; James S. Diana; James E. Breck

1999-01-01

357

Application of remote sensing monitoring system in the yellow river  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet the needs of modern flood control, according to the current situations of monitoring in the Yellow River, three type's remote sensing manners are carried out, i.e. flood remote sensing automatic monitoring; drought remote sensing monitoring; unpiloted aircraft remote sensing monitoring. The three methods offer supplements for data collecting and processing in the Yellow River. As a

Deng Yu; Wang Juan

2010-01-01

358

Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease is Caused by Multiple Virus Complexes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blackberry yellow vein disease, with symptoms of vein clearing, yellow mottling, ringspots and plant decline has been observed in blackberry in the southeastern United States since about 2000. At least six viruses have been identified by cloning and sequencing of double-stranded RNA from diseased p...

359

Macroinvertebrates in the bed sediment of the Yellow River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive agricultural, industrial and urban development in the Yellow River, China, have modified the sediment-water balance, flow and inundation regimes, longitudinal connectivity, integrity of riparian vegetation, and water quality. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in the bed sediment of main channel and major reservoirs of the Yellow River are described in detail for the first time. A total of 74 taxa comprising 17

Weihua ZHAO; Haijun WANG; Hongzhu WANG; Paul G. CLOSE

2011-01-01

360

First case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902.  

PubMed Central

The first case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902 was reported in March 1998. The yellow fever virus genome was detected in postmortem liver biopsies by seminested polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis showed that this strain was most closely related to strains from Brazil and Ecuador.

Heraud, J. M.; Hommel, D.; Hulin, A.; Deubel, V.; Poveda, J. D.; Sarthou, J. L.; Talarmin, A.

1999-01-01

361

The control of yellow fever: a centennial account  

Microsoft Academic Search

? The historical toll Up to 1900, yellow fever was greatly feared as a tropical disease. It decimated incomers to Central and South America, whether they were traders, soldiers or settlers, and it gave to West Africa its reputation as the white man's grave. In the Caribbean, yellow fever enfeebled British and French expeditionary armies and it claimed many lives

Philip P. Mortimer

362

Conserving migrating shorebirds in the Yellow Sea region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow Sea Region lies between North and South Korea to the east and China to the west, and covers an area of 458 000 sq km. Biodiversity in the inter-tidal zone of the Yellow Sea Region is high: excellent feeding and roosting areas accom- modate many different species of waterbirds, and preliminary records indicate that the coastal zone of

C. Kelin; X. Qiang

363

Colour-Sense in Birds---Blue and Yellow Crocuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNLESS your readers are quite tired of the subject, may I add a fact which will be subversive of a good deal that has been written about yellow crocuses and sparrows. I dislike yellow crocuses, and four seasons since planted some hundreds of blue and white in the garden underneath my windows. For two seasons they flowered in beautiful profusion.

W. B. Tegetmeier

1877-01-01

364

Yellow Perch Research and Management in Lake Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is an important component of near-shore freshwater fish communities. It plays an important role in energy cycling and transfer, and is available to nearly all segments of the angling public and to commercial fisheries. Beginning around 1990, yellow perch population density declined in Lake Michigan due in part to an almost complete lack of recruitment. In

David F. Clapp; John M. Dettmers

2004-01-01

365

The response of river water quality and quantity to the development of irrigated agriculture in the last 4 decades in the Yellow River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irrigation agriculture is a major economic activity throughout the Yellow River Basin and has doubled in area in the last 5 decades. Monitoring data for major ions at 63 monitoring stations in the Yellow River system, ranging from 1960 to 2000, were studied. The concentration of major ions in much of the basin, and especially in downstream of the major irrigation areas of the upper basin, increases significantly between 1960 and 2000. We conclude that this increasing trend is mainly a result of saline irrigation return waters, especially from irrigated lands in arid zones of northern China where sodium increases by 100% and total dissolved solids increases by 29% in the main stem. Since 1972 a critical water quantity issue, "duanliu," has appeared, which refers to the drying up of the lower reach of the Yellow River. This phenomenon is due mainly to increasing irrigation water withdrawal, which is officially reported to be 91% of all surface water abstraction from the Yellow River. High rates of evapotranspiration and loss to groundwater, especially in the arid irrigated areas in two large irrigation areas in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia, where abstracted water is some 25-30% of annual main stem flow, creates major water losses. There is a need to develop and enforce more rational water quotas as part of a reform of water management in the basin so that basin-wide management is given at least as much importance as provincial-level benefits.

Chen, Jingsheng; He, Dawei; Cui, Shubin

2003-03-01

366

Transgenic sugarcane plants expressing high levels of modified cry1Ac provide effective control against stem borers in field trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve transgene expression level, we synthesized a truncated insecticidal gene m-cry1Ac by increasing its GC content from 37.4 to 54.8%, based on the codon usage pattern of sugarcane genes, and transferred it\\u000a into two sugarcane cultivars (ROC16 and YT79-177) by microprojectile bombardment. The integration sites and expression pattern\\u000a of the transgene were determined, respectively, by Southern, northern and western

Li-Xing Weng; Hai-Hua Deng; Jin-Ling Xu; Qi Li; Yu-Qian Zhang; Zi-De Jiang; Qi-Wei Li; Jian-Wen Chen; Lian-Hui Zhang

367

Effect of Rapid Cold Hardening on the Cold Tolerance of the Larvae of the Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of rapid cold hardening (RCH) on the cold tolerance of the last instar larvae of Chilo suppressalis (Walker) were evaluated for the first time. The discriminating temperature, induction, detection, duration and extent of RCH of the larvae in the laboratory were tested, and the supercooling points (SCPs) and the contents of water and lipid of the larvae after

Cheng-kui QIANG; Yu-zhou DU; Ling-ya YU; Ya-dong CUI; Fu-shan ZHENG; Ming-xing LU

2008-01-01

368

Seasonal Changes of Fatty Acid Compositions in Overwintering Larvae of Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold acclimation and overwintering state can affect fatty acid compositions of insects. To determine compositional change of fatty acids during nondiapause and diapause stages, an experiment was conducted to investigate fatty acid constituents from whole body of C. suppressalis larvae. Five most abundant fatty acids were found to be palmitoleic (35–58%), palmitic (18–44%), oleic (14–23%), stearic (0.5–2.5%) and linoleic acid

Maryam Atapour; Saeid Moharramipour; Mohsen Barzegar

2007-01-01

369

Estimating the economic injury level and the economic threshold for the use of 𝛂-cypermethrin against the sugarcane borer, Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five years of data from insecticide trials that assessed the value of using ?-cypermethrin (Fastac®) against the sugarcane borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were used to estimate the economic injury level (EIL) and the economic threshold (ET) for this pest. The analysis was based on estimates of borer damage (percentage of internodes bored) and larval numbers, and the effect

Graeme W. Leslie

2009-01-01

370

Field-cage methodology for evaluating climatic suitability for introduced wood-borer parasitoids: preliminary results from the emerald ash borer system.  

PubMed

Field-cage methods were developed to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-season releases at both a northern (Michigan) and a southern (Maryland) location within the current North American range of A. planipennis. In August, September and October of 2009, five young green ash trees were selected at each location. Tetrastichus planipennisi and S. agrili were each randomly assigned to one of two cages attached to each tree, surrounding separate sections of trunk in which late-instar A. planipennis had been inserted. The following April, the caged trunk sections were dissected to determine the fate of each A. planipennis larva and the developmental stages of all recovered parasitoid progeny. At both locations, T. planipennisi and S. agrili were able to parasitize hosts and successfully overwinter (i.e., reach adulthood the following spring). For T. planipennisi, successful parasitism (i.e., parasitoid progeny reached adulthood) occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August and September releases in Michigan. At both locations, percent parasitism by T. planipennisi was higher in August and September than in October. For S. agrili, successful parasitism occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August release in Michigan. In Maryland, percent parasitism by S. agrili in August and September was higher than in October. The caging method described here should be useful in determining the climatic suitability of other regions before proceeding with large-scale releases of either species and may have utility in other wood-borer parasitoid systems as well. PMID:22233133

Ulyshen, Michael D; Duan, Jian J; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Taylor, Phil; Bean, Dick; Holko, Carol; Van Driesche, Roy

2011-01-01

371

Microanalytical identification of Pb-Sb-Sn yellow pigment in historical European paintings and its differentiation from lead tin and Naples yellows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work is focused on identification of lead tin yellow types I and II, Naples yellow, and also on discrimination of a less common, distinct yellow pigment, the ternary Pb-Sb-Sn oxide.The knowledge about all those Pb-based yellows was in fact forgotten after introduction of modern synthetic yellows in 19th century. As late as in the last decade of the 20th

David Hradil; Tomáš Grygar; Janka Hradilová; Petr Bezdi?ka; Veronika Gr?nwaldová; Igor Fogaš; Costanza Miliani

2007-01-01

372

A PCR BASED ASSAY FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF CLOVER YELLOW VEIN VIRUS AND BEAN YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS IN COMMON BEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Clover yellow vein virus (CYVV) and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) (Family: Potyviridae) are important viruses of snap and dry bean. Serological differentiation of the two viruses has typically been difficult because of the close relationship between their respective coat proteins. An RT-PCR assa...

373

Landscape context and scale differentially impact coffee leaf rust, coffee berry borer, and coffee root-knot nematodes.  

PubMed

Crop pest and disease incidences at plot scale vary as a result of landscape effects. Two main effects can be distinguished. First, landscape context provides habitats of variable quality for pests, pathogens, and beneficial and vector organisms. Second, the movements of these organisms are dependent on the connectivity status of the landscape. Most of the studies focus on indirect effects of landscape context on pest abundance through their predators and parasitoids, and only a few on direct effects on pests and pathogens. Here we studied three coffee pests and pathogens, with limited or no pressure from host-specific natural enemies, and with widely varying life histories, to test their relationships with landscape context: a fungus, Hemileia vastatrix, causal agent of coffee leaf rust; an insect, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. Their incidence was assessed in 29 coffee plots from Turrialba, Costa Rica. In addition, we characterized the landscape context around these coffee plots in 12 nested circular sectors ranging from 50 to 1500 m in radius. We then performed correlation analysis between proportions of different land uses at different scales and coffee pest and disease incidences. We obtained significant positive correlations, peaking at the 150 m radius, between coffee berry borer abundance and proportion of coffee in the landscape. We also found significant positive correlations between coffee leaf rust incidence and proportion of pasture, peaking at the 200 m radius. Even after accounting for plot level predictors of coffee leaf rust and coffee berry borer through covariance analysis, the significance of landscape structure was maintained. We hypothesized that connected coffee plots favored coffee berry borer movements and improved its survival. We also hypothesized that wind turbulence, produced by low-wind-resistance land uses such as pasture, favored removal of coffee leaf rust spore clusters from host surfaces, resulting in increased epidemics. In contrast, root-knot nematode population density was not correlated to landscape context, possibly because nematodes are almost immobile in the soil. We propose fragmenting coffee plots with forest corridors to control coffee berry borer movements between coffee plots without favoring coffee leaf rust dispersal. PMID:22611856

Avelino, Jacques; Romero-Gurdián, Alí; Cruz-Cuellar, Héctor F; Declerck, Fabrice A J

2012-03-01

374

Stemming the Stem Cell Setback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Comment highlights the recent federal funding setbacks in the biotechnology industry and considers the resulting challenges to future research collaboration. After providing a historical background to stem cell technology, Mr. Fleis examines the passionately opposed public responses to the technology's use of embryos and to its future applications. Fleis continues by noting past legislative initiatives that have accelerated the

Patrick J. Fleis

2003-01-01

375

A Review of the Natural History and Laboratory Culture Methods for the Yellow Dung Fly, Scathophaga stercoraria  

PubMed Central

The yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (L.) (Diptera: Scathophagidae) is a widespread and locally abundant fly associated with the dung of large mammals, especially farm animals. This species has recently become a standard test organism for evaluating toxic effects of veterinary pharmaceuticals in livestock dung. In this context, a review of its natural history and a general description of the field and laboratory rearing methods of this species are provided here to benefit the scientific community as well as government regulators and applicants of eco-toxicological studies. For guidance, means and ranges are included for all relevant standard life history traits stemming from previously published data on Swiss populations.

Blanckenhorn, WU; Pemberton, AJ; Bussiere, LF; Roembke, J; Floate, KD

2010-01-01

376

Sticky trap and stem-tap sampling protocols for the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sampling statistics were obtained to develop a sampling protocol for estimating numbers of adult Diaphorina citri in citrus using two different sampling methods: yellow sticky traps and stem–tap samples. A 4.0 ha block of mature orange trees was stratified into ten 0.4 ha strata and sampled using...

377

STEM Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

STEM Planet is a well designed website that is aimed at students of all levels and ages. The site is comprised of "employees of the National Network of Digital Schools (NNDS), a non-profit developer of the Lincoln Interactive online curriculum." These employees believe that students "succeed when their educational program offers a wide variety of learning opportunities." Visitors to the site will find that the learning opportunities consist of DIY experiments, discussion topics, polls, quizzes and activities. Some examples include making a homemade battery, origami engineering, taking a quiz on space phenomena, and exploring quantum mechanics. Visitors can join and comment on the Science, Technology, Engineering and Math "discussions" by simply registering on the site. Those only interested in reading the comments made in the forums under the discussion tab need not register. The "Experts" tab allows visitors to see all the great minds behind STEM Planet, including an extremely bright 14 year old.

2012-02-07

378

Assessing Yellow Fever Risk in the Ecuadorian Amazon  

PubMed Central

This study reports results of a cross-sectional study based on interviews and seroepidemiological methods to identify risk factors for yellow fever infection among personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. Clinical symptoms and signs observed among yellow fever cases are also described. Humoral immune response to yellow fever, Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche, and dengue 2 infection was assessed by evaluating IgM and IgG specific antibodies. A yellow fever attack rate of 13% (44/341, with 3 fatal cases) was observed among military personnel. Signs of digestive track bleeding (14.6%) and hematuria (4.9%) were observed among the yellow fever cases. In 32.2% of the cases, we measured high levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase with maximum levels of 6,830 and 3,500, respectively. Signs of bleeding or jaundice were observed in some cases, and high levels of transaminases were seen. The epidemiological and laboratory investigations demonstrated that the military personnel were affected by a yellow fever outbreak. The association between clearing the rainforest and also being at the detachments with yellow fever infection confirms that clearing is the main factor in the jungle model of transmission, which takes place deep in the Amazonian rainforest.

Izurieta, Ricardo O; Macaluso, Maurizio; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B; Guerra, Bolivar; Cruz, Ligia M; Galwankar, Sagar; Vermund, Sten H

2009-01-01

379

Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To fully understand the biological meaning of the term stem cell (SC) it is useful to clarify the derivation of the root staminal, even though modern research published in English-speaking journals never seem to use the term staminal. While there are\\u000a no doubts that the term SC originated in the context of two major embryological questions, the continuity of the

Manuela Monti; Carlo Alberto Redi

380

Role of Cellulose Oxidation in the Yellowing of Ancient Paper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yellowing of paper on aging causes major aesthetic damages of cultural heritage. It is due to cellulose oxidation, a complex process with many possible products still to be clarified. By comparing ultraviolet-visible reflectance spectra of ancient and artificially aged modern papers with ab initio time-dependent density functional theory calculations, we identify and estimate the abundance of oxidized functional groups acting as chromophores and responsible of paper yellowing. This knowledge can be used to set up strategies and selective chemical treatments preventing paper yellowing.

Mosca Conte, A.; Pulci, O.; Knapik, A.; Bagniuk, J.; Del Sole, R.; Lojewska, J.; Missori, M.

2012-04-01

381

Vegetative Ecological Characteristics of Restored Reed ( Phragmites australis) Wetlands in the Yellow River Delta, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we compared ecological characteristics of wetland vegetation in a series of restoration projects that were carried out in the wetlands of Yellow River Delta. The investigated characteristics include plant composition structure, species diversity and community similarity in three kinds of Phragmites australis wetlands, i.e. restored P. australis wetlands (R1, R2, R3 and R4: restored in 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2009, respectively), natural P. australis wetland (N) and degraded P. australis wetland (D) to assess the process of wetlands restoration. The coverage of the R1 was 99%, which was similar to natural wetland. Among all studied wetlands, the highest and lowest stem density was observed in R1 and R2, respectively, Plant height and stem diameter show the same trend as N > R2 > R1 > R3 > D > R4. Species diversity of restored P. australis wetlands became closed to natural wetland. Both species richness and Shannon-Wiener index had similar tendency: increased first and then decreased with restored time. The highest species richness and species diversity were observed in R2, while the lowest values of those parameters were found in natural P. australis wetland. Similarity indexes between restored wetlands and natural wetland increased with the restoration time, but they were still less than 50%. The results indicate that the vegetation of P. australis wetlands has experienced a great improvement after several years' restoration, and it is feasible to restored degraded P. australis wetlands by pouring fresh water into those wetlands in the Yellow River Delta. However, it is notable that costal degraded P. australis wetland in this region may take years to decades to reach the status of natural wetland.

Wang, Xuehong; Yu, Junbao; Zhou, Di; Dong, Hongfang; Li, Yunzhao; Lin, Qianxin; Guan, Bo; Wang, Yongli

2012-02-01

382

Vegetative ecological characteristics of restored reed (Phragmites australis) wetlands in the Yellow River Delta, China.  

PubMed

In this study, we compared ecological characteristics of wetland vegetation in a series of restoration projects that were carried out in the wetlands of Yellow River Delta. The investigated characteristics include plant composition structure, species diversity and community similarity in three kinds of Phragmites australis wetlands, i.e. restored P. australis wetlands (R1, R2, R3 and R4: restored in 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2009, respectively), natural P. australis wetland (N) and degraded P. australis wetland (D) to assess the process of wetlands restoration. The coverage of the R1 was 99%, which was similar to natural wetland. Among all studied wetlands, the highest and lowest stem density was observed in R1 and R2, respectively, Plant height and stem diameter show the same trend as N > R2 > R1 > R3 > D > R4. Species diversity of restored P. australis wetlands became closed to natural wetland. Both species richness and Shannon-Wiener index had similar tendency: increased first and then decreased with restored time. The highest species richness and species diversity were observed in R2, while the lowest values of those parameters were found in natural P. australis wetland. Similarity indexes between restored wetlands and natural wetland increased with the restoration time, but they were still less than 50%. The results indicate that the vegetation of P. australis wetlands has experienced a great improvement after several years' restoration, and it is feasible to restored degraded P. australis wetlands by pouring fresh water into those wetlands in the Yellow River Delta. However, it is notable that costal degraded P. australis wetland in this region may take years to decades to reach the status of natural wetland. PMID:21968874

Wang, Xuehong; Yu, Junbao; Zhou, Di; Dong, Hongfang; Li, Yunzhao; Lin, Qianxin; Guan, Bo; Wang, Yongli

2011-10-04

383

Artificial carbon dioxide source to attract lesser cornstalk borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae.  

PubMed

Different combinations of urea, urease (in jack bean meal, Canavalia DC.), and water were tested as carbon dioxide sources to attract larvae of lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalus lignosellus (Zeller), by using olfactory bioassays with an olfactometer and infrared gas analysis. A combination of urea, jack bean meal, and water was necessary to release a high level of carbon dioxide to attract the larvae. Different proportions of the three ingredients had different carbon dioxide release rates and exhibited different levels of attraction to the larvae. When carbon dioxide concentration was too high, attractiveness declined. Combinations with different amounts of water remained attractive for a period of up to 3 d, depending on the moisture of the samples. When Zonolite was used to simulate the soil conditions in the olfactometer, significantly more larvae located the area near the artificial carbon dioxide sources compared with the control. When combined with the artificial carbon dioxide sources, three insecticides (Lorsban, Temik, and Force) did not obviously affect the release rates of carbon dioxide, and more larvae were attracted to samples with the carbon dioxide source than to the samples without carbon dioxide. PMID:11561844

Huang, X; Mack, T P

2001-08-01

384

Synthesis of the deuterated sex pheromone components of the grape borer, Xylotrechus pyrrhoderus.  

PubMed

Adult males of the grape borer, Xylotrechus pyrrhoderus, secrete (S)-2-hydroxy-3-octanone [(S)-1] and (2S,3S)-2,3-octanediol [(2S,3S)-2] from their nota of prothoraces as sex pheromone components. Their structural similarity suggests that one of them is the biosynthetic precursor of the other component. In order to confirm the biochemical conversion, deuterated derivatives of both components were synthesized by starting from a Wittig reaction between hexanal and an ylide derived from D(5)-iodoethane and ending with enantiomeric resolution by chiral HPLC. The molecular ions of 1 and 2 could scarcely be detected by using a GC-MS analysis, and the labeled compounds showed similar mass spectra to the unlabeled pheromone components. However, several fragment ions, including four deuterium atoms, were observed in the mass spectra of their acetate derivatives, indicating that the conversion could be confirmed by examining a compound with the diagnostic ions after acetylation of the volatiles collected from insects treated with the labeled precursors. PMID:19809185

Kiyota, Ryutaro; Yamakawa, Rei; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Hoshino, Keita; Ando, Tetsu

2009-10-07

385

Behavioral evidence for a contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire.  

PubMed

The cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis, were examined to determine if there are differences in these compounds between the sexes. We also assessed feral male EAB in the field for behavioral changes based on the application of a female-specific compound to dead, solvent-washed beetles. Males in the field spent significantly more time attempting copulation with dead, pinned female beetles coated with a three-beetle-equivalent dose of 3-methyltricosane than with solvent-washed beetles or those coated in 3-methyltricosane at lower concentrations. Males in the field spent the most time investigating pinned dead, unwashed female beetles. In the laboratory, sexually mature males were presented with one of several mixtures applied in hexane to filter paper disks or to the elytra of dead female beetles first washed in solvent. Male EAB also spent more time investigating dead beetles treated with solution applications that contained 3-methyltricosane than dead beetles and filter paper disks treated with male body wash or a straight-chain hydrocarbon not found on the cuticle of EAB. PMID:19153798

Lelito, Jonathan P; Böröczky, Katalin; Jones, Tappey H; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C; Tumlinson, James H; Baker, Thomas C

2009-01-20

386

Analysis of Gene Expression in Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Using Quantitative Real Time-PCR  

PubMed Central

Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is an exotic invasive pest, which has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp) in North America.EAB continues to spread rapidly and attacks ash trees of different ages, from saplings to mature trees. However, to date very little or no molecular knowledge exists for EAB. We are interested in deciphering the molecular-based physiological processes at the tissue level that aid EAB in successful colonization of ash trees. In this report we show the effective use of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to ascertain mRNA levels in different larval tissues (including midgut, fat bodies and cuticle) and different developmental stages (including 1st-, 2nd-, 3rd-, 4th-instars, prepupae and adults) of EAB. As an example, a peritrophin gene (herein named, AP-PERI1) is exemplified as the gene of interest and a ribosomal protein (AP-RP1) as the internal control. Peritrophins are important components of the peritrophic membrane/matrix (PM), which is the lining of the insect gut. The PM has diverse functions including digestion and mechanical protection to the midgut epithelium.

Bhandary, Binny; Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Rivera-Vega, Loren; Mittapalli, Omprakash

2010-01-01

387

A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C(25)), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with (n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C(25), which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C(25) had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae. PMID:19238346

Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping

2009-02-24

388

Analysis of gene expression in emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) using quantitative real time-PCR.  

PubMed

Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is an exotic invasive pest, which has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp) in North America. EAB continues to spread rapidly and attacks ash trees of different ages, from saplings to mature trees. However, to date very little or no molecular knowledge exists for EAB. We are interested in deciphering the molecular-based physiological processes at the tissue level that aid EAB in successful colonization of ash trees. In this report we show the effective use of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to ascertain mRNA levels in different larval tissues (including midgut, fat bodies and cuticle) and different developmental stages (including 1(st)-, 2(nd)-, 3(rd)-, 4(th)-instars, prepupae and adults) of EAB. As an example, a peritrophin gene (herein named, AP-PERI1) is exemplified as the gene of interest and a ribosomal protein (AP-RP1) as the internal control. Peritrophins are important components of the peritrophic membrane/matrix (PM), which is the lining of the insect gut. The PM has diverse functions including digestion and mechanical protection to the midgut epithelium. PMID:20445495

Bhandary, Binny; Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Rivera-Vega, Loren; Mittapalli, Omprakash

2010-05-04

389

Ultrasonic courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia furnacalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although sex pheromone communication in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been studied intensively, acoustic communication in this genus has not been explored. In this study, we report that male-produced ultrasound serves as a courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, O. furnacalis. Upon landing close to a pheromone-releasing female, a male showed a series of courtship behaviors involving emission of ultrasound. The sounds were produced when the wings were vibrated quickly in an upright position. The male song was composed of chirps, i.e., groups of pulses (duration of a chirp = 58.9 ms, 8.8 pulses/chirp), with a broadband frequency of 25-100 kHz. In flight tunnel experiments, deaf and hearing females showed a significant difference in the incidence of three behavioral responses to courting males, i.e., immediate acceptance, acceptance after walking, and rejection. Deaf females showed more ‘rejection’ and less ‘acceptance after walking’ than hearing females, indicating that the detection of male-produced ultrasound plays an important role in the acceptance of a male. The findings are discussed in the context of exploitation of receiver bias and mate choice.

Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma

2006-06-01

390

Does the wood-borer Sphaeroma terebrans (Crustacea) shape the distribution of the mangrove Rhizophora mucronata?  

PubMed

Field surveys were conducted to evaluate the occurrence of the isopod borer Sphaeroma terebrans (Crustacea) in aerial roots (prop roots) of the red mangrove Rhizophora mucronata on several different spatial scales (m to 100 km) in East Africa. In 6 out of 17 sites studied in Kenya and on Zanzibar Island, Tanzania, no signs of the isopods were found. When the isopods were present the frequency of infestation was high. Trees in muddy substrates in the lower intertidal, in particular at fringing channels or the open sea, showed high prevalence and intensity of infestation, with large part of their roots damaged or dead. Trees at the upper range of Rhizophora, in sandy and muddy areas, showed no signs of isopod infestation. This pattern recurred in mangrove forests on large spatial scales and there was no indication that island forests differed from the mainland forests. This indicates that sediment characteristics, vertical height in the tidal zone, and direct exposure to incoming water are the major factors controlling the abundance of S. terebrans. The isopod may play an important role in determining the lower intertidal limits of R. mucronata. Trees with numerous dead or nongrowing roots, as result of Sphaeroma attack, are likely to tumble due to a lack of root support and this is most likely to occur along channels at the lower, muddy intertidal. Tumbled trees were frequently observed along channels in the lower, muddy intertidal, but rarely in the mid or high intertidal. Implications for management of mangrove forests are discussed. PMID:12572825

Svavarsson, Jörundur; Osore, Melckzedeck K W; Olafsson, Emil

2002-12-01

391

A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with ( n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C25 had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.

Silk, Peter J.; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D.; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping

2009-05-01

392

Genetic similarity of eggplant shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis, populations.  

PubMed

Shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee) (Pyraustidae: Lepidoptera), has become a production constraint in all eggplant (Solanum melongena Linn. [Solanaceae])-growing countries. In India, transgenic eggplants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins have been tested in fields by private- and public-sector agencies. Understanding population diversity is important in designing strategies for better pest management. In the present investigation, random-amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of L. orbonalis population collected from different field locations in the Tamilnadu State of India. Of 17 random-amplified polymorphic DNA primers screened, only 11 primers generated polymorphic bands (up to 14 bands). According to their level of similarities, only two major clusters with no variation among population were deduced. Our results indicated that there is a steady genetic flow among the present population of L. orbonalis alleviating genetic variation, which may be attributed to passive and active dispersal of the insect besides absence of host-induced variations among the population. As molecular variability of L. orbonalis population is an important consideration for shoot and fruit damage of the eggplant, constant monitoring is essential to study the possible development of Cry protein resistance in L. orbonalis. PMID:19715478

Marimuthu, Murugan; Perumal, Yasodha; Salim, Abida Puthenpeedikal; Sharma, Gautam

2009-12-01

393

Thermal expansion of Neapolitan Yellow Tuff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In saturated rocks and soils it is possible to define different coefficients of thermal expansion depending on the drainage conditions. This topic is first examined from the theoretical point of view with regard to an ideal isotropic thermo-elastic porous medium. Some special features of the behaviour of natural soils and rocks during thermal expansion tests are subsequently discussed. An experimental evaluation of some of these coefficients is presented in the second part of the paper. The material investigated is a pyroclastic rock, the so-called Neapolitan Yellow Tuff. Thermal expansion coefficient in drairend conditions has been evaluated, when this material is saturated with water. The e pressure increase induced by heating has been measured in undrained tes temperatures investigated range between room temperature up to 225°C. Different types of apparatus have been used and, when possible, a comparison between the results has been proposed. The results obtained in undrained thermal expansion tests are in agreement with theoretical predictions. This research is part of an on-going study of the complex phenomena known as Bradyseism, which is occurring in a volcanic area a few kilometers from Naples (Italy). Some considerations on this phenomenon are drawn in the last paragraph of the paper.

Aversa, S.; Evangelista, A.

1993-10-01

394

Mosquitoes Known to Carry Dengue, Yellow Fever Seen in California  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Mosquitoes known to carry dengue, yellow fever seen in California (*this news item will not ... October 30, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dengue Hemorrhagic Fevers Insect Bites and Stings By Steve Gorman LOS ...

395

RISK ANALYSIS: CASE HISTORY OF PUCCINIA JACEAE ON YELLOW STARTHISTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Risk analysis has five components: Risk awareness, Risk perception, Risk assessment, Risk management, and Risk communication. Using the case with the foreign plant pathogen, Puccinia jaceae, under evaluation for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, YST), approaches and...

396

Puccinia jaceae var.solstitialis teliospore priming on yellow starthistle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Following the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis to California for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae), teliospores, pycnia, and multiple urediniospore generations have been observed in the field. Because urediniospores have a relatively short...

397

Yellow steam and electrical pipes across from Bright Angel Lodge. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Yellow steam and electrical pipes across from Bright Angel Lodge. Note control valve to right of control box, view E. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

398

38 CFR 21.9700 - Yellow Ribbon Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.9700 Yellow Ribbon Program. (a) Establishment....

2013-07-01

399

Thermal Instability of Fats Relative to Surface Wettability of Yellow ...  

Treesearch

Title: Thermal Instability of Fats Relative to Surface Wettability of Yellow Birchwood ... were examined in an attempt to illustrate how heat-induced changes in wood fats ... to the wood was highly dependent upon heating temperature and time.

400

Locust Sprouts Reduce Growth of Yellow-Popular Seedlings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dense thickets of black locust which often appear after clearcutting in the Southern Appalachians and Piedmont, can severely reduce growth of other desirable hardwoods. Released yellow-poplar seedlings were 51 percent taller and 79 percent larger in diame...

1974-01-01

401

Can Infants Tell the Difference between Gold and Yellow?  

PubMed Central

There is a large literature focused on the color perception of matte surface. However, recent research showed that the component of surface specular reflection, such as glossiness, also affects categorical color perception. For instance, the color term “gold” was used to name high specular stimuli within a specific range of chromaticity, which overlaps with those of yellow and orange for low specular stimuli. In the present study, we investigated whether the component of surface specular reflectance affects the color perception of 5- to 8-month-old infants by using the preferential looking technique. In the first experiment, we conducted a simple test to determine whether infants perceive yellow and gold as the same color by comparing their preference for these colors over green. If the infants perceive yellow and gold as the same color, they would show similar preference scores over green. On the other hand, if infants show different preference scores over green, it indicates that infants do not perceive yellow and gold as the same color. Only the 7–8 month-old infants showed different preference scores for gold and yellow over green. This result indicates that the 7–8 month-old infants perceive gold and yellow as different colors. In Experiment 2, we eliminated the component of specular reflectance on the gold surface and presented it against green to infants. A similar preference score of yellow over green was obtained. This result suggests that the difference between the preference scores for gold and yellow over green in Experiment 1 was based on representations of glossiness.

Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

2013-01-01

402

Genetics of Sex-linked yellow in the Syrian Hamster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternating patches of black and yellow pigment are a ubiquitous feature of mammalian color variation that contributes to camouflage, species recognition, and morphologic diversity. X-linked determinants of this pattern—recognized by variegation in females but not in males—have been described in the domestic cat as Orange, and in the Syrian hamster as Sex-linked yellow (Sly), but are curiously absent from other

Azita Alizadeh; Lewis Z. Hong; Christopher B. Kaelin; Terje Raudsepp; Hermogenes Manuel; Gregory S. Barsh

2009-01-01

403

YELLOW SUPERGIANTS IN THE ANDROMEDA GALAXY (M31)  

SciTech Connect

The yellow supergiant content of nearby galaxies can provide a critical test of stellar evolution theory, bridging the gap between the hot, massive stars and the cool red supergiants. But, this region of the color-magnitude diagram is dominated by foreground contamination, requiring membership to somehow be determined. Fortunately, the large negative systemic velocity of M31, coupled to its high rotation rate, provides the means for separating the contaminating foreground dwarfs from the bona fide yellow supergiants within M31. We obtained radial velocities of {approx}2900 individual targets within the correct color-magnitude range corresponding to masses of 12 M{sub sun} and higher. A comparison of these velocities to those expected from M31's rotation curve reveals 54 rank-1 (near certain) and 66 rank-2 (probable) yellow supergiant members, indicating a foreground contamination >= 96%. We expect some modest contamination from Milky Way halo giants among the remainder, particularly for the rank-2 candidates, and indeed follow-up spectroscopy of a small sample eliminates four rank 2's while confirming five others. We find excellent agreement between the location of yellow supergiants in the H-R diagram and that predicted by the latest Geneva evolutionary tracks that include rotation. However, the relative number of yellow supergiants seen as a function of mass varies from that predicted by the models by a factor of >10, in the sense that more high-mass yellow supergiants are predicted than those are actually observed. Comparing the total number (16) of >20 M{sub sun} yellow supergiants with the estimated number (24,800) of unevolved O stars indicates that the duration of the yellow supergiant phase is {approx}3000 years. This is consistent with what the 12 M{sub sun} and 15 M{sub sun} evolutionary tracks predict, but disagrees with the 20,000-80,000 year timescales predicted by the models for higher masses.

Drout, Maria R.; Massey, Philip [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Meynet, Georges [Geneva University, Geneva Observatory, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Tokarz, Susan; Caldwell, Nelson, E-mail: maria-drout@uiowa.ed, E-mail: Phil.Massey@lowell.ed, E-mail: georges.meynet@unige.c, E-mail: tokarz@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: caldwell@cfa.harvard.ed [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2009-09-20

404

Water Right Institution and Strategies of the Yellow River Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid economic and social development in China, pressure on water resources in the Yellow River is becoming more\\u000a and more prominent. For the sustainable social, economic and agricultural development in the Yellow River valley, it is imperative\\u000a to create the perfect water right institution, which plays a key role in improving the efficiency, equity and sustainability\\u000a of water

H. R. Wang; Y. Y. Dong; Y. Wang; Q. Liu

2008-01-01

405

Chemical state of vanadium in tin-based yellow pigment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vanadium-tin composite oxides are rather widely used as, for example, yellow pigments for coloring glazes and selective oxidation catalysts for hydrocarbons. Physicochemical states of vanadium in V-doped SnO[sub 2] were studied to clarify the origin of the color of vanadium-tin yellow pigment and its color instability when fired with glaze material. Precision measurements of lattice parameters of V-doped SnO[sub 2

Kaichi Fujiyoshi; Hisanori Yokoyama; Feng Ren; Shingo Ishida

1993-01-01

406

Mechanism of yellow luminescence in GaN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the pressure behavior of yellow luminescence in bulk crystals and epitaxial layers of GaN. This photoluminescence band exhibits a blueshift of 30±2 meV\\/GPa for pressures up to about 20 GPa. For higher pressure we observe the saturation of the position of this luminescence. Both effects are consistent with the mechanism of yellow luminescence caused by electron recombination between

T. Suski; P. Perlin; H. Teisseyre; M. Leszczynski; I. Grzegory; J. Jun; M. Bockowski; S. Porowski; T. D. Moustakas

1995-01-01

407

A worldwide survey of tomato yellow leaf curl viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The name tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) has been given to several whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses affecting tomato\\u000a cultures in many tropical and subtropical regions. Hybridization tests with two DNA probes derived from a cloned isolate of\\u000a TYLCV from Israel (TYLCV-ISR) were used to assess the affinities of viruses in naturally infected tomato plants with yellow\\u000a leaf curl or leaf curl

H. Czosnek; H. Laterrot

1997-01-01

408

Cascading indirect effects in a coffee agroecosystem: effects of parasitic phorid flies on ants and the coffee berry borer in a high-shade and low-shade habitat.  

PubMed

Nonconsumptive effects (NCE) of parasites on hosts vary with habitat complexity thereby modifying trait-mediated effects on lower trophic levels. In coffee agroecosystems, Pseudacteon sp. phorid fly parasites negatively affect Azteca instabilis F. Smith ants via NCE thereby indirectly benefiting prey. It is unknown how differences in habitat complexity influence Azteca-phorid interactions or how phorids affect the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari), an important pest of coffee (Coffea arabica L). We tested the following hypotheses in field and lab experiments to find the impact of NCE of phorids on A. instabilis and trait-mediated indirect effects of phorids on the coffee berry borer: (1) Phorid effects on A. instabilis differ between complex and simple shade habitats and (2) Phorids, by modifying A. instabilis behavior, indirectly affect coffee berry borer abilities to invade coffee berries. Phorids had greater impacts on A. instabilis activity in low-shade farms, but differences in phorid impacts were not mediated by phorid density or light availability. In the lab, phorids had strong cascading effects on abilities of A. instabilis to deter coffee berry borers. Without phorids, A. instabilis limited coffee berry borer attacks, whereas when the coffee berry borer was alone or with A. instabilis and phorids, more coffee fruits were attacked by coffee berry borer. These results indicate that A. instabilis has stronger biological control potential in high-shade farms, but the exact mechanism deserves further attention. PMID:22251635

Pardee, Gabriella L; Philpott, Stacy M

2011-06-01

409

Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves  

PubMed Central

According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches.

Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Semiz, Gurkan; Blande, James D.

2009-01-01

410

2006 Yellow-Billed Cuckoo Study Results. Appendix: Yellow-Billed Cuckoo Survey and Detection Forms. San Marcial, New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the summer of 2006, the Bureau of Reclamation conducted presence/absence surveys for the Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis) (YBCU) along the Middle Rio Grande between the southern boundary of the Bosque del Apache Natio...

D. Ahlers D. Moore V. Johanson

2007-01-01

411

Comparison of Midgut Proteinases in Bacillus thuringiensis-Susceptible and Resistant European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The midgut proteinases from a Bacillus thuringiensis-susceptible (IA-S) and four laboratory-selected resistant strains (KS-SC, KS-NE, IA-1, and IA-3) of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) were characterized using three synthetic substrates, N?-benzoyl-L-arginine p-nitroanilide (BApNA) for trypsin-like, N-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-phe p-nitroanilide (SAAPFpNA) for chymotrypsin-like, and N-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-leu p-nitroanilide (SAAPLpNA) for elastase-like proteinase activities. The hydrolyzing efficiency of trypsin-like proteinases, determined by Vmax, decreased 35% in

Fangneng Huang; Kun Yan Zhu; Lawrent L. Buschman; Randall A. Higgins; Brenda Oppert

1999-01-01

412

Generation of aniline from a subsidiary colour of food yellow no. 5 (sunset yellow FCF).  

PubMed

The formation of aniline from sodium salt of 6-hydroxy-5-(phenylazo)-2-naphthalenesulphonic acid (SS-AN, C.I. 15970, Orange RN), a subsidiary colour in the Japanese colour additive Food Yellow No. 5 (Y-5, C.I. 15985, Sunset Yellow FCF), was investigated in the artificial gastric fluid (AGF) and in the artificial intestinal fluid (AIF) as prescribed in the degradation test in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (1996). Aniline concentrations of 0.3-6.8 micrograms/ml were found in 0.1% SS-AN solutions with 0.1-5.0% ascorbic acid or erythorbic acid after 24 h at 37 degrees C. This simulates a mixture of dye and ascorbic acid that might be ingested. The amount of aniline generated depended upon the temperature in these systems. In systems to which sucrose had been added, an increase in the amount of aniline generated was observed. However, no aniline generation was observed in the 0.1% SS-AN solutions in the AGF or AIF at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Furthermore, the generation of aniline was not seen in AGF and AIF at higher temperatures in the range of 37-80 degrees C. It was not generated by the degradation of SS-AN in the presence of digestive enzymes. PMID:10945104

Yamada, M; Morimoto, T; Nakamura, M; Nakazawa, H

2000-05-01

413

Development of shaft lining and service line extension systems compatible with blind shaft borer excavation rates. Phase I. Design. Final technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a conceptual design of shaft lining and service line extension systems to be used in conjunction with the Blind Shaft Borer (BSB) developed by the Robbins Company. These systems will allow the BSB to advance at a rate of 50 ft\\/day on a steady-state basis to depths of 2000 ft. In addition, these systems will ensure that

J. M. Halter; J. D. Eklund

1978-01-01

414

Pheromone behavioral responses in unusual male European corn borer hybrid progeny not correlated to electrophysiological phenotypes of their pheromone-specific antennal neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In genetic studies on the sex pheromone communication system of two races of European corn borer, which use opposite pheromone blends of the E and Z compounds, it was found that antennal olfactory cell response amplitudes to the two compounds were controlled by an autosomal factor, whereas behavioral responses to the blends were controlled by a sex-linked locus. Because of

A. A. Cossé; M. G. Campbell; T. J. Glover; C. E. Linn; J. L. Todd; T. C. Baker; W. L. Roelofs

1995-01-01

415

Development of methods for the field evaluation of Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in North America, a newly introduced egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A field study was conducted in forested plots near Lansing, Michigan in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the newly introduced egg parasitoid, Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), for control of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)...

416

Assessing deposition and persistence of Beauveria bassiana GHA (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) applied for control of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in a commercial tree nursery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the deposition and field persistence of mycoinsecticides is essential in the development of effective and economical application strategies, including specifically the timing and frequency of spray applications. In this study we used three methods to evaluate the persistence of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA applied for control of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, an invasive pest attacking ash

Louela A. Castrillo; Michael H. Griggs; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; John D. Vandenberg

2010-01-01

417

Assessing the potential for ash canopy tree replacement via current regeneration following emerald ash borer-caused mortality on southeastern Michigan landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB) has killed millions of ash trees in Michigan and at least fourteen other states since its first detection near its introduction point in metropolitan Detroit in 2002. Despite overstory ash mortality near 100% in many areas, ash seedling and saplings remain unaffected and provide the potential for ash re-establishment into the canopy of deciduous forests

Daniel M. Kashian; John A. Witter

2011-01-01

418

Attitudes of Residents Toward Street Trees on Four Streets in Toledo, Ohio, U.S. Before Removal of Ash Trees (Fraxinus spp.) from Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toledo, Ohio, U.S. residents on four streets in an area with mature street trees, including ash, scheduled for removal as a result of attack by emerald ash borer were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward their street trees. Toledo is in the process of removing some 5,000 trees. Large trees with a variety of summer and fall foliar characteristics were

Joseph Heimlich; T. Davis Sydnor; Matthew Bumgardner; Patrick O'Brien

2008-01-01

419

Evaluation of potential strategies to SLow Ash Mortality (SLAM) caused by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): SLAM in an urban forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive pest native to Asia, has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since it was first discovered there in 2002. As of autumn 2011, A. planipennis has been detected in 15 US states and two Canadian provinces. A pilot project to slow the onset and progression of

Deborah G. McCullough; Rodrigo J. Mercader

2012-01-01

420

The influence of satellite populations of emerald ash borer on projected economic costs in U.S. communities, 2010–2020  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasion spread of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is characterized by the formation of satellite populations that expand and coalesce with the continuously invading population front. As of January 2010, satellite infestations have been detected in 13 states and two Canadian provinces. Understanding how newly established satellite populations may affect economic costs can help program

Kent F. Kovacs; Rodrigo J. Mercader; Robert G. Haight; Nathan W. Siegert; Deborah G. McCullough; Andrew M. Liebhold

2011-01-01

421

Effects of host size on the sex ratio, clutch size, and size of adult Spathius agrili, an ectoparasitoid of emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idiobiont ectoparasitoid, Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), parasitizes the concealed larvae of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), which feed on the inner bark of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of host larval size on parasitoid clutch size, offspring sex allocation, and adult body length. Results

Xiao-Yi Wang; Zhong-Qi Yang; Hui Wu; Juli R. Gould

2008-01-01

422

Development of methods for the field evaluation of Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in North America, a newly introduced egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted in forested plots near Lansing, Michigan in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the newly introduced egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for control of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). To measure parasitism by O. agrili, laboratory-reared “sentinel EAB eggs” were deployed under bark flaps on trunks

Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Michael D. Ulyshen; Juli R. Gould; Roy Van Driesche

2011-01-01

423

Impact of Beauveria bassiana and imidacloprid, alone and in combination, used against emerald ash borer in a newly-infested ash nursery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We are investigating the potential of Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA), alone or in combination with imidacloprid, for use against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. We treated approximately 400 Fraxinus pennsylvanica and F. americana (height ca. 5-6 m) at a commercial tree nursery wit...

424

Distribution of trunk-injected 14C-imidacloprid in ash trees and effects on emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a destructive exotic pest of North American ash (Fraxinus sp.) trees. Trunk injection of imidacloprid is commonly used to protect landscape ash trees from A. planipennis damage. Efficacy can vary and little is known about the distribution, accumulation and persistence of this compound in trees. Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and

David Mota-Sanchez; Bert M. Cregg; Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Robert M. Hollingworth

2009-01-01

425

Quantitative detection of Beauveria bassiana GHA (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), a potential microbial control agent of the emerald ash borer, by use of real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate monitoring of an introduced, mass-released microbial control agent is essential in evaluating its persistence and in designing application strategies for insect pest control. As part of our multi-year study on the development and use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against the emerald ash borer, a major invasive pest of ash trees, we are determining persistence of the fungus

Louela A. Castrillo; Michael H. Griggs; John D. Vandenberg

2008-01-01

426

Action thresholds for the management of pod borer, Adisura atkinsoni Moore (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on field bean (hyacinth bean), Lablab purpureus (L.) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Action thresholds for initiating insecticide sprays based on peak egg laying and flat pod damage were evaluated in the field for the pod borer, Adisura atkinsoni Moore on field (hyacinth) bean. An initial spray at peak egg laying and tender pod stage, followed by sprays to maintain 0.5 flat pods damaged\\/inflorescence reduced pod and seed damage and maximized the yield

S. Mallikarjunappa; D. Rajagopal

1991-01-01

427

Some Like It Hot: The Influence and Implications of Climate Change on Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and Coffee Production in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US) coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its

Juliana Jaramillo; Eric Muchugu; Fernando E. Vega; Aaron Davis; Christian Borgemeister; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Simon Thrush

2011-01-01

428

Characterization of six antibacterial response genes from the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) larval gut and their expression in response to bacterial challenge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Six cDNAs encoding putative antibacterial response proteins (ARPs) were identified and characterized from the larval gut of the European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis). These ARPs include four peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), one ß-1,3 glucanase-1 (ßglu-1), and one lysozyme. Tissue-...

429

The resistance of wood modified with linear chain carboxylic acid anhydrides to attack by the marine wood borer Limnoria quadripunctata Holthius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance of pine wood modified with linear chain carboxylic acid anhydrides to the crustacean wood borer Limnoria quadripunctata was assessed by measuring the faecal pellet production and mortality following feeding over 3 weeks in the laboratory. By varying the reaction time, various levels of modifications were obtained. The results indicated that feeding is slowed by chemical modification at these levels

A. N. Papadopoulos; P. Duquesnoy; S. M. Cragg; A. J. Pitman

2008-01-01

430

Sequential sampling plans for estimating European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval density in sweet corn ears  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a flexible fixed-precision sequential sampling plan for estimating the density of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), larvae, using infestation data collected from 1994 to 2000. The purpose of each sampling plan was to provide statistically sound estimates of larval densities for each pest in sweet corn ears, near harvest, with minimal

Patrick K. O’Rourke; W. D. Hutchison

2003-01-01

431

Evaluation of Noncorn Host Plants as a Refuge in a Resistance Management Program for European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt-Corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in New York and Pennsylvania compared egg mass recruitment and larval survival on corn and other hosts of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (H(umlaut)ubner), to assess the potential of these plants to act as a refuge in a resistance management program. Assessments were made on replicated plantings and natural plant stands in the field and under controlled conditions

John E. Losey; Dennis D. Calvin; Maureen E. Carter; Charles E. Mason

2001-01-01

432

GENOTYPIC CORRELATION AND MULTIVARIATE QTL ANALYSES FOR CELL WALL COMPONENTS AND RESISTANCE TO STALK TUNNELING BY THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Correlations between concentrations of cell wall components (CWCs) in the leaf sheath and stalk and resistance to stalk tunneling by the European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) have been reported in some maize (Zea mays L.) populations. Evaluations of resistance to ECB stalk tunneling (...

433

Effects of the synergist S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate on indoxacarb toxicity and metabolism in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of the oxadiazine insecticide indoxacarb to the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was evaluated in the presence and absence of S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), an inhibitor of hydrolytic metabolism. Bioassays involving topical application of different concentrations of indoxacarb to third instars of a susceptible O. nubilalis laboratory strain were performed, and in vitro metabolism experiments involving

Analiza P. Alves; William J. Allgeier; Blair D. Siegfried

2008-01-01

434

Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory-rearing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective ...

435

Male-produced pheromone of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid introduced for the biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The braconid, Spathius agrili, has been released in the U.S. as a biocontrol agent for the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a very destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). We have identified and synthesized seven male-produced compounds. A flight tunnel bioassay identified t...

436

Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator–prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US $500 million\\/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei

Juliana Jaramillo; Eric G. Chapman; Fernando E. Vega; James D. Harwood

2010-01-01

437

Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

438

Where to sample? Ecological implications of sampling strata in determining abundance and impact of natural enemies of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta are two of the three parasitoids of African origin that have been introduced to coffee producing areas of the Americas as biological control agents of the coffee berry borer (CBB; Hypothenemus hampei). Both bethylid parasitoids have become established in...

439

Modeling the impact of cross-pollination and low toxin expression in corn kernels on adaptation of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic insecticidal corn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We used a mathematical model with processes reflecting mortality of larval feeding on cross-pollinated ears in the refuge or on ears of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn to analyze the risk of evolution of Cry-toxin resistance in European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Our results showed that Bt-pol...

440

Potential Effects of Large-Scale Elimination of Oaks by Red Oak Borers on Breeding Neotropical Migrants in the Ozarks1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arkansas Ozarks are currently experiencing an outbreak of the red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus), a native insect that has previously not been considered an important forest pest species. As many as 50 percent of the trees in the Ozarks, which has the highest density of oaks in the United States, may be dead by the year 2006. The Ozarks

Kimberly G. Smith; Frederick M. Stephen

441

Spatial and temporal genetic analyses reveal high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. cornbelt  

EPA Science Inventory

European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...

442

Antioxidant genes of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): gene characterization and expression profiles.  

PubMed

Phytophagous insects frequently encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) from exogenous and endogenous sources. To overcome the effect of ROS, insects have evolved a suite of antioxidant defense genes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive insect pest from Asia has killed millions of ash trees and continues to invade North America at a rapid pace. From an on-going expressed sequence tag (EST) project of A. planipennis larval tissues, we identified ESTs coding for a Cu-Zn SOD (ApSOD1), a CAT (ApCAT1) and a GPX (ApGPX1). A multiple sequence alignment of the derived A. planipennis sequences revealed high homology with other insect sequences at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis of ApSOD1 grouped it with Cu-Zn SODs of other insect taxa. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different larval tissues (midgut, fat body, Malpighian tubule and cuticle) revealed high mRNA levels of ApCAT1 in the midgut. Interestingly, high mRNA levels for both ApSOD1 and ApGPX1 were observed in the Malpighian tubules. Assay of mRNA levels in developmental stages (larva, prepupa and adults) by qRT-PCR indicated high transcript levels of ApCAT1 and ApGPX1 in larval and prepupal stages with a decline in adults. On the other hand, the transcript levels of ApSOD1 were observed to be constitutive in all the developmental stages assayed. Results obtained reflect a plausible role of these A. planipennis antioxidant genes in quenching ROS from both diet (ash allelochemicals) as well as endogenous sources. These studies further help in understanding the adaptation/invasiveness of A. planipennis. PMID:21439289

Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mamidala, Praveen; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Mittapalli, Omprakash

2011-03-23

443

Low-temperature methyl bromide fumigation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in ash logs.  

PubMed

Ash (Fraxinus spp.) logs, infested with fully developed, cold-acclimated larval and prepupal emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were fumigated with methyl bromide (MeBr) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C for 24 h. Concentrations X time dosages of MeBr obtained were 1579 and 1273 g-h/m3 (24-h exposure) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C after applied doses of 112 and 96 g/m3, respectively. MeBr concentrations were simultaneously measured with a ContainIR infrared monitor and Fumiscope thermal conductivity meter calibrated for MeBr to measure the effect of CO2 on Fumiscope concentration readings compared with the infrared (IR) instrument. The presence of CO2 caused false high MeBr readings. With the thermal conductivity meter, CO2 measured 11.36 g/m3 MeBr per 1% CO2 in clean air, whereas the gas-specific infrared ContainIR instrument measured 9.55% CO2 as 4.2 g/m3 MeBr (0.44 g/m3 per 1% CO2). The IR instrument was 0.4% as sensitive to CO2 as the thermal conductivity meter. After aeration, fumigated and control logs were held for 8 wk to capture emerging beetles. No A. planipennis adults emerged from any of the fumigated logs, whereas 262 emerged from control logs (139 and 123/m2 at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C, respectively). An effective fumigation dose and minimum periodic MeBr concentrations are proposed. The use of a CO2 scrubber in conjunction with nonspecific thermal conductivity instruments is necessary to more accurately measure MeBr concentrations. PMID:21404841

Barak, Alan V; Elder, Peggy; Fraser, Ivich

2011-02-01

444

Estimating potential emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations using ash inventory data.  

PubMed

Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding pest native to Asia, was identified in June 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.), mortality in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Localized populations of A. planipennis have since been found across lower Michigan and in areas of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, and Ontario. Officials working to contain A. planipennis and managers of forestlands near A. planipennis infestations must be able to compare alternative strategies to allocate limited funds efficiently and effectively. Empirical data from a total of 148 green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., and white ash, Fraxinus americana L., trees were used to develop models to estimate surface area of the trunk and branches by using tree diameter at breast height (dbh). Data collected from 71 additional F. pennsylvanica and F. americana trees killed by A. planipennis showed that on average, 88.9 +/- 4.6 beetles developed and emerged per m2 of surface area. Models were applied to ash inventory data collected at two outlier sites to estimate potential production of A. planipennis beetles at each site. Large trees of merchantable size (dbh > or = 26 cm) accounted for roughly 6% of all ash trees at the two sites, but they could have contributed 55-65% of the total A. planipennis production at both sites. In contrast, 75- 80% of the ash trees at the outlier sites were < or =13 cm dbh, but these small trees could have contributed only < or =12% of the potential A. planipennis production at both sites. Our results, in combination with inventory data, can be used by regulatory officials and resource managers to estimate potential A. planipennis production and to compare options for reducing A. planipennis density and slowing the rate of spread for any area of interest. PMID:17972635

McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W

2007-10-01

445

Molecular characterization of mariner-like elements in emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera, Polyphaga).  

PubMed

Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis), an exotic invasive pest, has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America and continues to threaten the very survival of the entire Fraxinus genus. Despite its high-impact status, to date very little knowledge exists for this devastating insect pest at the molecular level. Mariner-like elements (MLEs) are transposable elements, which are ubiquitous in occurrence in insects and other invertebrates. Because of their low specificity and broad host range, they can be used for epitope-tagging, gene mapping, and in vitro mutagenesis. The majority of the known MLEs are inactive due to in-frame shifts and stop codons within the open reading frame (ORF). We report on the cloning and characterization of two MLEs in A. planipennis genome (Apmar1 and Apmar2). Southern analysis indicated a very high copy number for Apmar1 and a moderate copy number for Apmar2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both elements belong to the irritans subfamily. Based on the high copy number for Apmar1, the full-length sequence was obtained using degenerate primers designed to the inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequences of irritans MLEs. The recovered nucleotide sequence for Apmar1 consisted of 1,292 bases with perfect ITRs, and an ORF of 1,050 bases encoding a putative transposase of 349 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Apmar1 contained the conserved regions of mariner transposases including WVPHEL and YSPDLAP, and the D,D(34)D motif. Both Apmar1 and Apmar2 could represent useful genetic tools and provide insights on EAB adaptation. PMID:20602451

Rivera-Vega, L; Mittapalli, O

2010-08-01

446

Emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) attraction to stressed or baited ash trees.  

PubMed

Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus sp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. Efficient methods to detect low-density A. planipennis populations remain a critical priority for regulatory and resource management agencies. We compared the density of adult A. planipennis captured on sticky bands and larval density among ash trees that were girdled for 1 or 2 yr, wounded, exposed to the stress-elicitor methyl jasmonate, baited with Manuka oil lures, or left untreated. Studies were conducted at four sites in 2006 and 2007, where A. planipennis densities on untreated trees ranged from very low to moderate. In 2006, 1-yr girdled trees captured significantly more adult A. planipennis and had higher larval densities than untreated control trees or trees treated with methyl jasmonate or Manuka oil. Open-grown trees captured significantly more A. planipennis beetles than partially or fully shaded trees. In 2007, A. planipennis population levels and captures of adult A. planipennis were substantially higher than in 2006. The density of adults captured on sticky bands did not differ significantly among canopy exposure classes or treatments in 2007. Larval density was significantly higher in untreated, wounded, and 1-yr girdled trees (girdled in 2007) than in 2-yr girdled trees (girdled in 2006), where most phloem was consumed by A. planipennis larvae the previous year. A total of 36 trees (32 in 2006, 4 in 2007) caught no beetles, but 16 of those trees (13 in 2006, 3 in 2007) had A. planipennis larvae. In 2006, there was a positive linear relationship between the density of adults captured on sticky bands and larval density in trees. Our results show that freshly girdled and open grown trees were most attractive to A. planipennis, especially at low-density sites. If girdled trees are used for A. planipennis detection or survey, debarking trees to locate larval galleries is crucial. PMID:20021763

McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Anulewicz, Andrea C; Cappaert, David

2009-12-01

447

Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21311752

Margam, Venu M; Coates, Brad S; Hellmich, Richard L; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J; Sun, Weilin; Ba, Malick N; Sanon, Antoine; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F; Covas, Fernando G; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2011-02-02

448

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis.

Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

449

Concerted evolution of male and female display traits in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual reproduction entails the encounter of the sexes and the multiplicity of rituals is parallel to the diversity of mating systems. Evolutionary mechanisms such as sexual selection and sexual conflict have led to the elaboration of traits to gain attention and favours from potential partners. A paradox exists about how coordinated systems can evolve and diverge when there would seem to be a stabilising selection acting. Moth display traits – pheromones – constitute an advantageous model with which to address questions about the evolution of mating systems in animals. Both males and females can possess pheromones that are involved either in close- or long-range communication. Female and male pheromones appear to have different origins and to be under different evolutionary constraints, thus they might be envisioned as independently evolving traits. We conducted laboratory experiments to explore the role of scents released during courtship by males of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Results Information provided by the male pheromone appears critical for female acceptance. The composition of this male pheromone varies in an age-dependent manner and females show mating preference towards older males in choice experiments. Furthermore, male signals may allow species discrimination and reinforce reproductive isolation. Finally, we found evidence for a genetic correlation between male and female signals, the evolution of which is best explained by the constraints and opportunities resulting from the sharing of gene products. Conclusion In this study we used an integrative approach to characterise the male sex pheromone in a moth. Interestingly, the male chemical signal is analogous to the female signal in that structurally similar compounds are being used by both sexes. Hence, in systems where both sexes possess display traits, the pleiotropy of genes generating the traits could influence the evolutionary trajectories of sexual signals and lead to their divergence, with speciation being the ultimate result.

Lassance, Jean-Marc; Lofstedt, Christer

2009-01-01

450

Characterization and virulence of Beauveria spp. recovered from emerald ash borer in southwestern Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive wood boring beetle that is decimating North America's ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To find effective and safe indigenous biocontrol agents to manage EAB, we conducted a survey in 2008-2009 of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) infecting EAB in five outbreak sites in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A total of 78 Beauveria spp. isolates were retrieved from dead and mycosed EAB cadavers residing in the phloem tissues of dead ash barks, larval frass extracted from feeding galleries under the bark of dead trees. Molecular characterization using sequences of the ITS, 5' end of EF1-? and intergenic Bloc region fragments revealed that Beauveria bassiana and Beauveria pseudobassiana were commonly associated with EAB in the sampled sites. Based on phylogenetic analysis inferred from ITS sequences, 17 of these isolates clustered with B. bassiana, which further grouped into three different sub-clades. However, the combined EF1-? and Bloc sequences detected five genotypes among the three sub-clades. The remaining 61 isolates clustered with B. pseudobassiana, which had identical ITS sequences but were further subdivided into two genotypes by variation in the EF1-? and Bloc regions. Initial virulence screening against EAB adults of 23 isolates representing the different clades yielded 8 that produced more than 90% mortality in a single concentration assay. These isolates differed in virulence based on LC(50) values estimated from multiple concentration bioassay and based on mean survival times at a conidia concentration of 2×10(6) conidia/ml. B. bassiana isolate L49-1AA was significantly more virulent and produced more conidia on EAB cadavers compared to the other indigenous isolates and the commercial strain B. bassiana GHA suggesting that L49-1AA may have potential as a microbiological control agent against EAB. PMID:22664171

Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George; Gauthier, Debbie; Frankenhuyzen, Kees van; Krell, Peter J

2012-06-01

451

Glutathione-S-transferase profiles in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is a recently discovered invasive insect pest of ash, Fraxinus spp. in North America. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are a multifunctional superfamily of enzymes which function in conjugating toxic compounds to less toxic and excretable forms. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and expression patterns of different classes of GST genes in different tissues and developmental stages plus their specific activity. Multiple sequence alignment of all six A. planipennis GSTs (ApGST-E1, ApGST-E2, ApGST-E3, ApGST-O1, ApGST-S1 and ApGST-?1) revealed conserved features of insect GSTs and a phylogenetic analysis grouped the GSTs within the epsilon, sigma, omega and microsomal classes of GSTs. Real time quantitative PCR was used to study field collected samples. In larval tissues high mRNA levels for ApGST-E1, ApGST-E3 and ApGST-O1 were obtained in the midgut and Malpighian tubules. On the other hand, ApGST-E2 and ApGST-S1 showed high mRNA levels in fat body and ApGST-?1 showed constitutive levels in all the tissues assayed. During development, mRNA levels for ApGST-E2 were observed to be the highest in feeding instars, ApGST-S1 in prepupal instars; while the others showed constitutive patterns in all the developmental stages examined. At the enzyme level, total GST activity was similar in all the tissues and developmental stages assayed. Results obtained suggest that A. planipennis is potentially primed with GST-driven detoxification to metabolize ash allelochemicals. To our knowledge this study represents the first report of GSTs in A. planipennis and also in the family of wood boring beetles. PMID:23499941

Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mittapalli, Omprakash

2013-03-07

452

Differential response in foliar chemistry of three ash species to emerald ash borer adult feeding.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic wood-boring beetle that has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources since its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In this study, we investigated the phytochemical responses of the three most common North American ash species (black, green, and white ash) in northeastern USA to EAB adult feeding. Black ash was the least responsive to EAB adult feeding in terms of the induction of volatile compounds, and levels of only two (indole and benzyl cyanide) of the 11 compounds studied increased. In green ash, levels of two [(E)-?-ocimene and indole] of the 11 volatile compounds studied were elevated, while the levels of two green leaf volatiles [hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal] decreased. White ash showed the greatest response with an increase in levels of seven of the 11 compounds studied. Qualitative differences among ash species were detected. Among the phenolic compounds detected, ligustroside was the only one detected in all three species. Oleuropein aglycone and 2 unidentified compounds were found only in black ash; coumaroylquinic acid and feruloylquinic acid were detected only in green ash; and verbascoside hexoside was detected only in white ash. EAB adult feeding did not elicit or decrease concentrations of any selected individual phenolic compounds. However, although levels of total phenolics from black and green ash foliage were not affected by EAB adult feeding, they decreased significantly in white ash. EAB adult feeding elevated chymotrypsin inhibitors in black ash. The possible ecological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21153046

Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

2010-12-09

453

Female sex pheromone of brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis blend optimization.  

PubMed

The brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis is the major pest of eggplant in South Asia. Analysis of female pheromone gland extracts prepared from insects of Indian and Taiwanese origin confirmed (E)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (E11-16:Ac) as the major pheromone component with 0.8 to 2.8% of the related (E)-11-hexadecen-1-ol (E11-16:OH), as previously reported from Sri Lanka. The average quantity of E11-16:Ac extracted per female was estimated to be 33 ng, with a range of 18.9 to 46.4 ng when collected 2 to 3 hr into the scotophase. In field trials conducted in India, blends containing between 1 and 10% E11-16:OH caught more male L. orbonalis than E11-16:Ac alone. At the 1,000 microg dose, on white rubber septa, addition of 1% E11-16:OH to E11-16:Ac was found to be more attractive to male L. orbonalis than either 0.1 or 10% E11-16:OH. Trap catch was found to be positively correlated with pheromone release rate, with the highest dose tested, 3,000 microg, on white rubber septa catching more male moths than lower doses. Field and wind tunnel release rate studies confirmed that E11-16:OH released from white rubber septa and polyethylene vials at approximately twice the rate of E11-16:Ac and that the release rate of both compounds was doubled in polyethylene vials compared to white rubber septa. This difference in release rate was reflected in field trials conducted in Bangladesh where polyethylene vial dispensers caught more male moths than either black or white rubber septa, each loaded with the same 100:1 blend of E11-16:Ac and E11-16:OH in a 3,000 microg loading. PMID:11545376

Cork, A; Alam, S N; Das, A; Das, C S; Ghosh, G C; Farman, D I; Hall, D R; Maslen, N R; Vedham, K; Phythian, S J; Rouf, F M; Srinivasan, K

2001-09-01

454

Trafficking of stem cells.  

PubMed

Stem cells undergo regulated trafficking from the developmental stages to the adulthood. Stem cell migration is critical to organize developing organs and likely contributes postnatally to tissue regeneration. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms underlying migration of hematopoietic stem cells, neural stem cells, and primordial germ cells, revealing common operative pathways. PMID:21618080

Magnon, Claire; Lucas, Daniel; Frenette, Paul S

2011-01-01

455

Stem Cells and Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins from the Polycomb group (PcG) are epigenetic chromatin modifiers involved in cancer development and also in the maintenance of embryonic and adult stem cells. The therapeutic potential of stem cells and the growing conviction that tumors contain stem cells highlights the importance of understanding the extrinsic and intrinsic circuitry controlling stem cell fate and their connections to cancer.

Merel E. Valk-Lingbeek; Sophia W. M. Bruggeman; Maarten van Lohuizen

2004-01-01

456

Toward ‘SMART’ stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell research is at the heart of regenerative medicine, which holds great promise for the treatment of many devastating disorders. However, in addition to hurdles posed by well-publicized ethical issues, this emerging field presents many biological challenges. What is a stem cell? How are embryonic stem cells different from adult stem cells? What are the physiological bases for therapeutically

T Cheng

2008-01-01

457

Protection of individual ash trees from emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with basal soil applications of imidacloprid.  

PubMed

We conducted field trials at five different locations over a period of 6 yr to investigate the efficacy of imidacloprid applied each spring as a basal soil drench for protection against emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Canopy thinning and emerald ash borer larval density were used to evaluate efficacy for 3-4 yr at each location while treatments continued. Test sites included small urban trees (5-15 cm diameter at breast height [dbh]), medium to large (15-65 cm dbh) trees at golf courses, and medium to large street trees. Annual basal drenches with imidacloprid gave complete protection of small ash trees for three years. At three sites where the size of trees ranged from 23 to 37 cm dbh, we successfully protected all ash trees beginning the test with <60% canopy thinning. Regression analysis of data from two sites reveals that tree size explains 46% of the variation in efficacy of imidacloprid drenches. The smallest trees (<30 cm dbh) remained in excellent condition for 3 yr, whereas most of the largest trees (>38 cm dbh) declined to a weakened state and undesirable appearance. The five-fold increase in trunk and branch surface area of ash trees as the tree dbh doubles may account for reduced efficacy on larger trees, and suggests a need to increase treatment rates for larger trees. PMID:20214376

Smitley, D R; Rebek, E J; Royalty, R N; Davis, T W; Newhouse, K F

2010-02-01

458

Insights into genome differentiation: pheromone-binding protein variation and population history in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis).  

PubMed Central

Examination of sequence variation at nuclear loci can give insights into population history and gene flow that cannot be derived from other commonly used molecular markers, such as allozymes. Here, we report on sequence variation at a single nuclear locus, the pheromone-binding protein (PBP) locus, in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). The European corn borer has been divided into three races in New York State on the basis of differences in pheromone communication and life history. Previous allozyme data have suggested that there is a small but significant amount of genetic differentiation between these races. The PBP does not appear to be involved in the pheromone differences between these races. Examination of variation at the PBP locus in the three races reveals no fixed differences between races despite high levels of polymorphism. There also appears to have been considerable recombination in the history of the pheromone-binding protein alleles. Observation of both recombination between alleles and lack of significant nucleotide or insertion/deletion divergence between races leads us to suggest that these populations are either recently diverged or have continued to exchange genetic material subsequent to divergence in pheromone communication and life history.

Willett, C S; Harrison, R G

1999-01-01

459

Effects of biological and chemical treatments on Botrytis stem canker and fruit yield of tomato under greenhouse conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to identify, by in vitro dual culture tests, potential biological control agents producing antibiotics and to evaluate selected biological and chemical agents for control of stem canker caused by Botrytis cinerea on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in yellow cedar sawdust in a research greenhouse. Four strains of Bacillus subtilis and one each of Enterobacter agglomerans and

R. Utkhede; C. Bogdanoff; J. McNevin

2001-01-01

460

Brain tumor stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of brain tumor stem cells is gaining increased recognition in neuro-oncology. Until recently, the paradigm of\\u000a a tumor-initiating stem cell was confined to hematopoietic malignancies where the hierarchical lineages of stem progenitor\\u000a cells are well established. The demonstration of persistent stem cells and cycling progenitors in the adult brain, coupled\\u000a with the expansion of the cancer stem cell

Georgia Panagiotakos; Viviane Tabar

2007-01-01

461

Screen of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins for transgenic rice to control Sesamia inferens and Chilo suppressalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic rice to control stem borer damage is under development in China. To assess the potential of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenes in stem borer control, the toxicity of five Bt protoxins (Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ba and Cry1Ca) against two rice stem borers, Sesamia inferens (pink stem borer) and Chilo suppressalis (striped stem borer), was evaluated in the laboratory by feeding

Yulin Gao; Yang Hu; Qiang Fu; Jie Zhang; Brenda Oppert; Fengxiang Lai; Yufa Peng; Zhitao Zhang

2010-01-01

462

Yellow nail syndrome as a cause of unexplained edema.  

PubMed

Yellow nail syndrome is a rare cause of edema due to a disordered lymphatic drainage. We recently observed two cases of long-standing, chronic edema, whose nature could not be understood despite innumerable diagnostic procedures. The diagnosis was suspected based on an attentive clinical exam and confirmed by radionuclide lymph scan. Yellow nail syndrome has to be considered in the differential diagnosis in cases of systemic edema, as well as long standing pleural effusions, particularly in patients with bronchiectasis or sinusitis. Clues to diagnosis are the presence of dystrophic, yellowish nails, peripheral lymphedema and relapsing pleural effusions and/or ascites. Long-term control of symptoms is difficult to achieve and may benefit from the judicious use of diuretics and intravenous albumin and by topical alpha-tocopherol. Pleurodesis may be needed. Other pathologic conditions are often associated to yellow nail syndrome and should be ruled out. PMID:20440922

Cimini, C; Giunta, R; Utili, R; Durante-Mangoni, E

2009-12-01

463

Visualization of Asian Yellow Dust using Virtual Globes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual Globes are becoming very useful tool for scientists to present their research results nowadays. We developed an application which visualizes movement of the Asian yellow dust using Google Earth in real time fashion. To achieve this, we collected simulated data of the Asian yellow dust using ADAM(Asian Dust Aerosol Model) model from KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration). An interface program was developed to access and extract the information from model data in NetCDF(Network Common Data Format) and to convert them to KLM(Keyhole Mark-up Language) format. And then, we developed the 3 dimensional visualization method of the Asian yellow dust movement on Google Earth using information such as location, time, and dust concentration.

Choi, J.; Kim, T.; Yang, Y.; Oh, S.

2010-12-01

464

Assortative Mating between European Corn Borer Pheromone Races: Beyond Assortative Meeting  

PubMed Central

Background Sex pheromone communication systems may be a major force driving moth speciation by causing behavioral reproductive isolation via assortative meeting of conspecific individuals. The ‘E’ and ‘Z’ pheromone races of the European corn borer (ECB) are a textbook example in this respect. ‘Z’ females produce and ‘Z’ males preferentially respond to a ‘Z’ pheromone blend, while the ‘E’ race communicates via an ‘E’ blend. Both races do not freely hybridize in nature and their populations are genetically differentiated. A straightforward explanation would be that their reproductive isolation is a mere consequence of “assortative meeting” resulting from their different pheromones specifically attracting males towards same-race females at long range. However, previous laboratory experiments and those performed here show that even when moths are paired in a small box – i.e., when the meeting between sexual partners is forced – inter-race couples still have a lower mating success than intra-race ones. Hence, either the difference in attractivity of E vs. Z pheromones for males of either race still holds at short distance or the reproductive isolation between E and Z moths may not only be favoured by assortative meeting, but must also result from an additional mechanism ensuring significant assortative mating at close range. Here, we test whether this close-range mechanism is linked to the E/Z female sex pheromone communication system. Methodology/Principal Findings Using crosses and backcrosses of E and Z strains, we found no difference in mating success between full-sisters emitting different sex pheromones. Conversely, the mating success of females with identical pheromone types but different coefficients of relatedness to the two parental strains was significantly different, and was higher when their genetic background was closer to that of their male partner's pheromone race. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the close-range mechanism ensuring assortative mating between the E and Z ECB pheromone races is unrelated to the difference in female sex pheromone. Although the nature of this mechanism remains elusive, our results show that it is expressed in females, acts at close range, segregates independently of the autosome carrying Pher and of both sex chromosomes, and is widely distributed since it occurs both in France and in the USA.

Pelozuelo, Laurent; Meusnier, Serge; Audiot, Philippe; Bourguet, Denis; Ponsard, Sergine

2007-01-01

465

21 CFR 74.1705 - FD&C Yellow No. 5.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...This product contains FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) which may cause allergic-type reactions (including bronchial asthma) in certain susceptible persons. Although the overall incidence of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) sensitivity in the...

2013-04-01

466

21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10...restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10...consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2013-04-01

467

A Study of Normal Lead Silico Chromate Pigment in Yellow Traffic Zone Paints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the performance of both modified alkyd and modified alkyd-chlorinated rubber type yellow traffic marking paints which utilize normal lead silico chromate in lieu of the more commonly used medium yellow in the pigment formulations. Fiel...

J. G. F. Hiss D. R. Brewster

1969-01-01

468

Variation in Aster Yellows Phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma Asteris) Titer in its Insect Vector, Macrosteles Quadrilineatus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Variation in aster yellows phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris) titer in its insect vector, Macrosteles quadrilineatus The aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp) is transmitted by the aster leafhopper (ALH), or Macrosteles quadrilineatus, in a persistent and propagative manner. To study AYp replic...

469

IDENTIFICATION OF CAROTENOIDS IN ORANGE AND YELLOW FLESHED WATERMELON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Orange and yellow fleshed watermelon are popular in some regions of the U.S. Very little is known about their carotenoid composition. Many of the carotenoids have positive health properties, and these melons may have unusual carotenoids not normally found in foods. Four cultivars of orange and thr...

470

A Comparison of Passive Gears for Selective Yellow Perch Harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of trap-and-transfer operations is influenced by the ability to quickly collect target fish and transport them to a recipient body of water. We compared catch rates of two gear types (modified fyke nets and cloverleaf traps with and without light attractants) to determine the most effective capture method for harvesting small yellow perch Perca flavescens (age < 2)

Matthew T. Mangan; Michael L. Brown; Todd R. St. Sauver

2005-01-01

471

Squash bug: Vector of cucurbit yellow vine disease pathogen  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cucurbits, especially watermelon and cantaloupe, are important crops in the South Central region of the U.S. and are affected by a variety of insect and disease complexes. Prominent among these are the squash bug, Anasa tristis (DeGeer) and a destructive vine decline, cucurbit yellow vine disease (...

472

A Parasitic Fungus Infecting Yellow Dungflies Manipulates Host Perching Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct manipulation of host behaviour by endoparasites is well known among animal eukaryotic parasitic taxa like nematodes, trematodes and acanthocephalans, but is poorly documented amongst other taxa like fungi. The insect-parasitic fungal complex Entomophthora muscae is a pathogen of adult Diptera. During the summer months in Europe and America, large numbers of housefly Musca domestica and yellow dungfly Scatophaga stercoraria

D. P. Maitland

1994-01-01

473

Group size and foraging efficiency in yellow baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied the foraging behaviour of adults in three different-sized groups of yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) at Amboseli National Park in Kenya to assess the relationship between group size and foraging efficiency in this species. Study groups ranged in size from 8 to 44 members; within each group, I collected feeding data for the dominant adult male, the highest ranking

Peter B. Stacey

1986-01-01

474

Chemical state of vanadium in tin-based yellow pigment  

SciTech Connect

Vanadium-tin composite oxides are rather widely used as, for example, yellow pigments for coloring glazes and selective oxidation catalysts for hydrocarbons. Physicochemical states of vanadium in V-doped SnO[sub 2] were studied to clarify the origin of the color of vanadium-tin yellow pigment and its color instability when fired with glaze material. Precision measurements of lattice parameters of V-doped SnO[sub 2] revealed that vanadium was dissolved as V[sup 4+] and its solubility limit was 0.9 wt% as V[sub 2]O[sub 5]. It was found that the color of vanadium-tin yellow was produced by two types of undissolved vanadium on SnO[sub 2] grains. One is poorly crystallized vanadium oxide (v), (V[sub 2]O[sub 5])[prime], having a yellow color, and the other is orange-colored crystalline V[sub 2]O[sub 5]. The structure of (V[sub 2]O[sub 5])[prime] was discussed in connection with its color.

Fujiyoshi, Kaichi; Yokoyama, Hisanori (Gifu Prefectural Ceramic Inst., Tajimi (Japan)); Ren, Feng; Ishida, Shingo (Kyoto Inst. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry and Materials Technology)

1993-04-01

475

Reversible post-exposure yellowing of weathered polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commonly observed effect of weathered polymer samples continuing to change color in the dark was studied in some detail for polycarbonate, styrene–acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN), and various combinations with SAN–polybutadiene rubber graft (SRG) copolymer. All of the formulations became more yellow upon storage in the dark after accelerated weathering, and all behaved very similarly. There was a fairly rapid shift

James E. Pickett

2004-01-01

476

Yield and Quality of Seed from Yellow Birch Progenies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seed yield in 8- and 9-year-old yellow birch varied among families and years but averaged more than 1,500 seeds per tree. Long catkins contained more seed than short ones. Seed quality was poor due to insufficient pollination and to differences among tree...

K. E. Clausen

1980-01-01

477

58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, presented to the Portsmouth Naval Hospital by the Town Council of Portsmouth, 1856. (Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Museum, Portsmouth, VA) - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

478

Yellow Fever Virus Infectivity for Bolivian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

The absence of urban yellow fever virus (YFV) in Bolivian cities has been attributed to the lack of competent urban mosquito vectors. Experiments with Aedes aegypti from Santa Cruz, Bolivia, demonstrated infection (100%), dissemination (20%), and transmission of a Bolivian YFV strain (CENETROP-322).

Mutebi, John-Paul; Gianella, Alberto; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Tesh, Robert B.; Barrett, Alan D. T.

2004-01-01

479

Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper": Women, Society, Sanity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"The Yellow Wallpaper," by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, is a remarkable piece of history and sociology, as well as a feminist story concerning the search for self. Written in 1890, the story, which closely parallels the author's own life, vividly chronicles a woman's descent into madness. Charlotte married an artist after a lengthy courtship of…

Thompson, Merle O'Rourke

480

There's More to Color than Red, Yellow, and Blue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From an early age, so much emphasis goes into teaching children the fundamentals of color theory, in particular the primary colors of red, yellow, and blue. Toys, building blocks, furniture, and so many other items used in a preschool environment are manufactured in these three colors. Yet, recent research has uncovered that babies as young as…

Goobich, Joel

2009-01-01

481

Symptoms of Nutrient Deficiency in Yellow-Popular Seedlings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Visual symptoms are described for leaves of yellow-poplar seedlings supplied N, P. and K in varying concentrations ranging from minimal ,to excessive. Probability of growth responses to added N is high when tissue levels are below 2 percent; no response i...

1968-01-01

482

INVASIBILITY OF ROADLESS GRASSLANDS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF YELLOW STARTHISTLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roadless habitats are commonly found to be less invaded than habitats near roads, but few studies have tested whether this pattern is due to propagule limitation or to greater invasion resistance of roadless sites. We examined reasons for the lower frequency and cover of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) in grassland sites .1000 m vs. 10 m from roads in an

Jonathan L. Gelbard; Susan Harrison

2005-01-01

483

BARLEY YELLOW DWARF VIRUS SURVEY I N CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests with detached leaves from cereals and grasses showed that Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) was the m ost efficient vector of b arley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) in samples from Quebec, Manitoba, a nd Saskatchewan. Both R. padi and Macrosiphum avenae (F.) were efficient vectors of BYDV from New B runswick, and Alberta. R. maidis (F.) was of m inor importance

1961-01-01

484

Why Is Golden Rice Golden (Yellow) Instead of Red?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of b-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the bacterial carotene desaturase (CRTI), is lycopene, which has a red color. The absence of lycopene in Golden Rice shows that the pathway proceeds beyond

Patrick Schaub; Salim Al-Babili; Rachel Drake; Peter Beyer

2005-01-01

485

Competition and Price Discrimination in Yellow Pages Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effect of competition on second-degree price discrimination in display advertising in Yellow Pages directories. Our main empirical finding is that while competition is associated with lower prices, the association is not proportional along the range of product offerings. Instead, directories that face more competitors offer price schedules that display a greater degree of curvature than directories facing

Meghan Busse; Marc Rysman

2005-01-01

486

Competition and Price Discrimination in Yellow Pages Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of competition on second degree price discrimination in display advertising in Yellow Page directories. Recent theoretical work makes conflicting predictions about the effect of competition on curvature. Our main empirical finding is that competition increases the curvature of the price schedule, meaning that purchasers of the largest ads see their prices fall the most in

Meghan R. Busse; Marc Rysman

2001-01-01

487

There's More to Color than Red, Yellow, and Blue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From an early age, so much emphasis goes into teaching children the fundamentals of color theory, in particular the primary colors of red, yellow, and blue. Toys, building blocks, furniture, and so many other items used in a preschool environment are manufactured in these three colors. Yet, recent research has uncovered that babies as young as…

Goobich, Joel

2009-01-01

488

Geology of the Lower Yellow Creek Area, Northwestern Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lower Yellow Creek area is located in Rio Blanco and Moffat Counties of northwestern Colorado, about midway between the towns of Rangely and Meeker. The study area is in the northwestern part of the Piceance Creek basin, a very deep structural and sed...

W. J. Hail

1990-01-01

489

Parasites of Pond-Reared Yellow Perch from Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hundred sixty fingerling yellow perch (Perca Flavescens) from 10 culture ponds in western Michigan were examined for parasites in 1991, 1992, and 1993. Twelve parasite species (six Digenea: Clinostomum sp., Diplostomum sp., Neascus sp., Ornithodiplostomum sp., Posthodiplostomum sp., and Tetracotyle sp.; one Monogenea: Cleidodiscus sp.: two Nematoda: Eustrongylides tubifex and Spiroxys sp.; and three Protozoa: Myxobolus neurophilus, Trichodina sp.,

Patrick M. Muzzall

1995-01-01

490

Experimental Diets for Intensive Culture of Yellow Perch  

Microsoft Academic Search

No significant difference in growth or percentage mortality was observed among groups of fingerling yellow perch (Perca flavescens) fed four experimental diets. The amount of whole-body fat was positively associated with the amount of dietary fat and metabolizable energy. The amount of whole-body ash was negatively associated with the amount of dietary protein and positively associated with the amount of

Gary Reinitz; Robert Austin

1980-01-01

491

Synfuels handbook including the yellow pages of synfuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Synfuels Handbook is divided into four sections: (1) Introduction to the US Synthetic Fuels Program; (2) Synfuels Process Technologies Through Time; (3) US Government-Funded Synthetic Fuels Research; and (4) Yellow Pages of Synfuels. The synthetic fuels relate to coal gasification, coal liquefaction, and oil shale. The coal gasification includes all aspects of conversion of coal to low-Btu gas or

Schwaderer

1980-01-01

492