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1

Generation of marker-free Bt transgenic indica rice and evaluation of its yellow stem borer resistance.  

PubMed

We report on generation of marker-free (‘clean DNA’) transgenic rice (Oryza sativa), carrying minimal gene-expression-cassettes of the genes of interest, and evaluation of its resistance to yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The transgenic indica rice harbours a translational fusion of 2 different Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes, namely cry1B-1Aa, driven by the green-tissue-specific phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) promoter. Mature seed-derived calli of an elite indica rice cultivar Pusa Basmati-1 were co-bombarded with gene-expression-cassettes (clean DNA fragments) of the Bt gene and the marker hpt gene, to generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. The clean DNA fragments for bombardment were obtained by restriction digestion and gel extraction. Through biolistic transformation, 67 independent transformants were generated. Transformation frequency reached 3.3%, and 81% of the transgenic plants were co-transformants. Stable integration of the Bt gene was confirmed, and the insert copy number was determined by Southern analysis. Western analysis and ELISA revealed a high level of Bt protein expression in transgenic plants. Progeny analysis confirmed stable inheritance of the Bt gene according to the Mendelian (3:1) ratio. Insect bioassays revealed complete protection of transgenic plants from yellow stem borer infestation. PCR analysis of T2 progeny plants resulted in the recovery of up to 4% marker-free transgenic rice plants. PMID:20720299

Kumar, S; Arul, L; Talwar, D

2010-01-01

2

Description Soybean stem borer is the  

E-print Network

Description Soybean stem borer is the common name of a small, long-horned beetle that attacks soybeans. The adult beetleis pale gray in color and is about 3/8 inch long with antennae that are longer The soybean stem borer overwinters as a larva in the base of hollowed-out, girdled stems. Larvae pupate

Mukhtar, Saqib

3

Searching for New Sources of Pink Stem Borer Resistance in Maize ( Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is the main corn (Zea mays L.) pest in the Mediterranean area. Although, screening for resistance to this pest has been successful, the level of resistance shown by the most resistant varieties is not high. The objectives of the present work were: (i) the evaluation for pink stem borer resistance of the nontested

A. Butrón; G. Sandoya; R. Santiago; A. Ordás; A. Rial; R. A. Malvar

2006-01-01

4

The profitability of maize–haricot bean intercropping techniques to control maize stem borers under low pest densities in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lepidopteran stem borers are the main pests of cereals in Ethiopia. In recent years, habitat management techniques, which\\u000a aim at increasing plant biodiversity through mixed cropping, have gained increased attention in stem borer control. In the\\u000a present study, the profitability of mixed cropping of maize with haricot beans at different ratios and the effect on infestation\\u000a of maize by stem

D. Belay; F. Schulthess; C. Omwega

2009-01-01

5

Economic assessment of controlling stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with insecticides in Texas rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-year field study was conducted to evaluate insecticide applications on infestations of the stem borers Diatraea saccharalis (F.) and Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) in rice, Oryza sativa L. Except for rice yield in 2002, whiteheads per square meter and rice yield were significantly affected by insecticide treatments in each year of the study. Biorational insecticides (diflubenzuron, novaluron and tebufenozide) did

F. P. F. Reay-Jones; T. E. Reagan

2007-01-01

6

Predictive zoning of rice stem borer damage in southern India through spatial interpolation of weather-based models.  

PubMed

Rice stem borer is an important insect pest causing severe damage to rice crop in India. The relationship between weather parameters such as maximum (T(max)) and minimum temperature (T(min)), morning (RH1) and afternoon relative humidity (RH2) and the severity of stem borer damage (SB) were studied. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for formulating pest-weather models at three sites in southern India namely, Warangal, Coimbatore and Pattambi as SB = -66.849 + 2.102 T(max) + 0.095 RH1, SB = 156.518 - 3.509 T(min) - 0.785 RH1 and SB = 43.483 - 0.418 T(min) - 0.283 RH1 respectively. The pest damage predicted using the model at three sites did not significantly differ from the observed damage (t = 0.442; p > 0.05). The range of weather parameters favourable for stem borer damage at each site were also predicted using the models. Geospatial interpolation (kriging) of the pest-weather models were carried out to predict the zones of stem borer damage in southern India. Maps showing areas with high, medium and low risk of stem borer damage were prepared using geographical information system. The risk maps of rice stem borer would be useful in devising management strategies for the pest in the region. PMID:25204068

Reji, G; Chander, Subhash; Kamble, Kalpana

2014-09-01

7

Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts.  

PubMed

Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and ?-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-?-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass. PMID:23990056

Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

2013-01-01

8

Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts  

PubMed Central

Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and ?-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-?-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass. PMID:23990056

Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K.; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

2013-01-01

9

Development of stem borer resistant transgenic parental lines involved in the production of hybrid rice.  

PubMed

Stem borer resistant transgenic parental lines, involved in hybrid rice, were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer method. Two pSB111 super-binary vectors containing modified cry1Ab/cry1Ac genes driven by maize ubiquitin promoter, and herbicide resistance gene bar driven by cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were, used in this study. Embryogenic calli after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium were selected on the medium containing phosphinothricin. Southern blot analyses of primary transformants revealed the stable integration of bar, cry1Ab and cry1Ac coding sequences into the genomes of three parental lines with a predominant single copy integration and without any rearrangement of T-DNA. T1 progeny plants disclosed a monogenic pattern (3:1) of transgene segregation as confirmed by molecular analyses. Furthermore, the co-segregation of bar and cry genes in T1 progenies suggested that the transgenes are integrated at a single site in the rice genome. In different primary transformants with alien inbuilt resistance, the levels of cry proteins varied between 0.03 and 0.13% of total soluble proteins. These transgenic lines expressing insecticidal proteins afforded substantial resistance against stem borers. This is the first report of its kind dealing with the introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cry genes into the elite parental lines involved in the development of hybrid rice. PMID:15219400

Ramesh, S; Nagadhara, D; Pasalu, I C; Kumari, A Padma; Sarma, N P; Reddy, V D; Rao, K V

2004-07-15

10

Effect of sequential applications of foliar nutrients, biofertilizers and sowing dates on the incidence of corn stem borers in Egypt.  

PubMed

In this study either early sown (May 1st) or lately sown (June 2nd) corn plants were treated with Phosphorin & Rhizobactrin as biofertilizers and sprayed with six selected foliar nutrients, i.e. Polymex; Greenzit SP100, Greenzit NPK, Potasin-F, Copper sulphate and Ascorbic acid; in mono-, bi-, and/or tri-sequential applications. Such practices were conducted to show their beneficial effects compared with the chemical treatment in checking the incidence of the stem borers and hence increasing the corn yield. The obtained results could be summarized in the following chief points: (a) the lately sown biofertilized plants showed somewhat higher levels of infestation than the early planted ones., (b) in general, spraying the biofertilized corn plants in both sowing dates with the tested foliar nutrients, significantly decreased the rate of the stem borers infestation than the untreated plants of control., (c) the foliar sprays of Greenzit NPK alone, bi- or tri-sequential applications of Potasin-F, Polymex, Ascorbic acid and Copper sulphate achieved considerable success in reducing larval numbers of the borers species. For example, in case of using the bi-sequential nutrients (Polymex/Ascorbic acid) the numbers were 1.2, 1.5 and 1.2 larvae/5 plants, whereas the numbers were 1.3, 1.0 and 0.7 larvae/5 plants as a result, of the tri-sequential applications (Potasin-F/Ascorbic acid/Polymex) for the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica, (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon, (Bels.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.), in respect, vs. 4.8, 4.5 and 2.9 larvae/5 plants for the same stem borers, respectively, in case of the untreated corn plants. In addition, the other trisequential applications (Polymex/ascorbic acid/Copper sulphate), (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/ascorbic acid) and (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) reduced the stem borers infestation; (d) from the view point of the interaction effects of sowing dates and the tested foliar nutrients, it was found that the tri-sequential sprayings (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) and/or (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Ascorbic acid) have lowered the rate of the stem borers infestation to 3.3 and 3.3 and 5.7 and 4.3 larvae/5 plants for the tri-applications in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates, respectively. Such reductions in the levels of infestation led to an increase in the grain yield up to 6.9 and 7.2 and 5.4 and 5.8 ton/fed, for the early and lately sown corn plants, in respect, and (e) All the foliar nutrients, with no exception, proved to be efficient in managing the stem borers infestation as compared with the insecticide treatment using Polytrin. Although the chemical application had lowered the level of infestation to 2.3 and 5.7 larvae/5 plants in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates as compared with 9.7 and 14.7 larvae/5 untreated plants for the same sowing dates, lesser grain yield of 5.6 and 4.4 ton/fed. was obtained in the first and second dates of planting, successively, in comparison to the grain yield resulted from the tri-applications of Potasin-F/Copper sulphate with either Polymex or Ascorbic acid. The abovementioned results assured the profitable effects of using foliar nutrients as well as the biofertilizers for attaining healthy corn plants, which would be capable of tolerating the injury inflicted by the studied stem borers and compensating for the harmful effects of insects infestation, so high grain yields could be obtained than those of the untreated and/or the insecticide treated plants. PMID:12696416

Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; el-Kady, Magda B; Haroun, Nagah S

2002-01-01

11

Evaluation for potential Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) strains for control of the striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in the Greater Mekong Subregion.  

PubMed

Trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. Nine Trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the Greater Mekong Subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential Trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. In the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains showed higher parasitism rates on 0-24-h eggs than on the two older age groups (24-48 and 48-72 h). Wasp emergence rate was also higher from parasitized 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs, while Trichogramma immature duration was significantly prolonged on 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs. Parasitism rates differed among Trichogramma strains, with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii CJ strain showing significantly higher parasitism rate than any other strains. In the field tests, parasitism of sentinel striped stem borer eggs by Trichogramma strains released at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 wasps per hectare was low, with marginal yet significant differences between strains. The highest parasitism was achieved by T. chilonis CJ strain at the high and medium release rates. Hence, it can be concluded that T. chilonis CJ strain released at 100,000 wasps per hectare may be a cost-effective control tactic for field releases targeting striped stem borer. PMID:25026653

Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

2014-06-01

12

Pest Status and Distribution of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, in Kansas  

PubMed Central

The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is currently receiving increased attention as a pest of soybeans in the Great Plains of North America. Field surveys were conducted in 1999 and in 2008 to record the distribution of this pest in Kansas. These surveys documented an increase in the abundance of the pest and an expansion in the range of this insect westward and eastward. The percentage of fields with more than 50% of plants infested also increased from 4% in 1999 to 11% in 2008. The far eastern counties still had surprisingly few infested fields even though much of the Kansas soybean acreage is located in these counties. It is not clear if D. texanus simply haven't expanded into eastern Kansas yet or if there is an ecological barrier that keeps them from doing so. Field crop entomologists from across eastern North America were sent an email questionnaire and their responses indicate that this pest is now well established as a pest of soybeans in at least 14 states across eastern North America. PMID:21268702

Buschman, Lawrent L.; Sloderbeck, Phillip E.

2010-01-01

13

SOYBEAN STEM BORER IN KANSAS: A Research Update. M. Kaczmarek1, R.A. Higgins1, P.E. Sloderbeck1, L.L. Buschman1, D. Crook1, S.B. Ramaswamy1, W. Schapaugh2.  

E-print Network

SOYBEAN STEM BORER IN KANSAS: A Research Update. M. Kaczmarek1, R.A. Higgins1, P.E. Sloderbeck1, L. Annually, for at least 15 years, K-State specialists have received isolated reports of lodging in soybean fields as a result of the soybean stem borer Dectes texanus texanus. Often these problems were associated

Mukhtar, Saqib

14

The role of some agricultural practices and fertilizer type on both the incidence of stem borers infestation and corn yield in Egypt.  

PubMed

Maize, Zea mays, L. is one of the most important field crops in Egypt. It is used mainly for human, animal and poultry feeding. Corn plants are usually attacked by several injourious insect pests at different stages of development. Out of them, the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon (Bles.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.); which cause great damage and yield losses. It is profitable to adopt an effective and sustainable strategy for controlling these insect-pests. In this concern, sowing dates, planting spaces, foliar fertilizers (macro and micro-nutrients), mineral and/or biofertilization, were investigated to evaluate their role as tools in the so-called Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program of corn pests. In general, the used planting spaces of 60 and 70 cm apart between furrows insignificantly affected the level of stem borers infestation. It was clearly observed that the sowing dates have a role in the incidence of stem borers infestation throughout the corn growing seasons of 1994 and 1995. Moreover, The biofertilized corn plants were more tolerant to the infestation by the stem borers than the minerally fertilized ones. Application of Polytrin significantly decreased the mean numbers of larvae. The tested nutrients preparations affected to less extent, the infestation levels. Concerning the interaction effect of applied nutrients preparations, used sowing dates and/or fertilizer type on the deduced means of larval numbers, it was revealed that: (i) the application of the nutrients preparations decreased to a great extent the effect of the studied sowing dates on the stem borers infestation; particularly in case of spraying ascorbic acid alone or in sequence with Polymex, coppersulphate & Potasin-F, (ii) the dressing of corn grains with the biofertilizers Phosphorin & Rhizobacterin before sowing, lowered to some extent the levels of infestation by Ch. agamemnon and O. nubilalis, in comparison to the minerally fertilized corn plants, especially in case of spraying Potasin-F, copper sulphate and scorbic acid followed by Polymex for Ch. agamemnon. Spraying Ascorbic acid alone or in sequence with Polymex; Potasin-F followed by Copper sulphate gave promising results for the control of O. nubilalis. In comparison to insecticide treatment, the used foliar nutrients & fertilizer type in both sowing dates gave positive interaction effects in decreasing levels of stem borers infestation and greatly improved the yield and yield characteristics of corn plants. Such agricultural practices enabled corn plants to tackle the going on infestation; thus crop loss due to the attack of the stem borers could be compensated. PMID:12696425

Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; Massoud, M A; Abd el-Aziz, A A

2002-01-01

15

Susceptibility of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to flubendiamide in China.  

PubMed

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important rice pest in China, and has evolved resistance to several classes of insecticides. Flubendiamide is a phthalic diamide insecticide that shows selective insecticidal activity against lepidopterous insects. The susceptibility of 40 field populations of C. suppressalis, collected in 2011 and 2012 in seven provinces of south-eastern China, to flubendiamide was determined through rice seedling dipping bioassay method. Of these 40 populations, seven populations that were seldom exposed to flubendiamide were used to set up the baseline sensitivity, and the LC50 value was 0.092 mg/L. Variation in susceptibility among the 40 field populations was high (34-fold). The range of mean lethal concentration (LC50) values in response to this chemical was between 0.032 mg/L (FS11) and 1.090 mg/L (JH12) across the populations. Substantial variations of the susceptibility to flubendiamide were detected among different geographic populations. There was no significant difference observed between years for most populations, except for populations from Jinhua and Lujiang. Resistance ratios to the chemical ranged from 0.8 to 11.8, indicating that most colonies remained susceptible or showed certain decrease in susceptibility. It was found that 16 of the 40 populations had some level of resistance. However, moderate level of resistance was discovered in only one population from JH12 from Zhejiang province (11.8-fold). Other 15 populations showed low level of resistance (5.1-9.3-fold) to flubendiamide. These data are useful in future monitoring programs for detecting any changes in susceptibility as a result of using flubendiamide. PMID:25026690

Wu, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Yao, Rong; Wu, Shunfan; Su, Jianya; Gao, Congfen

2014-06-01

16

Diversity of lepidopteran stem borers on monocotyledonous plants in eastern Africa and the islands of Madagascar and Zanzibar revisited.  

PubMed

Surveys were completed in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda and Zanzibar to assess the lepidopteran stem borer species diversity on wild host plants. A total of 24,674 larvae belonging to 135 species were collected from 75 species of wild host plants belonging to the Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Typhaceae. Amongst them were 44 noctuid species belonging to at least nine genera, 33 crambids, 15 pyralids, 16 Pyraloidea species not yet identified, 25 tortricids and three cossids. The noctuid larvae represented 73.6% of the total number of larvae collected, with 66.3, 3.5 and 3.8% found on Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Typhaceae, respectively. The Crambidae, Pyralidae, Tortricidae and Cossidae represented 19.8, 1.9, 2.5 and 0.1% of the total larvae collected, respectively, with 90.4% of the Crambidae and Pyralidae collected from Poaceae, and 99.7% of the Tortricidae collected from Cyperaceae. The lepidopteran stem borer species diversity in the wild host plants was far more diverse than previously reported. PMID:17201973

Le Ru, B P; Ong'amo, G O; Moyal, P; Ngala, L; Musyoka, B; Abdullah, Z; Cugala, D; Defabachew, B; Haile, T A; Matama, T Kauma; Lada, V Y; Negassi, B; Pallangyo, K; Ravolonandrianina, J; Sidumo, A; Omwega, C O; Schulthess, F; Calatayud, P A; Silvain, J F

2006-12-01

17

Exploring the midgut transcriptome and brush border membrane vesicle proteome of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker).  

PubMed

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac. PMID:22666467

Ma, Weihua; Zhang, Zan; Peng, Chuanhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lin, Yongjun

2012-01-01

18

Characterisation of a Malawian isolate of Beauveria bassiana, a potential control agent of coffee stem borer, Monochamus leuconotus.  

PubMed

The radial growth, sporulation and viability of a Beauveria bassiana isolate were assessed at three temperatures (23, 28, 33 degrees C) under light and dark conditions. Optimum radial growth and sporulation occurred at 23 degrees C regardless of photoperiod with the highest spore concentration being attained after incubating for 28 days. Loss of viability was highest at 33 degrees C and there was no significant loss in viability at 23 degrees C for up to five weeks. It would appear that 33 degrees C is too hot for the sporulation, growth and viability of this insect fungus. Photoperiod effects were insignificant for all the parameters evaluated. The infectivity on white coffee stem borers at 2.5 x 10(8) spores ml(-1) was high with 100% of the test larvae immobilised and not feeding within 24 h and dying within two to twelve days. PMID:17390800

Kutywayo, V; Karanja, L; Oduor, G; Nyirenda, S

2006-01-01

19

Efficacy of ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) against stem borers and leaffolder insect-pests of basmati rice.  

PubMed

Field experiments were conducted during three kharif seasons from 2009 to 2011 at Sudhar village, Ludhiana and Rice Research Area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Four doses of Ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) a new chemistry @ 20, 30, 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check Cartap hydrochloride 4 G @ 1000 g a.i. ha(-1) was tested against stem borers and leaffolder infesting basmati rice. Over the years, dead heart in all the Ferterra doses and standard check (1.01-1.80%) were at par70 DAT, whereas, at 80 DAT doses @ 40, 50 and standard check were at par (1.04-1.13%) but significantly better than lower doses and untreated control. Similarly, over the years, Ferterra doses @ 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) was significantly better than control in reducing white ear incidence, whereas, at 30 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check intermediately reduced the white ears incidence. Leaffolder infestation at all the Ferterra doses were at par with standard check 70 DAT (2.69-3.87%), whereas, 80 DAT, Ferterra doses @ 30, 40, 50 and standard check were at par (2.95-3.49%) but significantly better than lower dose and untreated control. Over the years the cost : benefit ratio was maximum (1 : 23.67) in the Ferterra @40 g a.i. ha(-1) dose followed by 50 g a.i. ha(-1) dose. PMID:25204052

Sarao, P S; Kaur, H

2014-09-01

20

[Obtaining stem borer-resistant homozygous transgenic lines of Minghui 81 harboring novel cry1Ac gene via particle bombardment].  

PubMed

A modified cry1Ac gene was generated by fusing with Lys-Asp-Glu-Lue (KDEL), an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal at the 3'-ends, with signal peptide coding sequence of Soybean kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI) at the 5'-ends. Vector containing the modified cry1Ac gene coding region flanked by the corn ubiquitin 1 promoter and the nopaline synthase gene (nos) terminator with Hygromycin Phosphotransferase (hpt) gene as a plant selection marker was constructed. The modified cry1Ac gene in which toxic protein targeted to endoplasmic retention was successfully transferred into Minghui 81 (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica), an elite restoring line of commercial CMS indica hybrid rice, through particle bombardment and obtained fertile transformants. Homozygous transgenic rice lines were obtained in the third generation exploiting self-seed set reproduction and HygromycinB selection. These transgenic lines were confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, Southern blotting and ELISA detection. Pest insect-resistant bioassay indicated that some of the homozygous cry1Ac-transgenic rice plants of T2 progeny showed high-level resistance against striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis) at field trials. PMID:12096630

Zeng, Qian-Chun; Wu, Qian; Zhou, Kai-Da; Feng, De-Jiang; Wang, Feng; Su, Jun; Altosaar, Illimar; Zhu, Zhen

2002-06-01

21

Abundance, dispersion and parasitism of the stem borer Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon.  

PubMed

This study was conducted in the humid forest zone of Cameroon, in 2002 and 2003. The main objective was to investigate the effects of intercropping on infestation levels and parasitism of the noctuid maize stem borer Busseola fusca Fuller. Two trials were planted per year, one during the long and one during the short rainy season. Maize monocrops were compared with maize/legume or maize/cassava intercrops in two spatial arrangements: maize on alternate hills or in alternate rows. Spatial analyses showed that the stemborer egg batches were regularly dispersed in the maize monocrop and aggregated in the intercrops, as indicated by b, the index of dispersion of Taylor's power law. Depending on the crop association and planting pattern, intercrops reduced the percentage of plants with stem borer eggs by 47.4-58.4% and egg densities by 41.2-54.5% compared to monocropped maize. Consequently, larval densities were 44.4-61.5% lower in intercrops compared to monocrops. Intercropping maize with non-host plants did not affect larval parasitism. Up to two-fold higher levels of egg parasitism by scelionid Telenomus spp. were recorded in inter- compared to monocrops during the short rainy seasons of 2002 and 2003. No differences were found among the mixed cropping treatments and parasitism was lower during the long compared to the short rainy seasons. It was proposed that differences in levels of parasitism were due to density dependence effects rather than the effect of the presence of non-host plants in the system. PMID:15877866

Chabi-Olaye, A; Nolte, C; Schulthess, F; Borgemeister, C

2005-04-01

22

Brassica rapa stock description: F1 and F2 Non-purple stem, Yellow-green leaf stocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PDF containing seed stock profile information for and illustration of the F1 and F2 Non-Purple Stem, Yellow-Green Leaf variety of Brassica rapa (Fast Plants). This also includes some brief suggestions for their use as a model organism in teaching Mendelian genetics with a monohybrid cross using Wisconsin Fast Plants.

Program, The W.

23

Differential Expression Patterns in Chemosensory and Non-Chemosensory Tissues of Putative Chemosensory Genes Identified by Transcriptome Analysis of Insect Pest the Purple Stem Borer Sesamia inferens (Walker)  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 39 for odorant receptors (ORs) and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs). The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. Conclusion Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as well as other insects. PMID:23894529

Zhang, Ya-Nan; Jin, Jun-Yan; Jin, Rong; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Deng, Jian-Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin

2013-01-01

24

Role of algalization in rice growth, yield and incidence of infestation with the stem borerChilo agamemnon Bles. and the leaf minerHydrellia prosternalis Deeming in the Nile Delta.  

PubMed

Blue-green algae as a soil-based inoculum was applied to short-duration Indica rice in combination with 72 kg N/ha and compared with just N fertilization applied as 144 kg N/ha. Fertilizer N was applied in two equal doses 25 days after transplanting and at mid-tillering stage. The algal inoculum, which containedAnabaena cylindrica, Anabaena oryzae, Nostoc muscorum andTolypothrix tenuis, was applied at 100 kg/ha fresh material (90% moisture) 5 days after transplanting. Five different combinations of microelements were sprayed as a foliar application simultaneously with fertilizer N. Plant performance was enhanced by inoculation with algae and microelements compared with complete N fertilization only. Natural infestation with the stem borer,Chilo agamemnon, and leaf miner,Hydrellia prosternalis, decreased significantly during growth and up to harvesting with application of algae, Endosulfan, and increased with application of microelements. PMID:24430137

Yanni, Y G; Abdallah, F E

1990-12-01

25

The Cotton-Square Borer.  

E-print Network

it on this food plant. Hops, beans, and hawthorn, Crat~gus, have been recorded as the most common food plants of the insect in the Northeastern States. Additional pl~nts attacked by the cotton-square borer in this region include hound's tongue, Cynoglossum; St... it on this food plant. Hops, beans, and hawthorn, Crat~gus, have been recorded as the most common food plants of the insect in the Northeastern States. Additional pl~nts attacked by the cotton-square borer in this region include hound's tongue, Cynoglossum; St...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan)

1929-01-01

26

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)  

E-print Network

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) The oak pinhole borer, Platypus of a continuing supply of breeding material in the form of weakened oaks suffering from `oak dieback and decline'. P.cylindrus appears to establish only in trees that are severely stressed or already dead

27

Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch  

PubMed Central

Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

2013-01-01

28

Borers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees, including roundheaded apple tree borer,  

E-print Network

Roundheaded apple-tree borer larva #12;control apple maggot, leafminers, and other pests. Backyard treesBorers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees, including roundheaded apple tree borer, flatheaded apple-tree borer, dogwood borer (and the uncommon look

New Hampshire, University of

29

1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers  

E-print Network

1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-07-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology JAPANESE pine (Pinus sp.), spruce(Picea sp.), fir (Abies sp.), cedar (Cedrus sp.) and larch (Larix sp.). Trees. Pupation takes place in the wood and adults emerge by chewing a round exit hole. Adults feed on the tender

Ginzel, Matthew

30

Habits and control of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.)  

E-print Network

OF TABLES Table Page Effectiveness of insecticides applied to corn for control of the sugarcane borer based upon the infestation per 10 stalks. Experiment I. Effectiveness of insecticides applied to corn for control of the sugarcane borer based upon... the number of borers per 10 stalks. Experi- ment II. Effectiveness of insecticides applied to corn for control of the sugarcane borer based upon the percentage of infested stalks. Experi- ment II. 36 Effectiveness of insecticides applied to corn...

Teetes, George Lee

2012-06-07

31

Stems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some mature plants can produce new plants by cutting a piece of stem off of the original plant. Most members of the mint family and ivy family can do this readily. The new plant will grow its own root system.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

32

Is the basal area of maize internodes involved in borer resistance?  

PubMed Central

Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR) in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB), we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21), each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety. The resulting plants were analyzed to determine their LIBR response, growth, yield, and borer resistance. Results In the synthetic variety EPS20 (Reid germplasm), reduction of the LIBR improved resistance against the MCB. The LIBR selection was also effective in the synthetic variety EPS21 (non-Reid germplasm), although there was no relationship detected between the LIBR and MCB resistance. The LIBR did not show correlations with agronomic traits such as plant height and yield. Compared with upper sections, the internode basal ring area contained lower concentrations of cell wall components such as acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and diferulates. In addition, some residual 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H)-one (DIMBOA), a natural antibiotic compound, was detected in the basal area at 30 days after silking. Conclusion We analyzed maize selections to determine whether the basal area of maize internodes is involved in borer resistance. The structural reinforcement of the cell walls was the most significant trait in the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Lower contents of ADF and ADL in the rind of the basal section facilitated the entry of larvae in this area in both synthetic varieties, while lower concentrations of diferulates in the pith basal section of EPS20 facilitated larval feeding inside the stem. The higher concentrations of DIMBOA may have contributed to the lack of correlation between the LIBR and borer resistance in EPS21. This novel trait could be useful in maize breeding programs to improve borer resistance. PMID:21999882

2011-01-01

33

Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash

Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester

34

Yellow Fever Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected ...

35

Yellow Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 1951, Max Theiler (Fig. 10.1), a Rockefeller Foundation scientist, became the only person to be awarded the Nobel Prize\\u000a in Medicine and Physiology for the development of a virus vaccine (Norrby 2007). His live, attenuated 17D vaccine was not\\u000a the first yellow fever vaccine to be tested in humans, but it was by far the most successful one. More

Thomas P. Monath

36

1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-04-W Department of Entomology America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers BLACK SPRUCE BEETLE, TETROPIUM CASTANEUM (LINNAEUS) Jeffrey D. Holland, K. R. Raje, J.T. Shukle, and V. R living trees. The wood- boring larvae cause structural damage that may make the trees susceptible

Ginzel, Matthew

37

Mapping of QTL for resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer attack using the intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) population of maize.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean corn borer or pink stem borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) causes important yield losses as a consequence of stalk tunneling and direct kernel damage. B73 and Mo17 are the source of the most commercial valuable maize inbred lines in temperate zones, while the intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) population is an invaluable source for QTL identification. However, no or few experiments have been carried out to detect QTL for corn borer resistance in the B73 x Mo17 population. The objective of this work was to locate QTL for resistance to stem tunneling and kernel damage by MCB in the IBM population. We detected a QTL for kernel damage at bin 8.05, although the effect was small and two QTL for stalk tunneling at bins 1.06 and 9.04 in which the additive effects were 4 cm, approximately. The two QTL detected for MCB resistance were close to other QTL consistently found for European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) resistance, indicating mechanisms of resistance common to both pests or gene clusters controlling resistance to different plagues. The precise mapping achieved with the IBM population will facilitate the QTL pyramiding and the positional cloning of the detected QTL. PMID:19756472

Ordas, Bernardo; Malvar, Rosa A; Santiago, Rogelio; Sandoya, German; Romay, Maria C; Butron, Ana

2009-11-01

38

Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... the Geographic Risk of Yellow Fever. Map 3-17. Yellow fever vaccine recommendations in the Americas 1 ... and yellow fever vaccination. Lancet. 2004 Sep 11–17;364(9438):936. Cavalcanti DP, Salomao MA, Lopez- ...

39

Apple Burrknot Borers in New York Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State  

E-print Network

Apple Burrknot Borers in New York ­ Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State DAVID P. KAIN, RICHARD W. STRAUB AND ARTHUR M. AGNELLO Department damage to dwarf apple trees caused by American plum borer, a survey was conducted in the major apple

Agnello, Arthur M.

40

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Yellow rocket  

E-print Network

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Yellow rocket Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Life cycle Erect winter annual, gradually becoming smaller toward the top. Yellow rocket seedling. Yellow rocket flowers. Back in cross-section. Reproduction Seeds. Yellow rocket lower leaf. Yellow rocket rosette. Yellow rocket

41

European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Induced Responses Enhance Susceptibility in Maize  

PubMed Central

Herbivore-induced plant responses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize (Zea mays) responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinianubilalis) larvae revealed the presence of inducible acidic diterpenoid phytoalexins, termed kauralexins, and increases in the benzoxazinoid 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucose (HDMBOA-Glc) after 24 h of herbivory. Despite these rapidly activated defenses, larval growth was not altered in short-term feeding assays. Unexpectedly, ECB growth significantly improved in assays using stem tissue preconditioned by 48 h of larval tunneling. Correspondingly, measures of total soluble protein increased over 2.6-fold in these challenged tissues and were accompanied by elevated levels of sucrose and free linoleic acid. While microarray analyses revealed up-regulation of over 1100 transcripts, fewer individual protein increases were demonstrable. Consistent with induced endoreduplication, both wounding and ECB stem attack resulted in similar significant expansion of the nucleus, nucleolus and levels of extractable DNA from challenged tissues. While many of these responses are triggered by wounding alone, biochemical changes further enhanced in response to ECB may be due to larval secreted effectors. Unlike other Lepidoptera examined, ECB excrete exceedingly high levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in their frass which is likely to contact and contaminate the surrounding feeding tunnel. Stem exposure to a metabolically stable auxin, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), promoted significant protein accumulation above wounding alone. As a future testable hypothesis, we propose that ECB-associated IAA may function as a candidate herbivore effector promoting the increased nutritional content of maize stems. PMID:24023868

Dafoe, Nicole J.; Thomas, James D.; Shirk, Paul D.; Legaspi, Michelle E.; Vaughan, Martha M.; Huffaker, Alisa; Teal, Peter E.; Schmelz, Eric A.

2013-01-01

42

Laboratory rearing of the cottonwood twig borer on artificial diets  

E-print Network

LABORATORY REARING OF THE COTTONWOOD TWIG BORER ON ARTIFICIAL DIETS A Thesis VICTOR CARL MASTRO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1973 Ma)or Sub)ect: Entomology LABORATORY REARING OF THE COTTONWOOD TWIG BORER ON ARTIFICIAL DIETS A Thesis by VICTOR CARL MASTRO Approved as to style and conte by (Cha rman of Committee) Head De artment) (He er) ( mber) mber) August 1973...

Mastro, Victory Carl

2012-06-07

43

Does the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Have Mutualistic Fungi?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory bioassays were performed to determine if a mutualistic association exists between three species of fungi and the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). The fungi Fusarium solani (Martius), Penicillium citrinum Thom and Candida fermentati (Saito) were evaluated on the reproduction and survivorship of H.hampei. The fungi were evaluated at three concentrations: 5 102 ;5 104 and 5 106 spores\\/ml

Jeanneth Pérez; Francisco Infante; Fernando E. Vega

2005-01-01

44

The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae),  

E-print Network

-conifer forests in San Diego County. GSOB prefers mature oak trees but occasionally attacks smaller oaksThe goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a flatheaded at one site in Riverside County in 2012. It was likely brought into the state on oak firewood collected

Ishida, Yuko

45

Biological Control of Coffee Berry Borer in Organic Coffee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary All inspection reports of Naturland organic coffee growers in Latin America (Mexico, Guatemala, Ecua- dor, Peru and Bolivia) comprising 29,673 organic coffee farmers with 85,376 ha of land, were checked for control methods of coffee berry borer. 33 % use cultural control by picking up infested berries from the ground or from the plant during and after harvest. 24

Manfred Fürst; Stefan Bergleiter; Kleinhaderner Weg

46

Effect of planting dates and Bacillus thuringiensis corn on the population dynamics of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Field studies were conducted to determine how field corn, Zea mays L., phenologies in combination with transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) corn and non-Bt (near isogenic) corn could affect egg laying by female European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), and subsequent larval injury. Transgenic Bt (events 176 and Bt11) and non-Bt corn was planted at three different times to assess the use of early- and late- planted Bt corn as a means for egg recruitment to these targeted planting dates. Plant growth stages, egg densities, and stalk tunneling was recorded at four locations in southwestern, central, and northern Iowa for three summers (1996-1998). No significant differences in egg densities were observed between Bt and non-Bt corn during the first and second generation for all three years. Significant differences did occur among planting dates. Between 50 and 100% of the eggs were laid in the early planting during the first generation. In addition, between 40 and 65% of the eggs were laid in the late planting for the second generation. Correlations between egg density and larval tunneling were inconsistent from year to year. Additional inconsistencies stemming from yearly phenological differences among sequential plantings and variable O. nubilalis populations increases the difficulty in recommending planting date adjustments as a practical management tool for European corn borer and Bt corn. PMID:11425031

Pilcher, C D; Rice, M E

2001-06-01

47

Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat  

E-print Network

Service ­ Ontology ­ Invasive Species ­ EAB. 1 Introduction The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is a shiny Medjahed1 , and William Grosky Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Michigan Borer (EAB) has killed or infested millions of ash trees in Michigan and is fast spreading

Medjahed, Brahim

48

Optimization of Sampling Methods for Within-Tree Populations of Red Oak Borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman)  

E-print Network

SAMPLING Optimization of Sampling Methods for Within-Tree Populations of Red Oak Borer, Enaphalodes) mortality. Twenty-four northern red oak trees, Quercus rubra L., infested with red oak borer, were felled of 480 examined trees, and Donley and Rast (1984) examined the entire bole of 144 oaks in Pennsylvania

Stephen, Frederick M.

49

A rapid estimation procedure for within-tree populations of red oak borer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)  

E-print Network

A rapid estimation procedure for within-tree populations of red oak borer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae rubra L., from 2001 to 2003 revealed exceptionally high red oak borer population levels with trees-hickory (USDA Forest Service, 1999) with red oaks, sub-genus Erythroba- lanus, being common tree species

Stephen, Frederick M.

50

Yellow Legged Frog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists found this adult mountain yellow-legged frog on June 10 in Tahquitz Creek, a rediscovered population of the endangered frog in the San Jacinto Wilderness, San Bernardino National Forest, California....

2009-07-23

51

Effect of silicon soil amendment on performance of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on rice.  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a pest of graminaceous crops in the southern USA, including sugarcane, maize, and rice. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of silicon (Si) soil amendments on performance of sugarcane borer, D. saccharalis, on two rice cultivars, Cocodrie and XL723. There was a significant increase in the Si content of rice plants supplemented with calcium silicate as compared to non-treated plants. Soil Si amendment led to lower relative growth rates (RGRs) and reduced boring success of sugarcane borer larvae. Effects of soil Si amendments on borer success and RGR appeared to be more pronounced in 'Cocodrie', the cultivar relatively susceptible to borers, than in the moderately resistant cultivar, XL723. Soil Si amendment may contribute to the management of D. saccharalis through reduced feeding injury and increased exposure to adverse environmental conditions and natural enemies arising from reduced boring success. PMID:23830057

Sidhu, J K; Stout, M J; Blouin, D C; Datnoff, L E

2013-12-01

52

Biology and host specificity of Mecinus Janthinus Germar (col.: Curculionidae), a candidate for the biological control of yellow and dalmatian toadflax, Linaria Vulgaris (l.) mill, and Linaria Dalmatica (l.) mill. (scrophulariaceae) in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology and host specificity of Mecinus janthinus Germar, an oligophagous, univoltine stem?borer of Linaria spp. are discussed. The results of feeding and oviposition tests with 38 species in 13 families and of larval transfer tests with four plant species are presented. They show that M. janthinus is restricted to the genus Linaria and does not develop on snapdragon Antirrhinum

P. Jeanneret; D. Schroeder

1992-01-01

53

In Vitro Synthesis of Minus-Strand RNA by an Isolated Cereal Yellow Dwarf Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Requires VPg and a Stem-Loop Structure at the 3' End of the Virus RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV) RNA has a 5-terminal genome-linked protein (VPg). We have expressed the VPg region of the CYDV genome in bacteria and used the purified protein (bVPg) to raise an antiserum which was able to detect free VPg in extracts of CYDV-infected oat plants. A template-dependent RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) has been produced from a CYDV membrane-bound

Toba A. M. Osman; Robert H. A. Coutts; Kenneth W. Buck

2006-01-01

54

A survey of barley yellow dwarf virus in Australia 1963  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) in cereal crops in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania was carried out between 18 September and 4 October 1963.BYDV was identified by symptolllli in the field and confirmed in New Zealand by transmission tests with Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) fed on the leaf and stem samples of cereals and grasses collected

Harvey C. Smith

1964-01-01

55

STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author introduces integrative STEM (science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics) education and discusses the importance of the program. The notion of integrative STEM education includes approaches that explore teaching and learning between/among any two or more of the STEM subject areas, and/or between a STEM subject…

Sanders, Mark

2009-01-01

56

Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.

2008-05-01

57

Stem Cells  

MedlinePLUS

Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

58

Media Online Yellow Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Media Online Yellow Pages is another good place (along with the Big List and Newslink mentioned last week) to find media sources on the Internet. Does not appear to be searchable but the index is well-organized for browsing.

59

Photo yellowing of human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white,

A. C. S. Nogueira; M. Richena; L. E. Dicelio; I. Joekes

2007-01-01

60

Tri-trophic Analyses of Rice, the Sugarcane Borer, and Putative Biological Control Agents  

E-print Network

and at panicle differentiation, respectively. A 2-year field cage experiment was conducted to determine the biological control potential of Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) against the sugarcane borer on rice. The effective search rate was 49 cm2 ground area (2...

Lv, Jiale

2010-01-14

61

[Yellow fever: new recommendations].  

PubMed

Indication for yellow fever vaccination is not always easy to assess. The decision to immunize is not only based on the actual risk of the disease in a specific location, but also on public health considerations in the visited country (in order to respectively avoid epidemics in endemic countries or the introduction of the virus in zones where the vectors mosquitoes are present) and on travelers' risk factors for severe or even fatal vaccine adverse events. WHO has recently published new recommendations regarding vaccination against yellow fever after concluding that one dose of vaccine generates a life-long protection. This article tends to clarify the strategy to adopt in 2013 using cases frequently encountered in the practice of travel medicine. PMID:24908746

Rochat, L; Genton, B

2014-05-01

62

Relationship between time to flowering and stalk and ear damage by second generation corn borers.  

PubMed

In the Mediterranean area, the main corn borer species are Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Mediterranean corn borer) and Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (European corn borer). In the overall context of integrated pest control, it is possible to reduce the effect of a pest without having a negative effect on the environment by varying the sowing date. Benefits are possible if the most susceptible stages of the crop no longer coincide with the peak of the pest. We used different cycles of selection (0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of two populations (Purdue A and Purdue B) of maize selected for early flowering to get a more precise estimation of the relationship between maturity of plant tissues and corn borer damage. We found a relationship between the damage produced by corn borers and the number of days from flowering to infestation. We conclude that, after flowering, a later stage of plant development at the moment of the infestation by corn borers reduces the damage caused by the larvae. Based on our results, we recommend to plant as early as possible so the tissues would be as mature as possible at the moment of insect attack. PMID:23865188

Ordas, B; Alvarez, A; Revilla, P; Butron, A; Malvar, R A

2013-06-01

63

Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight. PMID:20021772

Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

2009-12-01

64

Interspecific variation in resistance to emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) among North American and Asian ash (Fraxinus spp.).  

PubMed

We conducted a 3-yr study to compare the susceptibility of selected North American ash and an Asian ash species to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive wood-boring beetle introduced to North America from Asia. Because of a coevolutionary relationship between Asian ashes and emerald ash borer, we hypothesized an Asian ash species, Manchurian ash, is more resistant to the beetle than its North American congeners. Consistent with our hypothesis, Manchurian ash experienced far less mortality and yielded far fewer adult beetles than several cultivars of North American green and white ash. Surprisingly, a black ash (North American) x Manchurian ash hybrid was highly susceptible to emerald ash borer, indicating this cultivar did not inherit emerald ash borer resistance from its Asian parent. A corollary study investigated the efficacy of soil-applied imidacloprid, a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide, for controlling emerald ash borer in each of the five cultivars. Imidacloprid had no effect on emerald ash borer colonization of Manchurian ash, which was low in untreated and treated trees. In contrast, imidacloprid did enhance survival of the North American and hybrid cultivars and significantly reduced the number of emerald ash borer adults emerging from green and white ash cultivars. We identify a possible mechanism of resistance of Manchurian ash to emerald ash borer, which may prove useful for screening, selecting, and breeding emerald ash borer-resistant ash trees. PMID:18348816

Rebek, Eric J; Herms, Daniel A; Smitley, David R

2008-02-01

65

Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.  

PubMed

The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions. PMID:22217762

Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

2011-12-01

66

Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.  

PubMed

Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed. PMID:22506996

Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

2012-04-01

67

APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser D. P. Kain and A. Agnello Dogwood borer (DWB); Synanthedon scitula (Harris) N.Y.S. Agric. Expt. Station  

E-print Network

APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser D. P. Kain and A. Agnello Dogwood borer (DWB); Synanthedon@nysaes.cornell .edu APPLE, EVALUATION OF VARIOUS TRUNK SPRAYS TO CONTROL BORERS INFESTING BURRKNOTS, 2006 the untreated check. (Table 1) Table 1. Efficacy of insecticides against dogwood borer infesting apple, 2006

Agnello, Arthur M.

68

Characterization of Pepper yellow leaf curl virus, a tentative new Polerovirus species causing a yellowing disease of pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an important crop worldwide. In Israel, approximately 2,500 ha are grown all year round for the local and export markets.\\u000a Herein, we report the identification of a viral pathogen causing a new devastating disease in pepper crops. The disease syndrome\\u000a includes shortening of stem internodes, interveinal yellowing, and upward rolling of the leaf blade, accompanied by fruit

Aviv Dombrovsky; Eyal Glanz; Mali Pearlsman; Oded Lachman; Yehezkel Antignus

2010-01-01

69

Spiroacetals in the Colonization Behaviour of the Coffee Berry Borer: A ‘Push-Pull’ System  

PubMed Central

Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1?1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a ‘push-pull’ system, whereby frontalin acts as the ‘push’ (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the ‘pull’ (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135

Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn

2014-01-01

70

Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (<3%) in both the spring and fall sample periods. In the fall 2009 samples, ? 1.5% of experimental cohorts and 0.8% of the wild emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the three release sites by the end of the study but was not detected in the experimental cohorts or associated wild larvae in any of the three control plots. PMID:22546447

Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

2010-10-01

71

ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER  

PubMed Central

By the employment of methods designed to promote the growth both of aerobic and anaerobic organisms, particularly those belonging to the class of spirochetes, it was possible to obtain a pure culture of a delicate organism, the morphological features of which place it in the genus Leptospira. On three occasions, that is, from three out of eleven cases of yellow fever, the organism was directly cultivated. These three strains were found to induce the characteristic symptoms and lesions when tested on guinea pigs. The organism was designated Leptospira icteroides. Leptospira icteroides was also obtained in pure culture from the blood of guinea pigs which succumbed to infection after being inoculated with the blood or organ emulsions from patients suffering from yellow fever. These cultures also proved to be virulent when tested on susceptible animals. The morphological characteristics and certain biological properties of the organism were considered in detail. It is invisible under translucent illumination and is difficult to stain by most aniline dyes. It is highly sensitive to the presence of bacteria and is rapidly destroyed in a medium in which certain other organisms are present. The presence of blood serum (man, sheep, horse, rabbit, etc.) seems to be essential for its growth. It grows well at a temperature of about 25–26°C. and more quickly at 37°C., though at the latter temperature it dies out within a few weeks. At 25°C. under favorable conditions and in suitable culture media it remains viable for several months without losing its virulence. Leptospira icteroides multiplies by transverse division. The virulence attained by some strains was such that 0.00001 cc. of a culture could induce typical fatal infection in guinea pigs. There exists a considerable variation among guinea pigs in their susceptibility to Leptospira icteroides. The organism is killed within 10 minutes at a temperature of 55°C. and is also destroyed by complete desiccation or freezing and thawing. Bile and bile salts dissolve it in certain concentrations, but not saponin. Leptospira icteroides passes through the pores of Berkefeld filters V and N, and there is a possibility of its having a granular phase of life under certain conditions. PMID:19868342

Noguchi, Hideyo

1919-01-01

72

Impact of the stem borer, Dectes texanus, on yield of the cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus.  

PubMed

Foliar and soil-drench insecticide treatments were used in attempts to manipulate infestation of cultivated sunflower plants, Helianthus annuus LeConte (Asterales: Asteraceae) by Dectes texanus LeConte, (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) a serious pest of sunflowers in the High Plains of the USA. Seed yields were assessed on a per-plant basis for both oilseed and confection type sunflower hybrids in two years. Both insecticide treatments (foliar ë-cyhalothrin and soil-drench carbofuran) improved yield of oilseed sunflowers in 2004, but not in 2005. Yield of confection hybrids was improved by a systemic fungicide (thiophanate methyl) in 2005, but insecticides did not improve yield in either year. Both insecticide treatments gave good control of various stalk-boring insects such as Cylindrocopturus adspersus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Mordellistena sp. (Coleoptera: Mordellidae), and Pelochrista womanana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but neither gave better than 50% control of D. texanus. Plants were sorted according to the presence or absence of D. texanus larvae and no reduction was found in total seed weight, seed size, or oil content as a result of infestation. However, mature larvae of D. texanus girdle stalks at the base in preparation for overwintering, a behavior that reduced stalk breakage force by 34-40%, leading to yield losses through lodging. At harvest in 2005, there were differences between cultivars and among treatments in the proportions of D. texanus larvae that had girdled their plants at harvest. It was concluded that further research aimed at reducing crop losses to D. texanus should focus on means of delaying stalk desiccation and/or deterioration, factors that appear to trigger girdling behavior. PMID:20307233

Michaud, J P; Grant, Angela K; Jyoti, J L

2007-01-01

73

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the First Caspase in the Striped Stem Borer Chilo suppressalis  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is executed through the activity of the caspases that are aspartyl-specific proteases. In this study, we isolated the caspase gene (Cscaspase-1) of Chilo suppressalis (one of the leading pests responsible for destruction of rice crops). It possesses the open reading frame (ORF) of 295 amino acids including prodomain, large subunit and small subunits, and two cleavage sites (Asp23 and Asp194) were found to be located among them. In addition to these profiles, Cscaspase-1 contains two active sites (His134 and Cys176). Genomic analysis demonstrated there was no intron in the genome of Cscaspase-1. The Cscaspase-1 transcripts were found in all tissues of the fifth instar larvae, and higher levels were found in the midgut, hindgut and Malpighian tubules. Examination of Cscaspase-1 expression in different developmental stages indicated low constitutive levels in the eggs and early larvae stages, and higher abundances were exhibited in the last larvae and pupae stages. The relative mRNA levels of Cscaspase-1 were induced by heat and cold temperatures. For example, the highest increase of Cscaspase-1 transcription was at ?3 °C and 36 °C respectively. In a word, Cscaspase-1 plays a role of effector in the apoptosis of C. suppressalis. It also correlates with development, metamorphosis and thermotolerance of C. suppreassalis. PMID:23676354

Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Pingyang; Li, Jianyong

2013-01-01

74

Functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in the purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker).  

PubMed

The sex pheromone communication system in moths is highly species-specific and extremely sensitive, and pheromone receptors (PRs) are thought to be the most important factors in males. In the present study, three full-length cDNAs encoding PRs were characterized from Sesamia inferens antennae. These three PRs were all male-specific in expression, but their relative expression levels were very different; SinfOR29 was 17- to 23-fold higher than the other two PRs. Phylogenetic and motif pattern analyses showed that these three PRs were allocated to different PR subfamilies with different motif patterns. Functional analysis using the heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that SinfOR29 specifically and sensitively responded to the major pheromone component, Z11-16:OAc [concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50 )?=?3.431?×?10(-7?) M], while SinfOR21 responded robustly to a minor pheromone component Z11-16:OH (EC50 ?=?1.087?×?10(-6?) M). SinfOR27, however, displayed no response to any of the three pheromone components, but, interestingly, it was sensitive to a non-sex pheromone component Z9,E12-14:OAc (EC50 ?=?1.522?×?10(-6?) M). Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of specificity and sensitivity of the sex pheromone communication system in moths. PMID:25039606

Zhang, Y-N; Zhang, J; Yan, S-W; Chang, H-T; Liu, Y; Wang, G-R; Dong, S-L

2014-10-01

75

Yellow Fever Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

A sequential and quantitative survey of brain and liver of suckling mice for infective virus and complement-fixing antigen, after infection with yellow fever virus, showed that while there was progressive increase of infective virus content in both organs, only the brain showed a corresponding rise in CF antigen. Histopathological examination revealed that the liver was not significantly involved. The target organ was the brain, where the progressive pathological changes culminated in an acute encephalitis by the 3rd day of experiment. Organ destruction began with the molecular layer of the grey matter. But by the 4th day after infection the entire cerebral cortex was involved. At the initial stages the hippocampus was particularly affected. Tissue damage did not appear to be entirely due to the differential quantitative localization of infective virus. It was hypothesized that the CF antigen acting singly or in conjunction with some hypothetical proteins may be principally involved in the pathological outcome of the disease. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6 PMID:5582071

David-West, Tam. S.; Smith, J. A.

1971-01-01

76

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

2000-01-01

77

Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.  

PubMed

Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood. PMID:20568603

Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

2010-06-01

78

Aerosols Over Yellow Sea Sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This SeaWiFS image shows complex phytoplankton distribution patterns in the Bohai and Yellow seas. A wide band of brownish water along the coast north and south of the mouth of the Yangtze River indicates a heavy load of suspended sediment. The air over eastern central China and the Yellow Sea is thick with aerosols. Farther north over the Manchurian Plain and Greater Khingan Range, the air is much clearer.

2002-01-01

79

A unique Yellow River-derived distal subaqueous delta in the Yellow Sea  

E-print Network

A unique Yellow River-derived distal subaqueous delta in the Yellow Sea Z.S. Yang a , J.P. Liu b deposited around the eastern tip of the Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea. This clinoform deposit re-suspended and transported out of the Bohai Sea into the Yellow Sea. Overall, the Yellow River

Liu, Paul

80

Developing monitoring techniques for the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in California.  

PubMed

The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive species that has colonized oak woodlands in southern California. To better define its seasonal flight activity, assist with forest and integrated pest management activities, and define the current distribution in California, an effective monitoring technique for A. auroguttatus is necessary. We assessed the efficacy of two colors of flight-intercept prism traps, the placement of these traps at three heights, and several commercially available lures [Manuka oil, Phoebe oil, and a green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol] for monitoring the flight of adult A. auroguttatus. Landing rates and the densities of D-shaped emergence holes of A. auroguttatus adults were assessed on the lower stems of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, of varying size and crown health classes. Purple flight-intercept prism traps placed at heights of 3 m and 4.5 m caught significantly more female A. auroguttatus than green prism traps. In one experiment, males also responded at a significantly higher level to purple than to green prism traps placed at 3 m height. The addition of commercially available lures significantly enhanced male, but not female, A. auroguttatus trap catch when compared with unbaited control traps. There were no differences among male flight responses to the three lures. A. auroguttatus landing rates and emergence hole densities were significantly greater on the largest-diameter trees (>76.2 cm diameter at breast height) and on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. The annual increment in emergence hole densities was also significantly greater on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. In three trapping studies over multiple years in southern California, the adult flight period began as early as mid-May, peaked in mid-June to early July, and ended in early- to mid-September. To demonstrate the efficacy of the detection method for A. auroguttatus (unbaited purple traps at 3 m height), a delimitation survey conducted from 2009 to 2012 confirmed that the species was only present in San Diego Co., but that the distribution was expanding northward. PMID:24755194

Coleman, Tom W; Chen, Yigen; Graves, Andrew D; Hishinuma, Stacy M; Grulke, Nancy E; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

2014-06-01

81

Shade over coffee: its effects on berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between different ecological features of shade and the incidence of coffee berry borer, coffee leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in rustic coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. Thirty-six 10 m by 10 m plots were established within coffee plantations. The following variables were measured or estimated: number of vegetation strata, percent

L. Soto-Pinto; I. Perfecto; J. Caballero-Nieto

2002-01-01

82

WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas  

E-print Network

WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas Acacia community diversity and composition. Wood-boring insects in particular can cause considerable damage. In an effort to better understand the wood-boring community on Acacia, Drs Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas (from

83

Selection for Resistance to Southwestern Corn Borer Using Marker-Assisted and Conventional Backcrossing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistant lines identified through this effort have been released and also used in QTL mapping studies to iden- Two maize (Zea mays L) lines, susceptible and resistant to first- tify regions of the genome responsible for resistance generation southwestern corn borer (SWCB), Diatraea grandiosella

M. C. Willcox; M. M. Khairallah; D. Bergvinson; J. Crossa; J. A. Deutsch; G. O. Edmeades; D. González-de-León; C. Jiang; D. C. Jewell; J. A. Mihm; W. P. Williams; D. Hoisington

2002-01-01

84

Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality. Declining trees first

Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

2008-01-01

85

Genetic Variation of the Lesser Peach Tree Borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in Arkansas1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lesser peach tree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (LPTB), belongs to the economically important Lepidopteran family Sesiidae. No studies on genetic variation or population structure on the genus Snyanthedon have been previously published. We examined DNA sequence variation in a 603 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI), tRNA-leu and cytochrome oxidase II gene (COII) from three LPTB

Jackie A. McKern; Allen L. Szalanski

86

Borer problems and their control in dwarf apple trees David Kain, Entomology, NYSAES, Geneva, NY  

E-print Network

Borer problems and their control in dwarf apple trees David Kain, Entomology, NYSAES, Geneva, NY in western New York, were invading burrknots on dwarf apple trees. About the same time, Dick Straub seemed to be becoming more common in dwarf apple plantings, as well. Based on Deb's alert, we decided

Agnello, Arthur M.

87

Title: Use of Physical Barriers to Prevent Borer Infestation of Apple Burrknots Project Leaders  

E-print Network

Title: Use of Physical Barriers to Prevent Borer Infestation of Apple Burrknots Project Leaders of burrknot tissue on apple dwarfing rootstocks is an increasing problem throughout the northeast. One into the winter. We also discuss economic considerations. Background and Justification: Apple growers

Agnello, Arthur M.

88

Genetic transformation and regeneration of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Oleaceae; Section Melioides), is a widely distributed native tree species, planted for timber production and popular for landscaping in North America. However, the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is attacking all North American ash spp. and it has become the most important pest of ash trees in North America. The objectives of this project were to develop

Ningxia Du

2008-01-01

89

Allozyme differentiation among nine populations of the corn borer (Ostrinia) in China.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis of the migration of the corn borer, the allozymes of nine populations of the corn borer (Ostrinia) in China were checked using vertical-slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Eight loci of six allozymes were analyzed. The mean of the genetic identities among the nine populations calculated from the allele frequencies was 0.99068, much closer than that of other species and geographical populations. The mean (0.97955) of the genetic identities between the XJYN population (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, collected from Yining, Xinjiang Autonomous Region) and each of the other eight populations (O. furnacalis Guenée) was significantly smaller than that between the pairs of the eight populations (0.99386; t test, P < 0.01). Although the population XJYN clearly deviates from the other eight populations in the dendrogram, the relationship of the two species of corn borer was very close. It is possible that the speciation of corn borer may have resulted from single-gene substitutions. PMID:8825941

Wang, R; Yan, F; Li, S; Li, S

1995-12-01

90

Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis Fairmaire  

E-print Network

Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus /Accepted: 18 December 2008 /Published online: 20 January 2009 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009 EAB in the field for behavioral changes based on the application of a female- specific compound

91

STEM Career  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many groups and organizations in the United States working to encourage young people to enter STEM-related careers, and this website represents one of those endeavors. The STEM Career website was created by Professor Rich Feller of Colorado State University to help encourage young people to select just such a career path. The website contains updates on STEM career possibilities, and basic answers to questions like "Why STEM?" and "Why STEM Centric Career Development?" Visitors should also scan through the "STEM Disciplines" area on the homepage, as it contains resources about the job outlook for related STEM disciplines, such as biochemical engineering and engineering managers. Moving on, the site also features news updates from Professor Feller and his colleagues on subjects that include the ways in which corporations are promoting STEM education and women in STEM.

92

Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel borer design for application to single entry coal mine development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A health and safety analysis of a single entry coal tunnel borer system is given. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rule, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagen and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1982-01-01

93

a Study of Paddystem Borer (scirpophaga Incertulas) Population Dynamics and its Influence Factors Base on Stepwise Regress Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paddystem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas) is a serious rice pest. The damaged plants wither into dead tassel or white tassel. Such damage leads to decreased in rice production. In order to control the damages of paddystem borer efficiency, it is very important to analyze and study the regulation of population dynamics and the related factors affecting the development. This investigated the population dynamics of paddystem borer by means of light trap in JianShui County in Yunnan of China during 2004 to 2006, and analyzed the meteorological conditions affecting the population dynamics. The research suggests that: there exists a significant relationship between the population dynamics of paddystem borer and meteorological factors, among it, The most influenced are the average minimum temperature per month and relative humidity (RH).

Yang, Linnan; Peng, Lin; Zhong, Fei; Zhang, Yinsong

94

Smog Yellows Taj Mahal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

2007-01-01

95

STEM Sell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1994 and 2003, employment in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields grew by a remarkable 23 percent, compared with 17 percent in non-STEM fields, according to federal data. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts continued strong growth in STEM job openings through 2014, with emphasis on life sciences, environmental…

Pantic, Zorica

2007-01-01

96

STEM crisis or STEM surplus?  

E-print Network

The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce is a crucial driver of the U.S. economy. Over the last decade, there has been significant concern regarding the adequacy of the supply of STEM workers ...

Xue, Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

97

A Family By Yellow River  

E-print Network

A Family by Yellow River (Outline) Written by CCTV Re-written in English by Kenong Guan This filmed record of a small village community, namely Lijiashan (Li’s Mountains) of Qikou, Shanxi Province, might serve as an illustration for a profoundly...

China Central Television (CCTV)

2005-04-06

98

Anaphylaxis from yellow fever vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are very few reports of anaphylactic reactions to yellow fever (YF) vaccine in the literature, and these date from the 1940s. Objective: We sought to estimate the rate of YF vaccine–related anaphylaxis. Methods: All reports of adverse reactions to YF vaccine submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System between 1990 and 1997 were reviewed for those meeting

John M. Kelso; Gina T. Mootrey; Theodore F. Tsai

1999-01-01

99

Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea  

E-print Network

Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea J. Paul Liua,*, John Yellow Sea reveal a 20­40-m-thick subaqueous clinoform delta that wraps around the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, extending into the South Yellow Sea. This complex sigmoidal-oblique clinoform

Liu, Paul

100

fisheriesresearch Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is  

E-print Network

fisheriesresearch feature Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is an important ecological and economic.g., Evans 1986). Yellow perch are caught from piers, small boats, and party boats; thus, they are available to nearly all segments of the angling public. Historically, yellow perch supported a commercial fishery

Miller, Tom

101

Yellow Sea Thermohaline and Acoustic Variability  

E-print Network

Yellow Sea Thermohaline and Acoustic Variability Peter C Chu, Carlos J. Cintron Naval Postgraduate School, USA Steve Haeger Naval Oceanographic Office, USA #12;Yellow Sea Bottom Sediment Chart · Four Bottom Sediment types 1. MudMud 2. Sand2. Sand 3.3. GravelGravel 4.4. RockRock #12;Yellow Sea Bottom

Chu, Peter C.

102

Inheritance of yellow-flowered characteristic and yellow pigments in diploid cyclamen ( Cyclamen persicum Mill.) cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mode of inheritance of the yellow-flowered phenotype of yellow-flowered cyclamen was investigated. All F1 progenies obtained by reciprocal crosses between yellow- and white-flowered cultivars were white-flowered and did not contain chalcone, the main pigment of yellow-flowered cyclamen. The segregation ratio of flower colors in most of F2 and BC1 progenies fitted the expected Mendelian ratio, showing that the yellow-flowered

Takejiro Takamura; Tsuyoshi Tomihama; Ikuo Miyajima

1995-01-01

103

Stem Cell Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... Center Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Information Frequently Asked Questions What are stem cells? ... policy? More FAQs Links to related resources Stem Cell Research Center for Regenerative Medicine NIH Stem Cell ...

104

Dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt corn.  

PubMed

European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn. PMID:22928300

Razze, J M; Mason, C E

2012-08-01

105

Differential activity of non-fluorinated and fluorinated analogues of the European corn borer pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The differing antagonist activity of (Z)-13-hexadecen-2-one (Z11 – 14 :MK, 1) and its 1,1,1-trifluoro derivative (Z11 –14 :TFMK, 2), two closely related analogues of the European corn borer pheromone Ostrinia nubilalis (Z strain), and their rationale is reported. Both chemicals exhibited some electrophysiological activity, and topical application\\u000a of 10 pg of pheromone analogue on male antennae was sufficient to induce

Joan Solé; Albert Sans; Magí Riba; Gloria Rosell; Esmeralda Rosa; Lourdes Muñoz; Maria Pilar Bosch; Angel Guerrero

2008-01-01

106

Evaluation of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn hybrids against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

A Louisiana strain of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was selected for resistance to the CrylAb protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) by using an F2 screening procedure. Survival of Bt-resistant, -susceptible, and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer was evaluated on vegetative and reproductive stages of five non-Bt and seven Bt field corn, Zea mays L., hybrids in a greenhouse study. Larval survival was recorded 21 d after infestation of neonates on potted plants. Larval survival across the three sugarcane borer genotypes and five non-Bt corn hybrids after 21 d ranged from 23.6 +/- 5.2% (mean +/- SEM) to 57.5 +/- 5.2%. Mean survival of Cry1Ab-resistant larvae on vegetative and reproductive plant stages was 12 and 21%, respectively. During the vegetative stages, all seven Bt corn hybrids were highly efficacious against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer, with a larval survival rate of <2% for the Bt-susceptible genotype and < or =5% for the heterozygotes. However, 8-18% of the heterozygous genotype survived on reproductive stage plants for four of the seven Bt corn hybrids tested. The variation in performance of Bt corn cultivars at vegetative and reproductive growth stages against Cry1Ab resistant sugarcane borer suggests differential seasonal expression that may hasten resistance in the field. Bt corn hybrids expressing a "high dose" for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), may not produce a sufficient high dose for the sugarcane borer. PMID:18232406

Wu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Moore, Steven H

2007-12-01

107

Mass rearing of the pink corn borer, Sesamia cretica Led. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae, on semi artificial diets.  

PubMed

The effect of two different semi-artificial diets (S.A.D1 and S.A.D2) as well as a natural corn diet on the biology and bionomics of the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica was studied under laboratory conditions. The insect was successfully mass reared for ten successive generations at the conditions of 27 +/- 2 C degrees and 60-80% R.H. In addition, a photoperiod of 0:24 (L:D) for larvae and 12:12 (L:D) in concern to the other stages, respectively. ALong the ten successive generations, there were no significant differences between the larval periods for both the artificial diets. The S.A.D2 induced the shortest (24.0 days) larval period compared with the natural diet (27.5 days) and S.A.D1 (31.5 days). Rearing larvae on the natural diets revealed a pupal period of 11.0 days, while it was 10.0 days and 8.5 days for the artificial diets (S.A.D1) and in (S.A.D2), in respect. Moth longevity (pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods), to a certain extent, was affected by the larval diets. The maximal moth longevity (13.0 days) was observed for larva reared on corn plants (4, 8 and 1 days). On the other hand, the shortest period (10.5 days) of moth longevity was noticed in SAD2 (1, 9 and 0.5 days). S.A.D1 showed 11.0 days moth longevity (3,7 and 1 days). The longest oviposition period (9.0 days) was recorded in the artificial diet S.A.D2, while it was only 7.0 days in the artificial diet S.A.D1 compared with 8.0 days in case of the natural diet. The number of deposited eggs increased with the progress of the 10 successive generations (G1:G10) from 150 to 265 and from 384 eggs to 564 eggs / female for the S.A.D1 and S.A.D2, in sequence. The highest mean number of deposited eggs per female (564) was for the derived females from larvae fed on the artificial diet in G10 of S.A.D2. The rate of the deposited eggs in S.A.D2 was gradually increased (from 9.70 to 61.14% increase) more than those reared on the natural diet throughout the ten generations. The highest significant percent hatchability (92.69%) has been resulted from the artificial diet SAD2. But, it has been decreased to 85.59% in the artificial diet S.A.D1 in comparison to 65.71% in the natural diet. In addition, the significant shortest total generation period was 44.0 days resulted from the artificial diet S.A.D2, while it was 53.5 and 54.0 days for corn plants and the artificial diet S.A.D1, consequently. In short, results indicated that the S.A.D2 could be considered as a suitable artificial diet for a feasible mass rearing of the pink corn borer, Sesamia cretica led. The S.A.D2 showed the shortest larval, pupal and life span for the generation periods. Moreover, it induced the longest oviposition period and the highest mean number of deposited eggs per female and the highest significant percent of eggs hatchability/fertility. The utilization of this artificial diet (S.A.D2) would supply the researchers with high-quality insects in adequate numbers, at specified times and specific stages of development for the bioassay, toxicological and biological studies. PMID:21539247

Masoud, M A; Saad, A S S; Mourad, A K; Ghorab, M A S

2010-01-01

108

Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  

PubMed

The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important. PMID:21404843

Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

2011-02-01

109

CONTROLLING YELLOW-BILLED MAGPIES (Pica nuttalli)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yellow-billed magpie is a little smaller than the American or black-billed magpie, but the difference in size is very slight. The birds look exactly alike, except one has a black beak and the other has a yellow bill and a bit of yellow skin back of the eye.There are concentrated populations in the Los Banos area, Gustine area, and

Lynda Rex II

1962-01-01

110

Stem Cells and Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Can Stem Cells Help my Medical Condition? Stem Cell Information Frequently Asked Questions What are stem cells? ... policy? More FAQs Links to related resources Stem Cell Research Center for Regenerative Medicine NIH Stem Cell ...

111

Can prescribed fire be used to control Yellow Sweetclover (Meliotus officinalis) in a cool-season mixed-grass prairie?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes the results of a study on the effects of early- versus late-season fire on yellow sweetclover. The study was motivated by a desire to develop realistic management methods for yellow sweetclover at Badlands National Park. Limitations imposed by an inability to apply fire treatments at the times required made it impossible to test the hypothesis that late summer fires would be effective at reducing sweetclover. Nonetheless, I summarize data on yellow sweetclover stem counts, cover of plant species, and proportion of native and exotic cover with respect to the fire treatments in this report. In addition, I present results of a germination study, in which scarified sweetclover seeds were planted at 2-week intervals. The data summarized in the report, and included in the accompanying spreadsheet, may prove useful in future studies of effects of fire on prairie vegetation in general, and yellow sweetclover in particular.

Larson, Diane L.

2010-01-01

112

Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813

Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

2012-04-01

113

Spatial distribution of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in Virginia vineyards and implications for sampling.  

PubMed

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ?2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ?1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations. PMID:24709345

Rijal, J P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

2014-06-01

114

Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel-borer design for application to single-entry coal-mine development  

SciTech Connect

The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1982-02-15

115

Restoring stemness.  

PubMed

This essay is focused on a specific line of research toward regenerative therapies that is based on the use of embryonic stem cells but tries to avoid cloning techniques that are the heart of current ethical debates. PMID:16351688

Westphal, Heiner

2005-12-01

116

21 CFR 172.490 - Yellow prussiate of soda.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Yellow prussiate of soda. 172.490 Section 172.490 Food and...Agents § 172.490 Yellow prussiate of soda. (a) The food additive yellow prussiate of soda (sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate; Na4...

2010-04-01

117

History of Epidemiological Aspects of Yellow Fever  

PubMed Central

This review attempts to follow the trail of the development of epidemiological aspects and concepts of yellow fever and yellow fever transmission (vectors, vertebrate hosts, spacing of epidemic outbreaks) with less emphasis on well-documented early history and more emphasis on epidemiological problems still remaining, plus discussion of possible means of resolving certain of these problems. PMID:6758368

Downs, Wilbur G.

1982-01-01

118

Love is Yellow in Vietnamese Popular Music  

E-print Network

Yellow music is a profane practice that makes children cry;children in tears; they are unable study their lessons due to the musical affect of yellow musicmusic was critiqued in the media (ibid). In the cartoon of the crying the children,

Nguyen, Minh Xuan

2012-01-01

119

EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD CORN Christian H. Krupke, Larry W. Bledsoe, and John L. Obermeyer, Extension Entomologists  

E-print Network

) for only 7-10 days. This is the window when insecticidal control can be achieved. If treatment is delayed Insecticide Treatments Economically important corn borer populations can usu- ally be controlled with an insecticide. Treatment with an insec- ticide is usually economical on seed corn fields. On field corn

Ginzel, Matthew

120

Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23,

Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister; Sean Rands

2009-01-01

121

Behavior and Activity Pattern of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) Attacking the Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe behavioral sequences and daily activities of pre-ovipositing and ovipositing females of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), an ectoparasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Noticeable behavioral differences among preovipositing and ovipositing females include host examination, host stinging—probing, host feeding, and the oviposition per se. The female of C. stephanoderis feeds primarily on host eggs, but pupae

Isabelle Lauzière; Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud; Jacques Brodeur

2000-01-01

122

70 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER BIOLOGICAL CONTROL  

E-print Network

70 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER BIOLOGICAL CONTROL;2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 71 2005). T. planipennisi, a gregarious koinobiont, Newark DE 19713 4Michigan State University, Department of Entomology, East Lansing, MI 48824 ABSTRACT

123

2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS  

E-print Network

2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS, with individual species distributions dependent on geography, habitat, and land use history. Invasive plant and Michigan. In long-infested plots where 99.9 percent of ash trees have died, there are many established ash

124

The chemotaxonomy of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) isolates from the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary chemotaxonomic analysis was carried out on 16 isolates ofBeauveria bassiana from adults of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) from 10 countries in Latin America, Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Thirteen formed an homogeneous group with very similar electrophoretic and physiological profiles. Two isolates differed in esterase and acid phosphatase band patterns, one of which was also deficient in

P. D. Bridge; Y. J. Abraham; M. C. Cornish; C. Prior; D. Moore

1990-01-01

125

Reduced Fusarium Ear Rot and Symptomless Infection in Kernels of Maize Genetically Engineered for European Corn Borer Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Munkvold, G. P., Hellmich, R. L., and Showers, W. B. 1997. Reduced Fusarium ear rot and symptomless infection in kernels of maize geneti- cally engineered for European corn borer resistance. Phytopathology 87: 1071-1077. Field experiments were conducted in 1994, 1995, and 1996 to evaluate the incidence and severity of Fusarium ear rot and the incidence of symp- tomless Fusarium infection

G. P. Munkvold; R. L. Hellmich; W. B. Showers

1997-01-01

126

Site and stand variables influencing red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), population densities and tree mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three research areas in the Ozark National Forest, Arkansas, were chosen to investigate relationships of site and stand conditions to northern red oak, Quercus rubra L., mortality attributed to red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), a native wood-boring beetle. Fixed vegetation plots were installed in each area on five topographic positions: north, south, east, and west-facing benches and on ridges.

Melissa K. Fierke; M. Brent Kelley; Fred M. Stephen

2007-01-01

127

Epidemiology of the Hemp Borer, Grapholita delineanaWalker (Lepidoptera: Oleuthreutidae), a Pest of Cannabis sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemp borer, Grapholita delineana, is newly described from feral hemp in Vermont, USA. It may pose a serious pest should hemp cultivation resume in the USA. A similar situation occurred in the 1960s, when G. delineanasuddenly became a serious pest in southeastern Europe. Evidence suggests the pest was imported from its native range via infested hemp seed. Larvae of

John M. McPartland

2002-01-01

128

Microbial Diversity in the Midguts of Field and Lab-Reared Populations of the European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInsects are associated with microorganisms that contribute to the digestion and processing of nutrients. The European Corn Borer (ECB) is a moth present world-wide, causing severe economical damage as a pest on corn and other crops. In the present work, we give a detailed view of the complexity of the microorganisms forming the ECB midgut microbiota with the objective of

Eugeni Belda; Laia Pedrola; Juli Peretó; Juan F. Martínez-Blanch; Arnau Montagud; Emilio Navarro; Javier Urchueguía; Daniel Ramón; Andrés Moya; Manuel Porcar; Purification Lopez-Garcia

2011-01-01

129

The effect of an ant-hemipteran mutualism on the coffee berry borer ( Hypothenemus hampei) in southern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indirect effect of an ant-hemipteran mutualism was investigated in the coffee agroecosystem of Southern Mexico. The ant, Azteca instabilis, forms a mutualistic relationship with the coccid, Coccus viridis, on coffee plants. Through field surveys and experimental studies, the indirect effect of this mutualism on the main coffee pest in the region, Hypothenemus hampei, the coffee berry borer (CBB), was

Ivette Perfecto; John Vandermeer

2006-01-01

130

Divergent Selection for Rind Penetrometer Resistance and Its Effects on European Corn Borer Damage and Stalk Traits in Corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

important, especially if it also contributes to ECB resis- tance. Increased stalk strength could increase the resis- Corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield is affected by a number of factors, tance to ECB and provide farmers nontransgenic germ- including stalk lodging and pests such as the European corn borer plasm with greater resistance than is available to date. (Ostrinia nubilalis

Sheri A. Martin; Larry L. Darrah; Bruce E. Hibbard

2004-01-01

131

Biorational versus conventional insecticides e Comparative field study for managing red spider mite and fruit borer on tomato  

E-print Network

and fruit borer on tomato Gadi V.P. Reddy a, * , Ross H. Miller b a Western Triangle Agricultural Research Available online Keywords: Pest management Tetranychus marianae Helicoverpa armigera Tomato a b s t r a c t Tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum L. (Solanaceae), is an important crop worldwide that is grown both

Miller, Ross H.

132

Dendrochronological parameters of northern red oak ( Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae)) infested with red oak borer ( Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae))  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak-dominated forests in northwestern Arkansas have recently experienced an oak mortality event associated with an unprecedented outbreak of a native insect, the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). To determine whether prior drought was associated with increased E. rufulus infestation level of Quercus rubra L. trees, we employed a suite of dendrochronological measurements from Q. rubra in affected forest stands.

L. J. Haavik; F. M. Stephen; M. K. Fierke; V. B. Salisbury; S. W. Leavitt; S. A. Billings

2008-01-01

133

Growth and survival of the Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée (Lep: Pyralidae) on alternative hosts in Guam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian corn borer larvae were reared individually on sweet maize and several other potential alternative hosts. Survival and growth rates were highest on sweet maize. On Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) survival was about half that on maize; the development time was longer and the resulting adults were smaller than those reared from maize. Several other hosts, including bell pepper fruits, wildcane

I. H. Schreiner; D. M. Nafus; N. Dumaliang

1990-01-01

134

Repellence of the red bud borer (Resseliella oculiperda) to grafted apple trees by impregnation of budding tape with essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the

Tol van R. W. H. M; Linden van der A; H. J. Swarts; J. H. Visser

2007-01-01

135

Experimental therapies for yellow fever  

PubMed Central

A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

Julander, Justin G.

2013-01-01

136

Understanding successful resistance management: the European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn hybrids that express toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt corn, has suppressed corn borer populations and reduced the pest status of this insect in parts of the Corn Belt. Continued suppression of this pest, however, will depend on managing potential resistance to Bt corn, currently through the high-dose refuge (HDR) strategy. In this review, we describe what has been learned with regard to O. nubilalis resistance to Bt toxins either through laboratory selection experiments or isolation of resistance from field populations. We also describe the essential components of the HDR strategy as they relate to O. nubilalis biology and ecology. Additionally, recent developments in insect resistance management (IRM) specific to O. nubilalis that may affect the continued sustainability of this technology are considered. PMID:22688691

Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L

2012-01-01

137

The Biology and Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China  

PubMed Central

The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed. PMID:20879922

Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, EnShan

2010-01-01

138

Reduced susceptibility to tebufenozide in populations of the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana.  

PubMed

Susceptibility of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), to tebufenozide was measured using a feeding bioassay, and values obtained were compared with baselines generated before the use of this insecticide in Louisiana sugarcane, Saccharum spp. Results from our study suggest that susceptibility to tebufenozide is decreasing in field-collected sugarcane borers. Inflections in the log dosage-probit lines were detected for many of the field collections, indicating increased heterogeneity within these populations in response to tebufenozide. Where appropriate, probit transformation was used to estimate susceptibility, and significant differences (1.6 - 2.7-fold) were measured in LC50 values between some field-collected cohorts and the previously measured baseline. In addition, a discriminating concentration (0.5 ppm) was used to estimate resistance frequencies in cohorts for which probit transformation was not appropriate. Results from these tests suggest that frequencies of resistance were high (49% in one cohort) in populations from some locations. Lighter weight pupae of the survivors from one of the more resistant cohorts suggests that tebufenozide resistance mechanisms may have a biological cost in terms of ecological fitness at early stages of resistance development. As a result of continued resistance monitoring, alternation of management chemistry is expected to help preserve this valuable sugarcane integrated pest management tactic. PMID:16022328

Reay-Jones, F P F; Akbar, W; McAllister, C D; Reagan, T E; Ottea, J A

2005-06-01

139

STEM Transitions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Under the direction of the Center for Occupational Research and Development (CORD), the STEM Transitions initiative has worked with 40 community college faculty to create integrated curriculum projects for use in math, science, and technical courses in the six STEM-related clusters. Much of this work has been funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Vocational and Adult Education. First-time visitors can get an overview in the "Using This Site" area and then visit the "Integrated Projects" area. After signing up for a free account, they can take advantage of over 60 lesson plans and activities such as "The Secret Ingredient: Nutrient Analysis of Selected Food Items" and "Good Dirty, Bad Dirty: Soil Types and Erosion Potential." The site also provides information about upcoming webinars and workshops sponsored by the STEM Transitions, along with information about their faculty affiliates.

140

A clinicopathological study of human yellow fever*  

PubMed Central

During an epidemic of yellow fever in the Jos Plateau area of Nigeria, 9 adult males with clinically diagnosed yellow fever were studied by haematological, biochemical, virological, serological, and liver biopsy methods. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 55 years and the duration of illness was 3-62 days. No virus was isolated from any patient but all patients should biochemical evidence of severe hepatocellular damage. Leucopenia was a feature of the late acute stage of the disease. Five sera had antibodies to yellow fever at titres greater than 1: 32, 3 of them being monospecific for yellow fever. The classical histological features of yellow fever were present only in the acute or late acute stages, when complement-fixation tests may be negative. With convalescence and the production of complement-fixing antibodies in high titres, the histological features resembled those of a persisting nonspecific hepatitis. In an endemic area, the histological features of yellow fever will depend on the stage of the disease and a picture of nonspecific hepatitis would not exclude yellow fever in the absence of confirmation from serological tests. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2AFig. 2BFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4538039

Francis, T. I.; Moore, D. L.; Edington, G. M.; Smith, J. A.

1972-01-01

141

A clinicopathological study of human yellow fever.  

PubMed

During an epidemic of yellow fever in the Jos Plateau area of Nigeria, 9 adult males with clinically diagnosed yellow fever were studied by haematological, biochemical, virological, serological, and liver biopsy methods. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 55 years and the duration of illness was 3-62 days. No virus was isolated from any patient but all patients should biochemical evidence of severe hepatocellular damage. Leucopenia was a feature of the late acute stage of the disease. Five sera had antibodies to yellow fever at titres greater than 1: 32, 3 of them being monospecific for yellow fever. The classical histological features of yellow fever were present only in the acute or late acute stages, when complement-fixation tests may be negative. With convalescence and the production of complement-fixing antibodies in high titres, the histological features resembled those of a persisting nonspecific hepatitis. In an endemic area, the histological features of yellow fever will depend on the stage of the disease and a picture of nonspecific hepatitis would not exclude yellow fever in the absence of confirmation from serological tests. PMID:4538039

Francis, T I; Moore, D L; Edington, G M; Smith, J A

1972-01-01

142

Identification of QTL underlying the resistance of soybean to pod borer, Leguminivora glycinivorella (Mats.) obraztsov, and correlations with plant, pod and seed traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) pod borer (Leguminivora glycinivorella (Mats.) Obraztsov) (SPB) results in severe loss in soybean yield and quality in certain regions of the world, especially\\u000a in Northeastern China, Japan and Russia. The aim here was to evaluate the inheritance of pod borer resistance and to identify\\u000a quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying SPB resistance for the acceleration of

Guiyun Zhao; Jian Wang; Yingpeng Han; Weili Teng; Genlou Sun; Wenbin Li

2008-01-01

143

University of Hawaii at Mnoa Yellow Ribbon Program  

E-print Network

University of Hawaiÿi at Mänoa Yellow Ribbon Program Policies and Procedures 2013 ­ 2014 Academic Year The University of Hawaiÿi at Mänoa (UHM) is participating in the Yellow Ribbon Program (YRP) for the 2013 ­ 2014 academic year. The Yellow Ribbon GI Education Enhancement Program (Yellow Ribbon Program

144

Assessing Sites for Yellow Legged Frog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Assessing suitable sites in southern California for reintroducing endangered southern mountain yellow-legged frogs, USGS scientists rediscovered a population in the San Jacinto Wilderness, 50 years since this frog was last seen there....

2009-07-23

145

Lost Trust: A Yellow Fever Patient Response  

PubMed Central

In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care. PMID:24348220

Runge, John S.

2013-01-01

146

Teachable Fiction Comes to Yellow Sky.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that teachable fiction is efficient, strategically sound, and very visual. Analyzes Stephen Crane's "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" to show it fulfills these three characteristics. Suggests the story should be taught later in the semester. (PM)

Tietz, Stephen

2001-01-01

147

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using protein crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the enexpected hypothesis that the virus release its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have farly flat coats, but in TYMV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early studies of TYMV, but McPhereson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central viod on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides liked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the voild. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

2000-01-01

148

Redox alters yellow dragonflies into red  

PubMed Central

Body color change associated with sexual maturation—so-called nuptial coloration—is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait. PMID:22778425

Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema

2012-01-01

149

Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell States, Fates,  

E-print Network

and Stem Cell Research, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden 4Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, LundCell Stem Cell Review Stem Cell States, Fates, and the Rules of Attraction Tariq Enver,1 Martin

Peterson, Carsten

150

A role for ethylene in the yellowing of broccoli after harvest  

SciTech Connect

Ethylene production from florets of Shogun harvested broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) held at 20C in darkness increased as the sepal tissues yellowed. The pattern of respiration rate and ethylene production from branchlets or entire heads was similar, although the magnitude of ethylene and carbon dioxide production appeared to be diluted by the other fleshy stem tissues. The reproductive structures, stamens and pistil, may have a role in determining the rate of sepal degreening, since removing them from florets reduced the yellowing rate. The pistil and stamens also had 7-fold higher levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase activity and more than double the ethylene production of other tissues within the floret. Stamen ACC oxidase activity was high on the first day after harvest, before yellowing became obvious. Changes in ACC oxidase activity of the pistil and stamens mirrored changes in ACC content in these tissues. The climacteric status of harvested broccoli was confirmed by exposure to 0.5% propylene. Propylene stimulated respiration and ethylene production and accelerated yellowing. Broccoli tissues did not respond to propylene immediately after harvest. In tissues aged in air before treatment, the time for response to propylene was shorter, a result suggesting a change in tissue sensitivity. Ethylene exposure induced a dose-dependent decline in hue angle, with 1 ppm ethylene giving the maximum response.

Tian, M.S.; Downs, C.G.; Lill, R.E.; King, G.A. (New Zealand Inst. for Crop and Food Research, Levin (New Zealand). Levin Research Center)

1994-03-01

151

Methodology for Assessing Rice Varieties for Resistance to the Lesser Grain Borer, Rhyzopertha dominica  

PubMed Central

Several physical and chemical attributes of rice were evaluated to determine which character would be best to use to assess multiple rice varieties for resistance to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). Laboratory tests were conducted on single varieties of long-, short-, and medium grain-rice to develop procedures and methodologies that could be used for large-scale screening studies. Progeny production of R. dominica was positively correlated with the percentage of broken hulls. Although kernel hardness, amylose content, neonate preference for brown rice, and adult emergence from neonates varied among the three rice varieties tested they did not appear to be valid indicators of eventual progeny production, and may not be useful predictors of resistance or susceptibility. Soundness and integrity seem to be the best characters to use for varietal screening studies with R. dominica. PMID:20337559

Chanbang, Y; Arthur, F. H; Wilde, G. E; Throne, J. E; Subramanyam, B. H

2008-01-01

152

Purification of elastase-like chymotrypsin from cardamom shoot and Capsule borer [corrected].  

PubMed

An elastase-like chymotrypsin was purified by aprotinin-agarose affinity chromatography from the midgut extract of cardamom shoot and capsule borer, Conogethes punctiferalis. The purified enzyme had a Vmax of 687.6 +/- 22.1 nmole pNA released/min/mg protein, Km of 0.168 +/- 0.012 mM with SAAPLpNA as substrate and gave a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of 72.1 kDa. Casein zymogram revealed one clear zone of proteolytic activity, which corresponded to the band obtained with SDS-PAGE indicating that this could be a single-polypeptide enzyme. PMID:18072546

Josephrajkumar, A; Chakrabarty, R; Thomas, G

2007-11-01

153

Response of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) neonates to root extracts from Vitaceae species and rootstocks.  

PubMed

Observations at regular intervals of the location of newly hatched grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), larvae moving freely within circular petri dish bioassays were used to measure and compare their response to dry filter paper discs treated with ethanol- or hexane-based extracts of roots from known and potential Vitaceae hosts and a nonhost. Larvae responded most strongly to discs treated with ethanol extracts, suggesting the presence of behaviorally active, polar compounds associated with roots. In single extract bioassays comparing extract versus solvent treated discs, larvae responded positively to ethanol extracts from all Vitis species and rootstocks and Virginia creeper [Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.], but not to apple (Malus domestica Borkh). Paired extract bioassays, in which an extract from the commercially important 3309 rootstock was used as the standard and presented simultaneously with extracts from other root sources, revealed examples of equal, significantly weaker and significantly stronger responses to the 3309 extract. Extracts of the 420 A and V. riparia 'Gloire' rootstocks appeared to possess qualities that elicited a consistently greater response than to 3309 extract in these pair-wise comparisons. The active compounds were eluted in ethanol during a 30-min extraction; larvae responded equally to 30- and 60-min 3309 root extracts in paired extract bioassays. Larvae responded equally to extracts of 3309 roots from three spatially separate vineyards in northern Virginia. These results are discussed in relation to the subterranean, plant-insect interactions of grape root borer neonates with the numerous native and non-native Vitis species that may serve as hosts in the eastern United States. PMID:22251689

Bergh, J C; Zhang, A; Meyer, J R; Kim, D

2011-08-01

154

Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.  

PubMed

The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2) = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level (?=?-0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to prevent rapid selection of high levels of resistance and the potential for its spread to new areas. PMID:25122089

Campos, Mateus R; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M; Silva, Vitória Regina F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A

2014-01-01

155

Impacts of the emerald ash borer (EAB) eradication and tree mortality: potential for a secondary spread of invasive plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of the emerald ash borer in 2002, eradication efforts have been implemented in an attempt to eliminate\\u000a or contain the spread of this invasive beetle. The eradication protocol called for the removal of every ash tree within a\\u000a 0.8 km radius around an infested tree. In 2005 this study was established to identify environmental changes attributed to\\u000a the

Constance E. HausmanJohn; John F. Jaeger; Oscar J. Rocha

2010-01-01

156

Spinosad and the Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta: A Bioinsecticide, an Invasive Pest Threat, and High Insecticide Resistance  

PubMed Central

The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest’s phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h2?=?0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level (?=??0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to prevent rapid selection of high levels of resistance and the potential for its spread to new areas. PMID:25122089

Campos, Mateus R.; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S.; Silva, Wellington M.; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M.; Silva, Vitoria Regina F.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A.

2014-01-01

157

Could phenotypic plasticity limit an invasive species? Incomplete reversibility of mid-winter deacclimation in emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a wood-boring invasive pest devastating North American ash (Fraxinus spp.). A. planipennis overwinters primarily as a freeze-avoiding prepupa within the outer xylem or inner bark of the host tree. The range of this\\u000a species is expanding outward from its presumed introduction point in southwestern Michigan. We hypothesized that loss of cold

Stephanie Sobek-SwantJill; Jill C. Crosthwaite; D. Barry Lyons; Brent J. Sinclair

158

Cadherin-like receptor from the European corn borer (Ostrinia Nubilalis) for Bacillus thuringiensis cry1A toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins are lethal to the corn pest European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) larvae. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac bind to a protein of ~205-kDa in the brush border membrane vesicles. In addition, Cry1Ab binds to proteins of ~ 150 and 170-kDa and Cry1Ac binds to proteins of ~ 120 kDa. A competition ligand blot using unlabeled Cry1Ab to

Salah A. Mostafa; W. S. A. Maaty; M. A. Madkour; L. A. Bulla

2003-01-01

159

?-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits ?-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest  

PubMed Central

Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an ?-amylase inhibitor gene (?-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the ?-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (?-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the ?-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against ?-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum ?-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the ?-AI1 protein against H. hampei ?-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee. PMID:20565807

2010-01-01

160

Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on grape root borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) infestations in commercial vineyards in virginia.  

PubMed

Larval grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), feed on roots of wild Vitis and commercially important Vitis species and rootstocks in portions of the eastern United States. Grape root borer pupal exuviae sampling in Virginia vineyards from 2008 to 2012 revealed that infestation levels varied substantially among 48 vineyard blocks. Data on horticultural (cultivar, rootstock, vine age, and planting area), cultural (insecticide use, ground cover, weed control, and irrigation), and environmental variables (proximity to forest, soil composition, soil moisture holding capacity, pH, organic matter, bulk density, and cation exchange capacity) from each block were subjected to optimal quantification using categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA). Variables with component loading values ?0.70 from the CATPCA were used as predictors and pupal exuviae density as the dependent variable in binary logistic regression. A prediction model was developed by including statistically significant variables in the logistic regression. CATPCA showed that seven vineyard factors (ground cover, soil texture, soil mass moisture, soil pH, clay/sand ratio, clay/silt ratio, and sand/silt ratio) based on three selected principal components were significant for subsequent regression analysis. Binary logistic regression showed that soil mass moisture and clay/sand ratio were statistically significant factors contributing to differences in infestation among vineyard blocks. Based on these two factors, a risk prediction model for calculating the probability of grape root borer infestation in vineyards was developed and validated using receiver operating characteristic curve. Results are discussed in relation to the practical implications of a predictive, risk assessment model for grape root borer management. PMID:25198500

Rijal, Jhalendra P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

2014-10-01

161

Electrophysiological Response and Attraction of Emerald Ash Borer to Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs) Emitted by Host Foliage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) function as host attractants, pheromone synergists, or sexual kairomones for a number of coleopteran\\u000a folivores. Hence, we focused on host GLVs to determine if they were attractive to adults of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), which feeds on ash (Fraxinus) foliage. Eight GLVs were identified by chromatography-electroantennogram (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry in foliar

Peter de Groot; Gary G. Grant; Therese M. Poland; Roger Scharbach; Linda Buchan; Reginald W. Nott; Linda Macdonald; Doug Pitt

2008-01-01

162

Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.  

PubMed

Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions. PMID:19568811

Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

2009-07-01

163

Strains of a new bipartite begomovirus, pepper yellow leaf curl Indonesia virus, in leaf-curl-diseased tomato and yellow-vein-diseased ageratum in Indonesia.  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequences of begomoviruses from pepper with leaf curl and yellowing symptoms, tomato with leaf curl symptoms, and ageratum with yellow vein in Indonesia were determined. On the basis of genome organization and sequence homology, they were proposed to belong to a new species, Pepper yellow leaf curl Indonesia virus (PepYLCIV), which includes the new strains PepYLCIV-Tomato and PepYLCIV-Ageratum. These viruses had bipartite genomes. Pepper virus DNAs from Indonesia (PepYLCIV, PepYLCIV-Tomato and PepYLCIV-Ageratum DNA-As) were noticeably distinct, forming a separate branch from the viruses infecting pepper. Considerable divergence was observed in the common region (CR) of the genomic components of PepYLCIV (77%), PepYLCIV-Tomato (82%) and PeYLCIV-Ageratum (75%). A stem-loop-forming region and a Rep-binding motif were identical in the CR of the three viruses. The CRs of PepYLCIV-Ageratum DNA-A was approximately 10 nucleotides longer than that of PepYLCIV DNA-A and PepYLCIV-Tomato DNA-A. A similar insertion was also found in the CR of PepYLCIV-Ageratum DNA-B. PepYLCIV DNA-A alone was infectious in pepper and Nicotiana benthamiana plants, and association with DNA-B increased symptom severity. PMID:19015934

Sakata, Jyun-Ji; Shibuya, Yutaka; Sharma, Pradeep; Ikegami, Masato

2008-01-01

164

Economic injury level for the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) using attractive traps in Brazilian coffee fields.  

PubMed

The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively. PMID:22299352

Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S

2011-12-01

165

Efficacy of multifunnel traps for capturing emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): effect of color, glue, and other trap coatings.  

PubMed

Tens of thousands of adhesive-coated purple prism traps are deployed annually in the United States to survey for the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). A reusable, more user-friendly trap is desired by program managers, surveyors, and researchers. Field assays were conducted in southeastern Michigan to ascertain the feasibility of using nonsticky traps as survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer. Three nonsticky trap designs, including multifunnel (Lindgren), modified intercept panel, and drainpipe (all painted purple) were compared with the standard purple prism trap; no statistical differences in capture of emerald ash borer adults were detected between the multifunnel design and the prism. In subsequent color comparison assays, both green- and purple-painted multifunnel traps (and later, plastic versions of these colors) performed as well or better than the prism traps. Multifunnel traps coated with spray-on adhesive caught more beetles than untreated traps. The increased catch, however, occurred in the traps' collection cups and not on the trap surface. In a separate assay, there was no significant difference detected between glue-coated traps and Rain-X (normally a glass treatment)-coated traps, but both caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than untreated traps. PMID:21735910

Francese, Joseph A; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

2011-06-01

166

Field-Cage Methodology for Evaluating Climatic Suitability for Introduced Wood-Borer Parasitoids: Preliminary Results from the Emerald Ash Borer System  

PubMed Central

Field-cage methods were developed to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-season releases at both a northern (Michigan) and a southern (Maryland) location within the current North American range of A. planipennis. In August, September and October of 2009, five young green ash trees were selected at each location. Tetrastichus planipennisi and S. agrili were each randomly assigned to one of two cages attached to each tree, surrounding separate sections of trunk in which late-instar A. planipennis had been inserted. The following April, the caged trunk sections were dissected to determine the fate of each A. planipennis larva and the developmental stages of all recovered parasitoid progeny. At both locations, T. planipennisi and S. agrili were able to parasitize hosts and successfully overwinter (i.e., reach adulthood the following spring). For T. planipennisi, successful parasitism (i.e., parasitoid progeny reached adulthood) occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August and September releases in Michigan. At both locations, percent parasitism by T. planipennisi was higher in August and September than in October. For S. agrili, successful parasitism occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August release in Michigan. In Maryland, percent parasitism by S. agrili in August and September was higher than in October. The caging method described here should be useful in determining the climatic suitability of other regions before proceeding with large-scale releases of either species and may have utility in other wood-borer parasitoid systems as well. PMID:22233133

Ulyshen, Michael D.; Duan, Jian J.; Bauer, Leah S.; Gould, Juli; Taylor, Phil; Bean, Dick; Holko, Carol; Driesche, Roy Van

2011-01-01

167

Yellow nail syndrome: a rarity in Indians?  

PubMed

Reports of yellow nail syndrome have been few and far between. The classical triad of the syndrome has not been reported in Indian literature. We report a case of yellow nail syndrome in a forty-year-old male, who had yellowish-brown nails from birth. He developed lymphoedema of the legs at the age of twenty years and presented with pleural effusion at the age of forty years. Although a case of yellow nail syndrome has been reported from India, the classical triad of the syndrome is yet to be documented from our country. The condition may be missed because of the long time difference in presentation of different components of the syndrome and also because of the dark skin colour of Indians. PMID:16892747

Nair, V K; Sukumaran, P

1996-01-01

168

Stem Cell Transplants  

MedlinePLUS

What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every living thing is made up of cells — including the human body. ... can become new cells like this. Blood Stem Cells When you hear about stem cell transplants, they ...

169

Stem Up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stem Up is a pilot program to aid the disadvantaged youth of Boyle Heights in Los Angeles. The intent of the program was to integrate STEM career pathways into schools and local communities. Visitors will find the K-12 Students tab near the top of the page to be filled with almost two dozen links for all levels of student learning about science and technology. Some of the sites include "Arrick Robotics", for 9-12 graders, "Extreme Science", for all ages, and "Fun Engineering" for kids aged 10-14. The "Boyle Heights" link is a great resource for residents of the LA neighborhood, as well as informative for those visitors unfamiliar with it. There is full contact information for the city and state representatives of the neighborhood, the Police Activities League, and a live theatre that performs outreach through theatre, and classical plays. The "Parents" link also provides a number of science and technology links that parents and kids can visit together.

170

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Yellow Perch  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for yellow perch (Perca flavescens). The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for riverine, lacustrine, and palustrine habitat in the 48 contiguous United States. Habitat Suitability Indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of yellow perch habitat.

Krieger, Douglas A.; Terrell, James W.; Nelson, Patrick C.

1983-01-01

171

Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease.  

PubMed

Yellow fever is a mosquito-transmitted hemorrhagic viral disease that is endemic to tropical regions in South America and Africa. It remains a significant health concern for deploying military personnel, accordingly vaccination is frequently performed on troops. Although the vaccine is generally administered with only minor complications, rare severe complications are also reported. Herein, we report a mild case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease 4 days after administration of the vaccine. The various complications of the vaccine and their pathogenesis are also reviewed. PMID:22594140

Rowland, Michael; Plackett, Timothy P; Smith, Richard

2012-04-01

172

YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOTS (MARMOTA FLAVIVENTRIS) HIBERNATE SOCIALLY  

E-print Network

YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOTS (MARMOTA FLAVIVENTRIS) HIBERNATE SOCIALLY DANIEL T. BLUMSTEIN,* SOYEON IM Marmota, Family Sciuridae), only 2, the woodchuck (M. monax) and yellow- bellied marmot (M. flaviventris patterns. Key words: climate change, evolution of sociality, Marmota flaviventris, social hibernation

Grether, Gregory

173

21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal...

2012-04-01

174

21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal...

2014-04-01

175

21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow...

2013-04-01

176

21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal...

2013-04-01

177

21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow...

2014-04-01

178

21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow...

2012-04-01

179

Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti with Drosophila melanogaster aegypti, and Culex pipiens, the primary vectors for malaria, yellow fever and dengue, and lymphatic 103

Severson, David

180

Sex Pheromone Receptor Specificity in the European Corn Borer Moth, Ostrinia nubilalis  

PubMed Central

Background The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), exists as two separate sex pheromone races. ECB(Z) females produce a 97?3 blend of Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate whereas ECB(E) females produce an opposite 1?99 ratio of the Z and E isomers. Males of each race respond specifically to their conspecific female's blend. A closely related species, the Asian corn borer (ACB), O. furnacalis, uses a 3?2 blend of Z12- and E12-tetradecenyl acetate, and is believed to have evolved from an ECB-like ancestor. To further knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of pheromone detection and its evolution among closely related species we identified and characterized sex pheromone receptors from ECB(Z). Methodology Homology-dependent (degenerate PCR primers designed to conserved amino acid motifs) and homology-independent (pyrophosphate sequencing of antennal cDNA) approaches were used to identify candidate sex pheromone transcripts. Expression in male and female antennae was assayed by quantitative real-time PCR. Two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology was used to functionally characterize candidate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Conclusion We characterized five sex pheromone receptors, OnOrs1 and 3–6. Their transcripts were 14–100 times more abundant in male compared to female antennae. OnOr6 was highly selective for Z11-tetradecenyl acetate (EC50?=?0.86±0.27 µM) and was at least three orders of magnitude less responsive to E11-tetradecenyl acetate. Surprisingly, OnOr1, 3 and 5 responded to all four pheromones tested (Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate, and Z12- and E12-tetradecenyl acetate) and to Z9-tetradecenyl acetate, a behavioral antagonist. OnOr1 was selective for E12-tetradecenyl acetate based on an efficacy that was at least 5-fold greater compared to the other four components. This combination of specifically- and broadly-responsive pheromone receptors corresponds to published results of sensory neuron activity in vivo. Receptors broadly-responsive to a class of pheromone components may provide a mechanism for variation in the male moth response that enables population level shifts in pheromone blend use. PMID:20084285

Wanner, Kevin W.; Nichols, Andrew S.; Allen, Jean E.; Bunger, Peggy L.; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Linn, Charles E.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Luetje, Charles W.

2010-01-01

181

Yellow-bellied marmots are generalist herbivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) eat a wide variety of grasses, forbs, and seeds, but do not feed on all items in proportion to their abundance in the environment. In this study, relationships between the marmot diet and estimated protein, water, caloric value, relative biomass, and toxicity of the available plant species were investigated. The epidermis of all forb species did

B. A. Frase; K. B. Armitage

1989-01-01

182

Cardiovascular effects of yellow oleander ingestion.  

PubMed

Yellow oleander (Thevetia neriifolia) is a commonly grown tree found widely in Eastern India. The seeds of yellow oleander are highly poisonous and contain three glycosides--thevetin, thevetoxin and peruvoside. Yellow oleander seed ingestion is usually with suicidal intent in Eastern India. Manifestations range from mild to potentially fatal. It has significant cardiovascular effects with varying rhythm abnormalities. Effects of yellow oleander seed ingestion (YOI) were studied in 300 patients from 1986 to 1990 at BS Medical College, Bankura. Majority i.e., 246 (82%) were females and 226 (75.33%) were young in the age group 11-20 years. Most reported for treatment 6 to 8 hours after ingestion of seeds. The number of seeds swallowed varied from half to fifteen. Two hundred and ninety-two (97.33%) ingested seeds in the crushed form; 156 (52%) were asymptomatic, 92 (30.66%) had vomiting and 36 (12%) had palpitation. In electrocardiogram (ECG), 138 (46%) revealed varying types of arrhythmias including sinus bradycardia in 68 cases (49.27%). Ischaemic changes were present in 118 cases (39.33%). Number of seeds ingested did not bear any relationship with ECG changes in YOI. All 14 cases of death were autopsied. Subendocardial and perivascular haemorrhage with focal myocardial oedema was present in all. Median hospital stay was 5 days (range 2 to 24). During discharge, 256 (85.33%) had normal ECG, 14 (4.66%) had sinus bradycardia and 16 (5.33%) demonstrated ischaemic changes. PMID:10638101

Bose, T K; Basu, R K; Biswas, B; De, J N; Majumdar, B C; Datta, S

1999-10-01

183

Lettuce necrotic yellows virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lettuce necrotic yellows virus, found in lettuce (Lactuca saliva L.) and sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) near Blenheim in 1965 caused severe losses in an Auckland lettuce crop in 1969. The virus was transmitted between S. oleraceus plants by the aphid Hyperomyzus lactucae L., which occurs throughout the year but is least plentiful during winter. Most infectivity in sap extracts was

P. R. Fry; R. C. Close; C. H. Procter; R. Sunde

1973-01-01

184

Volume III, Chapter 16 Yellow Warbler  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................... 16-1 16.2 Life History and Habitat Requirements; Sauer et al. 2003). 16.2 Life History and Habitat Requirements 16.2.1 Life History 16.2.1.1 Diet Yellow................................................................. 16-1 16.2.1 Life History

185

Phytoplankton and sediments in Yellow Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sediment and phytoplankton cloud the waters of the Yellow Sea in this true-color MODIS image acquired March 18, 2002. The swirls of sediment appear as a murky brownish blue color, while the phytoplankton are purely blue green and are concentrated around the small island in the lower right corner of the image.

2002-01-01

186

Evaluation of Three Egg Collection Techniques for Yellow Perch  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Three Egg Collection Techniques for Yellow Perch Matthew Ward, Todd St. Sauver, Dave Lucchesi, Bruce Johnson, Kevin Hoffman, and Jason Stahl #12;The yellow perch is a popular "panfish" among South Dakota anglers, supporting substantial summer and winter fisheries. #12;Yellow perch have a rather

187

Yellow (Perca flavescens) and Eurasian (P. fluviatilis) perch distinguished in  

E-print Network

292 Yellow (Perca flavescens) and Eurasian (P. fluviatilis) perch distinguished in fried fish to substitute Eurasian perch (P. fluviatilis Linnaeus) or some other species for yellow perch because of the decline of stocks of yellow perch in the Great Lakes and because of rising prices, both of which raise

188

21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section 573.1020 Food and Drugs...Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda (sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate: Na4...

2010-04-01

189

21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section 573.1020 Food and Drugs...Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda (sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate: Na4...

2011-04-01

190

Absorption of light by yellow substance in freshwater lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric study was made of the absorption of light by yellow substance (gilvin, gelbstofl) in 12 freshwater lakes of diverse optical and biochemical character in which concen- trations of yellow substance ranged 50-fold. The shapes of the spectra of yellow substance absorp- tion, g,, suitably corrected for residual light scattering in the spectrophotometer, were well described by an exponential

R. J. DAVIES-COLLEY; W. N. VANT

1987-01-01

191

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2010-10-01

192

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2012-10-01

193

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2011-10-01

194

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2013-10-01

195

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2014-10-01

196

88—A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF YELLOWING IN WOOL FABRIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential spectrophotometric method of measuring colour in wool fabric reveals that the fabric yellows much more slowly when heated in air than in aqueous solution. Yellowing by heating in buffer solutions increases with pH value and is also markedly affected by the nature of the buffer ions, glycine and related nitrogen compounds causing least yellowing and pyrophosphate most when

F. G. Lennox

1960-01-01

197

Yellow Sea Acoustic Uncertainty Caused by Hydrographic Data Error  

E-print Network

Yellow Sea Acoustic Uncertainty Caused by Hydrographic Data Error Peter C. Chu, Carlos J. Cintron is presented by Prof. Kevin Smith at NPS #12;Yellow Sea Bottom Sediment Chart · Four Bottom Sediment types 1. Mud 2. Sand 3. Gravel 4. Rock #12;Yellow Sea Bottom Topography · Water depth in most of the region

Chu, Peter C.

198

YELLOW SEA ACOUSTIC UNCERTAINTY CAUSED BY HYDROGRAPHIC DATA ERROR  

E-print Network

YELLOW SEA ACOUSTIC UNCERTAINTY CAUSED BY HYDROGRAPHIC DATA ERROR PETER C. CHU AND CARLOS J) Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System (MODAS) model in shallow water (such as the Yellow Sea) mine errors) on the acoustic uncertainty in the Yellow Sea is investigated using CASS/GRAB. 2 Environment

Chu, Peter C.

199

Wind-driven effects on the Yellow Sea Warm Current  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow Sea is a shallow basin with an average depth of 44 m located between China_and the Korean Peninsula. One of the dominant ocean circulation features of the Yellow Sea is a warm water intrusion known as the Yellow Sea Warm Current. This feature is present throughout the year but reaches its farthest northward extension in winter. The circulation

Andrea C. Mask; James J. O'Brien; Ruth Preller

1998-01-01

200

A unique Yellow River-derived distal subaqueous delta in the Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly acquired high-resolution Chirp sonar profiles reveal a unique Yellow River-derived, alongshore distributed, bidirectional (landward and seaward) across-shelf transported, omega-shaped (“?”) distal subaqueous deltaic lobe deposited around the eastern tip of the Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea. This clinoform deposit directly overlies the postglacial transgressive surface, featured by convex-up seafloor morphology, up to 40 m thick locally. Radiocarbon-14 dates from

Z. S. Yang; J. P. Liu

2007-01-01

201

Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution seismic profiles from the North Yellow Sea reveal a 20–40-m-thick subaqueous clinoform delta that wraps around the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, extending into the South Yellow Sea. This complex sigmoidal-oblique clinoform, containing an estimated 400 km3 of sediment, overlies prominent relict transgressive surfaces. The nearshore topset of the clinoform, <30-m water depth, has a ?1:1000 gradient, with

J. Paul Liu; John D. Milliman; Shu Gao; Peng Cheng

2004-01-01

202

Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane  

PubMed Central

The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha-1) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

2014-01-01

203

Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae. PMID:25195418

Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

2014-08-01

204

Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane.  

PubMed

The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha(-1)) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha(-1)) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

Keeping, Malcolm G; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

2014-01-01

205

Dental Pulp Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postnatal stem cells have been isolated from a variety of tissues. These stem cells are thought to possess great therapeutic potential for repairing damaged and\\/or defective tissues. Clinically, hematopoietic stem cells have been successfully used for decades in the treatment of various diseases and disorders. However, the therapeutic potential of other postnatal stem cell populations has yet to be realized,

He Liu; Stan Gronthos; Songtao Shi

2006-01-01

206

Stem cells in urology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem

Tamer Aboushwareb; Anthony Atala

2008-01-01

207

Toward ‘SMART’ stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell research is at the heart of regenerative medicine, which holds great promise for the treatment of many devastating disorders. However, in addition to hurdles posed by well-publicized ethical issues, this emerging field presents many biological challenges. What is a stem cell? How are embryonic stem cells different from adult stem cells? What are the physiological bases for therapeutically

T Cheng

2008-01-01

208

Stem Cell Image Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Stem Cell Resources website is "to provide timely, reliable, high-quality and scientifically credible stem cell information for the educational community worldwide." This section of their site, the Stem Cell Image Library, presents a collection of microscope images of stem cells in various phases.

2012-11-13

209

Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

2012-12-01

210

Lesser Grain Borers, Rhyzopertha dominica, Select Rough Rice Kernels with Cracked Hulls for Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Tests were conducted to determine whether the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), selects rough rice (Oryza sativa L. (Poales: Poaceae)) kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction when these kernels are mixed with intact kernels. Differing amounts of kernels with cracked hulls (0, 5, 10, and 20%) of the varieties Francis and Wells were mixed with intact kernels, and the number of adult progeny emerging from intact kernels and from kernels with cracked hulls was determined. The Wells variety had been previously classified as tolerant to R. dominica, while the Francis variety was classified as moderately susceptible. Few F 1 progeny were produced in Wells regardless of the percentage of kernels with cracked hulls, few of the kernels with cracked hulls had emergence holes, and little firass was produced from feeding damage. At 10 and 20% kernels with cracked hulls, the progeny production, number of emergence holes in kernels with cracked hulls, and the amount of firass was greater in Francis than in Wells. The proportion of progeny emerging from kernels with cracked hulls increased as the proportion of kernels with cracked hulls increased. The results indicate that R. dominica select kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction. PMID:22943499

Kavallieratos, Nickolas G.; Athanassiou, Christos G.; Arthur, Frank H.; Throne, James E.

2012-01-01

211

Consequences of reproductive barriers for genealogical discordance in the European corn borer  

PubMed Central

Speciation involves the origin of trait differences that limit or prevent gene exchange and ultimately results in daughter populations that form monophyletic or exclusive genetic groups. However, for recently diverged populations or species between which reproductive isolation is often incomplete, gene genealogies will be discordant, and most regions of the genome will display nonexclusive genealogical patterns. In these situations, genome regions for which one or both species are exclusive groups may mark the footprint of recent selective sweeps. Alternatively, such regions may include or be closely linked to “speciation genes,” genes involved in reproductive isolation. Therefore, comparisons of gene genealogies allow inferences about the genetic architectures of both reproductive isolation and adaptation. Contrasting genealogical relationships in sexually isolated pheromone strains of the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis) demonstrate the relevance of this approach. Genealogies for five gene regions are discordant, and only one molecular marker, the sex-linked gene Tpi, has evidence for pheromone strain exclusivity. Tpi maps to a position on the sex chromosome that is indistinguishable from a major factor (Pdd) affecting differences in postdiapause development time. The major factor (Resp) determining male behavioral response to pheromone is also sex-linked, but maps 20-30 cM away. Exclusivity at Tpi may be a consequence of these linkage relationships because evidence from phenotypic variation in natural populations implicates both Pdd and Resp as candidates for genes involved in recent sweeps and/or reproductive isolation between strains. PMID:16204000

Dopman, Erik B.; Perez, Luisa; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.; Harrison, Richard G.

2005-01-01

212

Nutritional Performance of the Tomato Fruit Borer, Helicoverpa armigera, on Different Tomato Cultivars  

PubMed Central

The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify alternative methods to chemical control. Nutritional performance of the larval stages (fourth, fifth, and sixth instars) of H. armigera on fruit of eight tomato cultivars, including SUN 6108 f1, Rio grande UG, Korral, Super strain B, CH falat, Hed rio grande, Cal.JN3, and Super crystal, was studied under laboratory conditions. Fourth instars reared on CH falat and SUN 6108 f1 respectively showed the highest and lowest values of approximate digestibility. The highest values of efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food of fifth instars were on Super strain B. The relative consumption rate and relative growth rate values of the sixth instars were the highest on Korral. The highest and lowest values of consumption index of sixth instars were on Super strain B and Hed rio grande, respectively. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values of whole larval instars were the highest on Hed rio grande and lowest on Rio grande UG. The results of nutritional indices indicated that Rio grande UG is an unsuitable host for H. armigera. PMID:25204681

Kouhi, Davoud; Naseri, Bahram; Golizadeh, Ali

2014-01-01

213

Components of reproductive isolation between North American pheromone strains of the European corn borer.  

PubMed

Of 12 potential reproductive isolating barriers between closely related Z- and E-pheromone strains of the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis), seven significantly reduced gene flow but none were complete, suggesting that speciation in this lineage is a gradual process in which multiple barriers of intermediate strength accumulate. Estimation of the cumulative effect of all barriers resulted in nearly complete isolation (>99%), but geographic variation in seasonal isolation allowed as much as approximately 10% gene flow. With the strongest barriers arising from mate-selection behavior or ecologically relevant traits, sexual and natural selection are the most likely evolutionary processes driving population divergence. A recent multilocus genealogical study corroborates the roles of selection and gene flow (Dopman et al. 2005), because introgression is supported at all loci besides Tpi, a sex-linked gene. Tpi reveals strains as exclusive groups, possesses signatures of selection, and is tightly linked to a QTL that contributes to seasonal isolation. With more than 98% of total cumulative isolation consisting of prezygotic barriers, Z and E strains of ECB join a growing list of taxa in which species boundaries are primarily maintained by the prevention of hybridization, possibly because premating barriers evolve during early stages of population divergence. PMID:19895559

Dopman, Erik B; Robbins, Paul S; Seaman, Abby

2010-04-01

214

The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

2013-10-01

215

Sympatric host races of the European corn borer: adaptation to host plants and hybrid performance.  

PubMed

The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, is a major pest of maize crops. In Europe, two sympatric host races are found: one feeds on maize (Zea mays) and the other mainly on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). The two host races are genetically differentiated, seldom crossing in the laboratory or in the field, and females preferentially lay eggs on their native host species. We conducted two independent experiments, in field and greenhouse conditions, to determine whether the two host races are locally adapted to their host species. The effect of larval density and the performance of hybrids were also investigated. Despite some differences in overall larval feeding performance, both experiments revealed consistent patterns of local adaptation for survival and for larval weight in males. In females the same trend was observed but with weaker statistical support. F1 hybrids did not seem to be disadvantaged compared with the two parental races. Overall, our results showed that both host races are physiologically adapted to their native host. The fitness trade-off between the two host plants provides a potential driving force for ecological speciation in this species. PMID:17714289

Calcagno, V; Thomas, Y; Bourguet, D

2007-09-01

216

Sampling for the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on sugarcane in Louisiana.  

PubMed

A 3-yr study was conducted in 0.6- to 2.0-ha sugarcane fields throughout south Louisiana under varying sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), density levels to determine the spatial dispersion of infestations and to develop a sequential sampling plan. Infestations of D. saccharalis were randomly dispersed. Infestation levels (percentage of stalks infested) ranged from 0.6 to 33.3%. Frequency distributions of the number of infested stalks indicated that the Poisson distribution best fit the data Tests of other distributions (negative binomial [aggregated], binomial [uniform], geometric, and hypergeometric) resulted in poorer fits. The sequential sampling plan devised, with lower and upper D. saccharalis infestation limits of 2 and 5% and 5 and 10%, required maximum average sample numbers of 7.1 and 5.5 (20-stalk samples), respectively, to make terminating management decisions. It is our assessment that implementation of these plans would decrease sampling effort by 50-60% when compared with sampling programs currently in use for D. saccharalis management decisions in Louisiana. PMID:11425035

Schexnayder, H P; Reagan, T E; Ring, D R

2001-06-01

217

Critical electrolyte concentration of silk gland chromatin of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis, induced using agrochemicals.  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis is widely known as the main pest of sugarcane crop, causing increased damage to the entire fields. Measures to control this pest involve the use of chemicals and biological control with Cotesia flavipes wasps. In this study, we evaluated the insecticides fipronil (Frontline; 0.0025%), malathion (Malatol Bio Carb; 0.4%), cipermetrina (Galgotrin; 10%), and neem oil (Natuneem; 100%) and the herbicide nicosulfuron (Sanson 40 SC; 100%) in the posterior region silk glands of 3rd- and 5th-instar D. saccharalis by studying the variation in the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC). Observations of 3rd-instar larvae indicated that malathion, cipermetrina, and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation that may consequently disable genes. Tests with fipronil showed no alteration in chromatin condensation. With the use of nicosulfuron, there was chromatin and probable gene decompaction. In the 5th-instar larvae, the larval CEC values indicated that malathion and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation. The CEC values for 5th-instar larvae using cipermetrina, fipronil, and nicosulfuron indicated chromatin unpacking. These observations led us to conclude that the quantity of the pesticide does not affect the mortality of these pests, can change the conformation of complexes of DNA, RNA, and protein from the posterior region of silk gland cells of D. saccharalis, activating or repressing the expression of genes related to the defense mechanism of the insect and contributing to the selection and survival of resistant individuals. PMID:25299111

Santos, S A; Fermino, F; Moreira, B M T; Araujo, K F; Falco, J R P; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, M C C

2014-01-01

218

COMPONENTS OF REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION BETWEEN NORTH AMERICAN PHEROMONE STRAINS OF THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER  

PubMed Central

Of 12 potential reproductive isolating barriers between closely related Z and E pheromone strains of the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis), seven significantly reduced gene flow but none were complete, suggesting that speciation in this lineage is a gradual process in which multiple barriers of intermediate strength accumulate. Estimation of the cumulative effect of all barriers was nearly complete isolation (> 99%), but geographic variation in seasonal isolation allowed as much as ~10% gene flow. With the strongest barriers arising from mate-selection behavior or ecologically relevant traits, sexual and natural selection are the most likely evolutionary processes driving population divergence. A recent multilocus genealogical study corroborates the roles of selection and gene flow (Dopman et al. 2005), because introgression is supported at all loci besides Tpi, a sex-linked gene. Tpi reveals strains as exclusive groups, possesses signatures of selection, and is tightly linked to a QTL that contributes to seasonal isolation. With more than 98% of total cumulative isolation consisting of prezygotic barriers, Z and E strains of ECB join a growing list of taxa in which species boundaries are primarily maintained by the prevention of hybridization, possibly because premating barriers evolve during early stages of population divergence. PMID:19895559

Dopman, Erik B.; Robbins, Paul S.; Seaman, Abby

2009-01-01

219

[Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)].  

PubMed

The soursop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with soursop was conducted to study the life cycle under field conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00h and 13:00h (35ºC, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. PMID:20877987

Hernández-Fuentes, Luis M; Urias-López, Mario A; Bautista-Martínez, Nestor

2010-01-01

220

Salivary signals of European corn borer induce indirect defenses in tomato  

PubMed Central

Plants can recognize the insect elicitors and activate its defense mechanisms. European Corn Borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) saliva, produced from the labial salivary glands and released through the spinneret, is responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Glucose oxidase (GOX) present in the ECB saliva induced direct defenses in tomato. By contrast, GOX activity in ECB saliva was insufficient to trigger defenses in maize, suggesting that host-specific salivary elicitors are responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Our current study further examined whether ECB saliva can trigger indirect defenses in tomato. Relative expression levels of TERPENE SYNTHASE5 (TPS5) and HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE (HPL), marker for indirect defenses in host plants, were monitored. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that ECB saliva can induce the expression of TPS5 and HPL, suggesting that salivary signals can induce indirect defenses in addition to the direct defenses. Further experiments are required to identify different ECB elicitors that are responsible for inducing direct and indirect defenses in host plants. PMID:24310003

Louis, Joe; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

2013-01-01

221

Nutritional performance of the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera, on different tomato cultivars.  

PubMed

The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify alternative methods to chemical control. Nutritional performance of the larval stages (fourth, fifth, and sixth instars) of H. armigera on fruit of eight tomato cultivars, including SUN 6108 f1, Rio grande UG, Korral, Super strain B, CH falat, Hed rio grande, Cal.JN3, and Super crystal, was studied under laboratory conditions. Fourth instars reared on CH falat and SUN 6108 f1 respectively showed the highest and lowest values of approximate digestibility. The highest values of efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food of fifth instars were on Super strain B. The relative consumption rate and relative growth rate values of the sixth instars were the highest on Korral. The highest and lowest values of consumption index of sixth instars were on Super strain B and Hed rio grande, respectively. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values of whole larval instars were the highest on Hed rio grande and lowest on Rio grande UG. The results of nutritional indices indicated that Rio grande UG is an unsuitable host for H. armigera. PMID:25373228

Kouhi, Davoud; Naseri, Bahram; Golizadeh, Ali

2014-01-01

222

Nutritional performance of the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera, on different tomato cultivars.  

PubMed

The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify alternative methods to chemical control. Nutritional performance of the larval stages (fourth, fifth, and sixth instars) of H. armigera on fruit of eight tomato cultivars, including SUN 6108 f1, Rio grande UG, Korral, Super strain B, CH falat, Hed rio grande, Cal.JN3, and Super crystal, was studied under laboratory conditions. Fourth instars reared on CH falat and SUN 6108 f1 respectively showed the highest and lowest values of approximate digestibility. The highest values of efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food of fifth instars were on Super strain B. The relative consumption rate and relative growth rate values of the sixth instars were the highest on Korral. The highest and lowest values of consumption index of sixth instars were on Super strain B and Hed rio grande, respectively. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values of whole larval instars were the highest on Hed rio grande and lowest on Rio grande UG. The results of nutritional indices indicated that Rio grande UG is an unsuitable host for H. armigera. PMID:25204681

Kouhi, Davoud; Naseri, Bahram; Golizadeh, Ali

2014-01-01

223

Imported yellow fever in a United States citizen.  

PubMed

The last imported case of yellow fever seen in this country was in 1924. We report a case of yellow fever acquired by an American tourist who visited the jungles of Brazil along the Rio Negro and Amazon Rivers. The patient died 6 days after hospital admission and 10 days after his first symptoms appeared. Yellow fever virus was recovered from clinical specimens, and the isolate was genetically similar to the E genotype IIB of South American yellow fever viruses. This patient's illness represents a case of vaccine-preventable death since he failed to be immunized with a recommended preexposure yellow fever vaccine. PMID:9402373

McFarland, J M; Baddour, L M; Nelson, J E; Elkins, S K; Craven, R B; Cropp, B C; Chang, G J; Grindstaff, A D; Craig, A S; Smith, R J

1997-11-01

224

Stem Cell Biobanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells contribute to innate healing and harbor a promising role for regenerative medicine. Stem cell banking through long-term\\u000a storage of different stem cell platforms represents a fundamental source to preserve original features of stem cells for patient-specific\\u000a clinical applications. Stem cell research and clinical translation constitute fundamental and indivisible modules catalyzed\\u000a through biobanking activity, generating a return of investment.

Silvana Bardelli

2010-01-01

225

Stem cells supporting other stem cells  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cell therapies are increasingly prevalent for the treatment of damaged or diseased tissues, but most of the improvements observed to date are attributed to the ability of stem cells to produce paracrine factors that have a trophic effect on existing tissue cells, improving their functional capacity. It is now clear that this ability to produce trophic factors is a normal and necessary function for some stem cell populations. In vivo adult stem cells are thought to self-renew due to local signals from the microenvironment where they live, the niche. Several niches have now been identified which harbor multiple stem cell populations. In three of these niches – the Drosophila testis, the bulge of the mammalian hair follicle, and the mammalian bone marrow – one type of stem cell has been found to produce factors that contribute to the maintenance of a second stem cell population in the shared niche. In this review, I will examine the architecture of these three niches and discuss the molecular signals involved. Together, these examples establish a new paradigm for stem cell behavior, that stem cells can promote the maintenance of other stem cells. PMID:24348512

Leatherman, Judith

2013-01-01

226

High-efficiency 20 W yellow VECSEL.  

PubMed

A high-efficiency optically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser emitting 20 W at a wavelength around 588 nm is demonstrated. The semiconductor gain chip emitted at a fundamental wavelength around 1170-1180 nm and the laser employed a V-shaped cavity. The yellow spectral range was achieved by intra-cavity frequency doubling using a LBO crystal. The laser could be tuned over a bandwidth of ~26 nm while exhibiting watt-level output powers. The maximum conversion efficiency from absorbed pump power to yellow output was 28% for continuous wave operation. The VECSEL's output could be modulated to generate optical pulses with duration down to 570 ns by directly modulating the pump laser. The high-power pulse operation is a key feature for astrophysics and medical applications while at the same time enables higher slope efficiency than continuous wave operation owing to decreased heating. PMID:24663985

Kantola, Emmi; Leinonen, Tomi; Ranta, Sanna; Tavast, Miki; Guina, Mircea

2014-03-24

227

Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.  

PubMed Central

Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:822563

Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

1976-01-01

228

Comparison of black, purple, and yellow barleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many barley landraces are purple-or black-seeded, but the chemical composition of these purple-and black- seeded barley is rarely examined. Therefore, studies were conducted to determine if the chemical composition of purple and black barleys differs from that of yellow barleys. Four sets of genetic materials were used for these studies: 96 doubled-haploid (DH) lines, 10 near-isogenic lines, 40 landraces, and

Thin Meiw Choo; Bernard Vigier; Keh Ming Ho; Salvatore Ceccarelli; Stefania Grando; Jerome D. Franckowiak

2005-01-01

229

Vibrational spectroscopic analyses of unique yellow feather pigments (spheniscins) in penguins  

PubMed Central

Many animals extract, synthesize and refine chemicals for colour display, where a range of compounds and structures can produce a diverse colour palette. Feather colours, for example, span the visible spectrum and mostly result from pigments in five chemical classes (carotenoids, melanins, porphyrins, psittacofulvins and metal oxides). However, the pigment that generates the yellow colour of penguin feathers appears to represent a sixth, poorly characterized class of feather pigments. This pigment class, here termed ‘spheniscin’, is displayed by half of the living penguin genera; the larger and richer colour displays of the pigment are highly attractive. Using Raman and mid-infrared spectroscopies, we analysed yellow feathers from two penguin species (king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus; macaroni penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus) to further characterize spheniscin pigments. The Raman spectrum of spheniscin is distinct from spectra of other feather pigments and exhibits 17 distinctive spectral bands between 300 and 1700 cm?1. Spectral bands from the yellow pigment are assigned to aromatically bound carbon atoms, and to skeletal modes in an aromatic, heterocyclic ring. It has been suggested that the penguin pigment is a pterin compound; Raman spectra from yellow penguin feathers are broadly consistent with previously reported pterin spectra, although we have not matched it to any known compound. Raman spectroscopy can provide a rapid and non-destructive method for surveying the distribution of different classes of feather pigments in the avian family tree, and for correlating the chemistry of spheniscin with compounds analysed elsewhere. We suggest that the sixth class of feather pigments may have evolved in a stem-lineage penguin and endowed modern penguins with a costly plumage trait that appears to be chemically unique among birds. PMID:23516063

Thomas, Daniel B.; McGoverin, Cushla M.; McGraw, Kevin J.; James, Helen F.; Madden, Odile

2013-01-01

230

Quantifying the Impact of Woodpecker Predation on Population Dynamics of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Duan, Jian J.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.

2013-01-01

231

Susceptibility of Eggs and Adult Fecundity of the Lesser Grain Borer, Rhyzopertha dominca, Exposed to Methoprene  

PubMed Central

A series of tests were conducted to determine the susceptibility of eggs and neonates of the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae = Bostrychidae), exposed to the insect growth regulator, methoprene, on filter paper and on rough rice. In the first test, the hatch rate of eggs exposed on filter paper treated with methoprene at the label rate of 0.003 mg [AI]/cm2 when used as a surface treatment in structures was 52.0 ± 7.3% compared to 93.0 ± 3.3% on untreated controls. In the second test, eggs were exposed to a dose-response series of 0.00003 to 0.03 mg[AI]/cm2. Egg hatch was directly proportional to concentration and ranged from 85.0 ± 2.0% on untreated controls to 26.7 ± 8.3% at the highest concentration tested. In the third test, 1 ppm of methoprene was sprayed on long grain rough rice (paddy) (Cocodrie variety), and then individual kernels were cracked and an egg of R. dominica was placed directly on the kernel. On untreated rice kernels, 67.5 ± 11.6% of the eggs hatched and were able to bore inside, and all of these larvae emerged as adults. In contrast, 40.0 ± 5.3% of the eggs placed on treated cracked kernels were able to develop to where the larvae were visible through X-ray detection, but none emerged as adults. In the final test, newly-emerged adults were exposed on rough rice treated with 1 ppm methoprene. The number of eggs from adults on untreated rice was 52.1 ± 4.3 eggs per female, and on treated rice the average egg production was 12.5 ± 1.1 eggs per female. Methoprene applied on a surface or on rough rice affected development of egg hatch also reduced fecundity of parent adults exposed on the treated rough rice. PMID:20233095

Arthur, F. H.; Wilde, G. E.; Throne, J. E.; Subramanyam, Bh.

2008-01-01

232

Reversed functional topology in the antennal lobe of the male European corn borer.  

PubMed

The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) is a model of evolution of sexual communication in insects. Two pheromone strains produce and respond to opposite ratios of the two pheromone components, Z11 and E11-tetradecenylacetate. The Z-strain uses a ratio of 97:3 of Z11:E11 tetradecenylacetate, whereas the E-strain uses a ratio of 1:99. We studied how the difference in male preference correlates with differences in wiring of olfactory input and output neurons in the antennal lobe (AL). Activity-dependent anterograde staining, intracellular recording and immunocytochemistry were used to establish the structure and function of male olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and AL projection neurons (PNs). Physiologically characterized neurons were reconstructed using confocal microscopy of alpha-synapsin stained ALs. The ALs of males and females in both strains had approximately 64 glomeruli. In males the macroglomerular complex (MGC) was morphologically similar in the two strains and consisted of two major compartments, a large, medial compartment folded around a smaller, lateral one. Extensive physiological and morphological analysis revealed that in both strains the major pheromone component-specific ORNs and PNs arborize in the medial MGC glomerulus, whereas those sensitive to the minor pheromone component arborize in the lateral glomerulus. In other words, the two strains have an indistinguishable MGC morphology, but a reversed topology. Apparently, the single-gene-mediated shift that causes a radical change in behavior is located upstream of the antennal lobes, i.e. at the ORN level. PMID:18723543

Kárpáti, Zsolt; Dekker, Teun; Hansson, Bill S

2008-09-01

233

Evidence for obligate migratory flight behavior in young European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) females.  

PubMed

European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, flight behavior was examined in laboratory experiments. Adults were each tethered to 1 of 16 round-about flight mills in an environmental chamber, and the data were relayed to a computer. Parameters analyzed included duration, distance, and speed of the longest continuous flight and total flight time during an 8-h night. Comparisons were made between unmated and mated adults of both sexes at different ages up to 5 d after emergence. For unmated females, duration of the longest flight was highest the first night after emergence, declining significantly by 5 d of age. In contrast, duration of the longest flight for males was lowest at 1 d of age, increasing significantly by 3 d of age. Flight speed of females was roughly twice that of males at all ages. Mating did not affect flight behavior of either sex at any age tested, but mated adults could not be tested before 2 d of age because the first night was needed for mating. The pattern of age-specific flight behavior suggests that unmated females engage in obligate migratory flight the first full night after emergence. The median duration of this flight was approximately 2 h in our experiments, with some adults flying continuously for the full 8 h of darkness. Females of other ages and males of all ages tested were capable of long-duration flights, but they more likely represent foraging flight. These results help explain the high dispersal rate of newly emerged adults from release sites in field experiments. PMID:19036208

Dorhout, David L; Sappington, Thomas W; Rice, Marlin E

2008-10-01

234

Identification of Odor-Processing Genes in the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis  

PubMed Central

Background Insects rely on olfaction to locate food, mates, and suitable oviposition sites for successful completion of their life cycle. Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (emerald ash borer) is a serious invasive insect pest that has killed tens of millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp) trees and threatens the very existence of the genus Fraxinus. Adult A. planipennis are attracted to host volatiles and conspecifics; however, to date no molecular knowledge exists on olfaction in A. planipennis. Hence, we undertook an antennae-specific transcriptomic study to identify the repertoire of odor processing genes involved in A. planipennis olfaction. Methodology and Principal Findings We acquired 139,085 Roche/454 GS FLX transcriptomic reads that were assembled into 30,615 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including 3,249 isotigs and 27,366 non-isotigs (contigs and singletons). Intriguingly, the majority of the A. planipennis antennal transcripts (59.72%) did not show similarity with sequences deposited in the non-redundant database of GenBank, potentially representing novel genes. Functional annotation and KEGG analysis revealed pathways associated with signaling and detoxification. Several odor processing genes (9 odorant binding proteins, 2 odorant receptors, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein and 134 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases; esterases, etc.) putatively involved in olfaction processes were identified. Quantitative PCR of candidate genes in male and female A. planipennis in different developmental stages revealed developmental- and sex-biased expression patterns. Conclusions and Significance The antennal ESTs derived from A. planipennis constitute a rich molecular resource for the identification of genes potentially involved in the olfaction process of A. planipennis. These findings should help in understanding the processing of antennally-active compounds (e.g. 7-epi-sesquithujene) previously identified in this serious invasive pest. PMID:23424668

Mamidala, Praveen; Wijeratne, Asela J.; Wijeratne, Saranga; Poland, Therese; Qazi, Sohail S.; Doucet, Daniel; Cusson, Michel; Beliveau, Catherine; Mittapalli, Omprakash

2013-01-01

235

Estimating potential emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations using ash inventory data.  

PubMed

Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding pest native to Asia, was identified in June 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.), mortality in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Localized populations of A. planipennis have since been found across lower Michigan and in areas of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, and Ontario. Officials working to contain A. planipennis and managers of forestlands near A. planipennis infestations must be able to compare alternative strategies to allocate limited funds efficiently and effectively. Empirical data from a total of 148 green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., and white ash, Fraxinus americana L., trees were used to develop models to estimate surface area of the trunk and branches by using tree diameter at breast height (dbh). Data collected from 71 additional F. pennsylvanica and F. americana trees killed by A. planipennis showed that on average, 88.9 +/- 4.6 beetles developed and emerged per m2 of surface area. Models were applied to ash inventory data collected at two outlier sites to estimate potential production of A. planipennis beetles at each site. Large trees of merchantable size (dbh > or = 26 cm) accounted for roughly 6% of all ash trees at the two sites, but they could have contributed 55-65% of the total A. planipennis production at both sites. In contrast, 75- 80% of the ash trees at the outlier sites were < or =13 cm dbh, but these small trees could have contributed only < or =12% of the potential A. planipennis production at both sites. Our results, in combination with inventory data, can be used by regulatory officials and resource managers to estimate potential A. planipennis production and to compare options for reducing A. planipennis density and slowing the rate of spread for any area of interest. PMID:17972635

McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W

2007-10-01

236

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

237

Distinguishing defensive characteristics in the phloem of ash species resistant and susceptible to emerald ash borer.  

PubMed

We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high soluble protein concentration, low trypsin inhibitor activities, and intermediate levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentration. The EAB-susceptible white ash (F. americana, cv. Autumn Purple) was characterized by a slow wound browning rate and low levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentrations. An EAB-susceptible green ash cultivar (F. pennsylvanica, cv. Patmore) and a wild accession were similar to each other on the basis of several chemical defense traits, and were characterized by high activities of peroxidase and trypsin inhibitor, a high total soluble phenolic concentration, and an intermediate rate of wound browning. Lignin concentration and polyphenol oxidase activities did not differentiate resistant and susceptible species. Of 33 phenolic compounds separated by HPLC and meeting a minimum criterion for analysis, nine were unique to Manchurian ash, five were shared among all species, and four were found in North American ashes and not in the Manchurian ash. Principal components analysis revealed clear separations between Manchurian, white, and green ashes on the basis of all phenolics, as well as clear separations on the basis of quantities of phenolics that all species shared. Variation in some of these constitutive chemical defense traits may contribute to variation in resistance to EAB in these species. PMID:21537902

Cipollini, Don; Wang, Qin; Whitehill, Justin G A; Powell, Jeff R; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A

2011-05-01

238

Predicting economic losses from the continued spread of the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive species that originated from Mexico, and it is threatening to cause major economic losses to sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and rice, Oryza sativa L., industries in Louisiana. The insect is expected to reach sugarcane and rice production areas in Louisiana by 2008, and infest all of Louisiana sugarcane and rice industries by 2035. When all sugarcane in Louisiana becomes infested, annual yield losses of $220 million would be expected for a cultivar of comparable susceptibility to LCP 85-384 (assuming this cultivar is planted on 100% of the production area). This also assumes the use of the current practice of rainfed production and one application of insecticide, which is presently used by farmers in Louisiana. Irrigation with 30 cm of water is predicted to reduce estimated losses by 29%, whereas four applications of a biorational insecticide such as tebufenozide are expected to reduce the loss in revenue by 53%. The use of the resistant 'HoCP 85-845' would reduce the projected loss in revenue by 24%. Combining all three management tactics on sugarcane, anticipated net loss in revenue would decrease by 66%. The rice industry in Louisiana is projected to suffer from a loss in revenue of $45 million when the entire state is infested. A 77% reduction in loss in revenue is expected with one application of lambda-cyhalothrin. A quarantine on east Texas sugarcane is estimated to save the Louisiana industry between $1.1 billion and $3.2 billion (depending on management) during the time needed for the insect to fully invade the state's sugarcane and rice producing area by natural migration rather than by accidental introduction. The rapid deployment of appropriate management tactics will have a key role in reducing the anticipated economic impact of E. loftini once it becomes a pest in Louisiana sugarcane and rice. PMID:18459384

Reay-Jones, F P F; Wilson, L T; Reagan, T E; Legendre, B L; Way, M O

2008-04-01

239

Selection and life history traits of tebufenozide-resistant sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Varying susceptibility to tebufenozide was recorded in the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), collected from Louisiana sugarcane locations with different selection pressures. Results from diet incorporation bioassays with tebufenozide indicated significant increases in LC50 (3.78-fold) and LC90 (7-fold) values for a colony from Duson (DU), an area with higher selection pressure, compared with a colony from Alexandria (ALEX), an area with no selection pressure. Differences were not detected in LC50 values among colonies from areas where use of tebufenozide was discontinued or rotated with other chemistries. Selections with tebufenozide of DU larvae over 12 generations resulted in a highly resistant colony (DU-R) with 27.1- and 83.3-fold increases in LC50 and LC90 values, respectively. Comparison of pupal weight, days to pupation, and emergence after exposure to an equitoxic (LC20) concentration of tebufenozide revealed a decrease in pupal weight (34 and 33% for males and females, respectively), and an increase in days to pupation (47 and 40% for males and females, respectively), and emergence (43 and 33% for males and females, respectively) for the DU-R colony compared with the parent DU colony. Fecundity of DU-R females decreased to 72 eggs per female compared with 180 (DU) and 261 (ALEX). Egg viability of the ALEX and DU colonies was 61 and 56%, respectively, whereas only 27% of eggs laid by females from the DU-R colony hatched. These results are discussed in terms of their practical implications for control of D. saccharalis in Louisiana sugarcane. PMID:19133473

Akbar, W; Ottea, J A; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Huang, F

2008-12-01

240

Concerted evolution of male and female display traits in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual reproduction entails the encounter of the sexes and the multiplicity of rituals is parallel to the diversity of mating systems. Evolutionary mechanisms such as sexual selection and sexual conflict have led to the elaboration of traits to gain attention and favours from potential partners. A paradox exists about how coordinated systems can evolve and diverge when there would seem to be a stabilising selection acting. Moth display traits – pheromones – constitute an advantageous model with which to address questions about the evolution of mating systems in animals. Both males and females can possess pheromones that are involved either in close- or long-range communication. Female and male pheromones appear to have different origins and to be under different evolutionary constraints, thus they might be envisioned as independently evolving traits. We conducted laboratory experiments to explore the role of scents released during courtship by males of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Results Information provided by the male pheromone appears critical for female acceptance. The composition of this male pheromone varies in an age-dependent manner and females show mating preference towards older males in choice experiments. Furthermore, male signals may allow species discrimination and reinforce reproductive isolation. Finally, we found evidence for a genetic correlation between male and female signals, the evolution of which is best explained by the constraints and opportunities resulting from the sharing of gene products. Conclusion In this study we used an integrative approach to characterise the male sex pheromone in a moth. Interestingly, the male chemical signal is analogous to the female signal in that structurally similar compounds are being used by both sexes. Hence, in systems where both sexes possess display traits, the pleiotropy of genes generating the traits could influence the evolutionary trajectories of sexual signals and lead to their divergence, with speciation being the ultimate result. PMID:19257880

Lassance, Jean-Marc; Lofstedt, Christer

2009-01-01

241

A life history study of the yellow throat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Investigations concerning the life history of the Yellow-throat were made in southern Michigan during the spring and summer of 1938. Supplementary information was also obtained at Arlington, Virginia, in 1940 and at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, in 1947.....Resident males established territories almost immediately upon arrival in spring. In southern Michigan some resident males arrived at least as soon as, if not before, transient males. Most females appeared on their nesting ground about a week later. Adults were engaged in nesting activities from the time of their arrival in spring until the advent of the post-nuptial molt in late summer.....Typical Yellow-throat habitat consists of a mixture of a dense herbaceous vegetation and small woody plants in damp or wet situations. At Ann Arbor, the Yellow-throat was a common breeding species in its restricted suitable habitat. The population density in one area of suitable habitat was about 69 territorial males per 100 acres. Of 11 territorial males that were intensively studied, one was polygamous (with two mates), nine were monogamous, and one was probably monogamous (with at least one mate).....The song of the individual Yellow-throat was heard throughout the breeding season except for the courtship period. Two major types of song were the common song given while perched, and an occasional, more elaborate, flight song. Most males sing in spurts, singing at fairly regular intervals for a considerable period and then abruptly ceasing for another period. The vocabulary of both sexes included several types of call notes that appeared either to have special functions or to represent outward expressions of distinct emotional states of the bird.....Resident males were antagonistic toward each other throughout the breeding season. Most remained on well-established territories during this period. Territories of 10 monogamous males ranged in size from .8 to 1.8 acres but the territory of one polygamous male occupied. 3.4 acres. The behavior of males during inter-territorial encounters was similar in some respects to their behavior when courting females.....While courting females, the males are very attentive and seldom sing for about one week. During the courtship period the female locates the nesting site and builds the nest without assistance from the male.....Nests, constructed of dried plant materials, were situated on or near the ground and were supported on all sides by stems of herbaceous plants or limbs of shrubs. Many nests were composed of three layers with the coarser materials being used in the outer layer.....The full clutch of eggs in 12 nests ranged from 4 to 6 (average, 4.6). Early clutches seem to be larger than later ones. After the first egg is laid, one is laid on each succeeding day until the clutch is complete. Incubation period is about 12 days. Incubation is only by the female. Records of daytime incubation schedules of three females about half way through incubation indicate that the periods spent on and off the nests average about 61 and 16 minutes, respectively.....Young Yellow-throats usually remain in the nest for eight or nine days. During this period they grow and develop rapidly. Their weight quintuples in six days. Both sexes are active in feeding the young and in removing excreta from the nest. Records of feeding at three nests showed a range of one feeding per 5 1/2 minutes to one feeding per 22 minutes, the rate increasing with age of young. Adults care for the young for at least two weeks after the young leave the nest.....Ten of 12 females that were intensively studied were successful in raising young beyond the nestling stage. Only one of these raised two broods, although three females built at least three nests each. In 19 nests, 11 (58 per cent) produced nestlings and 7 (37 per cent) produced fledglings. In total, the 19 nests produced an average of one fledgling Yellow-throat per nest. Of 22 nests that were found near Ann Arbor, 10 (45

Stewart, R.E.

1953-01-01

242

Where to sample? Ecological implications of sampling strata in determining abundance and impact of natural enemies of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several parasitoids of African origin have been introduced to coffee producing areas of the Americas and Asia as biological control agents of the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). These parasitoids have become established in the field but their effect on the CBB has been limited. A two-year field study in Western Kenya has found Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera:

Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Christian Borgemeister; Charles Kamonjo; Hans-Michael Poehling; Fernando E. Vega

2009-01-01

243

Sequences and transcriptional analysis of Coffea arabica var. Caturra and Coffea liberica plant responses to coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer (CBB) is the most prevalent pest of coffee plantations. Within the Coffea genus, C. arabica is susceptible to CBB and C. liberica shows a lower susceptibility. Two EST libraries were constructed from the total RNA of C. arabica and C. liberica fruits artificially infested with CBBs for 24 h. Using 6000 clones sequenced per library, a

Sandra M. Idárraga; Ana M. Castro; Eliana P. Macea; Alvaro L. Gaitán; Luis F. Rivera; Marco A. Cristancho; Carmenza E. Góngora

2012-01-01

244

Sequences and transcriptional analysis of Coffea arabica var. Caturra and Coffea liberica plant responses to coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer (CBB) is the most prevalent pest of coffee plantations. Within the Coffea genus, C. arabica is susceptible to CBB and C. liberica shows a lower susceptibility. Two EST libraries were constructed from the total RNA of C. arabica and C. liberica fruits artificially infested with CBBs for 24 h. Using 6000 clones sequenced per library, a

Sandra M. Idárraga; Ana M. Castro; Eliana P. Macea; Alvaro L. Gaitán; Luis F. Rivera; Marco A. Cristancho; Carmenza E. Góngora

2011-01-01

245

Spatial and temporal genetic analyses reveal high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. cornbelt  

EPA Science Inventory

European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...

246

Potential Effects of Large-Scale Elimination of Oaks by Red Oak Borers on Breeding Neotropical Migrants in the Ozarks1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arkansas Ozarks are currently experiencing an outbreak of the red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus), a native insect that has previously not been considered an important forest pest species. As many as 50 percent of the trees in the Ozarks, which has the highest density of oaks in the United States, may be dead by the year 2006. The Ozarks

Kimberly G. Smith; Frederick M. Stephen

247

66 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER IN RUSSIA: 2009 SITUATION UPDATE  

E-print Network

, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Science, Krasnoyarsk, Russia 2 Institute of Forest Management The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is a beetle native to East Asia and the Russian of further EAB distribution in the Russian Federation. Agrilus planipennis in the Asian Part of Russia

248

Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator–prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US $500 million\\/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei

Juliana Jaramillo; Eric G. Chapman; Fernando E. Vega; James D. Harwood

2010-01-01

249

Original article Compatible stem taper and stem volume functions  

E-print Network

for oak performs relatively well considering the substantial number of forked oak trees. stem taper / stemOriginal article Compatible stem taper and stem volume functions for oak (Quercus robur L and Q - In this paper we develop compatible stem taper and stem volume functions for oak (Quercus robur L and Q petraea

Boyer, Edmond

250

Homology of olfactory receptor neuron response characteristics inferred from hybrids between Asian and European corn borer moths (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

First generation hybrid males from crosses between the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, and the "univoltine Z-strain" European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, were examined with respect to behavioral and physiological responses to ACB and ECB pheromones. The hybrid males often flew to the pheromone of ECB Z-strain, but very rarely to the ACB pheromone. We mapped the tuning profiles of each ORN of the F(1) hybrids with respect to the relevant pheromone components and a common behavioral antagonist by employing differential cross-adaptation and varying doses of the ligands. In the trichoid sensilla of F(1) hybrid males, the three co-compartmentalized ORNs produced spikes that were very difficult to distinguish by size, unlike the parental populations. Comparing the responses to ACB and ECB components at different doses reveals overlapping profiles similar to males of both parental types, but more responsiveness to the ECB pheromone components. We were unable to detect any differences in the ORN tuning profiles when comparing males with different behavioral phenotypes. While the two ECB pheromone races have similar ORN tuning properties that are different from those in ACB, the spike-amplitude patterns of ECB E-strain and ACB have greater homology when compared to ECB Z-strain. PMID:19778540

Domingue, Michael J; Musto, Callie J; Linn, Charles E; Roelofs, Wendell L; Baker, Thomas C

2010-01-01

251

Metabolism of carbaryl, chloropyrifos, DDT, and parathion in the European corn borer: effects of microsporidiosis on toxicity and detoxication  

SciTech Connect

An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, /sup 14/C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle.

Tetreault, G.E.

1985-01-01

252

Cuticle-degrading proteases produced by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana in the presence of coffee berry borer cuticle  

PubMed Central

A Brazilian isolate of Beauveria bassiana (CG425) that shows high virulence against the coffee berry borer (CBB) was examined for the production of subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) cuticle-degrading proteases. Fungal growth was either in nitrate-medium or in CBB cuticle-containing medium under both buffered and unbuffered conditions. In unbuffered medium supplemented with cuticle, the pH of cultures dropped and Pr1 and Pr2 activities were detected in high amounts only at a pH of 5.5 or higher. In buffered cultures, Pr1 and Pr2 activities were higher in medium supplemented with cuticle compared to activities with nitrate-medium. The Pr1 and Pr2 activities detected were mostly in the culture supernatant. These data suggest that Pr1 and Pr2 proteases produced by strain CG425 are induced by components of CBB cuticle, and that the culture pH influences the expression of these proteases, indicating the occurrence of an efficient mechanism of protein secretion in this fungus. The results obtained in this study extend the knowledge about protease production in B. bassiana CG425, opening new avenues for studying the role of secreted proteases in virulence against the coffee berry borer during the infection process. PMID:24031220

Dias, B.A.; Neves, P.M.O.J.; Furlaneto-Maia, L.; Furlaneto, M.C.

2008-01-01

253

Sex pheromone production and perception in European corn borer moths is determined by both autosomal and sex-linked genes  

PubMed Central

Inheritance patterns for sex pheromone production in females, pheromone detection on male antennal olfactory receptor cells, and male pheromone behavioral responses were studied in pheromonally distinct populations of European corn borers from New York State. Gas chromatographic analyses of pheromone glands, single sensillum recordings, and flight tunnel behavioral analyses were carried out on progeny from reciprocal crosses, as well as on progeny from subsequent F2 and maternal and paternal backcrosses. The data show that the production of the female pheromone blend primarily is controlled by a single autosomal factor, that pheromone-responding olfactory cells are controlled by another autosomal factor, and that behavioral response to pheromone is controlled by a sex-linked gene. F1 males were found to possess olfactory receptor cells that give spike amplitudes to the two pheromone isomers that are intermediate to those of the high and low amplitude cells of the parent populations. Fifty-five percent of the F1 males tested responded fully to pheromone sources ranging from the hybrid (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate/(Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E/Z) molar blend of 65:35 to the E/Z molar blend of 3:97 for the Z morph parents, but very few responded to the E/Z molar blend of 99:1 for the E morph parents. Data on the inheritance patterns support speculation that the Z morph is the ancestral and that the E morph is the derived European corn borer population. PMID:16593886

Roelofs, Wendell; Glover, Thomas; Tang, Xian-Han; Sreng, Isabelle; Robbins, Paul; Eckenrode, Charles; Lofstedt, Christer; Hansson, Bill S.; Bengtsson, Bengt O.

1987-01-01

254

Dispersal of adult European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) within and proximal to irrigated and non-irrigated corn.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), causes economic damage to corn, Zea mays L., throughout the Corn Belt. Because this insect has become the primary target of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) transgenic corn, current efforts addressing the management of O. nubilalis resistance to Bt corn require information on adult European corn borer dispersal and factors affecting its dispersal. In 1998 we conducted mark-release-recapture, release-recapture, and caged-mating studies to directly measure and compare local dispersal patterns of O. nubilalis adults within and proximal to irrigated and non-irrigated cornfields. Releases of marked adults were made corresponding to the first and second flight of O. nubilalis in eastern Nebraska. Adult dispersal was significantly different between irrigated and non-irrigated cornfields. Released adults tended to remain in and near irrigated cornfields, but dispersed out of and away from non-irrigated cornfields. When released at the edge of the cornfield, neither male nor unmated female O. nubilalis displayed an initial tendency to move out of irrigated corn and into the mixed smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) and broadleaf-weed field edge. Mating efficiency in a late-season cornfield was not significantly different than in dense foxtail (Setaria spp.). Generally, we found that adult O. nubilalis dispersal may vary depending on variables such as action-site availability and agronomic practices and their interaction with O. nubilalis life history. PMID:11777038

Hun, T E; Higley, L G; Witkowski, J F; Young, L J; Hellmich, R L

2001-12-01

255

STEM Learning Quality Indicator Map  

E-print Network

STEM Learning Quality Indicator Map Quality Indicator Initiation Involvement Implementation Innovation Student Engagement STEM learning experiences are engaging and inspire creativity and imagination STEM learning experience is activity driven with specific step by step directions STEM learning

US Army Corps of Engineers

256

Choosing a STEM Career  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will view video clips about graduate and middle school students with interests in STEM careers and compare technologies from yesterday with today. They will explore careers on-line before writing about their futures as STEM professionals.

Wpsu

2009-11-10

257

Yellow-e Determines the Color Pattern of Larval Head and Tail Spots of the Silkworm Bombyx mori*  

PubMed Central

Yellow proteins form a large family in insects. In Drosophila melanogaster, there are 14 yellow genes in the genome. Previous studies have shown that the yellow gene is necessary for normal pigmentation; however, the roles of other yellow genes in body coloration are not known. Here, we provide the first evidence that yellow-e is required for normal body color pattern in insect larvae. In two mutant strains, bts and its allele bts2, of the silkworm Bombyx mori, the larval head cuticle and anal plates are reddish brown instead of the white color found in the wild type. Positional cloning revealed that deletions in the Bombyx homolog of the Drosophila yellow-e gene (Bmyellow-e) were responsible for the bts/bts2 phenotype. Bmyellow-e mRNA was strongly expressed in the trachea, testis, and integument, and expression markedly increased at the molting stages. This profile is quite similar to that of Bmyellow, a regulator of neonatal body color and body markings in Bombyx. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that Bmyellow-e mRNA was heavily expressed in the integument of the head and tail in which the bts phenotype is observed. The present results suggest that Yellow-e plays a crucial role in the pigmentation process of lepidopteran larvae. PMID:19996320

Ito, Katsuhiko; Katsuma, Susumu; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

2010-01-01

258

STEM Club Participation and STEM Schooling Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To develop a more robust understanding of the relationship between non-formal, school-based STEM activities and students' success and persistence in STEM fields, this study evaluates how math club participation influences math GPA and how science club participation influences science GPA. Additionally, this study evaluates how math or science…

Gottfried, Michael A.; Williams, Darryl N.

2013-01-01

259

Umbilical Cord Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue\\u000a types (1–3). Generally, stem cells are categorized as one of three types: embryonic stem cells (ES), embryonic germ cells (EG), or adult\\u000a stem cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastula (Fig. 1). They

Kathy E. Mitchell

260

Trace metals in fleece wool and correlations with yellowness.  

PubMed

The presence of copper and iron in metal-doped wool has been shown previously to be associated with the production of free radicals and yellowing in photo-irradiated wool. In this study, the yellowness and trace metal content of 700 wool samples was measured to determine if photoyellowing, catalysed by metals, is a major determinant of the colour of fleece wool. Iron and copper content did not positively correlate with yellowness and yellower wool tended to have lower levels of these metals. Instead, a strong positive correlation of yellowness with the calcium, manganese and magnesium content was observed in yellow wools. High levels of calcium and magnesium is consistent with biofilm formation by Pseudomonas bacteria that have previously been associated with non-scourable staining of wool. PMID:23292316

King, A L; Millington, K R

2013-03-01

261

Stem cell culture engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells have the capacity for self renewal and undergo multilineage differentiation. Stem cells isolated from both blastocysts and adult tissues represent valuable sources of cells for applications in cell therapy, drug screening and tissue engineering. While expanding stem cells in culture, it is critical to maintain their self?renewal and differentiation capacity. In generating particular cell types for specific applications,

Gargi Seth; Catherine M. Verfaillie

2005-01-01

262

Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.  

PubMed

Until recently, urban yellow fever had not been reported from the Americas since 1954, but jungle yellow fever increasingly affects forest dwellers in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The reinvasion by Aedes aegypti of cities in the Americas now threatens to urbanize yellow fever. After yellow fever infection was identified in a resident of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December 1997, all subsequent suspected cases were investigated. Active surveillance of yellow fever was introduced in the Santa Cruz area, with hospitals and selected urban and rural health centers reporting all suspected cases. Patients were serologically screened for yellow fever, dengue, hepatitis A and B, and leptospirosis; clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients' records and through interviews; and a population-based serosurvey was conducted in the neighborhood of one case. Between December 1997 and June 1998, symptomatic yellow fever infection was confirmed in 6 residents of Santa Cruz, of whom 5 died. 5 lived in the southern sector of the city. 2 cases did not leave the city during their incubation period, and 1 had visited only an area in which sylvatic transmission was deemed impossible. Of the 281 people covered in the serosurvey, 16 (6%) were positive for IgM antibody to yellow fever. Among 5 people for whom that result could not be explained by recent vaccination, there were 2 pairs of neighbors. This instance of urban yellow fever transmission was limited in both time and space. PMID:10334253

Van der Stuyft, P; Gianella, A; Pirard, M; Cespedes, J; Lora, J; Peredo, C; Pelegrino, J L; Vorndam, V; Boelaert, M

1999-05-01

263

[Red, yellow, green: management of gastrointestinal complaints].  

PubMed

In a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain, initiation of symptomatic treatment must be preceded by the reliable exclusion of a potentially serious situation (acute abdomen = red light). Rapidly progressive or severe abdominal pain mandates an urgent diagnostic investigation on the part of the physician. No less important is the positive diagnosis of psychosomatic disorders (yellow light). If the family doctor fails to properly counsel the patient, too much diagnostic effort can lead to an iatrogenic somatic fixation. In the absence of all the above, the light shows green for causal therapy, an open mind on the diagnosis, symptomatic treatment and follow-up. PMID:16642704

Sandholzer, H

2006-03-30

264

The Yellow Fever Vaccine: A History  

PubMed Central

After failed attempts at producing bacteria-based vaccines, the discovery of a viral agent causing yellow fever and its isolation in monkeys opened new avenues of research. Subsequent advances were the attenuation of the virus in mice and later in tissue culture; the creation of the seed lot system to avoid spontaneous mutations; the ability to produce the vaccine on a large scale in eggs; and the removal of dangerous contaminants. An important person in the story is Max Theiler, who was Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health at Yale from 1964-67, and whose work on virus attenuation created the modern vaccine and earned him the Nobel Prize. PMID:20589188

Frierson, J. Gordon

2010-01-01

265

Energetic Costs of Tissue Construction in Yellow-poplar and White Oak Trees Exposed to Long-term CO 2Enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods were used to estimate construction costs for leaves, stems, branches and woody roots of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipiferaL.) trees grown at ambient (35 Pa) and elevated (65 Pa) CO2for 2.7 years and trees of white oak (Quercus albaL.) grown at these same CO2partial pressures for 4 years. Sample combustion in a bomb calorimeter combined with measurements of ash and

STAN D. WULLSCHLEGER; R. J. NORBY; J. C. LOVE; C. RUNCK

1997-01-01

266

Artificial Stem Cell Niches  

PubMed Central

Stem cells are characterized by their dual ability to reproduce themselves (self-renew) and specialize (differentiate), yielding a plethora of daughter cells that maintain and regenerate tissues. In contrast to their embryonic counterparts, adult stem cells retain their unique functions only if they are in intimate contact with an instructive microenvironment, termed stem cell niche. In these niches, stem cells integrate a complex array of molecular signals that, in concert with induced cell-intrinsic regulatory networks, control their function and balance their numbers in response to physiologic demands. This progress report provides a perspective on how advanced materials technologies could be used (i) to engineer and systematically analyze specific aspects of functional stem cells niches in a controlled fashion in vitro and (ii) to target stem cell niches in vivo. Such “artificial niches” constitute potent tools for elucidating stem cell regulatory mechanisms with the capacity to directly impact the development of novel therapeutic strategies for tissue regeneration. PMID:20882496

Lutolf, Matthias P.; Blau, Helen M.

2011-01-01

267

Longitudinal myelitis associated with yellow fever vaccination.  

PubMed

Severe adverse reaction to yellow fever (YF) vaccine includes the yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease. This terminology includes postvaccinal encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The objective of this communication is to report a patient who received a YF vaccine in Argentina and subsequently developed longitudinal myelitis with a symptom that had previously gone unreported in the literature. A 56-year-old man began with progressive paraparesia, urinary retention, and constipation 48 h previous to admission. The patient received YF vaccine 45 days prior to the onset of the symptoms. There was no history of other immunization or relevant condition. MR of the spine showed longitudinal intramedullary hyperintense signal (D5-12) without gadolinium enhancement. A high concentration of YFV-specific IgM vaccine antibody was found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Serological tests for other flavivirus were negative. A diagnosis of longitudinal myelitis without encephalitis associated with YF vaccine was performed and symptoms improved 5 days later. This is the first report dealing with longitudinal myelitis as a serious adverse event associated with YF vaccination in which confirmation of the presence of antibodies in CSF was found. To date, it is also the first report with serological confirmation in Argentina and in South America. We consider that the present investigation will raise awareness in the region in the reporting of adverse events related to YF vaccine and improve our knowledge of adverse reactions to the vaccine. PMID:19579072

Chaves, M; Riccio, P; Patrucco, L; Rojas, J I; Cristiano, E

2009-07-01

268

Brighter yellow blue tits make better parents.  

PubMed Central

Whether or not bird ornaments are a signal for direct (e.g. good parents) or indirect (e.g. good genes) benefits to prospective partners in sexual selection is controversial. Carotene coloration in Parus species is directly related to the ingestion of caterpillars, so that a brightly carotene-coloured tit may be signalling its ability to find caterpillars, a main high-quality food source for good fledgling development, and hence its parental abilities. If carotene-based plumage coloration is related to the good-parent hypothesis, we predict that yellow plumage brightness of tit fathers should be positively correlated to their investment in offspring provisioning. Here, we use cross-fostering experiments in blue tits (Parus caeruleus) to show that chick development (as measured by tarsus length) is related to yellowness of the foster father, but not to that of the genetic parents. Using these data, we were able to measure, for the first time to our knowledge, the separate contribution of genetic and environmental factors (i.e. parental plumage coloration) to chick development, and hence parental investment. Our data, which relate carotenoid coloration to models of good parents, and data from other authors, which relate ultraviolet coloration to good-genes models, stress that different kinds of coloration within an individual may provide different units of information to prospective females. PMID:11839194

Senar, J C; Figuerola, J; Pascual, J

2002-01-01

269

Effects of biological and chemical treatments on Botrytis stem canker and fruit yield of tomato under greenhouse conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to identify, by in vitro dual culture tests, potential biological control agents producing antibiotics and to evaluate selected biological and chemical agents for control of stem canker caused by Botrytis cinerea on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in yellow cedar sawdust in a research greenhouse. Four strains of Bacillus subtilis and one each of Enterobacter agglomerans and

R. Utkhede; C. Bogdanoff; J. McNevin

2001-01-01

270

Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Somatic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can differentiate to generate more specialized cell types responsible for tissue-specific\\u000a function. During development, the differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells leads to the production of specialized\\u000a somatic cells that are ultimately responsible for the structure and function of all adult tissues and organs. “Naturally”\\u000a pluripotent cells exist only at the earliest stages of

Kah Yong Tan; Francis S. Kim; Amy J. Wagers; Shane R. Mayack

271

Cancer stem cells - normal stem cells \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence has accumulated that cancer develops from a population of quiescent tissue committed\\/pluripotent stem cells (TCSC\\/PSC) or cells developmentally closely related to them that are distributed in various organs. To support this notio n, stem cells (SC) are long lived cells and thus may become the subject of accumulating mutations that are crucial for initiation\\/progression of cancer. More important, they

Mariusz Z. Ratajczak

2005-01-01

272

Indirect effects of metal contamination on energetics of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) resulting from food web  

E-print Network

Indirect effects of metal contamination on energetics of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) resulting of Biology, Montreal, Quebec, Canada SUMMARY 1. Benthic invertebrate community composition and yellow perch, lake food web, metal contamination, Perca flavescens, stunting, Sudbury, yellow perch Introduction

Rasmussen, Joseph

273

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

2012-10-01

274

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

2011-10-01

275

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

2010-10-01

276

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

2013-10-01

277

Clopyralid effects on yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) and nontarget species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow starthistle is a problematic invasive plant in the western United States. At- tempts to control it often include the use of herbicides although herbicides can have detrimental effects on desired native species. We studied the effect of clopyralid on a native bunchgrass and vernal pool community in the Central Valley of California. Areas invaded by yellow starthistle were treated

Kimberly J. Reever Morghan; Elizabeth A. Leger; Kevin J. Rice

2003-01-01

278

Wind-driven effects on the Yellow Sea Warm Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yellow Sea is a shallow basin writh an average depth of 44 m located between China and the Korean Peninsula. One of the dominant ocean circulation features of the Yellow Sea is a warm wrater intrusion known as the Yellow Sea Warm Current. This feature is present throughout the year but reaches its farthest northward extension in winter. The circulation of the Yellow, East China, and Bohai Seas was modeled using the Princeton Ocean Model to better understand the dynamics of the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The horizontal resolution of the model varies from 8 km in the Yellow Sea to 25 km in the East China Sea. Twenty-four sigma levels are used to define the vertical structure. The model uses daily atmospheric forcing from the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System for 1993. Open boundary conditions are applied at the Taiwan Strait, the Tsushima (Korea) Strait, an area south of Taiwan, and the Tokara Strait, with a closed boundary south of the Ryukyu Islands. The model results are examined to determine the effect of the wind on the northward extension of the warm water intrusion, using both water mass characteristics and northward velocity components. Sensitivity tests and spectrum analyses, performed to study the influence of the wind on the Yellow Sea Warm Current, show that winds modify the pathway and extent of the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The current's origin, however, appears to be due to external forcing from the current systems developed in the East China Sea.

Mask, Andrea C.; O'Brien, James J.; Preller, Ruth

1998-12-01

279

Assessing the freshwater distribution of yellow eel . Lasne(1)  

E-print Network

Assessing the freshwater distribution of yellow eel Ã?. Lasne(1) , P. Laffaille(1,2) ABSTRACT. A review of the literature suggests that eel size data could be used to assess and analyze freshwater for assessing yellow eel stages in freshwater areas, and should have concrete applications for management

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

Female Reproductive Parameters of Tana River Yellow Baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the female reproductive parameters of yellow baboons at the Tana River National Primate Reserve, Kenya. We present data on menarche, cycle length, pregnancy, birth, postpartum amenorrhea, interbirth interval, and infant survival. We also briefly compare our data to those reported for yellow baboon females at the Amboseli Reserve, Kenya. Our results indicate statistically significant differences in some of

Vicki K. Bentley-Condit; E. O. Smith

1997-01-01

281

Influence of Yellow Foxtail on Corn Growth and Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow foxtail [Setaria pumila syn. Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv.] competitive influence on corn (Zea mays L.) growth and yield was investigated at Brookings, South Dakota, and Morris, Minnesota, in 1995 and 1996. Yellow foxtail was seeded at different densities, and at Morris, two levels of nitrogen (N) were applied. Corn biomass measured at V?6 or V?8, silking, and harvest and

S. A. Clay; K. R. Banken; F. Forcella; M. M. Ellsbury; D. E. Clay; A. E. Olness

2006-01-01

282

NOTE / NOTE Age determination in yellow-pine chipmunks  

E-print Network

NOTE / NOTE Age determination in yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus): a comparison of eye lens distinguish among adults of different ages. We determined the age of yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus différents groupes d'âge. Nous avons déterminé l'âge de tamias amènes (Tamias amoenus) des Montagnes

Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

283

Westward shift of the Yellow Sea warm salty tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulated in situ hydrographic survey as well as the satellite observed sea surface temperature (SST) show consistent westward shifting of the Yellow Sea Warm Salty Tongue (YSWST) in winter. A 2-D thermal model is used to show the westward shifting of the YSWST due to cooling and advection. The MITgcm is applied to simulate the circulation in the Yellow

Daji Huang; Xiaopeng Fan; Dongfeng Xu; Yuanzheng Tong; Jilan Su

2005-01-01

284

Recent current observations in the eastern Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of current velocity, pressure, and temperature in the eastern Yellow Sea from January 10 through April 12, 1986, together with geostrophic winds calculated from surface atmospheric pressure distributions, are analyzed for a study of the synoptic band response of the Yellow Sea to the wintertime winds. North wind pulses in the winter monsoon are found to give rise to

Y. Hsueh

1988-01-01

285

First case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902.  

PubMed Central

The first case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902 was reported in March 1998. The yellow fever virus genome was detected in postmortem liver biopsies by seminested polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis showed that this strain was most closely related to strains from Brazil and Ecuador. PMID:10341180

Heraud, J. M.; Hommel, D.; Hulin, A.; Deubel, V.; Poveda, J. D.; Sarthou, J. L.; Talarmin, A.

1999-01-01

286

Conserving migrating shorebirds in the Yellow Sea region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow Sea Region lies between North and South Korea to the east and China to the west, and covers an area of 458 000 sq km. Biodiversity in the inter-tidal zone of the Yellow Sea Region is high: excellent feeding and roosting areas accom- modate many different species of waterbirds, and preliminary records indicate that the coastal zone of

C. Kelin; X. Qiang

287

Production and properties of yellow affinity substances by Ruminococcus flavefaciens  

E-print Network

Production and properties of yellow affinity substances by Ruminococcus flavefaciens J Kopecny J, Uhrineves 104000, Czech Republic Production of yellow affinity substance (YAS) has been described only be a bacterial signal substance for cellulose (Ljungdahl et al, 1988, Methods Enzymol, 160, 483-500). Our

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

288

Stem Cell 101 What is a stem cell?  

E-print Network

and stem cells found in the skin generally form skin. However, some research suggests that certain adultStem Cell 101 What is a stem cell? A stem cell is a parent cell in the body that has two specific into all types of tissue in the body ­ this is called differentiation. Where are stem cells found

Minnesota, University of

289

Epidemiological aspects of the 1969 yellow fever epidemic in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The Virus Research Laboratory of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, was notified on 23 October 1969 that cases of suspected yellow fever had occurred in the Jos area. The diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolation and the existence of a widespread outbreak on the Jos Plateau and adjacent areas was established. This was the first recognized epidemic of yellow fever in Nigeria since 1953. Between September and the end of December 1969, an estimated total of 252 patients with yellow fever were hospitalized. The case—fatality ratio for hospitalized patients was approximately 40%. The diagnosis of yellow fever was confirmed by virus isolation, serology, or pathology in 55 patients. It is estimated that up to 100 000 cases of yellow fever may have occurred during the epidemic. PMID:4538037

Carey, D. E.; Kemp, G. E.; Troup, J. M.; White, H. A.; Smith, E. A.; Addy, R. F.; Fom, A. L. M. D.; Pifer, J.; Jones, E. M.; Bres, P.; Shope, R. E.

1972-01-01

290

Epidemiological aspects of the 1969 yellow fever epidemic in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The Virus Research Laboratory of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, was notified on 23 October 1969 that cases of suspected yellow fever had occurred in the Jos area. The diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolation and the existence of a widespread outbreak on the Jos Plateau and adjacent areas was established. This was the first recognized epidemic of yellow fever in Nigeria since 1953. Between September and the end of December 1969, an estimated total of 252 patients with yellow fever were hospitalized. The case-fatality ratio for hospitalized patients was approximately 40%. The diagnosis of yellow fever was confirmed by virus isolation, serology, or pathology in 55 patients. It is estimated that up to 100 000 cases of yellow fever may have occurred during the epidemic. PMID:4538037

Carey, D E; Kemp, G E; Troup, J M; White, H A; Smith, E A; Addy, R F; Fom, A L; Pifer, J; Jones, E M; Brès, P; Shope, R E

1972-01-01

291

Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008-2009  

PubMed Central

Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. PMID:24625634

Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valeria de Sa; de Almeida, Marco Antonio Barreto; Vettorello, Katia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

2014-01-01

292

Areawide suppression of European corn borer with Bt maize reaps savings to non-Bt maize growers.  

PubMed

Transgenic maize engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become widely adopted in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million hectares, constituting 63% of the U.S. crop. Using statistical analysis of per capita growth rate estimates, we found that areawide suppression of the primary pest Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) is associated with Bt maize use. Cumulative benefits over 14 years are an estimated $3.2 billion for maize growers in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, with more than $2.4 billion of this total accruing to non-Bt maize growers. Comparable estimates for Iowa and Nebraska are $3.6 billion in total, with $1.9 billion for non-Bt maize growers. These results affirm theoretical predictions of pest population suppression and highlight economic incentives for growers to maintain non-Bt maize refugia for sustainable insect resistance management. PMID:20929774

Hutchison, W D; Burkness, E C; Mitchell, P D; Moon, R D; Leslie, T W; Fleischer, S J; Abrahamson, M; Hamilton, K L; Steffey, K L; Gray, M E; Hellmich, R L; Kaster, L V; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Pecinovsky, K; Rabaey, T L; Flood, B R; Raun, E S

2010-10-01

293

The identification of bean mosaic, pea yellow mosaic and pea necrosis strains of bean yellow mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve virus isolates from pea, broad bean, red clover and yellow lupin have been compared with the B25 strain of bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV-B25), the E198 strain of pea mosaic virus (PMV-E198) and the pea necrosis virus (E178), which were described earlier (Bos, 1970).

L. Bos; Cz. Kowalska; D. Z. Maat

1974-01-01

294

Sediment discharge of the Yellow River (China) and its effect on the sedimentation of the Bohai and the Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow River is noted for its small water discharge and huge sediment load, which amounts to about11 × 108 tons every year, contributing 17% of the world's fluvial sediment discharge to the ocean. This has a profound effect on the sedimentation of the Bohai and the Yellow Sea. Changes of the outlet in the modern delta every 10 y

Mei-E. Ren; Yun-Liang Shi

1986-01-01

295

Biological pretreatment of Yellow River water.  

PubMed

Bio-ceramic filter(BF) and moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) were used for biological pretreatment of Yellow River water in this study. The BF only had slight advantage over MBBR for TOC and ammonia removal. However, like UV254, the average removal rate of THMFP in the BF was much higher than that in the MBBR. UV254 removal did not show obvious correlation with trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) removal. Hexachlorocyclohexane could be effectively removed in both BF and MBBR. As for diatom and cyanobateria removal the MBBR had better performance than the BF, which was contrary to the average chlorophyll-a ( Chl-a) removal rate. The proposal was made in this study that biological flocculation and sedimentation of sloughed biofilm should play a more important role on algae removal in the MBBR than in the BF. The BF and MBBR could effectively remove microcystins. Moreover, MBBR could be a promising technology for biological pretreatment. PMID:16158578

Xie, Shu-Guang; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Wu, Wei-Zhong; Wen, Dong-Hui; Wang, Zhan-Sheng

2005-01-01

296

Stem Cell Transplants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transplanting embryonic stem cells from embryo into adult as a means of rejuvenating diseased cells, tissues, and organs poses ethical and moral challenges. In recent years, stem cell-derived nerve and glandular tissue has been transplanted into the brains and pancreas of Parkinson's disease and diabetes patients, respectively, with mixed results. This chapter provides background information on stem cell research, the future treatment of Parkinson's disease, and the controversy surrounding this sensitive issue.

Slesnick, Irwin

2004-01-01

297

Stem Cell Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Stem Cell Resources website is "to provide timely, reliable, high-quality and scientifically credible stem cell information for the educational community worldwide." The website is a division of Bioscience Network which publishes online science education materials. On the site, visitors will find a stem cell image library, a multimedia area, and a special section titled "For Educators". In the "For Educators" area, visitors will find links to a primer on stem cells and links to educational resources on stem cells from curriculum to case studies to lesson plans from such trusted sources as the Australian Stem Cell Centre and the National Institutes of Health. Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes videos that show how embryonic stem cell lines are made, along with other animations and graphics on the topic. Additionally, the site's "SCR Library" area includes the link to the Stem Cell Image Library, which provides dozens of photos of stem cells taken from researchers at the University of Cambridge and other institutions.

298

Stem cells and reproduction  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To review the latest developments in reproductive tract stem cell biology. Recent findings In 2004, two studies indicated that ovaries contain stem cells which form oocytes in adults and that can be cultured in vitro into mature oocytes. A live birth after orthotopic transplantation of cyropreserved ovarian tissue in a woman whose ovaries were damaged by chemotherapy demonstrates the clinical potential of these cells. In the same year, another study provided novel evidence of endometrial regeneration by stem cells in women who received bone marrow transplants. This finding has potential for the use in treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the cause of endometriosis, which may have its origin in ectopic transdifferentiation of stem cells. Several recent studies have demonstrated that fetal cells enter the maternal circulation and generate microchimerism in the mother. The uterus is a dynamic organ permeable to fetal stem cells, capable of transdifferentiation and an end organ in which bone marrow stem cells may differentiate. Finally stem cell transformation can be an underlying cause of ovarian cancer. Summary Whereas we are just beginning to understand stem cells, the potential implications of stem cells to reproductive biology and medicine are apparent. PMID:20305558

Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S.

2011-01-01

299

Vegetative Ecological Characteristics of Restored Reed ( Phragmites australis) Wetlands in the Yellow River Delta, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we compared ecological characteristics of wetland vegetation in a series of restoration projects that were carried out in the wetlands of Yellow River Delta. The investigated characteristics include plant composition structure, species diversity and community similarity in three kinds of Phragmites australis wetlands, i.e. restored P. australis wetlands (R1, R2, R3 and R4: restored in 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2009, respectively), natural P. australis wetland (N) and degraded P. australis wetland (D) to assess the process of wetlands restoration. The coverage of the R1 was 99%, which was similar to natural wetland. Among all studied wetlands, the highest and lowest stem density was observed in R1 and R2, respectively, Plant height and stem diameter show the same trend as N > R2 > R1 > R3 > D > R4. Species diversity of restored P. australis wetlands became closed to natural wetland. Both species richness and Shannon-Wiener index had similar tendency: increased first and then decreased with restored time. The highest species richness and species diversity were observed in R2, while the lowest values of those parameters were found in natural P. australis wetland. Similarity indexes between restored wetlands and natural wetland increased with the restoration time, but they were still less than 50%. The results indicate that the vegetation of P. australis wetlands has experienced a great improvement after several years' restoration, and it is feasible to restored degraded P. australis wetlands by pouring fresh water into those wetlands in the Yellow River Delta. However, it is notable that costal degraded P. australis wetland in this region may take years to decades to reach the status of natural wetland.

Wang, Xuehong; Yu, Junbao; Zhou, Di; Dong, Hongfang; Li, Yunzhao; Lin, Qianxin; Guan, Bo; Wang, Yongli

2012-02-01

300

Assessing yellow Fever risk in the ecuadorian Amazon.  

PubMed

This study reports results of a cross-sectional study based on interviews and seroepidemiological methods to identify risk factors for yellow fever infection among personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. Clinical symptoms and signs observed among yellow fever cases are also described. Humoral immune response to yellow fever, Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche, and dengue 2 infection was assessed by evaluating IgM and IgG specific antibodies. A yellow fever attack rate of 13% (44/341, with 3 fatal cases) was observed among military personnel. Signs of digestive track bleeding (14.6%) and hematuria (4.9%) were observed among the yellow fever cases. In 32.2% of the cases, we measured high levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase with maximum levels of 6,830 and 3,500, respectively. Signs of bleeding or jaundice were observed in some cases, and high levels of transaminases were seen. The epidemiological and laboratory investigations demonstrated that the military personnel were affected by a yellow fever outbreak. The association between clearing the rainforest and also being at the detachments with yellow fever infection confirms that clearing is the main factor in the jungle model of transmission, which takes place deep in the Amazonian rainforest. PMID:20300380

Izurieta, Ricardo O; Macaluso, Maurizio; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B; Guerra, Bolivar; Cruz, Ligia M; Galwankar, Sagar; Vermund, Sten H

2009-01-01

301

Red Oak Borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas, U.S.A.: An Unexpected and Remarkable Forest Disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex interaction of multiple factors has resulted in an oak decline event in oak-hickory forests of the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas and Missouri, U.S.A. The most striking feature of this situation is an unprecedented population explosion of red oak borer, a species of cerambycid beetle, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), which appears to be causing extensive mortality to mature red oaks

Fred M. Stephen; Vaughn B. Salisbury; Forrest L. Oliveria

2001-01-01

302

The African yam bean seed lectin affects the development of the cowpea weevil but does not affect the development of larvae of the legume pod borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial feeding assays were used to study the effect of purified galactose-specific lectins from African yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) on development of larvae of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and the legume pod-borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Inhibition of development of C. maculatus was observed when larvae were fed on artificial cowpea seeds containing 0.2%, 2.0% and 5.0%

Jesse S. Machuka; Oladapo G. Okeola; Maarten J. Chrispeels; Louis E. N. Jackai

2000-01-01

303

Spatial distribution pattern of attack of the oak borer, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae), and scolytid ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) on fresh logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution patterns of the attack on fresh logs ofPasania edulis was studied for the oak borer,Platypus quercivorus (Murayama), and two species of Scolytid ambrosia beetles,Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) andXyleborus attenuatus Blanford, in 1994 and 1995. On the logs where onlyP. quercivorus attacked, the entry holes were distributed uniformly when attack intensity was low. However, the distribution pattern became\\u000a more

Koichi Soné; Takeshi Mori; Masamichi Ide

1998-01-01

304

Stemming vision loss with stem cells  

PubMed Central

Dramatic advances in the field of stem cell research have raised the possibility of using these cells to treat a variety of diseases. The eye is an excellent target organ for such cell-based therapeutics due to its ready accessibility, the prevalence of vasculo- and neurodegenerative diseases affecting vision, and the availability of animal models to demonstrate proof of concept. In fact, stem cell therapies have already been applied to the treatment of disease affecting the ocular surface, leading to preservation of vision. Diseases in the back of the eye, such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and inherited retinal degenerations, present greater challenges, but rapidly emerging stem cell technologies hold the promise of autologous grafts to stabilize vision loss through cellular replacement or paracrine rescue effects. PMID:20811157

Marchetti, Valentina; Krohne, Tim U.; Friedlander, David F.; Friedlander, Martin

2010-01-01

305

Spatial and temporal genetic analyses show high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. corn belt.  

PubMed

European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240 km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 moths from each sample location and time were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. Spatial analyses indicated that there is no spatial genetic structuring between European corn borer populations sampled 720 km apart at the extremes of the transects and no pattern of genetic isolation by distance at that geographic scale. Although these results suggest high gene flow over the spatial scale tested, it is possible that populations have not had time to diverge since the central Corn Belt was invaded by this insect approximately 60 yr ago. However, temporal analyses of genetic changes in single locations over time suggest that the rate of migration is indeed very high. The results of this study suggest that the geographic dimensions of European corn borer populations are quite large, indicating that monitoring for resistance to transgenic Bt corn at widely separated distances is justified, at least in the central Corn Belt. High gene flow further implies that resistance to Bt corn may be slow to evolve, but once it does develop, it may spread geographically with such speed that mitigation strategies will have to be implemented quickly to be effective. PMID:19689914

Kim, Kyung Seok; Bagley, Mark J; Coates, Brad S; Hellmich, Richard L; Sappington, Thomas W

2009-08-01

306

Phenotypic Plasticity of HSP70s Gene Expression during Diapause: Signs of Evolutionary Responses to Cold Stress among Soybean Pod Borer Populations (Leguminivora glycinivorella) in Northeast of China  

PubMed Central

The soybean pod borer (Leguminivora glycinivorella Matsumura) successfully survives the winter because of its high expression of 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70s) during its overwintering diapause. The amount of HSP70s is different under different environmental stresses. In this study, inducible heat shock protein 70 and its constitutive heat shock cognate 70 were cloned by RT-PCR and RACE. These genes were named Lg-hsp70 and Lg-hsc70, respectively. Gene transcription and protein expression after cold stress treatment (5°C to ?5°C) were analyzed by western blotting and by qRT-PCR for four populations that were sampled in the northeast region of China, including Shenyang, Gongzhuling, Harbin and Heihe, when the soybean pod borer was in diapause. As the cold shock temperature decreased, the levels of Lg-HSP70s were significantly up-regulated. The amount of cold-induced Lg-HSP70s was highest in the southernmost population (Shenyang, 41°50?N) and lowest in the northernmost population (Heihe, 50°22?N). These results support the hypothesis that the soybean pod borer in the northeast region of China displays phenotypic plasticity, and the accumulation of Lg-HSP70s is a strategy for overcoming environmental stress. These results also suggest that the induction of HSP70 synthesis, which is a complex physiological adaptation, can evolve quickly and inherit stability. PMID:25330365

Han, Lanlan; Fan, Dong; Zhao, Kuijun

2014-01-01

307

Weed suscepts of the potato yellow dwarf virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Fifteen new weed suscepts of the potato yellow dwarf virus are reported.\\u000a \\u000a Limited evidence is presented which indicates thatChrysanthemum leucanthemum var.pinnatifidum may be a more important source of the potato yellow dwarf virus under field conditions than Medium Red clover.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The presence of the yellow dwarf virus was demonstrated in naturally infected plants of the following species:Chrysanthemum leucanthemum var.pinnatifidum, Trifolium

S. G. Younkin

1942-01-01

308

Genomic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Brazilian Yellow Fever Virus Strains  

PubMed Central

Globally, yellow fever virus infects nearly 200,000 people, leading to 30,000 deaths annually. Although the virus is endemic to Latin America, only a single genome from this region has been sequenced. Here, we report 12 Brazilian yellow fever virus complete genomes, their genetic traits, phylogenetic characterization, and phylogeographic dynamics. Variable 3? noncoding region (3?NCR) patterns and specific mutations throughout the open reading frame altered predicted secondary structures. Our findings suggest that whereas the introduction of yellow fever virus in Brazil led to genotype I-predominant dispersal throughout South and Central Americas, genotype II remained confined to Bolivia, Peru, and the western Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23015713

Palacios, Gustavo; Cardoso, Jedson F.; Martins, Livia C.; Sousa, Edivaldo C.; de Lima, Clayton P. S.; Medeiros, Daniele B. A.; Savji, Nazir; Desai, Aaloki; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Carvalho, Valeria L.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2012-01-01

309

[Yellow nail syndrome in a patient with membranous glomerulonephritis].  

PubMed

Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is a condition characterized by yellow-green coloration of nails, respiratory manifestations and lymphoedema. This article presents 52-year-old patient with membranous glomerulonephritis, hospitalized at the National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute in Warsaw, because of suspected allergic aspergillosis. Based on clinical and radiological evaluation the diagnosis of YNS was established. Treatment of renal disease did not affect the course of yellow nail syndrome. During the two-year follow-up, despite stable renal parameters we observed the progression of respiratory manifestations (bronchiectasis, pleural effusions). PMID:22370985

Modrzewska, Katarzyna; Fijo?ek, Justyna; Ptak, Jakub; Wiatr, El?bieta

2012-01-01

310

Role of cellulose oxidation in the yellowing of ancient paper.  

PubMed

The yellowing of paper on aging causes major aesthetic damages of cultural heritage. It is due to cellulose oxidation, a complex process with many possible products still to be clarified. By comparing ultraviolet-visible reflectance spectra of ancient and artificially aged modern papers with ab initio time-dependent density functional theory calculations, we identify and estimate the abundance of oxidized functional groups acting as chromophores and responsible of paper yellowing. This knowledge can be used to set up strategies and selective chemical treatments preventing paper yellowing. PMID:22587292

Mosca Conte, A; Pulci, O; Knapik, A; Bagniuk, J; Del Sole, R; Lojewska, J; Missori, M

2012-04-13

311

Stem cells in dermatology*  

PubMed Central

Preclinical and clinical research have shown that stem cell therapy could be a promising therapeutic option for many diseases in which current medical treatments do not achieve satisfying results or cure. This article describes stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications in dermatology today. PMID:24770506

Ogliari, Karolyn Sassi; Marinowic, Daniel; Brum, Dario Eduardo; Loth, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

312

Skeletal muscle stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells responsible for the post-natal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. This review focuses on the basic biology of the satellite cell with emphasis on its role in muscle repair and parallels between embryonic myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Recent advances have altered the long-standing view of the satellite cell as a committed myogenic stem

Jennifer CJ Chen; David J Goldhamer

2003-01-01

313

Bioreactors Stem Cells  

E-print Network

Keywords Bioreactors Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine Tissue Engineering Pharmacology » Prof. M.; yeZhelyev, M.; eMMrich, F.; o'regan, r.; bader, a. Quantum dots for human mesenchymal stem cells and mechanical forces mediated to the cells by the matrix. The in vivo extracellular matrix constitutes

Schüler, Axel

314

Lock For Valve Stem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple, cheap device locks valve stem so its setting cannot be changed by unauthorized people. Device covers valve stem; cover locked in place with standard padlock. Valve lock made of PVC pipe and packing band. Shears, drill or punch, and forming rod only tools needed.

Burley, Richard K.; Guirguis, Kamal S.

1991-01-01

315

STEM Careers Ambassadors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is designed to help teachers feel more confident in their work with STEM Ambassadors to further enhance enrichment activities. Skills shortages in Science, Technology, Engineering, Maths (STEM) and the Built Environment are well documented, and will continue to be an issue whether people are in a period of recession or recovery. The…

Eaton, Denise

2011-01-01

316

I-STEM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has developed a multi-pronged approach to remedying the lack of academic emphasis on the STEM subjects, from preschool through college, as well as the lack of interest in STEM subjects on the part of youth in the United States. Visitors can read about the University's four goals under the "Goals" tab at the top of any page. The "STEM Ed Projects" tab contains a directory of externally funded projects divided into four categories, and which are then further divided into subcategories. Visitors will find such projects as "Improving Supply and Demand Data for the Preparation of Secondary Science and Math Teachers" and "Clean Energy Education Workshop", under the category that aims to shape policy and advocate for STEM education. The "Resources" tab contains half a dozen categories under which visitors will find Outreach Resources, Teacher Development and Resources, and Policy and Advocacy for STEM Ed.

317

Intraoperative Stem Cell Therapy  

PubMed Central

Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the potential regenerative mechanisms and the roles of different cell populations in the regeneration process are discussed. Although intraoperative stem cell therapies have been shown to be safe and effective for several indications, there are still critical challenges to be tackled prior to adoption into the standard surgical armamentarium. PMID:22809140

Coelho, Monica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M.S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

2013-01-01

318

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

More than 25,000 hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCTs) are performed each year for the treatment of lymphoma, leukemia, immune-deficiency illnesses, congenital metabolic defects, hemoglobinopathies, and myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative syndromes. Before transplantation, patients receive intensive myeloablative chemoradiotherapy followed by stem cell “rescue.” Autologous HSCT is performed using the patient’s own hematopoietic stem cells, which are harvested before transplantation and reinfused after myeloablation. Allogeneic HSCT uses human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched stem cells derived from a donor. Survival after allogeneic transplantation depends on donor–recipient matching, the graft-versus-host response, and the development of a graft versus leukemia effect. This article reviews the biology of stem cells, clinical efficacy of HSCT, transplantation procedures, and potential complications. PMID:24198516

Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Tuthill, Mark

2010-01-01

319

"Mesenchymal" stem cells.  

PubMed

Two opposing descriptions of so-called mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exist at this time. One sees MSCs as the postnatal, self-renewing, and multipotent stem cells for the skeleton. This cell coincides with a specific type of bone marrow perivascular cell. In skeletal physiology, this skeletal stem cell is pivotal to the growth and lifelong turnover of bone and to its native regeneration capacity. In hematopoietic physiology, its role as a key player in maintaining hematopoietic stem cells in their niche and in regulating the hematopoietic microenvironment is emerging. In the alternative description, MSCs are ubiquitous in connective tissues and are defined by in vitro characteristics and by their use in therapy, which rests on their ability to modulate the function of host tissues rather than on stem cell properties. Here, I discuss how the two views developed, conceptually and experimentally, and attempt to clarify the confusion arising from their collision. PMID:25150008

Bianco, Paolo

2014-10-11

320

An Evaluation of a Chemical Immersion Marking Technique for Juvenile Yellow Perch and Application to a  

E-print Network

for Juvenile Yellow Perch and Application to a Stocking Assessment of.Marsh-Reared Yellow Perch into Eastern MARKING TECHNIQUE FOR JUVENILE YELLOW PERCH AND APPLICATION TO A STOCKING ASSESSMENT OF MARSH-REARED YELLOW PERCH INTO EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA LAKES MichaelL. Brown1, Todd St. Sauver2, David O. Lucchesi3

321

Fine-scale population genetic structure of the yellow perch Perca flavescens in Lake Erie  

E-print Network

Fine-scale population genetic structure of the yellow perch Perca flavescens in Lake Erie Osvaldo J-scale relationships among spawning groups of the yellow perch Perca flavescens. Lake Erie yellow perch stocks comprise. Results demonstrate that yellow perch spawning groups in Lake Erie are genetically distinguishable and do

Toledo, University of

322

Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca  

E-print Network

Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca flavescens, Fingerling for juvenile yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchell), in eastern South Dakota. Age-0 yellow perch were held performance in length and weight of South Dakota yellow perch fingerlings. [Article copies available for a fee

323

Seasonal Mean Circulation in the Yellow Sea A ModelGenerated Climatology  

E-print Network

Seasonal Mean Circulation in the Yellow Sea ­ A Model­Generated Climatology Christopher E. Naimie 1 by deep return flow -- the Yellow Sea Warm Current -- in the central trough of the Yellow Sea, penetrating. In summer, a water mass produced by winter cooling -- the Yellow Sea Cold Water -- is isolated in the deep

324

Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 62, pp. 617 to 638, 2006 Yellow and East  

E-print Network

). Moreover, the subsurface temperature/salinity evolution on the fronts in the Yellow Sea differs from thermocline above the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water. cent water (Lie, 1989; Hao et al., 2003; Liu et al., 2003. Since both Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea 1. Introduction The Yellow/East China Seas (YES

Chu, Peter C.

325

Sexual dichromatism in the yellow-breasted chat Icteria virens: spectrophotometric analysis and biochemical basis  

E-print Network

Sexual dichromatism in the yellow-breasted chat Icteria virens: spectrophotometric analysis dichromatism in the yellow-breasted chat Icteria virens: spectrophoto- metric analysis and biochemical basis. Á assessment of plumage dichromatism in the yellow-breasted chat Icteria virens. Chats exhibit yellow to orange

McGraw, Kevin J.

326

21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal....

2014-04-01

327

21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.  

...2014-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.215...

2014-04-01

328

21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal....

2012-04-01

329

21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.215...

2012-04-01

330

21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.215...

2013-04-01

331

21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal....

2013-04-01

332

Yellow Ribbon Program Application PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY VETERANS CERTIFICATION OFFICE  

E-print Network

Yellow Ribbon Program Application PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY VETERANS CERTIFICATION OFFICE PO BOX details review the YRP Policy and Procedures document at: http://www.pdx.edu/veterans/sites/www.pdx.edu.veterans

Caughman, John

333

Ethical use of Yellow Pages listings by physicians.  

PubMed

A recent article in the New England Journal of Medicine examined the percentage of physicians listed under specialty headings in a Yellow Pages publication who were board certified. The authors presented findings that many of the physicians listed in the Yellow Pages, particularly under the heading of "Plastic Surgery," were not board certified. The source data employed in that article were obtained and reexamined, and it was found that the assumptions used were inaccurate and the methodology flawed. Almost every physician listed under "Plastic Surgery" in the Yellow Pages is board certified. We discuss the conclusions of the original article and its recommendations for control of Yellow Pages listings. We believe that these recommendations are not in the public's best interests and may be illegal as well. PMID:3190865

Denenberg, S M; Smith, H W

1988-12-01

334

7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

7 ? Agriculture ? 2 ? 2010-01-01 ? 2010-01-01 ? false ? Middling Yellow Stained Color. ? 28.442 ? Section 28.442 ? Agriculture ? Regulations of the Department of Agriculture ? AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ?...

2010-01-01

335

21 CFR 184.1973 - Beeswax (yellow and white).  

...White beeswax is produced by bleaching the constituent pigments of yellow beeswax with peroxides, or preferably it is bleached by sun light. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d Ed. (1981), pp....

2014-04-01

336

"Yellow nail syndrome" and rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

A nail dystrophy characterized by the slow growth of nails and their yellowish discoloration, the so-called yellow nail syndrome (YNS), has been associated with various conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We reviewed the histories of RA patients reported in the literature and our own cases. Most of the RA patients with YNS had been treated with the anti-rheumatic agents D-penicillamine and bucillamine. In non-treated patients, spontaneous YNS was very rare. However, pulmonary diseases, edema and other systemic complications were frequently observed in both drug-induced and spontaneous YNS associated with RA. Although the nail changes and systemic complications are probably due to different causes in drug-induced YNS, a careful search for systemic complications are necessary in patients who develop nail changes. The exact mechanism of nail growth retardation is not understood in patients with YNS, including those with drug-induced YNS. The nail changes in the latter were not associated with deficiencies of inorganic elements in either nails or sera. PMID:1820660

Ichikawa, Y; Shimizu, H; Arimori, S

1991-12-01

337

CURRENT BREEDING STATUS OF THE YELLOW HEADED BLACKBIRD IN CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

of 1971,we also recorded observations on Yellow-headed Blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus). These observations are reported here and compared with published information on the historical breeding status of Yellow-headed Blackbirds in California. Regions containing potential breeding habitat for blackbirds were identified from topographic maps and systematically searched during the breeding season. Over 8,000 miles were driven within California between 23 April and

Frederick T. Crase; Richard W. DeHaven

1972-01-01

338

Water Right Institution and Strategies of the Yellow River Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid economic and social development in China, pressure on water resources in the Yellow River is becoming more\\u000a and more prominent. For the sustainable social, economic and agricultural development in the Yellow River valley, it is imperative\\u000a to create the perfect water right institution, which plays a key role in improving the efficiency, equity and sustainability\\u000a of water

H. R. Wang; Y. Y. Dong; Y. Wang; Q. Liu

2008-01-01

339

BD21 3873: another yellow-symbiotic barium star  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abundance analysis of the yellow symbiotic system BD-21 3873 reveals it to be a metal-poor K-giant ([Fe\\/H]=-1.3) which is enriched in the heavy s-process elements. In that respect, this star appears to be a twin of AG Dra, another yellow symbiotic system analyzed in a previous paper (Smith et al., 1996A&A...315..179S). The heavy-element abundance distributions of AG Dra and

V. V. Smith; K. Cunha; A. Jorissen; H. M. J. Boffin

1997-01-01

340

Hazardous metals in yellow items used in RCAs  

SciTech Connect

Yellow items used in Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCAs) that could contain hazardous metals were identified. X-ray fluorescence analyses indicated that thirty of the fifty-two items do contain hazardous metals. It is important to minimize the hazardous metals put into the wastes. The authors recommend that the specifications for all yellow items stocked in Stores be changed to specify that they contain no hazardous metals.

Brown, K.F.; Rankin, W.N.

1992-04-21

341

"Saffron Crocus and Yellow Garments in Aegean Wall-Painting"  

E-print Network

Rehak - Colours Conf. Sep 9-11, 2001 - 1 "Saffron Crocus and Yellow Garments in Aegean Wall-Painting" PAUL REHAK DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Abstract: The discovery of well-preserved frescoes at Akrotiri on Thera has vastly... expanded our awareness of the importance of color in Aegean Bronze Age costumes (C. Doumas, The Wall-Paintings of Thera, 1992, for good illustrations). Yellow dye, derived from saffron crocus, is particularly important in women's clothing at different...

Rehak, Paul

2001-01-01

342

Temporal and spatial scales of the Yellow Sea thermal variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis on the space\\/time statistical thermal structure in the Yellow Sea from the Navy's Master Observation Oceanography Data Set during 1929-1991. This analysis is for the establishment of an Optimum Thermal Interpolation System of the Yellow Sea (a shallow sea), for the assimilation of observational data into coastal o- coordinate ocean prediction models (e.g., the Princeton

Peter C. Chu; Susan K. Wells; Steven D. Haeger; Carl Szczechowski; Michael Carron

1997-01-01

343

Jaloro': A New Multiple Virus Resistant Hot Yellow Jalapeno Pepper.  

E-print Network

per cultivars are susceptible to to bacco etch virus (TEV), potato virus Y (PVY), pepper mottle virus (PeMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Texas pepper gemini virus (TPGV). Some yellow types exhibit a local... per cultivars are susceptible to to bacco etch virus (TEV), potato virus Y (PVY), pepper mottle virus (PeMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Texas pepper gemini virus (TPGV). Some yellow types exhibit a local...

Villalon, Benigno

1992-01-01

344

A worldwide survey of tomato yellow leaf curl viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The name tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) has been given to several whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses affecting tomato\\u000a cultures in many tropical and subtropical regions. Hybridization tests with two DNA probes derived from a cloned isolate of\\u000a TYLCV from Israel (TYLCV-ISR) were used to assess the affinities of viruses in naturally infected tomato plants with yellow\\u000a leaf curl or leaf curl

H. Czosnek; H. Laterrot

1997-01-01

345

Chemical state of vanadium in tin-based yellow pigment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vanadium-tin composite oxides are rather widely used as, for example, yellow pigments for coloring glazes and selective oxidation catalysts for hydrocarbons. Physicochemical states of vanadium in V-doped SnO[sub 2] were studied to clarify the origin of the color of vanadium-tin yellow pigment and its color instability when fired with glaze material. Precision measurements of lattice parameters of V-doped SnO[sub 2

Kaichi Fujiyoshi; Hisanori Yokoyama; Feng Ren; Shingo Ishida

1993-01-01

346

``Stemness'': Transcriptional Profiling of Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcriptional profiles of mouse embryonic, neural, and hematopoietic stem cells were compared to define a genetic program for stem cells. A total of 216 genes are enriched in all three types of stem cells, and several of these genes are clustered in the genome. When compared to differentiated cell types, stem cells express a significantly higher number of genes

Miguel Ramalho-Santos; Soonsang Yoon; Yumi Matsuzaki; Richard C. Mulligan; Douglas A. Melton

2002-01-01

347

Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell Epigenetics: Looking Forward  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Voices Stem Cell Epigenetics: Looking Forward Epigenetics in Adult SCs The integrity of tissues is maintained by adult stem cells during adulthood. How- ever, recent work indicates that tissues often contain more than one population of stem cells that are located at distinct niches and display

Sander, Maike

348

Cell Stem Cell Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical  

E-print Network

, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA 5Stem Cell Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana StateCell Stem Cell Review Control of Stem Cell Fate by Physical Interactions with the Extracellular.06.016 A diverse array of environmental factors contributes to the overall control of stem cell activity

Chen, Christopher S.

349

Autophagy in stem cells  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process by which cytoplasmic components are sequestered in autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis as well as remodeling during normal development, and dysfunctions in autophagy have been associated with a variety of pathologies including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and neurodegenerative disease. Stem cells are unique in their ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cells in the body, which are important in development, tissue renewal and a range of disease processes. Therefore, it is predicted that autophagy would be crucial for the quality control mechanisms and maintenance of cellular homeostasis in various stem cells given their relatively long life in the organisms. In contrast to the extensive body of knowledge available for somatic cells, the role of autophagy in the maintenance and function of stem cells is only beginning to be revealed as a result of recent studies. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of autophagy in embryonic stem cells, several tissue stem cells (particularly hematopoietic stem cells), as well as a number of cancer stem cells. We discuss how recent studies of different knockout mice models have defined the roles of various autophagy genes and related pathways in the regulation of the maintenance, expansion and differentiation of various stem cells. We also highlight the many unanswered questions that will help to drive further research at the intersection of autophagy and stem cell biology in the near future. PMID:23486312

Guan, Jun-Lin; Simon, Anna Katharina; Prescott, Mark; Menendez, Javier A.; Liu, Fei; Wang, Fen; Wang, Chenran; Wolvetang, Ernst; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Zhang, Jue

2013-01-01

350

Time constraints for the Yellow River traversing the Sanmen Gorge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yellow River is the second longest river in China, a total course of 5464 km. The Yellow River traverses 30 gorges within its main course and the last one is the Sanmen Gorge. The timing of cut through the Sanmen Gorge indicates the final integration of the Yellow River. Previous geological surveys identify a paleolake in the Weihe Basin located west of the Sanmen Gorge; the lake was drained when the gorge was cut through. Using cosmogenic nuclide burial dating, we obtain ages of transition from lake to fluvial environments in the Weihe Basin and formation of fluvial terraces within the Sanmen Gorge. The timing of cut through the Sanmen Gorge is constrained to 1.3-1.5 Ma. Zircon U-Pb age distributions further suggest that the Weihe, the largest tributary of the Yellow River running from west to east along the northern section of the Qinling Mountains, primarily flowed over the Sanmen Gorge, followed by the upper and middle Yellow River traversing 1.3-1.4 Ma ago. It appears that formation and integration of the Yellow River occurred in a short duration in the early Pleistocene, probably related to global climate changes.

Kong, Ping; Jia, Jun; Zheng, Yong

2014-02-01

351

Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves  

PubMed Central

According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches. PMID:19535364

Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Semiz, Gurkan; Blande, James D.

2009-01-01

352

Stem Cell Task Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides an overview of the activities of an NIH task force established to move the stem cell research agenda forward. The section titled Scientific Research may be of particular interest to researchers in this area. It provides links to the Web sites of stem cell-related research at a number of NIH institutes, as well as an extensive information index, a FAQs page about stem cell research, information on funding opportunities, and much more.

353

Information on Stem Cell Research  

MedlinePLUS

Information on Stem Cell Research Research @ NINDS Stem Cell Highlights Submit a hESC line for NIH review (9/21/09) NIH Opens Website ... here: Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells NINDS Stem Cell Research on Campus The Intramural Research Program of ...

354

LESSON PLAN Stem Cell Discussion  

E-print Network

of stem cell research · research the current research situation · debate the future of stem cell of the ethical, moral and social implications of stem cell research. Photocopy these pages and distribute to students to read. · Make a list of advantages and disadvantages of using embryonic stem cells in research

Rambaut, Andrew

355

Stem cells and brain cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing body of research is showing that cancers might contain their own stem cells. In fact, cancer cells, like stem cells, can proliferate indefinitely through a deregulated cellular self-renewal capacity. This raises the possibility that some features of tumor cells may be due to cancer stem cells. Stem cell-like cancer cells were isolated from several solid tumors. Now, evidence

U Galderisi; M Cipollaro; A Giordano

2006-01-01

356

Haute Culture: Tailoring stem cells  

E-print Network

Biology, Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University Massachusetts General Hospital Fernando Camargo, PhD Assistant Professor of Stem Cell Regenerative Biology, Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University Children's Hospital Boston Stem Cell Program #12

Chou, James

357

Cell Stem Cell Clinical Progress  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Clinical Progress Rapid Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Automated implementations of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their deriva- tives further increase interest in strategies the marked improvements that control of feed- back signaling can offer primary stem cell culture

Zandstra, Peter W.

358

Leek yellow stripe virus and its relationships to onion yellow dwarf virus; characterization, ecology and possible control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1970 yellow stripe disease of leek (Allium porrum) has developed epidemically in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands coincident with increasing year-around cultivation\\u000a of the crop. Many autumn and winter crops now become totally infected. Apparently similar attacks, first reported in Germany\\u000a in 1937, are increasingly attracting attention in various European countries.\\u000a \\u000a This paper describes the leek yellow stripe

L. Bos; N. Huijberts; H. Huttinga; D. Z. Maat

1978-01-01

359

Relocation of the Yellow River estuary in 1855 AD recorded in the sediment core from the northern Yellow Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relocation of the Yellow River estuary has significant impacts on not only terrestrial environment and human activities, but also sedimentary and ecological environments in coastal seas. The responses of regional geochemical characteristics to the relocation event, however, have not been well studied. In the present study, we performed detailed geochemical elemental analyses of a sediment core from the northern Yellow Sea and studied their geochemical responses to the 1855 AD relocation of the Yellow River estuary. The results show that TOC/TN, Co/Al2O3, Cr/Al2O3, Ni/Al2O3 and Se/Al2O3 ratios all decreased abruptly after 1855 AD, and similar decreases are observed in the sediments of the mud area southwest off the Cheju Island. These abrupt changes are very likely caused by the changes in source materials due to the relocation of the Yellow River estuary from the southern Yellow Sea to the Bohai Sea, which the corresponding decreasing trends caused by the changes in main source materials from those transported by the Liaohe River, the Haihe River and the Luanhe River to those by the Yellow River. Because the events have precise ages recorded in historical archives, these obvious changes in elemental geochemistry of sediments can be used to calibrate age models of related coastal sea sediments.

Zhou, Xin; Jia, Nan; Cheng, Wenhan; Wang, Yuhong; Sun, Liguang

2013-12-01

360

Springboard to STEM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Springboard to STEM program is "to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) and provide training and classroom materials for teachers." On this website, visitors can take advantage of free educational materials like worksheets, lesson plans, and discussion questions. Visitors need to fill out a form on the site before they can access all of the materials, but this only takes a minute or two. Moving on, the News and Links area contains links to their work around STEM education and the project's Twitter feed. The Marketplace is another great feature of the site which contains links to high quality STEM-related resources, such as books and classroom DVDs, that are available for purchase.

361

Springboard to STEM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Springboard to STEM program is "to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) and provide training and classroom materials for teachers." On this website, visitors can take advantage of free educational materials like worksheets, lesson plans, and discussion questions. Visitors need to fill out a form on the site before they can access all of the materials, but this only takes a minute or two. Moving on, the News and Links area contains links to their work around STEM education and the project's Twitter feed. The Marketplace is another great feature of the site which contains links to high quality STEM-related resources, such as books and classroom DVDs, that are available for purchase.

2013-11-26

362

STEM Careers Grad Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief video from WPSU introduces a diverse group of graduate students with interests in STEM careers. From deep sea diving to creating video games, each graduate student is pursuing activities beyond the stereotypical view of a nerdy scientist.

Wpsu

2009-11-10

363

The advantages of hair follicle pluripotent stem cells over embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multipotent adult stem cells have many potential therapeutic applications. Our recent findings suggest that hair follicles are a promising source of easily accessible multipotent stem cells. Stem cells in the hair follicle area express the neural stem cell marker nestin, suggesting that hair-follicle stem cells and neural stem cells have common features. Nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can form neurons

Yasuyuki Amoh; Kensei Katsuoka; Robert M. Hoffman

2010-01-01

364

The Neural Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neural stem cells represent a heterogeneous population of mitotically active, self-renewing and multipotent cells of both\\u000a the developing and the adult central nervous system (CNS) showing complex patterns of gene expression that may vary in both\\u000a space and time. Endogenous stem cells residing within CNS germinal niches might concur to nervous system repair owing to their\\u000a ability to drive neurogenesis

Stefano Pluchino; Marco Bacigaluppi; Elena Brini; Erica Butti; Chiara Cossetti; Melania Cusimano; Lucia Zanotti; Gianvito Martino

365

Stem CAM in arborescent succulents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem CAM with a peripheral chlorenchyma in stem succulents growing up to arborescent sizes and life forms appears to be a\\u000a unique evolution as it requires delayed and reduced bark formation and stem stomata. However, stem succulence as a convergent\\u000a morphotype and with it the stem CAM physiotype evolved polyphyletically in many divergent taxa of the dicotyledonous angiosperms.\\u000a Controlling water

U. Lüttge

2008-01-01

366

Clonal interrogation of stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual stem cells are functionally defined by their self-renewal and differentiation potential. Methods for clonal analysis are essential for understanding stem cells, particularly given the increasing evidence for stem-cell heterogeneity. Stem cells reside within complex microenvironments, making single-cell analysis particularly challenging. Furthermore, simultaneous molecular and functional characterization of single stem cells is not trivial. Here we explore clonal assays applied

Kristin Hope; Mickie Bhatia

2011-01-01

367

Functional morphology of the light yellow cell and yellow cell (sodium influx-stimulating peptide) neuroendocrine systems of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroendocrine light yellow cells of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis express a neuropeptide gene encoding three different peptides. The morphology of the cell system has been studied by in situ hybridization, using two synthetic oligonucleotides encoding parts of light yellow cell peptides I and III, and by immunocytochemistry with antisera to synthetic light yellow cell peptide II and to two

H. H. Boer; Cora Montagne-Wajer; F. G. Smith; D. C. Parish; Marja D. Ramkema; R. M. Hoek; J. Minnen; P. R. Benjamin

1994-01-01

368

The Stemness Phenotype Model  

PubMed Central

The identification of a fraction of cancer stem cells (CSCs) associated with resistance to chemotherapy in most solid tumors leads to the dogma that eliminating this fraction will cure cancer. Experimental data has challenged this simplistic and optimistic model. Opposite to the classical cancer stem cell model, we introduced the stemness phenotype model (SPM), which proposed that all glioma cells possess stem cell properties and that the stemness is modulated by the microenvironment. A key prediction of the SPM is that to cure gliomas all gliomas cells (CSCs and non-CSCs) should be eliminated at once. Other theories closely resembling the SPM and its predictions have recently been proposed, suggesting that the SPM may be a useful model for other type of tumors. Here, we review data from other tumors that strongly support the concepts of the SPM applied to gliomas. We include data related to: (1) the presence of a rare but constant fraction of CSCs in established cancer cell lines, (2) the clonal origin of cancer, (3) the symmetrical division, (4) the ability of “non-CSCs” to generate “CSCs,” and (5) the effect of the microenvironment on cancer stemness. The aforenamed issues that decisively supported the SPM proposed for gliomas can also be applied to breast, lung, prostate cancer, and melanoma and perhaps other tumors in general. If the glioma SPM is correct and can be extrapolated to other types of cancer, it will have profound implications in the development of novel modalities for cancer treatment. PMID:22928120

Cruz, M. H.; Siden, A.; Calaf, G. M.; Delwar, Z. M.; Yakisich, J. S.

2012-01-01

369

Control of Stemness by Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of stem cells, scientists have invested tremendous effort in establishing in vitro culture conditions in order to maintain the self-renewal and efficient proliferative capabilities of stem cells by manipulating a va- riety of growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is one of the most common growth factors used to expand stem cells, including human embryonic stem (hES)

Noriko Gotoh

2009-01-01

370

Geographic Population Structure of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the Southern United States  

PubMed Central

The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species. PMID:25337705

Joyce, Andrea L.; White, William H.; Nuessly, Gregg S.; Solis, M. Alma; Scheffer, Sonja J.; Lewis, Matthew L.; Medina, Raul F.

2014-01-01

371

Dispersal and movement behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on non-Bt and transgenic Bt corn.  

PubMed

Neonate movement and dispersal behavior of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were investigated under controlled conditions on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to assess plant abandonment, dispersal from their natal plant, and silking behavior after Bt and non-Bt preexposure. With continuous airflow, neonates on a Bt corn plant for 24 h abandoned that plant 1.78 times more frequently than neonates on a non-Bt corn plant. Indirect evidence indicated that at least one third of the neonates were capable of ballooning within 24 h. In the greenhouse, some neonates were recovered after 24 h from plants 76 and 152 cm away that likely ballooned from their natal plant. After 1 h of preexposure on a Bt corn leaf, neonates placed on a new corn leaf and observed for 10 min began silking off of a new Bt leaf significantly sooner than a new non-Bt leaf. Results suggest that neonates are unable to detect Bt in the corn within 10 min but that they can detect it within the first hour. PMID:20429445

Goldstein, Jessica A; Mason, Charles E; Pesek, John

2010-04-01

372

Gene genealogies reveal differentiation at sex pheromone olfactory receptor loci in pheromone strains of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis.  

PubMed

Males of the E and Z strains of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are attracted to different blends of the same pheromone components. The difference in male behavioral response is controlled by the sex-linked locus Resp. The two types of males have identical neuroanatomy but their physiological specificity is reversed, suggesting that variation at the periphery results in behavioral change. Differences in the olfactory receptors (ORs) could explain the strain-specific antennal response and blend preference. Gene genealogies can provide insights into the processes involved in speciation and allow delineation of genome regions that contribute to reproductive barriers. We used intronic DNA sequences from five OR-encoding genes to investigate whether they exhibit fixed differences between strains and therefore might contribute to reproductive isolation. Although two genealogies revealed shared polymorphism, molecular polymorphism at three genes revealed nearly fixed differences between strains. These three OR genes map to the sex chromosome, but our data indicate that the distance between Resp and the ORs is >20 cM, making it unlikely that variation in pheromone-sensitive OR genes is directly responsible for the difference in behavioral response. However, differences in male antennal response may have their origin in the selection of strain-specific alleles. PMID:21644950

Lassance, Jean-Marc; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Wanner, Kevin W; Löfstedt, Christer; Harrison, Richard G

2011-06-01

373

Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the fumigant is under increasing regulation as a stratospheric ozone-depleting substance. Ionizing radiation is a relatively new commercial alternative that is currently used in several countries. The present research explored radiation doses that would provide quarantine security for commodities at risk of being infested by O. nubilalis. Radiotolerance of late pupae (the most tolerant stage infesting commodities) as determined by hatch of F1 eggs was not affected by host (meridic diet versus ear corn) or temperature (1 versus 13 degrees C) but was positively affected by low oxygen. Longevity was shorter for adults of irradiated than nonirradiated pupae. The minimum absorbed dose for phytosanitary irradiation against O. nubilalis could vary from 233 Gy for prevention of F1 pupation to 343 Gy for prevention of F1 egg hatch. Lower doses might be possible if greater risk of treatment failure was acceptable. PMID:19253619

Hallman, Guy J; Hellmich, Richard L

2009-02-01

374

Scanning the European corn borer (Ostrinia spp.) genome for adaptive divergence between host-affiliated sibling species.  

PubMed

It has recently been shown that the European corn borer, a major pest of maize crops, is actually composed of two genetically differentiated and reproductively isolated taxa, which are found in sympatry over a wide geographical range in Eurasia. Each taxon is adapted to specific host plants: Ostrinia nubilalis feeds mainly on maize, while O. scapulalis feeds mainly on hop or mugwort. Here, we present a genome scan approach as a first step towards an integrated molecular analysis of the adaptive genomic divergence between O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis. We analysed 609 AFLP marker loci in replicate samples of sympatric populations of Ostrinia spp. collected on maize, hop and mugwort, in France. Using two genome scan methods based on the analysis of population differentiation, we found a set of 28 outlier loci that departed from the neutral expectation in one or the other method (of which a subset of 14 loci were common to both methods), which showed a significantly increased differentiation between O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis, when compared to the rest of the genome. A subset of 12 outlier loci were sequenced, of which 7 were successfully re-amplified as target candidate loci. Three of these showed homology with annotated lepidopteran sequences from public nucleotide databases. PMID:21375617

Midamegbe, Afiwa; Vitalis, Renaud; Malausa, Thibaut; Delava, Emilie; Cros-Arteil, Sandrine; Streiff, Réjane

2011-04-01

375

Divergence in behaviour between the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and its sibling species Ostrinia scapulalis: adaptation to human harvesting?  

PubMed

Divergent adaptation to host plant species may be the major mechanism driving speciation and adaptive radiations in phytophagous insects. Host plants can differ intrinsically in a number of attributes, but the role of natural enemies in host plant specialization is often underappreciated. Here, we report behavioural divergence between the European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) and its sibling species Ostrinia scapulalis, in relation to a major enemy: humans. Harvesting maize imposes selective mortality on Ostrinia larvae: those located above the cut-off line of the stalk face almost certain death. We show that ECB larvae diapause closer to the ground than those of O. scapulalis, which is sympatric but feeds mainly on weeds. The difference in diapause height results from genetically determined differences in geotactic behaviour. ECB larvae descend towards the ground specifically at harvest time, increasing their chances of surviving harvesting by about 50 per cent over O. scapulalis larvae. Natural enemies appear as a major driver of host-plant specialization in this example, stressing the need to consider 'tri-trophic' ecological niches to understand insect diversification. Our results also strongly suggest that geotaxis evolved as a singular instance of behavioural resistance in a major agricultural pest. PMID:20410041

Calcagno, Vincent; Bonhomme, Vincent; Thomas, Yan; Singer, Michael C; Bourguet, Denis

2010-09-01

376

Transcriptome Sequencing, and Rapid Development and Application of SNP Markers for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

PubMed Central

The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes are present, of which 631 have orthologs within the Bombyx mori gene model. A homology-based analysis assigned M. vitrata genes into a group of paralogs, but these were subsequently partitioned into putative orthologs following phylogenetic analyses. Following sequence quality filtering, a total of 1542 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were predicted within M. vitrata contig assemblies. Seventy one of 1078 designed molecular genetic markers were used to screen M. vitrata samples from five collection sites in West Africa. Population substructure may be present with significant implications in the insect resistance management recommendations pertaining to the release of biological control agents or transgenic cowpea that express Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins. Mutation data derived from transcriptome sequencing is an expeditious and economical source for genetic markers that allow evaluation of ecological differentiation. PMID:21754987

Margam, Venu M.; Coates, Brad S.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Sun, Weilin; Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

2011-01-01

377

Host-plant diversity of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis: what value for sustainable transgenic insecticidal Bt maize?  

PubMed Central

The strategies proposed for delaying the development of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxins produced by transgenic maize require high levels of gene flow between individuals feeding on transgenic and refuge plants. The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) may be found on several host plants, which may act as natural refuges. The genetic variability of samples collected on sagebrush (Artemisia sp.), hop (Humulus lupulus L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) was studied by comparing the allozyme frequencies for six polymorphic loci. We found a high level of gene flow within and between samples collected on the same host plant. The level of gene flow between the sagebrush and hop insect samples appeared to be sufficiently high for these populations to be considered a single genetic panmictic unit. Conversely, the samples collected on maize were genetically different from those collected on sagebrush and hop. Three of the six loci considered displayed greater between-host-plant than within-host-plant differentiation in comparisons of the group of samples collected on sagebrush or hop with the group of samples collected on maize. This indicates that either there is genetic isolation of the insects feeding on maize or that there is host-plant divergent selection at these three loci or at linked loci. These results have important implications for the potential sustainability of transgenic insecticidal maize. PMID:10902683

Bourguet, D; Bethenod, M T; Trouve, C; Viard, F

2000-01-01

378

Identification and Expression Profile Analysis of Antimicrobial Peptide/Protein in Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guen?e)  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs) are a group of immune proteins that exhibit strong antibiotic properties against numerous infectious bacterial strains. They are evolutionarily conserved and present in every kingdom and phylum, ranging from prokaryotes to humans. We analyzed the transciptome from the larvae of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and identified several putative AMP transcripts, OfgLys5, OfgLys6, OfgLys10, OfgAtt, and OfgIID. OfgLys5, OfgLys6, and OfgLys10 are all highly homologous with c-type lysozymes, and OfgAtt shows significant identities with Lepidoptera attacin. The amino acid sequence of OfgLys5 and OfgLys6 possessed all conserved features critical for fundamental structure and function of c-type lysozyme, including the two catalytic sites, Glu32 and Asp50. OfgAtt is a typical glycine-rich protein. The antimicrobial activity of O. furnacalis hemolymph increased significantly after injection with Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, or Beauveria bassiana. OfgAtt, IDD, and Lys6 are expressed at low level prior to the challenge, but strongly induced against Gram-positive and negative bacteria, and fungi. Under the same inducement conditions, the transcripts of these three genes elevated most when fifth instar larvae were injected. Therefore, O. furnacalis larvae are induced to produce antimicrobial materials in the hemolymph after the infection, and increase of lysozyme and attacin may contribute to the antimicrobial activity. PMID:24155672

Zhang, Mingming; Zhou, Fan; Chu, Yuan; Zhao, Zhangwu; An, Chunju

2013-01-01

379

On-plant selection and genetic analysis of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) behavioral traits: plant abandonment versus plant establishment.  

PubMed

Although some studies have investigated how insect behavior could influence resistance evolution to transgenic plants, none have determined if behavioral traits respond to selection pressure and how they may be inherited. We investigated plant establishment and abandonment traits for the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalisi (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), by conducting a laboratory selection experiment and quantifying patterns of gene expression. Egg masses with emerging larvae were placed on maize plants and silking individuals were collected every 15 min during a 4-h period to generate a plant abandonment (PA) colony. Plants were dissected 24-72 h later, and larvae were collected for a plant establishment colony. Selection of the PA colony showed an increased propensity to abandon the host plant by the third generation. The propensity for larvae to establish on the plants, however, did not show a significant response until the sixth generation. Quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine expression profiles for behavior associated genes (foraging and Onslmo). Egg samples from the two selected colonies and nonselected laboratory colony were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after egg deposition, and first instars were sampled after exposure to maize tissue. Compared with the plant establishment and nonselected laboratory colonies at the 0-h time period, foraging and Onslmo showed higher expression in the PA colony. This is the first study that has specifically selected for these traits over several generations and analyzed behavior-associated genes to elucidate genetic changes. PMID:25203864

Rausch, Michael A; Kroemer, Jeremy A; Gassmann, Aaron J; Hellmich, Richard L

2014-10-01

380

Managing the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt Corn and Insecticide Treatments  

PubMed Central

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

Farias, Juliano R.; Costa, Ervandil C.; Guedes, Jerson V. C.; Arbage, Alessandro P.; Neto, Armando B.; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F.

2013-01-01

381

Host-specific salivary elicitor(s) of European corn borer induce defenses in tomato and maize.  

PubMed

Plants turn on induced defenses upon insect herbivory. In the current study, we evaluated the role of European corn borer (ECB) elicitors (molecules secreted by herbivores) that either induce/suppress defenses in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Zea mays (maize), two very important crop plants that are grown for food and/or fuel throughout the world. We used a combination of molecular, biochemical, confocal and scanning electron microscopy, caterpillar spinneret ablation/cauterization, and conventional insect bioassay methods to determine the role of ECB elicitors in modulating defenses in both tomato and maize crop plants. Our results clearly demonstrate that the components present in the ECB saliva induce defense-related proteinase inhibitors in both tomato (PIN2) and maize (MPI). Presence of glucose oxidase in the ECB saliva induced defenses in tomato, but not in maize. However, ECB saliva induced genes present in the jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathway in both tomato and maize. Although ECB saliva can induce defenses in both tomato and maize, our results suggest that host-specific salivary components are responsible for inducing host plant defenses. Proteomic analysis of ECB salivary elicitors and plant receptors/signaling mechanisms involved in recognizing different ECB elicitors remains to be determined. PMID:23627593

Louis, Joe; Peiffer, Michelle; Ray, Swayamjit; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

2013-07-01

382

Electrophysiological response and attraction of emerald ash borer to green leaf volatiles (GLVs) emitted by host foliage.  

PubMed

Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) function as host attractants, pheromone synergists, or sexual kairomones for a number of coleopteran folivores. Hence, we focused on host GLVs to determine if they were attractive to adults of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), which feeds on ash (Fraxinus) foliage. Eight GLVs were identified by chromatography-electroantennogram (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry in foliar headspace volatiles collected in traps containing Super-Q from white ash, Fraxinus americana, and green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, trees. GLVs in the aeration extracts elicited antennal responses from both male and female adults in gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection bioassays. Male antennae were more responsive than female antennae and showed the strongest response to (Z)-3-hexenol. Six field experiments were conducted in Canada and the USA from 2004 to 2006 to evaluate the attractiveness of candidate GLVs, in various lure combinations and dosages. Field experiments demonstrated that lures containing (Z)-3-hexenol were the most effective in increasing trap catch when placed on purple traps in open areas or along the edges of woodlots containing ash. Lures with (Z)-3-hexenol were more attractive to males than females, and dosage may be a factor determining its effectiveness. PMID:18600378

de Groot, Peter; Grant, Gary G; Poland, Therese M; Scharbach, Roger; Buchan, Linda; Nott, Reginald W; Macdonald, Linda; Pitt, Doug

2008-09-01

383

Time constraints for the Yellow River traversing the Sanmen Gorge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yellow River is sourced to the northern piedmont of the Bayanhar Mountain Range in the Qinghai Province. It is the second longest river in China, traversing 5464 km. The Yellow River bends like a square in its middle course before traversing the Sanmen Gorge. The Sanmen Gorge is the last gorge in the main course of the Yellow River. After the Sanmen Gorge, the Yellow River flows into vast plains without any barrier, and finally emptys into the Bohai Bay. Thus, the timing of cut-through the Sanmen Gorge implies a true sense of formation and connection of the Yellow River. Drilling in the Weihe Basin, located west of the Sanmen Gorge, shows deposition of over 1000 m lacustrine/fluvial sediments and suggests existence of a paleolake in the basin before the Sanmen Gorge was cut through. The lacustrine/fluvial sequence outcrops at the west bank of the Youhe reservoir is composed of the Sanmen Formation and the Youhe Formation, typical of the sediments in the Weihe Basin. We studied five lacustrine/fluvial phase samples collected from the Youhe reservoir section and three fluvial sand samples relating to transition from lake to fluvial environments from Xihoudu. Our cosmogenic nuclide burial ages suggest that the paleolake formed 2 Ma ago, the transition of the Youhe Formation to the Sanmen Formation occurred 1.8 Ma ago, and the transition from lake to fluvial environment occurred 1.4-1.5 Ma ago. Thick fluvial sands, 90-120 m and 60 m higher than the current water level of the Yellow River, are preserved at Liujiahou and Mapo, respectively, located within the Sanmen Gorge. Dating of these fluvial sands suggests their deposition ages over 1.3 Ma. Zircon U-Pb age distributions of the sands further suggest that Weihe primarily flowed over the Sanmen Gorge 1.3-1.5 Ma ago, followed by the Yellow River cutting through the gorge 1.3-1.4 Ma ago. Previous studies show that the Yellow River appeared at Lanzhou 1.7 Ma ago and running through to the Bohai Bay in the Early Pleistocene (Hu et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2001). All these age constraints suggest that the Yellow River first appeared at Lanzhou, and flowed into the Weihe Basin then to the Bohai Bay within only a few hundred thousand years. Thus, the formation and connection of the Yellow River occurred in a short-term in the early Pleistocene. We propose that the fast connection of the Yellow River from Lanzhou to the Weihe Basin and to the Bohai Bay most probably reflects flooding events associated with melting of glaciers in the early Pleistocene. References Hu, X., Kirby, W., Pan, B., Granger, D.E., Su, H., 2011. Cosmogenic burial ages reveal sediment reservoir dynamics along the Yellow River. Geology, 39, 839-842. Yang, S., Cai, J., Li, C., Deng, B., 2001. New discussion about the run-through time of the Yellow River. Mar. Geol. Quat. Geol., 21, 15-20.

Kong, P.; Jia, J.; Zheng, Y.

2013-12-01

384

Comparisons of amplitude of pseudoaccommodation with aspheric yellow, spheric yellow, and spheric clear monofocal intraocular lenses  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the amplitude of pseudoaccommodation and higher-order aberrations with three types of implanted monofocal intraocular lenses (IOLs): aspheric yellow (IQ); spheric yellow (NT); and spheric clear (AT). Setting Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan. Methods We studied 60 patients who underwent small incision phacoemulsification with the implantation of a monofocal IQ, NT, or AT IOL. The pseudoaccommodation was measured by the lens-loading method, and the postoperative ocular higher-order aberrations were measured with a Hartmann–Shack wavefront analyzer through natural and 4 mm pupils. Results Sixty eyes of 60 patients were studied. The average amplitude of the pseudoaccommodation was 0.45±0.24 D with the IQ IOL, which was significantly lower than that with the AT IOL at 0.81±0.37 D (Tukey’s test; P<0.01). The differences in the amplitude of the pseudoaccommodation between the IQ and the NT IOLs, and between the NT and the AT IOLs were not significant (Tukey’s test; P>0.05). The degree of spherical aberration was significantly different for the IQ, NT, and AT lenses (analysis of variance, P=0.016). The spherical aberration through the IQ IOL was significantly lower than that through the NT and the AT IOLs (Tukey’s test; P<0.01). The fourth-order RMS (root mean square) aberration of the IQ lens was also significantly lower than that of the NT and AT IOLs (Tukey’s test; P<0.01). Conclusion Our results suggest that the spherical aberration and selective spectral transmission of IOLs may work together to increase the amplitude of the pseudoaccommodation. PMID:24204120

Nishi, Tomo; Taketani, Futoshi; Ueda, Tetsuo; Ogata, Nahoko

2013-01-01

385

Effects of methylmercury on epigenetic markers in three model species: mink, chicken and yellow perch.  

PubMed

We previously reported that methylmercury (MeHg) exposure is associated with DNA hypomethylation in the brain stem of male polar bears. Here, we conveniently use archived tissues obtained from controlled laboratory exposure studies to look for evidence that MeHg can disrupt DNA methylation across taxa. Brain (cerebrum) tissues from MeHg-exposed mink (Neovison vison), chicken (Gallus gallus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were analyzed for total Hg levels and global DNA methylation. Tissues from chicken and mink, but not perch, were also analyzed for DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity. In mink we observed significant reductions in global DNA methylation in an environmentally-relevant dietary exposure group (1 ppm MeHg), but not in a higher group (2 ppm MeHg). DNMT activity was significantly reduced in all treatment groups. In chicken or yellow perch, no statistically significant effects of MeHg were observed. Dose-dependent trends were observed in the chicken data but the direction of the change was not consistent between the two endpoints. Our results suggest that MeHg can be epigenetically active in that it has the capacity to affect DNA methylation in mammals. The variability in results across species may suggest inter-taxa differences in epigenetic responses to MeHg, or may be related to differences among the exposure scenarios used as animals were exposed to MeHg through different routes (dietary, egg injection), for different periods of time (19-89 days) and at different life stages (embryonic, juvenile, adult). PMID:23481557

Basu, Niladri; Head, Jessica; Nam, Dong-Ha; Pilsner, J Richard; Carvan, Michael J; Chan, Hing Man; Goetz, Frederick W; Murphy, Cheryl A; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Scheuhammer, Anton M

2013-04-01

386

Establishment and abundance of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Michigan: potential for success in classical biocontrol of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid native to China and has been introduced to the United States since 2007 for classical biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. Between 2007-2010, T. planipennisi adults (3,311-4,597 females and approximately 1,500 males per site) were released into each of six forest sites in three counties (Ingham, Gratiot, and Shiawassee) of southern Michigan. By the fall of 2012, the proportion of sampled trees with one or more broods of T. planipennisi increased to 92 and 83% in the parasitoid-release and control plots, respectively, from 33 and 4% in the first year after parasitoid releases (2009 fall for Ingham county sites and 2010 for other sites). Similarly, the mean number of T. planipennisi broods observed from sampled trees increased from less than one brood per tree in the first year after parasitoid releases to 2.46 (at control plots) to 3.08 (at release plots) broods by the fall of 2012. The rates of emerald ash borer larval parasitism by T. planipennisi also increased from 1.2% in the first year after parasitoid releases to 21.2% in the parasitoid-release plots, and from 0.2 to 12.8% for the control plots by the fall of 2012. These results demonstrate that T. planipennisi is established in southern Michigan and that its populations are increasing and expanding. This suggests that T. planipennisi will likely play a critical role in suppressing emerald ash borer populations in Michigan. PMID:23865178

Duan, Jian J; Bauer, Leah S; Abell, Kristopher J; Lelito, Jonathan P; Van Driesche, Roy

2013-06-01

387

[Wetland ecosystems formation and its protection in Yellow River Delta].  

PubMed

Site investigation, satellite photo analysis and historic material analysis show that the vast neonatal wetlands in Yellow River Delta were created by high concentration sediment of the river and the land-sea evolution. Affected by the regional climate, landform, geological deposition, soil, vegetation and their interactions, the wetlands covered 4.5 x 10(5) hm2, 6.84 x 10(4) hm2 of which were artificial wetlands. The wetland ecosystems changed with the waving of the Yellow River Mouth and the land development in the Delta area. From ocean to land, the sublittoral aquatic wetland, eulittoral wetland, eplittoral salt wetland, bulrush-quitch wetland, meadow wetland and land agroecosystem were developed. The wetland ecosystems had abundant biological resources, including 1524 wild animals, 300 birds and 1040 fishes, which were changed recently by the oil development and affected by the interruption of Yellow River. Wetland protection should be strengthened in resources utilization. PMID:11766568

Mu, C; Yang, L; Wang, J; Hu, Y; Lin, H

2000-02-01

388

Spatial and seasonal variability of organic carbon transport in the Yellow River, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we examined the spatial and seasonal variability in the concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC) of the Yellow River. Weekly samples of water and suspended solids were collected along the main stem channel between July 2011 and July 2012 for the upstream Toudaoguai and Tongguan stations, and between August 2008 and July 2012 for the downstream Lijin station near the river mouth. The DOC export at the upstream two stations was primarily controlled by hydrological events such as melting of ice and snow with high DOC concentrations occurring in spring. In contrast, it was more affected by human activities, mainly reservoir regulation, at the lowermost Lijin station. Lower DOC concentration in the wet season indicates that most of the leachable DOC in surface soils may have largely been flushed away by spring floods. In addition, it is also likely due to dilution effect of the rapidly increased water discharge. As a result of low organic carbon content in the parent soils, the Yellow River sediments were characterized by low POC content (POC%). The averaged POC% at Toudaoguai, Tongguan, and Lijin was 0.48%, 0.47%, and 0.37%, respectively, which is significantly lower than the global mean of around 0.95%. The POC% decreased exponentially with total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. This is likely due to the dilution of riverine POC, because high TSS generally means a higher proportion of coarse sediments that have more mineral matter. During the study period, the total DOC and POC fluxes into the ocean were estimated at 0.06 × 1012 g/yr and 0.41 × 1012 g/yr, respectively. Combining our previous estimate of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) export shows that the Yellow River transports a carbon flux of 1.52 × 1012 g/yr into the Bohai Sea, accounting for about 0.19% of the global total riverine carbon flux (DOC + POC + DIC). The extremely low DOC/POC ratio represents the lowest level among major world rivers, which is consistent with its intense soil erosion and highlights the effect of soil erosion on organic carbon export.

Ran, Lishan; Lu, X. X.; Sun, Huiguo; Han, Jingtai; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Jianming

2013-08-01

389

6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (18' HARDESTY GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Long Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

390

7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (15' HARDESTY MODEL 115 GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Marjorie Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

391

5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (HARDESTY CAST IRON RECTANGULAR SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Lost Lake Dam, Kamas, Summit County, UT

392

5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (28' WIDE HARDESTY CAST IRON SLIDE HEADGATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Duck Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

393

5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Drift Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

394

5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, (12' DIAMETER HARDESTY MODEL 112 CIRCULAR GATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Island Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

395

4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Pot Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

396

5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY CAST IRON VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Weir Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

397

7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM GUIDE (14' DIAMETER CIRCULAR CALCO CAST IRON SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Fire Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

398

Effects of chronic consumption of metanil yellow by developing and adult rats on brain regional levels of noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, on acetylcholine esterase activity and on operant conditioning.  

PubMed

Metanil yellow is the principal non-permitted food colour used extensively in India. The effects of long-term consumption of metanil yellow on the developing and adult brain were studied using Wistar rats. Regional levels of noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE), and operant conditioning with food reward were assessed in rats fed, metanil yellow and in controls. In the treated rats the amine levels in the hypothalamus, striatum and brain stem were significantly affected, and the changes were not generally reversible even after withdrawal of metanil yellow in developing rats. The striatum showed an early reduction of AChE activity, whereas the hippocampus showed a delayed but persistent effect of reduced AChE activity. Treated rats also took more sessions to learn the operant conditioning behaviour. These effects on these major neurotransmitter systems and on learning, indicate that chronic consumption of metanil yellow can predispose both the developing and the adult central nervous system (CNS) of the rat to neurotoxicity. PMID:8095244

Nagaraja, T N; Desiraju, T

1993-01-01

399

Pathways to Science: STEM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by NASA and the National Science Foundation, the Pathways to Science Project was created by the Institute for Broadening Participation to support "pathways to the STEM fields: science, technology, engineering, and mathematics." The project works on connecting underrepresented groups with STEM programs, funding, mentoring, and resources. The "Students" area features a sign-in area where students can sign up to receive targeted emails that will inform them of new STEM-focused scholarship and mentoring opportunities. The "Programs" area features a database of over 1500 programs designed for K-8 students, college educators, and undergraduate students. Additionally, the site also includes a "News" area where users can learn about recent success stories from universities around the United States, along with the particulars of upcoming conferences and seminars.

400

Germline Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Sperm and egg production requires a robust stem cell system that balances self-renewal with differentiation. Self-renewal at the expense of differentiation can cause tumorigenesis, whereas differentiation at the expense of self-renewal can cause germ cell depletion and infertility. In most organisms, and sometimes in both sexes, germline stem cells (GSCs) often reside in a defined anatomical niche. Factors within the niche regulate a balance between GSC self-renewal and differentiation. Asymmetric division of the germline stem cell to form daughter cells with alternative fates is common. The exception to both these tendencies is the mammalian testis where there does not appear to be an obvious anatomical niche and where GSC homeostasis is likely accomplished by a stochastic balance of self-renewal and differentiation and not by regulated asymmetric cell division. Despite these apparent differences, GSCs in all organisms share many common mechanisms, although not necessarily molecules, to guarantee survival of the germline. PMID:21791699

Spradling, Allan; Fuller, Margaret T.; Braun, Robert E.; Yoshida, Shosei

2011-01-01

401

Skeletal muscle stem cells  

PubMed Central

Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells responsible for the post-natal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. This review focuses on the basic biology of the satellite cell with emphasis on its role in muscle repair and parallels between embryonic myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Recent advances have altered the long-standing view of the satellite cell as a committed myogenic stem cell derived directly from the fetal myoblast. The experimental basis for this evolving perspective will be highlighted as will the relationship between the satellite cell and other newly discovered muscle stem cell populations. Finally, advances and prospects for cell-based therapies for muscular dystrophies will be addressed. PMID:14614776

Chen, Jennifer CJ; Goldhamer, David J

2003-01-01

402

STEM2Stern  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STEM2Stern Coordination Office works alongside all of the Naval Laboratories and Warfare Centers to offer a broad range of STEM education and outreach programs to support the next generation of scientists and engineers who will bring their talents to U.S. Naval laboratories and warfighting centers. On this site, visitors will find information about the multiple programs offered in each of the fifty states, success stories of students who have gone through these programs, and information for all those interested to get involved (students, educators, parents, and mentors).

2013-07-12

403

Stem Cells Branch Out  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heals all manner of ailments, unlimited quantities, tailor-made for you. ⦠No, it's not an advertisement for snake oil but may represent the promise of stem cellsâÂÂcells that have the potential to produce various cell types that make up the body and might therefore provide replacements for tissues damaged by age, trauma, or disease. But the work raises numerous questions as well: Can such promise be true? What is the ethical cost of such developments? Who will fund the necessary R&D? This article introduces a special issue on stem cells.

Pamela Hines (AAAS;); Beverly Purnell (AAAS;); Jean Marx (AAAS;)

2000-02-25

404

STEM on the radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Looking for an Internet radio station focusing on programing about science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)? The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) announced on 26 September the launch of Science360 Radio, which it says is the first Internet radio stream dedicated to STEM programing. Science360 includes more than 100 radio shows and podcasts that are available on the Web as well as on iPhone and Android devices. The shows originate from a variety of sources, including NSF, other U.S. government agencies, science organizations, universities, and media outlets. For more information, see http://science360.gov/files/.

Showstack, Randy

2011-10-01

405

Cell Stem Cell Dear Student: Stem Cell Scientists' Advice  

E-print Network

a career in stem cell research?'' ``Besides lending great worth to a scholar's life, leaving spiritual prog or restrict certain types of stem cell research raised profound questions about the field's sustainability. In academia, stem cell research has quickly become institutionalized. Research universities seized the opportu

406

Cancer stem cells and “stemness” genes in neuro-oncology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main properties of stem cells include long-term self-renewal and the capacity to give rise to one or more types of differentiated progeny. Recently, much evidence was provided that leukemia and tumor maintenance and growth are sustained by a small proportion of cells exhibiting stem cell properties. In neural tumors, stem cells have been detected in glioblastoma, medulloblastoma and ependymoma.

Silvia K. Nicolis

2007-01-01

407

Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter. What Is a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant? A blood and marrow stem cell transplant ... the missing white blood cells. Types of Stem Cell Transplants The two main types of stem cell ...

408

Stem Cells and Female Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Several recent findings in stem cell biology have resulted in new opportunities for the treatment of reproductive disease. Endometrial regeneration can be driven by bone marrow derived stem cells. This finding has potential implications for the treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the etiology of endometriosis. The ovaries have been shown to contain stem cells that form oocytes in adults and can be cultured in vitro to develop mature oocytes. Stem cells from the fetus have been demonstrated to lead to microchimerism in the mother and implicated in several maternal diseases. Additionally the placenta may be another source of hematopoietic stem cell. Finally endometrial derived stem cells have been demonstrated to differentiate into non-reproductive tissues. While we are just beginning to understand stem cells and many key questions remain, the potential advantages of stem cells in reproductive biology and medicine are apparent. PMID:19208782

Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S.

2011-01-01

409

Laser biomodulation on stem cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in the news for two reasons: the successful cultivation of human embryonic stem cell lines and reports that adult stem cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve cells into blood cells. The spotlight on stem cells has revealed gaps in our knowledge that must be filled if we are to take advantage of their full potential for treating devastating degenerative diseases such as Parkinsons's disease and muscular dystrophy. We need to know more about the intrinsic controls that keep stem cells as stem cells or direct them along particular differentiation pathways. Such intrinsic regulators are, in turn, sensitive to the influences of the microenvironment, or niche, where stem cells normally reside. Both intrinsic and extrinsic signals regular stem cell fate and some of these signals have now been identified. Vacek et al and Wang et al have studied the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. There experiments show there is indeed the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, and the present effect is the promotion of haemopoietic stem cells proliferation. In other words, low intensity laser irradiation can act as an extrinsic signal regulating stem cell fate. In this paper, we study how low intensity laser can be used to regulate stem cell fate from the viewpoint of collective phototransduction.

Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Li, Yan; Li, Xue-Feng; Tan, Li-Ling; Liu, Songhao

2001-08-01

410

Cell Fusion and Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Differentiation, self-renewal and the ability to readily undergo cell fusion are properties of adult and embryonic stem cells.\\u000a Spontaneous fusion between stem cells, and fusion of stem cells with various differentiated cell types, has been observed\\u000a in many in vitro and in vivo contexts. Stem cell fusion is implicated in many crucial functions during normal development\\u000a and is increasingly being

Alain Silk; Anne E. Powell; Paige S. Davies; Melissa H. Wong

411

Stem Cells in Intraepithelial Neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tumours are thought to contain a subpopulation of self-renewing stem cells, the so-called cancer stem cells, which maintain the tumour. Moreover, tumours themselves are thought to arise from organ-specific stem cells. In epithelia, transformation of these cells leads to spread of a mutated stem cell clone through the epithelial sheet, leading to the development of a pre-invasive lesion. Barrett’s oesophagus

Nicholas A. Wright

412

Early season arboreal behaviour in Yellow-Bellied Marmots (Marmota flaviventris)  

E-print Network

Early season arboreal behaviour in Yellow-Bellied Marmots (Marmota flaviventris) L.E. OLSON1 , V neglected, resource. Key words: marmot, behaviour, Introduction Yellow-bellied Marmots (Marmota flaviventris

Blumstein, Daniel T.

413

SOCIAL EFFECTS ON EMERGENCE FROM HIBERNATION IN YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOTS  

E-print Network

, CA 90095-1606, USA (DTB) The date that yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) emerge at a site animals (which are likely to be males) are 1st sighted. Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris

Grether, Gregory

414

21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10...restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10...consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2010-04-01

415

21 CFR 74.706 - FD&C Yellow No. 6.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with FD&C Yellow No...in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. ...Yellow No. 6 may be safely used for coloring foods (including dietary...

2011-04-01

416

21 CFR 74.706 - FD&C Yellow No. 6.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with FD&C Yellow No...in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. ...Yellow No. 6 may be safely used for coloring foods (including dietary...

2013-04-01

417

21 CFR 74.706 - FD&C Yellow No. 6.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with FD&C Yellow No...in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. ...Yellow No. 6 may be safely used for coloring foods (including dietary...

2012-04-01

418

21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10...restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10...consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2012-04-01

419

21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10...restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10...consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2011-04-01

420

21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.  

...specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10...restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10...consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2014-04-01

421

21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10...restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10...consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2013-04-01

422

Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 64, pp. 859 to 875, 2008 Yellow/East China  

E-print Network

in the South- ern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from Airborne Expendable Bathythermograph Measurements and their seasonality in frontal zones of the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. Finestructure characteristics

Chu, Peter C.

423

Bacillus thuringiensis resistance influences European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval behavior after exposure to Cry1Ab.  

PubMed

The behavior of pests targeted by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops has been recognized as an important factor to define resistance management plans. However, most data do not include the possible impact resistance may have on the behavior of pests. To examine whether resistance influences behavior of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), neonates after exposure to dietary Bt, the responses of Cry1Ab-resistant, -susceptible, and hybrid (F1) lines from two populations were compared in laboratory tests by using artificial diet mixed with 10-50% Cry1Ab or non-Bt isoline corn, Zea mays L., tissue. In no-choice tests, resistant (and usually hybrid) lines were less likely to be irritated (i.e., to move away after physical contact with diet containing Cry1Ab) than susceptible larvae after exposure to diets containing 10-50% Cry1Ab leaf tissue. Early in the no-choice tests (8 h), neonate O. nubilalis also were more likely to move off of diets that contained 10% non-Bt tissue compared with diets with 25 or 50% non-Bt tissue. In agreement with results from no-choice tests, choice tests with 10 or 25% tissue indicated that resistant (and sometimes hybrid) larvae were more likely than susceptible neonates to be found on diet with Cry1Ab. For choice tests, differences among lines seemed dependent on the amount of Cry1Ab tissue incorporated into diets. Results suggest differences in behavior are a result of reduced physiological susceptibility to Cry1Ab and are not an independent behavioral component to resistance. PMID:19449661

Prasifka, J R; Hellmich, R L; Sumerford, D V; Siegfried, B D

2009-04-01

424

Toxicity and disruption of midgut physiology in larvae of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, by anion transporter blockers.  

PubMed

In this study, four blockers of anion transporters (ATs) belonging to four different classes of organic acids, including DIDS (4, 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2, 2'- disulfonic acid; a stilbene disulfonic acid), NPPB [(5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid; an anthranilic acid)], 9-AC (anthracene-9-carboxylic acid; an aromatic carboxylic acid), and IAA-94 (indanyloxy acetic acid; an indanyloxy alkanoic acid), were tested for their toxicity against the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis. All the AT blockers inhibited the growth of larvae, increased the developmental time, and decreased survival compared to controls, when second-instar ECB larvae were fed for seven days on treated diet. In general, DIDS and NPPB were the most active compounds, with the rank order of activity being DIDS>NPPB>IAA-94>9-AC. All the AT blockers decreased the midgut alkalinity in fifth-instar larvae when fed for 3 h on treated diet. Effective concentrations required for 50% decrease in midgut alkalinity (EC(50)) ranged between 29.1 and 41.2 ppm and the rank order of activity was NPPB>DIDS>IAA-94>9-AC. Similarly, all the tested AT blockers inhibited (36)Cl(-) uptake from the midgut lumen in fifth-instar larvae when fed for 3 h on treated diet. Concentrations required for 50% inhibition of (36)Cl(-) uptake (IC(50)) ranged between 7.4 and 11.0 ppm and the rank order of activity was DIDS>NPPB>9-AC >IAA-94. Modest to highly strong positive correlations observed among growth, midgut alkalinity, and midgut Cl(-) ion transport in AT blocker-fed larvae suggested that these effects are causally related to each other. Finally, AT blockers have the potential to become good candidates for development of insecticides with a unique mode of action. PMID:19140151

Boina, Dhana Raj; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

2009-03-01

425

European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) stalk tunneling on root-knot nematode (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) fitness on corn.  

PubMed

Greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2004-2006 to examine the reciprocal effects of aboveground herbivory by European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and belowground herbivory by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae), on one another at three corn, Zea mays L., growth stages. Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of aboveground herbivory by O. nubilalis on the number of M. incognita juvenile penetration/root system and eggs/root system. In the first experiment, the O. nubilalis infestation level by plant growth stage main effect interaction was not significant for either M. incognita juvenile penetration or eggs. The overall effect of stalk tunneling by O. nubilalis resulted in 48.9% fewer juvenile penetration and 40.0% fewer eggs than in the respective controls. In the second experiment, the main effects interaction was significant for juvenile penetration (P = 0.0422) and eggs (P = 0.0134). At the eight- and 10-leaf growth stages, the combined effect of one and three O. nubilalis larvae per plant resulted in 41.2 and 44.7% significantly fewer juvenile penetration than in the respective controls. Similarly, the combined effect of stalk tunneling (with the exception of one larvae per plant at the 10-leaf growth stage) at the six-, eight-, and 10-leaf growth stages resulted in 46.3, 53.3, and 55.2% fewer eggs than in the respective controls. In all instances, M. incognita juvenile penetration and eggs were significantly negatively correlated with O. nubilalis tunnel length. In a reciprocal experiment conducted two times, no significant (P > 0.05) effect of M. incognita inoculation level on stalk tunneling was found in either experiment. PMID:19449640

Tiwari, S; Youngman, R R; Lewis, E E; Eisenback, J D

2009-04-01

426

Genetic variability of the european corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, suggests gene flow between populations in the Midwestern United States.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a widely distributed and serious economic pest to corn production in the U.S. Genetic variability of O. nubilalis was studied in 18 sub-populations in the upper Midwestern United States using amplified fragment length polymorphism. The relatively low GST values indicate that more variation exists within populations than between populations. High gene flow (Nm) values were indicated across the entire O. nubilalis population; the lowest degree of gene flow was in the northern samples (Nm = 1.96) and the highest degree of gene flow was in the southern samples (Nm = 2.77). The differences observed in the respective regions (north vs. south) may be explained by the voltinism patterns (univoltine vs. multivoltine, respectively) of O. nubilalis: southern multivoltine populations have opportunities for multiple matings for the duration of the year, further mix alleles. AMOVA results also indicated that most of the genetic variation was within sub-populations ( approximately 81% of total variation); less variation ( approximately 13%) was detected among populations within each of the three regions as designated for this study. However, the most striking and unexpected result was the low percentage of variation between all groups ( approximately 6%), further supporting implications of a high degree of gene flow. These results provide support for current requirements of refugia corn planting in Bt-corn management. These results also indicate that if resistance to Bt were to evolve in O. nubilalis, quick action would be necessary to deter the rapid spread of the gene for resistance. PMID:20307230

Krumm, Jeffrey T; Hunt, Thomas E; Skoda, Steven R; Hein, Gary L; Lee, Donald J; Clark, Pete L; Foster, John E

2008-01-01

427

High basal defense gene expression determines sorghum resistance to the whorl-feeding insect southwestern corn borer.  

PubMed

Southwestern corn borer (SWCB, Diatraea grandiosella) and fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda) are major pests of sorghum in the southern United States. Host plant resistance is a desirable means for reducing plant damage and yield losses from both insects. In this study, we evaluated 12 sorghum lines for whorl-stage resistance to leaf-feeding SWCB and FAW in greenhouse and laboratory bioassays. Differential plant responses were detected against the two insects. Among 12 lines tested, CM1821, Della and PI196583 were resistant to both insects, while BTx2752 was largely susceptible. Line R.09110 was resistant to SWCB, but susceptible to FAW, whereas Redbine-60 was susceptible to SWCB, but not to FAW. In addition, we quantified various chemical components in the plants and determined their association with insect resistance. Tannin and chlorophyll in leaves did not show any significant correlation with resistance to either insects, but contents of soluble protein in general were negatively correlated with resistance to both insects. Endogenous soluble sugar and dhurrin were only positively correlated with resistance to SWCB, but not with FAW resistance. To gain some molecular insight into resistance mechanism of sorghum to SWCB, we performed qPCR reactions for key genes encoding enzymes involved in dhurrin and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis on selected resistant or susceptible lines. Although these genes were rapidly and strongly induced by insect feeding in all lines, the observed resistance is likely explained by higher constitutive dhurrin contents in some resistant lines and higher basal JA biosynthesis in others. Our results suggest that sorghum utilizes multiple strategies to defend itself against SWCB. PMID:23955883

Cheng, Wei-Ning; Lei, Jia-Xin; Rooney, William L; Liu, Tong-Xian; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2013-06-01

428

Transcriptome analysis of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana grown on cuticular extracts of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei).  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer (CBB; Hypothenemus hampei) is a major pest of coffee responsible for significant crop losses worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana represents a natural means of controlling this insect pest; however, little is known concerning the molecular determinants that contribute to the virulence of the fungus towards the CBB. In order to examine genes involved in insect virulence, two expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, representing germinating conidia and growing hyphae/mycelia of B. bassiana cells grown on cuticular extracts of the CBB were constructed and analysed. In total, 4186 cDNA transcripts were obtained, which included 2141 from the cuticle-germinated conidia and 2045 from the cuticle-grown mycelium libraries, respectively. The average sequence length obtained was 470 bp and transcript assembly resulted in a set of 1271 and 1305 unique gene sequences for the conidial and mycelia libraries, respectively. Around 50?% of the sequences in each library could be annotated by gene ontology terms. An analysis of the two generated libraries as well as a previously reported EST library of B. bassiana grown on chitin was performed. Between the cuticle-germinated conidia and the cuticle-grown mycelia libraries, 322 unique gene sequences were shared, of which 90?% could be annotated, leaving 949 unique cuticle-germinated conidial genes and 983 unique growing hyphae/mycelia genes of which around 65?% were annotated. ESTs shared between the libraries indicated a basic response pattern for B. bassiana against H. hampei, which included genes implicated in pathogenicity. The expression profiles of four genes were evaluated with a cyclophilin, an alkaline-like serine protease and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), showing elevated expression during initial phases of infection, i.e. conidia germinating on insect extracts. These data provide clues and gene candidates for further exploration concerning the biology and molecular mechanisms of entomopathogenicity by this fungus. PMID:22461485

Mantilla, Javier Guillermo; Galeano, Narmer F; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Cristancho, Marco A; Keyhani, Nemat O; Góngora, Carmenza E

2012-07-01

429

Molecular and Functional Characterization of a c-type lysozyme from the Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis  

PubMed Central

Some lepidopteran lysozymes have been reported to display activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, in contrast to most lysozymes that are active only against Gram-positive bacteria. OstrinLysC, a c-type lysozyme, was purified from the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and shows activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequence was determined by Edman degradation and used in a homology cloning strategy. The gene coding for OstrinLysC contains three exons and two introns. The expression profile of the OstrinlysC gene was examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Following injection of the larvae with bacteria, the OstrinlysC gene is strongly up-regulated in immune tissues. Transcripts were also detected in gut tissue. After feeding the larvae with bacteria, OstrinlysC transcripts increased in immune tissues. A very low level of transcript abundance was also detected in gut tissue. These results suggested that the OstrinlysC gene is involved in immune responses. The three dimensional structure of OstrinLysC was predicted. Based on comparison of the 3-D structure of OstrinLysC with that of silkworm lysozyme and chicken lysozyme, we hypothesize that the positive charge-rich surface and the short loop-2, which is close to the cluster of hydrophobic residues, may play important roles in the interaction with the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls. PMID:19613460

Wang, Wen-Xian; Wang, Yi-Peng; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Dang, Xiang-Li; Tian, Jin-Huan; Yi, Hui-Yu; Li, Yi-Feng; He, Xiao-Fang; Cao, Yang; Xia, Qing-You; Lai, Ren; Wen, Shuo-Yang

2009-01-01

430

Toxicity and mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins in the Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre).  

PubMed

Sesamia nonagrioides is one of the most damaging pests of corn in Spain and other Mediterranean countries. Bt corn expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin is being grown on about 58,000 ha in Spain. Here we studied the mode of action of this Cry protein on S. nonagrioides (binding to specific receptors, stability of binding, and pore formation) and the modes of action of other Cry proteins that were found to be active in this work (Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, and Cry1Fa). Binding assays were performed with (125)I- or biotin-labeled toxins and larval brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Competition experiments indicated that these toxins bind specifically and that Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac share a binding site. Cry1Ca and Cry1Fa bind to different sites. In addition, Cry1Fa binds to Cry1A's binding site with very low affinity and vice versa. Binding of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac was found to be stable over time, which indicates that the observed binding is irreversible. The pore-forming activity of Cry proteins on BBMV was determined using the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye DiSC(3)(5). Membrane permeability increased in the presence of the active toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa but not in the presence of the nonactive toxin Cry1Da. In terms of resistance management, based on our results and the fact that Cry1Ca is not toxic to Ostrinia nubilalis, we recommend pyramiding of Cry1Ab with Cry1Fa in the same Bt corn plant for better long-term control of corn borers. PMID:16597962

González-Cabrera, Joel; Farinós, Gema P; Caccia, Silvia; Díaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Castañera, Pedro; Leonardi, Maria Giovanna; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan

2006-04-01

431

Effects of trap type, placement and ash distribution on emerald ash borer captures in a low density site.  

PubMed

Effective methods for early detection of newly established, low density emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestations are critically needed in North America. We assessed adult A. planipennis captures on four types of traps in a 16-ha site in central Michigan. The site was divided into 16 blocks, each comprised of four 50- by 50-m cells. Green ash trees (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) were inventoried by diameter class and ash phloem area was estimated for each cell. One trap type was randomly assigned to each cell in each block. Because initial sampling showed that A. planipennis density was extremely low, infested ash logs were introduced into the center of the site. In total, 87 beetles were captured during the summer. Purple double-decker traps baited with a blend of ash leaf volatiles, Manuka oil, and ethanol captured 65% of all A. planipennis beetles. Similarly baited, green double-decker traps captured 18% of the beetles, whereas sticky bands on girdled trees captured 11% of the beetles. Purple traps baited with Manuka oil and suspended in the canopies of live ash trees captured only 5% of the beetles. At least one beetle was captured on 81% of the purple double-decker traps, 56% of the green double-decker traps, 42% of sticky bands, and 25% of the canopy traps. Abundance of ash phloem near traps had no effect on captures and trap location and sun exposure had only weak effects on captures. Twelve girdled and 29 nongirdled trees were felled and sampled in winter. Current-year larvae were present in 100% of the girdled trees and 72% of the nongirdled trees, but larval density was five times higher on girdled than nongirdled trees. PMID:22251735

McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W; Poland, Therese M; Pierce, Steven J; Ahn, Su Zie

2011-10-01

432

Cell Stem Cell Brief Report  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Brief Report Reprogramming of T Cells from Human Peripheral Blood Yuin-Han Loh,1,2,5,9,10,* 1Stem Cell Transplantation Program, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA 2Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 3

Church, George M.

433

Functional morphology of the light yellow cell and yellow cell (sodium influx-stimulating peptide) neuroendocrine systems of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine light yellow cells of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis express a neuropeptide gene encoding three different peptides. The morphology of the cell system has been studied by in situ hybridization, using two synthetic oligonucleotides encoding parts of light yellow cell peptides I and III, and by immunocytochemistry with antisera to synthetic light yellow cell peptide II and to two fragments of light yellow cell peptide I. One large cluster of light yellow cells was observed in the ventro-lateral protrusion of the right parietal ganglion, smaller clusters lying in the posterior dorsal part of this ganglion and in the visceral ganglion. The cells had an extended central neurohaemal area. Immunopositive axons projected into all nerves of the ganglia of the visceral complex, into the superior cervical and the nuchal nerves, and into the connective tissue surrounding the central nervous system. Axon tracts ramified between the muscle cells of the walls of the anterior aorta and of smaller blood vessels. Peripheral innervation by the light yellow cell system was only found in muscular tissue of the ureter papilla. The antisera to the two peptide fragments of light yellow cell peptide I not only stained the light yellow cells, but also the identified yellow cells, which have previously been shown to produce the sodium influx-stimulating neuropeptide. The latter cells were negative to the in situ hybridization probes and antisera specific to the light yellow cell system. It is therefore unlikely that the yellow cells express the light yellow cell neuropeptide gene. Nevertheless, the cells contain a neuropeptide sharing antigenic determinants with light yellow cell peptide I.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8111842

Boer, H H; Montagne-Wajer, C; Smith, F G; Parish, D C; Ramkema, M D; Hoek, R M; van Minnen, J; Benjamin, P R

1994-02-01

434

STEMMING the Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

America has a gap when it comes to youth pursuing science and technology careers. In an effort to improve the knowledge and application of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), after-school programs can work in conjunction with formal in-school curriculum to improve science education. One organization that actively addresses this…

Kahler, Jim; Valentine, Nancy

2011-01-01

435

Epithelial Cells Stem Cells  

E-print Network

Keywords Epithelial Cells Keratins Stem Cells » Prof. Thomas M. Magin Epithelia protect the body, altered cell adhesion and signal- ling. As no molecular therapy for these conditions is available, one that the co-chaperone CHIP can remove mutant aggregated keratins in a cell culture model of EBS, leading

Schüler, Axel

436

Stem Cell Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case lays out the controversies surrounding stem cell research, looking specifically at therapeutic cloning and how the embryos produced in this process are produced solely to be destroyed. Thus, the dilemma of whether it is ethical to take one life to save another and the dilemma surrounding human cloning. This case may be used to portray problems in the

R. Freeman; Will Truslow; Pia Ahmad; Bidham Pamar

437

Siemens Stem Academy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website hosts resources for K-12 educators looking to access and share ideas for STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) education. Monthly webinars (archived), lessons, videos, a blog, posters and other materials are available. Professional development opportunities are posted. Some resources require a free registration.

2012-01-01

438

Brain tumour stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dogma that the genesis of new cells is a negligible event in the adult mammalian brain has long influenced our perception and understanding of the origin and development of CNS tumours. The discovery that new neurons and glia are produced throughout life from neural stem cells provides new possibilities for the candidate cells of origin of CNS neoplasias. The

Rossella Galli; Brent A. Reynolds; Angelo L. Vescovi

2006-01-01

439

Embryonic Stem Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioEd Online is an "educational resource for educators, students, and parents" from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The "Hot Topics" section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are "receiving national attention." The controversy surrounding embryonic stem cells, and coverage it receives in news and research publications in the United States and around the world definitely warrants a closer look at this issue. This "Hot Topic" compiled by Joseph Marx, PhD, Nancy Moreno, PhD, and Deanne Erdmann, MS, contains a brief discussion of the stem cell debate, and includes references and links for further reading. Related news articles can be found as well. Be sure to check out the related slide sets for both embryonic stem cells and stem cells. These slide shows are an excellent resource to use in the classroom. Just add the slides you wish to use to your tray and then view or download your slide tray for an instant visual resource.

Erdmann, Deanne; Marx, Joseph; Moreno, Nancy

2006-07-20

440

Advancing Diversity in STEM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although progress has been made, greater efforts are needed to promote faculty diversity at the college and university levels, especially in STEM fields. Thus, it is important to elucidate best practices both for increasing awareness of diversity issues pertaining to higher education and for implementing change. This article focuses on the…

Hill, Paul L.; Shaw, Rose A.; Taylor, Jan R.; Hallar, Brittan L.

2011-01-01

441

Cell Stem Cell Perspective  

E-print Network

, genetic vari- ations in iPSCs may originate from the heterogeneous genetic makeup of source cell novo variations (Figure 1B). Third, like ESCs, prolonged culturing of iPSCs may introduce or select in in vitro cultured PSCs, including iPSCs and ESCs. One comprehensive study by the International Stem Cell

Zhang, Yi

442

STEM At Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

STEM (Science Technology Engineering & Math) at work, presented by the Florida Advanced Technological Education Center, includes a number of educational puzzles for use in the classroom. Puzzles include an energy audit exercise, measurement of air bag movement, and diesel fuel additive volatility.

2011-03-17

443

Background Information 1. What are stem cells?  

E-print Network

Background Information 1. What are stem cells? 2. What might stem cell research achieve? 3. Why we need to continue research using embryonic stem cells? 4. Time taken for discoveries 5. Examples of stem of Embryonic cell lines 8. Fertility Research using human embryos and blastocysts 1. What are stem cells? Stem

Rambaut, Andrew

444

Identification and analysis of YELLOW protein family genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The major royal jelly proteins\\/yellow (MRJP\\/YELLOW) family possesses several physiological and chemical functions in the development of Apis mellifera and Drosophila melanogaster. Each protein of the family has a conserved domain named MRJP. However, there is no report of MRJP\\/YELLOW family proteins in the Lepidoptera. RESULTS: Using the YELLOW protein sequence in Drosophila melanogaster to BLAST silkworm EST database,

Ai-Hua Xia; Qing-Xiang Zhou; Lin-Lin Yu; Wei-Guo Li; Yong-Zhu Yi; Yao-Zhou Zhang; Zhi-Fang Zhang

2006-01-01

445

The Shandong mud wedge and post-glacial sediment accumulation in the Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two well-defined deltaic sequences in the Bohai Sea and in the South Yellow Sea represent post-glacial accumulation of Yellow River-derived sediments. Another prominent depocenter on this epicontinental shelf, a pronounced clinoform in the North Yellow Sea, wraps around the northeastern and southeastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, extending into the South Yellow Sea. This Shandong mud wedge is 20 to

Liu J; J. Milliman; S. Gao

2002-01-01

446

58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, presented to the Portsmouth Naval Hospital by the Town Council of Portsmouth, 1856. (Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Museum, Portsmouth, VA) - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

447

SPATIOTEMPORAL VARIATION IN SURVIVAL OF MALE YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOTS  

E-print Network

variation in age-specific survival rates of male yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) in Colorado, Marmota flaviventris, multistate capture­mark­recapture model, population dynamics, spatial variation-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) have been the subject of long-term ecological research, existing

Grether, Gregory

448

Individual differences and reproductive success in yellow-bellied marmots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mirror-image stimulation (MIS) was used to determine the individual behavioral phenotypes of 90 adult, 132 yearling, and 135 young yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). Linear typal analysis (LTA) was used to group individuals based on similarities in their MIS scores. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the patterns of variation in behaviors and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used

K. B. Armitage; D. H. Van Vuren

2003-01-01

449

Locomotor Ability and Wariness in Yellow-Bellied Marmots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals employ a variety of behaviors to reduce or manage predation risk. Often, these are studied in isolation, but selection may act on packages of behavior that are referred to as behavioral syndromes. We focused on yellow- bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and examined three commonly studied antipredator behaviors. We fitted general linear models to explain variation in maximum running speed,

Daniel T. Blumstein; Andrea Runyan; Mona Seymour; Amanda Nicodemus; Arpat Ozgul; Findley Ransler; Soyeon Im; Tricia Stark; Claire Zugmeyer; Janice C. Daniel

2004-01-01

450

Modulatory effects of metanil yellow on immunity in rodents.  

PubMed

Pathomorphological and immunological studies were carried out on rodents following oral administration of 0, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5% (w/w) metanil yellow, mixed in diet, for 30 days. No significant change in hematologic parameters and histologic architecture of liver, kidney, mesenteric lymph node, thymus and urinary bladder was observed except for mild desquamation of intestinal villi and moderate changes in Peyer's patches of small intestine with higher doses. Among immunological parameters, significant enhancement in the primary humoral immune response (anti-SRBC IgM plaque forming cells of spleen) was observed with the lowest dose of metanil yellow while higher doses produced opposing effects. An elevated cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to SRBC was seen in 0.1% metanil yellow treated animals but higher doses did not influence the reaction. The treatment also caused changes in functional capabilities of macrophages. Although these immune alterations could hardly influence the local immunity of gut, as measured by the capacity of animals to cause rejection of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis parasite, the potential to modulate the immunity in general by metanil yellow however assumes considerable biological significance. PMID:1459615

Shanker, R; Dogra, R K; Khanna, S; Srivastava, S N; Shukla, L J; Gupta, S; Katiyar, J C

1992-05-01

451

SEASONAL EFFECTS ON TEMPERATURE PREFERENCE IN YELLOW PERCH, 'PERCA FLAVESCENS'  

EPA Science Inventory

Seasonal variations in temperature preferences of adult yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were sought by acclimating fish captured in the fall to 5, 10, 15, and 20C in the laboratory and determining their preferred temperatures in a horizontal temperature gradient trough. Temperatu...

452

Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper": Women, Society, Sanity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Yellow Wallpaper," by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, is a remarkable piece of history and sociology, as well as a feminist story concerning the search for self. Written in 1890, the story, which closely parallels the author's own life, vividly chronicles a woman's descent into madness. Charlotte married an artist after a lengthy courtship of…

Thompson, Merle O'Rourke

453

INCUBATION STUDIES OF THE YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD  

Microsoft Academic Search

LTHOUGH the Yellow-headed Blackbird, Xanthocephalus xantho- cephalus (Bonaparte), is a fairly common bird within its breeding range, the details of its incubating activities have been given but little attention, even though its nesting habits afford several advantages for making a study of this kind. This species nests in colonies of consider- able size, thereby making it easy for the investigator

REED W. FAUTIN

454

Interactions among females in polygynous yellow-headed blackbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two alternative hypotheses which attempt to predict how females within harems in polygynous species should behave toward one another were examined in a population of yellow-headed blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus). The hypothesis that females within a harem are co-operative was not supported. Females in large harems did not enjoy higher reproductive success than those in smaller harems and females within a

Jill P. Lightbody; Patrick J. Weatherhead

1987-01-01

455

INVASIBILITY OF ROADLESS GRASSLANDS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF YELLOW STARTHISTLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roadless habitats are commonly found to be less invaded than habitats near roads, but few studies have tested whether this pattern is due to propagule limitation or to greater invasion resistance of roadless sites. We examined reasons for the lower frequency and cover of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) in grassland sites .1000 m vs. 10 m from roads in an

Jonathan L. Gelbard; Susan Harrison

2005-01-01

456

Parasites of Pond-Reared Yellow Perch from Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hundred sixty fingerling yellow perch (Perca Flavescens) from 10 culture ponds in western Michigan were examined for parasites in 1991, 1992, and 1993. Twelve parasite species (six Digenea: Clinostomum sp., Diplostomum sp., Neascus sp., Ornithodiplostomum sp., Posthodiplostomum sp., and Tetracotyle sp.; one Monogenea: Cleidodiscus sp.: two Nematoda: Eustrongylides tubifex and Spiroxys sp.; and three Protozoa: Myxobolus neurophilus, Trichodina sp.,

Patrick M. Muzzall

1995-01-01

457

Seasonal migration of the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

three-dimensional motion of the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water (YSBCW) and the relevant dynamical factors are studied using a regional circulation model and the two-way Lagrangian particle tracking method (PTM). The simulated results are in good agreement with hydrographic observations. The trajectories of the modeled particles show that the subsurface cold heavy water mass from the northern part of the Yellow Sea gradually sinks into deeper layers along the western slope of the Yellow Sea trough with a southward movement from spring to summer. The cold water mass gradually gathers speed from early March to July or August, and eventually reaches its southernmost location in late September or early October. Furthermore, sensitivity experiments demonstrate that tide-induced residual currents under baroclinic conditions are the dominant factor driving deep circulation during summertime in the Yellow Sea. The summer southerly wind and strong surface solar radiation are the secondary factors influencing the southward migration. This study also proposes an improved delimitation for the YSBCW based on temperature statistics in the central basin (deeper than 40 m) between 35°N and 39°N in March with an increase in rate of approximately 0.7°C/month, which is more appropriate than the constants of the 8°C or 10°C isotherms frequently used.

Wang, Bin; Hirose, Naoki; Kang, Boonsoon; Takayama, Katsumi

2014-07-01

458

Effect of halogenation on yellow metal corrosion: Inhibition by triazoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolyltriazole (TT) is fed continuously into recirculating cooling water systems to inhibit corrosion of copper (Cu)-alloy heat exchangers. The adsorption isotherm and the corrosion rate profile for TT and butylbenzotriazole (BBT) were presented as functions of immersion time in triazole solution. Formation of a triazole film on a yellow metal surface was shown to play a major role in corrosion

F. Lu; N. M. Rao; B. Yang; J. E. Hoots; R. S. Budrys

1994-01-01

459

Yellow flowers generated by expression of the aurone biosynthetic pathway  

PubMed Central

Flower color is most often conferred by colored flavonoid pigments. Aurone flavonoids confer a bright yellow color on flowers such as snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) and dahlia (Dahlia variabilis). A. majus aureusidin synthase (AmAS1) was identified as the key enzyme that catalyzes aurone biosynthesis from chalcones, but transgenic flowers overexpressing AmAS1 gene failed to produce aurones. Here, we report that chalcone 4?-O-glucosyltransferase (4?CGT) is essential for aurone biosynthesis and yellow coloration in vivo. Coexpression of the Am4?CGT and AmAS1 genes was sufficient for the accumulation of aureusidin 6-O-glucoside in transgenic flowers (Torenia hybrida). Furthermore, their coexpression combined with down-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in yellow flowers. An Am4?CGT-GFP chimeric protein localized in the cytoplasm, whereas the AmAS1(N1-60)-RFP chimeric protein was localized to the vacuole. We therefore conclude that chalcones are 4?-O-glucosylated in the cytoplasm, their 4?-O-glucosides transported to the vacuole, and therein enzymatically converted to aurone 6-O-glucosides. This metabolic pathway is unique among the known examples of flavonoid, including anthocyanin biosynthesis because, for all other compounds, the carbon backbone is completed before transport to the vacuole. Our findings herein not only demonstrate the biochemical basis of aurone biosynthesis but also open the way to engineering yellow flowers for major ornamental species lacking this color variant. PMID:16832053

Ono, Eiichiro; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakamura, Noriko; Fukui, Yuko; Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Nakayama, Toru; Tanaka, Takaharu; Kusumi, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

2006-01-01

460

Group size and foraging efficiency in yellow baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied the foraging behaviour of adults in three different-sized groups of yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) at Amboseli National Park in Kenya to assess the relationship between group size and foraging efficiency in this species. Study groups ranged in size from 8 to 44 members; within each group, I collected feeding data for the dominant adult male, the highest ranking

Peter B. Stacey

1986-01-01

461

The Two Photocycles of Photoactive Yellow Protein from Rhodobacter sphaeroides*  

E-print Network

Transform Infrared spec- troscopy, respectively. Photoactive yellow protein (PYP)1 is a photoreceptor that has been found in several purple bacteria (1). The first, and so far best studied example of the chromophore is the initial step, which leads to the formation of several transient intermediates

van Stokkum, Ivo

462

Synthysis of Ultrasmall Ultrabright Photostable Yellow Luminescent SI Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have synthesized ultrasmall yellow luminescent Si nanoparticles that are ultrabright under uv single photon excitation or under two-photon near infrared excitation. The brightness is comparable to that of rhodamine dye molecules. Monte Carlo quantum calculations yield a Si66 prototype structure. Previously we synthesized ultrabright blue luminescent particles (Si29 prototype). Direct imaging of single particles using transmission electron microscopy and

Gennadiy Belomoin; Nick Barry; Adam Smith; Osman Akcakir; Laila Abuhassan; Enrico Gratton; Munir Nayfeh

2001-01-01

463

An outbreak of yellow mold of peanut seedlings in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow mold of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seedlings caused by Aspergillus flavus was first observed during May 1984 in a commercial peanut farm in south Texas. The mold caused preemergence rotting of peanut seed and seedlings. On emerged seedlings the infection was largely restricted to cotyledons. The diseased plants were chlorotic, stunted, and leaflets were reduced in size with pointed tips

P. Subrahmanyam; D. H. Smith; R. A. Raber; E. Shepherd

1987-01-01

464

Interaction between isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Some isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) differing in vector transmission characteristics and in host plant reactions were studied in single and mixed inoculations in glass-house trials.2. The symptoms obtained depended on the isolate of BYDV, and the interval between the protective and test inoculation and the variety of host plant.3. Two of the isolates showed complete protection

Harvey C. Smith

1963-01-01

465

Biology and Control of Yellow Nutsedge in Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESEARCH PROBLEM Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) is a problem weed in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) that escapes most weed control programs. Postemergence herbicide ap- plications are required for season-long control. The physiological characteristics of C. esculentus inhibit the absorption and translocation of herbicides so application timing is critical. This research tests the hypothesis that the direction of carbohydrate flow in

Frank E. Groves; Kenneth L. Smith; Nilda R. Burgos; J. Brad Murphy

466

A description of unique fluorescent yellow pigments in penguin feathers  

E-print Network

A description of unique fluorescent yellow pigments in penguin feathers Kevin J. McGraw1 *, Matthew 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand 4 Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Centre National de la bird feathers--carotenoids, melanins, porphyrins, psittacofulvins, and iron oxides (Hill and Mc

McGraw, Kevin J.

467

Occurrence, Distribution and Epidemiology of Grapevine Yellows in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main viticultural production areas in Spain were surveyed in 1994, 1995 and 1996 for the occurrence and incidence of Grapevine Yellows diseases associated to phytoplasmas. Samples from 300 plants showing symptoms of phytoplasma infection were collected from grapevine fields in the Spanish regions of Aragón, Catalonia and Navarra and analysed by PCR with specific primers for a non-ribosomal DNA

Assumpció Batlle; Amparo Laviña

2000-01-01

468

7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

7 ? Agriculture ? 2 ? 2010-01-01 ? 2010-01-01 ? false ? Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. ? 28.441 ? Section 28.441 ? Agriculture ? Regulations of the Department of Agriculture ? AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ?...

2010-01-01

469

There's More to Color than Red, Yellow, and Blue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From an early age, so much emphasis goes into teaching children the fundamentals of color theory, in particular the primary colors of red, yellow, and blue. Toys, building blocks, furniture, and so many other items used in a preschool environment are manufactured in these three colors. Yet, recent research has uncovered that babies as young as…

Goobich, Joel

2009-01-01

470

A Comparison of Passive Gears for Selective Yellow Perch Harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of trap-and-transfer operations is influenced by the ability to quickly collect target fish and transport them to a recipient body of water. We compared catch rates of two gear types (modified fyke nets and cloverleaf traps with and without light attractants) to determine the most effective capture method for harvesting small yellow perch Perca flavescens (age < 2)

Matthew T. Mangan; Michael L. Brown; Todd R. St. Sauver

2005-01-01

471

Current status of research on rice yellow mottle Sobemovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice yellow mottle genus Sobemovirus is an important disease of rice worldwide. Although the virus attacks both upland and lowland rice cultivars, the latt