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1

Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease is Caused by Multiple Virus Complexes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blackberry yellow vein disease, with symptoms of vein clearing, yellow mottling, ringspots and plant decline has been observed in blackberry in the southeastern United States since about 2000. At least six viruses have been identified by cloning and sequencing of double-stranded RNA from diseased p...

2

A unique virus complex causes Ageratum yellow vein disease  

PubMed Central

Ageratum conyzoides L., a weed species widely distributed throughout southeast Asia, frequently exhibits striking yellow vein symptoms associated with infection by Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), a member of the Geminiviridae (genus Begomovirus). Most begomoviruses have bipartite genomes (DNAs A and B), but only a DNA A has been identified for AYVV. We demonstrate that yellow vein disease of A. conyzoides results from co-infection by AYVV DNA A (2,741 nt) and a circular DNA that is approximately half its size (1,347 nt) that we designate DNA ?. Apart from the sequence TAATATTAC, common to all geminiviruses and containing the initiation site of rolling circle replication, DNA ? shows negligible sequence homology either to AYVV DNA A or to DNA B associated with bipartite begomoviruses. DNA ? depends on DNA A for replication and is encapsidated by DNA A-encoded coat protein and so has characteristics of a DNA satellite. However, systemic infection of A. conyzoides by DNA A alone is sporadic and asymptomatic, and DNA A accumulation is reduced to 5% or less of its accumulation in the presence of DNA ?. Therefore, DNA A and DNA ? together form a previously unrecognized disease-inducing complex. Our data also demonstrate that the nanovirus-like DNA 1 component associated with infected A. conyzoides plays no essential role in the disease and represents a satellite-like DNA. Furthermore, the satellite DNA previously found associated with tomato leaf curl virus is probably a defective DNA ? homologue.

Saunders, Keith; Bedford, Ian D.; Briddon, Rob W.; Markham, Peter G.; Wong, Sek Man; Stanley, John

2000-01-01

3

Complete nucleotide sequence of Croton yellow vein mosaic virus and DNA-? associated with yellow vein mosaic disease of Jatropha gossypifolia in India.  

PubMed

A severe yellow vein mosaic disease was noticed on several Jatropha gossypifolia plants growing nearby agriculture fields at Lucknow, India. Diseased plants exhibited yellow vein mosaic, leaf deformation, vein swelling and stunting. A population of whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) was also noticed in the vicinities; therefore, begomovirus infection was suspected. To confirm begomovirus association, total DNA was isolated from symptomatic leaf samples and subjected to PCR using DNA-A, DNA-B and DNA-?-specific primers. DNA-A and DNA-? was successfully amplified but several attempts failed to amplify DNA-B indicating monopartite nature of the begomovirus. The sequence analysis of amplicons revealed the presence of 2757 nucleotides of DNA-A genome (EU727086) and 1315 nt of DNA-? molecule (EU604296). The sequence analysis of DNA-A (EU727086) revealed the highest 96% identities and closest relationship with Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (CYVMV, AJ507777) infecting Croton bonplandianum in India. The DNA-? (EU604296) showed the highest 96% sequence identity and closest phylogenetic relationship with CYVMV-associated DNA-? (AM410551) isolated from Croton sp. in Pakistan. Based on the highest sequence identities and closest phylogenetic relationships of the DNA-A genome and DNA-? molecule with respective sequences of various isolates of Croton yellow vein mosaic virus, the begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic disease of J. gossypifolia was identified as an isolate of Croton yellow vein mosaic virus. PMID:21479677

Snehi, S K; Khan, M S; Raj, S K; Prasad, V

2011-04-09

4

Squash vein yellowing virus, a novel ipomovirus, isolated from squash and watermelon in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel whitefly-transmitted member of the family Potyviridae was isolated from a squash plant (Cucurbita pepo) with vein yellowing symptoms in Florida. The virus, for which the name Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is proposed, has flexuous rod-shaped particles of ~840 nm in length. SqVYV was ...

5

A PCR BASED ASSAY FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF CLOVER YELLOW VEIN VIRUS AND BEAN YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS IN COMMON BEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Clover yellow vein virus (CYVV) and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) (Family: Potyviridae) are important viruses of snap and dry bean. Serological differentiation of the two viruses has typically been difficult because of the close relationship between their respective coat proteins. An RT-PCR assa...

6

Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta from north India.  

PubMed

Yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta in northern India was found to be associated with a distinct begomovirus species. Except the AC1 gene, this begomovirus isolate shares low sequence identity with the Mesta yellow vein mosaic virus reported to be associated with a similar disease of mesta from eastern India. PMID:18696007

Das, Subha; Ghosh, Raju; Paul, Sujay; Roy, Anirban; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar

2008-08-12

7

VEIN YELLOWING OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS CAUSED BY EGGPLANT MOTTLED DWARF VIRUS IN SOUTHERN ITALY  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV) was detected for the first time in southern Italy in several Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. plants with vein yellowing. The virus was identified by the reactions of a herbaceous host range, cytopathology and serology. Virions were ob- served only in the nuclei of infected cells where they ac- cumulated between the inner and outer lamella

A. De Stradis; G. Parrella; C. Vovlas; A. Ragozzino

2008-01-01

8

Nucleotide sequence of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus, a novel member of the Closteroviridae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of a novel member of the genus Crinivirus (family Closteroviridae), isolated from blackberry and tentatively named Blackberry yellow vein associated virus, was determined. The virus possesses a bipartite genome. RNA 1 is 7801 nucleotides in length and papain-like protease, methyltransferase, RNA helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motifs have been identified in the proteins coded for by

Ioannis E. Tzanetakis; James Susaimuthu; Rose C. Gergerich; Robert R. Martin

2006-01-01

9

Quantitative studies on resistance to Polymyxa betae and beet necrotic yellow vein virus in beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) causes rhizomania in sugar beet. The virus is transmitted by the soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae . Rhizomania in sugar beet can cause serious losses in sugar yield. Breeding for resistance is the most promising way to control the disease. Several aspects of quantitative screening for resistance to rhizomania were investigated. A greenhouse test was

H. Paul

1993-01-01

10

Complete nucleotide sequences of a distinct bipartite begomovirus, bitter gourd yellow vein virus, infecting Momordica charantia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae), a vegetable crop commonly cultivated throughout Pakistan, and begomoviruses, a serious threat to crop plants, are natives\\u000a of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Leaf samples of M. charantia with yellow vein symptoms typical of begomovirus infections and samples from apparently healthy plants were collected from\\u000a areas around Lahore in 2004. Full-length clones of a bipartite

Muhammad TahirMuhammad; Muhammad Saleem Haider; Rob W. Briddon

2010-01-01

11

Phylogenetic analysis of isolates of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus collected worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of molecular diversity was carried out on 136 sugar beets infected with Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV, Benyvirus) collected worldwide. The nucleotide sequences of the RNA-2-encoded CP, RNA-3-encoded p25 and RNA-5-encoded p26 proteins were analysed. The resulting phylogenetic trees allowed BNYVV to be classified into groups that show correlations between the virus clusters and geographic origins. The

Audrey Schirmer; Didier Link; Valerie Cognat; Monique Beuve; Alexandre Meunier; Claude Bragard; David Gilmer; Olivier Lemaire

2005-01-01

12

Low genetic diversity among Cucumber vein yellowing virus isolates from Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population structure and genetic diversity of Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) from Spain were estimated by analyses of partial nucleotide sequences of the P1-proteinase (P1-Pro), P3 protein (P3),\\u000a and the coat protein (CP) coding regions. Analysis of 56 CVYV Spanish field isolates collected from 2001 to 2005 showed low\\u000a genetic diversity (0.0026, 0.0013, and 0.0012 for the P1-Pro, P3,

Dirk Janssen; Leonardo Velasco; Germán Martín; Eduardo Segundo; Isabel Maria Cuadrado

2007-01-01

13

Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease in India is caused by association of a DNA Beta satellite with a begomovirus.  

PubMed

Yellow vein mosaic disease is the major limitation in the production of bhendi or okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), an important vegetable crop of India. This disease is caused by a complex consisting of the monopartite begomovirus Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus (BYVMV, family: Geminiviridae) and a small satellite DNA beta component. BYVMV can systemically infect bhendi upon agroinoculation but produces only mild leaf curling in this host. DNA beta induces typical symptoms of bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease (BYVMD) when co-agroinoculated with the begomovirus to bhendi. The DNA beta component associated with BYVMD has a number of features in common with those reported for ageratum yellow vein disease and cotton leaf curl disease. BYVMV represents a new member of the emerging group of monopartite begomoviruses requiring a satellite component for symptom induction. PMID:12573576

Jose, Joyce; Usha, Ramakrishnan

2003-01-20

14

Identification and sequence analysis of Potato yellow vein virus capsid protein minor gene.  

PubMed

Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV) is a whitefly-transmitted (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) closterovirus (WTC) with an as yet unidentified genome composition. PYVV dsRNA preparations consist of three high molecular weight dsRNA species (dsRNAs 1, 2 and 3) 8.0, 5.5 and 4.0 kbp in size respectively, as well as two low molecular weight dsRNA species of 2.0 and 1.8 kbp (denoted x and y). The PYVV capsid protein minor (CPm) gene was identified on the dsRNA 3 species, and was subsequently cloned and sequenced. The PYVV CPm gene is 2022 nucleotides long and putatively encodes a protein with estimated size 77.5 kDa. The PYVV CPm gene product is considerably larger than the equivalent proteins encoded by the bipartite criniviruses, Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) (52 and 53 kDa, respectively). The PYVV CPm possesses a centralized domain which is absent from both the LIYV and CYSDV CPm counterparts. Pairwise comparisons as well as phylogenetic analysis based on the available amino acid sequences of the CPm of various WTCs, showed that PYVV is closely related to LIYV, CYSDV and also Beet pseudo-yellows virus. PMID:12881642

Livieratos, Ioannis C; Muller, Giovanna; Salazar, Luis F; Eliasco, Eleonora; Coutts, Robert H A

2002-12-01

15

Distribution, epidemiology and molecular variability of the begomovirus complexes associated with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta in India.  

PubMed

Yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta (Hibiscus spp.) poses a serious threat to the cultivation of this crop in India. The disease was found to be associated with two different whitefly-transmitted monopartite begomoviruses, Mesta yellow vein mosaic virus and Mesta yellow vein mosaic Bahraich virus, together with two betasatellite species, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite and Ludwigia leaf distortion betasatellite. These begomovirus complexes were detected in different combinations throughout the mesta growing regions of India. All the eight cultivars tested were highly susceptible to the disease. The effect of the disease in terms of loss in fibre yield was greatest (around 70%) in plants that were inoculated at an early stage of growth. A regression approach was adopted to consider the relationship of whitefly vector populations with weather conditions and disease spread which explained that different conducive weather factors facilitated the build up of whitefly populations and contributed to the spread of the disease. PMID:19428737

Roy, Anirban; Acharyya, Sanchalika; Das, Subha; Ghosh, Raju; Paul, Sujay; Srivastava, Ram Kumar; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar

2009-01-31

16

Adaptation from whitefly to leafhopper transmission of an autonomously replicating nanovirus-like DNA component associated with ageratum yellow vein disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ageratum yellow vein disease is caused by the whitefly-transmitted monopartite begomovirus Ageratum yellow vein virus and a DNA b satellite component. Naturally occurring symptomatic plants also contain an autonomously replicating nano- virus-like DNA 1 component that relies on the begomovirus and DNA b for systemic spread and whitefly transmission but is not required for main- tenance of the disease. Here,

Keith Saunders; Ian D. Bedford; John Stanley

2002-01-01

17

The begomoviruses Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus and Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus with DNAbeta satellites cause yellow dwarf disease of tomato.  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequences of two begomoviruses (Nara virus-1 and Nara virus-2), a satellite DNA (DNAbeta-Nara) and defective DNAs were obtained from honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) showing characteristic yellow vein mosaic symptoms in Nara Prefecture, Japan. One begomovirus (Ibaraki virus) and a satellite DNA (DNAbeta-Ibaraki) was isolated and cloned from honeysuckle plants exhibited typical yellowing of veins and small elliptical shaped enations along veins on the under side of the leaves in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. The genome organization of the three viruses is the same as those of other Old World monopartite begomoviruses. Nara virus-1 had overall nucleotide sequence identity with Nara virus-2 of 94% and Ibaraki virus of 90%. DNAbeta-Nara had overall nucleotide sequence identity with DNAbeta-Ibaraki of 83%. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences with other begomoviruses revealed that Nara virus-1 and Nara virus-2 are strains of Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus (HYVMV), hence named as HYVMV-Nara1 and HYVMV-Nara2, whereas Ibaraki virus was a strain of Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus (TbLCJV), designated as TbLCJV-Hs[Iba]. HYVMV-Nara1 and HYVMV-Nara2 have hybrid genomes, which are likely to have formed recombination between HYVMV and TbLCJV. TbLCJV-Hs[Iba] or HYVMV-Nara2 could infect and cause yellowing, leaf crinkling and stunting symptoms when partial tandem dimeric constructs were agroinoculated on tomato plants. However, in the presence of DNAbeta, both TbLCJV-Hs[Iba] or HYVMV-Nara2 produced more severe stunting symptoms in tomato plants. Therefore, these viruses along with their satellites are causal agents of tomato yellow dwarf disease in Japan, and honeysuckle acts as a potential reservoir host. Previously available evidence indicated that DNAbeta elements do not contain iteron sequences of their helper viruses; hence this is the first evidence that DNAbeta satellites have the iteron of their helper virus. PMID:18722488

Ogawa, T; Sharma, P; Ikegami, M

2008-09-13

18

Squash vein yellowing virus detection using nested polymerase chain reaction demonstrates Momordica charantia is a reservoir host  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a recently described ipomovirus from cucurbits in Florida that induces the relatively unusual symptoms in watermelon of plant death and fruit rind necrosis and discoloration, commonly known in Florida as watermelon vine decline. In this report, we demonstrate ...

19

Beet necrotic yellow vein virus accumulates inside resting spores and zoosporangia of its vector Polymyxa betae BNYVV infects P. betae  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plasmodiophorids and chytrids are zoosporic parasites of algae and land plant and are distributed worldwide. There are 35 species belonging to the order Plasmodiophorales and three species, Polymyxa betae, P. graminis, and Spongospora subterranea, are plant viral vectors. Plasmodiophorid transmitted viruses are positive strand RNA viruses belonging to five genera. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and its vector,

Jeanmarie Verchot Lubicz; Charles M Rush; Mark Payton; Terry Colberg

2007-01-01

20

Distribution and molecular characterization of resistance-breaking isolates of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is the causal agent of rhizomania disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The virus is transmitted by the plasmodiophorid Polymyxa betae. The disease can only be controlled effectively by the use of partially resistant cultivars. During 2003 and 2004 in the ...

21

Evidence that Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus RNA4 Is Essential for Efficient Transmission by the Fungus Polymyxa betae  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The efficiency of transmission by Polymyxa betae of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) isolates containing different RNA components was compared using sugar- beet seedlings as test plants. Isolate S-4, containing RNA-1 + 2 + 4, was transmitted by P. betae about 100 times more efficiently than isolate S-3 (RNA-1 + 2 + 3) and about 1000 times more

TETSUO TAMADA; HIDEO ABE

1989-01-01

22

Identification and characterization of citrus yellow vein clearing virus, a putative new member of the genus Mandarivirus.  

PubMed

Molecular features and genomic organization were determined for Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVCV), the putative viral causal agent of yellow vein clearing disease of lemon trees, reported in Pakistan, India, and more recently in Turkey and China. CYVCV isolate Y1 from Adana, Turkey, was used for deep sequencing analysis of the virus-induced small RNA fractions and for mechanical and graft inoculation of herbaceous and citrus indicator plants. A polyclonal antiserum was developed from CYVCV-Y1 purified from Phaseolus vulgaris and used in western blot assays to characterize the coat protein of CYVCV-Y1 and determine its serological relationship with related viruses. Contigs assembled from the Illumina sequenced short reads were used to construct the whole genome of Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVCV), consisting in a positive-sense RNA of 7,529 nucleotides and containing six predicted open reading frames. The CYVCV genome organization and size resembled that of flexiviruses, and search for sequence homologies revealed that Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) (Mandarivirus, Alphaflexiviridae) is the most closely related virus. However, CYVCV had an overall nucleotide sequence identity of ?74% with ICRSV. Although the two viruses were similar with regard to genome organization, viral particles, and herbaceous host range, CYVCV caused different symptoms in citrus and was serologically distinct from ICRSV. Primer pairs were designed and used to detect the virus by conventional and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on yellow vein clearing symptomatic field trees as well as graft- and mechanically inoculated host plants. Collectively, these data suggest that CYVCV is the causal agent of yellow vein clearing disease and represents a new species in the genus Mandarivirus. PMID:22913410

Loconsole, G; Onelge, N; Potere, O; Giampetruzzi, A; Bozan, O; Satar, S; De Stradis, A; Savino, V; Yokomi, R K; Saponari, M

2012-12-01

23

Occurrence of two different types of RNA5-containing beet necrotic yellow vein virus in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Two types of RNA-5-containing beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) have been detected in the UK at different sites in Norfolk.\\u000a On the basis of nucleotide (nt) sequence comparisons, one virus source (UK-MH) was clearly identified as P type BNYVV, a virus\\u000a type that had previously only been detected in two widely separated parts of the world, France and Kazakhstan.

L. Ward; R. Koenig; G. Budge; C. Garrido; C. McGrath; H. Stubbley; N. Boonham

2007-01-01

24

Use of zoospores of Polymyxa betae in screening beet seedlings for resistance to beet necrotic yellow vein virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system to culture viruliferousPolymyxa betae and to produce zoospores is described. The zoo spores were used for inoculation of beet seedlings, grown in nutrient solution,\\u000a in tests for resistance to beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). On most occasions in a time course experiment, and with\\u000a various zoospore cultures, the partially resistant cultivar Rima and the accession Holly-1–4 had

H. Paul; B. Henken; O. E. Scholten; W. Lange

1993-01-01

25

Genome organization of ageratum yellow vein virus, a monopartite whitefly-transmitted geminivirus isolated from a common weed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-length copy of a single genomic component of the whitefly-transmitted geminivirus ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV) has been cloned from an extract of infected Ageratum conyzoides originating from Singapore. Sequence analysis shows that the genomic component encodes two virion-sense (V1 and V2) and four complementary-sense open reading frames (C1-C4), Phaseolus vulgaris and Lycopersicon esculentum when introduced into plants by

Priscilla H. N. Tan; Sek Man Wong; Mian Wu; Ian D. Bedford; Keith Saunders; John Stanley

1995-01-01

26

Evidence for recombination among isolates of Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus and Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Complete nucleotide sequences of Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus (TbLCJV) isolates from infected tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum) plants in Nara (-[Jp2], 2764 nt; -[Jp3], 2761 nt), Kochi (-[Koc], 2760 nt) and Yamaguchi (-[Yam], 2758 nt) Prefectures, of Japan were determined. These sequences were compared with each other and the sequences of further begomoviruses from Japan. TbLCJV, TbLCJV-[Jp2], TbLCJV-[Jp3], TbLCJV-[Koc], TbLCJV-[Yam], Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus (HYVMV), Eupatorium yellow vein virus (EpYVV), EpYVV-[MNS2], EpYVV-[SOJ3], EpYVV-[Yam] and EpYVV-[Tob] are monophyletic. The intergenic region (IR) of TbLCJV has highest nucleotide sequence identity with that of HYVMV (93%) whereas the rest of the genomic DNA had higher identity with that of TbLCJV-[Jp2] or -[Jp3] (91 approximately 100%) than with that of HYVMV. In conclusion, TbLCJV has a chimeric genome which may have arisen by recombination between TbLCV-[Jp2] or -[Jp3]-like and HYVMV-like ancestors. Similarly, TbLCJV-[Yam] DNA has a hybrid genome, with a major parent HYVMV and minor parent TbLCJV-[Koc]. PMID:15168208

Kitamura, K; Murayama, A; Ikegami, M

2004-02-16

27

Host range and genetic diversity of croton yellow vein mosaic virus, a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causing leaf curl disease in tomato.  

PubMed

Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (CYVMV) is a widely occurring begomovirus in Croton bonplandianum, a common weed in the Indian subcontinent. In this study, CYVMV (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) was transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) to as many as 35 plant species belonging to 11 families, including many vegetables, tobacco varieties, ornamentals and weeds. CYVMV produced bright yellow vein symptoms in croton, whereas in all the other host species, the virus produced leaf curl symptoms. CYVMV produced leaf curl in 13 tobacco species and 22 cultivars of Nicotiana tabacum and resembled tobacco leaf curl virus (TobLCV) in host reactions. However, CYVMV was distinguished from TobLCV in four differential hosts, Ageratum conyzoides, C. bonplandianum, Euphorbia geniculata and Sonchus bracyotis. The complete genome sequences of four isolates originating from northern, eastern and southern India revealed that a single species of DNA-A and a betasatellite, croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite (CroYVMB) were associated with the yellow vein mosaic disease of croton. The sequence identity among the isolates of CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB occurring in diverse plant species was 91.8-97.9 % and 83.3-100 %, respectively. The CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB generated through rolling-circle amplification of the cloned DNAs produced typical symptoms of yellow vein mosaic and leaf curling in croton and tomato, respectively. The progeny virus from both the croton and tomato plants was transmitted successfully by B. tabaci. The present study establishes the etiology of yellow vein mosaic disease of C. bonplandianum and provides molecular evidence that a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causes leaf curl in tomato. PMID:23096697

Pramesh, D; Mandal, Bikash; Phaneendra, Chigurupati; Muniyappa, V

2012-10-25

28

Tobacco streak virus isolated from lettuce.  

PubMed

Tobacco streak virus (TSV) is an ilarvirus with a worldwide distribution. This virus infects many plants and causes significant yield losses. In this study, 300 samples of lettuce were collected from lettuce fields in Tehran Province. Infected plants show symptoms such as: mosaic, vein clearing, vein necrosis, yellowing and leaf distortion. DAS-ELISA (Double Antibody Sandwich-ELISA) was used with a polyclonal antiserum against TSV. Five isolates (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), which are collected, respectively from Mohammad Abad (Karaj), Malek Abad (Karaj), Hashtgerd (Karaj), Tarand Balla (Varamin) and Deh mah sin (Pishva) were inoculated on 29 species of Cucurbitaceae, Amaranthaceae, Solanacea, Compositae, Leguminosae and Chenopodiacea. Chenopodium quinoa 6 days after inoculation showed necrotic local lesions. Gomphrena globosa 10 days after inoculation developed chlorotic local lesions. Systemic symptoms were produced in Datura stramonium. Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Red Kidney 5 days after inoculation developed necrotic local lesions. Nicotiana tabacum 7 days after inoculation showed necrotic and chlorotic local lesions. Nicotiana clevelandii 15 days after inoculation developed leaf distortion and vein necrosis. Lactuca sativa 10-15 days after inoculation developed leaf istortion and mosaic. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using one primer pairs designed by DSMZ. An approximately 710 bp fragment was amplified with a specific primer. PMID:19634475

Abtahi, F S; Khodai Motlagh, M

2009-05-01

29

Primitive Streak, Oblique Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This FlashTM animation is the seventh and last of a series that presents the primitive streak from different angles. This installment displays the streak from an oblique angle, which provides an overview of simultaneous processes. Cells that ingress through the steak early insert into the underlying hypoblast and differentiate into endodermal cells. The notochordal process emerges from HensenÃÂs node. Mesenchyme dissociates from the streak and spreads throughout the germ disc. The distal end of the notochordal process fuses with the endoderm and flattens into the notochordal plate. The plate dissociates form the endoderm to form the solid notochord. Eventually the streak completely regresses, leaving the three germ layers; ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm, with the notochord buried in the paraxial mesoderm. To open the animation using Internet Explorer follow these steps. (1.) Click the link for the animation. (2.) A dialog box may pop up that begins with the statement "Windows cannot open this file:" If this box does not appear proceed to step four. If it does choose "Select the program from a list," then click OK. (3.) Another dialog box will pop up that lists different programs. Make sure "Internet Explorer" is selected, then click OK. (4.) Internet Explorer will pop up. Beneath the toolbars at the top of the window a yellow bar will appear that reads "To help protect your security, Internet Explorer has restricted this webpage from running scripts or Active X controls that could access your computer. Click here for options..." Pass the cursor over this yellow bar and click the right mouse button. (5.) A dialog box will pop up. Left click the option "Allow Blocked Content." (6.) Another dialog box will appear labeled "Security Warning" asking you to confirm that you want to run the content. Click "Yes." (7.) The Flash animation will appear in the Internet Explorer Window. (8.) Instructions for navigating the lesson are provided by the first frame of the animation.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

2011-06-23

30

In situ localization of the non-structural protein P25 encoded by beet necrotic yellow vein virus RNA 3.  

PubMed

The in situ localization of the non-structural protein P25 encoded by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) RNA 3 and of the BNYVV coat protein (CP) was studied by immunoelectron microscopy in infected leaf and root cells of Chenopodium murale and C. quinoa. The CP was detected in the cytoplasm of all cell types except xylem, sieve elements, and companion cells. P25 was detected in the cytoplasm and nuclei of the same cell types. The intensity of CP labelling varied depending upon the stage of infection of the cell, whereas the P25 labelling intensity was similar in newly infected cells and in cels at later stages of infection. These results suggest that P25 may be synthesized at an earlier stage of infection than CP. Its presence in the nuclei of newly infected cells may be related to the reported effect of P25 on leaf symptom development. PMID:7897353

Haeberlé, A M; Stussi-Garaud, C

1995-03-01

31

Effect of sugar beet cultivars with different levels of resistance to beet necrotic yellow vein virus on transmission of virus by Polymyxa betae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of resistance of sugar beet cultivars to beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) on virus content of resting spore clusters of the vectorPolymyxa betae was studied in controlled environments and in naturally infested fields. The total number of resting spore clusters formed in roots of a partially resistant and a susceptible cultivar did not differ when assessed 6

G. Tuitert; P. M. S. Musters-van Oorschot; W. Heijbroek

1994-01-01

32

Epidemiology of beet necrotic yellow vein virus in sugar beet at different initial inoculum levels in the presence or absence of irrigation: Dynamics of inoculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using field plots where rhizomania had not previously been detected, different inoculum levels of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) were created by application of infested soil. A susceptible sugar beet cultivar (cv. Regina) was grown for two consecutive years (1988 and 1989), in the presence or absence of drip irrigation. In soil samples taken in spring 1989, the different

G. Tuitert; Y. Hofmeester

1992-01-01

33

Epidemiology of beet necrotic yellow vein virus in sugar beet at different initial inoculum levels in the presence or absence of irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was set up in 1988 to study the development of rhizomania disease of sugar beet at different inoculum levels of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) in soil. Five, tenfold different, inoculum levels were created by addition of the approximate amounts of 0, 0.5, 5, 50 and 500 kg infested soil per ha (the latter corresponding to

G. Tuitert; Y. Hofmeester

1994-01-01

34

Rhizomania as seen from inside the beet cell: Identifying proteome differences between sugarbeet infected with Beet necrotic yellow vein virus and healthy sugarbeet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is one of the most economically important diseases affecting sugarbeet. The disease is characterized by excessive growth of lateral roots and constriction of the taproot, the main sucrose storage site in sugarbeet, resulting in decreased ...

35

Etiology and transmission of mottle streak disease of finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four stages in the development of symptoms commencing from small specks to total yellowing were observed in finger millet infected by mottle streak disease. Presence of bacilliform Rhabdovirus particles was ascertained under electron microscope in all the leaf samples that exhibited varying degrees of mottle streak infection, viz. mottling, streaking, striping and yellowing. Different buffers at various pH were attempted

Kandhasamy Saveetha; Ambalavanan Sankaralingam; Rajendra Pant; Ayyasami Ramanathan

2007-01-01

36

In situ localisation of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) in rootlets of susceptible and resistant beet plants.  

PubMed

Mechanisms of resistance to beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) were studied by comparing the multiplication and distribution of BNYVV in root tissue of some beet accessions. Seedlings were infected either by soil containing resting spores of Polymyxa betae with BNYVV, or by a viruliferous zoospore suspension. With both inoculation methods high virus concentrations were obtained in rootlets of the susceptible cultivar 'Regina'. Using infested soil, low virus concentrations were found in the partially resistant cultivar 'Rima' and in the resistant accessions Holly and WB42. When a zoospore suspension was used, similar virus concentrations occurred in 'Rima' and Holly as in 'Regina', while a low virus concentration was found in WB42. By in situ localisation studies, using immunogold-silver labelling, virus was detected in 'Regina' after infection by soil or a zoospore suspension, but it could only be detected in the resistant accessions after infection by a zoospore suspension. In rootlets of 'Regina', 'Rima' and Holly, virus was found in the epidermis, cortex parenchyma, endodermis, and interstitial parenchyma, but in general not inside the vascular tissue. In WB42 the virus, occurring in small aggregates, seemed to be restricted to the epidermis and some cortex parenchyma cells. Comparing both the multiplication and distribution of BNYVV in rootlets of the accessions studied, it is concluded that the virus resistance mechanism in 'Rima' and Holly is different from that in WB42. PMID:8031238

Scholten, O E; Paul, H; Peters, D; Van Lent, J W; Goldbach, R W

1994-01-01

37

Functional characterization of the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus RNA-5-encoded p26 protein: evidence for structural pathogenicity determinants.  

PubMed

A Beet necrotic yellow vein virus isolate containing a fifth RNA is present in the Pithiviers area of France. A full-length cDNA clone of RNA-5 was obtained and placed under the control of a T(7)-RNA-pol promoter that allowed the production of infectious transcripts. "Pithiviers" isolate-specific necrotic symptoms were obtained on Chenopodium quinoa when RNA-5-encoded p26 was expressed either from RNA-5 or from an RNA-3-derived replicon. By using haemagglutinin- and green fluorescent protein-tagged constructs, virally expressed p26-fusion proteins induced the same necrotic local lesions on host plants and were localized mainly in the nucleus of infected cells. Deletion mutagenesis permitted identification of two domains, responsible respectively for nuclear export and cytoplasmic retention of the p26 mutated proteins. By using a yeast two-hybrid system, Gal4DB-p26 protein self-activated transcription of the His3 reporter gene. The p26 transcription-activation domain was located within its first 55 aa and has been studied by alanine scanning. Resulting p26 mutants were tested for their capability to induce necrotic symptoms and to localize in the nuclear compartment. PMID:15958690

Link, Didier; Schmidlin, Laure; Schirmer, Audrey; Klein, Elodie; Erhardt, Mathieu; Geldreich, Angèle; Lemaire, Olivier; Gilmer, David

2005-07-01

38

Molecular analyses of European A, B and P type sources of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus and detection of the rare P type in Kazakhstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Nucleotide sequence analyses revealed that the genomes of the various European types of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), i.e. the A, B and P types, are strongly conserved. Almost identical sequences were found, for instance, for A types\\u000a originating from The Netherlands, Italy and former Yugoslavia; these sequences were also almost identical to those determined\\u000a c. 15 years ago

R. Koenig; B.-L. Lennefors

2000-01-01

39

Vascular movement of beet necrotic yellow vein virus in Beta macrocarpa is probably dependent on an RNA 3 sequence domain rather than a gene product  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNAs 1 and 2 of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) carry the functions enabling viral RNA replication, cell-to-cell movement, virus assembly and vascular movement of the virus in the systemic host Spinacea oleracea .I nBeta macrocarpa ,o n the other hand, BNYVV RNA 3 is required for vascular movement. Replication-competent RNA 3 trans- cripts carrying various point mutations and

Emmanuelle Lauber; H. Guilley; T. Tamada; K. E. Richards; G. Jonard

1998-01-01

40

Replication promiscuity of DNA-beta satellites associated with monopartite begomoviruses; deletion mutagenesis of the Ageratum yellow vein virus DNA-beta satellite localizes sequences involved in replication.  

PubMed

Pseudorecombination studies in Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrate that Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV) and Eupatorium yellow vein virus (EpYVV) can functionally interact with DNA-beta satellites associated with AYVV, EpYVV, cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV) and honeysuckle yellow vein virus (HYVV). In contrast, CLCuMV shows some specificity in its ability to interact with distinct satellites and HYVV is able to interact only with its own satellite. Using an N. benthamiana leaf disk assay, we have demonstrated that HYVV is unable to trans-replicate other satellites. To investigate the basis of trans-replication compatibility, deletion mutagenesis of AYVV DNA-beta has been used to localize the origin of replication to approximately 360 nt, encompassing the ubiquitous nonanucleotide/stem-loop structure, satellite conserved region (SCR) and part of the intergenic region immediately upstream of the SCR. Additional deletions within this intergenic region have identified a region that is essential for replication. The capacity for DNA-beta satellites to functionally interact with distinct geminivirus species and its implications for disease diversification are discussed. PMID:19008407

Saunders, Keith; Briddon, Rob W; Stanley, John

2008-12-01

41

Mapping of functional region conferring nuclear localization and karyopherin ?-binding activity of the C2 protein of bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease is caused by a complex consisting of a monopartite begomovirus associated with a ?-satellite. The C2 protein of bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus (BYVMV) is a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing and also functions as a transcriptional activator. To explore the molecular mechanisms of its nuclear trafficking and self-interaction, fusion proteins of fluorescent proteins with wild-type or mutated constructs of BYVMV C2 were expressed in tobacco protoplasts. Analyses revealed that the BYVMV C2 nuclear localization signal (NLS) was located in the N terminus of the protein, comprising aa 17-31 of C2. NLSs are recognized by a class of soluble transport receptors termed karyopherins ? and ?. The BYVMV C2 NLS was found to be necessary for this protein's interaction with its nuclear import mediator, karyopherin ?, ensuring its nuclear localization. Nevertheless, when deleted, C2 was found in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, suggesting NLS-independent nuclear import of this protein. Homotypic interaction of BYVMV C2 was also found, which correlates with the nuclear localization needed for efficient activation of transcription. PMID:22357749

Chandran, Sam A; Levy, Yael; Mett, Anahit; Belausov, Eduard; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Gafni, Yedidya

2012-02-22

42

Efficient dsRNA-mediated transgenic resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus in sugar beets is not affected by other soilborne and aphid-transmitted viruses.  

PubMed

Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is one of the most devastating sugar beet diseases. Sugar beet plants engineered to express a 0.4 kb inverted repeat construct based on the BNYVV replicase gene accumulated the transgene mRNA to similar levels in leaves and roots, whereas accumulation of the transgene-homologous siRNA was more pronounced in roots. The roots expressed high levels of resistance to BNYVV transmitted by the vector, Polymyxa betae. Resistance to BNYVV was not decreased following co-infection of the plants with Beet soil borne virus and Beet virus Q that share the same vector with BNYVV. Similarly, co-infection with the aphid-transmitted Beet mild yellowing virus, Beet yellows virus (BYV), or with all of the aforementioned viruses did not affect the resistance to BNYVV, while they accumulated in roots. These viruses are common in most of the sugar beet growing areas in Europe and world wide. However, there was a competitive interaction between BYV and BMYV in sugar beet leaves, as infection with BYV decreased the titres of BMYV. Other interactions between the viruses studied were not observed. The results suggest that the engineered resistance to BNYVV expressed in the sugar beets of this study is efficient in roots and not readily compromised following infection of the plants with heterologous viruses. PMID:17431806

Lennefors, Britt-Louise; van Roggen, Petra M; Yndgaard, Flemming; Savenkov, Eugene I; Valkonen, Jari P T

2007-04-13

43

Primitive Streak (dorsal view)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This FlashTM animation is the first of a seven part series that presents the primitive streak from different angles. This installment displays the dorsal view, which provides an overview of elongation and regression. Epiblast is seen migrating medially, towards and into the streak. The appearance of the neural tube and somites demonstrates that morphogenesis commences before the streak recedes away.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

2011-06-23

44

Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus, Beet Soilborne Virus, and Beet Virus Q and Their Vector Polymyxa betae KESKIN on Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three soilborne viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae KESKIN in sugar beet have been described: Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the agent of rhizomania, Beet soilborne virus (BSBV), and Beet virus Q (BVQ). A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR technique was developed to simultaneously detect BNYVV, BSBV, and BVQ, together with their vector, P. betae. The detection threshold of the test was

Alexandre Meunier; Jean-Francois Schmit; Arnaud Stas; Nazli Kutluk; Claude Bragard

2003-01-01

45

Analysis of the RNA of Potato yellow vein virus: evidence for a tripartite genome and conserved 3'-terminal structures among members of the genus Crinivirus.  

PubMed

Double-stranded RNA preparations produced from potato plants graft-inoculated with a Peruvian isolate of Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV; genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae) contain five RNA species denoted RNA 1, RNA 2, RNA 3, x and y of approximately 8, 5.3, 3.8, 2.0 and 1.8 kbp, respectively. The complete nucleotide sequences of PYVV RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and Northern hybridization analysis showed that PYVV RNA 1 contained the replication module and an additional open reading frame (p7), while two distinct species, RNAs 2 and 3, contain the Closteroviridae hallmark gene array. Pairwise comparisons and phylogeny of genome-encoded proteins showed that PYVV shares significant homology with other criniviruses but is most closely related to the Trialeurodes vaporariorum-vectored Cucumber yellows virus. Secondary structure prediction of the 3'-untranslated regions of all three PYVV RNAs revealed four conserved stem-loop structures and a 3'-terminal pseudoknot structure, also predicted for all fully characterized members of the genus Crinivirus and some members of the genera Closterovirus and Ampelovirus. PMID:15218192

Livieratos, I C; Eliasco, E; Müller, G; Olsthoorn, R C L; Salazar, L F; Pleij, C W A; Coutts, R H A

2004-07-01

46

Microchannel plate streak camera  

DOEpatents

An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (uv to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 keV x-rays.

Wang, C.L.

1984-09-28

47

Microchannel plate streak camera  

DOEpatents

An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras is disclosed. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1,000 KeV x-rays. 3 figs.

Wang, C.L.

1989-03-21

48

Microchannel plate streak camera  

DOEpatents

An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.

Wang, Ching L. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01

49

Comparison of Streak Tube Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of four streak tubes in six streak camera configurations is reported. Evaluations were made as part of a search for a streak tube to replace the obsolete RCA C73435 used in the ICF Program's optical streak cameras. Characteristics measured...

R. A. Lerche D. S. Andrews P. M. Bell R. L. Griffiths A. W. Huey J. W. McDonald G. Vergel de Dios

2004-01-01

50

Identification of sequences required for AL2-mediated activation of the tomato golden mosaic virus-yellow vein BR1 promoter.  

PubMed

A 108 bp sequence has been identified in the tomato golden mosaic virus-yellow vein (yvTGMV) B component that is necessary and sufficient for AL2-mediated activation of the BR1 promoter. The sequence appears to have a bipartite arrangement, with elements located between -144 to -77 and -59 to -36 from the transcription start site, with both being required for activation by AL2. These sequences are located upstream of a TATA box and bind nuclear proteins from spinach, tomato and Arabidopsis. These sequences are also capable of binding Arabidopsis PPD2, which has been shown previously to interact with the yvTGMV coat protein (CP) promoter. We have identified two putative transcription factor-binding sites (CCAAT and GTGANTG10) that are conserved in sequences necessary for activation of the yvTGMV BR1, as well as the yvTGMV and cabbage leaf curl virus (CabLCV) CP promoters, which are all activated by AL2. The yvTGMV BR1 promoter exhibits AL2-independent expression in vascular tissue, similar to the yvTGMV, CabLCV and spinach curly top virus CP promoters. Together, this further confirms a common regulatory mechanism for AL2-mediated activation of bipartite begomovirus promoters. PMID:23486662

Berger, Mary R; Sunter, Garry

2013-03-13

51

Expression of single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) specific for beet necrotic yellow vein virus coat protein or 25 kDa protein in Escherichia coli and Nicotiana benthamiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coding sequences for the variable regions of heavy and light chains of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) coat protein (cp) or the 25 kDa nonstructural protein (P25) were cloned into the pCOCK vector and expressed as single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) in Escherichia coli. For expression in higher plants the scFv were targeted either to

Lothar F. Fecker; Andrea Kaufmann; Ulrich Commandeur; Judith Commandeur; Renate Koenig; Wolfgang Burgermeister

1996-01-01

52

The distinct disease phenotypes of the common and yellow vein strains of Tomato golden mosaic virus are determined by nucleotide differences in the 3«-terminal region of the gene encoding the movement protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Nicotiana benthamiana, the common strain of the bipartite geminivirus Tomato golden mosaic virus (csTGMV) induces extensive chlorosis whereas the yellow vein strain (yvTGMV) produces veinal chlorosis on systemically infected leaves. In Datura stramonium, csTGMV produces leaf distortion and a severe chlorotic mosaic whereas yvTGMV produces only small chlorotic lesions on systemically infected leaves. Genetic recombination and site-directed mutagenesis studies

Keith Saunders; Christina Wege; Karuppannan Veluthambi; Holger Jeske; John Stanley

53

A series of eIF4E alleles at the Bc-3 locus are associated with recessive resistance to Clover yellow vein virus in common bean.  

PubMed

Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) is capable of causing severe damage to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide. The snap bean market class is particularly vulnerable because infection may lead to distortion and necrosis of the fresh green pods and rejection of the harvest. Three putatively independent recessive genes (cyv, desc, bc-3) have been reported to condition resistance to ClYVV; however, their allelic relationships have not been resolved. We identified, evaluated, and characterized the phenotypic and molecular genetic variation present in 21 informative common bean genotypes for resistance to ClYVV. Allelism testing phenotypes from multiple populations provided clear evidence that the three genes were a series of recessive alleles at the Bc-3 locus that condition unique potyvirus strain- and species-specific resistance spectra. Candidate gene analysis revealed complete association between the recessive resistance alleles and unique patterns of predicted amino acid substitutions in P. vulgaris eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (PveIF4E). This led to the discovery and characterization of two novel PveIF4E alleles associated with resistance to ClYVV, PveIF4E (3) , and PveIF4E (4) . We developed KASPar allele-specific SNP genotyping assays and demonstrated their ability to accurately detect and differentiate all of the PveIF4E haplotypes present in the germplasm, allelism testing, and in three separate segregating populations. The results contribute to an enhanced understanding and accessibility of the important potyvirus resistance conditioned by recessive alleles at Bc-3. The KASPar assays should be useful to further enable germplasm exploration, allelic discrimination, and marker-assisted introgression of bc-3 alleles in common bean. PMID:23933781

Hart, John P; Griffiths, Phillip D

2013-08-11

54

Evidence that the 75K readthrough protein of beet necrotic yellow vein virus RNA-2 is essential for transmission by the fungus Polymyxa betae.  

PubMed

Two mutant strains of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) containing deletion mutants of RNA-2 were produced during serial passage in mechanically inoculated Tetragonia expansa leaves. The mutant strains were referred to as S-0a (RNA-1 + 2a) and G-0b (RNA-1 + 2b). RNA-2a and RNA-2b were about 4.3 kb and 4.2 kb in length, respectively, whereas normal sized RNA-2 was about 4.8 kb in length. In vitro translation and immunoblot analysis showed that RNA-2, RNA-2a and RNA-2b all directed synthesis of the coat protein (Mr 22K). However, whereas wild-type RNA-2 also directed the synthesis of a coat protein readthrough protein with an Mr of 83K (predicted Mr 75K), RNA-2a and RNA-2b directed the production of readthrough proteins with MrS of 67K and 58K, respectively. This suggests that the deleted regions of RNA-2a and RNA-2b occur within the second open reading frame, which encodes a polypeptide of Mr 54K, which is translated by readthrough of the coat protein cistron. After the addition of wild-type RNA-3 and RNA-4 to all the strains, the mutant strains could not be transmitted by Polymyxa betae zoospores produced from either zoosporangia or resting spores, whereas the wild-type strains were readily transmitted. These results indicate that the 75K readthrough protein encoded by RNA-2 is essential for the transmission of BNYVV by P. betae. PMID:1856688

Tamada, T; Kusume, T

1991-07-01

55

The Primitive Streak, Cross Section  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This FlashTM animation is the third of a seven part series that presents the primitive streak from different angles. This installment displays the cross section, which is conducive to observing invagination. Epiblast cells ingress through the middle of the germ disc, to differentiate into either endoderm or mesenchymal mesoderm. The endoderm proliferates to drive the hypoblast into the extraembryonic endoderm of the yolk sac. The mesenchyme spreads between the epiblast and endoderm. Although not drawn to scale, the progressive thickening from lateral to paraxial mesoderm is depicted. To open the animation using Internet Explorer follow these steps. (1.) Click the link for the animation. (2.) A dialog box may pop up that begins with the statement "Windows cannot open this file:" If this box does not appear proceed to step four. If it does choose "Select the program from a list," then click OK. (3.) Another dialog box will pop up that lists different programs. Make sure "Internet Explorer" is selected, then click OK. (4.) Internet Explorer will pop up. Beneath the toolbars at the top of the window a yellow bar will appear that reads "To help protect your security, Internet Explorer has restricted this webpage from running scripts or Active X controls that could access your computer. Click here for options..." Pass the cursor over this yellow bar and click the right mouse button. (5.) A dialog box will pop up. Left click the option "Allow Blocked Content." (6.) Another dialog box will appear labeled "Security Warning" asking you to confirm that you want to run the content. Click "Yes." (7.) The Flash animation will appear in the Internet Explorer Window. (8.) Instructions for navigating the lesson are provided by the first frame of the animation.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

2011-06-23

56

Multiplex reverse transcription-PCR for simultaneous detection of beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Beet soilborne virus, and Beet virus Q and their vector Polymyxa betae KESKIN on sugar beet.  

PubMed

Three soilborne viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae KESKIN in sugar beet have been described: Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the agent of rhizomania, Beet soilborne virus (BSBV), and Beet virus Q (BVQ). A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR technique was developed to simultaneously detect BNYVV, BSBV, and BVQ, together with their vector, P. betae. The detection threshold of the test was up to 128 times greater than that of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Systematic association of BNYVV with one or two different pomoviruses was observed. BVQ was detected in samples from Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Sweden, and The Netherlands but not in samples from Turkey. PMID:12676720

Meunier, Alexandre; Schmit, Jean-François; Stas, Arnaud; Kutluk, Nazli; Bragard, Claude

2003-04-01

57

Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus, Beet Soilborne Virus, and Beet Virus Q and Their Vector Polymyxa betae KESKIN on Sugar Beet  

PubMed Central

Three soilborne viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae KESKIN in sugar beet have been described: Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the agent of rhizomania, Beet soilborne virus (BSBV), and Beet virus Q (BVQ). A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR technique was developed to simultaneously detect BNYVV, BSBV, and BVQ, together with their vector, P. betae. The detection threshold of the test was up to 128 times greater than that of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Systematic association of BNYVV with one or two different pomoviruses was observed. BVQ was detected in samples from Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Sweden, and The Netherlands but not in samples from Turkey.

Meunier, Alexandre; Schmit, Jean-Francois; Stas, Arnaud; Kutluk, Nazli; Bragard, Claude

2003-01-01

58

Attosecond angular streaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrashort measurement-time resolution is traditionally obtained in pump–probe experiments, for which two ultrashort light pulses are required; the time resolution is then determined by the pulse duration. But although pulses of subfemtosecond duration are available, so far the energy of these pulses is too low to fully implement the traditional pump–probe technique. Here, we demonstrate ‘attosecond angular streaking’, an alternative

Mathias Smolarski; Philip Schlup; Jens Biegert; André Staudte; Markus Schöffler; Harm G. Muller; Reinhard Dörner; Ursula Keller; Petrissa Eckle

2008-01-01

59

First Report of "Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous" (synonym "Ca. L. solanacearum") Associated with 'Tomato Vein-Greening' and 'Tomato psyllid yellows' Diseases in Commercial Greenhouses in Arizona  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During 2006-2007, tomato plants in two independent, commercial greenhouses in Arizona were infested with potato psyllid Paratrioza cockerelli. Over 60% and ~20% of plants in GH-1 and GH-2, respectively, exhibited leaf curling, stunting, and shortened internodes, and GH-1 plants also showed vein-gree...

60

Differential roles of C4 and betaC1 in mediating suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing: evidence for transactivation by the C2 of Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus, a monopartite begomovirus.  

PubMed

Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease (BYVMD) is caused by the association of a DNA beta satellite with a begomovirus component. The begomovirus component has two promoters, one in the virion sense (V-sense) and the other in the complementary sense (C-sense) in the intergenic region (IR). To study the promoter activities of V-sense and C-sense promoters, mGFP gene fusion was made downstream to the promoters. Transient and stable expressions in N. benthamiana leaves showed significant GFP expression under C-sense promoter whereas the expression under the V-sense promoter was very weak in the absence of the transactivator C2. Untransformed N. benthamiana plants were agroinfiltrated with binary vector constructs containing V-sense-GFP alone or along with C1, C2, C4, V1, V2 or betaC1 (in both sense and antisense orientations) to understand the roles of these gene products in transactivation and/or suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). The results showed strong suppression of gene silencing activities for C4 and betaC1 but a weak activity for C2. The suppression activities were also confirmed using gfp-silenced GFP16c/GFPi plants by agroinfiltration and agroinoculation. The expression of C4 and betaC1 as transgenes produced abnormal phenotypic growth compared to the other viral genes mentioned above, further supporting their suppressor function. PMID:16949698

Gopal, P; Pravin Kumar, P; Sinilal, B; Jose, J; Kasin Yadunandam, A; Usha, R

2006-09-01

61

Streak tube characterization for transient recording  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the methods used by EG and G Energy Measurements to characterize a streak tube. Both radiometric (QE, uniformity, gain, linearity, extinction ratio, opacity) and resolution (static, spatial, and temporal) tests are covered. The significance of these measurements with respect to streak camera applications is discussed. The results of the measurements on a streak tube designed and built

T. B. Jennings; R. W. Olsen

1987-01-01

62

Gated SIT vidicon streak tube  

SciTech Connect

A recently developed prototype streak tube designed to produce high gain and resolution by incorporating the streak and readout functions in one envelope thereby minimizing photon-to-change transformations and eliminating external coupling losses is presented. The tube is based upon a grid-gated Silicon-Intensified-Target Vidicon (SITV) with integral Focus Projection Scan (FPS) TV readout. Demagnifying electron optics (m=0.63) in the image section map the 40-mm-diameter photocathode image unto a 25-mm-diameter silicon target where gains greater than or equal to10/sup 3/ are achieved with only 10 KV accelerating voltage. This is compared with much lower gains (approx.50) at much higher voltages (approx.30 KV) reported for streak tubes using phosphor screens. Because SIT technology is well established means for electron imaging in vacuum, such fundamental problems as ''backside thinning'' required for electron imaging unto CCDs do not exist. The high spatial resolution (approx.30 lp/mm), variable scan formats, and high speed electrostatic deflection (250 mm/sup 2/ areas are routinely rastered with 256 scan lines in 1.6 ms) available from FPS readout add versatility not available in CCD devices. Theoretical gain and spatial resolution for this design (developed jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and General Electric Co.) are compared with similar calculations and measured data obtained for RCA 73435 streaks fiber optically coupled to (1) 25-mm-diameter SIT FPS vidicons and (2) 40-mm-diameter MCPTs (proximity-focused microchannel plate image intensifier tubes) fiber optically coupled to 18-mm-diameter Sb/sub 2/S/sub 3/ FPS vidicons. Sweep sensitivity, shutter ratio, and record lengths for nanosecond duration (20 to 200 ns) streak applications are discussed.

Dunbar, D.L.; Yates, G.J.; Black, J.P.

1985-01-01

63

Dark streaks on talus slopes, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution pictures of talus slopes on Mars show small, dark streaks that characteristically widen downward. These streaks are different from the thin and even streaks of various albedos that stream from cliffs on talus slopes, but gradations between the two streak types occur and not all streaks can be classified with confidence. In order to study the nature and origin of the small, widening, dark streaks, all Viking pictures with a resolution of less than 100 m/pixel were surveyed. To date several hundred streaks were located, but only few are of high enough resolution to be confidently identified as widening downwards. The approximate dimensions of the streaks were measured and their shapes, numbers, position, and spacing on slopes were noted. They were plotted on a topographic map, and their relation to topography, geologic units, and regions of distinct thermal inertia and albedo were studied. Also noted was the season at which images containing streaks were acquired and the direction of illumination. Albedo measurements are in progress. Several streaks can be seen stereoscopically, but none are observed on color images. The observation of small dark streaks on talus slopes on Mars is compatible with an interpretation of their origin as eruptions of small masses of wet debris in places where steep walls intersect aquifers or where seasonal equatorial warming permits the local melting of ground ice.

Ferguson, H. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.

1984-04-01

64

Numerical simulation of attosecond nanoplasmonic streaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of the temporal profile of plasmonic fields is important both from the fundamental point of view and for potential applications in ultrafast nanoplasmonics. It has been proposed by Stockman et al (2007 Nat. Photonics 1 539) that the plasmonic electric field can be directly measured by the attosecond streaking technique; however, streaking from nanoplasmonic fields differs from streaking in the gas phase because of the field localization on the nanoscale. To understand streaking in this new regime, we have performed numerical simulations of attosecond streaking from fields localized in nanoantennas. In this paper, we present simulated streaked spectra for realistic experimental conditions and discuss the plasmonic field reconstruction from these spectra. We show that under certain circumstances when spatial averaging is included, a robust electric field reconstruction is possible.

Skopalová, E.; Lei, D. Y.; Witting, T.; Arrell, C.; Frank, F.; Sonnefraud, Y.; Maier, S. A.; Tisch, J. W. G.; Marangos, J. P.

2011-08-01

65

Fiber-optic spectral-streak equalizer  

SciTech Connect

A spectral-streak equalizer was developed for use with an electronic streak camera to correct for material dispersion in optical fibers. Material dispersion occurs because different wavelengths of light travel at different speeds through glass fibers; the resulting difference in transit times broadens light pulses, which can lead to errors in certain scientific applications. This new instrument combines optical equalization and streak equalization techniques; it uses an array of optical fibers, as in the optical equalization technique, to partially compensate for the dispersion and uses the streak camera dynamics, as in the streak equalization technique, to complete the compensation. This paper examines the principles of equalization and compares several techniques, enumerates general and specific design considerations, outlines the calibration procedure, details efficiency estimates, describes testing techniques, gives calibration data and test results for spectral-streak equalizers currently in use, and draws conclusions from recent experience with these devices.

Reedy, R.P.; Roeske F. Jr.; Smith, D.E.

1985-07-01

66

Streak tube characterization for transient recording  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the methods used by EG and G Energy Measurements to characterize a streak tube. Both radiometric (QE, uniformity, gain, linearity, extinction ratio, opacity) and resolution (static, spatial, and temporal) tests are covered. The significance of these measurements with respect to streak camera applications is discussed. The results of the measurements on a streak tube designed and built by EG and G Amador Valley Operations are included as an illustration. 6 refs.

Jennings, T.B.; Olsen, R.W.

1987-01-01

67

Streak Breakdown Leading to Wall Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth and eventual breakdown of near-wall low-speed streaks are responsible for generating and then sustaining wall turbulence structures in wall-bounded shear flows. This paper reviews our two experiments which are well designed to follow up the development of streak breakdown up to first appearance of wall turbulence structures. We first focus on evolution of subharmonic streak instability into wall turbulence in a spanwise periodic laminar streak flow. When the subharmonic mode grows beyond the nonlinear saturation stage of subharmonic instability, quasi-streamwise vortices developing along the neighboring low-speed streaks strongly interact with each other in each cycle, causing horseshoe vortex structures to develop in a staggered array. Next we focus on streak breakdown caused by high-intensity background turbulence. Low-speed streaks are generated in a quasi-laminar boundary layer containing high-intensity turbulent vortices. In this case, the streak breakdown is not caused by linear streak instability but by transient disturbance growth.

Asai, M.

2011-09-01

68

Varicose Veins  

MedlinePLUS

... Veins Explore Varicose Veins What Are … Related Vein Problems Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Spanish Version Related Topics Overweight and Obesity How the Heart Works Related Media Videos Widgets Quizzes Send a link to NHLBI ...

69

Notes on the IMACON 500 streak camera system  

SciTech Connect

The notes provided are intended to supplement the instruction manual for the IMACON 500 streak camera system. The notes cover the streak analyzer, instructions for timing the streak camera, and calibration. (LEW)

Clendenin, J.E.

1985-01-31

70

Laminar streaks with spanwise wall forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of steady sinusoidal oscillations of spanwise wall velocity on the Klebanoff modes, i.e. unsteady streaky fluctuations induced by free-stream turbulence in the pre-transitional Blasius boundary layer, is investigated numerically. The wall motion induces a spanwise boundary layer which grows downstream as x1/6 and has an asymptotic analytical solution at large downstream distances. While the forcing has no effect on the initial growth of the streaks, their intensity eventually increases or decreases substantially depending on the relative magnitude between the forcing wavelength and the characteristic length scales of the streaks. The wall actuation enhances the streak intensity if the streak spanwise length scale is much larger than the Blasius boundary layer thickness. The streak energy is instead attenuated when the spanwise viscous diffusion effects play a key role. Wall pressure fluctuations may also be significantly damped in this case. The Klebanoff modes generated by full-spectrum free-stream turbulence are predicted to be attenuated by the wall motion. The asymptotic scaling analysis reveals that there exists an optimal forcing wavelength for full-spectrum streak attenuation as long as the spanwise length scales of the dominant streaks are as large as or smaller than the Blasius boundary layer thickness, a common scenario encountered in experiments. The optimal forcing wavelength is found to be comparable with the streak streamwise length scale. As the amplitude of the wall forcing increases, the reduction of streak intensity grows monotonically. The streaks are completely suppressed in the limit of large amplitude.

Ricco, Pierre

2011-06-01

71

Yellow Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to humans by the ... Maps Maps of yellow fever endemic areas in Africa and South America Links & References Publications and links ...

72

Electro-optic Phase Grating Streak Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The electro-optic phase grating streak spectrometer (EOPGSS) generates a time-resolved spectra equivalent to that obtained with a conventional spectrometer/streak camera combination, but without using a streak camera (by far the more expensive and problematic component of the conventional system). The EOPGSS is based on a phase, rather than an amplitude grating. Further, this grating is fabricated of electro-optic material such as, for example, KD*P, by either etching grooves into an E-O slab, or by depositing lines of the E-O material onto an optical flat. An electric field normal to the grating alters the material’s index of refraction and thus affects a shift (in angle) of the output spectrum. Ramping the voltage streaks the spectrum correspondingly. The streak and dispersion directions are the same, so a second (static, conventional) grating disperses the spectrum in the orthogonal direction to prevent different wavelengths from “overwriting” each other. Because the streaking is done by the grating, the streaked output spectrum is recorded with a time-integrating device, such as a CCD. System model, typical design, and performance expectations will be presented.

Goldin, F. J.

2012-08-02

73

Neutron Streak Camera Electron Gun Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Representative values for electrode voltages, time compensation, and transmission efficiency are obtained by computer simulation for a preliminary design of an electron gun to be used in a neutron streak camera application. The calculations indicate a tim...

E. R. Close J. S. Colonias

1984-01-01

74

The streak camera system in HLS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HLS (Hefei Light Source) is an 800MeV electron storage ring in National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. To measure electron bunch for Synchrotron Radiation and to understand the machine behavior during the operation, the streak camera system has been built in HLS storage ring on April 2006. The streak camera system mainly consists of the synchrotron light extracting optics setup and OPTOSCOPE the streak camera. The light extracting optics setup consists of the light extracting path and the optics imaging system. The OPTOSCOPE the streak camera consists of a camera main unit with input optics, a remote control unit, a CCD camera readout unit, a power supply unit, a Personal Computer with a frame grabber interface card and ARP-Optoscope software package. The streak camera system operates with synchroscan sweep mode or dual time base sweep mode. Controlling the streak camera and image acquisition is made by the ARP-Optoscope software. At present, the system is used to measure the bunch length and the bunch interval in HLS storage ring. Some typical results of the measurement are given.

Wang, J. G.; Sun, B. G.; Cao, Y.; Wang, B. Y.

2007-01-01

75

Yellow nails (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Yellow nails are seen in the 'yellow nail syndrome' in which there is thickening and yellow to yellow-green discoloration of all nails. Lymphedema, especially of the ankles, and compromised respiration ...

76

Characterization of the sugarcane streak agent as a distinct geminivirus.  

PubMed

The relationship between maize streak virus and the geminivirus causing streak in sugarcane was investigated. The DNA of sugarcane streak virus does not cross-hybridize detectably with that of maize streak virus and vice versa. Restriction mapping of native replicative form viral DNA (genome size 2.7 kb) and of cloned viral DNA, combined with limited sequencing and estimated DNA sequence divergence, showed that sugarcane streak virus is as unrelated to maize streak virus and digitaria streak virus as these are different from each other. The virus is only distantly related to wheat dwarf virus and chloris striate mosaic virus. Based on these results, we propose that the agent causing sugarcane streak is a distinct geminivirus. PMID:2016148

Hughes, F L; Rybicki, E P; Kirby, R; von Wechmar, M B

1991-01-01

77

First Satellite Laser Echoes Recorded on the Streak Camera.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of the streak camera with the circular sweep for the satellite laser ranging is described. The Modular Streak Camera system employing the circular sweep option was integrated into the conventional Satellite Laser System. The experimental s...

K. Hamal I. Prochazka G. Kirchner F. Koidl

1993-01-01

78

Varicose vein stripping  

MedlinePLUS

... called the superficial saphenous vein is thick and rope-like. Vein stripping usually takes about 1 to ... high blood pressure in a vein (lipodermatosclerosis) Large, rope-like veins that cannot be treated with other, ...

79

Bichromatic particle streak velocimetry bPSV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel technique for three-dimensional three-component (3D3C) interfacial flow measurement. It is based on the particle streak velocimetry principle. A relatively long integration time of the camera is used for capturing the movement of tracer particles as streaks on the sensor. The velocity along these streaks is extracted by periodically changing the illumination using a known pattern. A dye with different absorption characteristics in two distinct wavelengths is used to color the fluid. The depth of particles relative to the fluid interface can then be computed from their intensities when illuminated with light sources at those two different wavelengths. Hence, from our approach, a bichromatic, periodical illumination together with an image processing routine for precisely extracting particle streak features is used for measuring 3D3C fluid flow with a single camera. The technique is applied to measuring turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection at the free air--water interface. Using Lagrangian statistics, we are able to demonstrate a clear transition from the Batchelor regime to the Richardson regime, both of which were postulated for isotropic turbulence. The relative error of the velocity extraction of our new technique was found to be below 0.5 %.

Voss, Björn; Stapf, Julian; Berthe, André; Garbe, Christoph S.

2012-11-01

80

A SIGHT RECORD OF A STREAKED SHEARWATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 13 September 1996, while conducting surveys for marine mammals and seabirds aboard the NOAA ship McArthur about 57 kilometers off the southern Oregon coast, we found a Streaked Shearwater (Calonectris leucomelas), a species familiar to both Force and Rowlett. The bird was seen at 08:40 in a large mixed feeding flock over Heceta Bank. Lane County, Oregon (43 ø

1999-01-01

81

Yellow nail syndrome (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by yellow nails that lack a cuticle, grow slowly, and are loose or detached (onycholysis). Yellow nail syndrome is most commonly associated with lung disorders, and ...

82

Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High harmonic radiation, produced when intense laser pulses interact with matter, is composed of a train of attosecond pulses. Individual pulses in this train carry information on ultrafast dynamics that vary from one half-optical-cycle to the next. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical photonic streaking measurement that provides direct experimental access to each attosecond pulse by mapping emission time onto propagation angle. This is achieved by inducing an ultrafast rotation of the instantaneous laser wavefront at the focus. We thus time-resolve attosecond pulse train generation, and hence the dynamics in the nonlinear medium itself. We apply photonic streaking to harmonic generation in gases and directly observe, for the first time, the influence of non-adiabatic electron dynamics and plasma formation on the generated attosecond pulse train. These experimental and numerical results also provide the first evidence of the generation of attosecond lighthouses in gases, which constitute ideal sources for attosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

Kim, Kyung Taec; Zhang, Chunmei; Ruchon, Thierry; Hergott, Jean-François; Auguste, Thierry; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.; Quéré, F.

2013-08-01

83

Multichannel fiber-optic spectral streak equalizer  

SciTech Connect

Spectral-streak equalization is a technique that has been developed to compensate for the material dispersion in optical fibers when used in conjunction with an electronic streak camera. Material dispersion occurs because different wavelengths of light travel at different speeds through glass fibers; the resulting difference in transit time broadens light pulses, and can lead to errors in high bandwidth photonic measurements. An instrument designed to compensate for this effect has been in use for the past several years in systems used to evaluate underground nuclear tests. A new instrument has been developed that has the following advantages: it can equalize several channels with one set of optics; it uses considerably less space; it has better resolution and greater efficiency, and it is more cost effective. This paper reviews the basic principles, describes the equalizers currently in use, discusses the design considerations of the new equalizer, describes a prototype four channel instrument, details efficiency estimates, outlines calibration procedures, and gives test results.

Reedy, R.P.

1986-08-20

84

Mechanical Transmission of Cassava Brown Streak Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BROWN streak virus disease of cassava (Manihot utilissima Pohl.) is important in all the cassava-growing areas on the coasts of Kenya and Tanganyika, because necrosis of the starch storage tissues of the roots and stems of infected plants results in serious losses in yield1,2. Transmission of the virus by a white fly (Bemisia sp.) is suspected but has not been

R. M. Lister

1959-01-01

85

High-spatial-resolution streak image tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new streak tube was designed to provide improved spatial resolution across a large-diameter photocathode to obtain more spatial information. The first version of the tube did not employ an accelerator electrode. Tube design goals were achieved when operating at 30 kV. Spatial resolutions of 19 line pairs per millimeter (lp\\/mm) or better were measured across a 1-in.-diameter photocathode at

C. K. Hinrichs; R. W. Olsen

1985-01-01

86

Rapid, continuous streaking of tremor in Cascadia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonvolcanic tremor is a recently discovered weak seismic signal associated with slow slip on a fault plane and has potential to answer many questions about how faults move. Its spatiotemporal distribution, however, is complex and varies over different time scales, and the causal physical mechanisms remain unclear. Here we use a beam backprojection method to show rapid, continuous, slip-parallel streaking of tremor over time scales of several minutes to an hour during the May 2008 episodic tremor and slip event in the Cascadia subduction zone. The streaks propagate across distances up to 65 km, primarily parallel to the slip direction of the subduction zone, both updip and downdip at velocities ranging from 30 to 200 km/h. We explore mainly two models that may explain such continuous tremor streaking. The first involves interaction of slowly migrating creep front with slip-parallel linear structures on the fault. The second is pressure-driven fluid flow through structurally controlled conduits on the fault. Both can be consistent with the observed propagation velocities and geometries, although the second one requires unlikely condition. In addition, we put this new observation in the context of the overall variability of tremor behavior observed over different time scales.

Ghosh, Abhijit; Vidale, John E.; Sweet, Justin R.; Creager, Kenneth C.; Wech, Aaron G.; Houston, Heidi; Brodsky, Emily E.

2010-12-01

87

Understanding baseball team standings and streaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can one understand the statistics of wins and losses of baseball teams? Are their consecutive-game winning and losing streaks self-reinforcing or can they be described statistically? We apply the Bradley-Terry model, which incorporates the heterogeneity of team strengths in a minimalist way, to answer these questions. Excellent agreement is found between the predictions of the Bradley-Terry model and the rank dependence of the average number team wins and losses in major-league baseball over the past century when the distribution of team strengths is taken to be uniformly distributed over a finite range. Using this uniform strength distribution, we also find very good agreement between model predictions and the observed distribution of consecutive-game team winning and losing streaks over the last half-century; however, the agreement is less good for the previous half-century. The behavior of the last half-century supports the hypothesis that long streaks are primarily statistical in origin with little self-reinforcing component. The data further show that the past half-century of baseball has been more competitive than the preceding half-century.

Sire, C.; Redner, S.

2009-02-01

88

Opticla and X-Ray Streak Camera Gain Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of streak camera gain as the number of CCD (charge-coupled-device) electrons recorded per single-electron events hitting the streak tube phosphor are presented. The CCD is fiber optically coupled to the streak tube output; there is no image intensifier in the system. The gain is measured from the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of the recorded photoelectrons. This technique allows us to verify that the photoelectron SNR follows Poisson statistics and to establish the linear dynamic range.

Ghosh, S.; Boni, R.; Jaanimagi, P.A.

2004-10-19

89

Vein filter  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A vein filter having improved collectability of chyme blood or thrombi and stability of indwelling. The filter includes at least 3 wires radially spreading backward of a head member and connected such that the intervals between any adjacent two wires are connected with threads of an equal length at a substantially equal distance from the head member. At respective connection parts where the threads are connected to the wires, hook parts to be hooked on the inner wall of a blood vessel are provided. The head member is on the apex of a shaft extending back and the rear end of each wire is connected to a slide member slidable along the shaft. The wires are preferably made of shape memory alloy or stainless spring steel.

Okada; Masayosi (Osaka, JP)

2003-05-06

90

Compressible laminar streaks with wall suction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of a compressible laminar boundary layer subject to free-stream vortical disturbances and steady mean-flow wall suction is studied. The theoretical frameworks of Leib et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 380, 169-203 (1999)] and Ricco and Wu [J. Fluid Mech. 587, 97-138 (2007)], based on the linearized unsteady boundary-region equations, are adopted to study the influence of suction on the kinematic and thermal streaks arising through the interaction between the free-stream vortical perturbations and the boundary layer. In the asymptotic limit of small spanwise wavelength compared with the boundary layer thickness, i.e., when the disturbance flow is conveniently described by the steady compressible boundary region equations, the effect of suction is mild on the velocity fluctuations and negligible on the temperature fluctuations. When the spanwise wavelength is comparable with the boundary layer thickness, small suction values intensify the supersonic streaks, while higher transpiration levels always stabilize the disturbances at all Mach numbers. At larger spanwise wavelengths, very small amplitudes of wall transpiration have a dramatic stabilizing effect on all boundary layer fluctuations, which can take the form of transiently growing thermal streaks, large amplitude streamwise oscillations, or oblique exponentially growing Tollmien-Schlichting waves, depending on the Mach number and the wavelengths. The range of wavenumbers for which the exponential growth occurs becomes narrower and the location of instability is significantly shifted downstream by mild suction, indicating that wall transpiration can be a suitable vehicle for delaying transition when the laminar breakdown is promoted by these unstable disturbances. The typical streamwise wavelength of these disturbances is instead not influenced by suction, and asymptotic triple deck theory predicts the strong changes in growth rate and the very mild modifications in streamwise wavenumber in the limit of larger downstream distance and small spanwise wavenumber.

Ricco, Pierre; Shah, Daniel; Hicks, Peter D.

2013-05-01

91

Streak tube photocathode development program. Phase 2, Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report details the progress made toward developing a streak tube with greater than 1% quantum efficiency at a wavelength of 1300 nm. The achieved performance is the result of approximately three years of effort. The goal of Phase 2 of this contract was to seal a working 1.3 {mu}m streak tube. This effort was focused in two areas. First there was a continuing effort to further develop and demonstrate the cathodes ability to meet the stated requirements. The second effort was aimed at solving the mechanical and process related problems related to sealing this cathode onto a EG&G streak tube.

Not Available

1993-11-20

92

The formation of streak defects on anodized aluminum extrusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Streaking is a common surface defect on anodized extrusions of 6xxx series soft alloys. Very often, the defects only become apparent after anodizing, which makes it difficult to identify their root cause. In industry practice, a trial-and-error method has been taken to reduce the intensities of the streak defects, greatly increasing the fabrication cost. This paper describes the formation mechanism of various streak defects on the basis of a literature review and experimental results. This provides a basis for developing effective measures for preventing the formation of these defects for the extrusion industry.

Zhu, Hanliang; Zhang, Xinquan; Couper, Malcolm J.; Dahle, Arne K.

2010-05-01

93

Progress on Modeling of Ultrafast X-Ray Streak Cameras  

SciTech Connect

Streak cameras continue to be useful tools for studying phenomena on the picoseconds time scale. We have employed accelerator modeling tools to understand and possibly improve the time resolution of present and future streak cameras. This effort has resulted in an end-to-end model of the camera. This model has contributed to the recent measurement of 230 fsec (FWHM) resolution measured at 266 nm in the Advanced Light Source Streak Camera Laboratory. We describe results from this model that show agreement with the experiments. We also extrapolate the performance of this camera including several possible improvements.

Huang, G.; Byrd, J.M.; Feng, J.; Qiang, J.; Wang, W.

2007-06-22

94

High performance imaging streak camera for the National Ignition Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An x-ray streak camera platform has been characterized and implemented for use at the National Ignition Facility. The camera has been modified to meet the experiment requirements of the National Ignition Campaign and to perform reliably in conditions that produce high electromagnetic interference. A train of temporal ultra-violet timing markers has been added to the diagnostic in order to calibrate the temporal axis of the instrument and the detector efficiency of the streak camera was improved by using a CsI photocathode. The performance of the streak camera has been characterized and is summarized in this paper. The detector efficiency and cathode measurements are also presented.

Opachich, Y. P.; Kalantar, D. H.; MacPhee, A. G.; Holder, J. P.; Kimbrough, J. R.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Hatch, B.; Brienza-Larsen, G.; Brown, C.; Brown, C. G.; Browning, D.; Charest, M.; Dewald, E. L.; Griffin, M.; Guidry, B.; Haugh, M. J.; Hicks, D. G.; Homoelle, D.; Lee, J. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Mead, A.; Palmer, N.; Perfect, B. H.; Ross, J. S.; Silbernagel, C.; Landen, O.

2012-12-01

95

Statistical characteristics of streak artifacts on CT images: relationship between streak artifacts and mA s values.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate how streak artifacts on computed tomography (CT) images vary with reduction in radiation doses by assessing the quantitative relationship between the streak artifacts and milliampere-time product (mA s) values. A commercially available chest phantom was used to measure the streak artifacts on the CT images obtained using a 4- and 16-multidetector-row helical CT scanners with various mA s values at a constant tube voltage of 120 kVp. The cardiac slice image was employed as a target image for evaluating the streak artifacts on the CT image. Eighty parallel line segments with a length of 20 pixels were placed perpendicular to numerous streak artifacts on the cardiac slice image, and the largest difference between adjacent CT values in each of the 80 CT-value profiles of these line segments was employed as a feature variable of streak artifacts; these feature variables have been analyzed by the extreme value theory. The largest difference between adjacent CT values in each CT-value profile can be statistically modeled by a Gumbel distribution. Further, the maximum level of streak artifacts on CT images that will be tolerated for clinical use and low-dose CT screening examination was expected to be estimated using the location parameter in the Gumbel distribution. PMID:19291988

Imai, Kuniahru; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Enchi, Yukihiro; Niimi, Takanaga

2009-02-01

96

Note: X-ray streak camera sweep speed calibration.  

PubMed

X-ray streak cameras are extensively used to study transient x-ray processes in experiments carried out on various laser facilities at the Research Center of Laser Fusion. Precise calibration and clear description of the sweep speed of the x-ray streak camera are vital for obtaining precise temporal information to understand the fast physics phenomena. An x-ray streak camera named wide-slit x-ray streak camera has been calibrated using a small-scale laser facility with pulse duration of 8 ps. Sweep speeds on most part of the output screen (charge coupled device) are obtained. These calibration results can be used to correct the nonlinearity of sweep speed in measurement of temporal processes. PMID:20515185

Zhu, Tuo; Yang, Jia-Min; Deng, Bo; Yang, Dong; He, Xiao-an; Wang, Zhe-bin

2010-05-01

97

Note: X-ray streak camera sweep speed calibration  

SciTech Connect

X-ray streak cameras are extensively used to study transient x-ray processes in experiments carried out on various laser facilities at the Research Center of Laser Fusion. Precise calibration and clear description of the sweep speed of the x-ray streak camera are vital for obtaining precise temporal information to understand the fast physics phenomena. An x-ray streak camera named wide-slit x-ray streak camera has been calibrated using a small-scale laser facility with pulse duration of 8 ps. Sweep speeds on most part of the output screen (charge coupled device) are obtained. These calibration results can be used to correct the nonlinearity of sweep speed in measurement of temporal processes.

Zhu Tuo; Yang Jiamin; Deng Bo; Wang Zhebin [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China); National Key Laboratory of High Temperature and Density Plasmas, Mianyang 621900 (China); Yang Dong; He Xiaoan [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2010-05-15

98

Angioid streaks, clinical course, complications, and current therapeutic management  

PubMed Central

Angioid streaks are visible irregular crack-like dehiscences in Bruch’s membrane that are associated with atrophic degeneration of the overlying retinal pigmented epithelium. Angioid streaks may be associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Paget’s disease, sickle-cell anemia, acromegaly, Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, and diabetes mellitus, but also appear in patients without any systemic disease. Patients with angioid streaks are generally asymptomatic, unless the lesions extend towards the foveola or develop complications such as traumatic Bruch’s membrane rupture or macular choroidal neovascularization (CNV). The visual prognosis in patients with CNV secondary to angioid streaks if untreated, is poor and most treatment modalities, until recently, have failed to limit the devastating impact of CNV in central vision. However, it is likely that treatment with antivascular endothelial growth factor, especially in treatment-naive eyes to yield favorable results in the future and this has to be investigated in future studies.

Georgalas, Ilias; Papaconstantinou, Dimitris; Koutsandrea, Chrysanthi; Kalantzis, George; Karagiannis, Dimitris; Georgopoulos, Gerasimos; Ladas, Ioannis

2009-01-01

99

Infection of Alstroemeria Plants with Tomato yellow ring virus in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alstroemeria cv. Ovation plants with virus-like necrotic spots and streaks on leaves and petals were observed in greenhouses in Khorasan Razavi (Mashhad) and Markazi (Mahallat) provinces, Iran. Samples with virus-like symptoms reacted positively in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a polyclonal antibody raised against Tomato yellow ring virus (TYRV) nucleocapsid (N) protein. TYRV-specific primers were used in a reverse transcription-polymerase chain

N. Beikzadeh; H. Bayat; B. Jafarpour; H. Rohani; D. Peters; A. Hassani-Mehraban

2012-01-01

100

Ultrafast x-ray imaging with sliced sampling streak cameras  

SciTech Connect

The ultrafast imaging methods in sliced sampling streak cameras are investigated. It is shown that the sampling-image x-ray streak camera has potential advantages in highly time-resolved and space-resolved imaging for imploded core plasmas. An optimized sampling method is presented to acquire two-dimensional spatial resolutions {<=}10 {mu}m and temporal resolution {approx}10 ps, within a field of view {approx}100 {mu}m and a time range {approx}100 ps.

Huang, T.X.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H.; Huang, T.X.; Ding, Y.K.; Zheng, Z.J. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2006-02-15

101

Shielding a streak camera from hard x rays  

SciTech Connect

The targets used in the hot halfraum campaign at OMEGA create many hot electrons, which result in a large flux of hard x rays. The hard x rays produce a high background in the streak camera. The background was significantly reduced by wrapping the streak camera with a high-Z material; in this case, 1/8 in. of Pb. The large hard x-ray flux also adds noise to images from framing cameras which use charge-coupled devices.

Schneider, M.B.; Sorce, C.; Loughman, K.; Emig, J.; Bruns, C.; Back, C.; Bell, P.M.; Compton, S.; Hargrove, D.; Holder, J.P.; Landen, O.L.; Perry, T.S.; Shepherd, R.; Young, B.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-472 Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2004-10-01

102

Semiclassical model for attosecond angular streaking.  

PubMed

Attosecond angular streaking is a new technique to achieve unsurpassed time accuracy of only a few attoseconds. Recently this has been successfully used to set an upper limit on the electron tunneling delay time in strong laser field ionization. The measurement technique can be modeled with either the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) or a more simple semiclassical approach that describes the process in two steps in analogy to the three-step model in high harmonic generation (HHG): step one is the tunnel ionization and step two is the classical motion in the strong laser field. Here we describe in detail a semiclassical model which is based on the ADK theory for the tunneling step, with subsequent classical propagation of the electron in the laser field. We take into account different ellipticities of the laser field and a possible wavelength-dependent ellipticity that is typically observed for pulses in the two-optical-cycle regime. This semiclassical model shows excellent agreement with the experimental result. PMID:20721150

Smolarski, M; Eckle, P; Keller, U; Dörner, R

2010-08-16

103

Prototype vein contrast enhancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proof-of-principle prototype Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE) has been designed and constructed. The VCE is an instrument that makes vein access easier by capturing an infrared image of peripheral veins, enhancing the vein-contrast using software image processing, and projecting the enhanced vein-image back onto the skin using a modified commercial projector. The prototype uses software alignment to achieve alignment accuracy between the captured infrared image and the projected visible image of better than 0.06 mm. Figure 1 shows the prototype demonstrated in our laboratory.

Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Vrancken, Carlos

2004-07-01

104

Hitting Is Contagious in Baseball: Evidence from Long Hitting Streaks  

PubMed Central

Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that “hitting is contagious”. A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates’ batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising streaks of length games, including a total observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups () were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter’s team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active) showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean for the treatment group was found to be to percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased points), while the batting heat index introduced here was observed to increase by points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a “statistical contagion effect”. Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research.

Bock, Joel R.; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A.

2012-01-01

105

Yellow Legged Frog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists found this adult mountain yellow-legged frog on June 10 in Tahquitz Creek, a rediscovered population of the endangered frog in the San Jacinto Wilderness, San Bernardino National Forest, California....

2009-07-23

106

A Palm Vein Recognition System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm vein pattern recognition is one of the newest bometric techniques researched today. This paper presents a palm vein recognition system that uses blood vessel patterns as personal identifying factor. The vein information is hard to duplicate since veins are internal to the human body. The design details of the palm vein capture device are researched, and preprocessing and feature

Huan Zhang; Dewen Hu

2010-01-01

107

Attosecond streaking in a nano-plasmonic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical study of the application of attosecond streaking spectroscopy to time-resolved studies of the plasmonic fields surrounding isolated, resonantly excited spherical nanoparticles is presented. A classification of the different regimes in attosecond streaking is proposed and identified in our results that are derived from Mie calculations of plasmon fields, coupled to classical electron trajectory simulations. It is shown that in an attosecond streaking experiment, the electrons are almost exclusively sensitive to the component of the field parallel to the direction in which they are detected. This allows one to probe the different components of the field individually by resolving the angle of emission of the electrons. Finally, simulations based on fields calculated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) are compared with the results obtained using Mie fields. The two are found to be in good agreement with each other, supporting the notion that FDTD methods can be used to reliably investigate non-spherical structures.

Kelkensberg, F.; Koenderink, A. F.; Vrakking, M. J. J.

2012-09-01

108

Streak Camera Performance with Large-Format CCD Readout  

SciTech Connect

The ICF program at Livermore has a large inventory of optical streak cameras that were built in the 1970s and 1980s. The cameras include micro-channel plate image-intensifier tubes (IIT) that provide signal amplification and early lens-coupled CCD readouts. Today, these cameras are still very functional, but some replacement parts such as the original streak tube, CCD, and IIT are scarce and obsolete. This article describes recent efforts to improve the performance of these cameras using today's advanced CCD readout technologies. Very sensitive, large-format CCD arrays with efficient fiber-optic input faceplates are now available for direct coupling with the streak tube. Measurements of camera performance characteristics including linearity, spatial and temporal resolution, line-spread function, contrast transfer ratio (CTR), and dynamic range have been made for several different camera configurations: CCD coupled directly to the streak tube, CCD directly coupled to the IIT, and the original configuration with a smaller CCD lens coupled to the IIT output. Spatial resolution (limiting visual) with and without the IIT is 8 and 20 lp/mm, respectively, for photocathode current density up to 25% of the Child-Langmuir (C-L) space-charge limit. Temporal resolution (fwhm) deteriorates by about 20% when the cathode current density reaches 10% of the C-L space charge limit. Streak tube operation with large average tube current was observed by illuminating the entire slit region through a Ronchi ruling and measuring the CTR. Sensitivity (CCD electrons per streak tube photoelectron) for the various configurations ranged from 7.5 to 2,700 with read noise of 7.5 to 10.5 electrons. Optimum spatial resolution is achieved when the IIT is removed. Maximum dynamic range requires a configuration where a single photoelectron from the photocathode produces a signal that is 3 to 5 times the read noise.

Lerche, R A; Andrews, D S; Bell, P M; Griffith, R L; McDonald, J W; Torres, P III; Vergel de Dios, G

2003-07-08

109

Wheat streak mosaic virus-Structural parameters for a Potyvirus  

SciTech Connect

Wheat streak mosaic virus is a Tritimovirus, a member of the Potyviridae family, which includes the very large Potyvirus genus. We have examined wheat streak mosaic virus by electron microscopy and fiber diffraction from partially oriented sols, and analyzed the results to estimate the symmetry and structural parameters of the viral helix. The virions have an apparent radius of 63 {+-} 5 A. The viral helix has a pitch of 33.4 A {+-} 0.6 A. There appear to be 6.9 subunits per turn of the helix, although we cannot completely eliminate values of 5.9 or 7.9 for this parameter.

Parker, Lauren [Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Kendall, Amy [Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Berger, P.H. [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Shiel, P.J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Stubbs, Gerald [Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)]. E-mail: gerald.stubbs@vanderbilt.edu

2005-09-15

110

Formation and reduction of streak artefacts in electron tomography.  

PubMed

We have analysed the formation of streak artefacts in the reconstruction based on the filtered back projection algorithm in electron tomography (ET) and accordingly applied an adaptive interpolation technique to artefact reduction. In the adaptive interpolation to recover the missing information, the edge positions in a projection curve were tracked to reduce the interpolation error. A simulation was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the artefact reduction. Furthermore, image reconstruction of integrated circuit specimens in the ET experiments with the ultra-high voltage electron microscope show that the strong streak artefacts can be reduced effectively by our artefact reduction technique. PMID:20579270

Cao, M; Zhang, H-B; Lu, Y; Nishi, R; Takaoka, A

2010-07-01

111

Attosecond Streaking Enables the Measurement of Quantum Phase  

SciTech Connect

Attosecond streaking, as a measurement technique, was originally conceived as a means to characterize attosecond light pulses, which is a good approximation if the relevant transition matrix elements are approximately constant within the bandwidth of the light pulse. Our analysis of attosecond streaking measurements on systems with a complex response to the photoionizing pulse reveals the relation between the momentum-space wave function of the outgoing electron and the result of conventional retrieval algorithms. This finding enables the measurement of the quantum phase associated with bound-continuum transitions.

Yakovlev, V. S.; Gagnon, J.; Krausz, F. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Am Coulombwall 1, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Karpowicz, N. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2010-08-13

112

A wide dynamic range x-ray streak camera system  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray streak camera with wide dynamic range and a large slit photocathode of 30 mm length has been developed and calibrated. In order to achieve wide dynamic range, a conventional streak tube has been improved and the camera system has been designed without microchannel plate electron amplifier. As a result, a dynamic range of 922 is achieved in a single shot mode with laser pulse of 30 ps (full width at half maximum) at time resolution of better than 31 ps.

Niu Lihong; Yang Qinlao; Niu Hanben; Liao Hua; Zhou Junlan; Ding Yunkun [Institute of Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Guangdong 518060 (China); Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2008-02-15

113

Effects of driving laser jitter on the attosecond streaking measurement.  

PubMed

Driving laser jitter is one of the main factors affecting the attosecond streaking measurement. The effect of carrier-envelope phase (CEP) jitter and the pulse energy jitter on the attosecond pulse characterization is studied in this paper. We have theoretically calculated and experimentally confirmed that CEP jitter could result in a symmetry trace in the streaking spectrogram, while the intensity jitter could result in a slight shift and broadening of the trace. Both of them can lead to an underestimate of the retrieved attosecond pulse duration. PMID:23938620

Zhong, Shiyang; He, Xinkui; Ye, Peng; Zhan, Minjie; Teng, Hao; Wei, Zhiyi

2013-07-29

114

Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis.  

PubMed

Ovarian vein thrombosis is a rare occurrence in the postpartum period. Two cases of postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis are presented. The differential diagnosis is extensive because many diseases can present with similar symptoms. Early diagnosis is essential for appropriate treatment and prevention of the potential sequelae that can occur. Computerized tomography with contrast is the optimal imaging modality for the diagnosis. PMID:8285981

Chawla, K; Mond, D J; Lanzkowsky, L

1994-01-01

115

Attosecond streaking experiments on atoms: quantum theory versus simple model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new theoretical approach to the description of the attosecond streaking measurements of atomic photoionization is presented. It is a fully quantum mechanical description based on numerical solving of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation which includes the atomic field as well as the fields of the XUV and IR pulses. Also a simple semiempirical description based on sudden approximation is suggested

A. K. Kazansky; N. M. Kabachnik

2006-01-01

116

Reliable and Repeatable Characterication of Optical Streak Cameras  

SciTech Connect

Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information.

Kalantar, D; Charest, M; Torres III, P; Charest, M

2008-05-06

117

Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome and linear streak lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five cases of subretinal neovascular membranes in the macula associated with punched out chorioretinal scars and linear streaks were seen in five Dutch patients. Clinically the fundus lesions are consistent with those of presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS) seen in the United States of America. Cutaneous serological testing for histoplasmin reactivity was negative in the three patients tested. Of special

F G Bottoni; A F Deutman; A L Aandekerk

1989-01-01

118

Cassava brown streak disease re-emerges in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is an important virus disease that damages the starch-bearing tuberous roots of cassava. The disease is endemic in the coastal lowlands of Eastern Africa and the coastal strip of Lake Malawi. CBSD has rarely been seen at altitudes above 1000 m above sea level, although the reason for this is unknown. CBSD is maintained through

C. Omongo; R. J. Hillocks; R. Kawuki; G. W. Otim-Nape

119

Improved approach to characterizing and presenting streak camera performance  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a streak camera recording system is strongly linked to the technique used to amplify, detect and quantify the streaked image. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) streak camera images have been recorded both on film and by fiber-optically coupling to charge-coupled devices (CCD's). During the development of a new process for recording these images (lens coupling the image onto a cooled CCD) the definitions of important performance characteristics such as resolution and dynamic range were re-examined. As a result of this development, these performance characteristics are now presented to the streak camera user in a more useful format than in the past. This paper describes how these techniques are used within the Laser Fusion Program at LLNL. The system resolution is presented as a modulation transfer function, including the seldom reported effects that flare and light scattering have at low spatial frequencies. Data are presented such that a user can adjust image intensifier gain and pixel averaging to optimize the useful dynamic range in any particular application.

Wiedwald, J.D.; Jones, B.A.

1985-07-15

120

Streak Camera Performance with Large-Format CCD Readout.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ICF program at Livermore has a large inventory of optical streak cameras that were built in the 1970s and 1980s. The cameras include micro-channel plate image-intensifier tubes (IIT) that provide signal amplification and early lens-coupled CCD readout...

R. A. Lerche D. S. Andrews P. M. Bell R. L. Griffith J. W. McDonald

2003-01-01

121

Movement and commitment of primitive streak precardiac cells during cardiogenesis.  

PubMed

Fate maps are required to address questions about the commitment and differentiation of precardiac cells. Here, we report a detailed study of the precardiac cells located at the level of the primitive streak, employing different experiments with a variety of techniques combining double transplantations, microinjections and immunocytochemistry. Most cells of the more rostral segments of the primitive streak were found to contribute cells to the endodermal layer, adjacent to precardiac mesodermal cells of the heart forming region whose provenance was in the immediately more caudal segments of the primitive streak. We established a close spatio-temporal relationship between the two cell layers and the expression of their specific cardiac markers (cNkx-2.5, Bmp2, Cripto, Usmaar, dHand, GATA4, Pitx2, Hex, Fgf8, AMHC1 and VMHC1). We also analyzed the ability of precardiac cells to differentiate when they are transplanted to ectopic locations or are subjected to the influence of the organizer. We propose that the precardiac cells of the primitive streak form at least two groups with different significance. One, regulated by mediation of the organizer, is located preferentially in the more rostral region of the primitive streak. It consists of the prospective cells of the endoderm layer, with a hierarchic pattern of expression of different genes characterized by its capacity for induction and regulation of a second group of cells. This second group is located preferentially in the more caudal segments, and is fated to form the precardiac mesoderm, whose differentiation would be characterized by the expression of various specific genes. PMID:19247942

Lopez-Sanchez, Carmen; Garcia-Masa, Natividad; Gañan, Carlos M; Garcia-Martinez, Virginio

2009-01-01

122

Investigation of other operating points for the RCA streak tube in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory streak camera  

SciTech Connect

The soft x-ray streak camera uses the RCA C73435 streak tube body fitted with a removable x-ray cathode. The front of the streak tube is exposed to the vacuum of an experimental chamber, which is not entirely under the control of a streak camera operator. Occasionally, the vacuum becomes poor enough to cause corona and arcing from the cathode to the chamber wall. The corona problem is more difficult because the dimensions of the x-ray camera body are smaller than for the optical camera body. Therefore, we investigated the effects on camera performance of decreasing the accelerating voltage at the cathode from the customary 17 kV. Several operating points were evaluated and 12 kV cathode-to-anode with 5 kV cathode-to-grid were selected for more detailed investigation. Transverse spatial resolution and dynamic range were found to be essentially the same as at our normal operating point of 17 kV for the cathode and 2500 V on the grid. Magnification, sweep linearity and absolute sensitivity changed as expected. In the course of the investigation, we measured the dynamic range with our CCD readout system. The effect of Coulomb repulsion at the crossover point was also measured and found not to affect dynamic range.

Thomas, S.W.; Peterson, R.L.; Griffith, R.L.

1982-07-01

123

Media Online Yellow Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Media Online Yellow Pages is another good place (along with the Big List and Newslink mentioned last week) to find media sources on the Internet. Does not appear to be searchable but the index is well-organized for browsing.

124

Popliteal vein aneurysm.  

PubMed

The incidence of a popliteal vein aneurysm is extremely low. Two cases of this rare venous anomaly are described. The epidemiology, morphology, and diagnostic methods are discussed and the potentially dangerous complications and treatment methods are presented. PMID:16796307

Falkowski, A; Poncyljusz, W; Zawierucha, D; Kuczmik, W

2006-06-01

125

Acute portal vein thrombosis.  

PubMed

The findings in acute portal vein thrombosis in a patient with chronic calcific pancreatitis and two episodes of pancreatic surgery are described. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound, which showed a dilated portal vein filled with low-level echoes, surrounding hepatic oedema, hypertrophy of the hepatic artery, splenomegaly, collateral vessels and ascites. This was confirmed by computed tomography. The ultrasonic differences in appearance between acute and chronic portal vein thrombosis are discussed, in the context of portal hypertension. The diagnosis of acute portal vein thrombosis should be considered in patients in the appropriate situation who suffer a sudden clinical deterioration with right upper quadrant or abdominal pain. Ultrasound is recommended as the imaging modality of first choice because of the flexibility of its scanning plane and its real time and Doppler capabilities. Computed tomography is valuable in patients with an ileus or heavy pancreatic calcification and for its ability to demonstrate patent vessels on intravenous injection of contrast medium. PMID:3319354

Albertyn, L E

1987-11-01

126

Deep Vein Thrombosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Common Signs and Symptoms of PE PE can be fatal, if you experience these signs ... signs and symptoms of these disorders (DVT and PE) can vary by individual and event. Some individuals ...

127

Streaked x-ray microscopy of laser-fusion targets  

SciTech Connect

An ultrafast soft x-ray streak camera has been coupled to a Wolter axisymmetric x-ray microscope. This system was used to observe the dynamics of laser fusion targets both in self emission and backlit by laser produced x-ray sources. Spatial resolution was 7 ..mu..m and temporal resolution was 20 ps. Data is presented showing the ablative acceleration of foils to velocities near 10/sup 7/ cm/sec and the collision of an accelerated foil with a second foil, observed using 3 keV streaked x-ray backlighting. Good agreement was found between hydrocode simulations, simple models of the ablative acceleration and the observed velocities of the carbon foils.

Price, R.H.; Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.; Auerbach, J.M.; Phillion, D.W.; Whitlock, R.R.; Obenshain, S.P.; McLean, E.A.; Ripin, B.H.

1982-08-01

128

Randomness and inductions from streaks: "gambler's fallacy" versus "hot hand".  

PubMed

Sometimes people believe that a run of similar independent events will be broken (belief in the gambler's fallacy) but, other times, that such a run will continue (belief in the hot hand). Both of these opposite inductions have been explained as being due to belief in a law of small numbers. We argue that one factor that distinguishes these phenomena is people's beliefs about the randomness of the underlying process generating the events. We gave participants information about a streak of events but varied the scenarios in such a way that the mechanism generating the events should vary in how random the participants would judge it to be. A manipulation check confirmed our assumptions about the scenarios. We found that with less random scenarios, the participants were more likely to continue a streak. PMID:15117006

Burns, Bruce D; Corpus, Bryan

2004-02-01

129

Attosecond streaking experiments on atoms: quantum theory versus simple model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new theoretical approach to the description of the attosecond streaking\\u000ameasurements of atomic photoionization is presented. It is a fully quantum\\u000amechanical description based on numerical solving of the time-dependent\\u000aSchroedinger equation which includes the atomic field as well as the fields of\\u000athe XUV and IR pulses. Also a simple semiempirical description based on sudden\\u000aapproximation is suggested

A. K. Kazansky; N. M. Kabachnik

2006-01-01

130

Streaked horned lark Eremophila  alpestris  strigata has distinct mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Streaked Horned Lark (STHL; Eremophila  alpestris  strigata) is a federal candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act. We evaluated the conservation status and level of genetic\\u000a diversity of the STHL using the complete mitochondrial ND2 gene. We sampled 32 STHLs from the southern Puget Sound region,\\u000a the Pacific coast, and Whites Island in the Columbia River of Washington,

Sergei V. Drovetski; Scott F. Pearson

2005-01-01

131

Visualization of Streak Lines in Liquid Metal by Neutron Radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results were presented to visualize streak lines in a liquid metal by neutron radiography. Lead-bismuth eutectic was used as a working fluid for both natural and forced convention flows. Tracer and dye injection methods were employed for the visualization and the tracer made of gold-cadmium intermetallic compound and the dye made of lead-bismuth-cadmium alloy were developed. It was shown

N. Takenaka; T. Fujii; A. Ono; K. Sonoda; S. Tazawa; T. Nakanii

1994-01-01

132

Forced recombination between distinct strains of Maize streak virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombination between divergent virus genomes is believed to be a major mechanism for generation of novel virus genotypes. We have examined the recombination process in gemini- viruses by forcing recombination between two distinct isolates of Maize streak virus (MSV), MSV- Kom and MSV-Set. Heterodimeric agroinfectious constructs containing tandemly cloned mixtures of complete or partial MSV-Set and MSV-Kom genomes were used

W. H. Schnippenkoetter; D. P. Martin; J. A. Willment; E. P. Rybicki

133

Choroidal neovascularization after blunt ocular trauma in angioid streaks  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with angioid streaks are prone to develop a subretinal hemorrhage after ocular injury, due to fragility of Bruch’s membrane. Objective The purpose of this study was to report a patient with angioid streaks in whom subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) developed after blunt ocular trauma. Case report A 60-year-old man was accidentally struck in the left eye with a crowbar handle while engaged in the demolition of wooden building materials in May 2011 and was initially evaluated at our hospital. Corrected visual acuity was 0.3 in the right and 1.2 in the left eye, and relative afferent pupillary defect was negative. Funduscopy revealed choroidal atrophy around the optic papillae and angioid streaks radiating from around the optic discs in both eyes. In the right eye, there was macular atrophy. In the left eye, there was a subretinal hemorrhage around the macular region. Fluorescein angiography of the left eye showed a blockage due to subretinal hemorrhage and increasing hyperfluorescent spots superior to the fovea, suggestive of extrafoveal CNV. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed macular thinning in the right eye and no obvious abnormalities near the subfoveal region in the left eye. Two months later, the patient noticed decreased visual acuity in the left eye and was reevaluated. Visual acuity had decreased to 0.7, and well-defined CNV, one disc diameter in size, was presenting slightly superior to the macula, including the subfoveal region. Two weeks later, anti–vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibody (bevacizumab) was injected intravitreally; the CNV then regressed, and visual acuity improved to 1.2. Conclusion Marked improvement in visual acuity with early treatment has not been reported in angioid streaks with subfoveal CNV after ocular injury. Intravitreal injection of an anti-VEGF antibody should be considered early after the diagnosis of CNV.

Kubota, Masaomi; Hayashi, Takaaki; Arai, Kota; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

134

Treatment of yellow fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever (YF) is a life-threatening mosquito-borne flaviviral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) characterized by severe hepatitis, renal failure, hemorrhage, and rapid terminal events with shock and multi-organ failure. A live, attenuated vaccine (YF 17D), in wide use for over 60 years, causes a disease identical to wild-type virus at an incidence of 2.5×10?6. Our current understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment

Thomas P. Monath

2008-01-01

135

Resolution limitations and optimization of the LLNL streak camera focus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RCA C73435 image tube is biased at voltages far from its original design in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) ultrafast (10 ps) streak camera. Its output resolution at streak camera operating potentials has been measured as a function of input slit width, incident-light wavelength, and focus-grid voltage. The temporal resolution is insensitive to focus-grid voltage for a narrow (100 micron) input slit, but is very sensitive to focus-grid voltage for a wide (2 mm) input slit. At the optimum wide-slit focus voltage, temporal resolution is insensitive to slit width. Spatial resolution is nearly independent of focus-grid voltage for values that give good temporal resolution. Both temporal and spatial resolution depend on the incident-light wavelength. Data for 1.06 micron light show significantly better focusing than for 0.53 micron light. Streak camera operation is simulated with a computer program that calculates photoelectron trajectories. Electron ray tracing describes all of the observed effects of slit width, incident-light wavelength, and focus-grid voltage on output resolution.

Lerche, R. A.; Griffith, R. L.

1987-09-01

136

Streaking at high energies with electrons and positrons  

SciTech Connect

State-of-the-art attosecond metrology deals with the detection and characterization of photon pulses with typical energies up to the hundreds of eV and time resolution of several tens of attoseconds. Such short pulses are used for example to control the motion of electrons on the atomic scale or to measure inner-shell atomic dynamics. The next challenge of time-resolving the inner-nuclear dynamics, transient meson states and resonances requires photon pulses below attosecond duration and with energies exceeding the MeV scale. Here we discuss a detection scheme for time-resolving high-energy gamma ray pulses down to the zeptosecond timescale. The scheme is based on the concept of attosecond streak imaging, but instead of conversion of photons into electrons in a nonlinear medium, the high-energy process of electron-positron pair creation is utilized. These pairs are produced in vacuum through the collision of a test pulse to be characterized with an intense laser pulse, and they acquire additional energy and momentum depending on their phase in the streaking pulse at the moment of production. A coincidence measurement of the electron and positron momenta after the interaction provides information on the pair production phase within the streaking pulse. We examine the limitations imposed by quantum radiation reaction in multiphoton Compton scattering on this detection scheme, and discuss other necessary conditions to render the scheme feasible in the upcoming Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) laser facility.

Ipp, Andreas; Evers, Joerg; Keitel, Christoph H.; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2012-07-09

137

Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera  

SciTech Connect

A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

Joshi, M. J.; Upadhyay, J.; Deshpande, P. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P. [Laser Electronics Support Division, RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India)

2010-08-15

138

Pelvic Vein Embolisation in the Management of Varicose Veins  

SciTech Connect

Pelvic vein incompetence is common in patients with atypical varicose veins, contributing to their recurrence after surgery. Therefore, refluxing pelvic veins should be identified and treated. We present our experience with pelvic vein embolisation in patients presenting with varicose veins. Patients presenting with varicose veins with a duplex-proven contribution from perivulval veins undergo transvaginal duplex sonography (TVUS) to identify refluxing pelvic veins. Those with positive scans undergo embolisation before surgical treatment of their lower limb varicose veins. A total of 218 women (mean age of 46.3 years) were treated. Parity was documented in the first 60 patients, of whom 47 (78.3%) were multiparous, 11 (18.3%) had had one previous pregnancy, and 2 (3.3%) were nulliparous. The left ovarian vein was embolised in 78%, the right internal iliac in 64.7%, the left internal iliac in 56.4%, and the right ovarian vein in 42.2% of patients. At follow-up TVUS, mild reflux only was seen in 16, marked persistent reflux in 6, and new reflux in 3 patients. These 9 women underwent successful repeat embolisation. Two patients experienced pulmonary embolisation of the coils, of whom 1 was asymptomatic and 1 was successfully retrieved; 1 patient had a misplaced coil protruding into the common femoral vein; and 1 patient had perineal thrombophlebitis. The results of our study showed that pelvic venous embolisation by way of a transjugular approach is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of pelvic vein reflux.

Ratnam, Lakshmi A. [St. George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Marsh, Petra; Holdstock, Judy M.; Harrison, Charmaine S. [Stirling House, Whiteley Clinic (United Kingdom); Hussain, Fuad F. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Whiteley, Mark S. [Stirling House, Whiteley Clinic (United Kingdom); Lopez, Anthony, E-mail: consultant@radiologist.co.u [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2008-11-15

139

Preoperative assessment of alternative veins.  

PubMed

Duplex ultrasonography, with or without color flow, has replaced phlebography as the technique of choice to select veins for autogenous bypass grafts. Although anatomic location and length are well-defined by ultrasound, evaluation of the venous wall itself is still imperfect. In situ diameters are less than those of arterialized veins. Ultrasonic search is most valuable in the examination of patients with good veins obscured by a layer of fat. Preoperative knowledge of variant anatomy and location of major veins and their branches facilitates bypass surgery. The preoperative vein mapping should be available in the operating room to guide the placement of incisions for unroofing and exploration directly over veins and vein segments that have a high likelihood of being usable. The finding of a useful vein when none is apparent on physical examination may enable the construction of an autogenous bypass in lieu of a less desirable prosthetic graft or leg amputation. PMID:8564029

Salles-Cunha, S X; Beebe, H G; Andros, G

1995-09-01

140

Elastomechanical properties of bovine veins.  

PubMed

Veins have historically been discussed in qualitative, relative terms: "more compliant" than arteries, subject to "lower pressures". The structural and compositional differences between arteries and veins are directly related to the different functions of these vessels. Veins are often used as grafts to reroute flow from atherosclerotic arteries, and venous elasticity plays a role in the development of conditions such as varicose veins and valvular insufficiency. It is therefore of clinical interest to determine the elastomechanical properties of veins. In the current study, both tensile and vibration testing are used to obtain elastic moduli of bovine veins. Representative stress-strain data are shown, and the mechanical and failure properties reported. Nonlinear and viscoelastic behavior is observed, though most properties show little strain rate dependence. These data suggest parameters for constitutive modeling of veins and may inform the design and testing of prosthetic venous valves as well as vein grafts. PMID:20129420

Rossmann, Jenn Stroud

2009-07-10

141

Retinal Vein Occlusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a common cause of vision loss in elderly people. The complex pathogenesis of central RVO (CRVO), hemi-RVO (HRVO) and branch RVO (BRVO) makes it an interdisciplinary task. Treatment of RVO should aim at eliminating the complications and vision-disturbing effects of RVO but also include prophylactic measures in order to avoid recurrence of the disease. Problems

Wolf Buehl; Stefan Sacu; Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth

2010-01-01

142

Complete genome sequence of a novel badnavirus, banana streak IM virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, banana streak disease outbreaks occurred at two locations in Australia in new banana hybrids that were being screened\\u000a for fusarium wilt resistance. Two different badnaviruses, banana streak GF virus and a newly discovered virus called banana\\u000a streak IM virus (BSIMV), were detected in these plants. The complete nucleotide sequence of the BSIMV genome was determined\\u000a and comprised 7768

Andrew D. W. GeeringJudith; Judith N. Parry; John E. Thomas

2011-01-01

143

First in situ investigation of a dark wind streak on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prominent low-albedo wind streaks issue from embayments at the north end of Victoria crater in Meridiani Planum, the site of surface investigations by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Opportunity was sent to examine the darkest of these wind streaks and compare it to the adjacent soil in the brighter corridor between the streaks. Two nearby sites inside and outside of the streak were selected for visible and infrared remote sensing and for elemental abundance measurements and images of the microscopic soil morphology. The rover was next sent to study the interaction of the wind streak with an obstacle, a small rock near the source of the streak. Opportunity's observations suggest that the Victoria wind streaks are deposits of basaltic sand blown out of the crater from the dark dunes nestled below the crater rim, particularly at the base of the alcove leading up to the darkest streak. No local sources of sand have been identified within the Victoria crater wall rock, suggesting that the sand is supplied from outside the crater and is presently escaping its temporary topographic trap. This process presents a possible explanation for the serrated margin of Victoria crater through abrasion of the soft rock as trapped sands are blown out of the crater and carve alcoves under various seasonal winds. Some indication of the rate of activity of these wind streaks will be provided by continued monitoring of the erasure of the rover's tracks.

Geissler, P. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Sullivan, R.; Herkenhoff, K.; Mittlefehldt, D.; Fergason, R.; Ming, D.; Morris, R.; Squyres, S.; Soderblom, L.; Golombek, M.

2008-10-01

144

Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism  

MedlinePLUS

... A A Fact Sheet: Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism Who is at risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis ... vein thrombosis How can Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism be prevented? If you're at risk, you ...

145

A study in yellow: mona caird's “ The yellow drawing room”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to further our understanding of Mona Caird, an important feminist writer in the late nineteenth century, whose work merits further consideration. Caird's short story “The Yellow Drawing-Room” is of interest because it highlights the significance of the colour yellow in the 1890s, and also introduces some of the key themes that preoccupied women writers at that time.

Stephanie Forward

2000-01-01

146

Evolution of cassava brown streak disease-associated viruses.  

PubMed

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has occurred in the Indian Ocean coastal lowlands and some areas of Malawi in East Africa for decades, and makes the storage roots of cassava unsuitable for consumption. CBSD is associated with Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and the recently described Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) [picorna-like (+)ssRNA viruses; genus Ipomovirus; family Potyviridae]. This study reports the first comprehensive analysis on how evolution is shaping the populations of CBSV and UCBSV. The complete genomes of CBSV and UCBSV (four and eight isolates, respectively) were 69.0-70.3 and 73.6-74.4% identical at the nucleotide and polyprotein amino acid sequence levels, respectively. They contained predictable sites of homologous recombination, mostly in the 3'-proximal part (NIb-HAM1h-CP-3'-UTR) of the genome, but no evidence of recombination between the two viruses was found. The CP-encoding sequences of 22 and 45 isolates of CBSV and UCBSV analysed, respectively, were mainly under purifying selection; however, several sites in the central part of CBSV CP were subjected to positive selection. HAM1h (putative nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphatase) was the least similar protein between CBSV and UCBSV (aa identity approx. 55%). Both termini of HAM1h contained sites under positive selection in UCBSV. The data imply an on-going but somewhat different evolution of CBSV and UCBSV, which is congruent with the recent widespread outbreak of UCBSV in cassava crops in the highland areas (>1000 m above sea level) of East Africa where CBSD has not caused significant problems in the past. PMID:21169213

Mbanzibwa, D R; Tian, Y P; Tugume, A K; Patil, B L; Yadav, J S; Bagewadi, B; Abarshi, M M; Alicai, T; Changadeya, W; Mkumbira, J; Muli, M B; Mukasa, S B; Tairo, F; Baguma, Y; Kyamanywa, S; Kullaya, A; Maruthi, M N; Fauquet, C M; Valkonen, J P T

2010-12-15

147

Human Greater and Canine Lateral Saphenous Veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine lateral saphenous vein and human greater saphenous vein were studied together to determine similarities and differences. Helical strips of both vessels contracted to norepinephrine with similar sensitivity. Canine veins developed more isometric tension than human veins treated similarly. Histological studies show canine veins to have little connective tissue and a single circular layer of smooth muscle. Human veins have

Michael R. Goldberg; Paul D. Joiner; Albert L. Hyman; Philip J. Kadowitz

1975-01-01

148

MORE ON IRIS YELLOW SPOT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Iris yellow spot, caused by Iris yellow spot tospovirus, is an emerging disease of onion in the U.S. and world. Yield losses vary, but may range from undetectable to nearly 100% in onion seed crops. This article presents recent advances in understanding the etiology, epidemiology, and management o...

149

Cerebral vein thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in neuroimaging have modified our knowledge on cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT). This disease is now diagnosed more\\u000a frequently, and increasing evidence as to what are the most common risk factors and on the natural history of the disease\\u000a is becoming available. Most patients with CVT have a benign prognosis: only a minority of patients die during the acute phase

Francesco Dentali; Walter Ageno

2010-01-01

150

Vein of Galen malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1984, 43 patients with true vein of Galen ancurysmal malformations have been referred to us and managed according to our patient selection, technique, and follow-up guidelines. Thirty-four were embolized transarterially with bucrilate (isobutyl cyanoacrylate) or enbucrilate (N-butyl cyanoacrylate) embolization. No cutdown or hypotension during or after the embolization was used and no balloon catheter was employed. Forty-seven percent of

P. Lasjaunias; R. Garcia-Monaco; G. Rodesch; K. Ter Brugge; M. Zerah; M. Tardieu; D. Victor

1991-01-01

151

Summary and conclusions on electrooptical streak camera project  

SciTech Connect

Two modifications to the evaluation set-up which would provide increased insight into the performance of the crystal streaking camera were proposed. The first of these has been tested with the results included in this report. The simple RC ramp circuit was modified by placing a diode across the output capacitance which shorts out the over-shoot which could depolarize the crystal. A pulser was added between the Stanford Research logic pulse generator and the Bragg cell modulator. This pulser is gated on and off to produce several laser pulses during the ramp. The concept was to be able to observe directly the resolvability of individual laser pulses beginning with 1 pulse on then two pulses on during the ramp, then increasing the number of pulses until the individual pulses are no longer resolvable. This can be converted into CTF (contrast transfer function) plotted against LPM (line pairs per millimeter) used in the evaluation of streaking cameras. The second modification proposed is to place the crystal in a liquid environment which will enable the application of voltages between 10 and 20 kV across the 1.3 mm crystal. A suitable liquid has been identified and ordered, Fluorinert, manufactured by 3M, with a break-down strength of about 21 kV per 1.3 mm. This should enable a deflection of about 250 pixels (at 16.25 kilo-volts) with the present optics or 500 pixels with a mirror causing two passes through the crystal.

Welch, B.

1988-01-01

152

Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera  

SciTech Connect

Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera’s user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

Amy E. Lewis, Craig Hollabaugh

2006-09-01

153

Slope Streaks in the Antarctic Dry Valleys: Characteristics, Candidate Formation Mechanisms, and Implications for Slope Streak Formation in the Martian Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enigmatic slope streaks on Mars are apparently active today. Remarkably similar analogs in the Antarctic Dry Valleys hyperarid polar desert involve near-surface flow of saline meltwater and wicking to the surface; we examine implications for Mars.

J. W. Head; D. R. Marchant; J. L. Dickson; J. S. Levy; G. A. Morgan

2007-01-01

154

Bunch length measurements at the TESLA Test Facility using a streak camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A streak camera provides a direct and convenient way to measure bunch lengths in the millimeter and submillimeter range. At the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) a streak camera with a subpicosecond resolution is in operation. A bunch compressor is used to produce bunch lengths down to 250 ?m for the operation of the TTF free electron laser. Bunch length measurements

K. Honkavaara; P. Piot; S. Schreiber; D. Sertore

2001-01-01

155

Transmission and distribution of cassava brown streak virus disease in cassava growing areas of Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the incidence and distribution of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) in relation to Bemisia tabaci populations in Central, Eastern, Nyanza and Western provinces of Kenya and investigate the ability of 4 cassava pests to transmit cassava brown streak virus (CBSV). Methodology and results: A multistage sampling survey was conducted from November 2006 to April 2007 to determine

B. O. MWARE; E. M. ATEKA; J. M. SONGA; R. D. NARLA; F. OLUBAYO; R. AMATA

156

The intentional mind and the hot hand: Perceiving intentions makes streaks seem likely to continue  

Microsoft Academic Search

People can appear inconsistent in their intuitions about sequences of repeated events. Sometimes people believe such sequences will continue (the “hot hand”), and sometimes people believe they will reverse (the “gambler’s fallacy”). These contradictory intuitions can be partly explained by considering the perceived intentionality of the agent generating the streak. The intuition that streaks will continue (reverse) should emerge in

Eugene M. Caruso; Adam Waytz; Nicholas Epley

2010-01-01

157

Characterization of X-ray streak cameras for use on Nova  

SciTech Connect

There are many different types of measurements that require a continuous time history of x-ray emission that can be provided with an x-ray streak camera. In order to properly analyze the images that are recorded with the x-ray streak cameras operated on Nova, it is important to account for the streak characterization of each camera. We have performed a number of calibrations of the streak cameras both on the bench as well as with Nova disk target shots where we use a time modulated laser intensity profile (self-beating of the laser) on the target to generate an x-ray comb. We have measured the streak camera sweep direction and spatial offset, curvature of the electron optics, sweep rate, and magnification and resolution of the electron optics.

Kalantar, D.H.; Bell, P.M.; Costa, R.L.; Hammel, B.A.; Landen, O.L.; Orzechowski, T.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hares, J.D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A.K.L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Didcot (United Kingdom)

1996-09-01

158

Finite-range time delays in numerical attosecond-streaking experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of numerical simulations and theoretical classical analysis of time delays with respect to the instant of ionization in a numerical streaking experiment. We show that the time delay is related to a finite range in space, which the emitted electron probes after its transition into the continuum until the streaking pulse ceases. This finite-range time delay results from the coupling of the atomic potential and the streaking field and strongly depends on the parameters, in particular the duration, of the streaking field. It can be represented as an integral or sum over piecewise field-free time delays weighted by the ratio of the instantaneous streaking field strength relative to the field strength at the instant of ionization.

Su, Jing; Ni, Hongcheng; Becker, Andreas; Jaro?-Becker, Agnieszka

2013-08-01

159

Lipid droplets in atherosclerotic fatty streaks of human aorta  

PubMed Central

Preparations of lipid droplets and droplet-free tissue residue (cytoplasm + membranes + nuclei) were obtained by homogenization and centrifugal separation from intimal fatty streak lesions of aortic atherosclerosis of 21 adults who had died suddenly. Neutral lipids and phospholipids were analyzed by quantitative thin-layer chromatography and cholesteryl ester fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography. Optical properties of droplets were evaluated by differential counting and sizing procedures with the polarizing microscope. The droplets occurred in mixtures of two forms distinguished by their optical properties, anisotropic (i.e. liquid crystals) and isotropic (true liquids). Both forms had average diameters of about 1.8 ?, with a range of 0.5-5?. The proportions of the two forms varied with temperature as individual droplets changed their form; anisotropic forms averaged 83.7% at °C and 37.8% at 37°C, with isotropic forms being 16.3 and 62.2% respectively. The proportions of anisotropic forms at 22°C decreased with age. These forms were not separated for chemical analysis. The droplets contained about half the lipid in the lesions. The composition of the lipids of the droplet mixture was remarkably uniform and strikingly different from that of the droplet-free residue, respectively: cholesteryl esters 94.9% vs. 38.7%, free cholesterol 1.7% vs. 18.6%, total phospholipids 1.0% vs. 38.6%, and triglycerides 2.4% vs. 4.0%. The proportions of individual phospholipids, with the exception of lysolecithin, were also different between the preparations. In the droplets only the proportions of lecithin correlated positively with the proportion of anisotropic forms (at 22°C). Droplet cholesteryl esters were particularly rich in oleic acid and when compared to residue esters had more palmitoleic (+0.7%), oleic (+12.3%), and eicosatrienoic (+2.4%) and less palmitic (-2.2%), linoleic (-12.4%), and arachidonic (-1.6%) acids. The proportions of most individual fatty acids of droplets and residue correlated positively. The lipids of the residue closely resemble those reported for the normal intima. The observations that these droplets are prominent in the morphology of the fatty streak lesions, and that their high content of oleate-rich cholesteryl esters is similar to that reported for analysis of the whole lesions, suggest that the droplets may be involved in the pathogenesis of the fatty streak lesions of artherosclerosis in man.

Lang, P. Dieter; Insull, William

1970-01-01

160

Doppler streak mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography is able to be used for in vivo blood flow measurement. In conventional methods, the highest velocity that can be measured is limited to the range the phase shift between two successively recorded depth profiles at the same probe-beam location, which cannot exceed (-?, ?), otherwise phase wrapping will occur. This phase-wrapping limit is determined by the time interval between two consecutive A-scans. We present a novel approach to shorten the time interval between two consecutive A-scans and thus increase the phase-wrapping limit by using an area scan camera to record the interference spectrum in a streak mode. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, the blood flows in HH18 and HH19 chick hearts were imaged and phase wrapping free Doppler images were obtained.

Wang, Rui; Yun, Julie X.; Goodwin, Richard; Markwald, Roger; Runyan, Raymond B.; Gao, Bruce

2012-02-01

161

Chronic retinal vein occlusion in glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asymptomatic chronic retinal vein occlusion that occurs in chronic simple glaucoma is described. The condition is characterized by marked elevation of retinal vein pressure with collateral vessels and vein loops at the optic disc in cases of central vein occlusion, or retinal veno-venous anastomoses along a horizontal line temporal and nasal to the disc in hemisphere vein occlusion. No patient

R A Hitchings; G L Spaeth

1976-01-01

162

Streaking in Cascadia ETS Events and Implications for the Subduction Plate Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manner in which episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) propagates across the subduction plate interface provides constraints on its properties and the physical processes involved. We have been examining catalogs of tremor locations to study propagation patterns during ETS. Tremor in the large Cascadia ETS events propagates mainly via three modes: 1) the slow along-strike advance of ETS, 2) rapid tremor reversals (RTRs) that propagate back from the tremor front in an opposite direction to the along-strike advance, but at speeds 10-40 times faster (Houston et al., Nature Geoscience, 2011), and 3) streaks, even faster migrations of tremor parallel to the plate-convergence direction at speeds ~ 70 km/hr (Ghosh et al., G3, 2011). The UW Seismology group has recently deployed an EarthScope-funded seismic experiment, the Array of Arrays, to image tremor more precisely with eight subarrays. A 15-month catalog of high-resolution tremor locations has been generated based on the triangulation of back-projected beams from the subarrays. We detect tremor streaks in this catalog automatically and systematically determine streak propagation properties. Key issues for constraining streak-generation processes include systematic differences between up- and down-dip traveling streaks, how streak properties may depend on depth, and whether streaks accelerate or decelerate during propagation. Stacking automatically-detected streaks can address some of these issues. Two approaches to automatically detecting streaks have been developed and applied to the M6.8 2010 ETS. One method declares a streak when averaged epicenters continue to move in a roughly constant direction for more than 10 km. The second declares a streak if epicenters during a specified time interval, say 20 min, are sufficiently well-correlated with time. The two methods agree well and detect several streaks per day of 15-30 min duration with speeds consistent with those inferred for the 2008 ETS. Although the detection methods have no azimuthal bias, most of the detected streaks align with one direction; furthermore, that direction lies much closer to the plate convergence direction than directly down-dip (the down-dip and plate convergence directions differ significantly along most of Cascadia). Many more streaks are detected in the actual catalog than in randomized versions, in which the times within each hour are permuted. These results lend substantial credence to convergence-parallel streaks as real features of ETS. Streak propagation patterns suggest the plate interface is anisotropic along the slip direction. The ubiquity of streaking parallel to plate convergence implies control by corrugated or smeared structures on the plate interface. This could occur via such structures controlling the orientation of an advancing slip pulse, which could carry streaks along its peak (Rubin, G3, 2011), or more directly via heterogeneous physical properties (such as rheology or permeability) elongated in the convergence direction. In this connection, we note that daily tremor bands in Cascadia ETS are also often oriented parallel to the convergence direction whether the ETS is advancing north or south, even though the direction of ETS advance would be expected to affect the orientation of a slip pulse on a homogeneous interface.

Houston, H.; Ghosh, A.

2011-12-01

163

Streaking and Wigner time delays in photoemission from atoms and surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Streaked photoemission metrology allows the observation of an apparent relative time delay between the detection of photoelectrons from different initial electronic states. This relative delay is obtained by recording the photoelectron yield as a function of the delay between an ionizing ultrashort extended ultraviolet pulse and a streaking infrared (IR) pulse. Theoretically, photoemission delays can be defined based on (i) the phase shift the photoelectron wave function accumulates during the release and propagation of the photoelectron (''Wigner delay'') and, alternatively, (ii) the streaking trace in the calculated photoemission spectrum (''streaking delay''). We investigate the relation between Wigner and streaking delays in the photoemission from atomic and solid-surface targets. For solid targets and assuming a vanishing IR skin depth, both Wigner and streaking delays can be interpreted as an average propagation time needed by photoelectrons to reach the surface, while the two delays differ for nonvanishing skin depths. For atomic targets, the difference between Wigner and streaking delays depends on the range of the ionic potential.

Zhang, C.-H.; Thumm, U. [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

2011-09-15

164

Wheat curl mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) dispersal and its relationship with kernel red streaking in maize.  

PubMed

Wheat curl mites, Aceria tosichella Keifer, dispersing from wheat (Triticum spp.) to nearby corn (Zea mays L.) fields play a role in the development of kernel red streaking in corn. These studies were undertaken to verify the relationship of wheat curl mite to kernel red streaking, to determine whether wheat is the main source of curl mites dispersing into corn and to determine whether planting corn in temporal or spatial isolation of wheat is a valid management strategy. These studies were conducted on farm fields using sticky traps to monitor mites, followed by sampling mature grain for kernel streaking in southwestern Ontario from 1999 to 2002. The dominant source mites were winter wheat. Mite dispersal occurred during the first 3 wk of winter wheat maturation after the wheat had reached Zadoks stage 87. Mite dispersal corresponded to prevailing winds in the area with the lowest number of mites and the lowest severity of kernel red streaking occurring 60 m from wheat fields planted to the north, south, and east of cornfields and 90 m from wheat fields planted to the west of cornfields. The severity of kernel red streaking was positively correlated with the density of wheat curl mites in corn; however, the correlation was weak and kernel red streaking was still high in many cornfields when few or no mites were present. These findings suggest that wheat curl mite migration into corn is not entirely predictive of the incidence and severity of kernel red streaking. PMID:16334327

Liu, J; Lee, E A; Sears, M K; Schaafsma, A W

2005-10-01

165

Improvements in off-center focusing in an x-ray streak camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the planar construction of present x-ray streak tubes significant off-center defocusing is observed in both static and dynamic images taken with one-dimensional resolution slits. Based on the streak tube geometry curved photocathodes with radii of curvature ranging from 3.5 to 18 inches have been fabricated. We report initial off-center focusing performance data on the evaluation of these "improved" photocathodes in an X-ray streak camera and an update on the theoretical simulations to predict the optimum cathode curvature.

McDonald, Joseph W.; Weber, Franz; Griffith, Roger L.; Holder, Joe P.; Bell, Perry M.

2004-01-01

166

Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms  

SciTech Connect

Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The LLNL ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube. The camera also has a new user interface that allows for remote control and data acquisition. The system has been outfitted with a new sensor package that gives the user more operational awareness and control.

Marley, E; Shepherd, R; Fulkerson, E S; James, L; Emig, J; Norman, D

2012-05-02

167

Emissivity spectrum of a large "dark streak" from themis infrared imagery  

SciTech Connect

'Dark streaks', also known as 'slope streaks', are unusual surface features found on Mars that are known to appear and fade away on timescales of years. Various explanations have been proposed for their origin and composition, including dry avalanches and wet debris or precipitates from brines. Previous investigations have been based on analysis of panchromatic imagery and altimetry from Viking and Mars Global Surveyor missions. We have obtained an infrared emissivity spectrum of a large dark streak on the north western edge of Olympus Mons, using imagery from the THEMIS instrument on the Mars Odyssey 2001 spacecraft.

Brumby, Steven P.; Vaniman, D. T. (David T.); Bish, D. L. (David L.)

2003-01-01

168

Ultra fast x-ray streak camera for ten inch manipulator based platforms  

SciTech Connect

Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube. The camera also has a new user interface that allows for remote control and data acquisition. The system has been outfitted with a new sensor package that gives the user more operational awareness and control.

Marley, E. V. [Physics and Life Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, M.S. L-490, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Shepherd, R.; Fulkerson, S.; James, L.; Emig, J.; Norman, D. [Physics and Life Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, M.S. L-490, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2012-10-15

169

On the Origin of Near-Surface Streaks in the Neutrally-Stratified Planetary Boundary Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of near-surface streak formation in the neutrallystratified, rotating planetary boundary layer areinvestigated. The purpose of this note is to compare large-eddysimulation results to theoretical predictions suggesting thatstreaks are associated with non-normal mode optimal perturbations.Streaks are regions near the surface of alternating high and lowspeed fluid organized into nearly linear bands, with horizontalspacing of several hundred metres, oriented up to 30° relativeto the geostrophic wind, that evolve through a continuous cycle ofgeneration, growth, decay and reformation. We find that the earlystages of streak formation and growth are consistent with thelinear theory.

Drobinski, Philippe; Foster, Ralph C.

170

Standard design for National Ignition Facility x-ray streak and framing cameras  

SciTech Connect

The x-ray streak camera and x-ray framing camera for the National Ignition Facility were redesigned to improve electromagnetic pulse hardening, protect high voltage circuits from pressure transients, and maximize the use of common parts and operational software. Both instruments use the same PC104 based controller, interface, power supply, charge coupled device camera, protective hermetically sealed housing, and mechanical interfaces. Communication is over fiber optics with identical facility hardware for both instruments. Each has three triggers that can be either fiber optic or coax. High voltage protection consists of a vacuum sensor to enable the high voltage and pulsed microchannel plate phosphor voltage. In the streak camera, the high voltage is removed after the sweep. Both rely on the hardened aluminum box and a custom power supply to reduce electromagnetic pulse/electromagnetic interference (EMP/EMI) getting into the electronics. In addition, the streak camera has an EMP/EMI shield enclosing the front of the streak tube.

Kimbrough, J. R.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Holder, J. P.; Kalantar, D. K.; MacPhee, A. G.; Telford, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)

2010-10-15

171

Research on a flash imaging lidar based on a multiple-streak tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flash imaging lidar based on a multiple-streak tube is presented in this paper; a fiber remapping optics maps light from an area in the focal plane of an imaging lens to multiple rows of fibers on the streak tube’s photocathode. The lidar system contains a multiple-streak tube, laser, transmitting and receiving telescope, remapping optical fibers, and CCD to capture stripe images from the streak tube’s phosphor screen. Data processing yields 48 × 48-pixel intensity and range images for each laser pulse. An experiment to test the property of this lidar is carried out in the laboratory; the intensity images and range images are gained by image remapping, and the range sampling is 0.21 m. Field test imagery demonstrated the capability of the flash lidar system to image a building 705 m away.

Liu, J.; Wang, Q.; Li, S.; Cheng, Y.; Wei, J.

2009-01-01

172

THEMIS Observations of Low-Albedo Intracrater Materials and Wind Streaks in Western Arabia Terra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THEMIS day/night TIR images are used for thermophysical and spectral analyses of low-albedo intracrater materials and wind streaks and are compared with TES surface compositions and MOC observations to constrain origin hypotheses for these materials.

Wyatt, M. B.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Moersch, J. E.; Gorelick, N. S.; Christensen, P. R.

2003-03-01

173

Learning from the pulmonary veins.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to review the basic embryology and anatomy of the pulmonary veins and the various imaging techniques used to evaluate the pulmonary veins, as well as the radiologic findings in diseases affecting these structures. Specific cases highlight the clinical importance of the imaging features, particularly the findings obtained with multidetector computed tomography (CT). Pulmonary vein disease can be broadly classified into congenital or acquired conditions. Congenital disease, which often goes unnoticed until patients are adults, mainly includes (a) anomalies in the number or diameter of the vessels and (b) abnormal drainage or connection with the pulmonary arterial tree. Acquired disease can be grouped into (a) stenosis and obstruction, (b) hypertension, (c) thrombosis, (d) calcifications, and (e) collateral circulation. Pulmonary vein stenosis or obstruction, which often has important clinical repercussions, is frequently a result of radiofrequency ablation complications, neoplastic infiltration, or fibrosing mediastinitis. The most common cause of pulmonary venous hypertension is chronic left ventricular failure. This condition is difficult to differentiate from veno-occlusive pulmonary disease, which requires a completely different treatment. Pulmonary vein thrombosis is a rare, potentially severe condition that can have a local or distant cause. Calcifications have been described in rheumatic mitral valve disease and chronic renal failure. Finally, the pulmonary veins can act as conduits for collateral circulation in cases of obstruction of the superior vena cava. Multidetector CT is an excellent modality for imaging evaluation of the pulmonary veins, even when the examination is not specifically tailored for their assessment. PMID:23842969

Porres, Diego Varona; Morenza, Oscar Persiva; Pallisa, Esther; Roque, Alberto; Andreu, Jorge; Martínez, Manel

174

Isolation of Lipoprotein-Acid Mucopolysaccharide Complexes from Fatty Streaks of Human Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for isolation of 1ipoprotein-acid mucopolysaccharide complexes from fatty streaks of human aorta. The complexes were extracted from fatty streaks with 0.15M NaCl and fractionated by gel filtration followed by ultracentrifugation at densities 1.006 and 1.065- The solvent density 1.065 was achieved by using D2O instead of NaCl which decreased dissociation of the complexes. These studies demonstrated

S. R. Srinivasan; P. Dolan; B. Radhakrishnamurthy; G. S. Berenson

1972-01-01

175

Applications of synchroscan and dual-sweep streak camera techniques to free-electron laser experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of several types of time-resolved experiments on rf-linac driven free-electron lasers (FELs) using streak-camera techniques are presented. In the past these techniques generally traded off time resolution, time span, and timing jitter to address either submicropulse or submacropulse effects. More recently, we have taken advantage of synchroscan streak cameras that were phase-locked to the reference 108.3 MHz rf

Alex H. Lumpkin

1991-01-01

176

Bone-induced streak artifact suppression in sparse-view CT image reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background In sparse-view CT imaging, strong streak artifacts may appear around bony structures and they often compromise the image readability. Compressed sensing (CS) or total variation (TV) minimization-based image reconstruction method has reduced the streak artifacts to a great extent, but, sparse-view CT imaging still suffers from residual streak artifacts. We introduce a new bone-induced streak artifact reduction method in the CS-based image reconstruction. Methods We firstly identify the high-intensity bony regions from the image reconstructed by the filtered backprojection (FBP) method, and we calculate the sinogram stemming from the bony regions only. Then, we subtract the calculated sinogram, which stands for the bony regions, from the measured sinogram before performing the CS-based image reconstruction. The image reconstructed from the subtracted sinogram will stand for the soft tissues with little streak artifacts on it. To restore the original image intensity in the bony regions, we add the bony region image, which has been identified from the FBP image, to the soft tissue image to form a combined image. Then, we perform the CS-based image reconstruction again on the measured sinogram using the combined image as the initial condition of the iteration. For experimental validation of the proposed method, we take images of a contrast phantom and a rat using a micro-CT and we evaluate the reconstructed images based on two figures of merit, relative mean square error and total variation caused by the streak artifacts. Results The images reconstructed by the proposed method have been found to have smaller streak artifacts than the ones reconstructed by the original CS-based method when visually inspected. The quantitative image evaluation studies have also shown that the proposed method outperforms the conventional CS-based method. Conclusions The proposed method can effectively suppress streak artifacts stemming from bony structures in sparse-view CT imaging.

2012-01-01

177

Identification of genetic markers linked to banana streak disease expression in inter-specific Musa hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently-introduced inter-specific Musa hybrids, bred for improved yield and resistance to diseases, have been found to be widely infected with banana streak virus (BSV), the causal agent of banana streak disease (BSD). One hypothesis suggests: (1) that BSD occurrence in these inter-specific hybrids results from activation of BSV-Ol endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRV) integrated into the Musa genome rather than from

F. Lheureux; F. Carreel; C. Jenny; B. E. L. Lockhart; M. L. Iskra-Caruana

2003-01-01

178

Development of soft x-ray streak cameras at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Soft x-ray streak cameras are used in conjunction with several instruments for the diagnostic of laser irradiated targets. A program was undertaken to develop cameras satisfying the requirements of the laser facility, to improve the reliability and performance of the camera and to reduce the level of effort required to set and operate each diagnostic. The implemented soft x-ray streak cameras can be operated either manually or automatically.

Medecki, H.; Phillips, G.E.; Bushman, J.F.

1983-06-27

179

Adaptive evolution by recombination is not associated with increased mutation rates in Maize streak virus  

PubMed Central

Background Single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses in the family Geminiviridae are proving to be very useful in real-time evolution studies. The high mutation rate of geminiviruses and other ssDNA viruses is somewhat mysterious in that their DNA genomes are replicated in host nuclei by high fidelity host polymerases. Although strand specific mutation biases observed in virus species from the geminivirus genus Mastrevirus indicate that the high mutation rates in viruses in this genus may be due to mutational processes that operate specifically on ssDNA, it is currently unknown whether viruses from other genera display similar strand specific mutation biases. Also, geminivirus genomes frequently recombine with one another and an alternative cause of their high mutation rates could be that the recombination process is either directly mutagenic or produces a selective environment in which the survival of mutants is favoured. To investigate whether there is an association between recombination and increased basal mutation rates or increased degrees of selection favoring the survival of mutations, we compared the mutation dynamics of the MSV-MatA and MSV-VW field isolates of Maize streak virus (MSV; Mastrevirus), with both a laboratory constructed MSV recombinant, and MSV recombinants closely resembling MSV-MatA. To determine whether strand specific mutation biases are a general characteristic of geminivirus evolution we compared mutation spectra arising during these MSV experiments with those arising during similar experiments involving the geminivirus Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Begomovirus genus). Results Although both the genomic distribution of mutations and the occurrence of various convergent mutations at specific genomic sites indicated that either mutation hotspots or selection for adaptive mutations might elevate observed mutation rates in MSV, we found no association between recombination and mutation rates. Importantly, when comparing the mutation spectra of MSV and TYLCV we observed similar strand specific mutation biases arising predominantly from imbalances in the complementary mutations G???T: C???A. Conclusions While our results suggest that recombination does not strongly influence mutation rates in MSV, they indicate that high geminivirus mutation rates are at least partially attributable to increased susceptibility of all geminivirus genomes to oxidative damage while in a single stranded state.

2012-01-01

180

Yellow fever in Swansea, 1865.  

PubMed Central

A cargo of copper ore from Cuba was discharged at Swansea in mid-September 1865, during a spell of exceptionally hot weather. A small number of mosquitoes infected with the yellow fever virus, disembarking at the same time, established an epidemic of yellow fever in the town. In the next 25 days, at least 27 inhabitants were infected and 15 of them died. The quality of contemporary observation and recording has encouraged a re-examination of the events in the light of knowledge unavailable at the time. It cannot be assumed that the episode will not be repeated.

Meers, P. D.

1986-01-01

181

Spatiotemporal mechanical variation reveals critical role for rho kinase during primitive streak morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Large-scale morphogenetic movements during early embryo development are driven by complex changes in biochemical and biophysical factors. Current models for amniote primitive streak morphogenesis and gastrulation take into account numerous genetic pathways but largely ignore the role of mechanical forces. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to obtain for the first time precise biomechanical properties of the early avian embryo. Our data reveal that the primitive streak is significantly stiffer than neighboring regions of the epiblast, and that it is stiffer than the pre-primitive streak epiblast. To test our hypothesis that these changes in mechanical properties are due to a localized increase of actomyosin contractility, we inhibited actomyosin contractility via the Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway using the small-molecule inhibitor Y-27632. Our results using several different assays show the following: (1) primitive streak formation was blocked; (2) the time-dependent increase in primitive streak stiffness was abolished; and (3) convergence of epiblast cells to the midline was inhibited. Taken together, our data suggest that actomyosin contractility is necessary for primitive streak morphogenesis, and specifically, ROCK plays a critical role. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of this fundamental process, future models should account for the findings presented in this study. PMID:22956163

Henkels, Julia; Oh, Jaeho; Xu, Wenwei; Owen, Drew; Sulchek, Todd; Zamir, Evan

2012-09-07

182

Intial synchroscan streak camera imaging at the A0 photoinjector  

SciTech Connect

At the Fermilab A0 photoinjector facility, bunch-length measurements of the laser micropulse and the e-beam micropulse have been done in the past with a single-sweep module of the Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera with an intrinsic shot-to-shot trigger jitter of 10 to 20 ps. We have upgraded the camera system with the synchroscan module tuned to 81.25 MHz to provide synchronous summing capability with less than 1.5-ps FWHM trigger jitter and a phase-locked delay box to provide phase stability of {approx}1 ps over 10s of minutes. This allowed us to measure both the UV laser pulse train at 244 nm and the e-beam via optical transition radiation (OTR). Due to the low electron beam energies and OTR signals, we typically summed over 50 micropulses with 1 nC per micropulse. We also did electron beam bunch length vs. micropulse charge measurements to identify a significant e-beam micropulse elongation from 10 to 30 ps (FWHM) for charges from 1 to 4.6 nC. This effect is attributed to space-charge effects in the PC gun as reproduced by ASTRA calculations. Chromatic temporal dispersion effects in the optics were also characterized and will be reported.

Lumpkin, A.H.; Ruan, J.; /Fermilab

2008-04-01

183

Inflammation in Retinal Vein Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Retinal vein occlusion is a common, vision-threatening vascular disorder. The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis and clinical consequences of retinal vein occlusion is a topic of growing interest. It has long been recognized that systemic inflammatory disorders, such as autoimmune disease, are a significant risk factor for this condition. A number of more recent laboratory and clinical studies have begun to elucidate the role inflammation may play in the molecular pathways responsible for the vision-impairing consequences of retinal vein occlusion, such as macular edema. This improved understanding of the role of inflammation in retinal vein occlusion has allowed the development of new treatments for the disorder, with additional therapeutic targets and strategies to be identified as our understanding of the topic increases.

Deobhakta, Avnish; Chang, Louis K.

2013-01-01

184

Yellow Fever Unwelcome Visitor Now in Residence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The editorial reviews the history of yellow fever in Ethiopia and the progress of the current vaccination campaign around the Sidamo administrative region. The need for a vaccination team capable of responding rapidly to a Yellow Fever outbreak anywhere i...

1975-01-01

185

The Yellow River in transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many parts of the world, the Yellow River basin has problems associated with water scarcity, pollution, and flood risk. Analyses that focus only on the physical characteristics of these problems miss some of their most important social drivers. In this paper we identify some interlocking changes that have occurred as a consequence of economic reforms begun in China in

Michael Webber; Jon Barnett; Mark Wang; Brian Finlayson; Debbie Dickinson

2008-01-01

186

Anaphylaxis from yellow fever vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are very few reports of anaphylactic reactions to yellow fever (YF) vaccine in the literature, and these date from the 1940s. Objective: We sought to estimate the rate of YF vaccine–related anaphylaxis. Methods: All reports of adverse reactions to YF vaccine submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System between 1990 and 1997 were reviewed for those meeting

John M. Kelso; Gina T. Mootrey; Theodore F. Tsai

1999-01-01

187

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF YELLOW STARTHISTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Six insects that attack yellow starthistle have become established in California, but only two species are very abundant, and only the seedheads are attacked. Little impact on the weed has occurred except at low elevation sites in Oregon which are not overgrazed or disturbed (e.g., roadsides). Add...

188

Analysis of cassava brown streak viruses reveals the presence of distinct virus species causing cassava brown streak disease in East Africa.  

PubMed

Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) isolates were analysed from symptomatic cassava collected between 1997 and 2008 in the major cultivation regions of East Africa. An analysis of complete RNA genomes of seven isolates from Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Uganda and Malawi revealed a common genome structure, but the isolates clearly clustered in two distinct clades. The first comprised isolates from Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, north-western Tanzania and the CBSV described previously, and shared between 87 and 95% nucleotide sequence identity, whilst the second included isolates from coastal regions of Mozambique and Tanzania, which shared only 70% nucleotide sequence identities with isolates of the first clade. When the amino acid sequences of viral proteins were compared, identities as low as 47% (Ham1) and 59% (P1) between the two clades were found. An antiserum obtained against the capsid protein of a clade 1 isolate identified a 43 kDa protein in clade 1 isolates and a 45 kDa protein in clade 2 isolates. Several cassava cultivars were susceptible to isolates of clade 2 but resistant to those of clade 1. The differences observed both in biological behaviour and in genomic and protein sequences indicate that cassava brown streak disease in East Africa is caused by at least two distinct virus species. It is suggested that those of clade 1 retain the species name Cassava brown streak virus, whilst those of clade 2 be classified as Cassava brown streak Mozambique virus. PMID:20071490

Winter, Stephan; Koerbler, Marianne; Stein, Beate; Pietruszka, Agnes; Paape, Martina; Butgereitt, Anja

2010-01-13

189

Overwintering Yellow Perch Fry in Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild harvests of yellow perch Perca flavescens have failed to keep up with the strong market demand for the fish. Moreover, yellow perch has many attributes that make it attractive for commercial aquaculture in the USA. One drawback to yellow perch culture in the north-central region of the United States is that low winter water temperatures inhibit somatic growth. In

I. Patrick Saoud; Leonard Rodgers; Jesse Chappell; D. Allen Davis

2004-01-01

190

COMMUNICATIONS Overwintering Yellow Perch Fry in Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild harvests of yellow perch Perca fla- vescens have failed to keep up with the strong market demand for the fish. Moreover, yellow perch has many attributes that make it attractive for commercial aqua- culture in the USA. One drawback to yellow perch cul- ture in the north-central region of the United States is that low winter water temperatures inhibit

I. PATRICK SAOUD; LEONARD RODGERS; J ESSE CHAPPELL; D. ALLEN

191

Quantitative measurements using soft x-ray streak cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Soft X-ray Streak Camera (SXRSC) is a fast timing instrument sensitive to x rays from 100 eV to 30 keV. The instrument has excellent time resolution (~15 ps) and large dynamic range (~103) which are well suited for measuring x-ray pulses produced by laser-fusion targets. The SXRSC uses a thin transmission photocathode to convert x-rays to a secondary electron signal which is acelerated, focused, and deflected onto a phosphor producing an image of the x-ray pulse time history. In the past, such instruments have been used only to make relative measurements of the time history. At LINL we have calibrated the SXRSC in order to make absolute intensity measurements of the soft x-ray flux from laser fusion targets. Such measurements will assist in understanding the laser plasma processes and conditions needed to attain laser-produced fusion. Because of the nature of the instrument, we have calibrated it in the dynamic mode using a small laser-produced pulsed x-ray source. Details of the calibrations will be given. We have measured the SXRSC response to be linear over more than two orders of magnitude with the range limited by the x-ray source strength. The dynamic range of similar instruments sensitive to optical light has been demonstrated to be greater than 103. Based on first generation calibrations, flux measurements are accurate to +/-30% with the largest uncertainty in the calibrations being in determining the source spectrum and intensity. The uncertainties can possibly be reduced by a factor of two by better source characterization. In that case errors in SXRSC measurements would approach those of other x-ray pulse detectors, such as x-ray diodes.

Kauffman, Robert L.; Stradling, Gary L.; Pierce, Edward L.; Medecki, Hector

1981-10-01

192

Numerical Modelling of Vein Microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral veins occur in a variety of forms (syntaxial, antitaxial, etc.), and with various microstructures (fibrous, stretched crystals, vuggy, etc.). These structures can, if correctly interpreted, provide useful insight into the geological and tectonic conditions at which the veins formed (Oliver and Bons 2001). Durney and Ramsay (1973) defined the base for the modern classification and interpretation of vein (micro-) structures. Numerical modelling, not available then, has since been added as a tool to better understand the formation of vein (micro-) structures, focussing on three aspects in particular: 1) What determines the habit of growing vein crystals? In particular, what determines the formation of a fibrous habit? (Bons 2001, Hilgers et al. 2001) 2) The formation of fibrous pressure fringes. The complex internal structures of the fringes appear mostly the result of the relative rotation of object and fringes (Koehn et al. 2001). 3) Competition between growing crystals, which for example explains the development of a conical c-axes CPO in zeolite films (Bons and Bons 2003). References: Bons, P.D. 2001. Development of crystal morphology during unitaxial growth in a progressively widening vein: I. The numerical model. Journal of Structural Geology 23, 865-872. Bons, A.J., Bons, P.D. 2003. The development of oblique preferred orientations in zeolite films and membranes. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 62, 9-16. Durney DW, Ramsay JG (1973) Incremental strains measured by syntectonic crystal growths. In: Gravity and Tectonics (eds De Jong KA, Scholten K), John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 67-96. Hilgers, C., Koehn, D., Bons, P.D., Urai, J.L. 2001. Development of crystal morphology during unitaxial growth in a progressively widening vein: II. Numerical simulations of the evolution of antitaxial fibrous veins. Journal of Structural Geology 23, 873-885. Koehn, D., Aerden, D.G.A.M., Bons, P.D., Passchier, C.W. 2001. Computer experiments to investigate complex fibre patterns in natural antitaxial strain fringes. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 19, 217-232. Oliver, N.H.S., Bons, P.D. 2001. Mechanisms of fluid flow and fluid-rock interaction in fossil metamorphic-hydrothermal systems inferred from vein-wallrock patterns, geometry, and microstructure. Geofluids 1, 137-163.

Bons, P. D.

2005-12-01

193

Commercialization of vein contrast enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ongoing clinical study of an experimental infrared (IR) device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE) that visualizes surface veins for medical access, indicates that a commercial device with the performance of the existing VCE would have significant clinical utility for even a very skilled phlebotomist. A proof-of-principle prototype VCE device has now been designed and constructed that captures IR images of surface veins with a commercial CCD camera, transfers the images to a PC for real-time software image processing to enhance the vein contrast, and projects the enhanced images back onto the skin with a modified commercial LCD projector. The camera and projector are mounted on precision slides allowing for precise mechanical alignment of the two optical axes and for measuring the effects of axes misalignment. Precision alignment of the captured and projected images over the entire field-of-view is accomplished electronically by software adjustments of the translation, scaling, and rotation of the enhanced images before they are projected back onto the skin. This proof-of-principle prototype will be clinically tested and the experience gained will lead to the development of a commercial device, OnTarget!, that is compact, easy to use, and will visualize accessible veins in almost all subjects needing venipuncture.

Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal; Vrancken, Carlos; Zhang, Yong; Zeman, Herbert D.; Weinberg, Devin

2003-07-01

194

Subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery.  

PubMed

Chronic venous insufficiency is a tremendous health care problem in western societies. Venous disease can affect any combination of the superficial, deep, and perforator venous systems of the lower extremities. Generally the superficial venous deficits are addressed through sclerotherapy, enovenous ablation, stab phlebectomy, and or stripping. Patients with advanced clinical sequelae (lipodermatosclerosis or ulceration) of CVI should also be evaluated for the presence of incompetent perforating veins. Open surgical approached to the calf perforating veins (ie. Linton procedure) were complicated by significant wound complications and have largely been replaced by the less invasive Subfascial Endoscopic Perforator Surgery (SEPS). The use of SEPS in patients with ulceration has been shown to be safe and to reduce the time that patients will have ulcers during follow-up. This chapter will review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of incompetent perforating veins of the legs with particular attention to surgical issues. PMID:16387265

Iafrati, Mark D

2005-12-01

195

Isolated bilateral external iliac vein aplasia.  

PubMed

We present a case of 11-year-old girl with a history of prominent superficial veins over abdomen and thorax since birth. A superficial vein extending from either inguinal region joined in umbilical region and extended up to right supraclavicular region. Other features of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome like nevus, limb edema were absent. On radiological investigations both external iliac veins could not be visualized and venous return from lower limbs was draining into the right subclavian vein via these superficial veins. Both external iliac veins could not be identified during surgery. PMID:22729029

Onkar, Deepali; Onkar, Prashant; Mitra, Kajal

2012-06-23

196

Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in patient with hereditary spherocytosis and coexisting angioid streaks.  

PubMed

Purpose. To describe a rare case of hereditary spherocytosis (HE) with angioid streaks that developed anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION).?Method. Case report.?Results. A 53-year-old woman with HE had a 3-day history of blurred vision in the lower hemifield in the left eye. At presentation, her visual acuity was 20/20 OD and 20/200 OS. Perimetric testing showed a relative scotoma in the superior parafoveal region in the right eye and an inferior altitudinal field defect in the left eye. Fundus examination demonstrated angioid streaks in both eyes with swelling of the optic disc in the left eye. Both parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G were identified in her serum. ?Conclusions. This is the first report of AION in HE and coexisting angioid streaks. The infection by parvovirus itself might be involved in the development of AION. PMID:23112036

Sawada, Akira; Oie, Shinya; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

2012-10-26

197

The intentional mind and the hot hand: Perceiving intentions makes streaks seem likely to continue.  

PubMed

People can appear inconsistent in their intuitions about sequences of repeated events. Sometimes people believe such sequences will continue (the "hot hand"), and sometimes people believe they will reverse (the "gambler's fallacy"). These contradictory intuitions can be partly explained by considering the perceived intentionality of the agent generating the streak. The intuition that streaks will continue (reverse) should emerge in contexts involving agents that are perceived to be intentional (unintentional), and should be most common among those who are most inclined to attribute intentions to other agents. Four studies support these predictions, identifying both situational and dispositional determinants of the perceived continuity of streaks. Discussion focuses on the foundational nature of intentionality for perceptions of interdependence between events, the relationship between these findings and existing theoretical accounts, and the inverse possibility that people use perceptions of streakiness as a cue for an agent's intentionality. PMID:20472229

Caruso, Eugene M; Waytz, Adam; Epley, Nicholas

2010-05-15

198

The surgical anatomy of varicose veins.  

PubMed

Varicose veins are managed largely in ignorance of important aspects of normal anatomy. In a study of 60 dissected legs the following observations were made: 1. The long saphenous vein--normally lies on the deep fascia enclosed with an envelope of fibrous tissue, which presumably compresses the vein rhythmically on exercise to aid centripetal flow. Thick walled and straight it is never varicose, and, communicating regularly with only one or two of the 60 or so perforating veins in the lower limb, its removal by stripping in operations for varicose veins is unjustifiable. In 18% of legs its femoral part is thin walled, superficial, and sometimes multipartite: in such legs varicose veins are commoner than usual, a point of aetiological interest. 2. The tributaries of the long saphenous vein--below the knee normally drain indirectly into it via an arch vein lying parallel but in a posterior and superficial plane, communicating with it both above and below. To reach it, for instance, the pre-tibial tributaries must cross the long saphenous vein. Varicosities of these tributaries and the arch vein therefore overlie the long saphenous vein and are sometimes attributed to it. Similarly the upper end of the arch vein is often erroneously thought to be the long saphenous vein itself dilated up to an incompetent thigh perforator. 3. Perforating veins--are found all over the limb but mainly at intermuscular septa. Minor ones communicate with small muscle veins, major ones with the main deep veins. The major ones medially above the ankle differ from the rest in running a short (1 cm) and unprotected course from subcutaneous fat to posterior tibial veins through the wide gap between soleus and tibia. They are therefore peculiarly susceptible to damage, and their incompetence is peculiarly direct an its effect, which anatomical weakness may account for the prevalence of medial venous ulceration. PMID:7071165

Thomson, H

199

Same-Shot X-Ray Thomson Scattering and Streaked Imaging of Xenon Radiative Shock Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the experimental design and results from recent CRASH radiative shock experiments at the Omega Laser facility. These experiments seek to measure the system with high accuracy, employing streaked x-ray radiography and x-ray Thomson scattering diagnostics on each shot. We detail how this diagnostic combination allows for precise interrogation of the different regions of the shock, including the radiation-heated upstream precursor, the radiatively collapsed cooling layer, and the downstream material. Spatially and temporally correlated data from the x-ray streak camera and gated spectrometer is shown, and plans for future iterations of radiative shock experiments are also discussed.

Huntington, Channing; Gamboa, Eliseo; Krauland, Christine; Kuranz, Carolyn; Drake, R. Paul; Glenzer, Siegfried

2011-11-01

200

Probing dielectric-response effects with attosecond time-resolved streaked photoelectron spectroscopy of metal surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The release of conduction-band electrons from a metal surface by a subfemtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse and their propagation through the solid provoke a dielectric response in the solid that acts back on the photoelectron wave packet. We calculated the (wake) potential associated with this photoelectron self-interaction in terms of bulk and surface plasmon excitations and show that it induces a considerable, XUV-frequency-dependent temporal shift in laser-streaked XUV photoemission spectra, suggesting the observation of the ultrafast solid-state dielectric response in contemporary streaked photoemission experiments.

Zhang, C.-H.; Thumm, U. [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

2011-12-15

201

Accurate and efficient characterization of streak camera using etalon and fitting method with constraints.  

PubMed

Streak camera is widely used in continuous time diagnostics in fast physical process. To produce accurate result, it requires delicate calibration and a reliable analysis method. High quality sweep-rate data with uncertainty smaller than 0.5% are obtained over the full record area by a constrained fitting method of peak position measurement, with a short pulse laser and an etalon as the fiducial source. The temporal response is linearized by this full-screen sweep-rate data, which eliminates errors in measurement due to nonlinearity and space-distortion inherent in streak camera. PMID:22128970

Yang, Dong; Wang, Zhebin; Jiang, Xiaohua; Liu, Yonggang; Peng, Xiaoshi; Zhu, Tuo; Zhang, Huan; Li, Zhichao; Li, Sanwei; Ding, Yongkun

2011-11-01

202

Probing subtle fluorescence dynamics in cellular proteins by streak camera based fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the cell biological applications of a recently developed multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera (StreakFLIM). The system was calibrated with standard fluorophore specimens and was shown to have high accuracy and reproducibility. We demonstrate the applicability of this instrument in living cells for measuring the effects of protein targeting and point mutations in the protein sequence, which are not obtainable by conventional intensity-based fluorescence microscopy methods. We discuss the relevance of such time-resolved information in quantitative energy transfer microscopy and in measurement of the parameters that characterize the intracellular physiology.

Krishnan, R. V.; Biener, Eva; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Heckel, Robert; Herman, Brian

2003-12-01

203

Influence of wheat streak mosaic virus infection on phenylpropanoid metabolism and the accumulation of phenolics and lignin in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat plants infected with wheat streak mosaic virus were studied for their physiological response to infection. Previous histological data suggest that wheat streak mosaic virus-induced deposits of phenolic nature are present along the bundle sheath and mesophyll cell walls. In this study, we examined this phenomenon further by analysis of phenolic compounds and enzymes involved in their synthesis. In infected

S. A. Kofalvi; A. Nassuth

1995-01-01

204

Hepatic vein obstruction (Budd-Chiari)  

MedlinePLUS

Hepatic vein obstruction prevents blood from flowing out of the liver and back to the heart. This blockage can cause liver damage. Obstruction of this vein can be caused by a tumor or growth pressing on the vessel, or ...

205

Retinal Vein Occlusion: Current Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a pathology noted for more than 150 years. Although a lot has been written on the matter, it is still a frequent condition with multifactorial etiopathogenesis with many unclear aspects. The RVO pathogenesis has varied systemic and local implications that make it difficult to elaborate treatment guidelines. The management of the patient with RVO is

Rosangela Lattanzio; Ana Torres Gimeno; Maurizio Battaglia Parodi; Francesco Bandello

2011-01-01

206

[Complications in varicose vein operations].  

PubMed

Although operations on varicous veins are regarded as easy and low-risk, severe complications with the involvement of arteries, veins and nerves can occur during the course of such operations and, in reconstruction, demand the whole spectrum of vascular surgery. Therefore, surgeons operating on varicous veins and on out-patients should possess sufficient experience in vascular surgery and be able to admit their patients to a centre of vascular surgery in the case of severe complications without unnecessary loss of time. Beside a perfectly done operation sufficient preoperative diagnostic examinations and postoperative care of the patient have to be claimed. The treatment of varicous veins in a hospital must be possible also in the future. The extent of the procedure is usually greater during stationary treatment and bilateral operations are feasible. Therefore, from the economic point of view, a stationary assignment for a few days does not seem more expensive than several single operations with subsequent outpatient treatment and repeated diagnostic examinations in ambulatory settings. PMID:11503468

Balzer, K

2001-07-01

207

An interesting clinical case: variant of the cephalic vein emptying into the internal jugular vein.  

PubMed

This case report describes a 45-year-old patient who was referred to our center for surgical creation of long-term vascular access. Angiographic mapping revealed the left cephalic vein draining directly into the internal jugular vein rather than the axillary vein. The patient was scheduled for an ulnar artery to cephalic vein fistula. PMID:22780845

Lum, Craig; Ladenheim, Eric D

2012-07-11

208

Splenic vein aneurysm: a rare clinical entity.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old man presented with complaints of generalized malaise along with pain in left hypochondrium and diarrhea. The color Doppler and subsequent contrast enhanced CT scan revealed changes of portal hypertension and saccular dilatation of splenic vein along with partial thrombus in portal vein and superior mesenteric vein. PMID:22733582

Gupta, Amit; Kumar Singhal, Madhu; Maheshwarappa, Ravishanker Pillenahalli; Meena, Mangi Lal

2012-06-26

209

Streak observation of DC pre-breakdown light in silicone oil \\/ low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film composites using a long image guide scope  

Microsoft Academic Search

DC breakdown light of silicone oil and LDPE film composites between needle-sphere electrodes with the film placed on sphere electrode was observed using a streak camera. A long image guide scope (IGS) was attached to the streak camera as light delay path. This new system enables us to obtain a streak image of an initial process of the DC breakdown

Amir Izzani Mohamed; Yuuji Miyamoto; Masayoshi Mori; Kazunori Kadowaki

2011-01-01

210

Transmission studies with Cassava brown streak Uganda virus ( Potyviridae: Ipomovirus) and its interaction with abiotic and biotic factors in Nicotiana benthamiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by two distinct species, Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV) and Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), is a major constraint to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production in Africa. Absence of infectious clones of CBSUV or CBSV and the lack of efficient means of mechanical transmission of CBSD has hampered laboratory studies of this disease.

Emmanuel Ogwok; Basavaprabhu L. Patil; Titus Alicai; Claude M. Fauquet

2010-01-01

211

Yellow Fever Epidemic Sites Revisited: Possible Areas of Yellow Fever Endemicity in Ethiopia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yellow fever antibody of apparently recent origin has been found in two areas studied by the Institute Pasteur during the 1961-1962 yellow fever outbreak in Ethiopia. Yellow fever antibody in an eight year old child in Kulo Konta Awrajah would indicate th...

O. L. Wood V. H. Lee

1975-01-01

212

Use of autogenous saphenous vein as a conduit for mesenterico-left portal vein bypass.  

PubMed

The authors describe a case of extrahepatic portal vein (EHPV) thrombosis and portal hypertension treated with a variant of mesenterico-left portal vein bypass (MLPVB) or Rex shunt. In this case, a segment of autogenous greater saphenous vein was used to bridge the distance between the left gastric vein inflow and the left portal vein. Use of such nontraditional conduit in similar circumstances may expand the application of portal revascularization/decompression procedures in treating these patients. PMID:17560237

Query, Julie A; Sandler, Anthony D; Sharp, William J

2007-06-01

213

EVOLUTION OF WHEAT STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS: Dynamics of Population Growth Within Plants May Explain Limited Variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many other plant RNA viruses, Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) sequence diversity within and among infected plants is low given the large number of virions produced. This may be explained by considering aspects of plant virus life history. Intracellular replication of RNA viruses is predominately linear, not exponential, which means that the rate at which mutations accumulate also is

Roy C. French; Drake C. Stenger

2003-01-01

214

Sub-100 fs streak tube: computer-aided design, manufacturing, and testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present communication we describe the design of the sub-100 fs streak-tube that may be used for commercial streak cameras manufacturing. Careful attention is paid to preparing of a very smooth input photocathode substrate on which a low surface resistance (1-5 Ohm/) photocathode of S-1 type is deposited. Our estimations have shown that the photocathode surface roughness of about tens of nanometers may restrict the ultimate time resolution at the level of 100 fs. This is the reason why the photocathode substrate surface has to be smooth within the units of nanometers. The curvature of the photocathode surface is also very important to compensate the difference in the time-of-flight of electrons emitted from the central and peripheral photocathode areas. Further modernization was conducted with a photocathode-accelerating mesh assembly. The assembly may operate with 2 - 3 ns (FWHM) electrical pulses of 12 - 15 kV amplitude. In order to improve the S/N ratio in the streaked images, a shuttering system was incorporated inside the tube. As the result, a completely new femtosecond streak tube of PV-FS-M type was designed, manufactured, and tested.

Ageeva, N. V.; Andreev, S. V.; Degtyareva, V. P.; Greenfield, D. E.; Ivanova, S. R.; Kaverin, A. M.; Kulechenkova, T. P.; Levina, G. P.; Makushina, V. A.; Monastyrskiy, M. A.; Polikarkina, N. D.; Schelev, M. Ya; Semichastnova, Z. M.; Skaballanovich, T. A.; Sokolov, V. E.

2008-11-01

215

Optical Comb Generation for Streak Camera Calibration for Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is coming on-line to support physics experimentation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and Stockpile Stewardship (SS). Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation at NIF. To accurately reduce streak camera data a highly accurate temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for simultaneously generating a precise +/- 2 ps optical marker pulse (fiducial reference) and trains of precisely timed, short-duration optical pulses (so-called “comb” pulse trains) that are suitable for the timing calibrations. These optical pulse generators are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that, in the comb mode, produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced optical pulses, using a laser diode source. Comb generators have been produced with pulse-train repetition rates up to 10 GHz at 780 nm, and somewhat lower frequencies at 664 nm. Individual pulses can be as short as 25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector on the front panel of the generator box. The optical signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fiber.

Ronald Justin, Terence Davies, Frans Janson, Bruce Marshall, Perry Bell, Daniel Kalantar, Joseph Kimbrough, Stephen Vernon, Oliver Sweningsen

2008-09-18

216

STRAWBERRY NECROTIC SHOCK VIRUS: A NEW VIRUS PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT TO BE TOBACCO STREAK VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tobacco streak virus (TSV) has a wide host range that exceeds 80 species (Fulton, 1948). Most of the efforts carried out previously comparing TSV isolates was based on immunological relations between them. The isolates of the virus from Fragaria and Rubus have been considered very closely related, ...

217

Simultaneous velocity interferometry and electronic streak photography of laser-launched plates  

SciTech Connect

Laser-launched, miniature, pseudo-one-dimensional flyer plates are evaluated by three distinct optical techniques that may be incorporated into an optical diagnostic system to give a complete understanding of the plate performance. These techniques are: velocity interferometry, streak photography, and pulsed laser stereo photography. 2 refs., 5 figs.

Paisley, D.L.; Stahl, D.B.; Garcia, I.A.

1991-01-01

218

Temporal Characterization of Electron Beam Bunches with a Fast Streak Camera at JLAB FEL Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and construction of an optical transport that brings synchrotron radiation from electron bunches to a fast streak camera in a remote area has become a useful tool for online observation of bunch length and stability. This paper will report the ...

S. Zhang S. Benson D. Doluglas D. Hardy K. Jordan

2005-01-01

219

Molecular characterization of banana streak acuminata Vietnam virus isolated from Musa acuminata siamea (banana cultivar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An isolate of banana streak virus (BSV) that does not also occur as an integrant in the Musa balbisiana genome was sought in order to investigate the biological role of BSV in the evolution of either the Musa genome or of the virus itself. We isolated BSV virions from a Musa acuminata siamea accession from Vietnam and sequenced the entire

F. Lheureux; N. Laboureau; E. Muller; B. E. L. Lockhart; M.-L. Iskra-Caruana

2007-01-01

220

Nuclear import of Maize fine streak virus proteins in Drosophila S2 cells  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) is a member of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae and is transmitted by the leafhopper Graminella nigrifons. The virus replicates in both its plant host and in its insect vector. Nucleorhabdoviruses replicate in the nucleus and assemble at the inner nu...

221

Cassava brown streak disease: A review of present knowledge and research needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important subsistence food crop in Africa where it is affected by two main virus diseases, cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). CMD occurs in all the cassava-growing countries on the continent and it has been much researched. CBSD occurs mainly on the East African coast, and although the disease was first

RJ Hillocks; DL Jennings

2003-01-01

222

Comparing the regional epidemiology of the cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak virus pandemics in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid geographical expansion of the cassava mosaic disease (CMD) pandemic, caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses, has devastated cassava crops in 12 countries of East and Central Africa since the late 1980s. Region-level surveys have revealed a continuing pattern of annual spread westward and southward along a contiguous ‘front’. More recently, outbreaks of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) were reported

J. P. Legg; S. C. Jeremiah; H. M. Obiero; M. N. Maruthi; I. Ndyetabula; G. Okao-Okuja; H. Bouwmeester; S. Bigirimana; W. Tata-Hangy; G. Gashaka; G. Mkamilo; T. Alicai; P. Lava Kumar

2011-01-01

223

Multiplex Real Time PCR For Detection of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Triticum Mosaic Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TRIMV) are widespread throughout the southwestern Great Plains states. Using conventional diagnostics such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), these two viruses are commonly found together in infected wheat samples. Methods for m...

224

Host range and some characterization of Tobacco streak virus isolated from lettuce in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most common vegetable planted in the world, so the identification of its viral disease is important because this kind of pathogen causes the loss of quantitative and qualitative characteristic of lettuce. Tobacco streak virus (TSV) is an ilarvirus with quasi-isometric particles, 27 - 35 nm in diameter. It has a wide host range

F. S. Abtahi; M. Koohi Habibi

2008-01-01

225

Small Craters from Oblique Impacts and the Origin of an Unusual Streak in Elysium Planitia, Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a HiRISE image revealing details of small craters (<100 m) that are probably secondaries formed by oblique impacts. We also discuss working hypotheses for the formation mechanisms of the light-toned streak associated with one of them.

G. Komatsu; M. A. de Pablo; J. Ormö; L. L. Tornabene

2009-01-01

226

Full-Waveform Earthquake Location and the Mechanics of Streaks on the Calaveras Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in earthquake location techniques and their application to large waveform datasets have uncovered a number of previously obscured seismic phenomena. These phenomena have the potential to provide new insight into the physics of faulting and earthquakes. Seismic streaks are one of these phenomena, and we have developed a new method of earthquake location to study them. Our technique is based upon standard array analysis methods, but applied in the reciprocal geometry to earthquake sources instead of the more typical receiver array analysis. Using array techniques allows us to use information contained throughout the entire waveform, unlike traditional location techniques that rely solely on measurements of the direct P and S arrivals. This allows us to determine centroid locations for earthquakes previously unlocated or poorly located by standard methods due to clipping or lack of data. It also has the potential to produce high-resolution earthquake locations for similar events even with relatively few stations. Here, we apply this method to medium magnitude earthquakes (M3.5-M5) near streaks on the Calaveras fault. We find that that these earthquakes initiate within the seismic streaks, and rupture into regions generally devoid of microseismicity. From this, we infer that seismic streaks represent a rheological boundary between creeping and locked sections of a fault.

Rubinstein, J. L.; Beroza, G. C.

2005-12-01

227

Isochromosome 18q in a girl with holoprosencephaly, DiGeorge anomaly, and streak ovaries.  

PubMed

We report on the clinical and pathologic findings in a girl with isochromosome 18q (46, XX,i(18q)) who had combined manifestations of monosomy 18p and trisomy 18q. Major congenital anomalies included premaxillary agenesis, alobar holoprosenphaly, double outlet right ventricle, DiGeorge anomaly and streak ovaries. The clinical spectrum in i(18q) is very broad. PMID:8368259

van Essen, A J; Schoots, C J; van Lingen, R A; Mourits, M J; Tuerlings, J H; Leegte, B

1993-08-01

228

Economic impact of Wheat streak mosaic virus in the Texas High Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat streak mosaic virus, vectored by the wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella Keifer, is a major limiting factor in wheat production in the Texas Panhandle. It is the most frequently encountered virus in the region, affecting both shoot and root biomass, and consequently it can drastically reduce both forage and grain yield, and water-use efficiency of the plant. In light

Margarita Velandia; Roderick M. Rejesus; David C. Jones; Jacob A. Price; Fekede Workneh; Charles M. Rush

2010-01-01

229

Etiology and Management of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal vein occlusion is one of the vascular disorders affecting vision. Branch retinal vein occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion are the two basic types of vein occlusion. Branch retinal vein occlusion is three times more common than central retinal vein occlusion and is second only to diabetic retinopathy as the most common retinal vascular cause of visual impairment. The

Sadaf Hamid; Sajid Ali Mirza; Ishrat Shokh

230

Implications for global climate change on Mars: intriguing dark streaks and valleys-ocean boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While some evidences imply that Mars was for most of its history cold and dry as it is today, other evidences imply that Martian history was much warmer and richer with water. The usual arguments for the first hypothesis is the lack of carbonates in the soil and large amounts of olivine that could survive only in dry conditions. One possible explanation for carbonates is that chemical processes near Martian surface dissolved them. One possible explanation for olivine is that it was exposed to the surface after the Mars was transformed to the present cold and dry state. The other explanation for olivine is that after ejection from volcanoes, in very short time it was covered by large amount of material before it had a chance to react with water, and re-exposed recently again in cold and dry conditions (e.g. Valles Marineris case). On the other hand, not only that some evidences support warm and wet hypothesis, but also that Mars once had rivers, lakes and ocean. Common to all related with the first hypothesis is that climate conditions were the same as today during most of the Martian history. Common to the second hypothesis is that climate significantly changed at some point in time. Accordingly, it has a sense to search for evidences that global climate changed. Recently, it was presented that intriguing dark streaks imply that we are near the end of large climate change on Mars [6thMars #3204]. The first interesting thing regarding them is that there are at least three cases where newly formed dark streak is observed. This proves that process of creation of dark streaks is still going on, meaning that any hypothesis regarding dark streaks has a good chance to be confirmed in some future mission to Mars. One is that formation of dark streaks is related with melting of ground water. This in combination with local distribution of dark streaks, where new one creates where some old one was not before, implies irreversible process where such water accumulated in different climate conditions. Recent analysis additionally shows correlation between valleys-termini and Contact 1 and Contact 2 [35thLPS #1992]. This additionally implies that global climate change happened when proposed ocean was between those two elevations, from warm and wet to cold and dry conditions. Accordingly, conclusion is that while dark-streaks and valleys-termini certainly require some further analysis and additional study by high-resolution color images and perhaps even some rover at the ground, they even now strongly support warm and wet hypothesis. This supports the above mentioned processes on Martian surface, currently not explainable by cold and dry hypothesis.

Salamuniccar, G.

231

Twelve signals multiplexed with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) optical streak camera  

SciTech Connect

At our Nova laser facility, the temporal history of incident and reflected laser energy is recorded on LLNL optical streak cameras. Currently, six cameras are used to record the incident 1.06-{mu}m, incident 0.35{mu}m power of each of the ten Nova beams. Each camera records seven multiplexed signals: typically one signal from each of five beam lines, a fiducial pulse, and time mark generator signal. The optical signals are transported to the camera through optical fibers. The output end of each fiber is placed in the slit plane of the camera. The light exiting the fiber is focused to the streak camera photocathode by the streak camera relay lens. One camera can record a signal from each of the ten Nova beams plus a fiducial and time mark generator signal if the number of multiplexed channels can be increased from seven to twelve. This would allow one camera to record the same data that currently requires two cameras. At a savings of $150 per camera/CCD system, this represents a savings of $450K. Additionally, camera/CCD maintenance and operation complexity would be cut in half and three streak cameras would be freed for use in other experiments. Recent laboratory measurements suggest that the number of multiplexed signals per camera can indeed be increased from seven to twelve without noticeably increasing the crosstalk between signal channels. In this memorandum, we describe recent work in which seven and twelve signals were multiplexed to one streak camera. We describe the effect focusing has on the crosstalk channels and the effect wavelength has on focusing. We conclude the memorandum with suggestions concerning the implementation of a twelve channel system.

Lerche, R.A.; Griffith, R.L.

1990-08-28

232

Management of varicose veins and venous insufficiency.  

PubMed

Chronic venous disease, reviewed herein, is manifested by a spectrum of signs and symptoms, including cosmetic spider veins, asymptomatic varicosities, large painful varicose veins, edema, hyperpigmentation and lipodermatosclerosis of skin, and ulceration. However, there is no definitive stepwise progression from spider veins to ulcers and, in fact, severe skin complications of varicose veins, even when extensive, are not guaranteed. Treatment options range from conservative (eg, medications, compression stockings, lifestyle changes) to minimally invasive (eg, sclerotherapy or endoluminal ablation), invasive (surgical techniques), and hybrid (combination of ?1 therapies). Ms L, a 68-year-old woman with varicose veins, is presented. She has had vein problems over the course of her life. Her varicose veins recurred after initial treatment, and she is now seeking guidance regarding her current treatment options. PMID:23268520

Hamdan, Allen

2012-12-26

233

Septic postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis.  

PubMed

This report describes the clinical findings and outcome of a patient suffering from septic postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis. Treatment modalities are well described and range from hysterectomy and thrombectomy to the use of vena cava filters in combination with anticoagulation and antibiotics. Defervescence with a combination infusion of tissue plasminogen and heparin were used. This treatment approach has been found particularly successful in cases of ilio-femoral, hepatic, renal and vena caval thromboses. PMID:12370730

Rajab, Khalil E; Malik, Neelam; Skirman, Jonathan H

2002-09-01

234

Current treatment of varicose veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Varicose veins (VVs) of the lower limbs are a common complaint that can take many forms, ranging from a nonpathologic condition\\u000a to an invalidating chronic disorder. When they have not been neglected, uncomplicated VVs have often been treated by sclerotherapy\\u000a or surgery, with variably successful results. Currently, the best way of assessing VVs has been to carry out routine

François Becker

2006-01-01

235

Critical nutritional requirements of juvenile yellow perch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) has increased in the North Central region of the United States despite the paucity of information on nutritional requirements of this new culture species. Thus, feeding studies were conducted to quantify key nutritional requirements of juvenile yellow perch. The studies included determination of the dietary arginine, lysine, total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) and choline

Ronald Glenn Twibell

2000-01-01

236

Yellowing viruses in sugarbeet; epidemiology and damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology and damage effects of beet yellows virus (BYV) and beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV) were studied.Chapter 2 . The incubation period (time between infection and symptom expression) was determined so that progress curves of the disease (symptoms) could be translated into progress curves of the infection. The incubation period increased during the season from 3 (BYV) or 4

Werf van der W

1988-01-01

237

Rhizosphere mycoflora of healthy and yellow vein mosaic virus infected okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plants.  

PubMed

Investigations on the rhizosphere mycoflora of healthy and virus (YVMV) infected okra plants showed a higher fungal population in the rhizosphere of healthy plants at preflowering and post-flowering stages than in that of diseased ones. Maximum population was observed during flowering both in healthy and diseased plant rhizosphere as well as in non-rhizosphere soil. However, virus infected plants showed a higher population at the flowering stage than healthy ones. The quantitative differences in the rhizosphere of healthy and diseased plants during flowering seem to be due to a change in C/N ratio and amino acids. The drastic reduction in diseased plant rhizospheres during the post-flowering stage may be due to either change in C/N ratio unfavourable to mycoflora or production of some toxic substances inhibiting multiplication of the mycoflora. PMID:94749

Singh, S J; Tewari, R P

1979-01-01

238

Semipersistent whitefly transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of experiments were completed to determine efficiency of transmission, effects of different acquisition and inoculation access periods, the length of time that whiteflies retained transmissible virus, and the minimum time needed to complete a cycle of acquisition and inoculation for SqVYV. ...

239

Pulsational instability of yellow hypergiants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instability of population I ( X = 0.7, Z = 0.02) massive stars against radial oscillations during the post-main-sequence gravitational contraction of the helium core is investigated. Initial stellar masses are in the range 65 M ? ? M ZAMS ? 90 M ?. In hydrodynamic computations of self-exciting stellar oscillations we assumed that energy transfer in the envelope of the pulsating star is due to radiative heat conduction and convection. The convective heat transfer was treated in the framework of the theory of time-dependent turbulent convection. During evolutionary expansion of outer layers after hydrogen exhaustion in the stellar core the star is shown to be unstable against radial oscillations while its effective temperature is T eff > 6700 K for M ZAMS = 65 M ? and T eff > 7200 K for M ZAMS = 90 M ?. Pulsational instability is due to the ?-mechanism in helium ionization zones and at lower effective temperature oscillations decay because of significantly increasing convection. The upper limit of the period of radial pulsations on this stage of evolution does not exceed ?200 day. Radial oscillations of the hypergiant resume during evolutionary contraction of outer layers when the effective temperature is T eff > 7300 K for M ZAMS = 65 M ? and T eff > 7600 K for M ZAMS = 90 M ?. Initially radial oscillations are due to instability of the first overtone and transition to fundamental mode pulsations takes place at higher effective temperatures ( T eff > 7700 K for M ZAMS = 65 M ? and T eff > 8200 K for M ZAMS = 90 M ?). The upper limit of the period of radial oscillations of evolving blueward yellow hypergiants does not exceed ?130 day. Thus, yellow hypergiants are stable against radial stellar pulsations during the major part of their evolutionary stage.

Fadeyev, Yu. A.

2011-06-01

240

Preservation of arm veins for arterial reconstruction.  

PubMed

The results of surgery for lower extremity salvage have improved steadily over the past decade. One of the principles accounting for this advance is the preferential use of autogenous veins for peripheral bypass surgery. Nonautogenous and prosthetic grafts to the infrageniculate (below knee) level have patency rates significantly lower than autogenous bypasses. Currently, the technical limits of bypass surgery often depend upon the availability of adequate venous conduits. The saphenous vein has been the conduit of choice for distal arterial bypasses. However, some patients lack saphenous veins as a result of previous vein harvesting for coronary or other arterial surgery, phlebitis, variations in venous anatomy, previous vein stripping, or other conditions. In these patients, arm veins (cephalic and basilic) have been used successfully for limb salvage. There are several requirements for the successful use of arm veins. These include a detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the cephalic and basilic veins, education of patients and health care professionals, nursing protocols to preserve arm veins, and the training of surgical nurses in the demanding technical maneuvers for arm vein implantation. This paper will address these subjects. PMID:1599859

Apyan, R L; Schneider, P A; Andros, G

1992-06-01

241

Shifts in leaf vein density through accelerated vein formation in C4 Flaveria (Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Leaf venation in many C4 species is characterized by high vein density, essential in facilitating rapid intercellular diffusion of C4 photosynthetic metabolites between different tissues (mesophyll, bundle sheath). Greater vein density has been hypothesized to be an early step in C4 photosynthesis evolution. Development of C4 vein patterning is thought to occur from either accelerated or prolonged procambium formation, relative to ground tissue development. Methods Cleared and sectioned tissues of phylogenetically basal C3 Flaveria robusta and more derived C4 Flaveria bidentis were compared for vein pattern in mature leaves and vein pattern formation in developing leaves. Key Results In mature leaves, major vein density did not differ between C3 and C4 Flaveria species, whereas minor veins were denser in C4 species than in C3 species. The developmental study showed that both major and minor vein patterning in leaves of C3 and C4 species were initiated at comparable stages (based on leaf length). An additional vein order in the C4 species was observed during initiation of the higher order minor veins compared with the C3 species. In the two species, expansion of bundle sheath and mesophyll cells occurred after vein pattern was complete and xylem differentiation was continuous in minor veins. In addition, mesophyll cells ceased dividing sooner and enlarged less in C4 species than in C3 species. Conclusions Leaf vein pattern characteristic to C4 Flaveria was achieved primarily through accelerated and earlier offset of higher order vein formation, rather than other modifications in the timing of vein pattern formation, as compared with C3 species. Earlier cessation of mesophyll cell division and reduced expansion also contributed to greater vein density in the C4 species. The relatively late expansion of bundle sheath and mesophyll cells shows that vein patterning precedes ground tissue development in C4 species.

McKown, Athena D.; Dengler, Nancy G.

2009-01-01

242

Clara Maass, yellow fever and human experimentation.  

PubMed

Clara Louise Maass, a 25-year-old American nurse, died of yellow fever on August 24, 1901, following experimental inoculation by infected mosquitoes in Havana, Cuba. The human yellow fever experiments were initially conducted by MAJ Walter Reed, who first used written informed consent and proved the validity of Finlay's mosquito-vector hypothesis. Despite informed consent form and an incentive of $100 in U.S. gold, human subjects were exposed to a deadly virus. The deaths of Clara Maass and two Spanish immigrants resulted in a public outcry and the immediate cessation of yellow fever human experiments in Cuba. PMID:23756016

Chaves-Carballo, Enrique

2013-05-01

243

Hippocrates, cardiology, Confucius and the Yellow Emperor.  

PubMed

Although Hippocrates (460-c.375 BC) has been traditionally recognized as the Father of Medicine, the fact that he was seminal in the development of cardiology is much less well known. Evidence is presented to support the notion that Hippocrates could also be considered the Father of Cardiology. Hippocrates also had many of the teachings and practices in common with Confucius (c.551-c.479 BC) and the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC). Whereas Confucius was not a physician, the Yellow Emperor was an ancient Chinese physician whose Huang Di Neijing, the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine, is the oldest known treatise of medicine in existence. PMID:11744140

Cheng, T O

2001-12-01

244

Portal vein aneurysm in a dog.  

PubMed

Portal vein aneurysm (PVA) is a rare abnormal dilatation of the portal vein, which has not been reported in dogs. We describe the findings of ultrasound and computed tomography in a case of PVA in a young male toy poodle, with the final diagnosis established by explorative surgical observation. The dog had an aneurysmal fusiform dilatation in the extrahepatic portal vein with portal hypertension and multiple portsystemic shunts. This is the first report of canine PVA. PMID:22571895

Miyawaki, Shingo; Washizu, Makoto; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Shibata, Sanae; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

2012-04-27

245

Hemodialysis-associated subclavian vein stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemodialysis-associated subclavian vein stenosis. This study was undertaken to evaluate hemodialysis-associated subclavian vein stenosis (SVS) and to clarify treatment of this condition. Forty-seven patients underwent upper arm venography to evaluate fistula dysfunction. Subclavian vein stenosis was documented in 12. Eleven of 12 had elevated venous dialysis pressure (196 ± 8.9 mm Hg), and six had arm edema. All 12 had

Steve J Schwab; L Darryl Quarles; John P Middleton; Richard H Cohan; Moshin Saeed; Vincent W Dennis

1988-01-01

246

Jugular vein thrombosis associated with distant malignancy.  

PubMed Central

We describe two patients who developed internal jugular vein thrombosis associated with primary malignant disease arising outside the neck, and in one patient it was the presenting feature. Computed tomography was performed and the findings characteristic of internal jugular vein thrombosis are illustrated. We conclude that malignant disease should be considered in patients presenting with spontaneous internal jugular vein thrombosis with no other predisposing factors and that computed tomography is of value in confirming the diagnosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Carrington, B. M.; Adams, J. E.

1988-01-01

247

Periorbital rejuvenation: reticular vein treatment.  

PubMed

The safety profile of certain techniques, such as sclerotherapy, is questionable in a region as precarious as the periorbital region, where complications related to vision would be catastrophic. Other safe techniques such as phlebectomy can be performed with successful outcomes but are operator dependent, require a reasonable degree of technical ability, and can result in scarring and other complications. The aim of this article is to explore newer, laser-based treatment of these periorbital veins, discuss the physiology and the therapeutic efficacy, and better delineate the safety profile and evolution of the technique that has led to the present treatment paradigm. PMID:23369597

Chauhan, Nitin; Ellis, David A F

2013-02-01

248

Deep Vein Thrombosis in Children  

PubMed Central

We describe a rare case of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in children, highlight the importance of early diagnosis of rare disease with potential complications. In a 5 year old boy presented with persistent leg pain without any obvious cause. Detailed investigation led to diagnosis of DVT. As there are common differential diagnoses for leg pain in children, pediatricians usually have a low index of suspicious of DVT in children. This case highlight that paediatricians must consider DVT in their differential diagnosis when children present with leg pain.

Aabideen, Kanakkande; Ogendele, Michael; Ahmad, Ijaz; Amegavie, Laweh

2013-01-01

249

Ovarian Vein and Caval Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

We present an illustrative case of postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis and describe its clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and management. This pathologic process may produce clinical complications or a catastrophic outcome. These adverse events may be avoided if an expeditious diagnosis is made and appropriate treatment is instituted. This mandates a high index of suspicion, the ability to rule out the presence of other processes that may produce similar symptoms in the postpartum patient, and the appropriate triage of specific patients to either medical or surgical management.

Takach, Thomas J.; Cervera, Roberto D.; Gregoric, Igor D.

2005-01-01

250

Comparison of Diagnostic and Kinematic Vertical Motion Fields Associated with Curved and Straight Jet Streak Adjustment Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigative research was performed on real and simulated jet streaks to determine the relationship of the diagnostic Rossby number with kinematic, balanced and non-balanced omega fields as a function of magnitude, wind shear and curvature. Hydrodynamic ...

G. E. Van Knowe

1990-01-01

251

Initial tests of the dual-sweep streak camera system planned for APS particle-beam diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Initial tests of a dual-sweep streak system planned for use on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been performed using assets of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility. The short light pulses from the photoelectric injector drive laser in both the visible ({lambda}=496 nm, {Delta}t{approximately}1.5 ps (FWHM)), and the ultraviolet ({lambda}=248 nm, {Delta}t{approximately}5 ps (FWHM)) were used. Both a UV-visible S20 photocathode streak tube and a UV-to-x-ray Au photocathode streak tube were tested. Calibration data with an etalon were also obtained. A sample of dual-sweep streak data using optical synchrotron radiation on the APS injector synchrotron is also presented.

Lumpkin, A.; Yang, B.; Gai, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Cieslik, W. [Hamamatsu Photonic Systems, Bridgewater, NJ (United States)

1995-07-01

252

78 FR 24199 - Streak Products, Inc. v. UTi, United States, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and Assignment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 13--04] Streak Products, Inc. v. UTi, United States, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint...hereinafter ``Complainant,'' against UTi, United States, Inc. (``UTi''), hereinafter ``Respondent.''...

2013-04-24

253

The mouse primitive streak forms in situ by initiation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition without migration of a cell population  

PubMed Central

During gastrulation, an embryo acquires the three primordial germ layers that will give rise to all of the tissues in the body. In amniote embryos, this process occurs via an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of epiblast cells at the primitive streak. Although the primitive streak is vital to development, many aspects of how it forms and functions remain poorly understood. Using live imaging and immunohistochemistry, we have shown that the murine primitive streak arises in situ by progressive initiation of EMT beginning in the posterior epiblast, without large-scale movement or convergence and extension of epiblast cells. Loss of basal lamina (BL) is the first step of this EMT, and is strictly correlated with ingression of nascent mesoderm. This is the first description of dynamic cell behavior during primitive streak formation in the mouse embryo, and reveals mechanisms that are quite distinct from those observed in other amniote model systems.

Williams, Margot; Burdsal, Carol; Periasamy, Ammasi; Lewandoski, Mark; Sutherland, Ann

2011-01-01

254

Below-the-Belt Dermatological Conditions: Spider Veins, Varicose Veins, Cellulite, Pedicures  

MedlinePLUS

... it comes to treating spider and varicose veins, cellulite and problems stemming from pedicures, there are many ... vein - which is then reabsorbed by the body. Cellulite Cellulite is a hormonally based condition unique to ...

255

X-ray streak camera temporal resolution improvement using a longitudinal time-dependent field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray streak cameras (XSC) have been known to be one of the fastest detectors for ultrafast X-ray science. A number of applications in material science, biochemistry, accelerator physics, require sub-picosecond resolution to study new phenomena. In this paper, we report on a new method which can potentially improve the temporal resolution of a streak camera down to 100 fs. This method uses a time-dependent acceleration field to lengthen the photoelectron bunch, improving the time resolution as well as reducing the time dispersion caused by initial energy spread and the effects from the space charge forces. A computer simulation of an XSC using this method shows significant improvement in the resolution.

Qiang, J.; Byrd, J. M.; Feng, J.; Huang, G.

2009-01-01

256

Motion Streaks Do Not Influence the Perceived Position of Stationary Flashed Objects  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we investigated whether motion streaks, produced by fast moving dots Geisler 1999, distort the positional map of stationary flashed objects producing the well-known motion-induced position shift illusion (MIPS). The illusion relies on motion-processing mechanisms that induce local distortions in the positional map of the stimulus which is derived by shape-processing mechanisms. To measure the MIPS, two horizontally offset Gaussian blobs, placed above and below a central fixation point, were flashed over two fields of dots moving in opposite directions. Subjects judged the position of the top Gaussian blob relative to the bottom one. The results showed that neither fast (motion streaks) nor slow moving dots influenced the perceived spatial position of the stationary flashed objects, suggesting that background motion does not interact with the shape-processing mechanisms involved in MIPS.

Pavan, Andrea; Bellacosa Marotti, Rosilari

2012-01-01

257

A novel compact high speed x-ray streak camera (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Conventional in-line high speed streak cameras have fundamental issues when their performance is extended below a picosecond. The transit time spread caused by both the spread in the photoelectron (PE) ''birth'' energy and space charge effects causes significant electron pulse broadening along the axis of the streak camera and limits the time resolution. Also it is difficult to generate a sufficiently large sweep speed. This paper describes a new instrument in which the extraction electrostatic field at the photocathode increases with time, converting time to PE energy. A uniform magnetic field is used to measure the PE energy, and thus time, and also focuses in one dimension. Design calculations are presented for the factors limiting the time resolution. With our design, subpicosecond resolution with high dynamic range is expected.

Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Howbery Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BA (United Kingdom)

2008-10-15

258

4D imaging of embryonic chick hearts by streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we developed the streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique in which an area-scan camera is used in a streak-mode to record the OCT spectrum. Here we report the application of this technique to in ovo imaging HH18 embryonic chick hearts with an ultrahigh speed of 1,016,000 axial scans per second. The high-scan rate enables the acquisition of high temporal resolution 2D datasets (1,000 frames per second or 1 ms between frames) and 3D datasets (10 volumes per second), without use of prospective or retrospective gating technique. This marks the first time that the embryonic animal heart has been 4D imaged using a megahertz OCT.

Wang, Rui; Yun, Julie X.; Goodwin, Richard; Markwald, Roger; Borg, Thomas K.; Runyan, Raymond B.; Gao, Bruce

2012-02-01

259

Time-resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence using an optical streak camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the development of a time-resolved XEOL (TR-XEOL) system that employs an optical streak camera. We have conducted TR-XEOL experiments at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) operating in single bunch mode with a 570 ns dark gap and 35 ps electron bunch pulse, and at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) operating in top-up mode with a 153 ns dark gap and 33.5 ps electron bunch pulse. To illustrate the power of this technique we measured the TR-XEOL of solid-solution nanopowders of gallium nitride - zinc oxide, and for the first time have been able to resolve near-band-gap (NBG) optical luminescence emission from these materials. Herein we will discuss the development of the streak camera TR-XEOL technique and its application to the study of these novel materials.

Ward, M. J.; Regier, T. Z.; Vogt, J. M.; Gordon, R. A.; Han, W.-Q.; Sham, T. K.

2013-03-01

260

Grazing-incidence mirror streak camera diagnostic for emission measurements of imploding z pinches on the Sandia Z-machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soft x-ray (0.1-1 keV) streak camera using a grazing-incidence mirror has been developed for the Sandia Z facility, a 20 MA, 100 ns rise-time accelerator that can generate >200 TW,2 MJ, x-ray pulses. The streak camera is used to measure with one dimension of spatial resolution the continuous time history of sub-kilo-electron-volts emission from z-pinch and radiation flow experiments.

D. F. Wenger; D. B. Sinars; K. L. Keller; R. A. Aragon; L. E. Ruggles; W. W. Simpson; P. H. Primm; J. L. Porter

2004-01-01

261

Grazing-incidence mirror streak camera diagnostic for emission measurements of imploding z pinches on the Sandia Z-machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soft x-ray (0.1–1 keV) streak camera using a grazing-incidence mirror has been developed for the Sandia Z facility, a 20 MA, 100 ns rise-time accelerator that can generate >200 TW,2 MJ, x-ray pulses. The streak camera is used to measure with one dimension of spatial resolution the continuous time history of sub-kilo-electron-volts emission from z-pinch and radiation flow experiments.

D. F. Wenger; D. B. Sinars; K. L. Keller; R. A. Aragon; L. E. Ruggles; W. W. Simpson; P. H. Primm; J. L. Porter

2004-01-01

262

Compact streak camera for the shock study of solids by using the high-pressure gas gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the precise observation of high-speed impact phenomena, a compact high-speed streak camera recording system has been developed. The system consists of a high-pressure gas gun, a streak camera, and a long-pulse dye laser. The gas gun installed in our laboratory has a muzzle of 40 mm in diameter, and a launch tube of 2 m long. Projectile velocity is

Kunihito Nagayama; Yasuhito Mori

1993-01-01

263

Characterisation of Banana streak Mysore virus and evidence that its DNA is integrated in the B genome of cultivated Musa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. We have sequenced the complete genome of an isolate of Banana streak virus from banana cv. ‘Mysore’ and show that it is sufficiently different from a previously characterised isolate from cv. ‘Obino l’Ewai’ to warrant recognition as a distinct species, for which the name Banana streak Mysore virus (BSMysV) is proposed. The structure of the BSMysV genome was typical

A. D. W. Geering; M. M. Pooggin; N. E. Olszewski; B. E. L. Lockhart; J. E. Thomas

2005-01-01

264

New tubeless nanosecond streak camera based on optical deflection and direct CCD imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new optically deflected streaking camera with performance of nanosecond-range resolution, superior imaging quality, high signal detectability, and large format recording has been conceived and developed. Its construction is composed of an optomechanical deflector that deflects the line-shape image of spatial-distributed time-varying signals across the sensing surface of a cooled scientific two-dimensional CCD array with slow readout driving electronics, a

Ching C. Lai

1993-01-01

265

A new tubeless nanosecond streak camera based on optical deflection and direct CCD imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new optically deflected streaking camera with performance of nanosecond-range resolution, superior imaging quality, high signal detectability, and large format recording has been conceived and developed. Its construction is composed of an optomechanical deflector that deflects the line-shape image of spatial-distributed time-varying signals across the sensing surface of a cooled scientific two-dimensional CCD array with slow readout driving electronics, a

C. C. Lai

1992-01-01

266

Global-Scale Winds at the Venus Cloud-Top Inferred from Cloud Streak Orientations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orientations of the small cloud streaks that are always found at mid-latitudes in ultraviolet images of the Venus cloud-top provide a means for characterizing the global-scale circulation, including the wind field on the night side of Venus. Assuming that small clouds act as passive tracers of the cloud-top wind field, the orientation of cloud streaks is determined by the wind shear that the cloud has recently experienced. The typical deformation time for small clouds is about 50 hr, or one-half of a cloud-top rotation, so clouds viewed on the sunlit half of Venus show the influence of daytime and nighttime winds. By recording the orientations of cloud streaks and their variation with local solar time, we for the first time use cloud orientation information to place a constraint on the amplitudes of the Hadley circulation and solar thermal tides at the cloud-top level. A large solar thermal tide with a cloud-top meridional wind amplitude at 45 deg latitude of between 5.5-10.5 m sec^-1 is found to be necessary to account for the observed variation with local solar time of cloud streak orientations. Maximum poleward tidal winds occur in the early afternoon. The cloud-top Hadley circulation is estimated to have an amplitude at 45 deg latitude of between 3.5 and 8.5 m s^-1. This means the Hadley circulation may not be the dominant contributor to cloud-top meridional velocities, and that equatorward meridional velocities may exist over a portion of the night side at the Venus cloud-top.

Smith, Michael D.; Gierasch, Peter J.

1996-10-01

267

Mars eolian geology at airphoto scales: The large wind streaks of western Arabia Terra  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 27,000 pictures at aerial photograph scales (1.5-12 m\\/pixel) have been acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) since September 1997. The pictures are valuable for testing hypotheses about geologic history and processes of Mars. Of particular interest are eolian features connected to surface albedo patterns. This work is focused on low-albedo wind streaks, some

2000-01-01

268

Spatiotemporal Pattern Formation in Early Development: A Review of Primitive Streak Formation and Somitogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The basic body plan of a number of vertebrates results from two processes that occur early in the development of the blastoderm:\\u000a large scale rearrangements of tissue via a process called gastrulation, and axial subdivision of tissue in a process called\\u000a somitogenesis. The first step of gastrulation in avians is formation of the primitive streak, which marks the first clear

S. Schnell; K. J. Painter; P. K. Maini; H. G. Othmer

269

Optimally amplified large-scale streaks and drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow.  

PubMed

The optimal amplifications of small coherent perturbations within turbulent pipe flow are computed for Reynolds numbers up to one million. Three standard frameworks are considered: the optimal growth of an initial condition, the response to harmonic forcing and the Karhunen-Loève (proper orthogonal decomposition) analysis of the response to stochastic forcing. Similar to analyses of the turbulent plane channel flow and boundary layer, it is found that streaks elongated in the streamwise direction can be greatly amplified from quasistreamwise vortices, despite linear stability of the mean flow profile. The most responsive perturbations are streamwise uniform and, for sufficiently large Reynolds number, the most responsive azimuthal mode is of wave number m=1 . The response of this mode increases with the Reynolds number. A secondary peak, where m corresponds to azimuthal wavelengths ?_{?}^{+}?70-90 in wall units, also exists in the amplification of initial conditions and in premultiplied response curves for the forced problems. Direct numerical simulations at Re=5300 confirm that the forcing of m=1,2 and m=4 optimal structures results in the large response of coherent large-scale streaks. For moderate amplitudes of the forcing, low-speed streaks become narrower and more energetic, whereas high-speed streaks become more spread. It is further shown that drag reduction can be achieved by forcing steady large-scale structures, as anticipated from earlier investigations. Here the energy balance is calculated. At Re=5300 it is shown that, due to the small power required by the forcing of optimal structures, a net power saving of the order of 10% can be achieved following this approach, which could be relevant for practical applications. PMID:21230185

Willis, Ashley P; Hwang, Yongyun; Cossu, Carlo

2010-09-28

270

Diallel analysis of cassava brown streak disease, yield and yield related characteristics in Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) reported from 1999 in Mozambique, now constitutes the main production constraint in the\\u000a country. CBSD may be found in all plant parts, affecting food security and availability and quality of planting material.\\u000a The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA), and inheritance\\u000a of relevant

A. M. Zacarias; M. T. Labuschagne

2010-01-01

271

Development of soft X-ray streak cameras at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soft X-ray stream cameras are used in conjunction with several instruments for the diagnostic of laser irradiated targets. The development of cameras which satisfy the requirements of the laser facility, to improve the reliability and performance of the camera and to reduce the level of effort required to set and operate each diagnostic is reported. The implemented soft X-ray streak cameras can be operated either manually or automatically.

Medecki, H.; Phillips, G. E.; Bushman, J. F.

1983-06-01

272

Instability of streaks in pipe flow of shear-thinning fluids.  

PubMed

This study is motivated by recent experimental results dealing with the transition to turbulence in a pipe flow of shear-thinning fluids, where a streaky flow with an azimuthal wave number n=1 is observed in the transitional regime. Here, a linear stability analysis of pipe flow of shear-thinning fluids modulated azimuthally by finite amplitude streaks is performed. The shear-thinning behavior of the fluid is described by the Carreau model. The streaky base flows considered are obtained from two-dimensional direct numerical simulation using finite amplitude longitudinal rolls as the initial condition and by extracting the velocity field at time t_{max}, where the amplitude of the streaks reaches its maximum, denoted by A_{max}. It is found that the amplitude A_{max} increases with increasing Reynolds number as well as with increasing amplitude E_{0} of the initial longitudinal rolls. For sufficiently large streaks amplitude, streamwise velocity profiles develop inflection points, leading to instabilities. Depending on the threshold amplitude A_{c}, two different modes may trigger the instability of the streaks. If A_{c} exceeds approximately 41.5% of the centerline velocity, the instability mode is located near the axis of the pipe, i.e., it is a "center mode." For weaker amplitude A_{c}, the instability mode is located near the pipe wall, in the region of highest wall normal shear, i.e., it is a "wall mode." The threshold amplitude A_{c} decreases with increasing shear-thinning effects. The energy equation analysis indicates that (i) wall modes are driven mainly by the work of the Reynolds stress against the wall normal shear and (ii) for center modes, the contribution of the normal wall shear remains dominant; however, it is noted that the contribution of the Reynolds stress against the azimuthal shear increases with increasing shear-thinning effects. PMID:24032922

López Carranza, S N; Jenny, M; Nouar, C

2013-08-08

273

Remodelling of the Superior Caval Vein After Angioplasty in an Infant with Superior Caval Vein Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

An 8-month old girl was presented with superior caval vein syndrome early after cardiac surgery. Angiography showed severe stenosis of the superior caval vein with 50 mmHg pressure gradient. Following balloon angioplasty, the pressure gradient was reduced to 7 mmHg with some residual stenosis of the superior caval vein. When the patient was reevaluated 5 months after the procedure, angiography revealed a normal diameter of the superior caval vein without a pressure gradient.

Mert, Murat [Istanbul University, Institute of Cardiology, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey)], E-mail: mmert@superonline.com; Saltik, Levent [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Department of Pediatric Cardiology (Turkey); Gunay, Ilhan [Istanbul University, Institute of Cardiology, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey)

2004-08-15

274

Treatment of central retinal vein occlusion by injection of tissue plasminogen activator into a retinal vein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To report the injection of tissue plasminogen activator into a retinal vein to treat central retinal vein occlusion.Methods: An 81-year-old woman with visual loss of the right eye secondary to central retinal vein occlusion developed central retinal vein occlusion and visual loss in her left eye. Treatment of her left eye with topical ocular hypotensive medications, pentoxifylline, and laser

Jeffrey N. Weiss

1998-01-01

275

Tie-dyed2 encodes a callose synthase that functions in vein development and affects symplastic trafficking within the phloem of maize leaves.  

PubMed

The tie-dyed2 (tdy2) mutant of maize (Zea mays) displays variegated green and yellow leaves. Intriguingly, the yellow leaf tissues hyperaccumulate starch and sucrose, the soluble sugar transported long distance through the phloem of veins. To determine the molecular basis for Tdy2 function, we cloned the gene and found that Tdy2 encodes a callose synthase. RNA in situ hybridizations revealed that in developing leaves, Tdy2 was most highly expressed in the vascular tissue. Comparative expression analysis with the vascular marker maize PINFORMED1a-yellow fluorescent protein confirmed that Tdy2 was expressed in developing vein tissues. To ascertain whether the defect in tdy2 leaves affected the movement of sucrose into the phloem or its long-distance transport, we performed radiolabeled and fluorescent dye tracer assays. The results showed that tdy2 yellow leaf regions were defective in phloem export but competent in long-distance transport. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy of tdy2 yellow leaf regions showed incomplete vascular differentiation and implicated a defect in cell-to-cell solute movement between phloem companion cells and sieve elements. The disruption of sucrose movement in the phloem in tdy2 mutants provides evidence that the Tdy2 callose synthase functions in vascular maturation and that the vascular defects result in impaired symplastic trafficking into the phloem translocation stream. PMID:22932757

Slewinski, Thomas L; Baker, R Frank; Stubert, Adam; Braun, David M

2012-08-29

276

Femtosecond streaking of electron diffraction patterns to study structural dynamics in crystalline matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A table-top femtosecond, non-relativistic, electron diffraction setup is combined with a low-jitter, photo-triggered streak camera to follow the optically induced structural dynamics in complex solids. A temporal resolution of 550 fs is experimentally demonstrated, while the route to streaking with sub-250 fs temporal resolution is outlined. The streaking technique allows for parallel capturing of temporal information as opposed to the serial data acquisition in a conventional scanning femtosecond electron diffraction. Moreover, its temporal resolution is not corrupted by increasing the number of electrons per pulse. Thus, compared to the conventional scanning approach, a substantial increase in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be achieved. These benefits are demonstrated by studying a photo-induced charge density wave phase transition in 4Hb-TaSe2 using both methods. Within the same data acquisition time a three-fold increase in SNR is achieved when compared to the scanning method, with ways for a further improvement outlined.

Eichberger, M.; Erasmus, N.; Haupt, K.; Kassier, G.; von Flotow, A.; Demsar, J.; Schwoerer, H.

2013-03-01

277

Optical fiducial timing system for X-ray streak cameras with aluminum coated optical fiber ends  

DOEpatents

An optical fiducial timing system is provided for use with interdependent groups of X-ray streak cameras (18). The aluminum coated (80) ends of optical fibers (78) are positioned with the photocathodes (20, 60, 70) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). The other ends of the optical fibers (78) are placed together in a bundled array (90). A fiducial optical signal (96), that is comprised of 2.omega. or 1.omega. laser light, after introduction to the bundled array (90), travels to the aluminum coated (82) optical fiber ends and ejects quantities of electrons (84) that are recorded on the data recording media (52) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). Since both 2.omega. and 1.omega. laser light can travel long distances in optical fiber with only a slight attenuation, the initial arial power density of the fiducial optical signal (96) is well below the damage threshold of the fused silica or other material that comprises the optical fibers (78, 90). Thus the fiducial timing system can be repeatably used over long durations of time.

Nilson, David G. (Oakland, CA); Campbell, E. Michael (Pleasanton, CA); MacGowan, Brian J. (Livermore, CA); Medecki, Hector (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

278

A compact UV timing fiducial system for use with x-ray streak cameras at NIF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design of a compact UV (263-nm) timing fiducial system for use with x-ray streak cameras at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The design consists of remote fiber amplification of an infrared 1053-nm (1?) seed, a free-space optical path that has two stages of frequency conversion from 1? to the fourth harmonic (4?), and fiber delivery of the 4? signal via output fiber for use with an x-ray streak camera. This is all contained within an airbox that can reside in a vacuum. The 1? seed and the pump light for the fiber amplifier is delivered to the airbox via optical fiber ( 100 meters) from a location in the NIF that is shielded from neutron radiation generated from imploding targets during system shots. When complete, the system will be able to provide timing fiducials to multiple x-ray streak cameras on the same system shot. We will present data that demonstrates end-to-end system performance.*

Homoelle, Doug; Bowers, Mark; Browning, Don; Burns, Scott; Erbert, Gaylen; Golick, Brad; Haley, Jim; McCarville, Tom; Opachich, Yekaterina; Padilla, Ernesto; Palmer, Nathan; Perfect, Brad; Pelz, Larry; Spinka, Tom; Throop, Alan; Wong, J. Nan

2012-10-01

279

RNAi-mediated resistance to Cassava brown streak Uganda virus in transgenic cassava.  

PubMed

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV) and Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), is of new epidemic importance to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production in East Africa, and an emerging threat to the crop in Central and West Africa. This study demonstrates that at least one of these two ipomoviruses, CBSUV, can be efficiently controlled using RNA interference (RNAi) technology in cassava. An RNAi construct targeting the near full-length coat protein (FL-CP) of CBSUV was expressed constitutively as a hairpin construct in cassava. Transgenic cassava lines expressing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against this sequence showed 100% resistance to CBSUV across replicated graft inoculation experiments. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed the presence of CBSUV in leaves and some tuberous roots from challenged controls, but not in the same tissues from transgenic plants. This is the first demonstration of RNAi-mediated resistance to the ipomovirus CBSUV in cassava. PMID:21726367

Yadav, Jitender S; Ogwok, Emmanuel; Wagaba, Henry; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Bagewadi, Basavaraj; Alicai, Titus; Gaitan-Solis, Eliana; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M

2011-02-17

280

Direct evidence for encoding of motion streaks in human visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Temporal integration in the visual system causes fast-moving objects to generate static, oriented traces (‘motion streaks’), which could be used to help judge direction of motion. While human psychophysics and single-unit studies in non-human primates are consistent with this hypothesis, direct neural evidence from the human cortex is still lacking. First, we provide psychophysical evidence that faster and slower motions are processed by distinct neural mechanisms: faster motion raised human perceptual thresholds for static orientations parallel to the direction of motion, whereas slower motion raised thresholds for orthogonal orientations. We then used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain activity while human observers viewed either fast (‘streaky’) or slow random dot stimuli moving in different directions, or corresponding static-oriented stimuli. We found that local spatial patterns of brain activity in early retinotopic visual cortex reliably distinguished between static orientations. Critically, a multivariate pattern classifier trained on brain activity evoked by these static stimuli could then successfully distinguish the direction of fast (‘streaky’) but not slow motion. Thus, signals encoding static-oriented streak information are present in human early visual cortex when viewing fast motion. These experiments show that motion streaks are present in the human visual system for faster motion.

Apthorp, Deborah; Schwarzkopf, D. Samuel; Kaul, Christian; Bahrami, Bahador; Alais, David; Rees, Geraint

2013-01-01

281

NO-?-catenin crosstalk modulates primitive streak formation prior to embryonic stem cell osteogenic differentiation.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to play a crucial role in bone formation in vivo. We sought to determine the temporal effect of NO on murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) under culture conditions that promote osteogenesis. Expression profiles of NO pathway members and osteoblast-specific markers were analyzed using appropriate assays. We found that NO was supportive of osteogenesis specifically during an early phase of in vitro development (days 3-5). Furthermore, ESCs stably overexpressing the inducible NO synthase showed accelerated and enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in bone explant cultures. To determine the role of NO in early lineage commitment, a stage in ESC differentiation equivalent to primitive streak formation in vivo, ESCs were transfected with a T-brachyury-GFP reporter. Expression levels of T-brachyury and one of its upstream regulators, ?-catenin, the major effector in the canonical Wnt pathway, were responsive to NO levels in differentiating primitive streak-like cells. Our results indicate that NO may be involved in early differentiation through regulation of ?-catenin and T-brachyury, controlling the specification of primitive-streak-like cells, which may continue through differentiation to later become osteoblasts. PMID:22946055

Ding, Huawen; Keller, Kevin C; Martinez, Ivann K C; Geransar, Rose M; zur Nieden, Kai O; Nishikawa, Sandra G; Rancourt, Derrick E; zur Nieden, Nicole I

2012-09-03

282

A Case of Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection for the Treatment of Choroidal Neovascularization in Angioid Streaks  

PubMed Central

A 56-year-old Korean woman presented with decreased visual acuity of the right eye. She had a history of two photodynamic therapy treatments for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) due to angioid streaks in her left eye with central scarring and low visual acuity. She was diagnosed with subfoveal CNV due to angioid streaks in her right eye and treated with six intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg / 0.05 mL) injections over one year. Best corrected visual acuity improved from 20 / 125 at baseline to 20 / 50 at the final visit. The area of CNV had changed into a fibrotic scar by the final visit, and fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography revealed no evidence of leakage. Optical coherence tomography showed that central macular thickness decreased from 311 µm at baseline to 203 µm with complete resolution of subretinal and intraretinal fluid at the final visit. Intravitreal bevacizumab for CNV associated with angioid streaks prevented the progression of disease and resulted in the improvement of visual acuity after one year of follow-up in our patient.

Lee, Ji Woong; Shin, Jae Pil

2011-01-01

283

The Original Haemorrhagic Fever: Yellow Fever.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monkeys infected with the Asibi strain of yellow fever virus developed multiple coagulation abnormalities 3-4 days after viral inoculation. These coagulation abnormalities occurred almost simultaneously with the development of fever, clinical illness and ...

L. H. Dennis B. E. Reisberg J. Crosbie D. Crozier M. E. Conrad

1969-01-01

284

21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137.285 Food and...Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms...

2013-04-01

285

Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy.  

PubMed

Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The most characteristic symptoms of the disease are green-spotted leaf chlorosis or, commonly since about 2004, necrotic blotches, followed by senescence of leaves beginning on the second or third flush behind the shoot apex, and blackening of infected xylem in the vascular traces at the leaf scars resulting from the abscission of infected leaves. Eventually the shoot apex is killed and infected branches die. In susceptible cacao the fungus may grow through the xylem down into the main stem and kill a mature cacao tree. Infections in the stem of young plants prior to the formation of the first 3-4 lateral branches usually kill the plant. Basidiospores released from corticioid basidiomata developed on leaf scars or along cracks in the main vein of infected leaves infect young leaves. The pathogen commonly infects cacao but there are rare reports from avocado. As both crops are introduced to the region, the pathogen is suspected to occur asymptomatically in native vegetation. The pathogen is readily isolated but cultures cannot be maintained. In this study, DNA was extracted from pure cultures of O. theobromae obtained from infected cacao plants sampled from Indonesia. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), consisting of ITS1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA and ITS2, and a portion of nuclear large subunit (LSU) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences placed O. theobromae sister to Ceratobasidium anastomosis groups AG-A, AG-Bo, and AG-K with high posterior probability. Therefore the new combination Ceratobasidium theobromae is proposed. A PCR-based protocol was developed to detect and identify C. theobromae in plant tissue of cacao enabling early detection of the pathogen in plants. A second species of Ceratobasidium, Ceratobasidium ramicola, identified through ITS sequence analysis, was isolated from VSD-affected cacao plants in Java, and is widespread in diseased cacao collected from Indonesia. PMID:22208598

Samuels, Gary J; Ismaiel, Adnan; Rosmana, Ade; Junaid, Muhammad; Guest, David; McMahon, Peter; Keane, Philip; Purwantara, Agus; Lambert, Smilja; Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Cubeta, Marc A

2011-07-23

286

Longitudinal myelitis associated with yellow fever vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe adverse reaction to yellow fever (YF) vaccine includes the yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease. This\\u000a terminology includes postvaccinal encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The objective\\u000a of this communication is to report a patient who received a YF vaccine in Argentina and subsequently developed longitudinal\\u000a myelitis with a symptom that had previously gone unreported in the literature. A

M. Chaves; P. Riccio; L. Patrucco; J. I. Rojas; E. Cristiano

2009-01-01

287

Redox alters yellow dragonflies into red  

PubMed Central

Body color change associated with sexual maturation—so-called nuptial coloration—is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait.

Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema

2012-01-01

288

Can tuffisite veins help dictate eruption styles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of magmas to degas during ascent may affect eruption style. The permeability of the magma and\\/or the conduit wall rocks may therefore dictate whether an eruption will be explosive or effusive. Fractures increase permeability. Fractures filled by veins of autoclastic, cataclastic and tuffisitic glass shards and crystal fragments are common in shallow conduit systems. These veins have the

S. Kolzenburg; M. J. Heap; Y. Lavallee; J. K. Russell; P. G. Meredith; D. B. Dingwell

2010-01-01

289

Superficial Dorsal Vein Rupture Imitating Penile Fracture  

PubMed Central

Dorsal vein rupture of the penis is a rare condition, and few cases have been reported in the literature. Herein we report a 41-year-old man who presented with mildly painful and acute swollen penis, which initially imitated a penile fracture but was surgically explored and shown to be a superficial dorsal vein rupture.

Topsakal, Medih; Kavukcu, Ender; Karadeniz, Tahir

2011-01-01

290

Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: Classification and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders with different clinical aspects, courses, and probably therapy. Depending on the site of the arteriovenous crossing, we can roughly divide BRVO into 3 main groups: major BRVO, hemispheric retinal vein occlusion, and macular BRVO. Main treatment options include laser treatment, corticosteroid administration, anti-VEGF drugs, and sheathotomy with or

Maurizio Battaglia Parodi; Francesco Bandello

2009-01-01

291

[Arteriovenous dissection for branch retinal vein occlusion].  

PubMed

Arteriovenous dissection (AVD) is a surgical maneuver to separate the retinal artery and vein at the crossing site in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). The published studies showed an evidence level 3. AVD seems to be maintainable in patients with recent onset of BRVO and decimal visual acuity < or =0.4. PMID:18317778

Feltgen, N; Hattenbach, L-O; Mirshahi, A; Hansen, L

2008-04-01

292

Postpartum ovarian vein thrombophlebitis: sonographic diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We describe our experience with sonographic diagnosis of ovarian vein thrombosis, an uncommon but dangerous postpartum complication. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of seven patients in our institution who developed postpartum ovarian vein thrombophlebitis within the past 5 years. Results: In all cases the diagnosis was made by ultrasound, which showed tubular hypoechoic masses lateral to the

I. Hadas-Halpern; M. Patlas; D. Fisher

2002-01-01

293

21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880...Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a device used to...

2013-04-01

294

21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880...Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a device used to...

2009-04-01

295

21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880...Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a device used to...

2010-04-01

296

Enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique for enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins has been demonstrated. This technique uses a near infrared light source and one or more infrared sensitive CCD TV cameras to produce a contrast enhanced image of the subcutaneous veins. This video image of the veins is projected back onto the patient's skin using an LCD vein projector. The use of an infrared transmitting filter in front of the video cameras prevents any positive feedback from the visible light from the video projector from causing instabilities in the projected image. The demonstration contrast enhancing illuminator has been tested on adults, both Caucasian and African-American, and it enhances veins quite well in most cases. Preliminary studies on a 9 month old girl indicate promise for pediatric use.

Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar

1999-07-01

297

Simultaneous detection and differentiation of Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) by duplex real time RT-PCR  

PubMed Central

Background The diseases caused by Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) have been occurring epidemically in China and southeastern Asia in recent years. A sensitive, reliable and quantitative method is required to detect and distinguish for RBSDV and SRBSDV in rice and vector insects. Results We developed a sensitive and lineage-specific duplex real time RT-qPCR for detection of RBSDV and SRBSDV in a single or/and double infection in rice samples. The duplex RT-qPCR was optimized using standard samples transcribed by T7 Large Scale RNA Production System in vitro. We developed a reliable system for duplex RT-qPCR, in which its co-efficiency of RBSDV and SRBSDV, were 91.6% and 90.7%, respectively. The coefficient of determination was more than 0.990; the slope of linear equation was ?3.542, and ?3.567, respectively. Out of 30 samples collected in North and Central China, which were suspected to be infected with these two viruses, 10 samples were detected RBSDV positive by RT-PCR and 12 samples by RT-qPCR. No mixed infections were found. Simultaneously, out of total 60 samples collected from Southern China, which were also suspected to be infected with these two viruses, 41 samples were determined SRBSDV positive by RT-PCR and 47 samples by RT-qPCR. Also in this case no mixed infections were found. The rice genes eEF-1a and UBQ5 were selected as internal controls for quantification assay also performed as good expression stability. Conclusion The duplex RT-qPCR assay provided as a sufficiently sensitive, specific, accurate, reproducible and rapid tool for the detection and differentiation of RBSDV and SRBSDV. The RT-qPCR assay can be used in routine diagnostic of these two viruses in order to study the disease epidemiology in rice crops.

2013-01-01

298

Titanium, sinusitis, and the yellow nail syndrome.  

PubMed

Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by nail changes, respiratory disorders, and lymphedema. In a yellow nail patient with a skeletal titanium implant and with gold in her teeth, we found high levels of titanium in nail clippings. This study aims to examine the possible role of titanium in the genesis of the yellow nail syndrome. Nail clippings from patients with one or more features of the yellow nail syndrome were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Titanium was regularly found in finger nails in patients but not in control subjects. Visible nail changes were present in only half of the patients. Sinusitis with postnasal drip and cough was the most common complaint. The dominant source of titanium ions was titanium implants in the teeth or elsewhere. The titanium ions were released through the galvanic action of dental gold or amalgam or through the oxidative action of fluorides. In other patients the titanium was derived from titanium dioxide in drugs and confectionary. Stopping galvanic release of titanium ions or canceling exposure to titanium dioxide led to recovery. In one patient with a titanium implant, the symptoms recurred after renewed exposure to titanium. Yellow nail syndrome is caused by titanium. PMID:20809268

Berglund, Fredrik; Carlmark, Björn

2010-09-01

299

A Reappraisal of Saphenous Vein Grafting  

PubMed Central

Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG), including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a better patency. A loop SVG helps flap survival in a muscle flap transfer in plastic and reconstructive surgery. For dialysis or transfusion purposes, a straight or loop arteriovenous fistula created in the forearm or the thigh with an SVG has acceptable patency. The saphenous vein has even been used as a stent cover to minimize the potential complications of standard angioplasty technique. However, the use of saphenous vein grafting is now largely diminished in treating cerebrovascular disorders, superior vena cava syndrome, and visceral revascularization due to the introduction of angioplasty and stenting techniques. The SVG remains the preferable biomaterial in coronary artery bypass, coronary ostioplasty, free flap transfer, and surgical treatment of Peyronie disease. Implications associated with saphenous vein grafting in vascular access surgery for the purpose of dialysis and chemotherapy are considerable. Vascular cuffs and patches have been developed as an important and effective means of enhancing the patency rates of the grafts by linking the synthetic material to the receipt vessel. In addition, saphenous veins can be a cell source for tissue engineering. We review the versatile roles that saphenous vein grafting has played as well as its current status in therapy.

Yuan, Shi-Min; Jing, Hua

2011-01-01

300

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. ...3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2010-10-01

301

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. ...3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2009-10-01

302

Two-dimensional sampling-image x-ray streak camera for ultrafast imaging of ICF plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafast two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging with a temporal resolution better than 10 ps is of great importance in diagnosing the final stages of the imploded core plasmas of ICF targets. Multi-imaging x-ray streak camera (MIXS)[1,2] has been one of such imaging technique. Recently, we have proposed another scheme, a 2D sampling-image x-ray streak camera method (2D-SIXS)[2]. In this scheme, a 2D image is sampled two-dimensionally with a set of sampling points distributed regularly over the whole image on a cathode plate of an x-ray streak camera. The sampled image is streaked, and then, reconstructed to form the time-resolved 2D images like movie pictures. In this paper, we report results of our proof-of-principle experiments of 2D-SIXS scheme performed at Gekko-XII glass laser system. A gold-coated spherical target was irradiated by three beams of Gekko-XII laser (527 nm). Streaked data of 2D-SIXS was obtained and a series of time-resolved 2D x-ray images were successfully reconstructed. [1] H. Shiraga, et al, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 722 (1995), and references therein. [2] H. Shiraga, et al, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 745 (1997).

Shiraga, H.; Nakasuji, M.; Heya, M.; Miyanaga, N.

1997-11-01

303

Two-dimensional sampling-image x-ray streak camera for ultrafast imaging of inertial confinement fusion plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafast two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging with a temporal resolution better than 10 ps is of great importance in diagnosing the final stages of the imploded core plasmas of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. The multi-imaging x-ray streak camera (MIXS) has been one of such imaging techniques. Recently, we have proposed another scheme, a 2D sampling-image x-ray streak camera method (2D-SIXS). In this scheme, a 2D image is sampled two dimensionally with a set of sampling points distributed regularly over the whole image on a cathode plate of an x-ray streak camera. The sampled image is streaked, and then, reconstructed to form the time-resolved 2D images like movie pictures. In this article, we report results of our proof-of-principle experiments of 2D-SIXS scheme performed at Gekko-XII glass laser system. A gold-coated spherical target was irradiated by three beams (0.53 ?m) of Gekko-XII laser. Streaked data of 2D-SIXS were obtained and a series of time-resolved 2D x-ray images were successfully reconstructed. 2D-SIXS is suitable for very fast, short-lived, and small x-ray sources such as a hot spark in the ICF plasma as well as short-pulse-laser-produced plasmas.

Shiraga, H.; Nakasuji, M.; Heya, M.; Miyanaga, N.

1999-01-01

304

Symptomatic varix of the facial vein.  

PubMed

Varices of the facial and neck region are extremely rare, and the most prevalent varices in this region affect the orbital vein. To date, no report on a patent and symptomatic varix of the facial vein has been published, because these varices are particularly rare and most often thrombosed at the time of diagnosis. We present a patient with a prominent patent varix of the right facial vein. After a magnetic resonance imaging scan and duplex ultrasonography, the lesion was treated via surgical exploration, ligation, and complete excision. At 6 months of follow-up, no signs of recurrence were noted. PMID:23988543

Teraa, Martin; Schellekens, Pascal P A; Moll, Frans L; de Borst, Gert Jan

2013-08-26

305

Fatal lower extremity varicose vein rupture.  

PubMed

Varicose vein rupture is a rare cause of death, although varicosities are a common pathology. We present three cases of sudden death due to varicose vein rupture. After a review of the literature, the case circumstances and the findings of imaging examination, performed in two cases, are presented. One of them had undergone a post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA), and one a PMCTA as well as a post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) imaging prior to conventional autopsy. One of the cases presented herein is, to our knowledge, the youngest known fatality due to varicose vein rupture. PMID:21144790

Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Preiss, Ulrich; Hatch, Gary M; Zech, Wolf Dieter; Ketterer, Thomas; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J; Ruder, Thomas D

2010-12-08

306

Absolute calibration method for nanosecond-resolved, time-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems.  

PubMed

This paper describes a convenient and accurate method to calibrate fast (<1 ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such systems are inherently difficult to calibrate due to the lack of sufficiently intense, calibrated light sources. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA) at Sandia National Laboratories. On RITS, plasma light is collected through a small diameter (200 ?m) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator. For this paper, a 300 W xenon short arc lamp (Oriel Model 6258) was used as the calibration source. Since the radiance of the xenon arc varies from cathode to anode, just the area around the tip of the cathode ("hotspot") was imaged onto the fiber, to produce the highest intensity output. To compensate for chromatic aberrations, the signal was optimized at each wavelength measured. Output power was measured using 10 nm bandpass interference filters and a calibrated photodetector. These measurements give power at discrete wavelengths across the spectrum, and when linearly interpolated, provide a calibration curve for the lamp. The shape of the spectrum is determined by the collective response of the optics, monochromator, and streak tube across the spectral region of interest. The ratio of the spectral curve to the measured bandpass filter curve at each wavelength produces a correction factor (Q) curve. This curve is then applied to the experimental data and the resultant spectra are given in absolute intensity units (photons/sec/cm(2)/steradian/nm). Error analysis shows this method to be accurate to within +?- 20%, which represents a high level of accuracy for this type of measurement. PMID:22938275

Johnston, Mark D; Oliver, Bryan V; Droemer, Darryl W; Frogget, Brent; Crain, Marlon D; Maron, Yitzhak

2012-08-01

307

Absolute calibration method for nanosecond-resolved, time-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a convenient and accurate method to calibrate fast (<1 ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such systems are inherently difficult to calibrate due to the lack of sufficiently intense, calibrated light sources. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA) at Sandia National Laboratories. On RITS, plasma light is collected through a small diameter (200 ?m) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator. For this paper, a 300 W xenon short arc lamp (Oriel Model 6258) was used as the calibration source. Since the radiance of the xenon arc varies from cathode to anode, just the area around the tip of the cathode (``hotspot'') was imaged onto the fiber, to produce the highest intensity output. To compensate for chromatic aberrations, the signal was optimized at each wavelength measured. Output power was measured using 10 nm bandpass interference filters and a calibrated photodetector. These measurements give power at discrete wavelengths across the spectrum, and when linearly interpolated, provide a calibration curve for the lamp. The shape of the spectrum is determined by the collective response of the optics, monochromator, and streak tube across the spectral region of interest. The ratio of the spectral curve to the measured bandpass filter curve at each wavelength produces a correction factor (Q) curve. This curve is then applied to the experimental data and the resultant spectra are given in absolute intensity units (photons/sec/cm2/steradian/nm). Error analysis shows this method to be accurate to within +/- 20%, which represents a high level of accuracy for this type of measurement.

Johnston, Mark D.; Oliver, Bryan V.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Frogget, Brent; Crain, Marlon D.; Maron, Yitzhak

2012-08-01

308

Transgenic RNA interference (RNAi)-derived field resistance to cassava brown streak disease.  

PubMed

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by the Ipomoviruses Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan Cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), is considered to be an imminent threat to food security in tropical Africa. Cassava plants were transgenically modified to generate small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from truncated full-length (894-bp) and N-terminal (402-bp) portions of the UCBSV coat protein (?CP) sequence. Seven siRNA-producing lines from each gene construct were tested under confined field trials at Namulonge, Uganda. All nontransgenic control plants (n = 60) developed CBSD symptoms on aerial tissues by 6 months after planting, whereas plants transgenic for the full-length ?CP sequence showed a 3-month delay in disease development, with 98% of clonal replicates within line 718-001 remaining symptom free over the 11-month trial. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) diagnostics indicated the presence of UCBSV within the leaves of 57% of the nontransgenic controls, but in only two of 413 plants tested (0.5%) across the 14 transgenic lines. All transgenic plants showing CBSD were PCR positive for the presence of CBSV, except for line 781-001, in which 93% of plants were confirmed to be free of both pathogens. At harvest, 90% of storage roots from nontransgenic plants were severely affected by CBSD-induced necrosis. However, transgenic lines 718-005 and 718-001 showed significant suppression of disease, with 95% of roots from the latter line remaining free from necrosis and RT-PCR negative for the presence of both viral pathogens. Cross-protection against CBSV by siRNAs generated from the full-length UCBSV ?CP confirms a previous report in tobacco. The information presented provides proof of principle for the control of CBSD by RNA interference-mediated technology, and progress towards the potential control of this damaging disease. PMID:22845735

Ogwok, Emmanuel; Odipio, John; Halsey, Mark; Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Bua, Anton; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M; Alicai, Titus

2012-07-31

309

Widespread occurrence and diversity of Cassava brown streak virus (Potyviridae: Ipomovirus) in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has been a problem in Tanzania since 1936. Existing literature indicated limited distribution of the disease to low altitudes, usually <100 m above sea level, but the current geographical distribution of the disease was not known. Whether a single or many strains for the virus exist in Tanzania had not been reported to date. In this study, CBSD was recorded from sea level to ?1,800 m above sea level. In total, 2,730 cassava plants were assessed for CBSD leaf symptoms in 91 fields and root symptoms were assessed at 81 sites. A sample was taken from each site for laboratory screening for Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV). CBSD mean foliar and root incidences were 38 and 36%, respectively. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of a partial 3'-terminal coat protein (CP) region of CBSV indicated the presence of CBSV in 67 of the 91 (73%) samples. Forty-three amplicons were sequenced, and phylogenetic comparisons with nucleotide sequences from GenBank (National Center for Biotechnology Information database) suggested that one major clade of CBSV primarily exists in Tanzania. However, there was nucleotide sequence divergence of up to 19% among the 42 isolates. In all, 42 of the 43 sequences had 80 to 100% nucleotide identity with 6 previously reported CP-CBSV sequences (from Mozambique and Tanzania). In total, 13 of 42 isolates had <80% nucleotide identities with three previously reported Ugandan CBSV sequences. One isolate, FJ687177, shared <78% sequence identity with the other Tanzanian sequences but was closely related (93%) to Ugandan isolates. It is likely that isolate FJ687177 may belong to a less widely distributed recently described species (clade 2) of CBSV, named Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). PMID:21916624

Rwegasira, G M; Momanyi, G; Rey, M E C; Kahwa, G; Legg, J P

2011-10-01

310

Induction of Yellow Pigmentation in Serratia marcescens  

PubMed Central

The appearance of yellow pigmentation in nonpigmented strains of Serratia sp. has been demonstrated to be due to the production of a muconic acid, 2-hydroxy-5-carboxymethylmuconic acid semialdehyde. The 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate 2,3-dioxygenase responsible for the synthesis of this muconic acid was induced in all strains tested. Another muconic acid, the ?-cis-cis-carboxymuconic acid, could also be synthesized from 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, but this product was not colored. Mutants that were unable to grow on tyrosine and produced yellow pigment were isolated from nonpigmented strains. These mutants had properties similar to those of the yellow-pigmented strains. The ability to produce pigment may be more widespread among Serratia marcescens strains than is currently known.

Trias, Joaquim; Vinas, Miquel; Guinea, Jesus; Loren, Jose G.

1988-01-01

311

Modes on a short SPEAR bunch as observed with a streak camera  

SciTech Connect

The longitudinal structure of electron bunches in the storage ring SPEAR on a single pass was studied with time resolution approx. 10 ps. The measuring instrument used is an image-converter streak camera, a specialized device heretofore used mostly by laser workers. Unexpectedly, under some conditions the charge in a single RF bucket breaks up into two short sub-bunches which seem to rotate about a common center in energy-phase space. No evidence is seen for other, higher-frequency structure on the bunches.

Sabersky, A.P.; Donald, M.H.R.

1981-02-01

312

Temporal Characterization of Electron Beam Bunches with a Fast Streak Camera at the JLab FEL Facility  

SciTech Connect

The design and construction of an optical transport that brings synchrotron radiation from electron bunches to a fast streak camera in a remote area has become a useful tool for online observation of bunch length and stability. This paper will report on the temporal measurements we have done, comparison with simulations, and the on-going work for another imaging optical transport system that will make possible the direct measurement of the longitudinal phase space by measuring the bunch length as a function of energy

S. Zhang; S.V. Benson; D. Douglas; D. Hardy; C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Jordan; G. Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

2005-08-21

313

Achieving 280 fs resolution with a streak camera by reducing the deflection dispersion  

SciTech Connect

The factors that limit the temporal resolution in a streak camera operating in an accumulative mode were studied. By controlling the timing jitter, the transit-time dispersion and the technical resolution of the camera on the order of 100 fs, the role of the deflection dispersion was investigated experimentally. It was done by changing the electron beam size in the deflection plates with a variable slit in front of the plates. The temporal resolution of the camera reached 280 fs when the slit width was a 5 {mu}m slit.

Shakya, Mahendra Man; Chang Zenghu [J.R. MacDonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

2005-07-25

314

Transient electric fields in laser plasmas observed by proton streak deflectometry  

SciTech Connect

A novel proton imaging technique was applied which allows a continuous temporal record of electric fields within a time window of several nanoseconds. This 'proton streak deflectometry' was used to investigate transient electric fields of intense ({approx}10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) laser irradiated foils. We found out that these fields with an absolute peak of up to 10{sup 8} V/m extend over millimeter lateral extension and decay at nanosecond duration. Hence, they last much longer than the (approximately picosecond) laser excitation and extend much beyond the laser irradiation focus.

Sokollik, T.; Schnuerer, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Nickles, P. V.; Risse, E.; Kalashnikov, M.; Sandner, W. [Max Born Institut, Max Born Str. 2a, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Priebe, G. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Amin, M.; Toncian, T.; Willi, O. [Heinrich Heine Universitaet Duesseldorf, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Andreev, A. A. [Vavilov State Optical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2008-03-03

315

Retinal vein occlusions: The potential impact of a dysregulation of the retinal veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a sight threatening disease. It can be divided into central vein occlusion and branch retinal\\u000a vein occlusion. The pathogenesis of the condition remains to be solved. Mechanical compression of the vessel wall or thrombotic\\u000a occlusion of the vessel lumen, sometimes combined with rheological disorders, are often assumed pathomechanisms. Accordingly,\\u000a the therapy relies either on

Stephan A. Fraenkl; Maneli Mozaffarieh; Josef Flammer

2010-01-01

316

Histological appearances of the long saphenous vein.  

PubMed

The long saphenous vein is frequently used as a graft in both coronary artery and femoro-distal bypass surgery. The histological changes which are seen after implantation into the arterial system have been well documented in the past, but little attention has been focused on the histological appearances of the donor long saphenous vein prior to grafting. In this study, samples of the long saphenous vein in excess of that required for bypass have been examined. In none of the veins did the histological appearances conform to the described normal. All showed evidence of intimal fibrosis which contained elastic tissue and enmeshed smooth muscle cells. The longitudinal and circular muscle layers showed evidence of muscle cell hypertrophy with increase in intervening connective tissue. Elsewhere, similar histological changes have been attributed to 'arterialization'. This study shows that many of the changes are present prior to grafting and may be important in graft failure. PMID:2614575

Milroy, C M; Scott, D J; Beard, J D; Horrocks, M; Bradfield, J W

1989-12-01

317

Visual loss following sclerotherapy for varicose veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report the case of a 66-year-old lady referred to the acute eye clinic with left homonymous hemianopia following sclerotherapy for left lower limb varicose veins and review the literature on sclerotherapy-induced visual loss.

James Chiung Yoong Leong; Nicholas Robert Johnston

2011-01-01

318

Evaluating Diagnostic Decisions for Deep Vein Thrombosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prompt diagnosis of proximal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (PDVT) in outpatients is critical because of the risk of pulmonary embolism. Our primary purpose was to determine the accuracy of orthopaedists' and orthopaedic physical therapists' estimat...

D. L. Riddle B. Hillner P. Wells W. Zuelzer

2004-01-01

319

Evidence for tidal triggering of high-amplitude rapid tremor reversals and tremor streaks in northern Cascadia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a new link between tectonic tremor propagation, tremor amplitude, and tidal stresses by analyzing high-resolution tremor locations and amplitudes determined by multibeam backprojection of data from an array of subarrays. For two Cascadia episodic tremor and slip events, we observe repeating, high-amplitude rapid tremor reversals (RTRs) and tremor streaks. They tend to occur when tremor amplitudes are highest and occur almost exclusively during periods of thrust-encouraging, tidally induced shear stress on the fault. We speculate that thrust-encouraging shear stress from tidal loading forces trigger RTRs and streaks that energetically rerupture the weakened fault behind the slow slip front. The high rate and amplitude of tremor during RTRs and streaks stands in contrast to the hypothesis that activity at the leading edge of the slow slip zone is the most energetic and loudest. This implies that the spatiotemportal pattern of slow earthquake slip migration is even more intricate than previously reported.

Thomas, Trevor W.; Vidale, John E.; Houston, Heidi; Creager, Kenneth C.; Sweet, Justin R.; Ghosh, Abhijit

2013-08-01

320

Frequency-Domain Streak Camera and Tomography for Ultrafast Imaging of Evolving and Channeled Plasma Accelerator Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a prototype Frequency Domain Streak Camera (FDSC) that can capture the picosecond time evolution of the plasma accelerator structure in a single shot. In our prototype Frequency-Domain Streak Camera, a probe pulse propagates obliquely to a sub-picosecond pump pulse that creates an evolving nonlinear index ``bubble'' in fused silica glass, supplementing a conventional Frequency Domain Holographic (FDH) probe-reference pair that co-propagates with the ``bubble''. Frequency Domain Tomography (FDT) generalizes Frequency-Domain Streak Camera by probing the ``bubble'' from multiple angles and reconstructing its morphology and evolution using algorithms similar to those used in medical CAT scans. Multiplexing methods (Temporal Multiplexing and Angular Multiplexing) improve data storage and processing capability, demonstrating a compact Frequency Domain Tomography system with a single spectrometer.

Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Wang, Xiaoming; Reed, Stephen; Dong, Peng; Downer, Michael C.

2010-11-01

321

Preliminary Performance Measurements for a Streak Camera with a Large-Format Direct-Coupled CCD Readout  

SciTech Connect

Livermore's ICF Program has a large inventory of optical streak cameras built in the 1970s and 1980s. The cameras are still very functional, but difficult to maintain because many of their parts are obsolete including the original streak tube and image-intensifier tube. The University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics is leading an effort to develop a fully automated, large-format streak camera that incorporates modern technology. Preliminary characterization of a prototype camera shows spatial resolution better than 20 lp/mm, temporal resolution of 12 ps, line-spread function of 40 {micro}m (fwhm), contrast transfer ratio (CTR) of 60% at 10 lp/mm, and system sensitivity of 16 CCD electrons per photoelectron. A dynamic range of 60 for a 2 ns window is determined from system noise, linearity and sensitivity measurements.

Lerche, R A; McDonald, J W; Griffith, R L; de Dios, G V; Andrews, D S; Huey, A W; Bell, P M; Landen, O L; Jaanimagi, P A; Boni, R

2004-04-13

322

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease.  

PubMed

The causal agents of cassava brown streak disease have recently been identified as Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). Primers have been developed for rapid detection of these viruses by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Performance of the RT-LAMP assays compared favourably with published RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR methods. Furthermore, amplification by RT-LAMP is completed in 40 min and does not require thermal cycling equipment. Modification of the RT-LAMP reactions to use labelled primers allowed rapid detection of amplification products using lateral flow devices containing antibodies specific to the incorporated labels, avoiding the need for fluorescence detection or gel electrophoresis. PMID:22820076

Tomlinson, J A; Ostoja-Starzewska, S; Adams, I P; Miano, D W; Abidrabo, P; Kinyua, Z; Alicai, T; Dickinson, M J; Peters, D; Boonham, N; Smith, J

2012-07-20

323

Isolated inferior mesenteric portal hypertension with giant inferior mesenteric vein and anomalous inferior mesenteric vein insertion  

PubMed Central

Extrahepatic portal hypertension is not an uncommon disease in childhood, but isolated inferior mesenteric portal varices and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleed have not been reported till date. A 4-year-old girl presented with lower GI bleed. Surgical exploration revealed extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with giant inferior mesenteric vein and colonic varices. Inferior mesenteric vein was joining the superior mesenteric vein. The child was treated successfully with inferior mesenteric – inferior vena caval anastomosis. The child was relieved of GI bleed during the follow-up.

Prasad, G. Raghavendra; Billa, Srikar; Bhandari, Pavaneel; Hussain, Aijaz

2013-01-01

324

Building Palm Vein Capturing System for Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The palm vein pattern is unique to individuality which pattern does not change over time apart from size. This feature makes it suitable for one-to-many matching, for which fingerprint and face recognition may not be robust. In this paper, we set up a creatively vein-image capturing system and present a novel framework, composed of image enhancement, feature extraction, noise removal,

Jing-Wein Wang; Tzu-Hsiung Chen

2011-01-01

325

Human Identification Using Palm-Vein Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two new approaches to improve the performance of palm-vein-based identification systems pre- sented in the literature. The proposed approach attempts to more effectively accommodate the potential deformations, rotational and translational changes by encoding the orientation preserving features and utilizing a novel region-based matching scheme. We systematically compare the previously proposed palm-vein identification approaches with our proposed ones

Yingbo Zhou; Ajay Kumar

2011-01-01

326

Patterns and distribution of isolated calf deep vein thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: In the search for calf deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with color-flow duplex scanning (CFDS), most vascular laboratories investigate only the posterior tibial and peroneal veins. Few laboratories assess the soleal and gastrocnemial veins. This study was designed to determine the patterns and distribution of isolated calf DVT, including the soleal and gastrocnemial veins. Methods: In the last 3 years,

Nicos Labropoulos; K. Michael Webb; Steven S. Kang; M. Ashraf Mansour; Dusty R. Filliung; Jeffrey Buckman; William H. Baker

1999-01-01

327

Mechanical properties of the fetal ductus venosus and umbilical vein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During fetal circulatory compromise, velocity pulsations in the precordial veins increase and are commonly transmitted through the ductus venosus into the umbilical vein, indicating a serious prognosis. The nature of the pulsations and their transmission into the periphery, specifically the umbilical vein, is poorly understood. We present information on the mechanical properties of fetal veins as a basis for

Leif Rune Hellevik; Torvid Kiserud; Fridtjov Irgens; Nikos Stergiopulos; Mark Hanson

1998-01-01

328

Biometric identification through palm and dorsal hand vein patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand vein patterns are among the biometric traits being investigated today for identification purposes, attracting interest from both the research community and industry. This paper presents a multimodal system that combines hand-palm vein and hand-dorsal vein biometrics information at the score level. The palm and dorsal veins are considered as texture samples being automatically extracted from the user's hand image.

Sanchit; Mauricio Ramalho; Paulo Lobato Correia; Luis Ducla Soares

2011-01-01

329

Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.  

PubMed

During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa?m). However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species. PMID:22927966

Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David

2012-08-22

330

Veins Improve Fracture Toughness of Insect Wings  

PubMed Central

During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect’s flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material’s resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa?m). However, the cross veins increase the wing’s toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically ‘optimal’ solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial ‘venous’ wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David

2012-01-01

331

49 CFR 172.438 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. 172.438 Section 172.438 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.438 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. (a) Except...

2012-10-01

332

Dietary treatment of chylous ascites in yellow nail syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Chylous ascites has rarely been reported in yellow nail syndrome. A case of chylous ascites in yellow nail syndrome is described which was treated successfully with dietary restriction of fat and supplements of medium chained triglycerides.

Tan, W C

1989-01-01

333

Synchroscan streak camera imaging at a 15-MeV photoinjector with emittance exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Fermilab A0 photoinjector facility, bunch-length measurements of the laser micropulse and the e-beam micropulse have been done in the past with a fast single-sweep module of the Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera with an intrinsic shot-to-shot trigger jitter of 10-20 ps. We have upgraded the camera system with the synchroscan module tuned to 81.25 MHz to provide synchronous summing capability with less than 1.5 ps FWHM trigger jitter and a phase-locked delay box to provide phase stability of ˜1 ps over 10 s of minutes. These steps allowed us to measure both the UV laser pulse train at 263 nm and the e-beam via optical transition radiation (OTR). Due to the low electron beam energies and OTR signals, we typically summed over 50 micropulses with 0.25-1 nC per micropulse. The phase-locked delay box allowed us to assess chromatic temporal effects and instigated another upgrade to an all-mirror input optics barrel. In addition, we added a slow sweep horizontal deflection plug-in unit to provide dual-sweep capability for the streak camera. We report on a series of measurements made during the commissioning of these upgrades including bunch-length and phase effects using the emittance exchange beamline and simultaneous imaging of a UV drive laser component, OTR, and the 800 nm diagnostics laser.

Lumpkin, A. H.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.

2012-09-01

334

The symptom and genetic diversity of cassava brown streak viruses infecting cassava in East Africa.  

PubMed

The genetic and symptom diversity of six virus isolates causing cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) in the endemic (Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania) and the recently affected epidemic areas (Uganda) of eastern Africa was studied. Five cassava varieties; Albert, Colombian, Ebwanateraka, TMS60444 (all susceptible) and Kiroba (tolerant) were graft inoculated with each isolate. Based on a number of parameters including the severity of leaf and root symptoms, and the extent of virus transmission by grafting, the viruses were classified as either severe or relatively mild. These results were further confirmed by the mechanical inoculation of 13 herbaceous hosts in which the virulent isolates caused plant death in Nicotiana clevelandii and N. benthamiana whereas the milder isolates did not. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coat protein gene sequences of these isolates together with sequences obtained from 14 other field-collected samples from Kenya and Zanzibar, and reference sequences grouped them into two distinct clusters, representing the two species of cassava brown streak viruses. Put together, these results did not suggest the association of a hypervirulent form of the virus with the current CBSD epidemic in Uganda. Identification of the severe and milder isolates, however, has further implications for disease management and quarantine requirements. PMID:22454639

Mohammed, I U; Abarshi, M M; Muli, B; Hillocks, R J; Maruthi, M N

2012-02-21

335

A Method for Analysing High Resolution, Time Domain, Streak Camera Calibration Data  

SciTech Connect

Many experiments that require a highly accurate continuous time history of photon emission incorporate streak cameras into their setup. Nonlinear recordings both in time and spatial displacement are inherent to streak camera measurements. These nonlinearities can be attributed to sweep rate electronics, curvature of the electron optics, the magnification, and resolution of the electron optics. These nonlinearities are systematic; it has been shown that a short pulse laser source, an air-spaced etalon of known separation, and a defined spatial resolution mask can provide the proper image information to correct for the resulting distortion. A set of Interactive Data Language (IDL){sup 1} software routines were developed to take a series of calibration images showing temporally and spatially displaced points, and map these points from a nonlinear to a linear space-time resultant function. This correction function, in combination with standardized image correction techniques, can be applied to experiment data to minimize systematic errors and improve temporal and spatial resolution measurements.

Silbernagel, C

2004-07-02

336

Slit-mounted LED fiducial system for rotating mirror streak cameras  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a fiducial system for rotating mirror streak cameras that utilizes light emitting diodes mounted at the slit position of the camera. The diodes are driven to the required high brightness by a unique pulse power circuit designed to provide high voltage, high current pulses 18 nanoseconds in length at a frequency of up to 2.5 megahertz. The availability of super bright light emitting diodes with a wavelength of 630 to 640 nanometers allows us to record fiducial pulses, at streaking speeds in excess of 20mm per microsecond, on all the black and white films commonly used in high speed photography. The time marks on the film record are referenced to the real time of the experiment from a clock-driver that controls the start and frequency of the fiducial pulse train and by three adjustable and discreet blanked fiducials. This paper discusses the development of this system and describes the full setup as used at LLNL. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Shaw, L.L.; Muelder, S.A.; Rivera, A.T.

1991-01-01

337

Scattering Removal for Finger-Vein Image Restoration  

PubMed Central

Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of finger-vein image degradation, a biological optical model (BOM) specific to finger-vein imaging is proposed according to the principle of light propagation in biological tissues. Based on BOM, the light scattering component is sensibly estimated and properly removed for finger-vein image restoration. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is powerful in enhancing the finger-vein image contrast and in improving the finger-vein image matching accuracy.

Yang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Ben; Shi, Yihua

2012-01-01

338

Characterisation of Banana streak Mysore virus and evidence that its DNA is integrated in the B genome of cultivated Musa.  

PubMed

We have sequenced the complete genome of an isolate of Banana streak virus from banana cv. 'Mysore' and show that it is sufficiently different from a previously characterised isolate from cv. 'Obino l'Ewai' to warrant recognition as a distinct species, for which the name Banana streak Mysore virus (BSMysV) is proposed. The structure of the BSMysV genome was typical of badnaviruses in general, although ORF I had a non-conventional start codon. Evidence that at least part of the BSMysV genome is integrated in the B genome of cultivated Musa is presented and transmissibility by the mealybug Planococcus citri also demonstrated. PMID:15785970

Geering, A D W; Pooggin, M M; Olszewski, N E; Lockhart, B E L; Thomas, J E

2005-01-27

339

Structural studies of yellow fever virus helicase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a pathogen of the flavivirus family. NS3, one of seven viral replicase proteins, has a protease domain and a helicase domain. The helicase is thought to separate plus and minus strands following replication. Helicase from YFV and WNV (West Nile virus) have been produced in E. coli and purified. ATPase activity of these recombinant helicase

Jinhua Wu

2004-01-01

340

Adverse event reports following yellow fever vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been used for prevention of YF since 1937 with over 500 million doses administered. However, rare reports of severe adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns about the vaccine’s safety. We reviewed reports of adverse events following YF vaccination reported to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from 2000 to 2006. We used

Nicole P. Lindsey; Betsy A. Schroeder; Elaine R. Miller; M. Miles Braun; Alison F. Hinckley; Nina Marano; Barbara A. Slade; Elizabeth D. Barnett; Gary W. Brunette; Katherine Horan; J. Erin Staples; Phyllis E. Kozarsky; Edward B. Hayes

2008-01-01

341

Planthopper transmission of Phormium yellow leaf phytoplasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonnium yellow leaf (PYL) phytoplasma was transmitted from diseased to healthy New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax) by the native planthopper, Oliarus atkinsoni (Homoptera: Cixiidae). By contrast, transmission was not effected by the introduced passionvine hopper, Scolypopa australis (Homoptera: Ricaniidae). Successful transmission of PYL phytoplasma from New Zealand flax to New Zealand flax by O. atkinsoni was demonstrated by symptomatology and

L. W. Liefting; R. E. Beever; C. J. Winksc; M. N. Pearson; R. L. S. Forster

1997-01-01

342

Veias linfonodais: uma causa pouco conhecida de varizes Lymph node veins: a little-known cause of varicose veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymph node veins are part of a venous network in Scarpa's triangle, communicating in many points the superficial venous system and the deep veins, and may either be the cause of incompetence of the superficial venous system, or be involved in recurrent varicose veins after saphenous vein stripping. In the daily routine of venous Doppler examination of the lower extremities,

André Paciello Romualdo; Roberto de Moraes Bastos; Alessandro Cappucci; Mathias Fatio; Andréa Tsunoda; Pollyanna Campos; Alberto Lobo Machado; Eduardo Hideki

343

Effects of Hemicastration or hCG-treatment on Steroids in Testicular Vein and Jugular Vein Blood of Stallions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among testicular vein and jugular vein concentrations of androgens and estrogens were studied in anesthetized stal- lions. Blood was sampled from a vein on the surface of the testis and simultaneously from an artery on the surface of the testis and from the jugular vein. Concentrations of total 173- hydroxy-androgens and total estrogens were measured for all samples

RUPERT P. AMANN; VENKATASESHU K. GANJAM

344

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2012-10-01

345

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2011-10-01

346

49 CFR 172.438 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...YELLOW-II label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II must be as...complying with § 172.407, the background color on the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label must...except for the âIIâ which must be red. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR...

2011-10-01

347

Yellow fat disease” (Pansteatitis) in wild hares in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract“Yellow fat disease” is a disease of certain species of animals, characterized macroscopically by greyish-yellow discoloration and microscopically by inflammatory and degenerative reactions and the occurrence of a characteristic acid-fast pigment in the fat tissue. The terms “nonsuppurative panniculitis”, “pansteatitis”, or “yellow ear disease (chinchilla)” are synonyms.

J. E. Lohr; R. D. McLaren

1971-01-01

348

21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food and...Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of...

2013-04-01

349

21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and Drugs...Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of...

2013-04-01

350

21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280 Food and...and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of...

2013-04-01

351

Bright greenish-yellow fluorescence and aflatoxin in recently harvested yellow corn marketed in north carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn kernels that exhibited bright greenish-yellow fluorescence (BGYF) under long-wave ultraviolet light were hand-picked\\u000a from samples of yellow corn produced in eastern North Carolina. The BGYF kernels from 113 4-kg samples contained an average\\u000a of 8665 parts per billion (ppb) aflatoxin compared to an average of 46 ppb in the non-BGYF kernels. A regression analysis\\u000a between the ppb aflatoxin concentration

J. W. Dickens; T. B. Whitaker

1981-01-01

352

Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution seismic profiles from the North Yellow Sea reveal a 20–40-m-thick subaqueous clinoform delta that wraps around the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, extending into the South Yellow Sea. This complex sigmoidal-oblique clinoform, containing an estimated 400 km3 of sediment, overlies prominent relict transgressive surfaces. The nearshore topset of the clinoform, <30-m water depth, has a ?1:1000 gradient, with

J. Paul Liu; John D. Milliman; Shu Gao; Peng Cheng

2004-01-01

353

A unique Yellow River-derived distal subaqueous delta in the Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly acquired high-resolution Chirp sonar profiles reveal a unique Yellow River-derived, alongshore distributed, bidirectional (landward and seaward) across-shelf transported, omega-shaped (“?”) distal subaqueous deltaic lobe deposited around the eastern tip of the Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea. This clinoform deposit directly overlies the postglacial transgressive surface, featured by convex-up seafloor morphology, up to 40 m thick locally. Radiocarbon-14 dates from

Z. S. Yang; J. P. Liu

2007-01-01

354

Deep vein thrombosis: a clinical review  

PubMed Central

Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of blood clots (thrombi) in the deep veins. It commonly affects the deep leg veins (such as the calf veins, femoral vein, or popliteal vein) or the deep veins of the pelvis. It is a potentially dangerous condition that can lead to preventable morbidity and mortality. Aim: To present an update on the causes and management of DVT. Methods: A review of publications obtained from Medline search, medical libraries, and Google. Results: DVT affects 0.1% of persons per year. It is predominantly a disease of the elderly and has a slight male preponderance. The approach to making a diagnosis currently involves an algorithm combining pretest probability, D-dimer testing, and compression ultrasonography. This will guide further investigations if necessary. Prophylaxis is both mechanical and pharmacological. The goals of treatment are to prevent extension of thrombi, pulmonary embolism, recurrence of thrombi, and the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and post-thrombotic syndrome. Conclusion: DVT is a potentially dangerous condition with a myriad of risk factors. Prophylaxis is very important and can be mechanical and pharmacological. The mainstay of treatment is anticoagulant therapy. Low-molecular-weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, and vitamin K antagonists have been the treatment of choice. Currently anticoagulants specifically targeting components of the common pathway have been recommended for prophylaxis. These include fondaparinux, a selective indirect factor Xa inhibitor and the new oral selective direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and selective factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban and apixaban). Others are currently undergoing trials. Thrombolytics and vena caval filters are very rarely indicated in special circumstances.

Kesieme, Emeka; Kesieme, Chinenye; Jebbin, Nze; Irekpita, Eshiobo; Dongo, Andrew

2011-01-01

355

Simultaneous virus-specific detection of the two cassava brown streak-associated viruses by RT-PCR reveals wide distribution in East Africa, mixed infections, and infections in Manihot glaziovii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expanding cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) epidemic in East Africa is caused by two ipomoviruses (genus Ipomovirus; Potyviridae), namely, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) that was described recently. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic method was developed in this study for simultaneous virus-specific detection of the two viruses. Results

D. R. Mbanzibwa; Y. P. Tian; A. K. Tugume; S. B. Mukasa; F. Tairo; S. Kyamanywa; A. Kullaya; J. P. T. Valkonen

2011-01-01

356

Optimization of subcutaneous vein contrast enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique for enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins has been demonstrated. This techniques uses a near IR light source and one or more IR sensitive CCD TV cameras to produce a contrast enhanced image of the subcutaneous veins. This video image of the veins is projected back onto the patient's skin using a n LCD video projector. The use of an IR transmitting filter in front of the video cameras prevents any positive feedback from the visible light from the video projector from causing instabilities in the projected image. The demonstration contrast enhancing illuminator has been tested on adults and children, both Caucasian and African-American, and it enhances veins quite well in all cases. The most difficult cases are those where significant deposits of subcutaneous fat are present which make the veins invisible under normal room illumination. Recent attempts to see through fat using different IR wavelength bands and both linearly and circularly polarized light were unsuccessful. The key to seeing through fat turns out to be a very diffuse source of RI light. Results on adult and pediatric subjects are shown with this new IR light source.

Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal

2000-05-01

357

Genetic analysis of resistance to bacterial leaf streak caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. undulosa in bread wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inheritance of resistance to bacterial leaf streak or black chaff of wheat was studied under field conditions, with an artificial epidemic of Xanthomonas campestris pv. undulosa. A complete series of crosses between five parents, differing in reaction to X. c. pv. undulosa, was generated. Disease was recorded at two different stages of growth. No evidence of cytoplasmic effect was

Etienne Duveiller; Maarten van Ginkel; Marja Thijssen

1992-01-01

358

Promoters for pregenomic RNA of banana streak badnavirus are active for transgene expression in monocot and dicot plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two putative promoters from Australian banana streak badnavirus (BSV) isolates were analysed for activity in different plant species. In transient expression systems the My (2105 bp) and Cv (1322 bp) fragments were both shown to have promoter activity in a wide range of plant species including monocots (maize, barley, banana, millet, wheat, sorghum), dicots (tobacco, canola, sunflower, Nicotiana benthamiana, tipu

Peer M. Schenk; Tony Remans; László Sági; Adrian R. Elliott; Ralf G. Dietzgen; Rony Swennen; Paul R. Ebert; Christopher P. L. Grof; John M. Manners

2001-01-01

359

First report of bacterial streak of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) in California caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new bacterial streak disease appeared on fennel leaves, stems and bulbs grown in Salinas California production fields. Initial symptoms consisted of small black lesions on stems that spread down the stem to the bulbs and up the stem to leaves as the disease progressed. The disease rendered the pl...

360

Resolution limitations and optimization of the ITT F4157 streak tube focus for fast (10 ps) operation  

SciTech Connect

The ITT F4157 image tube is biased at voltages far from the original design for operation in an ultrafast (10 ps) streak camera. Its output resolution at streak camera operating potentials has been measured as a function of input slit width, incident-light wavelength, and focus-grid voltage. The results are similar to those reported for the RCA C73435 streak tube. Indeed, the two tubes can be substituted for each other with minor mechanical modifications. The temporal resolution is insensitive to focus-grid voltage for a narrow (50 ..mu..m) input slit, but is very sensitive to focus-grid voltage for a wide (500 ..mu..m) input slit. Spatial resolution is nearly independent of focus-grid voltage for values that give good temporal resolution. Both temporal and spatial resolution depend on the incident-light wavelength. Streak camera operation is simulated with a computer program that calculates photoelectron trajectories. Electron ray tracing describes the observed effects of slit width, incident-light wavelength, and focus-grid voltage on the output resolution. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Lerche, R.A.; Grasz, E.L.; Griffith, R.L.; Simpson, R.A.; Posey, R.

1987-11-01

361

Molecular Analysis of the Essential and Nonessential Genetic Elements in the Genome of Peanut Chlorotic Streak Caulimovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA genome of caulimoviruses contains a set of essential genes: I (movement gene), IV (major capsid protein gene), V (reverse transcriptase gene), and VI (gene coding for a post-transcriptional activator of the expression of other virus genes). In peanut chlorotic streak caulimovirus (PCISV), three ORFs, A, B, and C, are located between genes I and IV. They are dissimilar

A. R. Mushegian; J. A. Wolff; R. D. Richins; R. J. Shepherd

1995-01-01

362

Wheat streak mosaic virus genotypes introduced to Argentina are closely related to isolates from the American Pacific Northwest and Australia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) was first detected in Argentina in 2002. Comparison of 78 WSMV coat protein sequences revealed that three Argentine isolates were closely related to isolates from the American Pacific Northwest (APNW) and Australia. Complete sequences were determined for one Argen...

363

C.C.D. Readout of a Picosecond Streak Camera with an Intensified C.C.D.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper deals with a digital streak camera readout device. The device consists in a low light level television camera made of a solid state C.C.D. array coupled to an image intensifier associated to a video-digitizer coupled to a micro-computer system....

M. Lemonier J. C. Richard C. Cavailler A. Mens G. Raze

1984-01-01

364

Analysis of the diversity of African streak mastreviruses using PCR-generated RFLPs and partial sequence data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize streak virus (MSV) is the most economically significant member of a diverse group of African grass-infecting Mastrevirus species in the family Geminiviridae. We designed a single set of degenerate primers which enables the PCR amplification of an approximately 1300 bp DNA fragment spanning both conserved (the RepA gene) and variable (the long intergenic region and MP gene) portions of

J. A Willment; D. P Martin; E. P Rybicki

2001-01-01

365

A detection method for streak artifacts and radiological noise in a non-uniform region in a CT image.  

PubMed

By using the CT images obtained by subtracting two CT images acquired under the same conditions and slice locations, we have devised a method for detecting streak artifacts in non-uniform regions and only radiological noise components in CT images. A chest phantom was scanned using 16- and 64-multidetector row helical CT scanners with various mAs values at 120kVp. The upper lung slice image was employed as a target image for evaluating the streak artifacts and radiological noise. One hundred parallel line segments with a length of 80 pixels were placed on the subtracted CT image, and the largest CT value in each CT value profile was employed as a feature variable of the streak artifacts; these feature variables were analyzed with the extreme value theory (Gumbel distribution). To detect only the radiological noise, all CT values contained in the 100 line profile were plotted on normal probability paper and the standard deviation was estimated from the inclination of its fitted line for the CT value plots. The two detection methods devised in this study were able to evaluate the streak artifacts and radiological noise in the CT images with high accuracy. PMID:20036595

Imai, Kuniharu; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Enchi, Yukihiro; Niimi, Takanaga

2009-12-29

366

Low Albedo Surfaces and Eolian Sediment: Mars Orbiter Camera Views of Western Arabia Terra Craters and Wind Streaks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High spatial resolution (1.5 to 12 m/pixel) Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera images obtained September 1997 through June 2001 indicate that the large, dark wind streaks of western Arabia Terra each originate at a barchan dune field on a crater flo...

K. S. Edgett

2001-01-01

367

Identification of functional sequences in the pregenomic RNA promoter of the Banana streak virus Cavendish strain (BSV-Cav)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promoter regions of plant pararetroviruses direct transcription of the full-length viral genome into a pregenomic RNA that is an intermediate in the replication of the virus. It serves as template for reverse transcription and as polycistronic mRNA for translation to viral proteins. We have identified functional promoter elements in the intergenic region of the Cavendish isolate of Banana streak

Tony Remans; Christopher P. L. Grof; Paul R. Ebert; Peer M. Schenk

2005-01-01

368

Transcriptome of the plant virus vector Graminella nigrifrons, and the molecular interactions of Maize fine streak rhabdovirus transmission  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Leafhoppers (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae) are plant-phloem feeders that are known for their ability to vector plant pathogens. The black-faced leafhopper (Graminella nigrifrons) has been identified as the only known vector for the Maize fine streak virus (MFSV), an emerging plant pathogen in...

369

Association mapping of quantitative trait loci responsible for resistance to Bacterial Leaf Streak and Spot Blotch in spring wheat landraces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial leaf streak (BLS), caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa, and spot blotch (SB), caused by Cochliobolus sativus are two major diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Planting resistant cultivars is the best approach to manage these diseases and identifying new sources of resistan...

370

The anatomy of the cardiac veins in mice  

PubMed Central

Although the cardiac coronary system in mice has been the studied in detail by many research laboratories, knowledge of the cardiac veins remains poor. This is because of the difficulty in marking the venous system with a technique that would allow visualization of these large vessels with thin walls. Here we present the visualization of the coronary venous system by perfusion of latex dye through the right caudal vein. Latex injected intravenously does not penetrate into the capillary system. Murine cardiac veins consist of several principal branches (with large diameters), the distal parts of which are located in the subepicardium. We have described the major branches of the left atrial veins, the vein of the left ventricle, the caudal veins, the vein of the right ventricle and the conal veins forming the conal venous circle or the prepulmonary conal venous arch running around the conus of the right ventricle. The venous system of the heart drains the blood to the coronary sinus (the left cranial caval vein) to the right atrium or to the right cranial caval vein. Systemic veins such as the left cranial caval, the right cranial caval and the caudal vein open to the right atrium. Knowledge of cardiac vein location may help to elucidate abnormal vein patterns in certain genetic malformations.

Ciszek, Bogdan; Skubiszewska, Daria; Ratajska, Anna

2007-01-01

371

Oversized vein grafts develop advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic minipigs  

PubMed Central

Background Accelerated atherosclerosis is the main cause of late aortocoronary vein graft failure. We aimed to develop a large animal model for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of vein graft atherosclerosis. Methods An autologous reversed jugular vein graft was inserted end-to-end into the transected common carotid artery of ten hypercholesteroemic minipigs. The vein grafts were investigated 12-14 weeks later with ultrasound and angiograpy in vivo and microscopy post mortem. Results One minipig died during follow up (patent vein graft at autopsy), and one vein graft thrombosed early. In the remaining eight patent vein grafts, the mean (standard deviation) intima-media thickness was 712 ?m (276 ?m) versus 204 ?m (74 ?m) in the contralateral control internal jugular veins (P < .01). Advanced atherosclerotic plaques were found in three of four oversized vein grafts (diameter of graft > diameter of artery). No plaques were found in four non-oversized vein grafts (P < .05). Conclusions Our model of jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery of hypercholesterolemic minipigs displayed the components of human vein graft disease, i.e. thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis. Advanced atherosclerosis, the main cause of late failure of human aortocoronary vein grafts was only seen in oversized grafts. This finding suggests that oversized vein grafts may have detrimental effects on patient outcome.

2012-01-01

372

Microstructure investigations of streak formation in 6063 aluminum extrusions by optical metallographic techniques.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the effect of the solidification strategy for AA 6063 alloy on the surface appearance of anodized extrusions. The microstructure of the samples was analyzed using both light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that if heavy segregation occurs from rapid solidification, coarse Mg2Si particles form, thus reducing the potential for precipitation strengthening by the finer ?-Mg2Si developed in the solid state. Differentially-strained regions formed during hot extrusion induce differences in particle size for magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) precipitates. Anodizing generates surface roughness due to Mg2Si particle dissolution and AlFeSi decohesion, which is related to both particle size and deformation. During anodizing, an oxide layer forms on the surface of the extruded products, which can lead to streak formation, usually a subject of rejection due to unacceptable heterogeneous reflectivity. PMID:23481588

Vander Voort, George; Suárez-Peña, Beatriz; Asensio-Lozano, Juan

2013-03-12

373

Antimicrobial Screening of Actinobacteria using a Modified Cross-Streak Method.  

PubMed

Out of the 30 actinobacterial cultures screened for antimicrobial activity, 28 cultures were found to produce active products against various pathogenic microorganisms such as Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and yeast, using a modified cross streak method. The modified method helped in easy quantification of results and also in ruling out probable mutual antibiosis. The actinobacterial strains that showed the ability to produce antimicrobial compounds belonged to Streptomyces (53%), Micromonospora (13%) and Actinomadura (10%) genera. Streptomyces sp. strain MMA-5 showed the highest multispecific antibiosis efficiency score value. Broad antibiotic spectrum activity was exhibited by Streptomyces sp. strain MMA-2 and Micromonospora sp. strain MMA-8. The multidrug resistant human pathogenic yeast strain Candida albicans was inhibited by 18 actinobacterial strains. PMID:22303068

Velho-Pereira, Sonashia; Kamat, N M

2011-03-01

374

Integration of banana streak badnavirus into the Musa genome: molecular and cytogenetic evidence.  

PubMed

Breeding and tissue culture of certain cultivars of bananas (Musa) have led to high levels of banana streak badnavirus (BSV) infection in progeny from symptomless parents. BSV DNA hybridized to genomic DNA of one such parent, Obino l'Ewai, suggesting integration of viral sequences. Sequencing of clones of Obino l'Ewai genomic DNA revealed an interface between BSV and Musa sequences and a complex BSV integrant. In situ hybridization revealed two different BSV sequence locations in Obino l'Ewai chromosomes and a complex arrangement of BSV and Musa sequences was shown by probing stretched DNA fibers. This is the first report of integrated sequences that possibly lead to a plant pararetrovirus episomal infection by a mechanism differing markedly from animal retroviral systems. PMID:10069945

Harper, G; Osuji, J O; Heslop-Harrison, J S; Hull, R

1999-03-15

375

The genome organization of lucerne transient streak and turnip rosette sobemoviruses revisited.  

PubMed

Unlike other sobemoviruses, lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) and turnip rosette virus (TRoV) have been reported to contain two successive ORF1s (denoted as ORF1a and ORF1b) instead of a single ORF1. Also, their next ORF (ORF2a/2a2b) has been mapped to a region ca. 200 nucleotides downstream from that of other sobemoviruses, leading to the lack of transmembrane segments at the N-termini of P2a/2a2b. In the current study, we resequenced this region for TRoV and LTSV. The hypothetical beginning of ORF1b was mapped as the beginning of ORF2a/2a2b for both TRoV and LTSV. Computional analysis revealed transmembrane segments at the N-termini of the TRoV and LTSV polyproteins. PMID:23111554

Sõmera, Merike; Truve, Erkki

2012-10-31

376

High dynamic range streak camera for subpicosecond time-resolved x-ray spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The full characterization of a time resolved x-ray spectrometer is presented. It is based on the coupling of a conical crystal with a subpicosecond x-ray streak camera. The detector is designed to operate in accumulation mode at high repetition rate (up to 1 kHz) allowing signal to noise ratio as high as 10{sup 4}:1. Optical switches have been used to limit the jitter induced in the subpicosecond range, demonstrating the very long term stability (a few hours) of the entire device. The data analysis have been developed to get the spectral and temporal resolution of an ultrashort laser-plasma-based x-ray source.

Bonte, C.; Harmand, M.; Dorchies, F.; Magnan, S.; Pitre, V.; Kieffer, J.-C.; Audebert, P.; Geindre, J.-P. [Universite Bordeaux I, CNRS, CEA, CELIA UMR 5107, 351 cours de la Liberation, Talence, F-33405 (France); I.N.R.S.-Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, 1650 boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Qc, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI), Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

2007-04-15

377

Evidence of recombination and genetic diversity in southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus.  

PubMed

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) causes one of the most serious viral diseases of rice in China and Vietnam. Sequence identities of S10, encoding the major capsid protein, were 98.0 %-100 % and 98.3 %-100 % at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. Our results suggest that the codon at position 550 of S10 is under positive selection, while most of the other codons are under neutral evolution. Putative recombination events were identified in genomic RNA segments S1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 10, which are rare in plant-infecting dsRNA viruses. This study reveals the current state of SRBSDV evolution. PMID:23605668

Li, Yongqiang; Xia, Zihao; Peng, Jun; Zhou, Tao; Fan, Zaifeng

2013-04-21

378

Absolutely calibrated soft-x-ray streak camera for laser-fusion applications  

SciTech Connect

The intensity output of a soft-x-ray streak camera was calibrated (SXRSC) in order to make absolute flux measurements of x rays emitted from laser-produced plasmas. The SXRSC developed at LLNL is used to time-resolve x-ray pulses to better than 20 ps. The SXRSC uses a Au photocathode on a thin carbon substrate which is sensitive to x rays from 100 eV to greater than 10 keV. Calibrations are done in the dynamic mode using a small laser-produced x-ray source. The SXRSC is calibrated by comparing its integrated signal to the output of calibrated x-ray diodes monitoring the source strength. The measured SXRSC response is linear over greater than two orders of magnitude. Using these calibrations, absolute intensities can be measured to an accuracy of +-30%.

Kauffman, R.L.; Medecki, H.; Stradling, G.

1982-01-01

379

Pulsed versus direct current calibration of a proximity focused X-ray streak camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absolute sensitivity of a proximity focused X-ray streak tube was measured with dc Henke tube X-ray line sources. Calibration covered the photon energy range from 0.930 to 8.05 keV at five points. A pulsed comparison was performed using a laser plasma X-ray source. The calculated camera sensitivity was folded with the measured spectrum and compared to measured film exposures. The predicted exposures were 6.5 times less than the measured exposures, verifying that the proximity focused tube response is nonlinear with flux at low, dc flux levels. Results of dc recalibrations that varied flux levels determined the extent of this phenomenon.

Rockett, P. D.; McGurn, J. S.

1981-02-01

380

Yellow Fever Outbreak, Imatong, Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

In May 2003, the World Health Organization received reports about a possible outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease of unknown cause in the Imatong Mountains of southern Sudan. Laboratory investigations were conducted on 28 serum samples collected from patients in the Imatong region. Serum samples from 13 patients were positive for immunoglobulin M antibody to flavivirus, and serum samples from 5 patients were positive by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction with both the genus Flavivirus–reactive primers and yellow fever virus–specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons obtained with the genus Flavivirus oligonucleotide primers confirmed yellow fever virus as the etiologic agent. Isolation attempts in newborn mice and Vero cells from the samples yielded virus isolates from five patients. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis enabled an interagency emergency task force to initiate a targeted vaccination campaign to control the outbreak.

Ofula, Victor O.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Konongoi, Samson L.; Sow, Abdourahmane; De Cock, Kevin M.; Tukei, Peter M.; Okoth, Fredrick A.; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J.; Waters, Norman C.; Coldren, Rodney L.

2004-01-01

381

Yellow fever outbreak, Imatong, southern Sudan.  

PubMed

In May 2003, the World Health Organization received reports about a possible outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease of unknown cause in the Imatong Mountains of southern Sudan. Laboratory investigations were conducted on 28 serum samples collected from patients in the Imatong region. Serum samples from 13 patients were positive for immunoglobulin M antibody to flavivirus, and serum samples from 5 patients were positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with both the genus Flavivirus-reactive primers and yellow fever virus-specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons obtained with the genus Flavivirus oligonucleotide primers confirmed yellow fever virus as the etiologic agent. Isolation attempts in newborn mice and Vero cells from the samples yielded virus isolates from five patients. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis enabled an interagency emergency task force to initiate a targeted vaccination campaign to control the outbreak. PMID:15207058

Onyango, Clayton O; Ofula, Victor O; Sang, Rosemary C; Konongoi, Sanson L; Sow, Abourahmane; De Cock, Kenin M; Tukei, Peter M; Okoth, Fredrick A; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J; Waters, Norman C; Coldren, Rodney L

2004-06-01

382

Geology of the epithermal Ag-Au Huevos Verdes vein system and San José district, Deseado massif, Patagonia, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San José district is located in the northwest part of the Deseado massif and hosts a number of epithermal Ag-Au quartz veins of intermediate sulfidation style, including the Huevos Verdes vein system. Veins are hosted by andesitic rocks of the Bajo Pobre Formation and locally by rhyodacitic pyroclastic rocks of the Chon Aike Formation. New 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the age of host rocks and mineralization define Late Jurassic ages of 151.3 ± 0.7 Ma to 144.7 ± 0.1 Ma for volcanic rocks of the Bajo Pobre Formation and of 147.6 ± 1.1 Ma for the Chon Aike Formation. Illite ages of the Huevos Verdes vein system of 140.8 ± 0.2 and 140.5 ± 0.3 Ma are 4 m.y. younger than the volcanic host rock unit. These age dates are among the youngest reported for Jurassic volcanism in the Deseado massif and correlate well with the regional context of magmatic and hydrothermal activity. The Huevos Verdes vein system has a strike length of 2,000 m, with several ore shoots along strike. The vein consists of a pre-ore stage and three main ore stages. Early barren quartz and chalcedony are followed by a mottled quartz stage of coarse saccharoidal quartz with irregular streaks and discontinuous bands of sulfide-rich material. The banded quartz-sulfide stage consists of sulfide-rich bands alternating with bands of quartz and bands of chlorite ± illite. Late-stage sulfide-rich veinlets are associated with kaolinite gangue. Ore minerals are argentite and electrum, together with pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, minor bornite, covellite, and ruby silver. Wall rock alteration is characterized by narrow (< 3 m) halos of illite and illite/smectite next to veins, grading outward into propylitic alteration. Gangue minerals are dominantly massive quartz intergrown with minor to accessory adularia. Epidote, illite, illite/smectite, and, preferentially at deeper levels, Fe-chlorite gangue indicate near-neutral pH hydrothermal fluids at temperatures of >220°C. Kaolinite occurring with the late sulfide-rich veinlet stage indicates pH < 4 and a temperature of <200°C. The Huevos Verdes system has an overall strike of 325°, dipping on average 65° NE. The orientations of individual ore shoots are controlled by vein strike and intersecting north-northwest-striking faults. We propose a structural model for the time of mineralization of the San José district, consisting of a conjugate shear pair of sinistral north-northwest- and dextral west-northwest-striking faults that correspond to R and R' in the Riedel shear model and that are related to master faults (M) of north-northeast-strike. Veins of 315° strike can be interpreted as nearly pure extensional fractures (T). Variations in vein strike predict an induced sinistral shear component for strike directions of >315°, whereas strike directions of <315° are predicted with an induced dextral strike-slip movement. The components of the structural model appear to be present on a regional scale and are not restricted to the San José district.

Dietrich, Andreas; Gutierrez, Ronald; Nelson, Eric P.; Layer, Paul W.

2011-05-01

383

Geology of the epithermal Ag-Au Huevos Verdes vein system and San José district, Deseado massif, Patagonia, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San José district is located in the northwest part of the Deseado massif and hosts a number of epithermal Ag-Au quartz veins of intermediate sulfidation style, including the Huevos Verdes vein system. Veins are hosted by andesitic rocks of the Bajo Pobre Formation and locally by rhyodacitic pyroclastic rocks of the Chon Aike Formation. New 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the age of host rocks and mineralization define Late Jurassic ages of 151.3 ± 0.7 Ma to 144.7 ± 0.1 Ma for volcanic rocks of the Bajo Pobre Formation and of 147.6 ± 1.1 Ma for the Chon Aike Formation. Illite ages of the Huevos Verdes vein system of 140.8 ± 0.2 and 140.5 ± 0.3 Ma are 4 m.y. younger than the volcanic host rock unit. These age dates are among the youngest reported for Jurassic volcanism in the Deseado massif and correlate well with the regional context of magmatic and hydrothermal activity. The Huevos Verdes vein system has a strike length of 2,000 m, with several ore shoots along strike. The vein consists of a pre-ore stage and three main ore stages. Early barren quartz and chalcedony are followed by a mottled quartz stage of coarse saccharoidal quartz with irregular streaks and discontinuous bands of sulfide-rich material. The banded quartz-sulfide stage consists of sulfide-rich bands alternating with bands of quartz and bands of chlorite ± illite. Late-stage sulfide-rich veinlets are associated with kaolinite gangue. Ore minerals are argentite and electrum, together with pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, minor bornite, covellite, and ruby silver. Wall rock alteration is characterized by narrow (< 3 m) halos of illite and illite/smectite next to veins, grading outward into propylitic alteration. Gangue minerals are dominantly massive quartz intergrown with minor to accessory adularia. Epidote, illite, illite/smectite, and, preferentially at deeper levels, Fe-chlorite gangue indicate near-neutral pH hydrothermal fluids at temperatures of >220°C. Kaolinite occurring with the late sulfide-rich veinlet stage indicates pH < 4 and a temperature of <200°C. The Huevos Verdes system has an overall strike of 325°, dipping on average 65° NE. The orientations of individual ore shoots are controlled by vein strike and intersecting north-northwest-striking faults. We propose a structural model for the time of mineralization of the San José district, consisting of a conjugate shear pair of sinistral north-northwest- and dextral west-northwest-striking faults that correspond to R and R' in the Riedel shear model and that are related to master faults (M) of north-northeast-strike. Veins of 315° strike can be interpreted as nearly pure extensional fractures (T). Variations in vein strike predict an induced sinistral shear component for strike directions of >315°, whereas strike directions of <315° are predicted with an induced dextral strike-slip movement. The components of the structural model appear to be present on a regional scale and are not restricted to the San José district.

Dietrich, Andreas; Gutierrez, Ronald; Nelson, Eric P.; Layer, Paul W.

2012-03-01

384

Genetic variation of wheat streak mosaic virus in the United States Pacific Northwest.  

PubMed

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), the cause of wheat streak mosaic, is a widespread and damaging pathogen of wheat. WSMV is not a chronic problem of annual wheat in the United States Pacific Northwest but could negatively affect the establishment of perennial wheat, which is being developed as an alternative to annual wheat to prevent soil erosion. Fifty local isolates of WSMV were collected from 2008 to 2010 near Lewiston, ID, Pullman, WA, and the United States Department of Agriculture Central Ferry Research Station, near Pomeroy, WA to determine the amount of genetic variation present in the region. The coat protein gene from each isolate was sequenced and the data subjected to four different methods of phylogenetic analyses. Two well-supported clades of WSMV were identified. Isolates in clade I share sequence similarity with isolates from Central Europe; this is the first report of isolates from Central Europe being reported in the United States. Isolates in clade II are similar to isolates originating from Australia, Argentina, and the American Pacific Northwest. Nine isolates showed evidence of recombination and the same two well-supported clades were observed when recombinant isolates were omitted from the analysis. More polymorphic sites, parsimony informative sites, and increased diversity were observed in clade II than clade I, suggesting more recent establishment of the virus in the latter. The observed diversity within both clades could make breeding for durable disease resistance in perennial wheat difficult if there is a differential response of WSMV resistance genes to isolates from different clades. PMID:22970701

Robinson, Megan D; Murray, Timothy D

2013-01-01

385

The ECM Moves during Primitive Streak Formation--Computation of ECM Versus Cellular Motion  

PubMed Central

Galileo described the concept of motion relativity—motion with respect to a reference frame—in 1632. He noted that a person below deck would be unable to discern whether the boat was moving. Embryologists, while recognizing that embryonic tissues undergo large-scale deformations, have failed to account for relative motion when analyzing cell motility data. A century of scientific articles has advanced the concept that embryonic cells move (“migrate”) in an autonomous fashion such that, as time progresses, the cells and their progeny assemble an embryo. In sharp contrast, the motion of the surrounding extracellular matrix scaffold has been largely ignored/overlooked. We developed computational/optical methods that measure the extent embryonic cells move relative to the extracellular matrix. Our time-lapse data show that epiblastic cells largely move in concert with a sub-epiblastic extracellular matrix during stages 2 and 3 in primitive streak quail embryos. In other words, there is little cellular motion relative to the extracellular matrix scaffold—both components move together as a tissue. The extracellular matrix displacements exhibit bilateral vortical motion, convergence to the midline, and extension along the presumptive vertebral axis—all patterns previously attributed solely to cellular “migration.” Our time-resolved data pose new challenges for understanding how extracellular chemical (morphogen) gradients, widely hypothesized to guide cellular trajectories at early gastrulation stages, are maintained in this dynamic extracellular environment. We conclude that models describing primitive streak cellular guidance mechanisms must be able to account for sub-epiblastic extracellular matrix displacements.

Zamir, Evan A; Rongish, Brenda J; Little, Charles D

2008-01-01

386

STELLA-positive subregions of the primitive streak contribute to posterior tissues of the mouse gastrula  

PubMed Central

The developmental relationship between the posterior embryonic and extraembryonic regions of the mammalian gastrula is poorly understood. Although many different cell types are deployed within this region, only the primordial germ cells (PGCs) have been closely studied. Recent evidence has suggested that the allantois, within which the PGCs temporarily take up residence, contains a pool of cells, called the Allantoic Core Domain (ACD), critical for allantoic elongation to the chorion. Here, we have asked whether the STELLA-positive cells found within this region, thought to be specified PGCs, are actually part of the ACD and to what extent they, and other ACD cells, contribute to the allantois and fetal tissues. To address these hypotheses, STELLA was immunolocalized to the mouse gastrula between Early Streak (ES) and 12-somite pair (-s) stages (~6.75 – 9.0 days post coitum, dpc) in histological sections. STELLA was found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in a variety of cell types, both within and outside of the putative PGC trajectory. Fate-mapping the headfold-stage (~7.75 – 8.0 dpc) posterior region, by which time PGCs are thought to be segregated into a distinct lineage, revealed that the STELLA-positive proximal ACD and intraembryonic posterior primitive streak (IPS) contributed to a wide range of somatic tissues that encompassed derivatives of the three primary germ layers. This contribution included STELLA-positive cells localizing to tissues both within and outside of the putative PGC trajectory. Thus, while STELLA may identify a subpopulation of cells destined for the PGC lineage, our findings reveal that it may be part of a broader niche that encompasses the ACD and through which the STELLA population may contribute cells to a wide variety of posterior tissues of the mouse gastrula.

Mikedis, Maria M.; Downs, Karen M.

2012-01-01

387

High density lipoprotein plasma fractions inhibit aortic fatty streaks in cholesterol-fed rabbits.  

PubMed

The effects of in vivo administration of high density lipoprotein-very high density lipoprotein (HDL-VHDL) on the development of aortic fatty streaks were studied in cholesterol-fed rabbits. The rabbits received a 0.5% cholesterol-rich diet for 8 weeks. During this period, the HDL-VHDL group was intravenously administered with 50 mg/week of homologous HDL-VHDL protein; the control group received normal saline (0.9% NaCl). HDL-VHDL fraction was obtained at density range 1.063 to 1.25 gm/ml by ultracentrifugation of normal rabbit plasma. Along the study, plasma lipid levels followed a similar profile in both groups. At the completion of the study, atherosclerotic-like lipid-rich lesions covered 37.9 +/- 6% (X +/- SEM) of the intimal aortic surface in the control group, and 14.9 +/- 2.1% in the treated group (p less than 0.001). The values of total and free cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, and phospholipids deposited within vessel wall were significantly lower in the aortas of the HDL-VHDL treated group than those in the control group. Cholesterol accumulation in the livers was also significantly lower (p less than 0.01) in the treated group than in the control. We concluded that administration of homologous HDL-VHDL lipoprotein fraction to cholesterol-fed rabbits, dramatically inhibited the extent of aortic fatty streaks and lowered lipid deposition in the arterial wall and liver without modification of the plasma lipid levels. PMID:2927083

Badimon, J J; Badimon, L; Galvez, A; Dische, R; Fuster, V

1989-03-01

388

Performances of a solid streak camera in standard CMOS technology with nanosecond time resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical streak cameras use a vacuum tube making thus fragile, cumbersome and expensive. The FAst MOS Imager (FAMOSI) project consists in reproducing completely this streak camera functionality with a single CMOS chip. The advantages of on-chip functionalities lead to a power reduction, a lower cost and miniaturization. In this paper, we show the capabilities of a prototype fabricated in the AMS 0.35 ?m CMOS process. The chip is composed of 64 columns per 64 rows of pixels. The pixels have a size of 20 ?m per 20 ?m and a fill factor of 47 %. The Chip FAMOSI implements an electronic shutter and an analog accumulation capability inside the pixel. With this pixel architecture, the sensor can work in single shot mode when the light pulse power is sufficient and in repetitive mode, i.e. it can measure a recurrent light pulse and accumulates the successive photo charges into an internal node, for low light pulse detection. This repetitive mode utilizes an analog accumulation in order to improve the sensitivity and the signal to noise ratio of the system. Characterizations under static and uniform illumination in single shot mode have been done in order to evaluate the performances of the detector. The main noises levels have been evaluated and the experiments show that a conversion gain of 4.8 ?V/e- is obtained with a dynamic range of 1.2V. Moreover, the charge transfer characterization in single shot mode has been realized. It permits to know which potential must be apply to the charge spill transistor to obtain the whole dynamic of the output with a maximal transfer gain, what is primordial to optimize the analog accumulation. Finally, the dynamic operation of the sensors is exposed. Measurements show a sample time of 715 ps and a time resolution better than 2 ns. A 6 ns light pulse has been measured in single shot and in accumulation mode.

Morel, Frédéric; Zint, Chantal-Virginie; Uhring, Wilfried; Le Normand, Jean-Pierre

2008-05-01

389

Species Profile Yellow Perch, Perca flavescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow perch flesh is very high quality, with a firm, flaky texture and mild flavor. The meat has less fat (<1 percent) than other popu- lar cultured food fish, and also fewer calories per 100-gram serv- ing (91). Yet it is high in protein (19.5 percent) and contains a modest level of omega-3 fatty acids (0.3 percent). The lower fat

J. M. Hinshaw

390

Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.  

PubMed Central

Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11

Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

1976-01-01

391

Structure of Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN this communication we report some of the results of the early stages of an X-ray diffraction study of crystals of turnip yellow mosaic virus1,2. The two most important conclusions from the interpretation of the X-ray diagrams concern: (a) the packing of the virus particles in the crystal; and (b) the arrangement of protein sub-units in the individual virus particle.

A. Klug; J. T. Finch; Rosalind E. Franklin

1957-01-01

392

Yellow sea economic zone: Vision or reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a brief review of Sino-South Korean economic relations in the 1980s, and discusses domestic and international\\u000a factors that are likely to influence economic relations between the two countries in the 1990s. Two possible scenarios are\\u000a discussed for future Sino-South Korean economic relations: increasing trade and economic interaction within limited political\\u000a relations; active economic cooperation across the Yellow

Won Bae Kim

1991-01-01

393

Portal Vein Aneurysm Presenting with Obstructive Jaundice  

PubMed Central

To the best of our knowledge, a portal vein aneurysm presenting with obstructive jaundice has not been reported in the literature. The preferred treatment for these aneurysms is surgical and a shunting procedure should be considered in cases with portal hypertension to preserve portal vein flow when portal hypertension is present or is secondary to the aneurysm itself. In our case, due to patient's advanced age and co-morbidities, an endoscopic biliary stent was placed which led to successful resolution of symptoms of obstructive jaundice.

Lall, Chandana; Verma, Sadhna; Gulati, Rajesh; Bhargava, Puneet

2012-01-01

394

Atrioesophageal fistula after cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation.  

PubMed

The risk of atrioesophageal fistula after cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation is thought to be much lower than after radiofrequency ablation, seeing that no data exist on this complication so far. We report for the first time on the occurrence of an atrioesophageal fistula 4 weeks after cryoballoon ablation at the site of the left inferior pulmonary vein. We suggest that even when using cryothermal ablation technique, an imaging modality to assess the proximity of esophagus and left atrium should be routinely performed to avoid this fatal complication. PMID:22486804

Stöckigt, Florian; Schrickel, Jan W; Andrié, René; Lickfett, Lars

2012-04-09

395

Technique for in situ calibration of an x-ray streak camera in the nanosecond regime using a high density Z-pinch  

SciTech Connect

A technique for calibrating an x-ray streak camera in situ has been developed. It has been applied to an x-ray streak camera installed on a collapsing gas shell Z-pinch. The calibration was done by simultaneously measuring the emitted x-rays using a pinhole camera, an InP:Fe photoconductive detector, and the streak camera. The spatial dimension of the streak image was calibrated by integrating the film density over time and fitting the resulting data to the corresponding information taken from an x-ray pinhole image. The temporal calibration was obtained by similarly fitting the film density from the x-ray streak image as a function of time integrated over the appropriate part of the spatial dimension with the signal from an InP:Fe photoconductive detector. By using this technique we have found a spatial magnification of the streak camera system consistent with the results derived from the geometrical optics to within 10%. A temporal dispersion of 2.5 +- 0.5 ns/mm was obtained, which is in agreement with the nominal speed of 2.5 ns/mm. This technique also yielded an absolute intensity calibration of the streak camera.

Jones, L.A.; Kallne, E.; Kania, D.R.; Maestas, M.; McGurn, J.S.; Shepherd, R.

1985-09-01

396

De novo appearance of a choroidal osteoma in an eye with previous branch retinal vein occlusion.  

PubMed

This report describes the de novo appearance of a choroidal osteoma occurring 8 years after laser photocoagulation for previous branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). A 62-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic yellowish orange lesion in the macula on fundus examination of his left eye during a regular follow-up visit for bilateral BRVO associated with macular edema that had previously been treated with laser photocoagulation. The lesion was observed for 1.5 years until a decrease in vision occurred. Fundus photography revealed a yellow-to-orange, well-defined lesion in the macular region. Fluorescein angiography was consistent with choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Optical coherence tomography and B-scan ultrasonography showed features consistent with choroidal osteoma. This is the first report of the de novo appearance of a choroidal osteoma occurring years after laser photocoagulation for BRVO. CNV developed secondary to the lesion, which was treated with intravitreal bevacizumab, leading to subjective and anatomic improvement. PMID:23410812

Adhi, Mehreen; Bryant, Juanita Sonya; Alwassia, Ahmad A; Chen, Carolyn; Duker, Jay S

397

Surgical treatment of pacemaker induced left innominate vein occlusion using a spiral vein graft.  

PubMed

Superior vena cava syndrome due to transvenous pacing leads is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication. This case involves a 54-year-old man who developed left innominate vein occlusion due to a pacemaker lead. This complication induced a progressive swelling on the left side of his face, neck, arm, and upper chest. The left innominate vein occlusion was surgically treated using a composite spiral saphenous vein graft. Postoperatively, the patient has received anticoagulation therapy with warfarin to prevent thrombosis and, thereby, the long-term patency of the graft. He has undergone follow-up on a regular outpatient basis without showing any recurrence of clinical symptoms. PMID:11707053

Inoue, T; Otaki, M; Nakamoto, S; Zang, Z; Oku, H

2001-10-01

398

Quantitative assessment of image noise and streak artifact on CT image: comparison of z-axis automatic tube current modulation technique with fixed tube current technique.  

PubMed

The purpose of our study is to quantitatively assess the effects of z-axis automatic tube current modulation technique on image noise and streak artifact, by comparing with fixed tube current technique. Standard deviation of CT-values was employed as a physical index for evaluating image noise, and streak artifact was quantitatively evaluated using our devised Gumbel evaluation method. z-Axis automatic tube current modulation technique will improve image noise and streak artifact, compared with fixed tube current technique, and will make it possible to significantly reduce radiation doses at lung levels while maintaining the same image quality as fixed tube current technique. PMID:19342196

Imai, Kuniharu; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Enchi, Yukihiro; Niimi, Takanaga

2009-04-01

399

Varicose Veins: Role of Mechanotransduction of Venous Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Varicose veins affect approximately one-third of the adult population and result in significant psychological, physical, and financial burden. Nevertheless, the molecular pathogenesis of varicose vein formation remains unidentified. Venous hypertension exerted on veins of the lower extremity is considered the principal factor in varicose vein formation. The role of mechanotransduction of the high venous pressure in the pathogenesis of varicose vein formation has not been adequately investigated despite a good progress in understanding the mechanomolecular mechanisms involved in transduction of high blood pressure in the arterial wall. Understanding the nature of the mechanical forces, the mechanosensors and mechanotransducers in the vein wall, and the downstream signaling pathways will provide new molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of varicose veins. This paper summarized the current understanding of mechano-molecular pathways involved in transduction of hemodynamic forces induced by blood pressure and tries to relate this information to setting of venous hypertension in varicose veins.

Atta, Hussein M.

2012-01-01

400

Developmental and anatomical changes in leaves of yellow birch and red kidney bean exposed to simulated acid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

Leaves of Betula alleghaniensis Britt. (yellow birch) and Phaseolus vulgaris L cv. Red Kidney (bean) were examined microscopically during development and after exposure to simulated rain of pH 5.5, 4.3, 3.2, and 2.8. Yellow birch leaves attained maximal leaf area, midvein length, and cuticle thickness at 21 days. Trichomes were either long, unicellular, or multicellular with caplike head and stalk. Epicuticular wax was a bumpy and amorphous layer. The 2nd trifoliolate leaf of red kidney bean attained maximal leaf area, midvein length, and cuticle thickness when the 3rd trifoliolate leaf was expanding. Trichomes present were long, with a unicellular head and a multicellular base; long, unicellular, and terminally hooked; and small and multicellular. Epicuticular wax was present as small irregular flakes. After 2 days of pH 2.8 and 4 days of pH 3.2 simulated acid rain, round yellow and small tan lesions appeared on birch and bean leaves, respectively. Most injury occurred on or between small veins. Most trichome types were uninjured. Lesions formed as a result of collapsed epidermal and highly plasmolyzed palisade cells. The cuticle was still present over injured epidermal cells and epicuticular waxes were unchanged. There was not statistical difference in mean cuticle thickness due to pH of simulated rain. 25 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

Paparozzi, E.T.; Tukey, H.B. Jr.

1983-01-01

401

Central retinal vein occlusion and thrombophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central retinal vein occlusion is one of the commonest vascular diseases of the eye. The pathogenesis is multifactorial with both local factors and systemic diseases being aetiologically important. Many thrombophilic conditions have recently been identified and studies looking at their potential role in CRVO have been undertaken. The aim of this review is to critically appraise these studies as to

C D Fegan

2002-01-01

402

Management of Retinal Vein Occlusion – Consensus Document  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) can have severe consequences for the people affected by the disease, including visual loss with costly social repercussions. Currently, there is no European consensus with regard to the management of RVO. Following a careful review of the medical literature as well as the data from several clinical trials, a collaborative group of retina specialists put forth

Gabriel Coscas; Anat Loewenstein; Albert Augustin; Francesco Bandello; Maurizio Battaglia Parodi; Paolo Lanzetta; Jordi Monés; Marc de Smet; Gisèle Soubrane; Giovanni Staurenghi

2011-01-01

403

Management of Central Retinal Vein Occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is discussed briefly. Since the prognosis, complications, visual outcome and management of nonischemic and ischemic CRVO are very different, the first essential step in the management of CRVO is to determine which type of CRVO one is dealing with. The various parameters which help to differentiate the two types reliably are described

Sohan Singh Hayreh

2003-01-01

404

Modified incision for long saphenous vein harvest.  

PubMed

We describe a modification of the standard open technique of long saphenous vein harvesting that, by avoiding dissection in the region of the medial malleolus, can reduce the incidence of leg wound related complications after coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:9692491

Chukwuemeka, A; John, L

1998-07-01

405

Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

hrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses is a distinct cere- brovascular disorder that, unlike arterial stroke, most often affects young adults and children. The symptoms and clinical course are highly variable. A teenag- er who has had recent headaches after starting oral contraception, a woman who has had seizures after delivery in the obstetrical ward, and a comatose man

Jan Stam

2005-01-01

406

Portal vein embolization before major hepatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract To discuss the rationale, techniques and the unsolved issues regarding preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) before major hepatectomy. After a systematic search of Pubmed, we reviewed and retrieved literature related to PVE. Preoperative PVE is an approach that is gaining increasing acceptance in the preoperative treatment of selected patients prior to major hepatic resection. Induction of

Hai Liu; Yong Fu

407

Preoperative portal vein embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a countermeasure to portal tumor thrombi, which are a serious danger in liver cancer, we did portal vein embolization (PVE) during percutaneous transhepatic portography. Our 21 patients later underwent hepatic resection. After PVE, portal pressure increased and there was slight liver function damage, but this procedure was safer than transarterial embolization (TAE). We examined the pathologic specimens to view

Hiroaki Kinoshita; Katsuji Sakai; Kazuhiro Hirohashi; Sumito Igawa; Osamu Yamasaki; Shoji Kubo

1986-01-01

408

A secure cryptosystem from palm vein biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel technique to generate an irrevocable cryptographic key from the biometric template. The biometric trait considered here is the palm vein. The technique proposed here utilises the minutiae features extracted from the pattern generated. The features include bifurcation points and ending points. Since other cryptographic keys are probable to theft or guess, keys generated from the

B. Prasanalakshmi; A. Kannammal

2009-01-01

409

Morphometric analysis of the gonadal veins in human foetuses.  

PubMed

Professional literature data demonstrates morphometric features of the gonadal veins in adults. The length of the gonadal veins and their outlet angles in 130 human foetuses (71 males, 59 females), between the 4th and 6th month of prenatal life, were studied by means of anatomical, digital and statistical methods. In all specimens the left gonadal veins entered the left renal artery, and the right gonadal veins terminated in the inferior vena cava. In all age ranges the left gonadal veins were longer than the right ones (P < or = 0.01), and the outlet angles of the left gonadal veins were larger than these angles on the right side (P < or = 0.01). The correlation coefficient between the length of the left and right testicular veins was r1 = 0.975 (P < or = 0.01). The correlation coefficients between the length of the testicular veins and foetal age were r2 = 0.591 for the right testicular vein and r3 = 0.578 for the left testicular vein (P < or = 0.01). A low correlation between the outlet angles of the testicular veins and foetal age was observed, for the right side r4 = 0.187, and for the left side r5 = 0.177 (P < or = 0.05). The correlation coefficient between the length of the left and right ovarian veins in foetuses aged 4-6 months was r6 = 0.855 (P < or = 0.01). The correlation coefficients between the length of the ovarian veins and foetal age were r7 = 0.578 for the right ovarian vein and r8 = 0.566 for the left ovarian vein (P < or = 0.01). No correlation between the outlet angles of the ovarian veins and foetal age was observed (P > 0.05). PMID:16163853

Szpinda, Micha?; Elminowska-Wenda, Gabriela; Wi?niewski, Marcin; Frackiewicz, Piotr

2005-09-01

410

Technical challenges in TIPS creation via the right subclavian vein.  

PubMed

This report describes a 64-year-old man with Laennec cirrhosis requiring a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to alleviate ascites before surgical mesh repair of a large symptomatic umbilical hernia. During the procedure, both internal jugular veins and the right external jugular vein were found to be occluded. The right subclavian vein was accessed and a TIPS was successfully created. Some of the technical challenges encountered in performing the procedure from the right subclavian vein are described. PMID:18951043

Contractor, Sohail G; Merkulov, Alex; Uppuluri, Pranay C; Bhatti, Waseem; Phatak, Tej

2008-10-31

411

Intermittent axillary vein obstruction in a competitive canoeist.  

PubMed Central

The case is reported of a competitive canoeist with intermittent axillary vein obstruction secondary to shoulder girdle muscle hypertrophy. The anatomy of the axilla, pathology of the axillary vein, and reported cases of sports injuries involving the axillary vein are discussed. This would appear to be the first report of such an occurrence in a canoeist. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Livesey, J R

1990-01-01

412

Medical conditions underlying recurrence of retinal vein occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen patients with recurrent retinal vein occlusion were investigated for underlying medical conditions and compared with 61 patients with single retinal vein occlusion (26 with central, 35 with branch vein occlusion). The two study groups were comparable for age, sex, and weight. Patients with recurrence had a significantly increased prevalence rate of hypertension (88% versus 48%: p less than 0.01),

P M Dodson; A J Kubicki; K G Taylor; E E Kritzinger

1985-01-01

413

Spermatic vein phlebography in patients with testicular tumors.  

PubMed

The performance of funicular lymphography and spermatic vein phlebography during orchiectomy in patients with testicular tumors demonstrates the close proximity of the spermatic vein to the lymph nodes draining the testicles. In the case of metastatic lymph node involvement the spermatic vein phlebography may add supplementary diagnostic information. The examination was proved successful in eight patients with malignant testicular tumors. PMID:904745

Karparov, M; Gospodinov, G; Baldjiisky, A; Zlatanov, T; Karadimov, A

1977-01-01

414

Intra-vascular leiomyoma of the popliteal vein.  

PubMed Central

A large mass in the popliteal fossa was found to be a leiomyoma of the popliteal vein with portions of tumour both inside and outside the vein. This is only the second recorded case of a benign smooth muscle tumour of a peripheral vein. Images Figure 1

Grimer, R. J.; Armstrong, G. R.

1988-01-01

415

Hydrops fetalis associated with chorioangioma and thrombosis of umbilical vein.  

PubMed

Placental chorioangioma and thrombosis of an umbilical vein varix are rare etiologic factors of non-immune hydrops fetalis. Herein, we report a patient who had hydrops fetalis associated with placental chorioangioma and thrombosis of an umbilical vein varix. This is the first report of coexistence of non-immune hydrops fetalis with placental chorioangioma and thrombosis of an umbilical vein varix. PMID:20112613

Sivasli, Ercan; Tek?am, Ozlem; Halilo?lu, Mithat; Güçer, Safak; Orhan, Diclehan; Gürgey, Aytemiz; Tekinalp, Gülsevin

416

Vein of Galen Aneurysms: Presentation and Endovascular Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We present our experience with managing 13 cases of vein of Galen aneurysm with a special focus on endovascular strategies. This clinical review deals with the multivariable clinical presentation of vein of Galen aneurysms and the role of transarterial endovascular treatment. Methods: Thirteen patients diagnosed with vein of Galen aneurysms have been reviewed. Clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities and treatment

Tamer Hassan; Mahmoud Nassar; Mamdouh Elghandour

2010-01-01

417

Venous thrombosis in subclavian, axillary, brachial veins with extension to internal jugular vein, right sigmoid sinus and simultaneous pulmonary embolism  

PubMed Central

We present a rare case of Venous Thrombosis in Subclavian, Axillary, Brachial Veins with extension to Internal Jugular vein, right sigmoid sinus and simultaneous Pulmonary embolism during the treatment with low molecular weight heparin.

Tamizifar, Babak; Beigi, Arash; Rismankarzadeh, Maryam

2013-01-01

418

Absence of the right iliac vein and an unusual connection between both common femoral veins.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to report a case of a rare congenital anomaly of the venous system and to emphasize its clinical importance. We describe a case of aplasia of the right common and external iliac veins in a healthy seven-year-old boy who was referred for Doppler ultrasound examination for further evaluation of an abnormal varicosity in the suprapubic region. Colour Doppler ultrasound revealed a dilated, arch-shaped vein. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography showed the absence of the right common iliac vein and external iliac vein. It also clearly demonstrated the aberrant venous structure, originating from the right common femoral vein and draining to the left common femoral vein. In conclusion, in our case, the patient’s life was threatened because the aberrant venous connection crossing within subcutaneous fatty tissue was not protected from external trauma and possible abdominal surgical interventions. Additional attention should be given to avoid such injuries, which can cause significant haemorrhage. PMID:22431769

Yahyayev, A; Bulakci, M; Yilmaz, E; Ucar, A; Sayin, O A; Yekeler, E

2013-04-01

419

Azygos vein to pulmonary vein fistula is a pathway for cerebral embolism.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old man was admitted for right upper and lower limb weakness and aphasia. He had suffered dizziness and transient blindness 6 months ago and had also been found lying in the bathroom on another occasion. Multiple cerebral infarctions were confirmed by brain CT scan and MRI. Diffuse nodes in the mediastinum and postperitoneum had been found in pulmonary CT scans and MRI scans since 1999. Pulmonary CT scan revealed multiple bilateral pneumatoceles in the lungs. Contrast CT scan showed an enlarged azygos vein on the right side of the spinal column and an enlarged azygos arch. CT scan-guided biopsy revealed a few fibers, fat, and vascular tissues in the mass. Transcranial Doppler bubble test showed gas microembolic signals in both middle cerebral arteries. Pulmonary digital subtraction angiogram confirmed an enlarged azygos vein. A fistula was found between the pulmonary and azygos veins with turbulent flow from pulmonary to azygos at rest. Cavography revealed that the pulmonary vein appeared simultaneously with the superior cava vein during Valsalva maneuver. In summary, the pathway of cerebral embolism was based on three pathologic mechanisms: (1) increased inferior vena cava pressure, (2) enlarged right azygos aneurysm, and (3) the presence of a fistula between the azygos and pulmonary veins. PMID:20822995

Huang, Yining; Sun, Wei; Li, Fan; Sun, Weiping

2010-09-01

420

Internal vein texture and vein evolution of the epithermal Shila-Paula district, southern Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The epithermal Shila-Paula Au-Ag district is characterized by numerous veins hosted in Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Western Cordillera (southern Peru). Field studies of the ore bodies reveal a systematic association of a main E-W vein with secondary N55-60°W veins—two directions that are also reflected by the orientation of fluid-inclusion planes in quartz crystals of the host rock. In areas where this pattern is not recognized, such as the Apacheta sector, vein emplacement seems to have been guided by regional N40°E and N40°W fractures. Two main vein-filling stages are identified. stage 1 is a quartz-adularia-pyrite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-electrum-Mn silicate-carbonate assemblage that fills the main E-W veins. stage 2, which contains most of the precious-metal mineralization, is divided into pre-bonanza and bonanza substages. The pre-bonanza substage consists of a quartz-adularia-carbonate assemblage that is observed within the secondary N45-60°W veins, in veinlets that cut the stage 1 assemblage, and in final open-space fillings. The two latter structures are finally filled by the bonanza substage characterized by a Fe-poor sphalerite-chalcopyrite-pyrite-galena-tennantite-tetrahedrite-polybasite-pearceite-electrum assemblage. The ore in the main veins is systematically brecciated, whereas the ore in the secondary veins and geodes is characteristic of open-space crystallization. Microthermometric measurements on sphalerite from both stages and on quartz and calcite from stage 2 indicate a salinity range of 0 to 15.5 wt% NaCl equivalent and homogenization temperatures bracketed between 200 and 330°C. Secondary CO2-, N2- and H2S-bearing fluid inclusions are also identified. The age of vein emplacement, based on 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained on adularia of different veins, is estimated at around 11 Ma, with some overlap between adularia of stage 1 (11.4±0.4 Ma) and of stage 2 (10.8±0.3 Ma). A three-phase tectonic model has been constructed to explain the vein formation. Phase 1 corresponds to the assumed development of E-W sinistral shear zones and associated N60°W cleavages under the effects of a NE-SW shortening direction that is recognized at Andean scale. These structures contain the stage 1 ore assemblage that was brecciated during ongoing deformation. Phase 2 is a reactivation of earlier structures under a NW-SE shortening direction that allowed the reopening of the preexisting schistosity and the formation of scarce N50°E-striking S2-cleavage planes filled by the stage 2 pre-bonanza minerals. Phase 3 coincides with the bonanza ore emplacement in the secondary N45-60°W veins and also in open-space in the core of the main E-W veins. Our combined tectonic, textural, mineralogical, fluid-inclusion, and geochronological study presents a complete model of vein formation in which the reactivation of previously formed tectonic structures plays a significant role in ore formation.

Chauvet, Alain; Bailly, Laurent; André, Anne-Sylvie; Monié, Patrick; Cassard, Daniel; Tajada, Fernando Llosa; Vargas, Juan Rosas; Tuduri, Johann

2006-07-01

421

Fundus Autofluorescence and Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To describe the findings of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods. In this institutional, retrospective, observational case series, FAF was evaluated in 65 eyes with BRVO in 64 consecutive patients and compared with visual acuity, OCT findings, and other clinical observations. Results. Five types of autofluorescence appeared during the course of BRVO: (1) petaloid-shaped hyperautofluorescence in the area of macular edema and (2) hyperautofluorescence coincident with yellow subretinal deposits. (3) Diffuse hyperautofluorescence appeared within the area of serous retinal detachment (SRD) and OCT showed precipitates on the undersurface of the retina in 5/5 of these eyes (100%). (4) The area of vein occlusion showed diffuse hyperautofluorescence after resolution of the retinal bleeding. (5) Hard exudates exhibited hyper- or hypoautofluorescence. OCT indicated that most of the hard exudates with hyperautofluorescence were located on the retinal pigment epithelium. Conclusions. Hyperautofluorescence associated with subretinal fluid or hard exudate appeared in the subretinal space. This type of hyperautofluorescence may be attributed to blood cell or macrophages. FAF and OCT are noninvasive modalities that provide additional information regarding macular edema due to BRVO.

Sekiryu, Tetsuju; Iida, Tomohiro; Sakai, Eiichi; Maruko, Ichiro; Ojima, Akira; Sugano, Yukinori

2012-01-01

422

Recombination hotspots and host susceptibility modulate the adaptive value of recombination during maize streak virus evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Maize streak virus -strain A (MSV-A; Genus Mastrevirus, Family Geminiviridae), the maize-adapted strain of MSV that causes maize streak disease throughout sub-Saharan Africa, probably arose between 100 and 200 years ago via homologous recombination between two MSV strains adapted to wild grasses. MSV recombination experiments and analyses of natural MSV recombination patterns have revealed that this recombination event entailed the exchange of the movement protein - coat protein gene cassette, bounded by the two genomic regions most prone to recombination in mastrevirus genomes; the first surrounding the virion-strand origin of replication, and the second around the interface between the coat protein gene and the short intergenic region. Therefore, aside from the likely adaptive advantages presented by a modular exchange of this cassette, these specific breakpoints may have been largely predetermined by the underlying mechanisms of mastrevirus recombination. To investigate this hypothesis, we constructed artificial, low-fitness, reciprocal chimaeric MSV genomes using alternating genomic segments from two MSV strains; a grass-adapted MSV-B, and a maize-adapted MSV-A. Between them, each pair of reciprocal chimaeric genomes represented all of the genetic material required to reconstruct - via recombination - the highly maize-adapted MSV-A genotype, MSV-MatA. We then co-infected a selection of differentially MSV-resistant maize genotypes with pairs of reciprocal chimaeras to determine the efficiency with which recombination would give rise to high-fitness progeny genomes resembling MSV-MatA. Results Recombinants resembling MSV-MatA invariably arose in all of our experiments. However, the accuracy and efficiency with which the MSV-MatA genotype was recovered across all replicates of each experiment depended on the MSV susceptibility of the maize genotypes used and the precise positions - in relation to known recombination hotspots - of the breakpoints required to re-create MSV-MatA. Although the MSV-sensitive maize genotype gave rise to the greatest variety of recombinants, the measured fitness of each of these recombinants correlated with their similarity to MSV-MatA. Conclusions The mechanistic predispositions of different MSV genomic regions to recombination can strongly influence the accessibility of high-fitness MSV recombinants. The frequency with which the fittest recombinant MSV genomes arise also correlates directly with the escalating selection pressures imposed by increasingly MSV-resistant maize hosts.

2011-01-01

423

Comparing the regional epidemiology of the cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak virus pandemics in Africa.  

PubMed

The rapid geographical expansion of the cassava mosaic disease (CMD) pandemic, caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses, has devastated cassava crops in 12 countries of East and Central Africa since the late 1980s. Region-level surveys have revealed a continuing pattern of annual spread westward and southward along a contiguous 'front'. More recently, outbreaks of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) were reported from Uganda and other parts of East Africa that had been hitherto unaffected by the disease. Recent survey data reveal several significant contrasts between the regional epidemiology of these two pandemics: (i) severe CMD radiates out from an initial centre of origin, whilst CBSD seems to be spreading from independent 'hot-spots'; (ii) the severe CMD pandemic has arisen from recombination and synergy between virus species, whilst the CBSD pandemic seems to be a 'new encounter' situation between host and pathogen; (iii) CMD pandemic spread has been tightly linked with the appearance of super-abundant Bemisia tabaci whitefly vector populations, in contrast to CBSD, where outbreaks have occurred 3-12 years after whitefly population increases; (iv) the CMGs causing CMD are transmitted in a persistent manner, whilst the two cassava brown streak viruses appear to be semi-persistently transmitted; and (v) different patterns of symptom expression mean that phytosanitary measures could be implemented easily for CMD but have limited effectiveness, whereas similar measures are difficult to apply for CBSD but are potentially very effective. An important similarity between the pandemics is that the viruses occurring in pandemic-affected areas are also found elsewhere, indicating that contrary to earlier published conclusions, the viruses per se are unlikely to be the key factors driving the two pandemics. A diagrammatic representation illustrates the temporal relationship between B. tabaci abundance and changing incidences of both CMD and CBSD in the Great Lakes region. This emphasizes the pivotal role played by the vector in both pandemics and the urgent need to identify effective and sustainable strategies for controlling whiteflies on cassava. PMID:21549776

Legg, J P; Jeremiah, S C; Obiero, H M; Maruthi, M N; Ndyetabula, I; Okao-Okuja, G; Bouwmeester, H; Bigirimana, S; Tata-Hangy, W; Gashaka, G; Mkamilo, G; Alicai, T; Lava Kumar, P

2011-04-28

424

Transmission of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus from Frozen Infected Leaves to Healthy Rice Plants by Small Brown Planthopper ( Laodelphax striatellus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to preserve virus for identifying the resistance of rice varieties against rice black-streaked dwarf disease, a simple and reliable method was developed, through which virus-free small brown planthopper (SBPH) acquired rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) from frozen infected leaves and the virus was transmitted to healthy rice plants. The experimental results showed that SBPH could obtain RBSDV from

Tong ZHOU; Li-juan WU; Ying WANG; Zhao-bang CHENG; Ying-hua JI; Yong-jian FAN; Yi-jun ZHOU

2011-01-01

425

Response of UK winter wheat cultivars to Soil-borne cereal mosaic and Wheat spindle streak mosaic viruses across Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one UK winter wheat cultivars were grown over three seasons at sites with natural inoculum sources of Soil-borne cereal mosaic virus (SBCMV) and Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) located in France, Italy and the UK. Plants were assessed visually for virus symptoms and leaf extracts were tested\\u000a for the presence of each virus using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Cultivars

G. E. Budge; C. Ratti; C. Rubies-Autonell; D. Lockley; M. Bonnefoy; V. Vallega; S. Pietravalle; C. M. Henry

2008-01-01

426

Sequence Analysis of the Complete Genome of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus Isolated from Maize with Rough Dwarf Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequences of 10 genomic segments (S1–S10) from an isolate of rice black-streaked dwarf virus causing rough dwarf disease on maize (RBSDV-Hbm) in China were determined, a total of 29,142 base pairs (bp). Each segment possessed the genus-specific termini with conserved nucleotide sequences of (+) 5'-AAGUUUUU?......?CAGCUNNNGUC-3' and a perfect or imperfect inverted repeat of seven to eleven nucleotides

Zhao-Hui Wang; Shou-Guo Fang; Jia-Ling Xu; Li-Ying Sun; Da-Wei Li; Jia-Lin Yu

2003-01-01

427

Dose-related effects of doxazosin on plasma lipids and aortic fatty streak formation in the hypercholesterolemic hamster model.  

PubMed Central

Doxazosin, an alpha 1-adrenergic inhibitor, has been shown to decrease hypertension and plasma lipids, especially total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), thus reducing certain risk factors associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. One preliminary report indicated that the decrease in LDL-C in hypercholesterolemic hamsters treated with doxazosin was associated with a reduction in fatty streak formation. However, since the effects of doxazosin on plasma lipids, aortic fatty streak development, or the relationship between the two have not been studied in a dose-dependent manner, these effects were further investigated over varying doses of doxazosin (0, 1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body wt/day) during a 10-week period. Doxazosin administration was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in LDL-C of 2%, 29%, 52%, and 60%, whereas the degree of fatty streak formation was reduced 11%, 45%, 76%, and 92% compared with controls, with the first statistically significant decrease for both parameters at the 10 mg/kg dose. Significant correlations between LDL-C concentrations and fatty streak area suggest that doxazosin altered aortic lipid infiltration primarily by its effect on plasma lipids. However, the 20 mg/kg dose of doxazosin significantly decreased lesion area compared with the 10 mg/kg dose without a further effect on plasma lipid concentrations. Three animals at these higher doses demonstrated no stainable lipid inclusions while maintaining plasma lipid values similar to their cohorts. These exceptions to the lipid-lesion relationship raise the possibility of additional effects of doxazosin, which may occur independent of or in concert with lipoprotein cholesterol lowering, on lesion formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 3

Foxall, T. L.; Shwaery, G. T.; Stucchi, A. F.; Nicolosi, R. J.; Wong, S. S.

1992-01-01

428

Phylogeny of Banana Streak Virus Reveals Recent and Repetitive Endogenization in the Genome of Its Banana Host ( Musa sp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banana streak virus (BSV) is a plant dsDNA pararetrovirus (family Caulimoviridae, genus badnavirus). Although integration is not an essential step in the BSV replication cycle, the nuclear genome of banana (Musa sp.) contains BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs). Some BSV EPRVs are infectious by reconstituting a functional\\u000a viral genome. Recent studies revealed a large molecular diversity of episomal BSV

Philippe Gayral; Marie-Line Iskra-Caruana

2009-01-01

429

Infectivity and complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a genetically distinct strain of maize streak virus from Reunion Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A complete infectious genome of an isolate of maize streak subgroup 1 geminivirus from Reunion Island (MSV-R) was cloned and sequenced. Using anAgrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid delivery system, the cloned 2.7 kb circular DNA was shown to be infectious in maize. The agroinfected virus could be transmitted byCicadulina mbila, the most common vector species of MSV in Reunion. Analysis

M. Peterschmitt; M. Granier; R. Frutos; B. Reynaud

1996-01-01

430

Reference genes for reliable potyvirus quantitation in cassava and analysis of Cassava brown streak virus load in host varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliable method for detection and quantitation of viruses associated with cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is essential to determine their presence in material used for field propagation as well as for precise evaluation of CBSD resistance in the cassava germplasm. Quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is a well-established method for precise quantitation of viral RNA amount in infected tissues. The method

Isabel Moreno; Wilhelm Gruissem; Hervé Vanderschuren

2011-01-01

431

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of Thinopyrum intermedium-derived wheat germplasm specifying resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thinopyrum intermedium is a promising source of resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), a devastating disease of wheat. Three wheat germplasm\\u000a lines possessing resistance to WSMV, derived from Triticum aestivum?Th. intermedium crosses, are analyzed by C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) to determine the amount and location of alien\\u000a chromatin in the transfer lines. Line CI15092 was confirmed

Q. Chen; B. Friebe; R. L. Conner; A. Laroche; J. B. Thomas; B. S. Gill

1998-01-01

432

Molecular cytogenetic analysis of Agropyron elongatum chromatin in wheat germplasm specifying resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three lines derived from wheat (6x) x Agropyron elongatum (10x) that are resistant to wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) were analyzed by chromosome pairing, banding, and in situ hybridization. Line CI15321 was identified as a disomic substitution line where wheat chromosome 1D is replaced by Ag. elongatum chromosome 1Ae-1. Line 87-94-1 is a wheat-Ag. elongatum ditelosomic addition 1Ae-1L. Line CI15322

J. Jiang; B. Friebe; H. S. Dhaliwal; T. J. Martin; B. S. Gill

1993-01-01

433

[The analyze of recurrent varicose veins development after surgical treatment of lower limbs varicose veins].  

PubMed

Possible development of recurrent varicose veins (RVV) is one of the main reasons for abandonment of patients to undergo varicose veins surgical treatment. Regardless of the increase in the number of the treatment the primary method of improving the surgical technique is to identify the causes of earlier failures. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms responsible for the development of recurrent varicose veins after surgical treatment of primary varicose veins. We studied 507 patients (680 limbs) with primary varicose veins of the lower limbs operated in the years 1996-2007 using the classical technique. The results of pre-and postoperative signs, duplex studies and operational protocols were analyzed. Follow-up was 36-156 months (mean 89.7 +/- 31.2 months). RVV development was observed in 36.9% of operated limbs. Irregularities of surgical techniques and neovascularization were responsible for the development of changes to 87.6% and disease progression in the development of changes in 27.4% of limbs with RVV. At 15.5% of limbs with RVV occurred more than one cause of relapse. In logistic regression combined effects of several factors shown to exist only significant relationship between development and the presence of RVV stumps in sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ) and the presence of inefficient SFJ tributaries of the stumps. The risk of development of new varicose veins was independent on the correctness of the implementation of the first treatment. The most common cause of development of RW were imperfections of surgical treatment, principally in the form of leaving the stumps with insufficient SFJ tributaries, or the development of neovascularization. It appears that improving the quality of treatment may favorably affect the development of a decreased incidence of recurrent varicose veins. PMID:21812233

Gabriel, Marcin; Zieli?ski, Pawe?; Pawlaczyk, Katarzyna; Krasi?ski, Zbigniew; Stanisi?, Micha?; Dzieciuchowicz, ?ukasz

2011-01-01

434

In situ saphenous vein bypass--forty years later.  

PubMed

In situ saphenous vein bypass, which was performed first by Rob in 1959, but introduced by Hall in 1962, has been widely applied as an alternative to the reversed bypass. Now, forty years later, it seems appropriate to review its current place and technique. Of the presumed original benefits of the in situ operation, it is now clear that the hemodynamic flow of converging (in situ) versus diverging vein (reversed) boundaries plus better vein/artery size match are the main advantages. It is now popular belief that the reversed saphenous vein graft to the popliteal artery has no significant hemodynamic disadvantage because the vein is of comparable diameter at the knee and in the groin. In contrast, vein bypass from the groin to the ankle strongly favors the in situ procedure because of the convergence of the walls of the vein below the knee and better vein/artery size match. The most controversial facet of the in situ operation has been the question of valvulotome is superior to lyse valves and whether to perform the operation open as originally described, or closed to avoid skin complications from a long groin to ankle incision. Preoperative vein mapping is advantageous for all saphenous vein conduit operations. For open leg in situ procedures, skin bridges and incisions made directly over the vein, directed by mapping, will minimize skin complications. Use of endoscopic in situ techniques is ideal but only with an experienced endoscopist. Valve lysis has improved but is still not foolproof. PMID:15815835

Connolly, John E

2005-01-01

435

Long-term follow-up of choroidal neovascularization secondary to angioid streaks: case series and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this paper is to report the clinical course of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to angioid streaks and the outcomes in response to different treatment modalities. Methods This was a case series of two consecutive patients (four eyes) with CNV secondary to angioid streaks. Visual acuity, ophthalmological examination, color photographs, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography were used to assess the outcomes of treatment. Results Two eyes were treated with photodynamic therapy for subfoveal choroidal neovascular membrane, one eye underwent thermal laser photocoagulation for extrafoveal CNV followed by intravitreal bevacizumab for subfoveal CNV, and one eye underwent intravitreal bevacizumab for subfoveal CNV. The follow-up period was 4–6 years. The final visual acuities of all eyes were 20/300 or worse with large submacular fibrosis. Conclusion CNV secondary to angioid streaks in these two patients had a poor prognosis despite undergoing different types of treatment. Poor outcome was likely related to frequent recurrence and newly developed CNV, which remained a clinical concern in these cases.

Al-Rashaed, Saba; Arevalo, J Fernando

2012-01-01

436

An interconnected duplicated femoral vein and its clinical significance.  

PubMed

Anatomical variations in the femoral vein are of great clinical importance especially in cases of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Knowledge of the variable anatomy of the femoral vein is important to minimise false-negative findings on ultrasound examination in patients with DVT and help to explain the 'silent' DVT. Furthermore, the presence of a duplicated femoral vein itself is associated with higher incidence of DVT. These venous anomalies are usually due to the truncular venous malformation. In the present study, while dissecting the right lower limb, we found a case of variation of the femoral vein. In this case, besides a duplicated femoral vein, we also noticed a 3rd interconnecting channel near the apex of the femoral triangle joining the two veins. This variation has not been reported previously by other authors. Considering its uniqueness and clinical importance, we decided to report this case. PMID:23749717

Khan, Aaijaz Ahmed; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Hassan, Asma; Aiman, Nurul

2013-02-01

437

Laser Timing Jitter Measurements using a Dual-Sweep Streak Camera at the A0 Photoinjector  

SciTech Connect

Excellent phase stability of the drive laser is a critical performance specification of photoinjectors such as Fermilab's A0 photoinjector (A0PI). Previous efforts based on the measurement of the power spectrum of the signal of a fast photodiode illuminated by the mode locked infrared laser pulse component indicated a phase jitter of less than 1.4 ps (technique limited). A recently procured dual sweep plugin unit and existing Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera were used to study the phase stability of the UV laser pulse component. Initial measurements with the synchroscan vertical sweep unit locked to 81.25 MHz showed that the phase slew through the micropulse train and the phase jitter micropulse to micropulse were two key aspects that could be evaluated. The phase slew was much less than 100 fs per micropulse, and the total phase jitter (camera, trigger, and laser) was approximately 300 fs RMS for measurements of 50-micropulse trains. Data on the macropulse phase stability were also obtained. A possible upgrade to achieve better phase stability will be also discussed.

Ruan, J.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Santucci, J.K.; /Fermilab

2009-04-30

438

Intravitreal ranibizumab for the treatment of choroidal neovascularisation secondary to angioid streaks  

PubMed Central

Aims To assess the medium to long-term efficacy and safety of intravitreal ranibizumab for the treatment of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) secondary to angioid streaks (AS). Methods A total of 12 eyes of nine patients treated with intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5?mg in 0.05?ml) for CNV secondary to AS were retrospectively identified. Efficacy of treatment was determined by changes in best-corrected LogMAR visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography. Changes with respect to baseline BCVA were defined as improved or reduced with a gain or loss of more than 10 letters, respectively, or stable if remaining within 10 letters. Results Over a mean follow-up of 21.75 months (range: 1–54), patients received mean 5.75 (range: 2–15) intravitreal ranibizumab injections per affected eye. BCVA improved in three eyes (25%), stabilised in eight eyes (66.67%), and deteriorated in one eye (8.33%). There was no significant change in central retinal thickness (CRT) over the follow-up period (P=0.1072). No drug-related systemic side effects were recorded. Conclusion The long-term treatment of CNV secondary to AS with intravitreal ranibizumab showed a stabilisation in CRT and an improvement or stabilisation of BCVA. The absence of systemic side effects was reassuring. Further long-term prospective studies are required to validate these findings.

Shah, M; Amoaku, W M K

2012-01-01

439

Improving the diffraction of full-length human selenomethionyl metavinculin crystals by streak-seeding  

SciTech Connect

Metavinculin is an alternatively spliced isoform of vinculin that has a 68-residue insert in its tail domain (1134 total residues) and is exclusively expressed in cardiac and smooth muscle tissue, where it plays important roles in myocyte adhesion complexes. Mutations in the metavinculin-specific insert are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in man. Crystals of a DCM-associated mutant of full-length selenomethionine-labeled metavinculin grown by hanging-drop vapor diffusion diffracted poorly and were highly sensitive to radiation, preventing the collection of a complete X-ray diffraction data set at the highest possible resolution. Streak-seeding markedly improved the stability, crystal-growth rate and diffraction quality of DCM-associated mutant metavinculin crystals, allowing complete data collection to 3.9 {angstrom} resolution. These crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 170, c = 211 {angstrom}, {alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90{sup o}.

Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Izard, Tina (Scripps)

2012-06-28

440

Lucerne transient streak virus RNA and its translation in rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extract.  

PubMed

Two abundant, encapsidated RNAs of lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) are the 1.5 x 10(6) molecular weight (Mr) linear RNA-1 and both circular (RNA-2) and linear (RNA-3) forms of a 0.15 x 10(6) Mr viroid-like RNA. Two additional discrete minor RNAs, Mr 0.35 x 10(6) and 0.07 x 10(6), and a heterogeneous mixture of RNAs in the Mr range 0.05 to 1.0 x 10(6) are reported. Principal polypeptides translated from unfractionated LTSV RNA in rabbit reticulocyte lysate were of Mr 105,000 (p105), 78,000 (p78), and 33,000 (p33), the last not easily detected after translation in wheat germ extracts. All apparently are encoded in RNA-1. However, p33, which was precipitated by antibody of LTSV particles and presumably is the major capsid protein, was more readily translated from a smaller, most likely the Mr 0.35 x 10(6), RNA. Partial proteolysis and other tests indicate that p105 has a carboxyl terminal extension of p78 amino acid sequences and that neither shares sequences with p33. No translation products were attributed to RNA-2, RNA-3 or the Mr 0.07 x 10(6) RNA. PMID:18639026

Morris-Krsinich, B A; Forster, R L

1983-07-15

441

Longitudinal beam profile measurements at CTF3 using a streak camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a multi-TeV electron-positron collider for particle physics based on an innovative two-beam acceleration concept. A high-intensity drive beam powers the main beam of a high-frequency (30 GHz) linac with a gradient of 150 MV/m, by means of transfer structure sections. The aim of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is to make exhaustive tests of the main CLIC parameters and to prove the technical feasibility. One of the points of particular interest is the demonstration of bunch train compression and combination in the Delay Loop and in the Combiner Ring. Thus, detailed knowledge about the longitudinal beam structure is of utmost importance and puts high demands on the diagnostic equipment. Among others, measurements with a streak camera have been performed on the linac part of the CTF3 as well as on the newly installed Delay Loop. This allowed e.g. monitoring of the longitudinal structure of individual bunches, the RF combination of the beam, the behavior during phase shifts and the influence of the installed wiggler. This article first gives an overview of the CTF3 facility, then describes in detail the layout of the long optical lines required for observation of either optical transition radiation or synchrotron radiation, and finally shows first results obtained during the last machine run this year.

Welsch, C. P.; Braun, H. H.; Bravin, E.; Corsini, R.; Döbert, S.; Lefèvre, T.; Tecker, F.; Urschütz, P.; Buonomo, B.; Coiro, O.; Ghigo, A.; Preger, B.

2006-09-01

442

Line and streak detection on polished and textured surfaces using line integrals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a framework for detecting lines in a polished or textured substrate is proposed. Modules for image capture, rectification, enhancement, and line detection are included. If the surface being examined is specular (mirror-like), the image capture will be restricted, that is, the camera has to be fixed off-axis in the zenith direction. A module for image rectification and projection is included to overcome this limitation in order to yield an orthographic image. In addition, a module for image enhancement that includes high-boost is employed to improve the edge sharpness and decrease the spatial noise in the image. Finally, a line-integral technique is applied to find the confidence vectors that represent the spatial positions of the lines of interest. The Full-Width at Half-Max (FWHM) approximation is applied to determine the corresponding lines in a target image. Experimental results show that our technique has an effective performance on synthetic and real images. Print quality assessment is the main application of the proposed algorithm; however, it can be used to detect lines/ streak in prints, on substrate or any type of media where lines are visible.

Erkilinc, M. Sezer; Jaber, Mustafa; Saber, Eli; Pearson, Robert

2011-02-01

443

A SNP Streak Model for the Identification of Genetic Regions Identical-by-descent  

PubMed Central

The availability of very dense genetic maps is changing in a fundamental way the methods used to identify the genetic basis of both rare and common inherited traits. The ability to directly compare the genomes of two related individuals and quickly identify those regions that are inherited identical-by-descent (IBD) from a recent common ancestor would be of utility in a wide range of genetic mapping methods. Here, we describe a simple method for using dense SNP maps to identify regions of the genome likely to be inherited IBD by family members. This method is based on identifying obligate recombination events and examining the pattern of distribution of such events along the genetic map. Specifically, we use the length of a consecutive set of biallelic markers that have a high probability of having avoided such obligate recombination events. This “SNP streak” is derived from subsets of samples within a pedigree and allows us to make statistical inferences about the ancestry of the region(s) containing stretches of markers with these properties. We show that the use of subsets of more than two samples has the advantage of identifying shorter shared subsegments as significant. This mitigates the effects of errors in SNP calls. We provide specific examples of microarray-based SNP data, using a family with a complex pedigree and with a rare form of inherited kidney disease, to illustrate this approach.

Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N; Pollak, Martin R

2008-01-01

444

Streak spectroscopy and velocimetry of electrically exploded Ni/Al laminates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an experimental and theoretical study of electrically exploded nickel-aluminum (Ni/Al) laminates, lithographically patterned into bow-tie bridge regions, and encapsulated with parylene. The exothermic nature of Ni/Al reactions is well-known at typical self-heating rates of 103-106 K/s, but electrical heating allows the interrogation of phenomena at heating rates which are five to six orders of magnitude higher. The use of time-resolved streak camera emission spectroscopy revealed that Ni/Al laminates heated at these higher rates exhibited brighter emission during the first 150 ns of emission than samples composed of either Al or Ni alone, suggesting an exothermic effect which rapidly started and persisted for at least this length of time. We also measured the transduction of electrical energy into kinetic energy through velocity measurements of encapsulation layers ejected from the bridge region. An empirical model using experimental power curves and one empirical fitting parameter successfully predicted these velocities. This model agreed well with experiments from different Al and Ni samples using the same fitting parameter, but an apparent 1.2 J/mg of additional energy from the mixing of Ni and Al was necessary to accurately predict velocities from Ni/Al laminate samples. This energy quantity corresponded to a reference value for the enthalpy of mixing Ni and Al, and likely contributed to both brighter emission and higher than expected velocities observed.

Morris, Christopher J.; Wilkins, Paul R.; May, Chadd M.

2013-01-01

445

Doppler spectral characteristics of infrainguinal vein bypasses.  

PubMed

With the aim of assessing the velocity profile of femoropopliteal and femorocrural vein bypasses, 128 patients undergoing infrainguinal vein bypass surgery entered a postoperative Duplex surveillance protocol, which included clinical assessment and Duplex scanning, using Doppler spectral analysis. Doppler spectra were obtained at three sites in each graft and the following waveform parameters recorded: maximum systolic velocity, minimum diastolic velocity and resistance index. In patent reconstructions systolic velocity decreased by 30% during the first 6 months after surgery. In the absence of arteriovenous fistulas the initially antegrade diastolic velocity was replaced by a retrograde flow within 3 months, whereas a forward flow in diastole was sustained in grafts with patent fistulas. Abnormal Duplex findings in 31 patients led to angiography and revision in 13 cases. Four revised grafts failed, while nine remained patent at follow-up 1-12 months later. Ten (56%) of 18 non-revised bypasses with abnormal Duplex findings failed within 9 months compared to 1 (1%) of 76 bypasses with a normal velocity profile (p < 0.00001). In conclusion, Ultrasound Duplex scanning with spectral analysis provides valuable information concerning haemodynamics of infrainguinal vein bypasses and identifies grafts at risk of thrombosis. Inclusion of low resistance index (< 0.75) as an additional criteria for detection of stenoses appears to improve the sensitivity of Duplex scanning. PMID:8270061

Nielsen, T G; von Jessen, F; Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T V

1993-11-01

446

Field Test of Two Energetic Models for Yellow Perch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field data from a population of yellow perch Perca flavescens in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, were used to evaluate the ability of two energetic models to predict consumption by yellow perch. Field estimates of daily ration for age-1–4 fish during May through October 1987 and 1988 were compared with independent predictions made by the Wisconsin energetic model and an energetic

Jeffrey S. Schaeffer; Robert C. Haas; James S. Diana; James E. Breck

1999-01-01

447

Application of remote sensing monitoring system in the yellow river  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet the needs of modern flood control, according to the current situations of monitoring in the Yellow River, three type's remote sensing manners are carried out, i.e. flood remote sensing automatic monitoring; drought remote sensing monitoring; unpiloted aircraft remote sensing monitoring. The three methods offer supplements for data collecting and processing in the Yellow River. As a

Deng Yu; Wang Juan

2010-01-01

448

Macroinvertebrates in the bed sediment of the Yellow River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive agricultural, industrial and urban development in the Yellow River, China, have modified the sediment-water balance, flow and inundation regimes, longitudinal connectivity, integrity of riparian vegetation, and water quality. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in the bed sediment of main channel and major reservoirs of the Yellow River are described in detail for the first time. A total of 74 taxa comprising 17

Weihua ZHAO; Haijun WANG; Hongzhu WANG; Paul G. CLOSE

2011-01-01

449

First case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902.  

PubMed Central

The first case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902 was reported in March 1998. The yellow fever virus genome was detected in postmortem liver biopsies by seminested polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis showed that this strain was most closely related to strains from Brazil and Ecuador.

Heraud, J. M.; Hommel, D.; Hulin, A.; Deubel, V.; Poveda, J. D.; Sarthou, J. L.; Talarmin, A.

1999-01-01

450

The control of yellow fever: a centennial account  

Microsoft Academic Search

? The historical toll Up to 1900, yellow fever was greatly feared as a tropical disease. It decimated incomers to Central and South America, whether they were traders, soldiers or settlers, and it gave to West Africa its reputation as the white man's grave. In the Caribbean, yellow fever enfeebled British and French expeditionary armies and it claimed many lives

Philip P. Mortimer

451

Conserving migrating shorebirds in the Yellow Sea region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow Sea Region lies between North and South Korea to the east and China to the west, and covers an area of 458 000 sq km. Biodiversity in the inter-tidal zone of the Yellow Sea Region is high: excellent feeding and roosting areas accom- modate many different species of waterbirds, and preliminary records indicate that the coastal zone of

C. Kelin; X. Qiang

452

Colour-Sense in Birds---Blue and Yellow Crocuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNLESS your readers are quite tired of the subject, may I add a fact which will be subversive of a good deal that has been written about yellow crocuses and sparrows. I dislike yellow crocuses, and four seasons since planted some hundreds of blue and white in the garden underneath my windows. For two seasons they flowered in beautiful profusion.

W. B. Tegetmeier

1877-01-01

453

Yellow Perch Research and Management in Lake Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is an important component of near-shore freshwater fish communities. It plays an important role in energy cycling and transfer, and is available to nearly all segments of the angling public and to commercial fisheries. Beginning around 1990, yellow perch population density declined in Lake Michigan due in part to an almost complete lack of recruitment. In

David F. Clapp; John M. Dettmers

2004-01-01

454

Microanalytical identification of Pb-Sb-Sn yellow pigment in historical European paintings and its differentiation from lead tin and Naples yellows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work is focused on identification of lead tin yellow types I and II, Naples yellow, and also on discrimination of a less common, distinct yellow pigment, the ternary Pb-Sb-Sn oxide.The knowledge about all those Pb-based yellows was in fact forgotten after introduction of modern synthetic yellows in 19th century. As late as in the last decade of the 20th

David Hradil; Tomáš Grygar; Janka Hradilová; Petr Bezdi?ka; Veronika Gr?nwaldová; Igor Fogaš; Costanza Miliani

2007-01-01

455

Development of HIFU Therapy System for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins  

SciTech Connect

High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment utilizing microbubbles was investigated in the present study. It is known that microbubbles have the potential to enhance the heating effects of an ultrasound field. In this study, the heat accompanying microbubble oscillation was used to occlude varicose veins. Alteration of veins was observed after ultrasound irradiation. Veins were resected by stripping. In this study, two vein conditions were adopted during HIFU irradiation; non-compressed and compressed. Compressing the vein was expected to improve occlusion by rubbing the altered intima under compressed conditions. The frequency of the ultrasound was 1.7 MHz, the intensity at the focus was 2800 W/cm{sup 2}, and the irradiation time was 20 s. In this study, the contrast agent Levovist registered was chosen as a microbubble source, and the void fraction (ratio of total gas volume to liquid) in the vein was fixed at 10{sup -5}. Under non-compressed conditions, changes were observed only at the adventitia of the vein anterior wall. In contrast, under compressed conditions, changes were observed from the intima to the adventitia of both the anterior and posterior walls, and they were partly stuck together. In addition, more experiments with hematoxylin-eosin staining suggested that the changes in the vein were more substantial under the latter conditions. From these results, it was confirmed that the vein was occluded more easily with vein compression.

Ota, Ryuhei; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Suzuki, Jun; Deguchi, Juno; Miyata, Tetsuro [Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2009-04-14

456

2D Optical Streaking for Ultra-Short Electron Beam Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

We propose a novel approach to measure short electron bunch profiles at micrometer level. Low energy electrons generated during beam-gas ionization are simultaneously modulated by the transverse electric field of a circularly-polarized laser, and then they are collected at a downstream screen where the angular modulation is converted to a circular shape. The longitudinal bunch profile is simply represented by the angular distribution of the electrons on the screen. We only need to know the laser wavelength for calibration and there is no phase synchronization problem. Meanwhile the required laser power is also relatively low in this setup. Some simulations examples and experimental consideration of this method are discussed. At Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), an S-band RF transverse deflector (TCAV) is used to measure the bunch length with a resolution 10 femtosecond (fs) rms. An X-band deflector (wavelength 2.6cm) is proposed recently to improve the resolution. However, at the low charge operation mode (20pC), the pulse length can be as short as fs. It is very challenging to measure femtosecond and sub-femtosecond level bunch length. One of the methods is switching from RF to {mu}m level wavelength laser to deflect the bunch. A powerful laser ({approx}10s GW) is required to deflect such a high energy beam (GeV) in a wiggler. Synchronization is another difficulty: the jitter between the bunch and the laser can be larger than the laser wavelength, which makes single-shot measurement impossible. To reduce the laser power, we propose to use ionized electrons from high energy electron beam and gas interaction for high energy electron bunch diagnostics. Similarly, the femtosecond X-ray streak camera uses X-ray ionization electrons to measure the X-ray pulse. The electrons generated by beam-gas ionization have low energy (eVs). Therefore, a lower laser power is possible to deflect such low energy electrons. Note that there is no field ionization in our case. To avoid field ionization, which occurs in plasma case, gases species with high field ionization threshold should be considered. For a linear polarized laser, the kick to the ionized electrons depends on the phase of the laser when the electrons are born and the unknown timing jitter between the electron beam and laser beam makes the data analysis very difficult. Here we propose to use a circular polarized laser to do a 2-dimensional (2D) streaking (both x and y) and measure the bunch length from the angular distribution on the screen, where the phase jitter causes only a rotation of the image on the screen without changing of the relative angular distribution. Also we only need to know the laser wavelength for calibration. A similar circular RF deflecting mode was used to measure long bunches. We developed a numerical particle-in-Cell (PIC) code to study the dynamics of ionization electrons with the high energy beam and the laser beam.

Ding, Y.T.; Huang, Z.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

2011-12-14

457

Observations of Wire Array Dynamics on the Z Accelerator using Optical Frames and Streak Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first laser shadowgraph measurements of wire array dynamics on Z using a sub-nanosecond visible framing camera to record 6 sequential frames. Simultaneously, a streak camera records the radial intensity versus time at a fixed height on the wire array. This set of complimentary diagnostics provides new possibilities for the direct observation of wire array ablation and stagnation dynamics with a 20-MA current driver. We observe a strong disagreement between experimental results and a 0-D compression trajectory. The compression starts later in time and has a steeper trajectory than the 0-D prediction due to prolonged plasma generation. Stainless steel wires are measured to expand with an initial velocity during the prepulse of 1.3 km/s. During the main pulse, the wires expansion velocity reaches values of 27 km/s. The velocity of the wire-array at stagnation is 200-400 km/s. Density perturbations are observed along the Z-axis as plasma, ablated from the wires, streams to the axis. The spatial period of this instability is 250 mm. Early in time, we observe small-scale perturbations in the wire array boundary, which transform to larger structures later in the implosion. Similar instabilities are observed in the creation of plasma on the return current conductor, which contains the wire array. Possible origins and growth rates for the instabilities, such as Rayleigh Taylor, the thermo-electric effect and other mechanisms will be discussed. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

Bliss, David E.; Sarkisov, Gennady S.; Rogowski, Sonrisa T.; Jones, Brent M.; Deeney, Chris; Nash, Thomas J.; Struve, Kenneth W.; McDaniel, Dillon H.

2003-10-01

458

Experimental observations of rapid Maize streak virus evolution reveal a strand-specific nucleotide substitution bias  

PubMed Central

Background Recent reports have indicated that single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses in the taxonomic families Geminiviridae, Parvoviridae and Anellovirus may be evolving at rates of ~10-4 substitutions per site per year (subs/site/year). These evolution rates are similar to those of RNA viruses and are surprisingly high given that ssDNA virus replication involves host DNA polymerases with fidelities approximately 10 000 times greater than those of error-prone viral RNA polymerases. Although high ssDNA virus evolution rates were first suggested in evolution experiments involving the geminivirus maize streak virus (MSV), the evolution rate of this virus has never been accurately measured. Also, questions regarding both the mechanistic basis and adaptive value of high geminivirus mutation rates remain unanswered. Results We determined the short-term evolution rate of MSV using full genome analysis of virus populations initiated from cloned genomes. Three wild type viruses and three defective artificial chimaeric viruses were maintained in planta for up to five years and displayed evolution rates of between 7.4 × 10-4 and 7.9 × 10-4 subs/site/year. Conclusion These MSV evolution rates are within the ranges observed for other ssDNA viruses and RNA viruses. Although no obvious evidence of positive selection was detected, the uneven distribution of mutations within the defective virus genomes suggests that some of the changes may have been adaptive. We also observed inter-strand nucleotide substitution imbalances that are consistent with a recent proposal that high mutation rates in geminiviruses (and possibly ssDNA viruses in general) may be due to mutagenic processes acting specifically on ssDNA molecules.

van der Walt, Eric; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind; Polston, Jane E; Rybicki, Edward P

2008-01-01

459

Diagnosis of uterine vein thrombosis on transvaginal ultrasound.  

PubMed

Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a potentially serious medical disorder, which may result in pulmonary embolism and death. Compression ultrasound is the investigation modality of choice for the diagnosis of DVT of the lower limb. Diagnosis of proximal thrombosis involving the pelvic veins is difficult and is usually made only after the thrombus extends into the veins of the lower limb. We present six cases of incidental uterine vein thrombosis diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. Our aim is to describe the technique of the examination of pelvic veins and criteria that could be used to diagnose uterine vein thrombosis. We also highlight difficulties in the management of women diagnosed with asymptomatic uterine vein thrombi as there is little evidence to guide clinicians in choosing between different treatment options. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:23716379

Mavrelos, D; Cohen, H; Pateman, K; Hoo, W; Foo, X; Jurkovic, D

2013-08-12

460

Internal Jugular Vein Entrapment in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient  

PubMed Central

We describe a multiple sclerosis patient presenting with compression of the internal jugular vein caused by aberrant omohyoid muscle. Previously this patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the same internal jugular vein. Ten months after this endovascular procedure, Doppler sonography revealed totally collapsed middle part of the treated vein with no outflow detected. Still, the vein widened and the flow was restored when the patient's mouth opened. Thus, the abnormality was likely to be caused by muscular compression. Surgical exploration confirmed that an atypical omohyoid muscle was squeezing the vein. Consequently, pathological muscle was transected. Sonographic control three weeks after surgical procedure revealed a decompressed vein with fully restored venous outflow. Although such a muscular compression can be successfully managed surgically, future research has to establish its clinical relevance.