Sample records for yellow vein streak

  1. Epidemiology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease is one of the most important diseases of blackberry in the United States. Several viruses are found associated with the symptomology but Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV) appears to be the most prevalent of all, leading to the need for a better understand...

  2. Comparison of wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) and barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) and barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV): 2, we made a comparison of the closely related barley yellow mosaic bymovirus (BaYMV) and wheat spindle. Leaves of BaYMV-infected winter barley and WSSMV-infected wheat typically showed similar symptoms

  3. REMOTE SENSING OF BARLEY YELLOW DWARF AND WHEAT STREAK MOSAIC DISEASE IN WINTER WHEAT CANOPIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficiency of field monitoring for barley yellow dwarf (BYD) and wheat streak mosaic (WSM) viral diseases would be improved with knowledge of reflected solar radiation from winter wheat crop canopies. Our objective was to characterize canopy spectral reflectance as well as other canopy and yield...

  4. Host range comparison of the causal agents of pepper yellow vein and lettuce big vein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Th. B. Rast

    1992-01-01

    A number of solanaceous and composite plant species were tested as hosts for the causal agents of pepper yellow vein (PYVA) and lettuce big vein (LBVA), transmitted by a pepper and a lettuce isolate ofOlpidium brassicae, respectively. The agents had the following artificial hosts in common:Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum melongena, Physalis floridana, Nicandra physaloides, Lactuca sativa, Sonchus oleraceus andL. virosa. Capsicum

  5. Association of a distinct strain of hollyhock yellow vein mosaic virus and Ludwigia leaf distortion betasatellite with yellow vein mosaic disease of hollyhock (Alcea rosea) in India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A; Kumar, S; Raj, S K; Pande, S S

    2014-10-01

    A distinct strain of hollyhock yellow vein mosaic virus (HoYVMV) and Ludwigia leaf distortion betasatellite (LuLDB) were associated with yellow vein mosaic of hollyhock. The viral DNA genome (JQ911766) and betasatellite (JQ408216) shared highest nucleotide sequence identity (89.2 %) with HoYVMV (the only available sequence in GenBank) and 92 % identity with LuLDB. Agroinfiltration of HoYVMV and LuLDB induced yellow vein mosaic symptoms on hollyhock, thereby demonstrating causality of the disease. PMID:24810100

  6. Indexing of yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Arpita

    2013-05-15

    The assessment of severity with chronological development of disease of mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus, cv. HC-583) on a particular diseased plant was studied. Based on the symptomatology and intensity of diseases caused by Begomovirus an empirical formula was developed. A methodology for assessing the disease intensity of yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta grown under natural field condition was proposed and it was validated by comparing with infected plants grown under field as well as glasshouse conditions. Quantitative assessment of the disease indicated that the disease index value at different stages of pathogenesis varied from 1.82 to 49.44 under field condition whereas the same varied from 2.78 to 50.83 under glasshouse condition. Mortality of infected leaves was noticed when the index value reached maximum. With the present methodology scoring of gradual development of disease has become possible for a particular plant and even for an individual leaf of a particular cultivar. PMID:24498814

  7. Occurrence of a Begomovirus with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta ( Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chatterjee; A. Roy; K. V. Padmalatha; V. G. Malathi; S. K. Ghosh

    2005-01-01

    A whitefly transmitted Begomovirus (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) with a satellite (?-DNA associated with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa) has been detected for the first time in mesta growing regions of India.

  8. EVALUATION OF COMMON BEAN FOR RESISTANCE TO CLOVER YELLOW VEIN VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) is a problematic virus causing the chocolate pod disease of common bean that has been plaguing bean production in the Great Lakes region since the rapid increase of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) populations in 2000. Resistance to ClYVV is not well understood. We s...

  9. Management of Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease of Okra Through Pesticide\\/Bio-pesticide and Suitable Cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SAFDAR ALI; M. A. KHAN; A. HABIB; S. RASHEED; Y. IFTIKHAR

    Four okra cultivars (Pahuja, Safal, Subz Pari and Surkh Bhindi) were cultivated in a field trial to determine the response of these to okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV) and to evaluate the efficacy of pesticide\\/bio-pesticide (Neem extract, Effective Microbes (EM) and Imidacloprid) against insect vector Bemisia tabaci Genn. Surkh Bhindi was found highly resistant, Subz Pari and Safal were

  10. Physiological response of yellow vein mosaic virus-infected bhendi [ Abelmoschus esculentus] leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parimala Palanisamy; Prabhu Inbaraj Michael; Muthuchelian Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    The effect of okra yellow vein mosaic virus infection on PS II efficiency and thylakoid membrane protein changes in field-grown bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus) leaves was studied. The degree of virus infection was determined by means of the ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv\\/Fm). Changes in photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins, nitrate reductase, photosynthetic activities and thylakoid membrane proteins were

  11. Low genetic diversity of Squash vein yellowing virus in wild and cultivated cucurbits in the U.S. suggests a recent introduction.

    PubMed

    Webster, Craig G; Adkins, Scott

    2012-02-01

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) isolates were collected from cultivated and weedy cucurbits representing major hosts and locations in the U.S. and analyzed to better understand the diversity and population structure. No differences in symptoms were observed in field-collected isolate source plants or subsequently inoculated greenhouse plants, and the complete genome of an SqVYV isolate from a wild cucurbit host (smellmelon, Cucumis melo var. dudaim) was highly similar (99.4% nucleotide identity, 99.3% amino acid identity) to the previously published type isolate from squash. Although analysis of the coat protein (CP) and two serine proteases (P1a and P1b) sequences for 41 isolates showed little diversity across seven years of sampling, it revealed two distinct groups of SqVYV isolates with low intra-group diversity. Our analyses also suggested that recombination had occurred between SqVYV isolates, similar to other ipomoviruses. Selection pressures on the genome regions analyzed were negative indicating purifying selection was occurring. The magnitude of negative selection in SqVYV was consistent with what has been reported for other ipomoviruses, and was greatest for the CP and least for the P1b. The observed genetic diversity was similar to that reported for Cucumber vein yellowing virus but less than that reported for Sweet potato mild mottle virus, Cassava brown streak virus and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus. Collectively, these results indicate that the current U.S. population of SqVYV has undergone a recent genetic bottleneck and was introduced from elsewhere. PMID:22142477

  12. Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease in India is caused by association of a DNA Beta satellite with a begomovirus.

    PubMed

    Jose, Joyce; Usha, Ramakrishnan

    2003-01-20

    Yellow vein mosaic disease is the major limitation in the production of bhendi or okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), an important vegetable crop of India. This disease is caused by a complex consisting of the monopartite begomovirus Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus (BYVMV, family: Geminiviridae) and a small satellite DNA beta component. BYVMV can systemically infect bhendi upon agroinoculation but produces only mild leaf curling in this host. DNA beta induces typical symptoms of bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease (BYVMD) when co-agroinoculated with the begomovirus to bhendi. The DNA beta component associated with BYVMD has a number of features in common with those reported for ageratum yellow vein disease and cotton leaf curl disease. BYVMV represents a new member of the emerging group of monopartite begomoviruses requiring a satellite component for symptom induction. PMID:12573576

  13. Distribution, epidemiology and molecular variability of the begomovirus complexes associated with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta in India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anirban; Acharyya, Sanchalika; Das, Subha; Ghosh, Raju; Paul, Sujay; Srivastava, Ram Kumar; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar

    2009-05-01

    Yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta (Hibiscus spp.) poses a serious threat to the cultivation of this crop in India. The disease was found to be associated with two different whitefly-transmitted monopartite begomoviruses, Mesta yellow vein mosaic virus and Mesta yellow vein mosaic Bahraich virus, together with two betasatellite species, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite and Ludwigia leaf distortion betasatellite. These begomovirus complexes were detected in different combinations throughout the mesta growing regions of India. All the eight cultivars tested were highly susceptible to the disease. The effect of the disease in terms of loss in fibre yield was greatest (around 70%) in plants that were inoculated at an early stage of growth. A regression approach was adopted to consider the relationship of whitefly vector populations with weather conditions and disease spread which explained that different conducive weather factors facilitated the build up of whitefly populations and contributed to the spread of the disease. PMID:19428737

  14. The cyv-2 resistance to Clover yellow vein virus in pea is controlled by the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Andrade; Yosuke Abe; Kenji S. Nakahara; Ichiro Uyeda

    2009-01-01

    The same mutant allele of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) that confers resistance to Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (sbm-1) and the white lupine strain of Bean yellow mosaic virus (wlv) also confers resistance to Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) in pea. The eIF4E genes from several pea lines were isolated and sequenced. Analysis of the eIF4E amino acid sequences from

  15. Agroinoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana with cloned honeysuckle yellow vein virus isolated from Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gunsup; Kim, Sunghan; Jung, Jihye; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Choi, Eunseok; Chang, Mooung; Lee, Sukchan

    2011-05-01

    A new honeysuckle yellow vein geminivirus (HYVV) isolate (2,763 nucleotides) and the HYVV-? satellite (1,227 nucleotides) from Korea were cloned and characterized from symptomatic leaves of Lonicera japonica with a yellow net mosaic appearance. Phylogenetic analysis of HYVV and 13 other begomoviruses revealed that HYVV has the highest nucleotide sequence homology to HYVV-UK2. Grafting challenge of a virus-free L. japonica (scion) on an HYVV-infected L. japonica (stock) resulted in the appearance of typical HYVV disease symptoms on the newly developed leaves of the scion. Two pMon521 plasmids containing 1.3 copies and 2.0 copies of the cloned HYVV isolate, respectively, were infectious and produced disease symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana after agroinoculation. We conclude that the causal agent of yellow net mosaic in L. japonica is a new Korean isolate of HYVV, based on sequence comparisons, agroinoculation-induced disease symptoms, electron microscopy, and phylogenetic analysis. PMID:21279729

  16. Complete genome sequence of nine isolates of canna yellow streak virus reveals its relationship to the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) subgroup of potyviruses.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ravendra P; Rajakaruna, Punsasi; Verchot, Jeanmarie

    2015-03-01

    Complete genome sequences were obtained from nine isolates of canna yellow streak virus (CaYSV). CaYSV belongs to the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) subgroup of potyviruses with johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV) as its closest relative. Multiple sequence alignments showed a pattern of amino acid substitutions in the CP sequences, which enabled us to relate these isolates to South East Asian or European isolates. Biological characterization of CaYSV identified Nicotiana benthamiana, Chenopodium quinoa and Phaseolus vulgaris as experimental hosts. Given the popularity and global trade of cannas, a clear picture of the genetic diversity of CaYSV is critical to disease management. PMID:25567205

  17. Inheritance of Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV) tolerance in a cultivar of okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Ali; M. Z. Hossain; N. C. Sarker

    2000-01-01

    An okra variety, IPSA Okra 1, tolerant to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV) was crossed to 3 susceptible genotypes viz. Parbhani Kranti, SL-44 and SL-46 to determine the nature of inheritance of tolerance of IPSA Okra 1. Grafting test was also done to know the nature of tolerance. It was revealed from the results of grafting test that the tolerance

  18. Progress and Challenges in Managing Watermelon Vine Decline caused by whitefly transmitted Squash Vein Yellowing Virus (SqVYV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) is an emerging threat to watermelon production in south-west and west-central Florida. Losses in 2004-2005 due to WVD were estimated to be more than 60 million U.S. dollars. The disease is caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), family: Potyviridae, genus: Ip...

  19. Molecular characterization of a citrus yellow vein clearing virus strain from China.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Song; Kurth, Elizabeth G; Peremyslov, Valera V; Changyong, Zhou; Dolja, Valerian V

    2015-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an isolate of citrus yellow vein clearing virus from Yunnan, China (CYVCV-RL), was determined following whole-genome amplification by RT-PCR. The CYVCV-RL genome was 7529 nt in length, excluding the 3' poly (A) tail, and contained six open reading frames (ORFs), resembling that of viruses belonging to the genus Mandarivirus in the family Alphaflexiviridae. Sequence analysis showed that the CYVCV-RL shared the greatest nucleotide sequence identity with the CYVCV-Y1 (JX040635) isolate from Turkey for the whole genome (97.1 %), 5' UTR (98.7 %), 3' UTR (100.0 %), and each of six ORFs (96.5 % to 97.8 %), suggesting that there is apparent genetic stability among CYVCV isolates of different geographic origin. PMID:25913691

  20. Identification and characterization of citrus yellow vein clearing virus, a putative new member of the genus Mandarivirus.

    PubMed

    Loconsole, G; Onelge, N; Potere, O; Giampetruzzi, A; Bozan, O; Satar, S; De Stradis, A; Savino, V; Yokomi, R K; Saponari, M

    2012-12-01

    Molecular features and genomic organization were determined for Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVCV), the putative viral causal agent of yellow vein clearing disease of lemon trees, reported in Pakistan, India, and more recently in Turkey and China. CYVCV isolate Y1 from Adana, Turkey, was used for deep sequencing analysis of the virus-induced small RNA fractions and for mechanical and graft inoculation of herbaceous and citrus indicator plants. A polyclonal antiserum was developed from CYVCV-Y1 purified from Phaseolus vulgaris and used in western blot assays to characterize the coat protein of CYVCV-Y1 and determine its serological relationship with related viruses. Contigs assembled from the Illumina sequenced short reads were used to construct the whole genome of Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVCV), consisting in a positive-sense RNA of 7,529 nucleotides and containing six predicted open reading frames. The CYVCV genome organization and size resembled that of flexiviruses, and search for sequence homologies revealed that Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) (Mandarivirus, Alphaflexiviridae) is the most closely related virus. However, CYVCV had an overall nucleotide sequence identity of ?74% with ICRSV. Although the two viruses were similar with regard to genome organization, viral particles, and herbaceous host range, CYVCV caused different symptoms in citrus and was serologically distinct from ICRSV. Primer pairs were designed and used to detect the virus by conventional and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on yellow vein clearing symptomatic field trees as well as graft- and mechanically inoculated host plants. Collectively, these data suggest that CYVCV is the causal agent of yellow vein clearing disease and represents a new species in the genus Mandarivirus. PMID:22913410

  1. Complete genome sequence and intracellular protein localization of Datura yellow vein nucleorhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Dietzgen, Ralf G; Innes, David J; Bejerman, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    A limited number of plant rhabdovirus genomes have been fully sequenced, making taxonomic classification, evolutionary analysis and molecular characterization of this virus group difficult. We have for the first time determined the complete genome sequence of 13,188 nucleotides of Datura yellow vein nucleorhabdovirus (DYVV). DYVV genome organization resembles that of its closest relative, Sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV), with six ORFs in antigenomic orientation, separated by highly conserved intergenic regions and flanked by complementary 3' leader and 5' trailer sequences. As is typical for nucleorhabdoviruses, all viral proteins, except the glycoprotein, which is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum, are localized to the nucleus. Nucleocapsid (N) protein, matrix (M) protein and polymerase, as components of nuclear viroplasms during replication, have predicted strong canonical nuclear localization signals, and N and M proteins exclusively localize to the nucleus when transiently expressed as GFP fusions. As in all nucleorhabdoviruses studied so far, N and phosphoprotein P interact when co-expressed, significantly increasing P nuclear localization in the presence of N protein. This research adds to the list of complete genomes of plant-infecting rhabdoviruses, provides molecular tools for further characterization and supports classification of DYVV as a nucleorhabdovirus closely related to but with some distinct differences from SYNV. PMID:25975739

  2. Host Range Studies for Tomato chlorosis virus , and Cucumber vein yellowing virus Transmitted by Bemisia  tabaci (Gennadius)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Morris; Elspeth Steel; Penny Smith; Neil Boonham; Nicola Spence; Ian Barker

    2006-01-01

    The Bemisia  tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B transmitted host range of Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), genus Crinivirus, Family Closteroviridae, and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), genus Ipomovirus, Family Potyviridae, was studied. New experimental hosts were identified for each of these viruses. Seventeen species in eight plant families\\u000a were assessed as potential hosts for ToCV. Infection in asymptomatic Anthriscus  cereifolium (chervil) test

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of beet necrotic yellow vein virus in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Na; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zong-Ying; Zhang, Guo-Zhen; Han, Cheng-Gui; Wang, Ying

    2015-07-01

    Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is a serious threat to the sugar beet industry worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the genetic diversity and population structure of BNYVV in China. Here, we analyzed multiple sequences from four genomic regions (CP, RNA3, RNA4 and RNA5) of a set of Chinese isolates. Sequence analyses revealed that several isolates were mixed infections of variants with different genotypes and/or different p25 tetrad motifs. In total, 12 distinct p25 tetrads were found in the Chinese BNYVV population, of which four tetrads were newly identified. Phylogenetic analyses based on four genes (CP, RNA3-p25, RNA4-p31 and RNA5-p26) in isolates from around the world revealed the existence of two to four groups, which mostly corresponded to previously reported phylogenetic groups. Two new subgroups and a new group were identified from the Chinese isolates in p25 and p26 trees, respectively. Selection pressure analysis indicated that there was a positive selection pressure on the p25 from the Chinese isolates, but the other three proteins were under a negative selection pressure. There was frequent gene flow between geographically distant populations, which meant that BNYVV populations from different provinces were not geographically differentiated. PMID:25997927

  4. A cDNA clone to clover yellow vein potyvirus genome is highly infectious.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Takahashi, T; Uyeda, I

    1997-01-01

    We obtained a highly infectious cDNA clone of clover yellow vein virus (CIYVV). The cDNA fragments, from which a full-length cDNA clone was constructed, were sequenced, and the complete nucleotide sequence of C1YVV RNA was determined. The viral genome is 9584 nucleotides (nt) in length excluding the poly(A) tail and contains one open reading frame (ORF) encoding a large polyprotein of 3072 amino acids. The non-coding region preceding the ORF is 190 nt long. The termination codon is followed by a 175-nt sequence. Seven potential protease NIa, one HC-pro and one P1 protease recognition sites were found in the C1YVV polyprotein by searching for cleavage consensus sequences among the potyvirus group. The cleavage dipeptides of C1YVV NIa protease are Q(E)/S(A,G). The F is conserved at the -2 position from the cleavage site except for at the P3/6K1 junction, and the V conserved at the -4 position among many potyviruses is not present at all. The genome organization of C1YVV was determined, and the amino acid sequence was compared with that of other potyviruses. The full-length cDNA clone of C1YVV was constructed by combining cDNA fragments and placed it under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The full-length cDNA was constructed so that no extra nucleotide was present at the transcription initiation site and only 10 adenine residues were present at the 3' end of the C1YVV cDNA clone. Mechanical inoculation of a circular-formed plasmid DNA onto broad bean seedlings led to systemic infection, and the symptoms were similar to those caused by the wild-type virus but rather mild. Plasmid diluted as low as 500 pg/microl was able to induce symptoms, demonstrating that this full-length C1YVV cDNA is more infectious than any other infectious cDNAs so far reported. Filamentous particles reacting with the antiserum to C1YVV were observed in the crude sap of infected plants by immunoelectron microscopy, and genome replication was demonstrated by RT-PCR of 3' non-coding regions of C1YVV genome in total plant RNAs. PMID:9311568

  5. Yellow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Woodward

    1871-01-01

    IT would seem to me that the great difficulty of conceiving yellow as a compound colour is the brightness or lightness of yellow, as compared with its components. In the spectrum, we have the maximum of light in the yellow, and it is against our experience to put two dark colours together and form one light one, as, for example,

  6. Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus 

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    . Infected wheat plants normally are stunted, with leaves mottled and streaked in green-yellow, parallel and discontinuous patterns (Fig. 1). This disease?s negative impact varies from year to year depending on its severity and distribution...; in the Southern Great Plains states, crop losses due to WSMV exceed $30 million in some years but are in- significant in others. High Plains Virus High Plains Virus (HPV), occasionally called High Plains Disease, is a relatively new virus identified...

  7. A resistance gene in common bean to Clover yellow vein virus is tightly linked with bc-3 gene which confers resistance to Bean common mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A strain of Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) that causes severe mosaic, top necrosis, stunting, and pod necrosis on infected plants has been plaguing snap bean production in the Great Lakes and Northeastern regions of the US since 2003. In preliminary virus screening experiments to identify resistan...

  8. Acquisition, transmission and host range of a begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta ( Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chatterjee; A. Roy; S. K. Ghosh

    2008-01-01

    Yellow vein mosaic, a disease causing serious reductions in fibre yield of mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa) and associated with a begomovirus, was effectively transmitted by cleft grafting and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), but not through seed or by mechanical means. Association of the begomovirus with infected experimental host plants was\\u000a determined by Southern hybridisation using a DNA A targeting

  9. A POD NECROSIS DISEASE (CHOCOLATE POD) OF SNAP BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) IN OREGON CAUSED BY A STRAIN OF CLOVER YELLOW VEIN VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) typically causes severe leaf mosaic symptoms and stunting in susceptible snap beans. During 2004, field-grown plants in the Willamette Valley, Oregon were observed with top necrosis and light brown discoloration on pods or “chocolate pod.” Leaf and pod samples were...

  10. 392291-VDR, a watermelon germplasm line with resistance to Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-caused watermelon vine decline (WVD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    392291-VDR (vine decline resistant) is a watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) germplasm line having resistance to watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV). The line is derived from the U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 392291, after succ...

  11. Association of a recombinant Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus with yellow vein and leaf curl disease of okra in India.

    PubMed

    Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Devaraju, A; Jalali, Salil; Krishna Reddy, M

    2013-09-01

    A begomovirus isolate (OY136A) collected from okra plants showing upward leaf curling, vein clearing, vein thickening and yellowing symptoms from Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India was characterized. The sequence comparisons revealed that, this virus isolate share highest nucleotide identity with isolates of Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus (CLCuBV) (AY705380) (92.8 %) and Okra enation leaf curl virus (81.1-86.2 %). This is well supported by phylogentic analysis showing, close clustering of the virus isolate with CLCuBV. With this data, based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus Begomovirus, the present virus isolate is classified as a new strain of CLCuBV, for which CLCuBV-[India: Bangalore: okra: 2006] additional descriptor is proposed. The betasatellite (KC608158) associated with the virus is having more than 95 % sequence similarity with the cotton leaf curl betasatellites (CLCuB) available in the GenBank.The recombination analysis suggested, emergence of this new strain of okra infecting begomovirus might have been from the exchange of genetic material between BYVMV and CLCuMuV. The virus was successfully transmitted by whitefly and grafting. The host range of the virus was shown to be very narrow and limited to two species in the family Malvaceae, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and hollyhock (Althaea rosea), and four in the family Solanaceae. PMID:24426275

  12. Primitive Streak, Oblique Overview

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

    2011-06-23

    This FlashTM animation is the seventh and last of a series that presents the primitive streak from different angles. This installment displays the streak from an oblique angle, which provides an overview of simultaneous processes. Cells that ingress through the steak early insert into the underlying hypoblast and differentiate into endodermal cells. The notochordal process emerges from HensenÂ?s node. Mesenchyme dissociates from the streak and spreads throughout the germ disc. The distal end of the notochordal process fuses with the endoderm and flattens into the notochordal plate. The plate dissociates form the endoderm to form the solid notochord. Eventually the streak completely regresses, leaving the three germ layers; ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm, with the notochord buried in the paraxial mesoderm. To open the animation using Internet Explorer follow these steps. (1.) Click the link for the animation. (2.) A dialog box may pop up that begins with the statement "Windows cannot open this file:" If this box does not appear proceed to step four. If it does choose "Select the program from a list," then click OK. (3.) Another dialog box will pop up that lists different programs. Make sure "Internet Explorer" is selected, then click OK. (4.) Internet Explorer will pop up. Beneath the toolbars at the top of the window a yellow bar will appear that reads "To help protect your security, Internet Explorer has restricted this webpage from running scripts or Active X controls that could access your computer. Click here for options..." Pass the cursor over this yellow bar and click the right mouse button. (5.) A dialog box will pop up. Left click the option "Allow Blocked Content." (6.) Another dialog box will appear labeled "Security Warning" asking you to confirm that you want to run the content. Click "Yes." (7.) The Flash animation will appear in the Internet Explorer Window. (8.) Instructions for navigating the lesson are provided by the first frame of the animation.

  13. Characterization of the Cryptic AV3 Promoter of Ageratum Yellow Vein Virus in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Chen; Wu, Chia-Ying; Lai, Yi-Chin; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Hu, Chung-Chi

    2014-01-01

    A cryptic prokaryotic promoter, designated AV3 promoter, has been previously identified in certain begomovirus genus, including ageratum yellow vein virus isolate NT (AYVV-NT). In this study, we demonstrated that the core nucleotides in the putative ?10 and ?35 boxes are necessary but not sufficient for promoter activity in Escherichia coli, and showed that AYVV-NT AV3 promoter could specifically interact with single-stranded DNA-binding protein and sigma 70 of E. coli involved in transcription. Several AYVV-NT-encoded proteins were found to increase the activity of AV3 promoter. The transcription start sites downstream to AV3 promoter were mapped to nucleotide positions 803 or 805 in E. coli, and 856 in Nicotiana benthamiana. The eukaryotic activity of AV3 promoter and the translatability of a short downstream open reading frame were further confirmed by using a green fluorescent protein reporter construct in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. These results suggested that AV3 promoter might be a remnant of evolution that retained cryptic activity at present. PMID:25268755

  14. Wind Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 17 September 2003

    Bright wind streaks are present in the lee of craters and other obstacles in this image, located in Sinus Sabaeus, near the Martian equator. These streaks indicate that the local winds blow from the northeast (upper right in the image). The brightness of the streaks indicates that either bright material has been deposited in the lee of the craters, or that the surface has eroded preferentially in the lee of craters, exposing an underlying bright material. Because the streaks are bright regardless of the surrounding surface brightness, the first hypothesis most likely. The streaks probably all represent deposits of the same bright material that settled out of the atmosphere in the wind shelter provided by topographic peaks.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.3, Longitude 14.1 East (345.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Presence of P1b and absence of HC-Pro in Squash vein yellowing virus suggests a general feature of the genus Ipomovirus in the family Potyviridae.

    PubMed

    Li, Weimin; Hilf, Mark E; Webb, Susan E; Baker, Carlye A; Adkins, Scott

    2008-08-01

    The genus Ipomovirus is one of six currently recognized genera in the family Potyviridae. The complete nucleotide sequence of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a putative ipomovirus recently described in Florida, has been determined. The 9836 nt SqVYV genomic RNA [excluding the poly(A) tail] has one large open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein of 3172 amino acids, typical of the genome organization for most members in the family Potyviridae. The 10 mature proteins predicted to be derived from the SqVYV polyprotein include P1a and P1b but no HC-Pro, similar to Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) but different from Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV), both recognized members of the genus Ipomovirus. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins supports classification of SqVYV as a novel species within the genus Ipomovirus. However, the similar genome organization strategy of SqVYV and CVYV, which differs from that of SPMMV, indicates that the taxonomy of the genus Ipomovirus needs to be re-examined and a new genus created within the family Potyviridae to accommodate the observed discrepancies in ipomovirus genome organization. PMID:18455828

  16. Primitive Streak (dorsal view)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

    2011-06-23

    This FlashTM animation is the first of a seven part series that presents the primitive streak from different angles. This installment displays the dorsal view, which provides an overview of elongation and regression. Epiblast is seen migrating medially, towards and into the streak. The appearance of the neural tube and somites demonstrates that morphogenesis commences before the streak recedes away.

  17. Identification of sequences required for AL2-mediated activation of the tomato golden mosaic virus-yellow vein BR1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Berger, Mary R; Sunter, Garry

    2013-06-01

    A 108 bp sequence has been identified in the tomato golden mosaic virus-yellow vein (yvTGMV) B component that is necessary and sufficient for AL2-mediated activation of the BR1 promoter. The sequence appears to have a bipartite arrangement, with elements located between -144 to -77 and -59 to -36 from the transcription start site, with both being required for activation by AL2. These sequences are located upstream of a TATA box and bind nuclear proteins from spinach, tomato and Arabidopsis. These sequences are also capable of binding Arabidopsis PPD2, which has been shown previously to interact with the yvTGMV coat protein (CP) promoter. We have identified two putative transcription factor-binding sites (CCAAT and GTGANTG10) that are conserved in sequences necessary for activation of the yvTGMV BR1, as well as the yvTGMV and cabbage leaf curl virus (CabLCV) CP promoters, which are all activated by AL2. The yvTGMV BR1 promoter exhibits AL2-independent expression in vascular tissue, similar to the yvTGMV, CabLCV and spinach curly top virus CP promoters. Together, this further confirms a common regulatory mechanism for AL2-mediated activation of bipartite begomovirus promoters. PMID:23486662

  18. P3N-PIPO of Clover yellow vein virus exacerbates symptoms in pea infected with white clover mosaic virus and is implicated in viral synergism.

    PubMed

    Hisa, Yusuke; Suzuki, Haruka; Atsumi, Go; Choi, Sun Hee; Nakahara, Kenji S; Uyeda, Ichiro

    2014-01-20

    Mixed infection of pea (Pisum sativum) with Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) and White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) led to more severe disease symptoms (a phenomenon called viral synergism). Similar to the mixed ClYVV/WClMV infection, a WClMV-based vector encoding P3N-PIPO of ClYVV exacerbated the disease symptoms. Infection with the WClMV vector encoding ClYVV HC-Pro (a suppressor of RNA silencing involved in potyviral synergisms), also resulted in more severe symptoms, although to a lesser extent than infection with the vector encoding P3N-PIPO. Viral genomic RNA accumulated soon after inoculation (at 2 and 4 days) at higher levels in leaves inoculated with WClMV encoding HC-Pro but at lower levels in leaves inoculated with WClMV encoding P3N-PIPO than in peas infected with WClMV encoding GFP. Our results suggest that ClYVV P3N-PIPO is involved in the synergism between ClYVV and WClMV during pea infection through an unknown mechanism different from suppression of RNA silencing. PMID:24418553

  19. Microchannel plate streak camera

    DOEpatents

    Wang, C.L.

    1984-09-28

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (uv to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 keV x-rays.

  20. Microchannel plate streak camera

    DOEpatents

    Wang, C.L.

    1989-03-21

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras is disclosed. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1,000 KeV x-rays. 3 figs.

  1. Microchannel plate streak camera

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Ching L. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.

  2. Deep Sequencing–Based Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Comprehensive Insights into the Responses of Nicotiana benthamiana to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus Infections Containing or Lacking RNA4

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huiyan; Sun, Haiwen; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yongliang; Wang, Xianbing; Li, Dawei; Yu, Jialin; Han, Chenggui

    2014-01-01

    Background Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), encodes either four or five plus-sense single stranded RNAs and is the causal agent of sugar beet rhizomania disease, which is widely distributed in most regions of the world. BNYVV can also infect Nicotiana benthamiana systemically, and causes severe curling and stunting symptoms in the presence of RNA4 or mild symptoms in the absence of RNA4. Results Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analyses showed that the RNA4-encoded p31 protein fused to the red fluorescent protein (RFP) accumulated mainly in the nuclei of N. benthamiana epidermal cells. This suggested that severe RNA4-induced symptoms might result from p31-dependent modifications of the transcriptome. Therefore, we used next-generation sequencing technologies to analyze the transcriptome profile of N. benthamiana in response to infection with different isolates of BNYVV. Comparisons of the transcriptomes of mock, BN3 (RNAs 1+2+3), and BN34 (RNAs 1+2+3+4) infected plants identified 3,016 differentially expressed transcripts, which provided a list of candidate genes that potentially are elicited in response to virus infection. Our data indicate that modifications in the expression of genes involved in RNA silencing, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, cellulose synthesis, and metabolism of the plant hormone gibberellin may contribute to the severe symptoms induced by RNA4 from BNYVV. Conclusions These results expand our understanding of the genetic architecture of N. benthamiana as well as provide valuable clues to identify genes potentially involved in resistance to BNYVV infection. Our global survey of gene expression changes in infected plants reveals new insights into the complicated molecular mechanisms underlying symptom development, and aids research into new strategies to protect crops against viruses. PMID:24416380

  3. The cysteine-rich proteins of beet necrotic yellow vein virus and tobacco rattle virus contribute to efficient suppression of silencing in roots.

    PubMed

    Andika, Ida Bagus; Kondo, Hideki; Nishiguchi, Masamichi; Tamada, Tetsuo

    2012-08-01

    Many plant viruses encode proteins that suppress RNA silencing, but little is known about the activity of silencing suppressors in roots. This study examined differences in the silencing suppression activity of different viruses in leaves and roots of Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Infection by tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus Y and cucumber mosaic virus but not potato virus X (PVX) resulted in strong silencing suppression activity of a transgene in both leaves and roots, whereas infection by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and tobacco rattle virus (TRV) showed transgene silencing suppression in roots but not in leaves. For most viruses tested, viral negative-strand RNA accumulated at a very low level in roots, compared with considerable levels of positive-strand genomic RNA. Co-inoculation of leaves with PVX and either BNYVV or TRV produced an increase in PVX negative-strand RNA and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) accumulation in roots. The cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) BNYVV p14 and TRV 16K showed weak silencing suppression activity in leaves. However, when either of these CRPs was expressed from a PVX vector, there was an enhancement of PVX negative-strand RNA and sgRNA accumulation in roots compared with PVX alone. Such enhancement of PVX sgRNAs was also observed by expression of CRPs of other viruses and the well-known suppressors HC-Pro and p19 but not of the potato mop-top virus p8 CRP. These results indicate that BNYVV- and TRV-encoded CRPs suppress RNA silencing more efficiently in roots than in leaves. PMID:22647371

  4. Safflor yellow B suppresses angiotensin II-mediated human umbilical vein cell injury via regulation of Bcl-2/p22{sup phox} expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chaoyun; He, Yanhao [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Disease, Ministry of Education, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Yang, Ming; Sun, Hongliu; Zhang, Shuping [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Wang, Chunhua, E-mail: chunhuawang2012@163.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Angiotensin II (Ang II) can cause endothelial dysfunction by promoting intracellular ROS generation. Safflor yellow B (SYB) effectively inhibits ROS generation by upregulating Bcl-2 expression. In this study, we examined the effects of SYB on Ang II-induced injury to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and elucidated the roles of NADPH oxidase and Bcl-2. We treated cultured HUVECs with Ang II, SYB, and Bcl-2 siRNA, and determined NADPH oxidase activity and ROS levels. Furthermore, cellular and mitochondrial physiological states were evaluated, and the expression levels of target proteins were analyzed. Ang II significantly enhanced intracellular ROS levels, caused mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, and decreased cell viability, leading to apoptosis. This was associated with increased expression of AT1R and p22{sup phox}, increased NADPH oxidase activity, and an increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, leading to decreases in antioxidant enzyme activities, which were further strengthened after blocking Bcl-2. Compared to Ang II treatment alone, co-treatment with SYB significantly reversed HUVEC injury. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SYB could significantly protect endothelial cells from Ang II-induced cell damage, and that it does so by upregulating Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting ROS generation. - Highlights: • Angiotensin II depresses mitochondria physiological function. • Angiotensin II activates NADPH oxidase via up-regulating expresion of p22{sup phox}. • Bcl-2 plays a pivotal role in improving mitochondria function and regulates ROS level. • Inhibitor of Bcl-2 promotes angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury. • SYB attenuates angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury via up regulating Bcl-2 expression.

  5. Visible Embryo: Primitive Streak

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carmen Arbona (Mouseworks)

    2006-09-08

    the page on early placentation and primitive streak formation from a comprehensive resource of information on human development from conception to birth, designed for both medical student and interested lay people.

  6. Polar Dust Devil Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image of dunes in the martian north polar region is important because it shows one of the highest northern latitude views of streaks thought to be made by passing dust devils. The dark, thin, filamentary streaks on the dunes and on the adjacent plains were probably formed by dust devils. The dunes occur near 76.6oN, 62.7oW. Dust devil streaks are observed on Mars at very high latitudes, such as this, all the way down to the equator. They are also seen at all elevations, from the deepest parts of the Hellas Basin to the summit of Olympus Mons. This picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  7. Devil-Streaked Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    19 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark streaks on a plain south of the giant impact basin, Hellas Planitia. The streaks map the routes traveled by dozens of individual southern spring and early summer dust devils.

    Location near: 68.4oS, 296.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  8. Streak camera receiver definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Hunkler, L. T., Sr.; Letzring, S. A.; Jaanimagi, P.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed streak camera definition studies were made as a first step toward full flight qualification of a dual channel picosecond resolution streak camera receiver for the Geoscience Laser Altimeter and Ranging System (GLRS). The streak camera receiver requirements are discussed as they pertain specifically to the GLRS system, and estimates of the characteristics of the streak camera are given, based upon existing and near-term technological capabilities. Important problem areas are highlighted, and possible corresponding solutions are discussed.

  9. MAIZE FINE STREAK VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The report outlines the salient features of maize fine streak virus (MFSV) including a general description of the causal virus species, virion properties, genome description, the relationship of the virus to other taxa, biological properties of the disease and agronomic aspects of the disease. Maize...

  10. The Primitive Streak, Cross Section

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

    2011-06-23

    This FlashTM animation is the third of a seven part series that presents the primitive streak from different angles. This installment displays the cross section, which is conducive to observing invagination. Epiblast cells ingress through the middle of the germ disc, to differentiate into either endoderm or mesenchymal mesoderm. The endoderm proliferates to drive the hypoblast into the extraembryonic endoderm of the yolk sac. The mesenchyme spreads between the epiblast and endoderm. Although not drawn to scale, the progressive thickening from lateral to paraxial mesoderm is depicted. To open the animation using Internet Explorer follow these steps. (1.) Click the link for the animation. (2.) A dialog box may pop up that begins with the statement "Windows cannot open this file:" If this box does not appear proceed to step four. If it does choose "Select the program from a list," then click OK. (3.) Another dialog box will pop up that lists different programs. Make sure "Internet Explorer" is selected, then click OK. (4.) Internet Explorer will pop up. Beneath the toolbars at the top of the window a yellow bar will appear that reads "To help protect your security, Internet Explorer has restricted this webpage from running scripts or Active X controls that could access your computer. Click here for options..." Pass the cursor over this yellow bar and click the right mouse button. (5.) A dialog box will pop up. Left click the option "Allow Blocked Content." (6.) Another dialog box will appear labeled "Security Warning" asking you to confirm that you want to run the content. Click "Yes." (7.) The Flash animation will appear in the Internet Explorer Window. (8.) Instructions for navigating the lesson are provided by the first frame of the animation.

  11. Black Streak of Edible Burdock Caused by Itersonilia perplexans in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harukuni HORITA; Shinji YASUOKA

    2002-01-01

      Black streak disease of edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.) has been observed periodically in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan since 1988. Symptoms appeared initially as small, dark brown\\u000a to black spots on the leaf veins and petioles. The necrotic spots developed longitudinally along the leaf veins or petioles.\\u000a Diseased leaf veins or petioles occasionally snapped off at the necrotic lesions. An Itersonilia

  12. Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    Virus First discovered in Nebraska in 1922, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) remains a threat today across most of the U.S. Central Plains. WSMV affects spring wheat, barley, corn, triticale, rye and numerous other annual and perennial grasses... have tre- mendous reproductive capability, enabling large populations to build. The mite is most active during warm weather, with temperatures of 75-80 degrees F optimum for reproduction. Mites require a living grass host to survive the summer; sum...

  13. Dust Devil Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    27 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a plethora of dark streaks created by spring and summer dust devil activity in Argyre Planitia.

    Location near: 64.9oS, 8.3oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  14. Dust Devil Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    At first glance, the dust devil streaks observed in this THEMIS image of the martian northern plains may look similar to many other images. However, what makes this THEMIS image so interesting are the many streaks that trend over hills, mounds, and valleys. Many of the dust devil streaks previously observed occur in very flat and dusty regions. This unique image gives hints to the dynamic nature of the dust devil streak formational process.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 53.8, Longitude 200.9 East (159.1 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  15. Travelers' Health: Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Home Destinations Travel Notices Find a Clinic Yellow Fever Vaccinations Clinics FAQ Disease Directory Information Centers For Travelers Common Travel Health Topics Adopting a Child from Another Country Adventure ... Yellow Book Contents Chapter 2 (19) Deep Vein Thrombosis & ...

  16. Bright Devil Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    4 March 2005 In honor of Giovanni V. Schiaparelli's 170th birthday, we present this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image showing light-toned dust devil streaks on the southern floor of Schiaparelli Crater.

    Location near: 5.3oS, 343.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  17. Streak generation in wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pook, David A.; Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    2014-07-01

    Computational results are presented which co-validate published experimental observations of steady streaks, deliberately generated by the steady wake of a wire placed upstream of a flat plate with a prescribed leading edge. The largest streak occurs when the wake is generated from a wire placed upstream of the wind tunnel contraction. Normal vorticity passing through the contraction leads to the creation of streamwise vorticity in the test-section via tilting and stretching. The computational results allow the original experiment to be reinterpreted as a receptivity experiment that demonstrates the boundary layer is more receptive to steady streamwise vorticity than normal vorticity. It also suggests an interesting mechanism for the generation of Klebanoff streaks in wind tunnels. The effect of shifting the attachment point at the leading edge on receptivity is also demonstrated. The streak growth is compared to the Optimal streak often used in computational studies. The modal growth of the streak generated by free-stream normal vorticity is found to have a streamwise location of peak energy close to the Optimal streak for wavelengths larger than the leading edge thickness. However, the location of the peak energy for the streamwise vorticity streak varies substantially with wavelength. Differences in wall-normal profiles are also noted.

  18. Light and Dark Slope Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    21 July 2004 Dark slope streaks are a common feature on slopes thickly-mantled by dust, especially in the Tharsis, Arabia, and western Amazonis regions of Mars. Less common are light-toned slope streaks, which often occur in the same area as dark streaks. They are most common in Arabia Terra, and some are shown in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. Slope streaks are probably the result of sudden avalanches of extremely dry dust. The behavior of the avalanching dust is somewhat fluid-like, and new streaks have been observed to form over intervals of a few months to a Mars year. This image is located near 13.4oN, 340.3oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  19. Sexual selection and variation in reproductive strategy in male yellow warblers ( Dendroica petechia )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael V. Studd; Raleigh J. Robertson

    1985-01-01

    Male yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) exhibit extensive variation in the amount and conspicuousness of the sexually distinctive brown streaking on the breast. We investigated this intraspecific variation in degree of sexual dichromatism to see if male plumage rank (essentially the amount of brown streaking) is correlated with the amount of reproductive effort allocated to parental investment, as sexual selection theory

  20. Streaking into middle school science: The Dell Streak pilot project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Susan Eudy

    A case study is conducted implementing the Dell Streak seven-inch android device into eighth grade science classes of one teacher in a rural middle school in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. The purpose of the study is to determine if the use of the Dell Streaks would increase student achievement on standardized subject testing, if the Streak could be used as an effective instructional tool, and if it could be considered an effective instructional resource for reviewing and preparing for the science assessments. A mixed method research design was used for the study to analyze both quantitative and qualitative results to determine if the Dell Streaks' utilization could achieve the following: 1. instructional strategies would change, 2. it would be an effective instructional tool, and 3. a comparison of the students' test scores and benchmark assessments' scores would provide statistically significant difference. Through the use of an ANOVA it was determined a statistically significant difference had occurred. A Post Hoc analysis was conducted to identify where the difference occurred. Finally a T-test determined was there was no statistically significance difference between the mean End-of-Grade tests and four quarterly benchmark scores of the control and the experimental groups. Qualitative research methods were used to gather results to determine if the Streaks were an effective instructional tool. Classroom observations identified that the teacher's teaching styles and new instructional strategies were implemented throughout the pilot project. Students had an opportunity to complete a questionnaire three times during the pilot project. Results revealed what the students liked about using the devices and the challenges they were facing. The teacher completed a reflective questionnaire throughout the pilot project and offered valuable reflections about the use of the devices in an educational setting. The reflection data supporting the case study was drawn from the teacher's statements regarding the change in instructional delivery as a respect of using the students' device. The results section of the study will elaborate upon these findings. The study recommendations on the use of the Dell Streak device will address whether further actions as the use of the Streak technology in the classroom and summary section.

  1. Slope Streaks in Terra Sabaea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    This HiRISE image shows the rim of a crater in the region of Terra Sabaea in the northern hemisphere of Mars.

    The subimage (figure 1) is a close-up view of the crater rim revealing dark and light-toned slope streaks. Slope streak formation is among the few known processes currently active on Mars. While their mechanism of formation and triggering is debated, they are most commonly believed to form by downslope movement of extremely dry sand or very fine-grained dust in an almost fluidlike manner (analogous to a terrestrial snow avalanche) exposing darker underlying material.

    Other ideas include the triggering of slope streak formation by possible concentrations of near-surface ice or scouring of the surface by running water from aquifers intercepting slope faces, spring discharge (perhaps brines), and/or hydrothermal activity.

    Several of the slope streaks in the subimage, particularly the three longest darker streaks, show evidence that downslope movement is being diverted around obstacles such as large boulders. Several streaks also appear to originate at boulders or clumps of rocky material.

    In general, the slope streaks do not have large deposits of displaced material at their downslope ends and do not run out onto the crater floor suggesting that they have little reserve kinetic energy. The darkest slope streaks are youngest and can be seen to cross cut and superpose older and lighter-toned streaks. The lighter-toned streaks are believed to be dark streaks that have lightened with time as new dust is deposited on their surface.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_001808_1875 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Dec-2006. The complete image is centered at 7.4 degrees latitude, 47.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 272.1 km (170.1 miles). At this distance the image scale is 54.4 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 163 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 03:36 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 53 degrees, thus the sun was about 37 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 150.7 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Summer.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  2. Dark streaks on talus slopes, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, H. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.

    1984-01-01

    High-resolution pictures of talus slopes on Mars show small, dark streaks that characteristically widen downward. These streaks are different from the thin and even streaks of various albedos that stream from cliffs on talus slopes, but gradations between the two streak types occur and not all streaks can be classified with confidence. In order to study the nature and origin of the small, widening, dark streaks, all Viking pictures with a resolution of less than 100 m/pixel were surveyed. To date several hundred streaks were located, but only few are of high enough resolution to be confidently identified as widening downwards. The approximate dimensions of the streaks were measured and their shapes, numbers, position, and spacing on slopes were noted. They were plotted on a topographic map, and their relation to topography, geologic units, and regions of distinct thermal inertia and albedo were studied. Also noted was the season at which images containing streaks were acquired and the direction of illumination. Albedo measurements are in progress. Several streaks can be seen stereoscopically, but none are observed on color images. The observation of small dark streaks on talus slopes on Mars is compatible with an interpretation of their origin as eruptions of small masses of wet debris in places where steep walls intersect aquifers or where seasonal equatorial warming permits the local melting of ground ice.

  3. Varicose Veins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... skin surface ( Figure ). View larger version: In this window In a new window Download as PowerPoint Slide Figure. Types of varicose ... or superficial veins. View this table: In this window In a new window Table 1. Risk Factors ...

  4. Subterranean clover red leaf virus and bean yellow mosaic virus in alsike clover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Ashby

    1976-01-01

    Subterranean clover red leaf virus (SCRLV) and bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) were isolated from alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L.) grown in experimental plots on the Canterbury Plains. SCRLV caused reddening of older leaves, and BYMV caused yellowing and streaking of the leaves of infected plants. Some plants were infected by both viruses. A survey in the mid-altitude zone (50D-1000

  5. Yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Monath, Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease occurs in tropical areas of South America and Africa. It is a disease of major historical importance, but remains a threat to travelers to and residents of endemic areas despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 70 years. An important aspect is the receptivity of many non-endemic areas to introduction and spread of yellow fever. This paper reviews the clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of yellow fever, with an emphasis on recent changes in the distribution and incidence of the disease. Recent knowledge about yellow fever 17D vaccine mechanism of action and safety are discussed. PMID:25453327

  6. Secondary threshold amplitudes for sinuous streak breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossu, Carlo; Brandt, Luca; Bagheri, Shervin; Henningson, Dan S.

    2011-07-01

    The nonlinear stability of laminar sinuously bent streaks is studied for the plane Couette flow at Re = 500 in a nearly minimal box and for the Blasius boundary layer at Re?*=700. The initial perturbations are nonlinearly saturated streamwise streaks of amplitude AU perturbed with sinuous perturbations of amplitude AW. The local boundary of the basin of attraction of the linearly stable laminar flow is computed by bisection and projected in the AU - AW plane providing a well defined critical curve. Different streak transition scenarios are seen to correspond to different regions of the critical curve. The modal instability of the streaks is responsible for transition for AU = 25%-27% for the considered flows, where sinuous perturbations of amplitude below AW ? 1%-2% are sufficient to counteract the streak viscous dissipation and induce breakdown. The critical amplitude of the sinuous perturbations increases when the streamwise streak amplitude is decreased. With secondary perturbations amplitude AW ? 4%, breakdown is induced on stable streamwise streaks with AU ? 13%, following the secondary transient growth scenario first examined by Schoppa and Hussain [J. Fluid Mech. 453, 57 (2002)]. A cross-over, where the critical amplitude of the sinuous perturbation becomes larger than the amplitude of streamwise streaks, is observed for streaks of small amplitude AU < 5%-6%. In this case, the transition is induced by an initial transient amplification of streamwise vortices, forced by the decaying sinuous mode. This is followed by the growth of the streaks and final breakdown. The shape of the critical AU - AW curve is very similar for Couette and boundary layer flows and seems to be relatively insensitive to the nature of the edge states on the basin boundary. The shape of this critical curve indicates that the stability of streamwise streaks should always be assessed in terms of both the streak amplitude and the amplitude of spanwise velocity perturbations.

  7. Dune and Dust Devil Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-474, 5 September 2003

    This August 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a dark sand dune on the floor of a crater at 54.9oS, 342.5oW. Recent dust devils have disrupted a thin coating of dust on the otherwise dark dune; these wind phenomena created the plethora of markings and streaks on the dune. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  8. Laminar streak enhancement using streamwise grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Carlos; Martín, Juan Ángel

    2011-11-01

    Laminar streak promotion in a flat plate boundary layer results in an increase of the stability of the Tollmien-Schlichting waves with respect to that of the 2D Blasius profile. This stabilization delays the laminar-turbulent transition, increasing the laminar phase of the flow. The stabilization effect is stronger for higher streak amplitudes, and therefore simple ways of generating high amplitude stable streaks are sought to be used as boundary layer flow control methods. In a recent experiment [Tallamelli & Franson,AIAA 2010-4291] high amplitude stable steady streaks have been produced using Miniature Vortex Generators (MGVs), where one array of MGVs is used to excite the streak and a second array is used downstream to enhance their amplitude. In this presentation we numerically explore the possibility of enhancing the streaks using a different passive mechanism: streamwise grooves carved in the plate. We will present some numerical simulations for different values of the spanwise period of the streaks and of the grooves, and we will show the combinations that provide maximum streak amplitude.

  9. Direct readout devices for streak cameras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Cheng; S. W. Thomas; E. K. Storm; W. R. McLerran; G. R. Tripp; L. W. Coleman

    1977-01-01

    Two techniques are used to obtain a direct readout of an ultrafast streak camera. The first method uses a linear solid-state Reticon diode array, and the second technique entails the use of a SEC vidicon camera. Both methods use fiber optics to couple the light from the output of the streak camera to the sensor. In addition, the SEC vidicon

  10. Direct readout devices for streak cameras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Cheng; S. W. Thomas; E. K. Storm; W. R. McLerran; G. R. Tripp; L. W. Coleman

    1976-01-01

    Two techniques are used to obtain a direct readout of an ultrafast streak camera. The first method uses a linear solid state diode array and the second technique entails the use of a vidicon camera. Both methods use fiber optics to couple the light from the output of the streak camera to the sensor. In addition, the vidicon is interfaced

  11. Wind Streaks on Earth; Exploration and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Zada, Aviv Lee; Blumberg, Dan G.; Maman, Shimrit

    2015-04-01

    Wind streaks, one of the most common aeolian features on planetary surfaces, are observable on the surface of the planets Earth, Mars and Venus. Due to their reflectance properties, wind streaks are distinguishable from their surroundings, and they have thus been widely studied by remote sensing since the early 1970s, particularly on Mars. In imagery, these streaks are interpreted as the presence - or lack thereof - of small loose particles on the surface deposited or eroded by wind. The existence of wind streaks serves as evidence for past or present active aeolian processes. Therefore, wind streaks are thought to represent integrative climate processes. As opposed to the comprehensive and global studies of wind streaks on Mars and Venus, wind streaks on Earth are understudied and poorly investigated, both geomorphologically and by remote sensing. The aim of this study is, thus, to fill the knowledge gap about the wind streaks on Earth by: generating a global map of Earth wind streaks from modern high-resolution remotely sensed imagery; incorporating the streaks in a geographic information system (GIS); and overlaying the GIS layers with boundary layer wind data from general circulation models (GCMs) and data from the ECMWF Reanalysis Interim project. The study defines wind streaks (and thereby distinguishes them from other aeolian features) based not only on their appearance in imagery but more importantly on their surface appearance. This effort is complemented by a focused field investigation to study wind streaks on the ground and from a variety of remotely sensed images (both optical and radar). In this way, we provide a better definition of the physical and geomorphic characteristics of wind streaks and acquire a deeper knowledge of terrestrial wind streaks as a means to better understand global and planetary climate and climate change. In a preliminary study, we detected and mapped over 2,900 wind streaks in the desert regions of Earth distributed in approximately 500 sites. Most terrestrial wind streaks are formed on a relatively young geological surface and are concentrated along the equator (± 30°). They are categorized by the combination of their planform and reflectance; with linear-bright and dark are the most common. A site-specific examination of remote-sensing effects on wind streaks identification has been conducted. The results thus far, indicate that in images with varying spatial and spectral specifications some wind streaks are actually composed of other aeolian bedforms, especially dunes. Specific regions of the Earth were then compared qualitatively to surface wind data extracted from a general circulation model. Understanding the mechanism and spatial and temporal distribution of wind streak formation is important not only for understanding surface modifications in the geomorphological context but also for shedding light on past and present climatic processes and atmospheric circulation on Earth. This study yields an explanation for wind streaks as a geomorphological feature. Moreover, it is in this planet-wide geomorphological research ability to lay down the foundations for comparative planetary research.

  12. Yellow fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aches, fever, flushing, loss of appetite, vomiting, and jaundice are common. Symptoms often go away briefly after ... urination Delirium Fever Headache Yellow skin and eyes (jaundice) Muscle aches Red eyes , face, tongue Seizures Vomiting, ...

  13. Bright Streaks and Dark Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The south polar region of Mars is covered every year by a layer of carbon dioxide ice. In a region called the 'cryptic terrain,' the ice is translucent and sunlight can penetrate through the ice to warm the surface below.

    The ice layer sublimates (evaporates) from the bottom. The dark fans of dust seen in this image come from the surface below the layer of ice, carried to the top by gas venting from below. The translucent ice is 'visible' by virtue of the effect it has on the tone of the surface below, which would otherwise have the same color and reflectivity as the fans.

    Bright streaks in this image are fresh frost. The CRISM team has identified the composition of these streaks to be carbon dioxide.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003113_0940 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 26-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.8 degrees latitude, 106.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 244.9 km (153.0 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.0 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 147 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:20 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 79 degrees, thus the sun was about 11 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 207.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  14. 98 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Genetic Variation of Wheat streak mosaic virus

    E-print Network

    Murray, Timothy D.

    98 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Virology Genetic Variation of Wheat streak mosaic virus in the United States, T. D. 2013. Genetic variation of Wheat streak mosaic virus in the United States Pacific Northwest. Phytopathol- ogy 103:98-104. Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), the cause of wheat streak mosaic

  15. Crystal streak camera for infrared light pulse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Matsumoto; Yasushi Ohbayashi

    1992-01-01

    A streak camera is used to capture fast light pulses. However, it is limited to the visible and near-infrared regions of the optical spectrum. We investigated deflection of a light beam by use of an electro-optic deflector. The crystal streak camera is based on the direct deflection of light by an electro-optic crystal to an image sensor for recording. The

  16. Yellow nails (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Yellow nails are seen in the 'yellow nail syndrome' in which there is thickening and yellow to yellow-green discoloration of all nails. Lymphedema, especially of the ankles, and compromised respiration ...

  17. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected ...

  18. What Causes Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This causes the veins to swell. Weak vein walls may cause weak valves. Normally, the walls of the veins are elastic (stretchy). If these walls become weak, they lose their normal elasticity. They ...

  19. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Deep Vein Thrombosis Deep Vein Thrombosis is like a ticking time bomb — knowing the symptoms of DVD can save your life. As temperatures ... a warning about the serious dangers associated with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). This is a condition occurring ...

  20. Yellow Fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Monath

    \\u000a In 1951, Max Theiler (Fig. 10.1), a Rockefeller Foundation scientist, became the only person to be awarded the Nobel Prize\\u000a in Medicine and Physiology for the development of a virus vaccine (Norrby 2007). His live, attenuated 17D vaccine was not\\u000a the first yellow fever vaccine to be tested in humans, but it was by far the most successful one. More

  1. Hot streak characterization in serpentine exhaust nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Darrell S.

    Modern aircraft of the United States Air Force face increasingly demanding cost, weight, and survivability requirements. Serpentine exhaust nozzles within an embedded engine allow a weapon system to fulfill mission survivability requirements by providing denial of direct line-of-sight into the high-temperature components of the engine. Recently, aircraft have experienced material degradation and failure along the aft deck due to extreme thermal loading. Failure has occurred in specific regions along the aft deck where concentrations of hot gas have come in contact with the surface causing hot streaks. The prevention of these failures will be aided by the accurate prediction of hot streaks. Additionally, hot streak prediction will improve future designs by identifying areas of the nozzle and aft deck surfaces that require thermal management. To this end, the goal of this research is to observe and characterize the underlying flow physics of hot streak phenomena. The goal is accomplished by applying computational fluid dynamics to determine how hot streak phenomena is affected by changes in nozzle geometry. The present research first validates the computational methods using serpentine inlet experimental and computational studies. A design methodology is then established for creating six serpentine exhaust nozzles investigated in this research. A grid independent solution is obtained on a nozzle using several figures of merit and the grid-convergence index method. An investigation into the application of a second-order closure turbulence model is accomplished. Simulations are performed for all serpentine nozzles at two flow conditions. The research introduces a set of characterization and performance parameters based on the temperature distribution and flow conditions at the nozzle throat and exit. Examination of the temperature distribution on the upper and lower nozzle surfaces reveals critical information concerning changes in hot streak phenomena due to changes in nozzle geometry.

  2. Martian Slope Streaks Form Sporadically Throughout the Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, C. M.; Schorghofer, N.; Wagstaff, K. L.

    2010-03-01

    Time constraints for the formation of dark slope streaks on Mars are derived from multi-overlap orbital images. We find that slope streaks form sporadically throughout the year, which has implications for possible triggering mechanisms.

  3. Martian crater dark streak lengths - Explanation from wind tunnel experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iversen, J. D.; Greeley, R.

    1984-06-01

    The mechanism determining the length of dark erosional (type-Id) streaks near craters and hills on the surface of Mars is investigated using Mariner-9 images and the results of wind-tunnel studies (Greeley et al., 1974; Iversen et al., 1975 and 1976). An empirical model of time-dependent growth of crater-wake streaks in the downwind direction involving deflation by sand-grain saltation is developed and shown to give relatively good agreement with streak growth rates observed over a 38-day period of Mariner observations and with the streak-length/crater-diameter and streak-length/crater-height ratios analyzed statistically by Lee (1984). This time-dependent mechanism is thus considered a reasonable alternative (for dark streaks) to the blocking model proposed by Lee for both bright and dark streaks. Preliminary analysis of further wind-tunnel experiments (Iversen et al., 1982) supports the blocking model of bright-streak formation.

  4. Comparative characteristics of various phosphor screens in streak tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. I. Ageeva; G. I. Brykhnevich; B. Z. Gorbenko; S. P. Ivanova; T. P. Kulichenkova; Zoya M. Semichastnova; T. A. Skiballanovich; Mikhail Y. Schelev

    1999-01-01

    Effectiveness decrease of the phosphor screens of the P11 and P20 types for streak tubes in the picosecond region is shown. It is shown that the complete amplification of the circuit 'streak tube + image intensifier + CCD' in the picosecond region is the same as one of the circuit 'streak tube + etched CCD instead of the screen in

  5. Perception of Randomness: On the Time of Streaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yanlong; Wang, Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    People tend to think that streaks in random sequential events are rare and remarkable. When they actually encounter streaks, they tend to consider the underlying process as non-random. The present paper examines the time of pattern occurrences in sequences of Bernoulli trials, and shows that among all patterns of the same length, a streak is the…

  6. Yellow nail syndrome (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by yellow nails that lack a cuticle, grow slowly, and are loose or detached (onycholysis). Yellow nail syndrome is most commonly associated with lung disorders, and ...

  7. Streaks Of Colored Water Indicate Surface Airflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Response faster and contamination less than in oil-flow technique. Flowing colored water provides accurate and clean way to reveal flows of air on surfaces of models in wind tunnels. Colored water flows from small orifices in model, forming streak lines under influence of air streaming over surface of model.

  8. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vein. The vein will harden and then disappear. Laser treatment can be used on the surface of the ... uses a light under the skin to guide treatment. This may be done along ... energy. During these procedures: Your doctor will puncture ...

  9. Palm Vein Authentication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Watanabe

    This chapter discusses palm vein authentication, which uses the vascular patterns of the palm as personal identification data.\\u000a Palm vein information is hard to duplicate because veins are internal to the human body. Palm vein authentication technology\\u000a offers a high level of accuracy, and delivers the following results: a false rejection rate (FRR) of 0.01% and a false acceptance\\u000a rate

  10. Varicose vein stripping

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the veins Improving the appearance of your leg Varicose veins that can't be treated with newer procedures ... MP, Guex JJ, Weiss RA. Sclerotherapy: Treatment of Varicose and Telangiectatic Leg Veins . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011.

  11. Renal failure due to renal vein thrombosis in a fetus with growth restriction and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Has, Recep; Corbacioglu Esmer, Aytul; Kalelioglu, Ibrahim H; Yumru, Harika; Yüksel, Atil; Ziylan, Orhan

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of renal vein thrombosis diagnosed at 27 weeks of gestation in a dichorionic twin pregnancy. The left kidney of one fetus was hyperechoic and enlarged with echoic streaks following the direction of interlobular veins and the loss of corticomedullary differentiation. In the following weeks, left kidney became smaller and echoic, and Doppler examination showed no flow in both artery and vein. The right kidney had totally normal appearance in the beginning, but it became enlarged and hyperechoic, and progressed into a small echoic kidney with no flow in artery and vein. In the postnatal ultrasound examination, both kidneys appeared hyperechoic with no vascularization in the hilum region. There was thrombosis in arteries and veins of both kidneys, as well as in the inferior vena cava. The investigation for thrombophilia resulted with the combined presence of heterozygote mutation in factor V Leiden and prothrombin 20210 genes. PMID:24612313

  12. Pelvic Vein Embolisation in the Management of Varicose Veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakshmi A. Ratnam; Petra Marsh; Judy M. Holdstock; Charmaine S. Harrison; Fuad F. Hussain; Mark S. Whiteley; Anthony Lopez

    2008-01-01

    Pelvic vein incompetence is common in patients with atypical varicose veins, contributing to their recurrence after surgery.\\u000a Therefore, refluxing pelvic veins should be identified and treated. We present our experience with pelvic vein embolisation\\u000a in patients presenting with varicose veins. Patients presenting with varicose veins with a duplex-proven contribution from\\u000a perivulval veins undergo transvaginal duplex sonography (TVUS) to identify refluxing

  13. Incompetent Perforating Veins are Associated with Recurrent Varicose Veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Rutherford; B. Kianifard; S. J. Cook; J. M. Holdstock; M. S. Whiteley

    2001-01-01

    Aims: we suspected incompetent perforating veins of having a role in the development of recurrent varicose veins in some patients. The aim was to look for an association between perforators and recurrent varicose veins.Methods: a consecutive group of patients presenting with varicose veins were examined using colour duplex ultrasonography by an experienced vascular technologist. Pathological perforating veins were defined as

  14. Travelers' Health: Yellow Book

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Home Destinations Travel Notices Find a Clinic Yellow Fever Vaccinations Clinics FAQ Disease Directory Information Centers For ... sections, and expanded disease maps (including country-level yellow fever vaccine recommendation maps). The book is currently available ...

  15. X-ray streak crystal spectography

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R.L.; Brown, T.; Medecki, H.

    1983-07-01

    We have built an x-ray streaked crystal spectrograph for making time-resolved x-ray spectral measurements. This instrument can access Bragg angles from 11/sup 0/ to 38/sup 0/ and x-ray spectra from 200 eV to greater than 10 keV. We have demonstrated resolving powers, E/..delta..E > 200 at 1 keV and time resolution less than 20 psec. A description of the instrument and an example of the data is given.

  16. Wind streaks: geological and botanical effects on surface albedo contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbelman, James R.; Williams, Steven H.

    1996-09-01

    Two wind streaks in the eastern Mojave Desert of California were examined to gain insight into the origin of the surface brightness contrast that makes them visible, both on the ground and in remote sensing data. The two localities are: a 4-km-long dark streak oriented S43E from the Amboy cinder cone (34°32'N, 115°46'W), located on a Quaternary basalt flow covered with aeolian sand, and a 2-km-long dark streak oriented S22E from a low hill near the southwestern base of Sleeping Beauty Mountain (34°48'N, 116°20'W), located on a sand-covered alluvial surface. In both cases, the dark streaks have enhanced rock abundances on the streak surface, relative to the surroundings. At the Amboy streak, slope wash likely contributed to the rock concentration on the streak surface, shielded from burial under aeolian sand by the cinder cone. At the Sleeping Beauty streak, the relative albedo contrast is strongly emphasized by the presence of Big Galleta grass only outside of the streak. The albedo contrast of the Sleeping Beauty streak can be effectively eliminated by the seasonal presence of annual grass preferentially within the streak. Some plants may have reflectances that are strongly dependent upon viewing and illumination geometry, raising the possibility that certain terrestrial aeolian features may appear variable on a diurnal basis. Alluvial processes appear to have been important at both localities for redistributing surface materials, even given the infrequent rain conditions present in the Mojave Desert.

  17. Angioid streaks. I. Ophthalmoscopic variations and diagnostic problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Shields; J. L. Federman; T. L. Tomer; W. H. Annesley

    1975-01-01

    Fifty-six patients with angioid streaks were evaluated ophthalmologically. Most had repeated fundus photography and fluorescein angiography during a follow-up period of 6 months to 7 years. The ophthalmoscopic variations and diagnostic difficulties which occurred were noted. In most instances, the angioid streaks were not initially recognized and the patient was referred with another diagnosis. In several cases, the peripapillary, macular,

  18. SDOSS: a spatially discriminating, optical streaked spectrograph

    SciTech Connect

    Cobble, J.A.; Evans, S.C.; Fernandez, J.C.; Oertel, J.A.; Watt, R.G.; Wilde, B.H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1996-05-01

    SDOSS is employed to study broadband laser scattering encompassing SBS, SRS, and the 3/2-{omega} signature of two plasmon decay for ns-scale laser-plasma experiments with 351- or 527-nm drive. It uses a Cassegrain telescope to image scattered light from a laser plasma onto a field stop. The telescope magnification and the stop aperture provide spatial discrimination of target plane scatter. A UV lens relays the image to a 0.25-m spectrograph which is lens coupled to a streak camera with an S-1 photocathode. The streak output is imaged onto a CCD camera. In its 512{times}480 pixel array, the CCD covers a spectral range from 200 to 800 nm with 4-nm resolution and can be adjusted to look from 350 to 1060 nm. The sweep speed is variable with full window values of 30, 12, 6 ns, and faster. An optical fiducial provides a spectral and temporal marker. On the Livermore Nova laser, SDOSS has been used to determine spatial density in gas-filled hohlraums from SRS signals. At Trident in Los Alamos, it has been employed for similar measurements with long scale length plasmas in SBS and SRS seeding experiments. It has proven to be a versatile tool for studying the physics of laser-generated plasmas. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. SDOSS: A spatially discriminating, optical streaked spectrograph

    SciTech Connect

    Cobble, J.; Evans, S.; Fernandez, J.; Oertel, J.; Watt, R.; Wilde, B.

    1995-05-01

    SDOSS is employed to study broadband laser scattering encompassing SBS, SRS, and the 3/2-{omega} signature of two plasmon decay for ns-scale laser-plasma experiments with 351 or 527-nm drive. It uses a Cassegrain telescope to image scattered light from a laser plasma onto a field stop. The telescope magnification and the stop aperture provide spatial discrimination of target plane scatter. A UV lens relays the image to a 0.25-m spectrograph which is lens coupled to a streak camera with an S-1 photocathode. The streak output is imaged onto a CCD camera. In its 512 x 480 pixel array, the CCD covers a spectral range from 200 to 800 nm with 4-nm resolution and can be adjusted to look from 350 to 1,060 nm. The sweep speed is variable with full window values of 30, 12, 6 ns, and faster. An optical fiducial provides a spectral and temporal marker. On the Livermore Nova laser, SDOSS has been used to determine spatial density in gas-filled hohlraums from SRS signals. At Trident in Los Alamos, it has been employed for similar measurements with long scale length plasmas in SBS and SRS seeding experiments. It has proven to be a versatile tool for studying the physics of laser-generated plasmas.

  20. Support for varicose veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P H Fentem; M Goddard; B A Gooden

    1976-01-01

    A method has been devised to allow reliable comparison of different strengths and constructions of support hosiery. Five garments were evaluated for the compression they exerted on the leg and their ability to limit the distension of a model varicose vein. Stockings and tights which provide modest compression can achieve worthwhile control of vein distension.

  1. Congenital vein valve aplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnar Plate; Lars Brudin; Bo Eklöf; Ragnar Jensen; Per Ohlin

    1986-01-01

    Congenital vein valve aplasia is often misdiagnosed and its symptoms misinterpreted as being caused by previous deep venous thrombosis. The present article reviews the literature providing data on etiology, symptomatology, and phlebographic appearance in congenital vein valve aplasia. A personal experience with 10 cases focuses on the clinico-physiological results with compression therapy and surgical treatment of superficial venous insufficiency. Compressive

  2. Squash vein yellowing virus identified in watermelon in Indiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2006, a commercial watermelon field in Sullivan County,Indiana was observed with moderate vine decline symptoms including vine collapse, wilt and root rot. No fruit symptoms were observed. Six plants displaying typical vine decline symptoms were collected and assayed for potyviruses i...

  3. Numerical Simulations of Recently Observed Dark Streaks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hier Majumder, C. A.; Travis, B.

    2003-12-01

    Recently observed dark streaks on Mars appear to be formed by a flowing fluid, possibly originating from melting ice. These streaks have been seen to form in a matter of months. They are markedly different from dust devil streaks in that they are very straight rather than twisting and curly. The dark streaks also only appear in regions where the temperature is right at 275 K, the triple point of water on Mars. Two hypotheses (of several) for their formation are that lighter dust sticks to a wet surface or brines precipitate a light rock varnish. The purpose of our study is to use numerical models to determine if the patterns associated with these dark streaks can be produced by a fluid flowing from a point source. We have used a 2-D model for fluid flow in a sloping porous medium, using the Richard's approximation of partially saturated fluid flow. The model is calculated using the TRACR3D code with water as the fluid. Our models show patterns similar to the dark streak patterns seen on Mars. We have varied the strength of the fluid source, the slope of the terrain, and the strength of capillary pressure in the porous medium to explore the range of features seen in the dark streaks. We have examined both continous and finite time sources. In future work, we will look at the effect of dissolved CO2 in the fluid along with using brines that may precipitate minerals.

  4. The formation of streak defects on anodized aluminum extrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hanliang; Zhang, Xinquan; Couper, Malcolm J.; Dahle, Arne K.

    2010-05-01

    Streaking is a common surface defect on anodized extrusions of 6xxx series soft alloys. Very often, the defects only become apparent after anodizing, which makes it difficult to identify their root cause. In industry practice, a trial-and-error method has been taken to reduce the intensities of the streak defects, greatly increasing the fabrication cost. This paper describes the formation mechanism of various streak defects on the basis of a literature review and experimental results. This provides a basis for developing effective measures for preventing the formation of these defects for the extrusion industry.

  5. Gated neutron streak camera with a uranium cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Miyanaga, N.; Oida, H.; Yamanaka, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Nakai, S. (Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan)); Yamamoto, T. (Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567 (Japan)); Iida, T.; Araki, T.; Ohga, T.; Miyake, C. (Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan))

    1990-11-01

    A gated neutron streak camera with a uranium oxide cathode has been developed for laser fusion experiments. The energy spectrum of secondary electrons was improved by coating the uranium oxide cathode with thin cesium iodine. The tube design was carried out by computer calculation of electron trajectories. The newly developed streak tube showed a temporal resolution of about 70 ps. This streak camera can be applicable to a neutron yield greater than 10{sup 12} with a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio by gating a microchannel plate electron multiplier.

  6. Gated neutron streak camera with a uranium cathode (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Miyanaga, N.; Oida, H.; Yamanaka, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Nakai, S. (Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan)); Yamamoto, T. (Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567 (Japan)); Iida, T.; Araki, T.; Ohga, T.; Miyake, C. (Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    A gated neutron streak camera with a uranium oxide cathode has been developed for laser fusion experiments. The energy spectrum of secondary electrons was improved by coating the uranium oxide cathode with thin cesium iodine. The tube design was carried out by computer calculation of electron trajectories. The newly developed streak tube showed a temporal resolution of about 70 ps. This streak camera can be applicable to a neutron yield greater than 10{sup 12} with a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio by gating a microchannel plate electron multiplier.

  7. Progress on Modeling of Ultrafast X-Ray Streak Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, G.; Byrd, J.M.; Feng, J.; Qiang, J.; Wang, W.

    2007-06-22

    Streak cameras continue to be useful tools for studying phenomena on the picoseconds time scale. We have employed accelerator modeling tools to understand and possibly improve the time resolution of present and future streak cameras. This effort has resulted in an end-to-end model of the camera. This model has contributed to the recent measurement of 230 fsec (FWHM) resolution measured at 266 nm in the Advanced Light Source Streak Camera Laboratory. We describe results from this model that show agreement with the experiments. We also extrapolate the performance of this camera including several possible improvements.

  8. Temporal Contrast Changes in Dark Slope Streaks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilton, H.; Phillips, C. B.; Fenton, L. K.; Brown, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Dark slope streaks on Mars, first observed in Viking images, provide insight into one of the most active and dynamic processes observed on the planet's surface. While various formation models have been suggested [1][2][3], dust avalanches seem to best explain streak origin and characteristics[4][5]. New dark streaks are observed to have the greatest contrast to their surroundings while older streaks have lower contrast, suggesting that streaks fade over time. One theory for this is atmospheric dust fallout slowly raising the albedo of the surface exposed by the dust avalanche, resulting in increased streak albedo over time until the streak becomes indistinguishable from the surrounding surface. In this study, we attempt an initial evaluation of changes in streak brightness relative to surroundings, with a first order correction for incidence angle[6] based on MOLA data. CRISM images were first identified for spatial and temporal overlap, then further selected for those image sets with well-matched viewing geometries. Locations included Nicholson Crater (CRISM images: frt0000c287_07_de165l, hrl0000d0f1_7_de165l, frt00018c69_07_de165l) and South of Nestus Valles (CRISM images: hrl00004a5e_07_de181l, hrl0000812a_07_de182l) as well as Naktong Vallis (CRISM images: hrl0000898d_07_de182l, hrl00005337_07_de182l) and an area in Lycus Sulci (CRISM images: hrl0000a52a_07_de166l, hrl0000ce5f_07_if175l). We focused on 1 micron wavelength CRISM images in order to reduce atmosphric interference. From here, brightness (observed radiance divided by solar irradiance at Mars divided by pi) values were collected along individual streaks, with measurements at multiple locations along the streak length and alongside at points of similar elevation to streak measurements to establish an average contrast ratio. Both on-streak and off-streak values were divided by the cosine of their respective local MOLA incidence angles to correct for brightness variation due to solar flux and topographic angles. These measurements were then repeated for overlapping temporal images, establishing local and overall averages for the rate of change in this contrast ratio. While our initial hypothesis was for linear streak fading, results showed a range of trends, including streaks and imaged areas with streaks that darkened, brightened, and brightened then darkened or vice versa. We continue to explore the possibility of non-linear brightening as well as streak reactivation and localized events, surface characteristics, and topography. Further study will focus on these and other morphological changes observed from vast data sets of other instruments including the Mars Reconnaissance Orbter HiRISE and CTX, Mars Express HRSC, Mars Odyssey THEMIS (visible), and the Mars Global Surveyor MOC. [1] Morris (1982) JGR, 87, 1164-1178. [2] Ferguson and Lucchita (1984) NASA Tech. Memo., TM-86246, 188-190. [3] Miyamoto, H. et al. (2004) JGR, 109, E06008. [4] Sullivan, R. et al. (2001) JGR, 106, 23607-23633. [5] Baratoux, N. M. et al. (2006) Icarus, 183, 30-45. [6] Brown, A. et al. (2010) JGR, 115, E00D13.

  9. Retinal vein occlusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... complications of retinal vein occlusion may include: Focal laser treatment, if macular edema is present Injections of anti- ... cause glaucoma. This treatment is still being studied. Laser treatment to prevent the growth of new, abnormal blood ...

  10. The epidemiology, economic impact and control of maize streak disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darren P. Martin; Dionne N. Shepherd

    2009-01-01

    Maize streak virus (MSV), the causal agent of maize streak disease (MSD), is one of the most significant biological threats\\u000a to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. By reducing yields of Africa’s most important food crop, it seriously undermines the\\u000a already precarious social and economic wellbeing of subsistence farmers throughout the continent. Despite the availability\\u000a of MSD control strategies—ranging from good

  11. Active Processes: Bright Streaks and Dark Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    In a region of the south pole known informally as 'Ithaca' numerous fans of dark frost form every spring. HiRISE collected a time lapse series of these images, starting at Ls = 185 and culminating at Ls = 294. 'Ls' is the way we measure time on Mars: at Ls = 180 the sun passes the equator on its way south; at Ls = 270 it reaches its maximum subsolar latitude and summer begins.

    In the earliest image (figure 1) fans are dark, but small narrow bright streaks can be detected. In the next image (figure 2), acquired at Ls = 187, just 106 hours later, dramatic differences are apparent. The dark fans are larger and the bright fans are more pronounced and easily detectable. The third image in the sequence shows no bright fans at all.

    We believe that the bright streaks are fine frost condensed from the gas exiting the vent. The conditions must be just right for the bright frost to condense.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_002622_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 16-Feb-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.2 degrees latitude, 181.5 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 246.9 km (154.3 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.4 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 148 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 05:46 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 88 degrees, thus the sun was about 2 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 185.1 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  12. Study of Geometric Parameters of Slope Streaks on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusnikin, Eugene; Kreslavsky, Mikhail; Karachevtseva, Irina; Zubarev, Anatoliy; Patratiy, Vyacheslav

    2015-04-01

    Slope streaks are a unique active phenomenon observed in low-latitude dusty regions on Mars. They are dark markings formed by an unknown type of run-away downslope propagation of surface disturbance. There are two kinds of hypotheses of their formation mechanism: "dry", involving granular follow, in particular, dust avalanche, and "wet", involving liquid flow, in particular, percolation of concentrated brines in shallow subsurface (1). Study of geometric characteristics of the slope streaks, especially their slopes, is a way to decipher their origin. We are carrying out an extensive set of measurements of geometric parameters of the slope streaks. We use stereo pairs of images obtained by High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard MRO orbital mission to Mars. These stereo pairs potentially allow geometric measurements (both horizontal and vertical) with accuracy on an order of a meter. Unfortunately, the digital terrain model is currently released for only one stereo pair in the regions of slope streak occurrence, and we have to work with raw, unprocessed stereo pairs. We perform direct photogrammetric measurements using PHOTOMOD software complex (http://www.racurs.ru/). We use our custom software to import "raw" HiRISE imgas (EDRs) and supplementary geometric information from SPICE into PHOTOMOD (2). We select tens to a hundred meters long segments in the beginning and the end of selected streaks and register length, azimuth, and slope of each segment. We also search for anomalously gentle parts of streaks. We analyze the obtained results by means of ESRI ArcGIS software. Our survey is in progress. So far we registered over a hundred of streaks. We found that the extent of the streaks varies from several meters to hundreds of meters. The streaks are formed in locales with a slope from 17 to 37 degrees. The lower boundary indicates that the streaks can propagate on slopes that are significantly gentler than the static angle of repose. Distal (downslope) termini of the streaks often are in rather flat sites. So far we have not found any convincing example of a streak propagating uphill. This is consistent with earlier conclusions that the streaks do not have appreciable inertia. We will continue our survey. With more data we will correlate streak formation and their slopes with slope orientation, latitude, etc. This work was carried out in MIIGAiK and supported by Russian Science Foundation, project 14-22-00197. References: 1. Kreslavsky A.M. and J. W. Head, Slope streaks on Mars: A new "wet" mechanism, Icarus 201, 517-527 (2009). 2. Zubarev A., Nadezhdina I. Alignment-Calibration and Processing of HIRISE CCD Data // ISPRS Meeting of the Working Group IV/8 "Advances in Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases", Moscow, Russia, October 09-12, 2013

  13. Semiclassical model for attosecond angular streaking.

    PubMed

    Smolarski, M; Eckle, P; Keller, U; Dörner, R

    2010-08-16

    Attosecond angular streaking is a new technique to achieve unsurpassed time accuracy of only a few attoseconds. Recently this has been successfully used to set an upper limit on the electron tunneling delay time in strong laser field ionization. The measurement technique can be modeled with either the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) or a more simple semiclassical approach that describes the process in two steps in analogy to the three-step model in high harmonic generation (HHG): step one is the tunnel ionization and step two is the classical motion in the strong laser field. Here we describe in detail a semiclassical model which is based on the ADK theory for the tunneling step, with subsequent classical propagation of the electron in the laser field. We take into account different ellipticities of the laser field and a possible wavelength-dependent ellipticity that is typically observed for pulses in the two-optical-cycle regime. This semiclassical model shows excellent agreement with the experimental result. PMID:20721150

  14. Yellow Ribbon Application Yellow Ribbon Program

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    (Yellow Ribbon Program) is a provision of the Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 the same amount as the institution. The Post-9/11 GI Bill pays up to the highest public in an additional charge to your entitlement. I am 100% eligible for Ch.33 Post 9/11 Veterans Education Benefit

  15. Pelvic Vein Embolisation in the Management of Varicose Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnam, Lakshmi A. [St. George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Marsh, Petra; Holdstock, Judy M.; Harrison, Charmaine S. [Stirling House, Whiteley Clinic (United Kingdom); Hussain, Fuad F. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Whiteley, Mark S. [Stirling House, Whiteley Clinic (United Kingdom); Lopez, Anthony, E-mail: consultant@radiologist.co.u [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    Pelvic vein incompetence is common in patients with atypical varicose veins, contributing to their recurrence after surgery. Therefore, refluxing pelvic veins should be identified and treated. We present our experience with pelvic vein embolisation in patients presenting with varicose veins. Patients presenting with varicose veins with a duplex-proven contribution from perivulval veins undergo transvaginal duplex sonography (TVUS) to identify refluxing pelvic veins. Those with positive scans undergo embolisation before surgical treatment of their lower limb varicose veins. A total of 218 women (mean age of 46.3 years) were treated. Parity was documented in the first 60 patients, of whom 47 (78.3%) were multiparous, 11 (18.3%) had had one previous pregnancy, and 2 (3.3%) were nulliparous. The left ovarian vein was embolised in 78%, the right internal iliac in 64.7%, the left internal iliac in 56.4%, and the right ovarian vein in 42.2% of patients. At follow-up TVUS, mild reflux only was seen in 16, marked persistent reflux in 6, and new reflux in 3 patients. These 9 women underwent successful repeat embolisation. Two patients experienced pulmonary embolisation of the coils, of whom 1 was asymptomatic and 1 was successfully retrieved; 1 patient had a misplaced coil protruding into the common femoral vein; and 1 patient had perineal thrombophlebitis. The results of our study showed that pelvic venous embolisation by way of a transjugular approach is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of pelvic vein reflux.

  16. Dynamics of low-speed streak evolution and interaction in laminar boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Si-Chao; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-10-01

    The present paper presents an experimental effort on the regeneration process of two low-speed laminar streaks in a zero-pressure-gradient laminar boundary layer. Two vertical thin wires separated by a spanwise distance of 30mm are used to introduce disturbances of two rolls of transitional Kármán vortex street to the downstream boundary layer. Both hydrogen bubble visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement show that two low-speed streaks are induced through leading-edge receptivity process. As these streaks develop in the downstream, two additional low-speed streaks begin to appear outboard of the flank of the original two, together with complex dynamics of streak splitting and merging. A flow pattern of four streaks aligned along the spanwise direction occurs finally in the far downstream. It is found that besides the mechanisms of streak breakdown, the streak interaction is also an important factor characterizing the instability of low speed streaks and their regeneration process.

  17. Improvement in Deep Vein Haemodynamics Following Surgery for Varicose Veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ciostek; J. Michalak; W. Noszczyk

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To analyse the effect of superficial and perforating veins surgery on deep vein incompetence.Methods. During a six-month period between 2000 and 2001 24 patients (32 limbs) with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) were treated. They were selected because they had varicose veins and proximal deep vein incompetence with photoplethysmography (PPG) venous refilling time (VRT) 1.5 s on duplex ultrasound. The

  18. Cerebral and Sinus Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... User Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Cerebral and Sinus Vein Thrombosis Stephan Moll , MD ; Beth Waldron , MA From the ... from the brain is called a sinus or cerebral vein thrombosis. It is an uncommon type of clot, affecting ...

  19. Hitting Is Contagious in Baseball: Evidence from Long Hitting Streaks

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Joel R.; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that “hitting is contagious”. A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates’ batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising streaks of length games, including a total observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups () were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter’s team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active) showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean for the treatment group was found to be to percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased points), while the batting heat index introduced here was observed to increase by points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a “statistical contagion effect”. Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research. PMID:23251507

  20. Epidemiology of varicose veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Beaglehole

    1986-01-01

    The prevalence rate of varicose veins in adults varies from less than 1% in lowland New Guinea women to over 50% in women in south Wales. Within populations the prevalence increases with age, is generally greater in women, is directly related to body mass, has an inconsistent relationship with occupation, and usually increases with increasing parity. None of these factors

  1. Portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Yogesh K; Bodh, Vijay

    2015-03-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of portal hypertension. PVT occurs in association with cirrhosis or as a result of malignant invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma or even in the absence of associated liver disease. With the current research into its genesis, majority now have an underlying prothrombotic state detectable. Endothelial activation and stagnant portal blood flow also contribute to formation of the thrombus. Acute non-cirrhotic PVT, chronic PVT (EHPVO), and portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis are the three main variants of portal vein thrombosis with varying etiological factors and variability in presentation and management. Procoagulant state should be actively investigated. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy for acute non-cirrhotic PVT, with supporting evidence for its use in cirrhotic population as well. Chronic PVT (EHPVO) on the other hand requires the management of portal hypertension as such and with role for anticoagulation in the setting of underlying prothrombotic state, however data is awaited in those with no underlying prothrombotic states. TIPS and liver transplant may be feasible even in the setting of PVT however proper selection of candidates and type of surgery is warranted. Thrombolysis and thrombectomy have some role. TARE is a new modality for management of HCC with portal vein invasion. PMID:25941431

  2. Mars - Wind streak production as related to obstacle type and size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. W.

    1984-06-01

    The characteristics of wind streaks associated with Martian craters and hills in the size range of 100 m to 80 km (corresponding to obstacle heights of a few to several hundred meters) have been analyzed from Viking Orbiter images. Both dark erosional and bright depositional streaks form over the entire obstacle size range, but there are preferred obstacle sizes for producing streaks. Bright streaks form more readily in association with relatively smaller obstacles than do dark streaks. Small obstacles produce both types of streaks more effectively than do large ones. Hills produce streaks as effectively as do craters of comparable height. Alternative explanations of bright streak formation are evaluated in terms of their ability to account for these observations. The most satisfactory models invoke blocking of atmospheric flow downwind of an obstacle and consequent deposition of dust within the sheltered zone.

  3. Wheat streak mosaic virus-Structural parameters for a Potyvirus

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Lauren [Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Kendall, Amy [Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Berger, P.H. [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Shiel, P.J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Stubbs, Gerald [Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)]. E-mail: gerald.stubbs@vanderbilt.edu

    2005-09-15

    Wheat streak mosaic virus is a Tritimovirus, a member of the Potyviridae family, which includes the very large Potyvirus genus. We have examined wheat streak mosaic virus by electron microscopy and fiber diffraction from partially oriented sols, and analyzed the results to estimate the symmetry and structural parameters of the viral helix. The virions have an apparent radius of 63 {+-} 5 A. The viral helix has a pitch of 33.4 A {+-} 0.6 A. There appear to be 6.9 subunits per turn of the helix, although we cannot completely eliminate values of 5.9 or 7.9 for this parameter.

  4. Hot streaks and phantom cooling in a turbine rotor passage. I - Separate effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, Richard J.; Dring, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental documentation and analytical correlations demonstrating the effects of hot streak accumulation and phantom cooling on turbine rotor airfoil surface temperature. Test results are shown for a range of controlling variables to identify where streak accumulation and phantom cooling are most likely to be strongest. These variables include streak injection location, streak-to-free stream density ratio and coolant-to-free stream density and velocity ratios.

  5. Mass movement within a slope streak on Mars Cynthia B. Phillips,1

    E-print Network

    Perfect, Ed

    Mass movement within a slope streak on Mars Cynthia B. Phillips,1 Devon M. Burr,1 and Ross A. Beyer 2007. [1] Slope streaks on Mars represent a currently active geological process. Various theories streak on Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L21202, doi:10.1029/2007GL031577. 1. Introduction [2] Slope

  6. Cassava brown streak disease re-emerges in Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Omongo; R. J. Hillocks; R. Kawuki; G. W. Otim-Nape

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is an important virus disease that damages the starch-bearing tuberous roots of cassava. The disease is endemic in the coastal lowlands of Eastern Africa and the coastal strip of Lake Malawi. CBSD has rarely been seen at altitudes above 1000 m above sea level, although the reason for this is unknown. CBSD is maintained through

  7. Sporadic formation of slope streaks on Mars Norbert Schorghofer a,

    E-print Network

    Schörghofer, Norbert

    formation is not caused by any global event. With the arrival of Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and the MarsSporadic formation of slope streaks on Mars Norbert Schorghofer a, , Christina M. King b online 7 September 2011 Keywords: Mars, Surface Geological processes Data reduction techniques a b s t r

  8. Microrobotic Streak Seeding For Protein Crystal Growth CUCS04104

    E-print Network

    Microrobotic Streak Seeding For Protein Crystal Growth CUCS­041­04 Atanas Georgiev 1 Peter Allen 1 that consists of picking individual protein crystal from growth solution the purpose X­ray data collection) transferred protein solution that optimized their growth. building high­throughput protein crystal production

  9. Wind Tunnel Simulations of Light and Dark Streaks on Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Greeley; James D. Iversen; James B. Pollack; Nancy Udovich; Bruce White

    1974-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments have revealed a characteristic flow field pattern over raised-rim craters which causes distinctive zones of aeolian erosion and deposition. Comparisons of the results with Mariner 9 images of Mars show that some crater-associated dark zones result from wind erosion and that some crater-associated light streaks are depositional.

  10. Control of Eggplant Yellows.

    E-print Network

    Jones, S. E. (Sloan Earle)

    1942-01-01

    AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Eggplants grown during the late summer and fall months in South and Central Texas are usually affected with a disease commonly called "eggplant yellows," which may... the green color in the plant. The contrast of yellow and green in an eggplant field is apparent at a considerable distance. The disease is infectious and appears to be caused by a virus, but the method of naQural transmission is not yet known. The most...

  11. Long-term results of vein sparing varicose vein surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Raivio; Vesa Perhoniemi; Aarno Lehtola

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long-term functional outcome of vein sparing varicose vein surgery using handheld\\u000a Doppler ultrasound (HHD). The series consisted of 171 consecutive day-case surgery patients operated on for uncomplicated\\u000a lower limb varicose veins. Venous segments considered competent were spared based on clinical examination and HHD, which was\\u000a performed preoperatively only when deemed necessary

  12. Photo yellowing of human hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. S. Nogueira; M. Richena; L. E. Dicelio; I. Joekes

    2007-01-01

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white,

  13. New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts.

    PubMed

    Vemana, K; Jain, R K

    2010-10-01

    Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb), Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (Palak/Indian spinach), Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold), Chrysanthemum indicum, Cosmos sulphurens (Yellow cosmos), Citrullus lunatus (Watermelon), Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd), Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Hibiscus subderiffa var. subderiffa (Roselle) and Portulaca oleraceae (Little hogweed). Detected groundnut seed infection with TSV for the first time by Direct antigen coated immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) using whole seed. The seed infection ranged from 18.9 to 28.9% among the seeds collected from naturally infected and sap inoculated groundnut varieties (JL 24, TMV 2, Prasuna, Kadiri 6, Kadiri 9, Anantha and Kadiri 7 Bold) belonging to spanish and virginia types. Further, TSV was detected both in pod shell and seed testa and none of the samples showed the presence of TSV either in cotyledon or embryo. Grow-out and bio-assay tests proved the absence of seed transmission in groundnut and other legume crops. Hence, TSV isolate was not a true seed transmission case under Indian conditions in legumes. PMID:23637490

  14. Palm Vein Authentication System: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ishani Sarkar; Farkhod Alisherov; Tai-hoon Kim; Debnath Bhattacharyya

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the palm vein authentication device that uses blood vessel patterns as a personal identifying factor. The vein information is hard to duplicate since veins are internal to the human body. The palm vein authentication technology offers a high level of accuracy. Palm vein authentication uses the vascular patterns of an individual's palm as personal

  15. Characteristics of uranium-oxide cathode for neutron streak camera

    SciTech Connect

    Niki, H.; Itoga, K.; Miyanaga, N.; Yamanaka, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamanaka, C.; Iida, T.; Takahashi, A.; Sumita, K.; Kinoshita, K.; Takiguchi, Y.; Hayashi, I.; Oba, K.

    1986-08-01

    Detection efficiency and secondary electron yield of the uranium-oxide cathode for a neutron streak camera were measured and found to be 2.3 x 10/sup -7/--1.6 x 10/sup -6/ events/neutron/..mu..m and 60--150/fission, respectively. These measurements were performed for 14-MeV neutrons from a D-T neutron source (OKTAVIAN) by using neutron-imaging techniques. By defocusing an image due to a single fission event, each electron from the cathode was clearly distinguished, and the number of electrons could be counted. From the neutron images in the streak-mode operation, time dispersions due to the electron transit-time spread fell in the range of estimated values.

  16. Banana streak virus is very diverse in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Harper, Glyn; Hart, Darren; Moult, Sarah; Hull, Roger

    2004-03-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is a badnavirus that causes a viral leaf streak disease of banana and plantain (Musa spp.). Identified in essentially all Musa growing areas of the world, it has a deleterious effect on the productivity of infected plants as well as being a major constraint to Musa breeding programmes and germplasm dissemination. Banana is a staple food in Uganda which is, per capita, one of the worlds largest banana producers and consumers. BSV was isolated from infected plants sampled across the Ugandan Musa growing area and the isolates were analysed using molecular and serological techniques. These analyses showed that BSV is very highly variable in Uganda. They suggest that the variability is, in part, due to a series of introductions of banana into Uganda, each with a different complement of infecting viruses. PMID:15036835

  17. Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Yun, Julie X.; Yuan, Xiaocong; Goodwin, Richard; Markwald, Roger R.; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2011-01-01

    Here we present an ultrahigh-speed Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) that records the OCT spectrum in streak mode with a high-speed area scan camera, which allows higher OCT imaging speed than can be achieved with a line-scan camera. Unlike parallel OCT techniques that also use area scan cameras, the conventional single-mode fiber-based point-scanning mechanism is retained to provide a confocal gate that rejects multiply scattered photons from the sample. When using a 1000 Hz resonant scanner as the streak scanner, 1,016,000 A-scans have been obtained in 1 s. This method's effectiveness has been demonstrated by recording in vivo OCT-image sequences of embryonic chick hearts at 1000 frames/s. In addition, 2-megahertz OCT data have been obtained with another high speed camera. PMID:21721817

  18. Timing between streak cameras with a precision of 10 ps

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R.A.

    1990-12-07

    The laser beams irradiating a target at the Nova laser facility comprise a set of ten simultaneous events. Two streak cameras, whose resolutions are 40 ps, record the power history for each beam, five beams to a camera; their time bases are cross-timed with a fiducial pulse. Analysis of data recorded for target experiments conducted over a six month period show the precision for cross-timing signals between two streak cameras to be {plus minus}9 ps and for characterizing a single temporal feature of a pulse to be {plus minus}5 ps. Beam synchronization at the end of six months was within 20 ps of the synchronization at the beginning of the experiments. A beam timing shift greater than 25 ps can be detected on a single laser shot; shifts of 10 to 20 ps require several shots to detect. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Detection of episomal banana streak badnavirus by IC-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glyn Harper; Ganesh Dahal; George Thottappilly; R. Hull

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based strategy to detect episomal banana streak badnavirus (BSV) in banana and plantain plants that carry integrated BSV sequences was developed. Antisera used in immuno-capture polymerase chain reaction (IC-PCR) are capable of binding a large number of BSV serotypes. The primers used for PCR are capable of annealing to and amplifying across the aspartic protease-reverse

  20. [Yellow fever in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Valero, Nereida

    2003-12-01

    In Venezuela the yellow fever has been presented in three wild focuses: San Camilo in the Tachira State, South of the Lake in the Zulia and Guayana. The last human case registered of urban yellow fever happened in 1918 in the city of Coro, Falcon State. Nevertheless, according to the epidemic registration of the Ministry of Health and Social Development corresponding to the epidemiological week no. 38 of the year 2003, 318 cases of wild yellow fever had been investigated (173 of the Zulia and 145 of Tachira), of which were confirmed 31, with a mortality of 58.0%. Previous to the appearance of this outbreak, it was notified an epizooty in monkeys with high mortality in November of 2002 in the Jesus Maria Semprum municipality of the Zulia State, persisting until September of 2003, extended to the Tachira State. Possible reasons of the reemergency of this illness are analyzed based on the high mobilization of displaced population, remote areas and of difficult access, high concentration of indigenous population (Bari, Yuepa, Wayúu) and border conflict. PMID:14727380

  1. Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M. J.; Upadhyay, J.; Deshpande, P. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P.

    2010-08-01

    A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

  2. Automatic coil selection for streak artifact reduction in radial MRI.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yiqun; Yu, Jiangsheng; Kang, Hyun Seon; Englander, Sarah; Rosen, Mark A; Song, Hee Kwon

    2012-02-01

    In radial MR imaging, streaking artifacts contaminating the entire field of view can arise from regions at the outer edges of the prescribed field of view. This can occur even when the Nyquist criterion is satisfied within the desired field of view. These artifacts become exacerbated when parts of the object lie in the superior/inferior regions of the scanner where the gradient strengths become weakened. When multiple coil arrays are used for signal reception, coils at the outer edges can be disabled before data acquisition to reduce the artifact levels. However, as the weakened gradient strengths near the edges often distort the object, causing the signal to become highly concentrated into a small region, the streaks are often not completely removed. Data from certain coils can also be excluded during reconstruction by visually inspecting the individual coil images, but this is impractical for routine use. In this work, a postprocessing method is proposed to automatically identify those coils whose images contain high levels of streaking for subsequent exclusion during reconstruction. The proposed method was demonstrated in vivo dynamic contrast enhanced MRI datasets acquired using a three-dimensional hybrid radial sequence. The results demonstrate that the proposed strategy substantially improves the image quality and show excellent agreement with images reconstructed with manually determined coil selection. PMID:21656562

  3. Varicose Veins - Sclerotherapy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains the benefits and risks of sclerotherapy for varicose veins. It also reviews the anatomy of the cardiovascular system, symptoms, causes, preventive measures, what the procedure involves, and possible complications. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  4. Sagittal vein thrombosis caused by central vein catheter.

    PubMed

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Karim, Hosein; Heydar Pour, Behzad; Faraji, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis, including thrombosis of cerebral veins and major dural sinuses, is an uncommon disorder in the general population. However, it has a higher frequency among patients younger than 40 years of age, patients with thrombophilia, pregnant patients or those receiving hormonal contraceptive therapy or has foreign body such as catheter in their veins or arterial system. In this case report, we described clinical and radiological findings in a patient with protein C-S deficiency and malposition of central vein catheter. PMID:25796028

  5. Hot streaks and phantom cooling in a turbine rotor passage. II - Combined effects and analytical modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, Richard J.; Dring, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental documentation and analytical correlations demonstrating the effects of hot streak accumulation and phantom cooling on turbine rotor airfoil surface temperature are presented. Results are shown which quantify the impact of a nonuniform temperature profile at the entrance of a turbine due to combustor-generated hot and cold streaks, and cooling air discharged from the trailing edge of the upstream stator. Experimental results are shown for a range of controlling variables to identify where streak accumulation and phantom cooling were most likely to be strongest. These variables include streak-to-free stream density ratio, streak injection location, and coolant-to-free stream density and velocity ratios. Experimental results are shown for the combined effects of hot streak and stator coolant on the adiabatic recovery temperature of the rotor.

  6. On the streak spacing and vortex roll size in a turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaee, M.; Karlsson, S.; Sirovich, L.

    1995-10-01

    Streamwise high vorticity rolls and streaks in the turbulent channel flows have been the subject of many studies due to their important role in turbulence production, as a result of sweeping, ejection, and bursting of these structures. Understanding the physics of these streamwise structures is important in controlling drag producing events. Investigations of the average streak spacing of the low-speed streaks have resulted in the generally accepted range of ?+=?¯u?/?=100±20, where ?¯ is the mean spanwise spacing between streaks, normalized to the viscous length ?/u?. It is also reported, for y+?30, that the streak spacing grows nearly linearly with distance from the wall. The previous studies mostly have focused on distances close to the wall. Here we report on correlation measurements extended into the log layer, which show that the linear growth of the vortex diameter and the streak spacing extends well in the log layer. Arguments are presented to distinguish these two measures.

  7. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  8. Density-driven spontaneous streak segregation patterns in a thin rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, C. C.; Hsiau, S. S.; Nien, H. C.

    2014-06-01

    Granular mixtures may segregate because of external driving forces, which play an important role in industry and geophysics. We investigate experimentally the mechanism of density-driven spontaneous streak segregation patterns in a thin rotating drum. We find that a spontaneous streak segregation pattern can occur in such a system, which we call a D-system. A phase diagram identifies three segregation pattern regimes in this study: the mixing regime, the core segregation regime, and the streak segregation regime.

  9. Surface properties of the Pettit wind streak on Mars Implications for sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.

    1986-04-01

    Satellite imagery of the Pettit streak on Amazonis Planitia are discussed in terms of the details of wind streaks and their associated sediments. Increasingly more detailed blow-ups of the available imagery demonstrate that the Pettit streak holds both a Type I bright streak (at the crater rim) and a Type II dark streak beginning at the dark patch within the crater. The lowest albedos measured, 0.20-0.22, are associated with the highest thermal inertia, indicative of grain diameters similar to medium sand, i.e., ranging from 250-350 microns. The brightest portions of the streak have albedos over 0.26 and a low thermal inertia, in the range 3-4, which implies the presence of fine-grained sand, diameters from 50-100 microns. The particle grains are less than 50 microns diameter in the surrounding plains, which have an approximately uniform albedo (0.27) and a thermal inertia of 2.5, characteristics typical of silt or clay. Current streak models describe the dark streak well, but do not account for the bright streak, which may be optically thick patches of very fine dust.

  10. Palm vein authentication technology and its applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Watanabe; Toshio Endoh; Morito Shiohara; Shigeru Sasaki

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the contactless palm vein authentication device that uses blood vessel patterns as a personal identifying factor. The vein information is hard to duplicate since veins are internal to the human body. The palm vein authentication technology offers a high level of accuracy, and delivers the following results: a false rejection rate (FRR) of 0.01%, and a false

  11. Varicose Veins: Endovenous Laser Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge R. Mordon; Marc E. Vuylsteke

    \\u000a Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) has been developed as an alternative to surgery of great saphenous vein (GSV) and short saphenous\\u000a vein (SSV) in an attempt to reduce morbidity and improve recovery time. EVLA can be performed in an outpatient special procedure\\u000a room in the hospital. EVLA works by means of thermal destruction of venous tissues. Several wavelengths can be used:

  12. MORE ON IRIS YELLOW SPOT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iris yellow spot, caused by Iris yellow spot tospovirus, is an emerging disease of onion in the U.S. and world. Yield losses vary, but may range from undetectable to nearly 100% in onion seed crops. This article presents recent advances in understanding the etiology, epidemiology, and management o...

  13. Photo yellowing of human hair.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, A C S; Richena, M; Dicelio, L E; Joekes, I

    2007-09-25

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white, dark-brown, blond and red hair. All hair types showed a substantial change in yellowness after irradiation, which is dependent on the hair type and radiation wavelength. Surprisingly, white hair turns less yellow after both full and UVB-filtered radiation exposure. This effect is more pronounced when UVB is filtered from the radiation system. The only radiation that shows a photo-yellowing effect on white hair is infrared. As the yellowness of white hair is commonly related to tryptophan degradation, fluorescence experiments with hair solutions were performed to identify the natural degradation of tryptophan which occurs in hair after light irradiation. Pigmented hairs were also studied, as well as hair treated with a bleaching solution. Although we observe a decrease in tryptophan content of hair after lamp radiation, a direct correlation with hair yellowness was not achieved. Results are discussed in terms of hair type, composition and melanin content. PMID:17627835

  14. Attosecond streaking of core lines of copper dihalides

    E-print Network

    J. D. Lee

    2011-09-26

    In the attosecond (as) streaking of Cu 3s core-level photoemission of copper dihalides, we predict theoretically that the satellite ($3d^9$) is emitted later than the main line ($3d^{10}L^{-1}$; $L$: ligand). The emission time delay is originated from the electron correlation between the core level and 3d shell, which leads to the difference in core-hole screening between satellite and main lines. Further, we find that the time delay corresponds to a quantification of the extrinsic loss of photoemission.

  15. VISAR: Interferometer quadrature signal recording by electronic streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsing, W. F.

    This short paper describes a demonstration to record the four quadrature signals from a push-pull VISAR velocity interferometer using an electronic streak camera. Optical fibers were used to transmit the interferometer outputs to the camera photocathode. Brightness variations of these signals were recorded on film during the experiment. Velocity information was later recovered from this record to give a continuous velocity history. Anticipated advantages over previous methods are increased time resolution, the ability to record multiple velocities simultaneously and greater dynamic range.

  16. Streaks of Aftershocks Following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldhauser, F.; Schaff, D. P.; Engdahl, E. R.; Diehl, T.

    2009-12-01

    Five years after the devastating 26 December, 2004 M 9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, regional and global seismic networks have recorded tens of thousands of aftershocks. We use bulletin data from the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC), and waveforms from IRIS, to relocate more than 20,000 hypocenters between 1964 and 2008 using teleseimic cross-correlation and double-difference methods. Relative location uncertainties of a few km or less allow for detailed analysis of the seismogenic faults activated as a result of the massive stress changes associated with the mega-thrust event. We focus our interest on an area of intense aftershock activity off-shore Banda Aceh in northern Sumatra, where the relocated epicenters reveal a pattern of northeast oriented streaks. The two most prominent streaks are ~70 km long with widths of only a few km. Some sections of the streaks are formed by what appear to be small, NNE striking sub-streaks. Hypocenter depths indicate that the events locate both on the plate interface and in the overriding Sunda plate, within a ~20 km wide band overlying the plate interface. Events on the plate interface indicate that the slab dip changes from ~20° to ~30° at around 50 km depth. Locations of the larger events in the overriding plate indicate an extension of the steeper dipping mega thrust fault to the surface, imaging what appears to be a major splay fault that reaches the surface somewhere near the western edge of the Aceh basin. Additional secondary splay faults, which branch off the plate interface at shallower depths, may explain the diffuse distribution of smaller events in the overriding plate, although their relative locations are less well constrained. Focal mechanisms support the relocation results. They show a narrowing range of fault dips with increasing distance from the trench. Specifically, they show reverse faulting on ~30° dipping faults above the shallow (20°) dipping plate interface. The observation of active splay faults associated with the mega thrust event is consistent with co- and post-seismic motion data, and may have significant implications on the generation and size of the tsunami that caused 300,000 deaths.

  17. fisheriesresearch Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is

    E-print Network

    Miller, Tom

    fisheriesresearch feature Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is an important ecological and economic in Lake Michigan: Evaluating Progress in a Cooperative Effort, 1997­2001 Yellow perch (Perca flavescens

  18. Extra-pair mating, male plumage coloration and sexual selection in yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia)

    PubMed Central

    Yezerinac, S. M.; Weatherhead, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Extra-pair mating has been proposed as a source of sexual selection responsible for secondary sexual traits that are common among socially monogamous birds, although supporting evidence is scant. In the socially monogamous yellow warbler, males are larger than females, and unlike females, have extensive reddish streaking on their breasts. Using DNA fingerprinting we show that within-pair parentage was positively related to male size, and that extra-pair mating success was positively related to the amount of streaking on the breast. To our knowledge, this is the first intraspecific evidence of an association between a male plumage ornament and gains of extra-pair paternity that is apparently independent of age. This study confirms that extra-pair mating can be an important mechanism of sexual selection even when the most successful sires are commonly cuckolded, and refutes a previous hypothesis that the variation in plumage and behaviour among male yellow warblers is an example of alternative, equally successful, evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS). More generally, the demonstrated independence of within-pair and extra-pair success and their associated traits indicates that where animals have multiple secondary sexual traits, different traits may be selected by different mechanisms that contribute to total reproductive success.

  19. Genome Sequence of Banana Streak MY Virus from the Pacific Ocean Island of Tonga.

    PubMed

    Stainton, Daisy; Halafihi, Mana'ia; Collings, David A; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Banana streak disease is caused by a variety of banana-infecting badnaviruses. A genome of the episomal form of a banana streak MY virus was recovered from an infected banana plant sampled on Vava'u Island, Tonga, and shares >98% pairwise identity with the six other genomes available in public databases. PMID:26021925

  20. Observation of hard X-ray pulses with a highly sensitive streak camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hara; Y. Tanaka; H. Kitamura; T. Ishikawa

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a highly sensitive X-ray streak camera system, which synchronously operates with the RF signal of the SPring-8 storage ring. The streak camera was installed at an undulator beamline of SPring-8, and the beam loading effect for various electron bunch structures (filling pattern) has been observed. The camera has also been operated as a timing monitor for a

  1. Optical Comb Generation for Streak Camera Calibration for Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Justin; Terence Davies; Frans Janson; Bruce Marshall; Perry Bell; Daniel Kalantar; Joseph Kimbrough; Stephen Vernon; Oliver Sweningsen

    2008-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is coming on-line to support physics experimentation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and Stockpile Stewardship (SS). Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation at NIF. To accurately reduce streak camera data a highly accurate temporal calibration

  2. BUNCH LENGTH MEASUREMENTS AT THE TESLA TEST FACILITY USING A STREAK CAMERA

    E-print Network

    BUNCH LENGTH MEASUREMENTS AT THE TESLA TEST FACILITY USING A STREAK CAMERA K. Honkavaara, Ph. Piot and convenient way to measure bunch lengths in the millimeter and submil- limeter range. At the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) a streak camera with a subpicosecond resolution is in operation. A bunch compressor is used

  3. Status of Banana Streak Disease in Africa: Problems and Future Research Needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Dahal; J. d'A. Hughes; B. E. L. Lockhart

    1998-01-01

    Streak disease of banana and plantain caused by banana streak virus (BSV) was first reported in the Ivory Coast in 1974 and occurs in at least 16 countries in Africa. Based on genomic characteristics, BSV has been shown to be a member of genus Badnavirus. Efficient and reliable diagnostic methods for BSV have recently become widely available. This paper summarizes

  4. Genome Sequence of Banana Streak MY Virus from the Pacific Ocean Island of Tonga

    PubMed Central

    Stainton, Daisy; Halafihi, Mana’ia; Collings, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Banana streak disease is caused by a variety of banana-infecting badnaviruses. A genome of the episomal form of a banana streak MY virus was recovered from an infected banana plant sampled on Vava’u Island, Tonga, and shares >98% pairwise identity with the six other genomes available in public databases. PMID:26021925

  5. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    SciTech Connect

    Amy E. Lewis, Craig Hollabaugh

    2006-09-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera’s user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  6. The enigmatic primitive streak: prevailing notions and challenges concerning the body axis of mammals

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    The primitive streak establishes the antero-posterior body axis in all amniote species. It is thought to be the conduit through which mesoderm and endoderm progenitors ingress and migrate to their ultimate destinations. Despite its importance, the streak remains poorly defined and one of the most enigmatic structures of the animal kingdom. In particular, the posterior end of the primitive streak has not been satisfactorily identified in any species. Unexpectedly, and contrary to prevailing notions, recent evidence suggests that the murine posterior primitive streak extends beyond the embryo proper. In its extraembryonic site, the streak creates a node-like cell reservoir from which the allantois, a universal caudal appendage of all amniotes and the future umbilical cord of placental mammals, emerges. This new insight into the fetal/umbilical relationship may explain the etiology of a large number of umbilical-associated birth defects, many of which are correlated with abnormalities of the embryonic midline. PMID:19609969

  7. Extrahepatic Portal Vein Obstruction and Portal Vein Thrombosis in Special Situations: Need for a New Classification

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Zeeshan A.; Bhat, Riyaz A.; Bhadoria, Ajeet S.; Maiwall, Rakhi

    2015-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is a vascular disorder of liver, which results in obstruction and cavernomatous transformation of portal vein with or without the involvement of intrahepatic portal vein, splenic vein, or superior mesenteric vein. Portal vein obstruction due to chronic liver disease, neoplasm, or postsurgery is a separate entity and is not the same as extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction are generally young and belong mostly to Asian countries. It is therefore very important to define portal vein thrombosis as acute or chronic from management point of view. Portal vein thrombosis in certain situations such as liver transplant and postsurgical/liver transplant period is an evolving area and needs extensive research. There is a need for a new classification, which includes all areas of the entity. In the current review, the most recent literature of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is reviewed and summarized. PMID:26021771

  8. Portal Vein Thrombosis in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Kaiser; Jacob, Mathew; Asthana, Sonal

    2013-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is being increasingly recognized in patients with advanced cirrhosis and in those undergoing liver transplantation. Reduced flow in the portal vein is probably responsible for clotting in the spleno-porto-mesenteric venous system. There is also increasing evidence that hypercoagulability occurs in advanced liver disease and contributes to the risk of PVT. Ultrasound based studies have reported a prevalence of PVT in 10–25% of cirrhotic patients without hepatocellular carcinoma. Partial thrombosis of the portal vein is more common and may not have pathophysiological consequences. However, there is high risk of progression of partial PVT to complete PVT that may cause exacerbation of portal hypertension and progression of liver insufficiency. It is thus, essential to accurately diagnose and stage PVT in patients waiting for transplantation and consider anticoagulation therapy. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin and vitamin K antagonists has been shown to achieve complete and partial recanalization in 33–45% and 15–35% of cases respectively. There are however, no guidelines to help determine the dose and therapeutic efficacy of anticoagulation in patients with cirrhosis. Anticoagulation therapy related bleeding is the most feared complication but it appears that the risk of variceal bleeding is more likely to be dependent on portal pressure rather than solely related to coagulation status. TIPS has also been reported to restore patency of the portal vein. Patients with complete PVT currently do not form an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation. Thrombectomy or thromboendovenectomy is possible in more than 75% of patients followed by anatomical end-to-end portal anastomosis. When patency of the portal vein and/or superior mesenteric vein is not achieved, only non-anatomical techniques (reno-portal anastomosis or cavo-portal hemitransposition) can be performed. These techniques, which do not fully reverse portal hypertension, are associated with higher morbidity and mortality risks in the short term. PMID:25755579

  9. Management of superficial vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cosmi, B

    2015-07-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is less well studied than deep vein thrombosis (DVT), because it has been considered to be a minor, self-limiting disease that is easily diagnosed on clinical grounds and that requires only symptomatic relief. The most frequently involved sites of the superficial vein system are the lower limbs, especially the saphenous veins, mostly in relation to varicosities. Lower-limb SVT shares the same risk factors as DVT; it can propagate into the deep veins, and have a complicated course with pulmonary embolism. Clinical diagnosis may not be accurate, and ultrasonography is currently indicated for both confirmation and evaluation of SVT extension. Treatment aims are symptom relief and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in relation to the thrombotic burden. SVT of the long saphenous vein within 3 cm of the saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) is considered to be equivalent to a DVT, and thus deserving of therapeutic anticoagulation. Less severe forms of lower-limb SVT not involving the SFJ have been included in randomized clinical trials of surgery, compression hosiery, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, unfractionated heparin, and low molecular weight heparins, with inconclusive results. The largest randomized clinical trial available, on 3004 patients with lower-limb SVT not involving the SFJ, showed that fondaparinux 2.5 mg once daily for 6 weeks is more effective than placebo in reducing the risk of the composite of death from any cause and symptomatic VTE (0.9% versus 5.9%). Further studies are needed to define the optimal management strategies for SVT of the lower limbs and other sites, such as the upper limbs. PMID:25903684

  10. Varicose Vein Treatment (Endovenous Ablation of Varicose Veins)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... approximately 1/8 inch in diameter. Laser fibers (fiber optics) or radiofrequency electrodes carry laser or electrical energy from their respective power generators into the body. top of ... vein. A laser fiber or radiofrequency electrode is then inserted through the ...

  11. StreakDet data processing and analysis pipeline for space debris optical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Jenni; Flohrer, Tim; Muinonen, Karri; Granvik, Mikael; Torppa, Johanna; Poikonen, Jonne; Lehti, Jussi; Santti, Tero; Komulainen, Tuomo; Naranen, Jyri

    We describe a novel data processing and analysis pipeline for optical observations of space debris. The monitoring of space object populations requires reliable acquisition of observational data, to support the development and validation of space debris environment models, the build-up and maintenance of a catalogue of orbital elements. In addition, data is needed for the assessment of conjunction events and for the support of contingency situations or launches. The currently available, mature image processing algorithms for detection and astrometric reduction of optical data cover objects that cross the sensor field-of-view comparably slowly, and within a rather narrow, predefined range of angular velocities. By applying specific tracking techniques, the objects appear point-like or as short trails in the exposures. However, the general survey scenario is always a “track before detect” problem, resulting in streaks, i.e., object trails of arbitrary lengths, in the images. The scope of the ESA-funded StreakDet (Streak detection and astrometric reduction) project is to investigate solutions for detecting and reducing streaks from optical images, particularly in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) domain, where algorithms are not readily available yet. For long streaks, the challenge is to extract precise position information and related registered epochs with sufficient precision. Although some considerations for low-SNR processing of streak-like features are available in the current image processing and computer vision literature, there is a need to discuss and compare these approaches for space debris analysis, in order to develop and evaluate prototype implementations. In the StreakDet project, we develop algorithms applicable to single images (as compared to consecutive frames of the same field) obtained with any observing scenario, including space-based surveys and both low- and high-altitude populations. The proposed processing pipeline starts from the segmentation of the acquired image (i.e., the extraction of all sources), followed by the astrometric and photometric characterization of the candidate streaks, and ends with orbital validation of the detected streaks. A central concept of the pipeline is streak classification which guides the actual characterization process by aiming to identify the interesting sources and to filter out the uninteresting ones, as well as by allowing the tailoring of algorithms for specific streak classes (e.g. point-like vs. long, disintegrated streaks). To validate the single-image detections, the processing is finalized by orbital analysis, resulting in preliminary orbital classification (Earth-bound vs. non-Earth-bound orbit) for the detected streaks.

  12. A unique Yellow River-derived distal subaqueous delta in the Yellow Sea

    E-print Network

    Liu, Paul

    A unique Yellow River-derived distal subaqueous delta in the Yellow Sea Z.S. Yang a , J.P. Liu b deposited around the eastern tip of the Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea. This clinoform deposit re-suspended and transported out of the Bohai Sea into the Yellow Sea. Overall, the Yellow River

  13. Aerosols Over Yellow Sea Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS image shows complex phytoplankton distribution patterns in the Bohai and Yellow seas. A wide band of brownish water along the coast north and south of the mouth of the Yangtze River indicates a heavy load of suspended sediment. The air over eastern central China and the Yellow Sea is thick with aerosols. Farther north over the Manchurian Plain and Greater Khingan Range, the air is much clearer.

  14. High-speed TV cameras for streak tube readout

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; Gallegos, R.A.; Holmes, V.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Turko, B.T. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Two fast framing TV cameras have been characterized and compared as readout media for imaging of 40 mm diameter streak tube (P-11) phosphor screens. One camera is based upon a Focus-Projection-Scan (FPS) high-speed electrostatic deflected vidicon with 30-mm-diameter PbO target. The other uses an interline transfer charge-coupled device (CCD) with 8.8 {times} 11.4 mm rectangular Si target. The field-of-view (FOV), resolution, responsivity, and dynamic range provided by both cameras when exposed to short duration ({approx} 10 {mu} full width at half maximum (FWHM)) transient illumination followed by a single field readout period of {lt}3 ms are presented. 11 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Streaking in Cascadia ETS Events and Implications for the Subduction Plate Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, H.; Ghosh, A.

    2011-12-01

    The manner in which episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) propagates across the subduction plate interface provides constraints on its properties and the physical processes involved. We have been examining catalogs of tremor locations to study propagation patterns during ETS. Tremor in the large Cascadia ETS events propagates mainly via three modes: 1) the slow along-strike advance of ETS, 2) rapid tremor reversals (RTRs) that propagate back from the tremor front in an opposite direction to the along-strike advance, but at speeds 10-40 times faster (Houston et al., Nature Geoscience, 2011), and 3) streaks, even faster migrations of tremor parallel to the plate-convergence direction at speeds ~ 70 km/hr (Ghosh et al., G3, 2011). The UW Seismology group has recently deployed an EarthScope-funded seismic experiment, the Array of Arrays, to image tremor more precisely with eight subarrays. A 15-month catalog of high-resolution tremor locations has been generated based on the triangulation of back-projected beams from the subarrays. We detect tremor streaks in this catalog automatically and systematically determine streak propagation properties. Key issues for constraining streak-generation processes include systematic differences between up- and down-dip traveling streaks, how streak properties may depend on depth, and whether streaks accelerate or decelerate during propagation. Stacking automatically-detected streaks can address some of these issues. Two approaches to automatically detecting streaks have been developed and applied to the M6.8 2010 ETS. One method declares a streak when averaged epicenters continue to move in a roughly constant direction for more than 10 km. The second declares a streak if epicenters during a specified time interval, say 20 min, are sufficiently well-correlated with time. The two methods agree well and detect several streaks per day of 15-30 min duration with speeds consistent with those inferred for the 2008 ETS. Although the detection methods have no azimuthal bias, most of the detected streaks align with one direction; furthermore, that direction lies much closer to the plate convergence direction than directly down-dip (the down-dip and plate convergence directions differ significantly along most of Cascadia). Many more streaks are detected in the actual catalog than in randomized versions, in which the times within each hour are permuted. These results lend substantial credence to convergence-parallel streaks as real features of ETS. Streak propagation patterns suggest the plate interface is anisotropic along the slip direction. The ubiquity of streaking parallel to plate convergence implies control by corrugated or smeared structures on the plate interface. This could occur via such structures controlling the orientation of an advancing slip pulse, which could carry streaks along its peak (Rubin, G3, 2011), or more directly via heterogeneous physical properties (such as rheology or permeability) elongated in the convergence direction. In this connection, we note that daily tremor bands in Cascadia ETS are also often oriented parallel to the convergence direction whether the ETS is advancing north or south, even though the direction of ETS advance would be expected to affect the orientation of a slip pulse on a homogeneous interface.

  16. Dust Devils Seen Streaking Across Mars: PART 1--What Are These?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    PIA02376 [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dark streaks, everywhere! Many Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of the middle latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars show wild patterns of criss-crossing dark streaks. Many of these streaks are straight and narrow, others exhibit curly arcs, twists, and loops. They often cross over hills, run straight across dunes and ripples, and go through fields of house-sized boulders. The two examples shown above were acquired in the last three months. Both pictures are illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. The first picture (left), showing dark streaks on the rippled flats of Argyre Planitia, covers an area 3 km by 5 km (1.9 by 3.1 miles) at a latitude of 51oS. The second picture (right) shows an area approximately 3 km by 5 km in Promethei Terra at a latitude of 58oS.

    For many months the MOC science team was seeing streaks such as these, but were uncertain how they formed. One speculation was that they might result from the passage of dust devils. Each dust devil would leave a dark streak by removing bright dust from the terrain in its path, revealing a darker surface underneath. An image described by the MOC team in July 1998 showed examples of streaks that were, at the time, speculated to be caused by dust devils.

  17. Streaking and Wigner time delays in photoemission from atoms and surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.-H.; Thumm, U. [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Streaked photoemission metrology allows the observation of an apparent relative time delay between the detection of photoelectrons from different initial electronic states. This relative delay is obtained by recording the photoelectron yield as a function of the delay between an ionizing ultrashort extended ultraviolet pulse and a streaking infrared (IR) pulse. Theoretically, photoemission delays can be defined based on (i) the phase shift the photoelectron wave function accumulates during the release and propagation of the photoelectron (''Wigner delay'') and, alternatively, (ii) the streaking trace in the calculated photoemission spectrum (''streaking delay''). We investigate the relation between Wigner and streaking delays in the photoemission from atomic and solid-surface targets. For solid targets and assuming a vanishing IR skin depth, both Wigner and streaking delays can be interpreted as an average propagation time needed by photoelectrons to reach the surface, while the two delays differ for nonvanishing skin depths. For atomic targets, the difference between Wigner and streaking delays depends on the range of the ionic potential.

  18. Surgical Access to Jejunal Veins for Local Thrombolysis and Stent Placement in Portal Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Schellhammer, Frank, E-mail: frank.schellhammer@med.uni-duesseldorf.d [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Esch, Jan Schulte am [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery (Germany); Hammerschlag, Sascha [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery (Germany); Fuerst, Guenter [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    Portal vein thrombosis is an infrequent entity, which may cause high morbidity and mortality. We report a case of portal vein thrombosis due to benign stenosis following partial pancreatoduodenectomy with segmental replacement of the portal vein by a Gore-tex graft. Using a surgical access to jenunal veins, local thrombolysis, mechanical fragmentation of thrombus, and stent placement were successfully performed.

  19. How Can Varicose Veins Be Prevented?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tight around your waist, groin (upper thighs), and legs. Tight clothes can make varicose veins worse. Avoid wearing high heels for long periods. ... in the veins and decreases swelling in the legs. Rate This Content: NEXT ... 13, 2014 Varicose Veins Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

  20. Ultra fast x-ray streak camera for ten inch manipulator based platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, E. V. [Physics and Life Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, M.S. L-490, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Shepherd, R.; Fulkerson, S.; James, L.; Emig, J.; Norman, D. [Physics and Life Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, M.S. L-490, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube. The camera also has a new user interface that allows for remote control and data acquisition. The system has been outfitted with a new sensor package that gives the user more operational awareness and control.

  1. Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, E; Shepherd, R; Fulkerson, E S; James, L; Emig, J; Norman, D

    2012-05-02

    Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The LLNL ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube. The camera also has a new user interface that allows for remote control and data acquisition. The system has been outfitted with a new sensor package that gives the user more operational awareness and control.

  2. Emissivity spectrum of a large "dark streak" from themis infrared imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Brumby, Steven P.; Vaniman, D. T. (David T.); Bish, D. L. (David L.)

    2003-01-01

    'Dark streaks', also known as 'slope streaks', are unusual surface features found on Mars that are known to appear and fade away on timescales of years. Various explanations have been proposed for their origin and composition, including dry avalanches and wet debris or precipitates from brines. Previous investigations have been based on analysis of panchromatic imagery and altimetry from Viking and Mars Global Surveyor missions. We have obtained an infrared emissivity spectrum of a large dark streak on the north western edge of Olympus Mons, using imagery from the THEMIS instrument on the Mars Odyssey 2001 spacecraft.

  3. Attosecond streaking of Cohen-Fano interferences in the photoionization of H2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Qi-Cheng; Peng, Liang-You; Song, Shu-Na; Jiang, Wei-Chao; Nagele, Stefan; Pazourek, Renate; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-07-01

    We present a numerical ab-initio simulation of the time delay in the photoionization of the simplest diatomic molecule H2+ as observed by attosecond streaking. We show that the strong variation of the Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith time delay tEWS as a function of energy and emission angle becomes observable in the streaking time shift tS provided laser field induced components are accounted for. The strongly enhanced photoemission time shifts are traced to destructive Cohen-Fano (or two-center) interferences. Signatures of these interferences in the streaking trace are shown to be enhanced when the ionic fragments are detected in coincidence.

  4. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  5. Effect of Process Variables on the Formation of Streak Defects on Anodized Aluminum Extrusions: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hanliang; Couper, Malcolm J.; Dahle, Arne K.

    2012-04-01

    Streak defects are often present on anodized extrusions of 6xxx series aluminum alloys, increasing the fabrication cost of these products. Moreover, streaking often only becomes visible after etching and anodizing treatments, rather than in the as-extruded condition, making it difficult to identify the original causes and influencing factors of these defects. In this paper, various process variables that influence the formation of streak defects on anodized aluminium extrusions are reviewed on the basis of a literature review, industrial practice and experimental results. The influencing factors involved in various processing steps such as billet quality, extrusion process, die design and etching process are considered. Effective measures for preventing the formation of streak defects in industrial extrusion products are discussed.

  6. Wind streaks in Tharsis and Elysium - Implications for sediment transport by slope winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. W.; Thomas, P. C.; Veverka, J.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed maps of wind streaks in Tharsis and Elysium have been compiled from Viking Orbiter observations spanning one complete Martian year. The streak pattern is controlled by slope winds on the central volcanoes and on the flanks of the Tharsis bulge, while the global circulation dominates in Elysium. Dust erosion by downslope winds occurs over much of Tharsis and in the vicinity of Elysium Mons; this process is effective even at the low atmospheric pressures found near the summits of the large volcanoes. Erosional streaks are largely absent in Elysium Planitia; net deposition of dust might have occurred during the period of the observations. Surface properties such as slope, thermal inertia, and roughness may influence the efficiency of slope wind production sufficiently to account for the pronounced differences in streak types and patterns present in these two regions.

  7. Standard design for National Ignition Facility x-ray streak and framing cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, J. R.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Holder, J. P.; Kalantar, D. K.; MacPhee, A. G.; Telford, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The x-ray streak camera and x-ray framing camera for the National Ignition Facility were redesigned to improve electromagnetic pulse hardening, protect high voltage circuits from pressure transients, and maximize the use of common parts and operational software. Both instruments use the same PC104 based controller, interface, power supply, charge coupled device camera, protective hermetically sealed housing, and mechanical interfaces. Communication is over fiber optics with identical facility hardware for both instruments. Each has three triggers that can be either fiber optic or coax. High voltage protection consists of a vacuum sensor to enable the high voltage and pulsed microchannel plate phosphor voltage. In the streak camera, the high voltage is removed after the sweep. Both rely on the hardened aluminum box and a custom power supply to reduce electromagnetic pulse/electromagnetic interference (EMP/EMI) getting into the electronics. In addition, the streak camera has an EMP/EMI shield enclosing the front of the streak tube.

  8. Film-thickness-dependent attosecond streaking time delays for photoemission from adsorbate-covered surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Qing; Thumm, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    We analyze streaked photoelectron spectra and attosecond time delays for the streaked photoemission the from valence band (VB) and core levels (CLs) of Mg(0001) covered W(110) surfaces within a quantum-mechanical model. The relative streaking time delay between Mg(VB) and Mg(2p) CL photoelectrons (PEs) is found to be sensitive to Mg coverage for film thicknesses below ~ 100 layers. The relative streaking time delay between Mg(2p) and W(4f) CL PEs is shown to strongly depend on the Mg film thickness and thus on transport effects of PEs inside this solid, in particular, on the scattering of released PEs off the substrate and thin film lattices. Supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13491 and NSF Grant PHY-1068752.

  9. Time and Streak Surfaces for Flow Visualization in Large Time-Varying Data Sets

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    to the surface. They are analogous to streak lines in that they originate from wind tunnel experiments with line to improve surface depiction through advanced rendering and texturing, while preserving interactivity

  10. Rip-current Persistent-foam Streaks Outside of the Surf Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbow, C.; MacMahan, J. H.; Reniers, A.; Brouwer, R.; Rynne, P.; de Schipper, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Rip currents induce episodic pulses that transport surface material from the surf zone into the inner shelf. During certain energetic storm events for the rip-channeled system at Sand City, Monterey Bay, persistent-foam surface streaks are observed outside of the surf zone that outline the exiting rip current pulses. The persistent foam develops in the surf zone from mucus that is shed from diatoms in the breaking waves. The persistent foam streaks outside of the surf zone are surface convergences of the rip current front, and represent Lagrangian Coherent Structures. Aerial images are collected during these energetic events to explore the cross-shore mixing patterns. The images are geo-rectified and digitally enhanced for evaluating the surface streaks. The temporal and spatial evolution of the rip-current foam streaks is evaluated for their patterns, velocity, and offshore extent.

  11. Thrombosis of the popliteal vein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Erich Schmitt; Michael J. Mihatsch

    1992-01-01

    Among 3,307 consecutive patients (3,556 legs) with deep venous thrombosis, 54 (1.5%) showed an isolated thrombus of the popliteal\\u000a vein on phlebography. The majority of those had a history of “effort” or long lasting flexion during air or bus travel. Forty-four\\u000a percent suffered from pulmonary embolism as the first sign of deep venous thrombosis. Functional phlebography demonstrated\\u000a the primary site

  12. Split ring resonator based THz-driven electron streak camera featuring femtosecond resolution

    PubMed Central

    Fabia?ska, Justyna; Kassier, Günther; Feurer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Through combined three-dimensional electromagnetic and particle tracking simulations we demonstrate a THz driven electron streak camera featuring a temporal resolution on the order of a femtosecond. The ultrafast streaking field is generated in a resonant THz sub-wavelength antenna which is illuminated by an intense single-cycle THz pulse. Since electron bunches and THz pulses are generated with parts of the same laser system, synchronization between the two is inherently guaranteed. PMID:25010060

  13. High time resolution X-ray streak camera with X-ray microscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Fleurot; J. P. Gex; M. Lamy; C. Quinnesiere; R. Sauneuf

    1977-01-01

    The paper reports characteristics and applications of high resolution X-ray streak cameras used to study plasmas. The camera structure is examined, and a device for converting X-rays into photocathode tube images is described. The ability of each of two X-ray microscopes with cylindrical mirrors to improve streak camera data quality was tested, and resolution properties are indicated. X-ray images and

  14. Effects of method of wheat streak mosaic virus transmission on the resistance of selected hosts 

    E-print Network

    Cho, Han Yong

    1969-01-01

    EFFECTS OF METHOD OF WHEAT STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS TRANSMISSION ON THE RESISTANCE OF SELECTED HOSTS A Thesis by HAN YONG CHO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&K University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1969 Major Subject: Plant Pathology EFFECTS OF METHOD OF NHEAT STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS TRANSMISSION ON THE RESISTANCE OF SELECTED HOSTS A Thesis HAN YONG CHO Approved as to style and content by: J (Chairman of Committee...

  15. Effects of Hot Streak Shape on Rotor Heating in a High-Subsonic Single-Stage Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Gundy-Burlet, Karen L.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data have shown that combustor temperature non-uniformities can lead to the excessive heating of first-stage rotor blades in turbines. This heating of the rotor blades can lead to thermal fatigue and degrade turbine performance. The results of recent studies have shown that variations in the circumferential location (clocking) of the hot streak relative to the first-stage vane airfoils can be used to minimize the adverse effects of the hot streak. The effects of the hot streak/airfoil count ratio on the heating patterns of turbine airfoils have also been evaluated. In the present investigation, three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes simulations have been performed for a single-stage high-pressure turbine operating in high subsonic flow. In addition to a simulation of the baseline turbine, simulations have been performed for circular and elliptical hot streaks of varying sizes in an effort to represent different combustor designs. The predicted results for the baseline simulation show good agreement with the available experimental data. The results of the hot streak simulations indicate: that a) elliptical hot streaks mix more rapidly than circular hot streaks, b) for small hot streak surface area the average rotor temperature is not a strong function of hot streak temperature ratio or shape, and c) hot streaks with larger surface area interact with the secondary flows at the rotor hub endwall, generating an additional high temperature region.

  16. Molecular characterization of Indian sugarcane streak mosaic virus isolate.

    PubMed

    Parameswari, B; Bagyalakshmi, K; Viswanathan, R; Chinnaraja, C

    2013-02-01

    Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV), a member of the genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae, is an important viral pathogen affecting sugarcane cultivation in India. The complete nucleotide sequence of a SCSMV isolate from India (SCSMV-IND) was determined. The linear, assembled, single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of SCSMV-IND was 9,786 nucleotides in length (excluding the poly (A) tail) and encoded a polyprotein of 3,131 amino acid residues. The genome of SCSMV-IND shared high degree of sequence identity with SCSMV-PAK (93 % at nucleotide and 97 % at amino acid), and shared only 81 % nucleotide and 94 % amino acid identities with all the four SCSMV isolates (SCSMV-JP1, -JP2, -ID, and -THA). Phylogenetic tree analysis of the complete genome sequences of SCSMV isolates revealed that they can be clustered into two groups. SCSMV-IND and -AP isolates showed 18 % (nucleotide) divergence within the highly conserved 3' partial genome, suggesting a high level of genetic diversity among the Indian SCSMV isolates. PMID:23011777

  17. Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea

    E-print Network

    Liu, Paul

    Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea J. Paul Liua,*, John Yellow Sea reveal a 20­40-m-thick subaqueous clinoform delta that wraps around the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, extending into the South Yellow Sea. This complex sigmoidal-oblique clinoform

  18. RESEARCH ARTICLE Nucleotide Sequence of Yellow Fever

    E-print Network

    Eddy, Sean

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Nucleotide Sequence of Yellow Fever Virus: Implications for Flavivirus Gene, and yellow fever (1). Most fever was spread by ship to ports as far north as Boston and as far east as En. Walter Reed and colleagues in pioneering studies in Cuba in 1900 demonstrated that yellow fever

  19. Anaphylaxis from yellow fever vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Kelso; Gina T. Mootrey; Theodore F. Tsai

    1999-01-01

    Background: There are very few reports of anaphylactic reactions to yellow fever (YF) vaccine in the literature, and these date from the 1940s. Objective: We sought to estimate the rate of YF vaccine–related anaphylaxis. Methods: All reports of adverse reactions to YF vaccine submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System between 1990 and 1997 were reviewed for those meeting

  20. Portal vein aneurysm in a dog.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Shingo; Washizu, Makoto; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Shibata, Sanae; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2012-09-01

    Portal vein aneurysm (PVA) is a rare abnormal dilatation of the portal vein, which has not been reported in dogs. We describe the findings of ultrasound and computed tomography in a case of PVA in a young male toy poodle, with the final diagnosis established by explorative surgical observation. The dog had an aneurysmal fusiform dilatation in the extrahepatic portal vein with portal hypertension and multiple portsystemic shunts. This is the first report of canine PVA. PMID:22571895

  1. MR Venography for the Assessment of Deep Vein Thrombosis in Lower Extremities with Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the performance of magnetic resonance venography (MRV) for pelvis and deep vein thrombosis in the lower extremities before surgical interventions for varicose veins. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 72 patients who underwent MRV and ultrasonography before stripping for varicose veins of lower extremities. All images of the deep venous systems were evaluated by time-of-flight MRV. Results: Forty-six patients (63.9%) of all were female. Mean age was 65.2 ± 10.2 years (37–81 years). There were forty patients (55.6%) with varicose veins in both legs. Two deep vein thrombosis (2.8%) and three iliac vein thrombosis (4.2%) were diagnosed. All patients without deep vein thrombosis underwent the stripping of saphenous veins, and post-thrombotic change was avoided in all cases. Conclusion: MRV, without contrast medium, is considered clinically useful for the lower extremity venous system. PMID:25593625

  2. Mars Eolian Geology at Airphoto Scales: The Large Wind Streaks of Western Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2001-01-01

    More than 27,000 pictures at aerial photograph scales (1.5-12 m/pixel) have been acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) since September 1997. The pictures are valuable for testing hypotheses about geologic history and processes of Mars. Of particular interest are eolian features connected to surface albedo patterns. This work is focused on low-albedo wind streaks, some over 100 km long, in western Arabia Terra. Each streak is widest where it originates at an impact crater (typically 25-150 km diameter). The streaks taper downwind. Within the associated craters there is a lower-albedo surface that, in nearly all observed cases, includes barchan dunes indicative of transport in the same direction as the wind streaks. Upwind of the dunes there is usually an outcrop of layered material that might have served as a source for dune sand. MOC images show that the west Arabia streaks consist of a smooth-surfaced, multiple-meters-thick, mantle (smooth at 1.5 m/pixel) that appears to be superposed on local surfaces. No dunes are present, indicating that down-streak transport of sediment via saltation and traction have not occurred. Two models might explain the observed properties: (1) the streaks consist of dark silt- and clay-sized grains deflated from the adjacent crater interiors and deposited from suspension or (2) they are remnants (protected in the lee of impact crater rims) of a formerly much larger, regional covering of low albedo, smooth-surfaced mantle. The latter hypothesis is based on observation of low albedo mantled surfaces occurring south of west Arabia in Terra Meridiani. For reasons yet unknown, a large fraction of the martian equatorial regions are covered by low albedo, mesa-forming material that lies unconformably atop eroded layered and cratered terrain. Both hypotheses are being explored via continued selective targeting of new MOC images as well as analyses of the new data.

  3. Dust Devils Seen Streaking Across Mars: PART 1--What Are These?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    PIA02376 [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    PIA02377 [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dark streaks, everywhere! Many Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of the middle latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars show wild patterns of criss-crossing dark streaks. Many of these streaks are straight and narrow, others exhibit curly arcs, twists, and loops. They often cross over hills, run straight across dunes and ripples, and go through fields of house-sized boulders. The two examples shown above were acquired in the last three months. Both pictures are illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. The first picture (left), showing dark streaks on the rippled flats of Argyre Planitia, covers an area 3 km by 5 km (1.9 by 3.1 miles) at a latitude of 51oS. The second picture (right) shows an area approximately 3 km by 5 km in Promethei Terra at a latitude of 58oS.

    For many months the MOC science team was seeing streaks such as these, but were uncertain how they formed. One speculation was that they might result from the passage of dust devils. Each dust devil would leave a dark streak by removing bright dust from the terrain in its path, revealing a darker surface underneath. An image described by the MOC team in July 1998 showed examples of streaks that were, at the time, speculated to be caused by dust devils.

  4. Remodelling of the Superior Caval Vein After Angioplasty in an Infant with Superior Caval Vein Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mert, Murat [Istanbul University, Institute of Cardiology, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey)], E-mail: mmert@superonline.com; Saltik, Levent [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Department of Pediatric Cardiology (Turkey); Gunay, Ilhan [Istanbul University, Institute of Cardiology, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey)

    2004-08-15

    An 8-month old girl was presented with superior caval vein syndrome early after cardiac surgery. Angiography showed severe stenosis of the superior caval vein with 50 mmHg pressure gradient. Following balloon angioplasty, the pressure gradient was reduced to 7 mmHg with some residual stenosis of the superior caval vein. When the patient was reevaluated 5 months after the procedure, angiography revealed a normal diameter of the superior caval vein without a pressure gradient.

  5. A high degree of African streak virus diversity within Nigerian maize fields includes a new mastrevirus from Axonopus compressus.

    PubMed

    Oluwafemi, Sunday; Kraberger, Simona; Shepherd, Dionne N; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

    2014-10-01

    The A-strain of maize streak virus (MSV-A; genus Mastrevirus, family Geminiviridae), the causal agent of maize streak disease, places a major constraint on maize production throughout sub-Saharan Africa. In West-African countries such as Nigeria, where maize is not cultivated year-round, this MSV strain is forced to overwinter in non-maize hosts. In order to both identify uncultivated grasses that might harbour MSV-A during the winter season and further characterise the diversity of related maize-associated streak viruses, we collected maize and grass samples displaying streak symptoms in a number of Nigerian maize fields. From these we isolated and cloned 18 full mastrevirus genomes (seven from maize and 11 from various wild grass species). Although only MSV-A isolates were obtained from maize, both MSV-A and MSV-F isolates were obtained from Digitaria ciliaris. Four non-MSV African streak viruses were also sampled, including sugarcane streak Reunion virus and Urochloa streak virus (USV) from Eleusine coacana, USV from Urochloa sp., maize streak Reunion virus (MSRV) from both Setaria barbata and Rottboellia sp., and a novel highly divergent mastrevirus from Axonopus compressus, which we have tentatively named Axonopus compressus streak virus (ACSV). Besides the discovery of this new mastrevirus species and expanding the known geographical and host ranges of MSRV, we have added D. ciliaris to the list of uncultivated species within which Nigerian MSV-A isolates are possibly able to overwinter. PMID:24796552

  6. An Optical Streaking Method for Measuring Femtosecond Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yuantao; Bane, Karl L.F.; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    The measurement of the ultra-short electron bunch length on the femtosecond time scale constitutes a very challenging problem. In the x-ray free electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source, generation of a sub-ten femtoseconds electron beam with 20pC charge is possible, but direct measurements are very difficult due to the resolution limit of the present diagnostics. We propose a new method here based on the measurement of the electron beam energy modulation induced from laser-electron interaction in a short wiggler. A typical optical streaking method requires a laser wavelength much longer than the electron bunch length. In this paper a laser with its wavelength shorter than the electron bunch length has been adopted, while the slope on the laser intensity envelope is used to distinguish the different periods. With this technique it is possible to reconstruct the bunch longitudinal profile from a single shot measurement. Generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses at femtoseconds (fs) scale is of great interest within synchrotron radiation and free electron laser (FEL) user community. One of the simple methods is to operate the FEL facility at low charge. At the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), we have demonstrated the capability of generating ultrashort electron-beam (e-beam) with a duration of less than 10 fs fwhm using 20 pC charge. The x-ray pulses have been delivered to the x-ray users with a similar or even shorter pulse duration. However, The measurement of such short electron or x-ray pulse length at the fs time-scale constitutes a challenging problem. A standard method using an S-band radio-frequency (rf) transverse deflector has been established at LCLS, which works like a streak camera for electrons and is capable of resolving bunch lengths as short as 25 fs fwhm. With this device, the electrons are transversely deflected by the high-frequency time-variation of the deflecting fields. Increasing the deflecting voltage and rf frequency are the right direction to achieve a better resolution. For example, by choosing an X-band transverse deflecting cavity, the expected resolution for LCLS beam with 4.3 GeV is about 1 fs rms. Typically the rf breakdown threshold and the power source availability prevent going to even higher voltage and frequency. With the highly-developed laser techniques, we can choose to streak the beam at optical frequencies. By jumping from rf to optical frequency, the wavelength is shortening by 4 to 5 orders. With an electron bunch length shorter than half period of the laser, we can apply the similar rf deflecting or zero-phasing method for e-beam bunch length measurements using a high-power laser. A short wiggler is required to provide interaction between the electron and the laser. For example, to measure the e-beam at the order of 1 m rms length, a laser with its wavelength of 10 {mu}m may be considered. For a typical few GeV e-beam, the wiggler period has to be large to satisfy the resonance condition. Also, if the e-beam is longer than one laser period, the different modulation periods will overlap and we cannot distinguish them. So this method is so far limited by the achievable long-wavelength laser power. To get an effective modulation on an e-beam of 4.3 GeV, the required laser power is about a few tens GW. In this paper we propose to adopt a high-power Ti:Sapphire laser (wavelength of 800 nm), and use the slope in the intensity envelope to distinguish the different modulation periods. First an ultrashort electron beam interacts with the Ti:Sapphire laser in a wiggler, where the electron energy is modulated at the same periods of the laser. If the laser pulse is long and the short electron bunch is overlapped (in time) with the middle part of the laser, such as the setup at LCLS laser heater, the different energy modulation periods on the electron beam will be overlapped on the energy profile. In this conditionwe typically have a double-horn distribution of the energy profile, and the electron-bunch length information cannot be retrieved. But if the laser pulse (

  7. Temporal Integration of Movement: The Time-Course of Motion Streaks Revealed by Masking

    PubMed Central

    Alais, David; Apthorp, Deborah; Karmann, Anna; Cass, John

    2011-01-01

    Temporal integration in the visual system causes fast-moving objects to leave oriented ‘motion streaks’ in their wake, which could be used to facilitate motion direction perception. Temporal integration is thought to occur over 100 ms in early cortex, although this has never been tested for motion streaks. Here we compare the ability of fast-moving (‘streaky’) and slow-moving fields of dots to mask briefly flashed gratings either parallel or orthogonal to the motion trajectory. Gratings were presented at various asynchronies relative to motion onset (from to ms) to sample the time-course of the accumulating streaks. Predictions were that masking would be strongest for the fast parallel condition, and would be weak at early asynchronies and strengthen over time as integration rendered the translating dots more streaky and grating-like. The asynchrony where the masking function reached a plateau would correspond to the temporal integration period. As expected, fast-moving dots caused greater masking of parallel gratings than orthogonal gratings, and slow motion produced only modest masking of either grating orientation. Masking strength in the fast, parallel condition increased with time and reached a plateau after 77 ms, providing an estimate of the temporal integration period for mechanisms encoding motion streaks. Interestingly, the greater masking by fast motion of parallel compared with orthogonal gratings first reached significance at 48 ms before motion onset, indicating an effect of backward masking by motion streaks. PMID:22205961

  8. Yellow Fever: A Reemerging Threat

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Christina L.; Ryman, Kate D.

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a viral disease, endemic to tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. YF principally affects humans and nonhuman primates, and is transmitted via the bite of infected mosquitoes. The agent of YF, yellow fever virus (YFV), can cause devastating epidemics of potentially fatal, hemorrhagic disease. We rely on mass vaccination campaigns to prevent and control these outbreaks. However, the risk of major YF epidemics, especially in densely populated, poor urban settings, both in Africa and South America, has greatly increased due to: (1) reinvasion of urban settings by the mosquito vector of YF, Aedes aegypti; (2) rapid urbanization, particularly in parts of Africa, with populations shifting from rural to predominantly urban; and (3) waning immunization coverage. Consequently, YF is considered an emerging, or reemerging disease of considerable importance. PMID:20513550

  9. Retracted manuscript: Scientific yellow journalism.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The following article from Small GTPases, "Scientific Yellow Journalism" by Anica Klockars and Michael J. Williams, published online on 20 September 2012 (doi: 10.4161/sgtp.22289; http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/smallgtpases/article/22289/) by Landes Bioscience and subsequently published in print in Small GTPases 2012 3(4):201 has been retracted by agreement between the authors and the journal's Editor in Chief, Michael J. Williams (also an author of the paper). PMID:23485921

  10. Transgenic yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Li; S. J. Wylie; M. G. K. Jones

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) plants have been generated by meristem co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The binary plasmid pPZBNIa contains the bar gene under the control of a CaMV 35?S promoter. The transformation method involves inoculation of embryonic axis explants\\u000a with A. tumefaciens, flooding the meristem with glufosinate, and initial culture on non-selective medium. Shoots were transferred to culture

  11. Improving the management of varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Onida, Sarah; Lane, Tristan R A; Davies, Alun H

    2013-01-01

    Up to 30% of the UK population are affected by varicose veins. They are a manifestation of increased venous pressure in the lower limb caused by impaired venous return. Primary varicosities result from poor drainage from the superficial to the deep venous system. Secondary varicosities arise as a result of underlying pathology impeding venous drainage, such as deep venous thrombosis or increased intra-abdominal pressure caused by a mass, pregnancy or obesity. Patients with bleeding varicose veins should be referred to a vascular service immediately. Referral is also indicated in the following cases: symptomatic primary or recurrent varicose veins; lower limb skin changes thought to be caused by chronic venous insufficiency; superficial vein thrombosis and suspected venous incompetence; a venous leg ulcer or healed venous leg ulcer. Imaging is crucial in the assessment of the superficial and deep venous system to enable assessment of venous competence. The gold standard imaging technique is colour duplex ultrasonography. Duplex ultrasound should be used to confirm the diagnosis of varicose veins and the extent of truncal reflux, and to plan treatment for patients with suspected primary or recurrent varicose veins. Superficial vein ligation, phlebectomy and stripping have been the mainstay of treatment. In recent years, new techniques have been developed that are minimally invasive, enabling treatment of superficial venous incompetence with reduced morbidity. NICE recommends that endothermal ablation, in the form of radiofrequency or laser treatment, should be offered as treatment for patients with confirmed varicose veins and truncal reflux. PMID:24555256

  12. Fatal lower extremity varicose vein rupture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garyfalia Ampanozi; Ulrich Preiss; Gary M. Hatch; Wolf Dieter Zech; Thomas Ketterer; Stephan Bolliger; Michael J. Thali; Thomas D. Ruder

    2011-01-01

    Varicose vein rupture is a rare cause of death, although varicosities are a common pathology. We present three cases of sudden death due to varicose vein rupture. After a review of the literature, the case circumstances and the findings of imaging examination, performed in two cases, are presented. One of them had undergone a post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA), and

  13. Arteries and veins of the zebra fish

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

    2007-06-19

    Arteries and veins are blood vessels and are part of the circulatory system. Arteries take oxygenated blood away from the heart and veins bring blood back to the heart after it has circulated through the body. The circulatory system distributes oxygen to the body and also moves around nutrients.

  14. Enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar

    1999-07-01

    A technique for enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins has been demonstrated. This technique uses a near infrared light source and one or more infrared sensitive CCD TV cameras to produce a contrast enhanced image of the subcutaneous veins. This video image of the veins is projected back onto the patient's skin using an LCD vein projector. The use of an infrared transmitting filter in front of the video cameras prevents any positive feedback from the visible light from the video projector from causing instabilities in the projected image. The demonstration contrast enhancing illuminator has been tested on adults, both Caucasian and African-American, and it enhances veins quite well in most cases. Preliminary studies on a 9 month old girl indicate promise for pediatric use.

  15. Absolute calibration method for fast-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Mark D.; Frogget, Brent (National Security Technologies, Las Vegas, NV); Oliver, Bryan Velten; Maron, Yitzhak (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel); Droemer, Darryl W. (National Security Technologies, Las Vegas, NV); Crain, Marlon D. (National Security Technologies, Las Vegas, NV)

    2010-04-01

    This report outlines a convenient method to calibrate fast (<1ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in the A-K gap of electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA). On RITS, light is collected through a small diameter (200 micron) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator (F/7 optics). To calibrate such a system, it is necessary to efficiently couple light from a spectral lamp into a 200 micron diameter fiber, split it into its spectral components, with 10 Angstroms or less resolution, and record it on a streak camera with 1ns or less temporal resolution.

  16. System for photometric calibration of optoelectronic imaging devices especially streak cameras

    DOEpatents

    Boni, Robert; Jaanimagi, Paul

    2003-11-04

    A system for the photometric calibration of streak cameras and similar imaging devices provides a precise knowledge of the camera's flat-field response as well as a mapping of the geometric distortions. The system provides the flat-field response, representing the spatial variations in the sensitivity of the recorded output, with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) greater than can be achieved in a single submicrosecond streak record. The measurement of the flat-field response is carried out by illuminating the input slit of the streak camera with a signal that is uniform in space and constant in time. This signal is generated by passing a continuous wave source through an optical homogenizer made up of a light pipe or pipes in which the illumination typically makes several bounces before exiting as a spatially uniform source field. The rectangular cross-section of the homogenizer is matched to the usable photocathode area of the streak tube. The flat-field data set is obtained by using a slow streak ramp that may have a period from one millisecond (ms) to ten seconds (s), but may be nominally one second in duration. The system also provides a mapping of the geometric distortions, by spatially and temporarily modulating the output of the homogenizer and obtaining a data set using the slow streak ramps. All data sets are acquired using a CCD camera and stored on a computer, which is used to calculate all relevant corrections to the signal data sets. The signal and flat-field data sets are both corrected for geometric distortions prior to applying the flat-field correction. Absolute photometric calibration is obtained by measuring the output fluence of the homogenizer with a "standard-traceable" meter and relating that to the CCD pixel values for a self-corrected flat-field data set.

  17. Clinical comparison of the Welch Allyn SureSight™ handheld autorefractor versus streak retinoscopy in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Allyson D.; Hollingsworth, Steven R.; Ofri, Ron; Kass, Philip H.; Reed, Zoe; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the Welch Allyn SureSight™ wavefront autorefractor with retinoscopy in normal dogs. Animals studied 50 privately-owned dogs (100 eyes) of 20 breeds, free of ocular disease. Mean ±SD age 5.7 ± 3.25 years (range: 6 months – 13 years). Procedures The refractive error was determined in each eye by two experienced retinoscopists using streak retinoscopy as well as by an autorefractor operated by two different examiners. Measurements were performed before and approximately 30–45 minutes after cycloplegia was induced by cyclopentolate 0.5% and tropicamide 0.5% ophthalmic solutions. Results Mean ±SD non-cyclopleged retinoscopy net sphere was ?0.55 ± 1.14 (range: ?3.75 to 3.5) diopters (D). Mean cyclopleged retinoscopy net sphere was ?0.52 ±1.18 (range: ?4.25 to 2) D. Mean ± SD non-cyclopleged autorefractor spherical equivalent (SE) was ?0.42 ± 1.13D (range: ?3.36 to 2.73) D. Mean cyclopleged autorefractor spherical equivalent was 0.10 ±1.47 (range: ?5.62 to 3.19) D. Non-cyclopleged autorefraction results were not significantly different from streak retinoscopy (whether non-cyclopleged or cyclopleged, p=0.80, 0.26, respectively). Cyclopleged autorefraction results were significantly different from non-cyclopleged or cyclopleged streak retinoscopy (p<0.0001 in both states). There was no significant difference between non-cyclopleged and cyclopleged streak retinoscopy (p= 0.97). Conclusions Non-cyclopleged autorefraction shows good agreement with streak retinoscopy in dogs and may be a useful clinical technique. Cycloplegia does not significantly affect streak retinoscopy results in dogs. PMID:23173899

  18. MAPping Out Arteries and Veins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ryan E. Lamont (Canada; University of Calgary, Calgary AB REV)

    2006-10-03

    Growing evidence suggests that a genetic program specifies the identity of arteries and veins before the onset of circulation. A signaling cascade involving sonic hedgehog (Shh), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), homeobox proteins Foxc1 and Foxc2, the Notch receptor, and the downstream transcription factor gridlock is required for expression of arterial markers, whereas only a single transcription factor, COUP-TFII (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter–transcription factor II), has previously been implicated in maintaining venous fate. Recent work has now implicated two competing pathways downstream of VEGFR2 in arterial versus venous specification: Activation of the phospholipase C–? (PLC-?)–mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway acts in arterial specification, whereas the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt pathway acts to allow a venous fate by inhibition of the PLC-?–MAPK pathway. Here, we review this work and discuss how activation of the MAPK signaling cascade could stimulate an arterial fate.

  19. Signal averaging x-ray streak camera with picosecond jitter A. Maksimchuk, M. Kim, J. Workman, G. Korn,a)

    E-print Network

    Umstadter, Donald

    Signal averaging x-ray streak camera with picosecond jitter A. Maksimchuk, M. Kim, J. Workman, G pulse laser-produced plasma. Accumulation of the streaked x-ray signals significantly improved the signal-to-noise ratio of the data obtained. © 1996 American Institute of Physics. S0034-6748 96 02803-0 I

  20. A grazing incidence x-ray streak camera for ultrafast, single-shot measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jun; Engelhorn, K.; Cho, B.I.; Lee, H.J.; Greaves, M.; Weber, C.P.; Falcone, R.W.; Padmore, H. A.; Heimann, P.A.

    2010-02-18

    An ultrafast x-ray streak camera has been realized using a grazing incidence reflection photocathode. X-rays are incident on a gold photocathode at a grazing angle of 20 degree and photoemitted electrons are focused by a large aperture magnetic solenoid lens. The streak camera has high quantum efficiency, 600fs temporal resolution, and 6mm imaging length in the spectral direction. Its single shot capability eliminates temporal smearing due to sweep jitter, and allows recording of the ultrafast dynamics of samples that undergo non-reversible changes.

  1. Cemented backfilling performance of yellow phosphorus slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-sheng Chen; Bin Zhao; Xin-min Wang; Qin-li Zhang; Li Wang

    2010-01-01

    The experiments on the cemented backfilling performance of yellow phosphorus slag, including physical-mechanical properties,\\u000a chemical compositions, optimized proportion, and cementation mechanisms, were carried out to make good use of yellow phosphorus\\u000a slag as well as tackle with environment problems, safety problems, geological hazards, and high-cost issues during mining\\u000a in Kaiyang Phosphorus Mine Group, Guizhou. The results show that yellow phosphorus

  2. Titanium, Sinusitis, and the Yellow Nail Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrik Berglund; Björn Carlmark

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by nail changes, respiratory disorders, and lymphedema. In a yellow nail patient with\\u000a a skeletal titanium implant and with gold in her teeth, we found high levels of titanium in nail clippings. This study aims\\u000a to examine the possible role of titanium in the genesis of the yellow nail syndrome. Nail clippings from patients with

  3. Genotoxicity of gardenia yellow and its components.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, A; Kitano, M; Furusawa, N; Yamaguchi, H; Kuroda, K; Endo, G

    2002-11-01

    Gardenia fruit (Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS) is widely used as a natural food colorant and as a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of hepatic and inflammatory diseases. "Gardenia yellow" is a natural food colorant which is extracted by ethanol from gardenia fruit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of gardenia yellow. Genotoxicity of gardenia yellow and its components, crocetin, gentiobiose (a component of crocin), geniposide and genipin (formed by hydrolysis of geniposide), was studied by Ames test, rec-assay, and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) using V79 cells. Gardenia yellow and its components were found not to be mutagenic in the Salmonella reverse mutation assay. Gardenia yellow and genipin caused damage of DNA in rec-assay. Gardenia yellow induced a significant dose-dependent increase of SCE frequency (8.6 times at 1000 microg/ml as the value for the solvent control). Only genipin induced SCEs significantly among the components of gardenia yellow. Moreover, genipin induced a significant increase of tetraploids at all doses tested (95% at 8 microg/ml). Gardenia yellow preparation was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE), and geniposide was detected. However, genipin was not observed. In conclusion, we have shown that genipin possesses genotoxicity. Furthermore, there were unidentified genotoxicants in gardenia yellow. PMID:12176087

  4. Brain vein disorders in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Raets, Marlou; Dudink, Jeroen; Raybaud, Charles; Ramenghi, Luca; Lequin, Maarten; Govaert, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The brain veins of infants are in a complex phase of remodelling in the perinatal period. Magnetic resonance venography and susceptibility-weighted imaging, together with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound, have provided new tools to aid study of venous developmental anatomy and disease. This review aims to provide a comprehensive background of vein development and perinatal venous lesions in preterm and term-born infants, and to encourage further research in both the fetus and the newborn infant, with the aim of preventing or mitigating parenchymal injury related to diseases involving veins. PMID:25212961

  5. Multiplex Real Time PCR For Detection of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TRIMV) are widespread throughout the southwestern Great Plains states. Using conventional diagnostics such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), these two viruses are commonly found together in infected wheat samples. Methods for m...

  6. Resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus in transgenic wheat expressing the viral replicase (NIb) gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elumalai Sivamani; Christopher W. Brey; William E. Dyer; Luther E. Talbert; Rongda Qu

    2000-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Hi-Line) immature embryos were transformed with the replicase gene (NIb) of wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) by the biolistic method. Six independent transgenic plant lines were analyzed for transgene expression and for resistance to mechanical inoculation of WSMV at R3 or R4 generation. Four out of the six lines showed various degree of resistance to

  7. INFECTIOUS CDNA TRANSCRIPTS OF MAIZE NECROTIC STREAK VIRUS: INFECTIVITY AND TRANSLATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The completion of the sequence of Maize necrotic streak virus (MNeSV) indicated a genome of 4094 nt. Northern blotting and primer extension mapping identified two sgRNAs, 1607 nt and 781 nt long. Comparison of the MNeSV and Tomato bushy stunt virus genome sequences indicated that tombusvirus regulat...

  8. WHEAT STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS (DESCRIPTIONS OF PLANT VIRUSES NO. 48, REVISED)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological and physical properties of Wheat streak mosaic virus (genus Tritimovirus) are presented in brief monograph form. The publication represents an updated revision of The Description of Plant Viruses No. 48, originally published in 1971 by the Association of Applied Biologists. Topics cover...

  9. Cryopreservation for the elimination of cucumber mosaic and banana streak viruses from banana ( Musa spp.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Helliot; B. Panis; Y. Poumay; R. Swennen; P. Lepoivre; E. Frison

    2002-01-01

    The utilisation of cryopreservation for the eradication of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) or banana streak virus (BSV) from Musa spp. was investigated. Banana plants, cv. Williams (AAA, Cavendish subgroup), were mechanically infected with CMV or naturally infected with BSV, and proliferating meristems were produced from the infected plants. Excised meristematic clumps were cryopreserved through vitrification using PVS-2 solution. The health

  10. MAIZE NECROTIC STREAK VIRUS IS MOST CLOSELY RELATED TO MEMBERS OF THE GENUS TOMBUSVIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initial reports indicated that Maize necrotic streak virus (MNeSV) is most closely related to viruses in the family Tombusviridae. The two 5' most open reading frames (ORFs) are most simlar to the corresponding tombusvirus proteins, while the 27.4 kDa coat protein (CP) is more closely related to th...

  11. Carotenoid-based status signaling by females in the tropical streak-backed oriole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy G. Murphy; Diego Hernández-Muciño; Marcela Osorio-Beristain; Robert Montgomerie; Kevin E. Omland

    2009-01-01

    In many tropical bird species, both males and females maintain elaborate plumage traits. Although there is considerable evidence that many male plumage traits function as status signals that convey information about fighting ability, less is known about status signaling in females. We tested whether the carotenoid-based orange breast coloration of the female streak-backed oriole (Icterus pustulatus pustulatus) signals status during

  12. Microrobotic Streak Seeding For Protein Crystal Growth CUCS-041-04

    E-print Network

    Microrobotic Streak Seeding For Protein Crystal Growth CUCS-041-04 Atanas Georgiev1 , Peter K the task known as crystal mounting that consists of picking an individual protein crystal from its growth Abstract We present a microrobotic system for protein crystal micromanipulation tasks. The focus

  13. Stable Resistance to Wheat streak mosaic virus in wheat mediated by RNAi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is one of the major wheat viruses in the Great Plains of the United States. Cultural practices are the primary method of disease management, though not fully effective. Genetic resistance is available but is temperature sensitive. Alternative approaches to viral res...

  14. Streak-Detection in Dermoscopic Color Images using Localized Radial Flux of

    E-print Network

    Hamarneh, Ghassan

    -painting on dermoscopic images, e.g. using color [7] and texture [8] diffusion. Example in-painted (hair disoccludedChapter 1 Streak-Detection in Dermoscopic Color Images using Localized Radial Flux of Principal) (g) (h) Figure 1.1: Examples of real (a) and simulated (e) hair occluded images. (b) and (f

  15. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Transient growth on boundary layer streaks

    E-print Network

    Hoepffner, Jérôme

    By J ´E R ^O M E H OE P F F N E R, L U C A B R A N D T, AND D A N S. H E N N I N G S O N KTH Mechanics. The most amplified perturbations closely resemble the un- stable eigenfunctions obtained for streaks

  16. EVOLUTION OF WHEAT STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS: Dynamics of Population Growth Within Plants May Explain Limited Variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy C. French; Drake C. Stenger

    2003-01-01

    Like many other plant RNA viruses, Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) sequence diversity within and among infected plants is low given the large number of virions produced. This may be explained by considering aspects of plant virus life history. Intracellular replication of RNA viruses is predominately linear, not exponential, which means that the rate at which mutations accumulate also is

  17. Microstructural evolution of syntaxial veins formed by advective flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Hilgers; Karin Dilg-Gruschinski; Janos L. Urai

    2004-01-01

    Veins are common in Earth's crust, and are formed by a wide range of processes, which lead to crystal growth in dilation sites. The first-order processes in vein formation have been identified, but it is much less clear how these can be diagnosed from field studies. In order to better understand the microstructural evolution during vein growth, we grew veins

  18. Tectonic fibrous veins: initiation and evolution. Ouachita Orogen, Arkansas 

    E-print Network

    Cervantes, Pablo

    2009-05-15

    , veins are characterized by veinlets (thin veins between 5 and 25 ?m thick) that parallel the vein-host interface and fibers (columns of quartz or calcite) perpendicular to the vein-host interface between 30 and 350 ?m wide. Veinlets are localized...

  19. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... embolism in pregnancy: Treatment Diagnosis of suspected deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity Etiology, clinical features, and diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis Evaluating patients with established venous thromboembolism ...

  20. How Can Deep Vein Thrombosis Be Prevented?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). If you're at risk for these conditions: ... from forming. If you've had DVT or PE before, you can help prevent future blood clots. ...

  1. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; Mazzesi, Giuseppe; D'urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Bezzi, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Primary venous leiomyosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the left innominate vein, with neoplastic thrombus extending into the left jugular and subclavian veins. The tumor was curatively resected en bloc with anterior mediastinal and laterocervical lymphatics, through a median sternotomy prolonged into left cervicotomy. Primary venous sarcomas may be associated with prolonged survival in individual cases, with curative resection recommended as the standard treatment, in the absence of distant spread. PMID:17349340

  2. Portal vein thrombosis in liver cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filippo Luca Fimognari; Francesco Violi

    2008-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is observed in 10–20% of patients with liver cirrhosis, which is responsible for 20% of all PVT\\u000a cases. The main pathogenic factor of PVT in cirrhosis is the obstacle to portal flow, but acquired and inherited clotting\\u000a abnormalities may play a role. The formation of collateral veins allows many patients to remain asymptomatic and prevents\\u000a the

  3. Laboratory Simulations and Spectral Analyses of Recurring Slope Streaks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, B.; Irvin, B.; Hibbitts, C.; Mushkin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Low albedo streaks on Martian slopes have been cited as possible evidence for present-day intermittent and repeated surface flow of water, or brine (Mushkin et al., 2010). Also termed as Recurring Slope Lineae (1), such streaks can grow, fade, and recur repeatedly on the same slopes. Although distinguishable by being darker than surrounding terrain slope streaks have no diagnostic spectral absorption features (2). A leading hypothesis is formation by multiple wetting and drying events. Laboratory investigations have previously explored this possibility (e.g 3). When wetted with brines, soils darken, but as the sample dries, it brightens again. Wetting also results in absorption bands near 1.5 and 2 microns, which are not detected in spectra of slope streaks. Additionally, dried brines of most salts such as MgSO4, or other sulfates and many chlorides are brighter than Martian soils. However, iron chlorides are a salt that have lower albedo than most other salts and may present a mechanism for darkening slope streaks without inducing a spectral absorption feature. To explore this hypothesis, we have begun to conduct experiments investigating the spectra of iron chloride chloride solutions wetting palagonite and subsequently drying under Martian atmospheric conditions. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that FeIII chloride dried onto palagonite has no absorption features in the NIR and SWIR and remains dark and red. However, these chlorides will oxidize under terrestrial conditions forming Fe2O3 as they dry. We have constructed an environmental chamber that mimics Martian oxygen fugacity though a combination of vacuum and N2 purging, allowing for sample wetting and drying while concurrently taking spectra from 0.4 to 2.4 microns. Results from this experimental setup under Martian atmospheric conditions will be presented. References: (1) McEwen et al., (2011) Science, 333, 740-743, (2) Mushkin et al., (2010) Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L22201, doi: 10.1029/2010GL044535, (3) Masse et al., (2012), 43rd LPSC, #1856.

  4. Twelve signals multiplexed with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) optical streak camera

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R.A.; Griffith, R.L.

    1990-08-28

    At our Nova laser facility, the temporal history of incident and reflected laser energy is recorded on LLNL optical streak cameras. Currently, six cameras are used to record the incident 1.06-{mu}m, incident 0.35{mu}m power of each of the ten Nova beams. Each camera records seven multiplexed signals: typically one signal from each of five beam lines, a fiducial pulse, and time mark generator signal. The optical signals are transported to the camera through optical fibers. The output end of each fiber is placed in the slit plane of the camera. The light exiting the fiber is focused to the streak camera photocathode by the streak camera relay lens. One camera can record a signal from each of the ten Nova beams plus a fiducial and time mark generator signal if the number of multiplexed channels can be increased from seven to twelve. This would allow one camera to record the same data that currently requires two cameras. At a savings of $150 per camera/CCD system, this represents a savings of $450K. Additionally, camera/CCD maintenance and operation complexity would be cut in half and three streak cameras would be freed for use in other experiments. Recent laboratory measurements suggest that the number of multiplexed signals per camera can indeed be increased from seven to twelve without noticeably increasing the crosstalk between signal channels. In this memorandum, we describe recent work in which seven and twelve signals were multiplexed to one streak camera. We describe the effect focusing has on the crosstalk channels and the effect wavelength has on focusing. We conclude the memorandum with suggestions concerning the implementation of a twelve channel system.

  5. Control strategies for yellow nutsedge and nightshade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow nutsedge is a perennial weed that is difficult to control in several crops once established. It is particularly problematic in onion production. Yellow nutsedge reproduces and is dispersed primarily by tubers that are formed at the apical ends of underground rhizomes. Tubers may remain viable...

  6. PROSPECTIVE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS FOR YELLOW STARTHISTLE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow starthistle is an important alien weed that has invaded 20 million acres in the western U.S. Yellow starthistle is spiny plant that interferes with grazing livestock and outdoors recreation, it is fatally poisonous to horses, and it outcompetes desirable vegetation. Previously released agen...

  7. HABITAT AND MOVEMENTS OF BREEDING YELLOW RAILS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THEODORE A. BOOKHOUT; JEFFREY R. STENZEL

    Four pairs of Yellow Rails (Coturnicops noveboracensis) were radiotracked (1039 locations) in May-August 1980 at Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan, to identify characteristics of breeding habitat and its use by Yellow Rails. Vegetation at nesting sites was dominated by Carex lasiocarpa (>90% of basal stems) in wet sedge meadows, which comprised nearly 90% of the 30-ha study area. Water depth

  8. Veins Improve Fracture Toughness of Insect Wings

    PubMed Central

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David

    2012-01-01

    During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect’s flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material’s resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa?m). However, the cross veins increase the wing’s toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically ‘optimal’ solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial ‘venous’ wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species. PMID:22927966

  9. Preoperative and intraoperative evaluation of diameter-reflux relationship of calf perforating veins in patients with primary varicose vein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoto Yamamoto; Naoki Unno; Hiroshi Mitsuoka; Takaaki Saito; Keita Miki; Kei Ishimaru; Hiroshi Kaneko; Satoshi Nakamura

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Interruption of incompetent perforating veins (PVs) is important for varicose vein surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preoperative and intraoperative diameter-reflux relationship of PVs and to evaluate the accuracy of preoperative duplex scanning in patients with varicose vein. Methods: Patients with primary varicose veins were retrospectively investigated. Diameters and reflux of PVs were evaluated before

  10. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Morteza Sanei

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC. PMID:25624585

  11. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Morteza Sanei

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC PMID:25624585

  12. Experimental therapies for yellow fever

    PubMed Central

    Julander, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

  13. Varicose Veins, Deep Vein Thrombosis, and Haemorrhoids: Epidemiology and Suggested Aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Burkitt, Denis P.

    1972-01-01

    Current concepts on the aetiology of varicose veins, deep vein thrombosis, and haemorrhoids have been examined and, in the light of epidemiological evidence, found wanting. It is suggested that the fundamental cause of these disorders is faecal arrest which is the result of a low-residue diet. PMID:5032782

  14. Internal vein texture and vein evolution of the epithermal Shila-Paula district, southern Peru

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Internal vein texture and vein evolution of the epithermal Shila-Paula district, southern Peru) CEDIMIN S.A.C., Luis N. Saenz 447-449, Jesus Maria, Lima 21, Peru (5) ISTO, CNRS-UMR 6113, University Cordillera (southern Peru). Field studies of the ore bodies reveal a systematic association of a main E

  15. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Invading the Main Portal Vein: Treatment with Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization and Portal Vein Stenting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Xuebin; Wang Jianhua; Yan Zhiping; Qian Sheng; Liu Rong

    2009-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze the therapeutic results of percutaneous transhepatic portal vein stenting (PTPVS) and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment in 58 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invading the main portal vein (MPV). A total of 58 procedures of PTPVS were performed, immediately after which TACE was undertaken to control HCC. The clinical effects, complications, digital subtraction angiographic appearance, stent patency

  16. Deep vein thrombosis: a clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Kesieme, Emeka; Kesieme, Chinenye; Jebbin, Nze; Irekpita, Eshiobo; Dongo, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of blood clots (thrombi) in the deep veins. It commonly affects the deep leg veins (such as the calf veins, femoral vein, or popliteal vein) or the deep veins of the pelvis. It is a potentially dangerous condition that can lead to preventable morbidity and mortality. Aim: To present an update on the causes and management of DVT. Methods: A review of publications obtained from Medline search, medical libraries, and Google. Results: DVT affects 0.1% of persons per year. It is predominantly a disease of the elderly and has a slight male preponderance. The approach to making a diagnosis currently involves an algorithm combining pretest probability, D-dimer testing, and compression ultrasonography. This will guide further investigations if necessary. Prophylaxis is both mechanical and pharmacological. The goals of treatment are to prevent extension of thrombi, pulmonary embolism, recurrence of thrombi, and the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and post-thrombotic syndrome. Conclusion: DVT is a potentially dangerous condition with a myriad of risk factors. Prophylaxis is very important and can be mechanical and pharmacological. The mainstay of treatment is anticoagulant therapy. Low-molecular-weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, and vitamin K antagonists have been the treatment of choice. Currently anticoagulants specifically targeting components of the common pathway have been recommended for prophylaxis. These include fondaparinux, a selective indirect factor Xa inhibitor and the new oral selective direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and selective factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban and apixaban). Others are currently undergoing trials. Thrombolytics and vena caval filters are very rarely indicated in special circumstances. PMID:22287864

  17. Endovascular Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost–effectiveness of endovascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins. Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on August 26th, 2010 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability, and cost-effectiveness of RFA for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition Varicose veins (VV) are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad or worse as other chronic diseases such as back pain and arthritis. Lower limb VV is a very common disease affecting adults – estimated to be the 7th most common reason for physician referral in the US. There is a very strong familial predisposition to VV. The risk in offspring is 90% if both parents affected, 20% when neither affected and 45% (25% boys, 62% girls) if one parent affected. The prevalence of VV worldwide ranges from 5% to 15% among men and 3% to 29% among women varying by the age, gender and ethnicity of the study population, survey methods and disease definition and measurement. The annual incidence of VV estimated from the Framingham Study was reported to be 2.6% among women and 1.9% among men and did not vary within the age range (40-89 years) studied. Approximately 1% of the adult population has a stasis ulcer of venous origin at any one time with 4% at risk. The majority of leg ulcer patients are elderly with simple superficial vein reflux. Stasis ulcers are often lengthy medical problems and can last for several years and, despite effective compression therapy and multilayer bandaging are associated with high recurrence rates. Recent trials involving surgical treatment of superficial vein reflux have resulted in healing and significantly reduced recurrence rates. Endovascular Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins RFA is an image-guided minimally invasive treatment alternative to surgical stripping of superficial venous reflux. RFA does not require an operating room or general anaesthesia and has been performed in an outpatient setting by a variety of medical specialties including surgeons and interventional radiologists. Rather than surgically removing the vein, RFA works by destroying or ablating the refluxing vein segment using thermal energy delivered through a radiofrequency catheter. Prior to performing RFA, color-flow Doppler ultrasonography is used to confirm and map all areas of venous reflux to devise a safe and effective treatment plan. The RFA procedure involves the introduction of a guide wire into the target v

  18. Veining Failure and Hydraulic Fracturing in Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighani, S.; Sondergeld, C. H.; Rai, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    During the hydraulic fracturing, the pressurized fluid creates new fractures and reactivates existing natural fractures forming a highly conductive Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) around the borehole. We extend the previous work on Lyons sandstone and pyrophyllite to anisotropic shale from the Wolfcamp formation. We divide the rock anisotropy into two groups: a) conventional and b) unconventional (shaly) anisotropy. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), compressional velocity anisotropy, and SEM analysis are used to identify three causes of anisotropy: bedding planes, clay lamination, and calcite veins. Calcite vein is a subsequently filled with calcite bonded weakly to the matrix. Velocity anisotropy and visual observations demonstrate the calcite filled veins to be mostly subparallel to the fabric direction. Brazilian tests are carried out to observe the fracture initiation and propagation under tension. High speed photography (frame rate 300,000 frame/sec) was used to capture the failure. Strain gauges and Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors recorded the deformation leading up to and during failure. SEM imaging and surface profilometry were employed to study the post-failure fracture system and failed surface topology. Fracture permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Brazilian tests on small disks containing a centered single vein revealed the shear strength of the veins. We interpret the strain data and number, frequency, and amplitude of AE events which are correlated well with the observed fracture process zone, surface roughness, and permeability. The unpropped fracture has enhanced permeability by two orders of magnitude. The observed anisotropic tensile failure seems to have a universal trend with a minimum strength occurring at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis. The veins at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis were easily activated at 30% of the original failure load. The measured strength of the vein is as low as 6% of the matrix. Surface roughness measurements show the vein to be as rough as the main tensile fracture in the matrix. The observations suggest that fracking through a deviated well reduces the breakdown pressure significantly and can activate a large number of veins with enhanced conductivity without the need for excessive proppant injection.

  19. [Surgical therapy of primary varicose veins].

    PubMed

    Wigger, P

    1998-11-01

    The principle of varicose vein surgery still remains the interruption of all insufficient communications between the deep and the superficial venous system and removal of the varicosities. The basis for differentiated surgical treatment is accurate preoperative assessment. Careful dissection of the saphenofemoral junction through a suprainguinal incision, with division of all the branches and flush tie of the long saphenous vein combined with invaginated stripping of the long saphenous vein to just below the knee, appears to be the method of choice for good clinical results and a low incidence of damage to the saphenous nerve. Oesch recently introduced a new technique of perforate invaginate (PIN) stripping which gives even better cosmetic results. Regarding the short saphenous vein, preoperative localization of the exact level of the saphenopopliteal junction is of major importance in the prevention of recurrence. Simple evulsion or epifascial or subfascial ligation were the most common treatments for incompetent perforating veins for many years. In 1985 Hauer described endoscopic subfascial dissection of perforating veins (ESDP), which reduces delayed wound healing, especially in trophic skin changes. Deprivation of blood supply with a pneumatic tourniquet such as the Löfqvist roller cuff is necessary. The tributaries are removed by stab evulsion phlebectomy with specially designed hooks. This technique was originally introduced by Muller for ambulatory treatment of varicose veins. The incisions of 1-3 mm guarantee excellent cosmesis and minimal trauma. Adhesive tape is used to close the incisions. A number of alternative techniques such as cryosurgery, laser surgery, paratibial fasciotomy and the CHIVA technique (Conservative Treatment and Haemodynamics in Venous Insufficiency in Outpatient Departments) are briefly described. Complications of varicose vein surgery are rare. Minor complications are skin nerve injuries, haematomas, infections and lymphatic fistulas. Major complications such as injuries to the femoral vein or artery occur in less than 0.05%. But once it has occurred it is of paramount importance to recognize the injury at the time of initial surgery, to avoid limb loss. Provided the preoperative assessment is accurate and the principles of selective surgical treatment are followed, the surgeon is able to perform a curative operation with a low complication rate and excellent cosmetic results. PMID:9854291

  20. Optimization of subcutaneous vein contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal

    2000-05-01

    A technique for enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins has been demonstrated. This techniques uses a near IR light source and one or more IR sensitive CCD TV cameras to produce a contrast enhanced image of the subcutaneous veins. This video image of the veins is projected back onto the patient's skin using a n LCD video projector. The use of an IR transmitting filter in front of the video cameras prevents any positive feedback from the visible light from the video projector from causing instabilities in the projected image. The demonstration contrast enhancing illuminator has been tested on adults and children, both Caucasian and African-American, and it enhances veins quite well in all cases. The most difficult cases are those where significant deposits of subcutaneous fat are present which make the veins invisible under normal room illumination. Recent attempts to see through fat using different IR wavelength bands and both linearly and circularly polarized light were unsuccessful. The key to seeing through fat turns out to be a very diffuse source of RI light. Results on adult and pediatric subjects are shown with this new IR light source.

  1. The mouse primitive streak forms in situ by initiation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition without migration of a cell population

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Margot; Burdsal, Carol; Periasamy, Ammasi; Lewandoski, Mark; Sutherland, Ann

    2011-01-01

    During gastrulation, an embryo acquires the three primordial germ layers that will give rise to all of the tissues in the body. In amniote embryos, this process occurs via an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of epiblast cells at the primitive streak. Although the primitive streak is vital to development, many aspects of how it forms and functions remain poorly understood. Using live imaging and immunohistochemistry, we have shown that the murine primitive streak arises in situ by progressive initiation of EMT beginning in the posterior epiblast, without large-scale movement or convergence and extension of epiblast cells. Loss of basal lamina (BL) is the first step of this EMT, and is strictly correlated with ingression of nascent mesoderm. This is the first description of dynamic cell behavior during primitive streak formation in the mouse embryo, and reveals mechanisms that are quite distinct from those observed in other amniote model systems. PMID:22170865

  2. Extra-embryonic Wnt3 regulates the establishment of the primitive streak in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeonsoo; Huang, Tingting; Tortelote, Giovane G; Wakamiya, Maki; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Behringer, Richard R; Rivera-Pérez, Jaime A

    2015-07-01

    The establishment of the head to tail axis at early stages of development is a fundamental aspect of vertebrate embryogenesis. In mice, experimental embryology, genetics and expression studies have suggested that the visceral endoderm, an extra-embryonic tissue, plays an important role in anteroposterior axial development. Here we show that absence of Wnt3 in the posterior visceral endoderm leads to delayed formation of the primitive streak and that interplay between anterior and posterior visceral endoderm restricts the position of the primitive streak. Embryos lacking Wnt3 in the visceral endoderm, however, appear normal by E9.5. Our results suggest a model for axial development in which multiple signals are required for anteroposterior axial development in mammals. PMID:25907228

  3. A novel compact high speed x-ray streak camera (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Howbery Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BA (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    Conventional in-line high speed streak cameras have fundamental issues when their performance is extended below a picosecond. The transit time spread caused by both the spread in the photoelectron (PE) ''birth'' energy and space charge effects causes significant electron pulse broadening along the axis of the streak camera and limits the time resolution. Also it is difficult to generate a sufficiently large sweep speed. This paper describes a new instrument in which the extraction electrostatic field at the photocathode increases with time, converting time to PE energy. A uniform magnetic field is used to measure the PE energy, and thus time, and also focuses in one dimension. Design calculations are presented for the factors limiting the time resolution. With our design, subpicosecond resolution with high dynamic range is expected.

  4. Drag reduction of a 3D bluff body using coherent streamwise streaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujals, G.; Depardon, S.; Cossu, C.

    2010-11-01

    Separation on the rear-end of an Ahmed body is suppressed by means of large-scale coherent streaks forced on the roof of the model. These streaks originate from an array of suitably shaped cylindrical roughness elements and are amplified by the mean shear through the lift-up effect. Interacting with the mean velocity field at leading order, they induce a strong controlled spanwise modulation. The resulting streaky base flow is observed to sustain the adverse pressure gradient since PIV measurements as well as static wall pressure distributions show that the re-circulation bubble completely vanishes. These modifications of the topology of the flow are associated with a substantial drag reduction, which can be of about 10% when the roughness array is optimally placed on the roof of the bluff body.

  5. Time-resolved two-photon excited fluorescence spectroscopy based on a streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lixin; Qu, Junle; Chen, Danni; Lin, Ziyang; Xu, Gaixia; Guo, Baoping; Niu, Hanben

    2006-09-01

    Combination of fluorescence spectral and temporal resolutions can improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomedical diagnostics. In this paper, we present the development of a time resolved two-photon excited fluorescence spectroscopy system that consists of a Ti: Sapphire femtosecond laser, a fluorescence microscope objective, a prism spectrophotometer and a high repetition rate picosecond streak camera. The streak camera and the time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy system. have been calibrated with an F-P etalon and a spectral line lamp respectively. Validation experiment of the system is also performed on two standard fluorescent dyes (Rhodamine 6G and Coumarin 314), and the results agree well with those reported in the literatures. Preliminary experimental results on autofluorescence spectra and lifetimes of freshly picked leaves and in vivo human skin are also presented, which demonstrates the potential applications of this system in tissue discrimination and clinical diagnostics.

  6. Single-shot visualization of evolving laser wakefields using an all-optical streak camera.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengyan; Tsai, Hai-En; Zhang, Xi; Pai, Chih-Hao; Chang, Yen-Yu; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Wang, Xiaoming; Khudik, V; Shvets, G; Downer, M C

    2014-08-22

    We visualize ps-time-scale evolution of an electron density bubble--a wake structure created in atmospheric density plasma by an intense ultrashort laser pulse--from the phase "streak" that the bubble imprints onto a probe pulse that crosses its path obliquely. Phase streaks, recovered in one shot using frequency-domain interferometric techniques, reveal the formation, propagation, and coalescence of the bubble within a 3 mm long ionized helium gas target. 3D particle-in-cell simulations validate the observed density-dependent bubble evolution, and correlate it with the generation of a quasimonoenergetic ? 100 MeV electron beam. The results provide a basis for understanding optimized electron acceleration at a plasma density n(e) ? 2 × 10(19) cm(-3), inefficient acceleration at lower density, and dephasing limits at higher density. PMID:25192102

  7. Anteriorly placed splenic vein: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lal, Hira; Boruah, Deb K; Yadav, Ankusha; Samal, Amrita

    2015-04-01

    Splenic vein located anterior to pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly. To date, only one case has been reported in literature. A thorough knowledge of the normal anatomy, most frequent variations, and congenital and acquired anomalies of the spleno-portal axis is of great importance for hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgeons. It is therefore essential for preoperative evaluation of the anatomical details of the spleno-portal venous axis to be made by imaging. We report such a case of anteriorly placed splenic vein in a 40-year-old female prospective renal donor. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the second reported case of an anteriorly placed splenic vein. PMID:25972673

  8. Technical aspects of adrenal vein sampling.

    PubMed

    Harsha, Asheesh; Trerotola, Scott O

    2015-02-01

    The most common cause of secondary hypertension is primary aldosteronism, with a prevalence of approximately 30% when screened by specialized hypertension clinics. Adrenal venous sampling is considered the standard for reliably distinguishing between unilateral and bilateral hormone secretion, with unilateral secretion being surgically curable. Success of adrenal vein sampling relies on appropriate patient selection, patient preparation, and recognition and catheterization of both adrenal veins. However, this procedure may prove technically challenging, particularly for inexperienced operators. This video (see Fig; available online at www.jvir.org) is designed to provide the viewer with details on the technical aspects of adrenal vein sampling by using the sequential technique in an immersive format with real-time table-top teaching. Indications, patient preparation, equipment selection, technique, and quality assurance are reviewed in detail, with the goal of providing practitioners an opportunity to successfully incorporate this procedure into their practice. PMID:25645412

  9. Optical laser-based THz streaking for full FEL pulse characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalieri, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    Full temporal characterization of ultrashort, high brilliance x-ray pulses at Free Electron Laser (FEL) facilities, while elusive, will underpin their future use in experiments ranging from single-molecule imaging to extreme timescale x-ray science. This issue is especially acute when confronted with the characteristics of current generation FELs operating on the principle of self-amplified spontaneous emission, as most parameters fluctuate from pulse to pulse. We have achieved this crucial characterization by extending the techniques of photoelectron streaking originally developed for attosecond spectroscopy. In our experiments, high-intensity, optical laser generated single-cycle THz pulses were used to broaden and shift -- or streak -- the photoelectron spectrum of a noble gas target ionized by the incident FEL pulse. Due to the relatively long rise time of the THz streaking field (˜600 fs), these measurements allow for the arrival-time and temporal profile of femtosecond to hundred-femtosecond FEL pulses to be determined simultaneously and on a single-shot basis. Optical laser-based THz streaking is suited for use over the full range of photon energies and pulse durations produced at FELs, from XUV to the hard x-ray regime. Experiments have now been performed at the hard x-ray Linac-Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory as well as at the XUV Free Electron Laser in Hamburg. Distinct temporal features as short as 50 fs FWHM have been observed in the raw pulse profile prior to any correction for instrument resolution. While these first measurements have been resolution-limited, the potential for improvement to access the sub 10-fs range has also been demonstrated, which would allow for characterization and effective application of the shortest predicted, few-femtosecond x-ray pulses in the near future.

  10. Streak camera coupled with a high-resolution x-ray crystal imager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Serlin; M. Karasik; C. J. Pawley; A. N. Mostovych; S. P. Obenschain; Y. Aglitskiy

    2001-01-01

    An addition of a streak camera to the Nike monochromatic x-ray imaging system makes it possible to analyze continuous time behavior of mass variation, which is necessary to reveal the non-monotonic evolution of the processes under study. Backlighter energy of ~500 J is delivered to a silicon target, producing x-rays that backlight the main target for about 5 ns. The

  11. Fluorescence measurement by a streak camera in a single-photon-counting mode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Komura; Shigeru Itoh

    2009-01-01

    We describe here a recently developed fluorescence measurement system that uses a streak camera to detect fluorescence decay\\u000a in a single photon-counting mode. This system allows for easy measurements of various samples and provides 2D images of fluorescence\\u000a in the wavelength and time domains. The great advantage of the system is that the data can be handled with ease; furthermore,

  12. An innovative approach to reduce streaking artifacts in FDK based 3D cone-beam tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ujjal Kumar Bhowmik; Araveti Venkata Sudeepth; Reza R. Adhami

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to detect and eliminate the streaking artifacts, present in Feldkamp-David- Kress (FDK) based 3D cone-beam tomography, by comparing and combining two synthetic data sets. The data sets, which are 3D reconstructed volume data, are created from the original and negative of the X-ray projections of 3D Sheep-Logan model. The 2 nd data set,

  13. Signs of the principle body axes prior to primitive streak formation in the rabbit embryo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Viebahn; Barbara Mayer; Martin Hrabé Angelis

    1995-01-01

    An early common element during anterior-posterior axis formation amongst amniotes is the primitive streak, running longitudinally in the two-layered embryonic disc. In mammals the primordium of this transient structure is the first definite morphological sign of the anterior-posterior axis, while in avian embryos the axis is visible and apparently defined earlier. Here we scrutinize suggestions that in mammals also there

  14. Integration of Banana Streak Badnavirus into the MusaGenome: Molecular and Cytogenetic Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glyn Harper; Julian O. Osuji; Roger Hull

    1999-01-01

    Breeding and tissue culture of certain cultivars of bananas (Musa) have led to high levels of banana streak badnavirus (BSV) infection in progeny from symptomless parents. BSV DNA hybridized to genomic DNA of one such parent, Obino l'Ewai, suggesting integration of viral sequences. Sequencing of clones of Obino l'Ewai genomic DNA revealed an interface between BSV andMusasequences and a complex

  15. Structure and Temporal Dynamics of Populations within Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEFFREY S. HALL; ROY FRENCH; T. JACK MORRIS; DRAKE C. STENGER

    2001-01-01

    Variation within the Type and Sidney 81 strains of wheat streak mosaic virus was assessed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Limiting-dilution subisolates (LDSIs) of each strain were evaluated for polymorphism in the P1, P3, NIa, and CP cistrons. Different SSCP patterns among LDSIs of a strain were associated with single-nucleotide substitutions. Sidney 81 LDSI-S10

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of an Emerging Genotype of Tobacco Streak Virus in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Gao, Shan; Li, Rugang; Zhang, Shouan; Fei, Zhangjun

    2014-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of an emerging genotype of tobacco streak virus (TSV) infecting zucchini squash in Florida (TSV_FL13-07), obtained using deep sequencing of short RNAs (sRNAs) and validation by Sanger sequencing. TSV_FL13-07 shares only <90% sequence identity in all three genomic RNAs to several known U.S. isolates. PMID:25377714

  17. Molecular organization of the cholesteryl ester droplets in the fatty streaks of human aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, D M; Hillman, G M

    1976-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns from human arterial specimens containing atherosclerotic fatty streak lesions exhibited a single sharp reflection, corresponding to a structural spacing of about 35 A. Specimens without lesions did not. When specimens with fatty streaks were heated, an order-to-disorder phase transition was revealed by the disappearance of the sharp reflection. The transition was thermally reversible and its temperature varied from aorta to aorta over a range from 28 degrees to 42 degrees C. Since cholesteryl ester droplets are a major component of fatty streaks, comparison studies were made of the diffraction behavior from pure cholesteryl esters. We found that the diffraction patterns of the fatty streak material could be accounted for by the organization of the cholesteryl esters into a liquid-crystalline smectic phase that melts from the smectic to a less ordered phase upon heating. When combined with the conclusions of others from polarized light microscopy, our study shows that a droplet in the smectic phase has well-defined concentric layers of lipid molecules. In each layer, the long axes of the molecules have a net radial orientation with respect to the droplet, but the side-to-side organization is disordered. We suggest that the accessibility of portions of the lipids for specific binding to enzymes or transport proteins may be restricted when they are in the smectic state, and that exchange of lipids with surrounding membranes or other potential binding sites may likewise be inhibited. The restriction in the smectic phase should be greater than in the less ordered phases that exist at higher temperatures. Images PMID:965500

  18. Optimizing data recording for the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Kalantar; P. M. Bell; T. S. Perry; N. Sewall; J. Kimbrough; F. Weber; C. Diamond; K. Piston

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of the sensitivity, dynamic range, and image resolution of a Nova secondary ion mass-based x-ray streak camera have been made. Comparisons were made using film versus a 4k×4k optical charge-coupled device for data readout. These tests were performed with and without an optical image intensifier tube, and with a direct electron-sensitive microchannel plate. We present results from these

  19. The complete sequence of the genome of Cocksfoot streak virus (CSV), a grass infecting Potyvirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Götz; E. Maiss

    2002-01-01

    Summary.  ?The complete nucleotide sequence of Cocksfoot streak virus (CSV) has been determined. The viral genome comprises 9663 nucleotides,\\u000a excluding a 3?-terminal poly(A) sequence. The genome of CSV has a 133?nt 5?-non coding and a 260?nt 3?-non coding region.\\u000a The RNA of CSV encodes a single polyprotein of 3089 amino acid residues and has a deduced genome organization typical for\\u000a a

  20. Lost trust: a yellow fever patient response.

    PubMed

    Runge, John S

    2013-12-01

    In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care. PMID:24348220

  1. Epidemic yellow fever in eastern Nigeria, 1986.

    PubMed

    De Cock, K M; Monath, T P; Nasidi, A; Tukei, P M; Enriquez, J; Lichfield, P; Craven, R B; Fabiyi, A; Okafor, B C; Ravaonjanahary, C

    1988-03-19

    An epidemic of yellow fever occurred in the eastern part of Nigeria during the second half of 1986. Oju, in Benue State, was the most heavily affected region, but yellow fever also occurred in surrounding areas, particularly Ogoja, in Cross River State. In Oju, the mean attack and mortality rates were 4.9% and 2.8%, respectively. Sex and age specific rates were highest in males and in the 20-29 yr age group. The overall case fatality rate was approximately 50%. Diagnosis was confirmed by IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and complement fixation (CF) tests. Entomological investigations implicated Aedes africanus as the epidemic vector. Oju alone probably had about 9800 cases of yellow fever with jaundice, and some 5600 deaths. Outbreaks of this nature could be prevented by inclusion of yellow fever in the Expanded Programme on Immunisation, in areas subject to recurrent epidemics. PMID:2894558

  2. Human maximization testing of D&C Yellow no. 10 and Yellow no. 11.

    PubMed

    Kita, S; Kobayashi, T; Kutsuna, H; Kligman, A M

    1984-10-01

    By the maximization test, using 0.5% D&C Yellow no. 11 in pet., 15 of 20 human volunteers became contact sensitized. All reacted to a challenge concentration of 1000 ppm and one down to 1 ppm. The high allergenic potential of this dyestuff was confirmed. There were no cross reactions to purified samples of D&C Yellow no. 10. In contrast, 5% solutions of pure D&C Yellow no. 10 failed to sensitize human subjects. Cross reactions to this substance in persons sensitized to D&C Yellow no. 11 are due to impurities. PMID:6541989

  3. Contact allergic reaction to D & C Yellow No. 11 and Quinoline Yellow.

    PubMed

    Björkner, B; Niklasson, B

    1983-07-01

    D & C Yellow No. 11 and Quinoline Yellow belong to a group of quinophtalone dyes with a common basic structure. D & C Yellow No. 11 is used mostly in plastics, spirit lacquers, coloured smokes and cosmetics, but it is also increasingly used as a dye in soaps and shampoos. Quinoline Yellow is used for dyeing wool, silk and nylon in cases where good light fastness is not required, but is most commonly used as a drug and food colouring agent. A patient, extremely sensitive to D & C Yellow No. 11 with a positive patch test reaction down to 0.00001%, also reacted to Quinoline Yellow at a test concentration of 0.1%. To establish if any cross-reactivity occurs between the two compounds, a high pressure liquid chromatograph was used for analysis, purification and separation of the two colours. The patient was then patch tested with the two colours and the pure fraction of Quinoline Yellow. The test results confirm a true sensitivity to Quinoline Yellow and to D & C Yellow No. 11, and may indicate cross-reactivity between the colours. PMID:6684529

  4. Femtosecond streaking of electron diffraction patterns to study structural dynamics in crystalline matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichberger, M.; Erasmus, N.; Haupt, K.; Kassier, G.; von Flotow, A.; Demsar, J.; Schwoerer, H.

    2013-03-01

    A table-top femtosecond, non-relativistic, electron diffraction setup is combined with a low-jitter, photo-triggered streak camera to follow the optically induced structural dynamics in complex solids. A temporal resolution of 550 fs is experimentally demonstrated, while the route to streaking with sub-250 fs temporal resolution is outlined. The streaking technique allows for parallel capturing of temporal information as opposed to the serial data acquisition in a conventional scanning femtosecond electron diffraction. Moreover, its temporal resolution is not corrupted by increasing the number of electrons per pulse. Thus, compared to the conventional scanning approach, a substantial increase in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be achieved. These benefits are demonstrated by studying a photo-induced charge density wave phase transition in 4Hb-TaSe2 using both methods. Within the same data acquisition time a three-fold increase in SNR is achieved when compared to the scanning method, with ways for a further improvement outlined.

  5. Rho kinase activity controls directional cell movements during primitive streak formation in the rabbit embryo

    PubMed Central

    Stankova, Viktoria; Tsikolia, Nikoloz; Viebahn, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    During animal gastrulation, the specification of the embryonic axes is accompanied by epithelio-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the first major change in cell shape after fertilization. EMT takes place in disparate topographical arrangements, such as the circular blastopore of amphibians, the straight primitive streak of birds and mammals or in intermediate gastrulation forms of other amniotes such as reptiles. Planar cell movements are prime candidates to arrange specific modes of gastrulation but there is no consensus view on their role in different vertebrate classes. Here, we test the impact of interfering with Rho kinase-mediated cell movements on gastrulation topography in blastocysts of the rabbit, which has a flat embryonic disc typical for most mammals. Time-lapse video microscopy, electron microscopy, gene expression and morphometric analyses of the effect of inhibiting ROCK activity showed – besides normal specification of the organizer region – a dose-dependent disruption of primitive streak formation; this disruption resulted in circular, arc-shaped or intermediate forms, reminiscent of those found in amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Our results reveal a crucial role of ROCK-controlled directional cell movements during rabbit primitive streak formation and highlight the possibility that temporal and spatial modulation of cell movements were instrumental for the evolution of gastrulation forms. PMID:25516971

  6. Oct4 Is Required ?E7.5 for Proliferation in the Primitive Streak

    PubMed Central

    DeVeale, Brian; Brokhman, Irina; Mohseni, Paria; Babak, Tomas; Yoon, Charles; Lin, Anthony; Onishi, Kento; Tomilin, Alexey; Pevny, Larysa; Zandstra, Peter W.; Nagy, Andras; van der Kooy, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Oct4 is a widely recognized pluripotency factor as it maintains Embryonic Stem (ES) cells in a pluripotent state, and, in vivo, prevents the inner cell mass (ICM) in murine embryos from differentiating into trophectoderm. However, its function in somatic tissue after this developmental stage is not well characterized. Using a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase and floxed alleles of Oct4, we investigated the effect of depleting Oct4 in mouse embryos between the pre-streak and headfold stages, ?E6.0–E8.0, when Oct4 is found in dynamic patterns throughout the embryonic compartment of the mouse egg cylinder. We found that depletion of Oct4 ?E7.5 resulted in a severe phenotype, comprised of craniorachischisis, random heart tube orientation, failed turning, defective somitogenesis and posterior truncation. Unlike in ES cells, depletion of the pluripotency factors Sox2 and Oct4 after E7.0 does not phenocopy, suggesting that ?E7.5 Oct4 is required within a network that is altered relative to the pluripotency network. Oct4 is not required in extraembryonic tissue for these processes, but is required to maintain cell viability in the embryo and normal proliferation within the primitive streak. Impaired expansion of the primitive streak occurs coincident with Oct4 depletion ?E7.5 and precedes deficient convergent extension which contributes to several aspects of the phenotype. PMID:24244203

  7. Streak-camera reflection high-energy electron diffraction for dynamics of surface crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukojima, Kenta; Kanzaki, Shinji; Kawanishi, Kota; Sato, Katsuyoshi; Abukawa, Tadashi

    2015-06-01

    A new technique for ultrafast dynamics of surface crystallography was developed by combining reflection high-energy electron diffraction with the electron deflectors of a streak camera system. A one-dimensional distribution of electrons scattered by a crystal surface is selected by a linear slit on a screen, and then the electrons are quickly deflected by the sweep electrodes behind the slit. Thus, a temporal evolution of the one-dimensional diffraction pattern can be displayed as a streak image on a screen. This is a unique method of time-resolved electron diffraction, as a pulsed electron beam is not required to obtain a temporal evolution. The temporal evolution of the diffraction pattern can be projected on a screen from single-shot measurements. The technique was tested on an Si(111)-7 × 7 surface, and the dynamics of the surface structure were successively obtained from changes in spot intensities. Although the present time time-resolution was limited by the present pumping laser ~ 5 ns, the nominal resolution of the streak system is expected to be ~100 ps.

  8. Direct evidence for encoding of motion streaks in human visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Apthorp, Deborah; Schwarzkopf, D. Samuel; Kaul, Christian; Bahrami, Bahador; Alais, David; Rees, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    Temporal integration in the visual system causes fast-moving objects to generate static, oriented traces (‘motion streaks’), which could be used to help judge direction of motion. While human psychophysics and single-unit studies in non-human primates are consistent with this hypothesis, direct neural evidence from the human cortex is still lacking. First, we provide psychophysical evidence that faster and slower motions are processed by distinct neural mechanisms: faster motion raised human perceptual thresholds for static orientations parallel to the direction of motion, whereas slower motion raised thresholds for orthogonal orientations. We then used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain activity while human observers viewed either fast (‘streaky’) or slow random dot stimuli moving in different directions, or corresponding static-oriented stimuli. We found that local spatial patterns of brain activity in early retinotopic visual cortex reliably distinguished between static orientations. Critically, a multivariate pattern classifier trained on brain activity evoked by these static stimuli could then successfully distinguish the direction of fast (‘streaky’) but not slow motion. Thus, signals encoding static-oriented streak information are present in human early visual cortex when viewing fast motion. These experiments show that motion streaks are present in the human visual system for faster motion. PMID:23222445

  9. How Vein Sealing Boosts Fracture Opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüchter, Jens-Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Veins from from cracks. As such, a stage of brittle failure and fracturing is to be set apart from a stage of opening and sealing. The process of fracture opening requires distortion of the host rocks to create space for the evolving vein. To keep a crack arrested and, at the same time, to widen or stabilize the cavity, the stress intensity factor K_I=(P-S3)(?a) must remain below the fracture toughness K_IC of the host rock, and P-S3 >0 (P and S3 denote pore fluid pressure and absolute minimum principal stress, respectively and 'a' refers to the half-length of the fracture). For purely elastic distortion of the host rocks, maximum aperture W0=K_IC (1-?^2)/(E(?/8)^1/2))(2a)^1/2 depends on on K_IC, Poisson's ratio ?, and Young's modulus E of the host rocks. Owing to the low values for rock K_IC typically ranging between 0.1 and 1 MPa m^1/2, veins formed by purely elastic distortion of the host rocks are restricted to high aspect ratios 2a/W. In metamorphic rocks, veins with low aspect ratios are common; inelastic deformation and viscous creep in the host rocks must have contributed to final vein shapes. In the present study, I use finite element models to simulate fracture opening and cavity formation supported by viscous creep distributed in the host rock. Simulations are carried out on 2D plate models containing elliptical fractures. The walls of the fractures are coated by thin layers simulating incipient sealing; a residual cavity prevails in the centre of the model veins. Constant displacement is applied to the plate boundaries oriented normal to the cracks. I run a series of models with various viscosity contrasts between the rocks and the sealing. The results of these models indicate the following. (1) Fracture opening is most effective when the viscosity of the sealing ?s exceeds the viscosity of the host rocks ?r (2) The rate of fracture opening increases with increasing values for ?s/?r . (3) An increase in the thickness of the sealing layer causes an increase in the fracture opening rates. (4) At constant strain rates, the rate of fracture opening increases with increasing strain. These results suggest that vein sealing boosts the rate of fracture opening, and contributes to development of low-aspect ratio veins.

  10. Redox alters yellow dragonflies into red

    PubMed Central

    Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema

    2012-01-01

    Body color change associated with sexual maturation—so-called nuptial coloration—is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait. PMID:22778425

  11. Why should we report posterior fossa emissary veins?

    PubMed Central

    Pekçevik, Yeliz; Pekçevik, R?dvan

    2014-01-01

    Posterior fossa emissary veins are valveless veins that pass through cranial apertures. They participate in extracranial venous drainage of the posterior fossa dural sinuses. The mastoid emissary vein, condylar veins, occipital emissary vein, and petrosquamosal sinus are the major posterior fossa emissary veins. We believe that posterior fossa emissary veins can be detected by radiologists before surgery with a thorough understanding of their anatomy. Describing them using temporal bone computed tomography (CT), CT angiography, and cerebral magnetic resonance (MR) venography examinations results in more detailed and accurate preoperative radiological interpretation and has clinical importance. This pictorial essay reviews the anatomy of the major and clinically relevant posterior fossa emissary veins using high-resolution CT, CT angiography, and MR venography images and discusses the clinical importance of reporting these vascular variants. PMID:24047723

  12. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... around the varicose vein. Signs of telangiectasias are clusters of red veins that you can see just under the surface of your skin. These clusters usually are found on the upper body, including ...

  13. [Constriction of the femoral vein after McVay hernioplasty].

    PubMed

    Bjørgul, K; Forsell, C; Andersen, O K

    1994-09-10

    Constriction of the femoral vein is a well known complication to the Cooper ligament repair of inguinal hernia. This may occur as the transversalis fascia and aponeurosis are sutured to Copper's ligament, either because a suture is passed through the vein or the vein is compressed by tissue. Clinical presentation is usually signs of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Venography verifies the diagnosis by showing a characteristic constriction of the femoral vein. PMID:7940451

  14. Suitability of Varicose Veins for Endovenous Treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Goode; G. Kuhan; N. Altaf; R. Simpson; A. Beech; T. Richards; S. T. MacSweeney; B. D. Braithwaite

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), and foam sclerotherapy (FS) for patients with symptomatic varicose veins (VVs). The study comprised 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs. Data on 577 legs from 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs were collected for the year 2006. Median patient age was 55

  15. A secure cryptosystem from palm vein biometrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Prasanalakshmi; A. Kannammal

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel technique to generate an irrevocable cryptographic key from the biometric template. The biometric trait considered here is the palm vein. The technique proposed here utilises the minutiae features extracted from the pattern generated. The features include bifurcation points and ending points. Since other cryptographic keys are probable to theft or guess, keys generated from the

  16. Portal vein thrombosis complicating endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob Korula; Albert Yellin; Gary C. Kanel; Peter Nichols

    1991-01-01

    Summary Portal vein thrombosis occurred in a patient who bled from gastric varices that developed after obliteration of esophageal varices by endoscopic sclerotherapy. This complication was recognized only at surgery when thrombectomy and endovenectomy preceded the successful placement of an end-to-side portocaval shunt. At histopathology, the presence of an amorphous, eosinophilic material staining negatively for fibrin and similar to sclerosant

  17. The Aristotelian account of “heart and veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammadali M. Shoja; R. Shane Tubbs; Marios Loukas; Mohammad R. Ardalan

    2008-01-01

    The exploration of the cardiovascular (CV) system has a history of at least five millennia. The model of the heart and veins represented by Aristotle (384–322 B.C.) is one of the earliest and accurate descriptions of the CV system. With his own specific metaphysical approach, Aristotle discussed why there might be a vascular tree composed of two vessels and also

  18. Calcified neonatal renal vein thrombosis demonstration by CT and US

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jayogapal; H. L. Cohen; P. W. Brill; P. Winchester; D. Eaton

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of calcified renal vein thrombosis (RVT) were diagnosed, incidentally, within the first weeks of life. The CT images present the virtually diagnostic branching pattern of calcification that has been previously noted on pathology specimen radiographs. The CT and US images show peripheral renal vein, central renal vein and inferior vena cava calcification conforming to the two theoretical origins

  19. An update on the diagnosis and treatment of varicose veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Green

    1995-01-01

    Varicose veins are a common ailment affecting more than 20 million Americans. These veins and the associated venous hypertension are associated with leg swelling, pain, dermatitis, phlebitis, and ulceration. The underlying principle of treatment of any varicosity is the removal or obliteration of pathologically functioning veins and the preservation of those with normal function. Diagnosis is obvious, but deciding whether

  20. Clinical Results of Radiofrequency Endovenous Obliteration for Varicose Veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiro Ogawa; Shunichi Hoshino; Hirofumi Midorikawa; Kouichi Sato

    2005-01-01

    Purpose Radiofrequency (RF) endovenous obliteration is performed in the United States and several European countries for the minimally invasive treatment of saphenous-type varicose veins. We evaluated the clinical results of RF endovenous obliteration to treat varicose veins at Fukushima Daiichi Hospital. Methods We performed endovenous obliteration of 25 great saphenous varicose veins in 20 patients, under duplex ultrasound guidance. None

  1. Subclavian vein repair in patients with an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Gradman, W S; Bressman, P; Sernaque, J D

    1994-11-01

    Management of subclavian vein occlusive disease in persons with an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula can be challenging. From July 1991 to May 1993, nine patients underwent direct exploration and repair of an obstructed subclavian vein following medial claviculectomy. Eight patients had polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts; one patient had a Brescia-Cimino fistula. Intractable arm edema was the major symptom in five of eight. The site of the occlusive disease ranged from the midsubclavian vein to the proximal innominate vein. Pathology varied from a focal occluding web to a long segment of intimal fibroplasia. Five veins were occluded; four were stenotic. Surgical procedures consisted of endovenectomy and vein patch (four), endovenectomy and PTFE patch (one), resection of a focal stricture with end-to-end anastomosis (two), resection with PTFE interposition (one), and end-to-end internal jugular to subclavian vein transposition (one). Postoperative contrast venograms revealed a patent subclavian vein in eight of eight patients. One patient died postoperatively from unrelated causes; two patients died with a functioning fistula 8 and 12 months, respectively, after surgery. Two grafts were removed for infection and one deteriorated graft was abandoned because of repeated thrombosis. Only three of nine original grafts are currently in use, including one in which the ipsilateral subclavian vein rethrombosed. Although stent placement may now be the preferred treatment for subclavian vein stenosis, vein repair may still have a role in the treatment of subclavian vein occlusion, particularly in patients with a Brescia-Cimino fistula. PMID:7865393

  2. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Invading the Main Portal Vein: Treatment with Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization and Portal Vein Stenting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue-Bin Zhang; Jian-Hua Wang; Zhi-Ping Yan; Sheng Qian; Rong Liu

    2009-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze the therapeutic results of percutaneous transhepatic portal vein stenting (PTPVS) and transcatheter\\u000a arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment in 58 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invading the main portal vein\\u000a (MPV). A total of 58 procedures of PTPVS were performed, immediately after which TACE was undertaken to control HCC. The clinical\\u000a effects, complications, digital subtraction angiographic appearance, stent patency

  3. Retinal vein-to-vein anastomoses in Sturge-Weber syndrome documented by ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography.

    PubMed

    Quan, Ann V; Moore, Grant H; Tsui, Irena

    2015-06-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with Sturge-Weber syndrome and unilateral glaucoma in his left eye. He was born with a port wine mark involving his upper left eyelid. On ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography, he was found to have several vein-to-vein anastomoses in his left retina. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of retinal vein-to-vein anastomoses in Sturge-Weber syndrome. PMID:25944745

  4. Transcutaneous laser treatment of leg veins.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; Pitassi, Luiza H U; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C

    2014-03-01

    Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia, allergy to certain sclerosing agents, and the presence of vessels smaller than the diameter of a 30-gauge needle (including telangiectatic matting). In these cases, transcutaneous laser therapy is a valuable alternative. Currently, different laser modalities have been proposed for the management of leg veins. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the basic principles of transcutaneous laser therapy of leg veins and to review the existing literature on this subject, including the most recent developments. The 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, the 585-600-nm pulsed dye laser, the 755-nm alexandrite laser, various 800-983-nm diode lasers, and the 1,064-nm neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and various intense pulsed light sources have been investigated for this indication. The KTP and pulsed dye laser are an effective treatment option for small vessels (<1 mm). The side effect profile is usually favorable to that of longer wavelength modalities. For larger veins, the use of a longer wavelength is required. According to the scarce evidence available, the Nd:YAG laser produces better clinical results than the alexandrite and diode laser. Penetration depth is high, whereas absorption by melanin is low, making the Nd:YAG laser suitable for the treatment of larger and deeply located veins and for the treatment of patients with dark skin types. Clinical outcome of Nd:YAG laser therapy approximates that of sclerotherapy, although the latter is associated with less pain. New developments include (1) the use of a nonuniform pulse sequence or a dual-wavelength modality, inducing methemoglobin formation and enhancing the optical absorption properties of the target structure, (2) pulse stacking and multiple pass laser treatment, (3) combination of laser therapy with sclerotherapy or radiofrequency, and (4) indocyanin green enhanced laser therapy. Future studies will have to confirm the role of these developments in the treatment of leg veins. The literature still lacks double-blind controlled clinical trials comparing the different laser modalities with each other and with sclerotherapy. Such trials should be the focus of future research. PMID:24220848

  5. Transgenic RNA interference (RNAi)-derived field resistance to cassava brown streak disease.

    PubMed

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Odipio, John; Halsey, Mark; Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Bua, Anton; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M; Alicai, Titus

    2012-12-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by the Ipomoviruses Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan Cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), is considered to be an imminent threat to food security in tropical Africa. Cassava plants were transgenically modified to generate small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from truncated full-length (894-bp) and N-terminal (402-bp) portions of the UCBSV coat protein (?CP) sequence. Seven siRNA-producing lines from each gene construct were tested under confined field trials at Namulonge, Uganda. All nontransgenic control plants (n = 60) developed CBSD symptoms on aerial tissues by 6 months after planting, whereas plants transgenic for the full-length ?CP sequence showed a 3-month delay in disease development, with 98% of clonal replicates within line 718-001 remaining symptom free over the 11-month trial. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) diagnostics indicated the presence of UCBSV within the leaves of 57% of the nontransgenic controls, but in only two of 413 plants tested (0.5%) across the 14 transgenic lines. All transgenic plants showing CBSD were PCR positive for the presence of CBSV, except for line 781-001, in which 93% of plants were confirmed to be free of both pathogens. At harvest, 90% of storage roots from nontransgenic plants were severely affected by CBSD-induced necrosis. However, transgenic lines 718-005 and 718-001 showed significant suppression of disease, with 95% of roots from the latter line remaining free from necrosis and RT-PCR negative for the presence of both viral pathogens. Cross-protection against CBSV by siRNAs generated from the full-length UCBSV ?CP confirms a previous report in tobacco. The information presented provides proof of principle for the control of CBSD by RNA interference-mediated technology, and progress towards the potential control of this damaging disease. PMID:22845735

  6. Absolute calibration method for nanosecond-resolved, time-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Mark D.; Oliver, Bryan V. [Advanced Radiographic Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1195 (United States); Droemer, Darryl W.; Frogget, Brent; Crain, Marlon D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, P.O. Box 98521, Las Vegas, Nevada 89193 (United States); Maron, Yitzhak [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel 76100 (Israel)

    2012-08-15

    This paper describes a convenient and accurate method to calibrate fast (<1 ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such systems are inherently difficult to calibrate due to the lack of sufficiently intense, calibrated light sources. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA) at Sandia National Laboratories. On RITS, plasma light is collected through a small diameter (200 {mu}m) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator. For this paper, a 300 W xenon short arc lamp (Oriel Model 6258) was used as the calibration source. Since the radiance of the xenon arc varies from cathode to anode, just the area around the tip of the cathode ('hotspot') was imaged onto the fiber, to produce the highest intensity output. To compensate for chromatic aberrations, the signal was optimized at each wavelength measured. Output power was measured using 10 nm bandpass interference filters and a calibrated photodetector. These measurements give power at discrete wavelengths across the spectrum, and when linearly interpolated, provide a calibration curve for the lamp. The shape of the spectrum is determined by the collective response of the optics, monochromator, and streak tube across the spectral region of interest. The ratio of the spectral curve to the measured bandpass filter curve at each wavelength produces a correction factor (Q) curve. This curve is then applied to the experimental data and the resultant spectra are given in absolute intensity units (photons/sec/cm{sup 2}/steradian/nm). Error analysis shows this method to be accurate to within +/- 20%, which represents a high level of accuracy for this type of measurement.

  7. Absolute calibration method for nanosecond-resolved, time-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Oliver, Bryan V.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Frogget, Brent; Crain, Marlon D.; Maron, Yitzhak

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes a convenient and accurate method to calibrate fast (<1 ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such systems are inherently difficult to calibrate due to the lack of sufficiently intense, calibrated light sources. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA) at Sandia National Laboratories. On RITS, plasma light is collected through a small diameter (200 ?m) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator. For this paper, a 300 W xenon short arc lamp (Oriel Model 6258) was used as the calibration source. Since the radiance of the xenon arc varies from cathode to anode, just the area around the tip of the cathode ("hotspot") was imaged onto the fiber, to produce the highest intensity output. To compensate for chromatic aberrations, the signal was optimized at each wavelength measured. Output power was measured using 10 nm bandpass interference filters and a calibrated photodetector. These measurements give power at discrete wavelengths across the spectrum, and when linearly interpolated, provide a calibration curve for the lamp. The shape of the spectrum is determined by the collective response of the optics, monochromator, and streak tube across the spectral region of interest. The ratio of the spectral curve to the measured bandpass filter curve at each wavelength produces a correction factor (Q) curve. This curve is then applied to the experimental data and the resultant spectra are given in absolute intensity units (photons/sec/cm2/steradian/nm). Error analysis shows this method to be accurate to within +/- 20%, which represents a high level of accuracy for this type of measurement.

  8. Significant seismic streaks corresponding to lithological contrasts in Mesozoic and Paleozoic accretion units, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, S.; Toda, S.; Katao, H.

    2014-12-01

    While high-density seismic streaks are commonly seen in aftershocks of a strike-slip earthquake, significant linear clusters in background seismicity are rare. A typical example of such sustained streaks is observed along the creeping section of the San Andreas fault, in which strain localization associated with frictional heterogeneity takes a responsibility. Here we show other examples from Tamba and Wakayama regions, around Osaka-Kyoto district, where a number of several-to-20-km-long seismic streaks are observed. We explore the role of geologic heterogeneity into the seismicity comparing spatial distribution of earthquakes with geologic structure in both regions, where a significant high background rate of seismicity has been continuously recorded since the mid-1900. Epicenters of numerous small earthquakes are located mainly on the Mesozoic metamorphic rocks and Mesozoic-Paleozoic accretion units, whereas low seismicity is characterized in granite and ultra-mafic rocks. Within the Wakayama seismic zone, in particular, we observe many E-W and ENE-WSW trending dense seismic clusters in hypocenters of Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) data relocated with the hypo DD algorithm of Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000). Most of the E-W trending seismic clusters possibly correspond to the E-W trending local scale geologic faults, folds, bedding planes, and schistosity. However, well-determined fault plane solutions by JMA and the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) show NS-trending reverse faults corresponding to EW compression. We further sought the focal mechanisms for smaller earthquakes using waveform data recorded in the SATARN seismic network system of DPRI, Kyoto University. As a result, among the many reverse fault mechanisms, we found some amounts of strike-slip ones, which may associate with the visible EW-trending seismic clusters.

  9. A new tubeless nanosecond streak camera based on optical deflection and direct CCD imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.C.

    1992-12-01

    A new optically deflected streaking camera with performance of nanosecond-range resolution, superior imaging quality, high signal detectability, and large format recording has been conceived and developed. Its construction is composed of an optomechanical deflector that deflects the line-shape image of spatial-distributed time-varying signals across the sensing surface of a cooled scientific two-dimensional CCD array with slow readout driving electronics, a lens assembly, and a desk-top computer for prompt digital data acquisition and processing. Its development utilizes the synergism of modern technologies in sensor, optical deflector, optics and microcomputer. With laser light as signal carrier, the deflecting optics produces near diffraction-limited streak images resolving to a single pixel size of 25[mu]. A 1kx1k-pixel array can thus provide a vast record of 1,000 digital data points along each spatial or temporal axis. Since only one photon-to-electron conversion exists in the entire signal recording path, the camera responses linearly to the incident light over a wide dynamic range in excess of 10[sup 4]:1. Various image deflection techniques are assessed for imaging fidelity, deflection speed, and capacity for external triggering. Innovative multiple-pass deflection methods for utilizing optomechanical deflector have been conceived and developed to attain multi-fold amplification for the optical scanning. speed across the CCD surface at a given angular deflector speed. Without significantly compromising imaging. quality or flux throughput efficiency, these optical methods enable a sub-10 ns/pixel streak speed with the deflector moving benignly at 500 radians/second, or equivalently 80 revolutions /second. Test results of the prototype performance are summarized including a spatial resolution of 10 lp/mm at 65% CTF and a temporal resolution of 11.4 ns at 3.8 ns/pixel.

  10. A new tubeless nanosecond streak camera based on optical deflection and direct CCD imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.C.

    1992-12-01

    A new optically deflected streaking camera with performance of nanosecond-range resolution, superior imaging quality, high signal detectability, and large format recording has been conceived and developed. Its construction is composed of an optomechanical deflector that deflects the line-shape image of spatial-distributed time-varying signals across the sensing surface of a cooled scientific two-dimensional CCD array with slow readout driving electronics, a lens assembly, and a desk-top computer for prompt digital data acquisition and processing. Its development utilizes the synergism of modern technologies in sensor, optical deflector, optics and microcomputer. With laser light as signal carrier, the deflecting optics produces near diffraction-limited streak images resolving to a single pixel size of 25{mu}. A 1kx1k-pixel array can thus provide a vast record of 1,000 digital data points along each spatial or temporal axis. Since only one photon-to-electron conversion exists in the entire signal recording path, the camera responses linearly to the incident light over a wide dynamic range in excess of 10{sup 4}:1. Various image deflection techniques are assessed for imaging fidelity, deflection speed, and capacity for external triggering. Innovative multiple-pass deflection methods for utilizing optomechanical deflector have been conceived and developed to attain multi-fold amplification for the optical scanning. speed across the CCD surface at a given angular deflector speed. Without significantly compromising imaging. quality or flux throughput efficiency, these optical methods enable a sub-10 ns/pixel streak speed with the deflector moving benignly at 500 radians/second, or equivalently 80 revolutions /second. Test results of the prototype performance are summarized including a spatial resolution of 10 lp/mm at 65% CTF and a temporal resolution of 11.4 ns at 3.8 ns/pixel.

  11. Retrospective Comparison of Clinical Outcomes between Endovenous Laser and Saphenous Vein-sparing Surgery for Treatment of Varicose Veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Yang Chan; Tzu-Chun Chen; Yung-Kun Hsieh; Jih-Hsin Huang

    Background  The purpose of the present study was to compare management of varicose veins by endovenous laser ablation (EVL) and a vein-sparing\\u000a procedure (CHIVA: Conservatrice et Hémodynamique de l’Insuffisance Veineuse en Ambulatoire) for management of varicose veins.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data from 82 consecutive patients with great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux and primary varicose veins presenting to the vascular\\u000a clinic at the Far Eastern

  12. Patterning of Leaf Vein Networks by Convergent Auxin Transport Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sawchuk, Megan G.; Edgar, Alexander; Scarpella, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The formation of leaf vein patterns has fascinated biologists for centuries. Transport of the plant signal auxin has long been implicated in vein patterning, but molecular details have remained unclear. Varied evidence suggests a central role for the plasma-membrane (PM)-localized PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) intercellular auxin transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana in auxin-transport-dependent vein patterning. However, in contrast to the severe vein-pattern defects induced by auxin transport inhibitors, pin1 mutant leaves have only mild vein-pattern defects. These defects have been interpreted as evidence of redundancy between PIN1 and the other four PM-localized PIN proteins in vein patterning, redundancy that underlies many developmental processes. By contrast, we show here that vein patterning in the Arabidopsis leaf is controlled by two distinct and convergent auxin-transport pathways: intercellular auxin transport mediated by PM-localized PIN1 and intracellular auxin transport mediated by the evolutionarily older, endoplasmic-reticulum-localized PIN6, PIN8, and PIN5. PIN6 and PIN8 are expressed, as PIN1 and PIN5, at sites of vein formation. pin6 synthetically enhances pin1 vein-pattern defects, and pin8 quantitatively enhances pin1pin6 vein-pattern defects. Function of PIN6 is necessary, redundantly with that of PIN8, and sufficient to control auxin response levels, PIN1 expression, and vein network formation; and the vein pattern defects induced by ectopic PIN6 expression are mimicked by ectopic PIN8 expression. Finally, vein patterning functions of PIN6 and PIN8 are antagonized by PIN5 function. Our data define a new level of control of vein patterning, one with repercussions on other patterning processes in the plant, and suggest a mechanism to select cell files specialized for vascular function that predates evolution of PM-localized PIN proteins. PMID:23437008

  13. Design of a streaked radiography instrument for ICF ablator tuning measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R. E.; Geissel, M.; Kellogg, J. W.; Bennett, G. R.; Edens, A. D.; Atherton, B. W.; Leeper, R. J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Hicks, D. G.; Spears, B. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Holder, J. P.; Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    A streaked radiography diagnostic has been proposed as a technique to determine the ablator mass remaining in an inertial confinement fusion ignition capsule at peak velocity. This instrument, the 'HXRI-5', has been designed to fit within a National Ignition Facility Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator. The HXRI-5 will be built at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and initial testing will be done at the SNL Z-Beamlet Facility. In this paper, we will describe the National Ignition Campaign requirements for this diagnostic, the instrument design, and the planned test experiments.

  14. Temporal Characterization of individual Harmonics of an attosecond pulse train by THz Streaking

    E-print Network

    Ardana-Lamas, F; Stepanov, A; Gorgisyan, I; Juranic, P; Abela, R; Hauri, C P

    2015-01-01

    We report on the global temporal pulse characteristics of individual harmonics in an attosecond pulse train by means of photo-electron streaking in a strong low-frequency transient. The scheme allows direct retrieval of pulse durations and first order chirp of individual harmonics without the need of temporal scanning. The measurements were performed using an intense THz field generated by tilted phase front technique in LiNbO_3 . Pulse properties for harmonics of order 23, 25 and 27 show that the individual pulse durations and linear chirp are decreasing by the harmonic order.

  15. Modes on a short SPEAR bunch as observed with a streak camera

    SciTech Connect

    Sabersky, A.P.; Donald, M.H.R.

    1981-02-01

    The longitudinal structure of electron bunches in the storage ring SPEAR on a single pass was studied with time resolution approx. 10 ps. The measuring instrument used is an image-converter streak camera, a specialized device heretofore used mostly by laser workers. Unexpectedly, under some conditions the charge in a single RF bucket breaks up into two short sub-bunches which seem to rotate about a common center in energy-phase space. No evidence is seen for other, higher-frequency structure on the bunches.

  16. Temporal Characterization of Electron Beam Bunches with a Fast Streak Camera at the JLab FEL Facility

    SciTech Connect

    S. Zhang; S.V. Benson; D. Douglas; D. Hardy; C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Jordan; G. Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

    2005-08-21

    The design and construction of an optical transport that brings synchrotron radiation from electron bunches to a fast streak camera in a remote area has become a useful tool for online observation of bunch length and stability. This paper will report on the temporal measurements we have done, comparison with simulations, and the on-going work for another imaging optical transport system that will make possible the direct measurement of the longitudinal phase space by measuring the bunch length as a function of energy

  17. Follow-up Observatory for Low Earth Orbit Objects with a Detection Algorithm Using Streaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, M.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kurosaki, H.; Oda, H.; Hanada, T.

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a simplified facility for a follow-up observation method. A tri-axis altazimuth mount instrument is required in the conventional observation facility to keep a target as a light spot during a visible pass. The tri-axis instrument enables the facility to observe the target with a high signal-to-noise-ratio. However, such instrument becomes costly due to its complexity. The proposed method uses a bi-axis altazimuth to guide a telescope into an observation target region. It should be noted that the bi-axis altazimth does not guide the telescope toward the target continuously therefore the target appears as streaks in images. Intensities in the streak are degraded in signal-to-noise-ratio in comparison to that in the light spot taken by a telescope on a tri-axis altazimuth because original intensity was divided into the pixels. The proposed method recovers such low signal-to-noise-ratio using 1) an image-processing algorithm and 2) multi-telescope. The image-processing algorithm developed for this study aims to detect an object appeared as faint streaks in images. The initial study also found that the algorithm requires primary orbit information of the target to complete detection calculation in reasonable time consumption. The algorithm can recovers signal-to-noise-ratio. However, it is still lower than that of continuous guiding observation result. The multi-telescope denotes an observation using two or more telescopes toward same region. We can improve signal-to-noise-ratio by summing images taken by the telescopes. We found that the image-processing algorithm improves signal-to-noise-ratio proportional to square root of streaks length. The multi-telescope observation method also improves signal-to-noise-ratio proportional to square root of number of the telescope. The proposed method combines the algorithm and the technique to recover degraded signal-to-noise-ratio. This paper discusses a feasibility of the proposed method and summarizes a mission scenario.

  18. Inadvertent Port: Catheter Placement in Azygos Vein

    PubMed Central

    Harish, K.; Madhu, Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Totally implantable ports are safe and effective means of venous access for administration of chemotherapy. One of the usual vessels accessed, through which the port is placed, is the subclavian. Herein, we report a case where the central access was obtained through the left subclavian vein. But the catheter when it was placed was found to be in the azygos vein. This was confirmed with dye study. This is the first report of such an occurrence with subclavian access. The catheter was later withdrawn and repositioned in the superior vena cava. We recommend that the entire procedure of catheter placement must be done under fluoroscopy guidance to ensure safe and error-free positioning. PMID:23730139

  19. Finger Vein Recognition with Personalized Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xiaoming; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Meng, Xianjing

    2013-01-01

    Finger veins are a promising biometric pattern for personalized identification in terms of their advantages over existing biometrics. Based on the spatial pyramid representation and the combination of more effective information such as gray, texture and shape, this paper proposes a simple but powerful feature, called Pyramid Histograms of Gray, Texture and Orientation Gradients (PHGTOG). For a finger vein image, PHGTOG can reflect the global spatial layout and local details of gray, texture and shape. To further improve the recognition performance and reduce the computational complexity, we select a personalized subset of features from PHGTOG for each subject by using the sparse weight vector, which is trained by using LASSO and called PFS-PHGTOG. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the promise of the PHGTOG and PFS-PHGTOG, experimental results on our databases show that PHGTOG outperforms the other existing features. Moreover, PFS-PHGTOG can further boost the performance in comparison with PHGTOG. PMID:23974154

  20. A curious case of yellow nail syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cri?an-Dabija, Radu; Mih?escu, Traian

    2015-01-01

    The Yellow Nail Syndrome is a rare clinical entity, first described in 1967 by P.D. Samman and W.F. White. The triad slow-growing dystrophic yellow nails, lymphedema and chronic respiratory disorders is the typical manifestation of the disease but some variations have been described as well as associations with chylothorax, chylous ascites, intestinal lymphangiectasia, thyroid abnormalities, malignancies and immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency. We present a case of a 55-years-old woman that had an insidious onset of respiratory disorders and chronic sinusitis, suspected to be infectious throughout the hospitalizations, associated with therapeutically neglected autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:26016054

  1. Molecular cytogenetic discrimination and reaction to wheat streak mosaic virus and the wheat curl mite in Zhong series of wheat--Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Conner, R L; Li, H J; Sun, S C; Ahmad, F; Laroche, A; Graf, R J

    2003-02-01

    Thinopyrum intermedium (2n = 6x = 42, JJJsJsSS) is potentially a useful source of resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and its vector, the wheat curl mite (WCM). Five partial amphiploids, namely Zhong 1, Zhong 2, Zhong 3, Zhong 4, and Zhong 5, derived from Triticum aestivum x Thinopyrum intermedium crosses produced in China, were screened for WSMV and WCM resistance. Zhong 1 and Zhong 2 had high levels of resistance to WSMV and WCM. The other three partial amphiploids, Zhong 3, 4, and 5, were resistant to WSMV, but were susceptible to WCM. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using a genomic DNA probe from Pseudoroegneria strigosa (SS, 2n = 14) demonstrated that two partial amphiploids, Zhong 1 and Zhong 2, have almost the identical 10 Th. intermedium chromosomes, including four Js, four J, and two S genome chromosomes. Both of them carry two pairs of J and a pair of Js genome chromosomes and two different translocations that were not observed in the other three Zhong lines. The partial amphiploids Zhong 3, 4, and 5 have another type of basic genomic composition, which is similar to a reconstituted alien genome consisting of four S and four Js genome chromosomes of Th. intermedium (Zhong 5 has two Js chromosomes plus two Js-W translocations) with six translocated chromosomes between S and Js or J genomes. All three lines carry a specific S-S-Js translocated chromosome, which might confer resistance to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV). The present study identified a specific Js2 chromosome present in all five of the Zhong lines, confirming that a Js chromosome carries WSMV resistance. Resistance to WCM may be linked with J or Js chromosomes. The discovery of high levels of resistance to both WSMV and WCM in Zhong 1 and Zhong 2 offers a useful source of resistance to both the virus and its vector for wheat breeding programs. PMID:12669806

  2. Suitability of Varicose Veins for Endovenous Treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Goode; G. Kuhan; N. Altaf; R. Simpson; A. Beech; T. Richards; S. T. MacSweeney; B. D. Braithwaite

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), and\\u000a foam sclerotherapy (FS) for patients with symptomatic varicose veins (VVs). The study comprised 403 consecutive patients with\\u000a symptomatic VVs. Data on 577 legs from 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs were collected for the year 2006. Median\\u000a patient age was 55 years

  3. Nitroxidergic nerve stimulation relaxes human uterine vein.

    PubMed

    Toda, N; Kimura, T; Okamura, T

    1995-11-01

    The predominant action of nitroglycerin, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, on veins over arterioles is well recognized. This study was carried out to determine whether endogenous NO derived from vasodilator nerve regulates the tone of human uterine venous strips. The isolated vein partially contracted with prostaglandin F2 alpha responded to nicotine with a contraction or a relaxation; the contraction was reversed to a relaxation by prazosin, and the relaxation was potentiated by the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist. In prazosin-treated strips, nicotine-induced relaxations were not affected by timolol, atropine and indomethacin but were abolished by oxyhemoglobin and NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), a NO synthase inhibitor. The D-enantiomer was without effect. The inhibition by L-NA was reversed by L-arginine. The NO-induced relaxation was not influenced by L-NA but was abolished by oxyhemoglobin. It may be concluded that the human uterine vein is innervated by vasodilator nerves from which NO is liberated as a vasodilator neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine from adrenergic nerves contracts venous smooth muscle possibly via stimulation of alpha 1-adrenoceptors. PMID:8801269

  4. An assessment of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, stocking contributions in eastern South Dakota

    E-print Network

    An assessment of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, stocking contributions in eastern South Dakota, USA Abstract The success and value of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), stocking programmes, oxytetracycline, stocking, yellow perch. Introduction Panfish [yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), crappies

  5. Emergence of larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in South Dakota lakes: potential implications for

    E-print Network

    Emergence of larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in South Dakota lakes: potential implications and hatch dates were described for larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), captured in surface, otoliths, Perca flavescens, yellow perch. Introduction Yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), support

  6. 21 CFR 184.1973 - Beeswax (yellow and white).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...extract impurities. The resulting wax is referred to as yellow beeswax. White beeswax is produced by bleaching the constituent pigments of yellow beeswax with peroxides, or preferably it is bleached by sun light. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  7. Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    E-print Network

    Severson, David

    Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti with Drosophila melanogaster aegypti, and Culex pipiens, the primary vectors for malaria, yellow fever and dengue, and lymphatic 103

  8. Picosecond-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy at low signal contrast using a hard X-ray streak camera.

    PubMed

    Adams, Bernhard W; Rose-Petruck, Christoph; Jiao, Yishuo

    2015-07-01

    A picosecond-resolving hard-X-ray streak camera has been in operation for several years at Sector 7 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Several upgrades have been implemented over the past few years to optimize integration into the beamline, reduce the timing jitter, and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. These include the development of X-ray optics for focusing the X-rays into the sample and the entrance slit of the streak camera, and measures to minimize the amount of laser light needed to generate the deflection-voltage ramp. For the latter, the photoconductive switch generating the deflection ramp was replaced with microwave power electronics. With these, the streak camera operates routinely at 88?MHz repetition rate, thus making it compatible with all of the APS fill patterns including use of all the X-rays in the 324-bunch mode. Sample data are shown to demonstrate the performance. PMID:26134806

  9. Characterization of complete genome and small RNA profile of pagoda yellow mosaic associated virus, a novel badnavirus in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilun; Cheng, Xiaofei; Wu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Aiming; Wu, Xiaoyun

    2014-08-01

    A new badnavirus was discovered from pagoda trees showing yellow mosaic symptoms on the leaves by high throughput sequencing of small RNAs. The complete genome of this virus was determined to comprise 7424 nucleotides, and the virus shared 40.4-45.1% identity with that of other badnaviruses. The genome encodes five open reading frames (ORFs) on the plus strand, which includes three conserved badnaviral ORFs. These results suggest that this virus is a new member of the genus Badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae. The virus is tentatively named pagoda yellow mosaic associated virus (PYMAV). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that this virus together with gooseberry vein banding virus (GVBV) and grapevine vein-clearing virus (GVCV) forms a separate group that is distinct two other well characterized badnaviral groups. Additionally, the viral derived small RNA (vsRNA) profile of PYMAV was analyzed and compared with that of viruses within the same family. Results showed that the most abundant PYMAV vsRNAs were 21-nt, whereas other viruses in the same family have a predominance of 22- or 24-nt vsRNA. The percentage of sense PYMAV vsRNA was almost equal to that of antisense vsRNA, whereas vsRNAs of other viruses in the family display preferences toward the sense strand of their genome. Furthermore, PYMAV vsRNAs were symmetrically distributed along the genome with no obvious vsRNA generating hotspots. PMID:24751798

  10. Quantitative modeling of quartz vein sealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Frank; Okamoto, Atsushi; Schwarz, Jens-Oliver; Enzmann, Frieder; Blum, Philipp

    2014-05-01

    Mineral precipitation significantly effects many aspects of fluid-rock interaction across all length scales, as the dynamical change of permeability, of mechanical interaction and redistribution of dissolved material. The hydrothermal growth of quartz establishes one of the most important mineralization processes in fractures. Tectonically caused fracturing, deformation and fluid transport leaves clear detectable traces in the microstructure of the mineralized veins. As these patterns give hints on the deformation history and the fluid pathways through former fracture networks, accurate spatio-temporal modeling of vein mineralization is of special interest, and the objective of this study. Due to the intricate polycrystalline geometries involved, the underlying physical processes like diffusion, advection and crystal growth have to be captured at the grain scale. To this end, we adapt a thermodynamically consistent phase-field model (PFM), which combines a kinetic growth law and mass transport equations with irreversible thermodynamics of interfaces and bulk phases. Each grain in the simulation domain is captured by a phase field with individual orientation given by three Euler angles. The model evolves in discrete time steps using a finite difference algorithm on a regular grid, optimized for large grain assemblies. The underlying processes are highly nonlinear, and for geological samples, boundary conditions as well as many of the physical parameters are not precisely known. One motivation in this study is to validate the adequately parameterized model vs. hydrothermal experiments under defined (p,T,c) conditions. Different from former approaches in vein growth simulation, the PFM is configured using thermodynamic data from established geochemical models. Previously conducted batch flow experiments of hydrothermal quartz growth were analyzed with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and used to calibrate the unknown kinetic anisotropy parameters. In the simulations, we study the sealing of syntaxial veins of 300 microns aperture by epitaxial overgrowth of preexisting grains from the rock surface. Results from 3D simulations conducted in the limit of low Damköhler numbers explain the observed transition regime in competitive crystal growth for blocky-elongate veins. The initial formation of quartz crystal bridges, especially pronounced in the regime of low supersaturation, is observed. The morphological evolution of micro-ensembles of grain neighbourhoods from the rock sample compares well to that of the simulations. To juxtapose larger polycrystal domains, the variation of grain number, texture and porosity as function of scaled distance from the initial wall is calculated. Velocity profiles from solutions of the isothermal incompressible Navier-Stokes equation are used to record permeability evolution and to evaluate deviations from the cubic law. Both, the geometry of the microstructure and the permeability of the flow pathway, are used as upscaling parameters for larger scale (fracture scale) simulations.

  11. Variations of Gonadal Veins: Embryological Prospective and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Raman; Aggarwal, Navita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: An adequate knowledge of anomalies of gonadal veins will help the radiologists and surgeons in recognition and protection of these veins which play major roles in thermo-regulation that is essential for the efficient functioning of testis on which the survival of the human species depends. Aim: The aim of this work is to present an analysis of the anatomical variations of gonadal veins. An effort has also been made to explicate the possible embryological model of development of such variants and to present the variable clinical aspects concerning them. Materials and Methods: Gonadal veins in 60 dissection room cadavers were examined for variations from the classic anatomic description. Result: In the present study, out of 60 cases, male: female ratio was 2:1(40:20) in which no variation was found in ovarian veins. In the 18 (45%) cases, testicular veins showed variations which consist of duplication and atypical drainage. Discussion: Variations of drainage of gonadal vein are due to error of embryological development in venous shift and alteration in anastomotic channel of post-cardinal, supra-cardinal and sub cardinal veins. Conclusion: The gonadal veins present numeric variations as well as variations in its site of drainage, which attributed to the various pathological conditions as varicocele and pelvic congestion syndrome, leading to infertility in patients. Hence, in -depth knowledge of these developmental anomalies of gonadal veins is important. PMID:25859438

  12. Development of HIFU Therapy System for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Ota, Ryuhei; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Suzuki, Jun; Deguchi, Juno; Miyata, Tetsuro [Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2009-04-14

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment utilizing microbubbles was investigated in the present study. It is known that microbubbles have the potential to enhance the heating effects of an ultrasound field. In this study, the heat accompanying microbubble oscillation was used to occlude varicose veins. Alteration of veins was observed after ultrasound irradiation. Veins were resected by stripping. In this study, two vein conditions were adopted during HIFU irradiation; non-compressed and compressed. Compressing the vein was expected to improve occlusion by rubbing the altered intima under compressed conditions. The frequency of the ultrasound was 1.7 MHz, the intensity at the focus was 2800 W/cm{sup 2}, and the irradiation time was 20 s. In this study, the contrast agent Levovist registered was chosen as a microbubble source, and the void fraction (ratio of total gas volume to liquid) in the vein was fixed at 10{sup -5}. Under non-compressed conditions, changes were observed only at the adventitia of the vein anterior wall. In contrast, under compressed conditions, changes were observed from the intima to the adventitia of both the anterior and posterior walls, and they were partly stuck together. In addition, more experiments with hematoxylin-eosin staining suggested that the changes in the vein were more substantial under the latter conditions. From these results, it was confirmed that the vein was occluded more easily with vein compression.

  13. Wheat Curl Mite and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Spread from Volunteer Wheat Figure 2. Spectral profiles at three points identified in Figure

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Wheat Curl Mite and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Spread from Volunteer Wheat Figure 2. Spectral Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) (apeters@calmit.unl.edu) Background: Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) is the most severe disease of winter wheat in the Great Plains. Estimates indicate WSM causes an average loss

  14. The dynamic nature and spectral characteristics of low-albedo slope streaks on Mars and their possible hydrologic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushkin, A.; Stillman, D. E.; Gillespie, A. R.; Montgomery, D. R.; Schreiber, B. C.; Hibbitts, C.

    2014-12-01

    Low-albedo down-slope streaks that form repeatedly within weekly time-scales and subsequently fade over seasonal to decadal periods are commonly observed in the tropical and mid-latitudes of Mars. 'Dry' mass-wasting processes vs. 'wet' modification of the surface by aqueous phases are the mechanisms typically considered to explain their formation. Recently, high frequency HiRISE image time-series of seasonal recurrence, incremental growth and fading of small (meter-decameter scale) slope streaks, also termed 'recurring slope lineae' (RSL), have been presented in support of a 'wet' origin likely associated with brine seepage. Here, we present new results that demonstrate comparable recurrence, incremental growth and fading characteristics over yearly time-scales for decameter-kilometer scale low-albedo slope-streaks in Lycus Sulci, Amazonis Planitia and Arabia Terra. These dynamic characteristics support the previous association of low-albedo slope streaks with brine seepage based on their geomorphic and spectral relations with surrounding unaffected slopes. Low-albedo slope streaks are typically not associated with detectable erosion or terminal, down-slope depositional activity at the resolution of 25 cm/pixel HiRISE images. CRISM observations consistently indicate that darkened slope-streak surfaces are spectrally enriched in FeOx and are void of detectable water/ice spectral absorption bands. Thus, the liquid seeps considered for the formation of meter to kilometer scale slope streaks are likely low-volume transient events that evaporate and/or freeze and sublime leaving behind a meta-stable dry precipitate that 'stains' the surface dark and may provide insights into the possible composition of such brines. Slope streak formation through a 'wet' brine seepage mechanism supports the possible presence of pressurized sub-surface aquifers that may be released via faults or cracks able to produce recurring transient discharge events during favorably warm daily/seasonal surface conditions. First-order calculations for the liquid volumes that would be associated with such transient brine extrusions suggest the presence of regional-scale extensive aquifers and/or effective recharge mechanism for local-scale aquifers perhaps during high obliquity periods.

  15. Wind-driven effects on the Yellow Sea Warm Current

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea C. Mask; James J. O'Brien; Ruth Preller

    1998-01-01

    The Yellow Sea is a shallow basin with an average depth of 44 m located between China_and the Korean Peninsula. One of the dominant ocean circulation features of the Yellow Sea is a warm water intrusion known as the Yellow Sea Warm Current. This feature is present throughout the year but reaches its farthest northward extension in winter. The circulation

  16. Yellow Sea Acoustic Uncertainty Caused by Hydrographic Data Error

    E-print Network

    Chu, Peter C.

    Yellow Sea Acoustic Uncertainty Caused by Hydrographic Data Error Peter C. Chu, Carlos J. Cintron is presented by Prof. Kevin Smith at NPS #12;Yellow Sea Bottom Sediment Chart · Four Bottom Sediment types 1. Mud 2. Sand 3. Gravel 4. Rock #12;Yellow Sea Bottom Topography · Water depth in most of the region

  17. YELLOW SEA ACOUSTIC UNCERTAINTY CAUSED BY HYDROGRAPHIC DATA ERROR

    E-print Network

    Chu, Peter C.

    YELLOW SEA ACOUSTIC UNCERTAINTY CAUSED BY HYDROGRAPHIC DATA ERROR PETER C. CHU AND CARLOS J) Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System (MODAS) model in shallow water (such as the Yellow Sea) mine errors) on the acoustic uncertainty in the Yellow Sea is investigated using CASS/GRAB. 2 Environment

  18. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...

  19. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...

  20. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...

  1. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...

  2. Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

    2014-01-01

    The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

  3. Wind-driven effects on the Yellow Sea Warm Current

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea C. Mask; James J. O'Brien; Ruth Preller

    1998-01-01

    The Yellow Sea is a shallow basin with an average depth of 44 m located between China and the Korean Peninsula. One of the dominant ocean circulation features of the Yellow Sea is a warm water intrusion known as the Yellow Sea Warm Current. This feature is present throughout the year but reaches its farthest northward extension in winter. The

  4. Seedling emergence of yellow woodsorrel in eastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow woodsorrel is a perennial weed invading no-till rotations in eastern South Dakota. This study quantified the seedling emergence pattern of yellow woodsorrel across a four-year period. Yellow woodsorrel began emerging in early May and continued for 14 weeks. Approximately 80% of seedlings em...

  5. Immunodiagnosis of episomal Banana streak MY virus using polyclonal antibodies to an expressed putative coat protein.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Kumar, P Vignesh; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2014-10-01

    A cryptic Badnavirus species complex, known as banana streak viruses (BSV) poses a serious threat to banana production and genetic improvement worldwide. Due to the presence of integrated BSV sequences in the banana genome, routine detection is largely based on serological and nucleo-serological diagnostic methods which require high titre specific polyclonal antiserum. Viral structural proteins like coat protein (CP) are the best target for in vitro expression, to be used as antigen for antiserum production. However, in badnaviruses precise CP sequences are not known. In this study, two putative CP coding regions (p48 and p37) of Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) were identified in silico by comparison with caulimoviruses, retroviruses and Rice tungro bacilliform virus. The putative CP coding region (p37) was in vitro expressed in pMAL system and affinity purified. The purified fusion protein was used as antigen for raising polyclonal antiserum in rabbit. The specificity of antiserum was confirmed in Western blots, immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and antigen coated plate-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA). The antiserum (1:2000) was successfully used in ACP-ELISA for specific detection of BSMYV infection in field and tissue culture raised banana plants. The antiserum was also utilized in immuno-capture PCR (IC-PCR) based indexing of episomal BSMYV infection. This is the first report of in silico identification of putative CP region of BSMYV, production of polyclonal antiserum against recombinant p37 and its successful use in immunodetection. PMID:24977315

  6. Single-shot visualization of evolving laser wakefields using an all-optical streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengyan; Tsai, Hai-En; Zhang, Xi; Pai, Chih-Hao; Chang, Yen-Yu; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Wang, Xiaoming; Khudik, Vladimir; Shvets, Gennady; Downer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    We visualize ps-time-scale evolution of an electron density bubble, a wake structure created in atmospheric density plasma by an intense ultrashort laser pulse, from the phase ``streak'' that the bubble imprints onto a probe pulse that crosses its path obliquely. Phase streaks, recovered in one shot using frequency-domain interferometry, reveal formation, propagation and coalescence of the bubble within a 3 mm long ionized helium gas target. 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations validate the observed density-dependent bubble evolution, and correlate it with generation of a quasi-monoenergetic ~100 MeV electron beam. The results provide a basis for understanding optimized electron acceleration at plasma density ne ~2e19 cm-3, at which the bubble formed and persisted until the jet exit, enabling acceleration over a distance slightly exceeding the dephasing length. In contrast, at lower density, electrons accelerated inefficiently due to weak laser self-focusing and late bubble formation. At higher density, overly strong self-focusing also led to low quality electrons due to early bubble formation and strong dephasing. Bubble coalescence due to beam loading further degraded electron acceleration. This work was supported by DOE grants DESC0011617 and DE-SC0007889 and by the NSF-DOE Partnership in Plasma Science program.

  7. Nonlinear response of the photocathode of an x-ray streak camera to UV light

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrala, G.A.; Oro, D.M.; Studebaker, J.K.; Wood, W.M.; Schappert, G.T.; Watts, S.; Fulton, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    We have found that a potassium-iodide photocathode of an x-ray streak camera responds to UV light at {lambda}=308 nm. The photocathode surface work function, 6.5 eV, is larger than the 4 eV energy of the UV photon, hence the source of the response is interesting. We will present results on the response of a transmission type potassium-iodide photocathode to the UV light from a {lambda}308 nm, subpicosecond XeCl laser and from a {lambda}=326 nm HeCd laser. We will test for the nonlinearity of the yield to measure of the number of photons that are needed to be absorbed before a signal is recorded. We will present data on the effect of the UV irradiance on the yield, as well as on the temporal width of the recorded signal. We will give an explanation of the observation and its effect on the dynamic-range response of the streak-camera. We will show that the response is linear with the incident irradiance, up to an incident irradiance of 10{sup 8} W/cm{sup 2} and we will explain the observation.

  8. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF KNAPWEEDS AND YELLOW STARTHISTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant genus Centaurea (family Asteraceae) includes many species that are important invasive alien weeds in the western U.S. These include spotted, diffuse, squarrose and meadow knapweeds and yellow starthistle. Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) is closely related and was once included in th...

  9. Lettuce necrotic yellows virus in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Fry; R. C. Close; C. H. Procter; R. Sunde

    1973-01-01

    Lettuce necrotic yellows virus, found in lettuce (Lactuca saliva L.) and sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) near Blenheim in 1965 caused severe losses in an Auckland lettuce crop in 1969. The virus was transmitted between S. oleraceus plants by the aphid Hyperomyzus lactucae L., which occurs throughout the year but is least plentiful during winter. Most infectivity in sap extracts was

  10. Yellow-bellied marmots are generalist herbivores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Frase; K. B. Armitage

    1989-01-01

    Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) eat a wide variety of grasses, forbs, and seeds, but do not feed on all items in proportion to their abundance in the environment. In this study, relationships between the marmot diet and estimated protein, water, caloric value, relative biomass, and toxicity of the available plant species were investigated. The epidermis of all forb species did

  11. Phytoplankton and sediments in Yellow Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sediment and phytoplankton cloud the waters of the Yellow Sea in this true-color MODIS image acquired March 18, 2002. The swirls of sediment appear as a murky brownish blue color, while the phytoplankton are purely blue green and are concentrated around the small island in the lower right corner of the image.

  12. Cryopreservation of Muskellunge and Yellow Perch Semen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Glogowski; Andrzej Ciereszko; Konrad Dabrowski

    1999-01-01

    Effect of four extenders on the success of cryopreservation of the semen of muskellunge Esox masquinongy and yellow perch Perca flavescens was tested. These extenders consisted of 0.45 M sucrose and were supplemented with either (1) 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), (2) 15% DMSO and 10% hen's egg yolk, (3) 15% dimethylacetamide (DMA), or (4) 15% DMA and 10% egg yolk.

  13. A Western Yellow-Billed Cuckoo

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The western yellow-billed cuckoo is a shy, neotropical migrant bird once common throughout the American West; it is currently a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act. After spending the winter in South America, western cuckoos arrive in the Western United States beginning in June...

  14. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. PMID:25531105

  15. Patch test sensitization to D & C yellow No. 11 and simultaneous reaction to quinoline yellow.

    PubMed

    Björkner, B; Magnusson, B

    1981-01-01

    The quinoline color D & C Yellow No. 11 was added to a standard test series. Of 88 patients tested with 1% in PEG, four showed unexplained positive test reactions. One patient had a "flare-up" reaction after 14 days. At rechallenge he reacted to a dilution down to 0.00001%. Simultaneous reaction with the chemically related commonly used food color Quinoline Yellow (E 104) suggests cross-sensitivity. PMID:7195788

  16. Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Paul Liu; John D. Milliman; Shu Gao; Peng Cheng

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution seismic profiles from the North Yellow Sea reveal a 20–40-m-thick subaqueous clinoform delta that wraps around the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, extending into the South Yellow Sea. This complex sigmoidal-oblique clinoform, containing an estimated 400 km3 of sediment, overlies prominent relict transgressive surfaces. The nearshore topset of the clinoform, <30-m water depth, has a ?1:1000 gradient, with

  17. A unique Yellow River-derived distal subaqueous delta in the Yellow Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. S. Yang; J. P. Liu

    2007-01-01

    Newly acquired high-resolution Chirp sonar profiles reveal a unique Yellow River-derived, alongshore distributed, bidirectional (landward and seaward) across-shelf transported, omega-shaped (“?”) distal subaqueous deltaic lobe deposited around the eastern tip of the Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea. This clinoform deposit directly overlies the postglacial transgressive surface, featured by convex-up seafloor morphology, up to 40 m thick locally. Radiocarbon-14 dates from

  18. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense’ is the phytoplasma associated with Australian grapevine yellows, papaya dieback and Phormium yellow leaf diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lia W. Liefting; Anna C. Padovan; Karen S. Gibb; Ross E. Beever; Mark T. Andersen; Richard D. Newcomb; David L. Beck; Richard L. S. Forster

    1998-01-01

    Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes and the 16S\\/23S spacer regions of the phytoplasmas associated with Australian grapevine yellows, papaya dieback and Phormium yellow leaf diseases revealed minimal nucleotide differences between them resulting in the formation of a monophyletic group. Therefore, along with Australian grapevine yellows, the phytoplasmas associated with Phormium yellow leaf and papaya dieback

  19. From the Veins to the Heart: A Rare Cause of Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Vestra, Michele; Grolla, Elisabetta; Bonanni, Luca; Dorrucci, Vittorio; Presotto, Fabio; Rigo, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    The presence of pulsating varicous veins is an uncommon finding, generically attributed to right heart failure. The precise causes of this phenomenon have been poorly defined in the literature. The finding of this infrequent condition is important because it may be a sign of major diseases, often not known. Here we described a 75-year-old woman presented to the Angiology Unit for the presence of bilateral pulsatile swelling in her groin and along both lower limbs. A bedside ultrasound examination showed an arterial like pulsating flow both in the superficial and in the deep veins of the lower limbs due to a severe tricuspid regurgitation not previously known. PMID:26090263

  20. Kinematics of crystal growth in syntectonic fibrous veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Urai; P. F. Williams; H VANROERMUND

    1991-01-01

    Abstract--Detaded observations of a set of fibrous antitaxial calcite veins in a slate reveal that some,of the calcite fibres do not connect material markers,on both sides of the vein and can therefore not have tracked the full opening trajectory dunng,vein growth. Thts calls for a better understanding,of the mechanisms,of fibre formation and reliable criteria to test the tracking hypothesis. Based

  1. Can vein patterns be used to estimate rock permeabilities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, Daniel; Vass, Anna; Ghani, Irfan; Toussaint, Renaud; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Urai, Janos L.; Arndt, Max; Virgo, Simon; Wendler, Frank; Blum, Philipp; Schwarz, Jens-Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Fracturing of rocks due to tectonic stresses or local high fluid pressures and the formation of fluid pathways is important for a whole range of industrially relevant processes in the Earth's upper crust reaching from groundwater transport, hydrocarbon migration to geothermal systems. Fracturing and the opening of fluid pathways become especially important in tight rocks where fluid migration through the rock matrix is restricted. In addition observations show that fractures are often partly or completely sealed and occur as veins in geological systems. How can we interpret the permeability of these vein systems? The internal structure of veins often indicates that they are formed by several cracking and sealing events. In addition some geological systems contain partly sealed veins that have a preserved porosity and may add to the overall permeability of the system. We are comparing field areas that contain different vein patterns with hydrodynamic numerical models where fractures develop as a function of gravity, extension and fluid pressure gradients. In addition fractures seal where the developing veins can have variable properties in terms of elasticity, breaking strength and porosity. Results indicate that permeability in such systems is not a constant but may vary strongly over time. In an active system the amount of veins and number of open fractures depends not only on the timing of sealing but also on the breaking strength of the veins. Strong veins can clog the system whereas weak veins tend to lead to possible connected fracture networks. In addition one cannot link veins directly to fluid flow, intense veining does not mean that the system has or had a high permeability. We will present a first attempt to classify different fracturing and sealing systems based on field observations and numerical models.

  2. Multiple Abdominal Veins Thrombosis Secondary to Protein S Deficiency - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kodali, Venkata Umakant; Borra, Seshulakshmi; Mandarapu, Surendra Babu; Sanda, Mallikarjuna Rao

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal venous thrombosis may present either as Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) caused by hepatic vein or proximal inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction or as an extra hepatic portal obstruction (EHPVO) caused by Portal vein thrombosis or mesenteric vein thrombosis, but a mixed involvement is uncommon. Multiple abdominal venous obstructions presenting with thrombosis of hepatic vein, IVC, portal vein and renal vein are very rarely seen . We are reporting a rare case with thrombosis of IVC, hepatic vein, portal vein and renal vein, with protein S and protein C deficiencies, which was managed by giving anticoagulant therapy. PMID:25121018

  3. Late failure of reversed vein bypass grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, H D; Greenstein, S; Barker, C F; Perloff, L J

    1989-01-01

    Late failure of reversed vein bypass grafts is preceded by the appearance of stenotic lesions, which progress to total occlusion. These lesions appear either as intrinsic graft lesions or as new arteriosclerotic lesions in contiguous arteries. The present study summarizes the University of Pennsylvania experience with these lesions in 521 vein grafts inserted from 1979 to 1985. The grafts were grouped according to the site of the distal anastomosis; 231 above-knee popliteal (FP AK), 171 below-knee popliteal (FP BK), and 119 tibial (FT). The overall incidence of stenotic lesions was essentially identical with the three grafts (21%), but the relative incidence of intrinsic graft to arterial lesions was higher with the more distal grafts. The most common graft lesions developed adjacent to the proximal anastomosis, which is the narrowest part of a reversed vein graft. The popliteal artery was the most common site of outflow stenosis. There was negligible incidence of tibial lesions. The most common inflow arterial lesion was located in the common femoral and iliac arteries. The superficial femoral artery (SFA) was a rare site of inflow stenosis, even though it was at risk because 96 grafts originated from the SFA or popliteal artery. Sixty-seven per cent of the graft and 52% of the arterial lesions were treated successfully by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty; the rest had minor surgical revisions. This resulted in a 19%, 10%, and 9% improvement in 5-year patency for the FT, FP BK, and FP AK bypasses. These results justify an aggressive policy of graft surveillance to identify and treat stenotic graft lesions before graft occlusion. PMID:2589891

  4. 16 Green streak defining bedding in purple slates of Mettawee Facies, outcrop location

    E-print Network

    Kidd, William S. F.

    above thrust plane here and shows abundant cross-cutting veining. #12;#12;#12;24 Figure 2.7 Mudd Pond within the Weybridge member of the Chipman Formation. Along the Willow Brook School Road. (69-14A) Figure

  5. [Catheter-based treatment for acute deep vein thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Engelberger, Rolf P; Alatri, Adriano; Qanadli, Salah D; Calanca, Luca; Mazzolai, Lucia

    2015-02-01

    Nearly half of patients with acute lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) develop a post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). This risk is particularly high in case of proximal DVT of the common femoral and iliac vein, the major lower limbs venous outflow vessel. Several studies have demonstrated that PTS incidence can be reduced with early vein recanalisation. Currently, catheter-based recanalisation therapies can be offered to selected patients with acute ilio-femoral deep vein thrombosis. Aim of the present article is to summarize current knowledge on these catheter-based recanalisation therapies. PMID:25854044

  6. Finger-vein verification based on multi-features fusion.

    PubMed

    Qin, Huafeng; Qin, Lan; Xue, Lian; He, Xiping; Yu, Chengbo; Liang, Xinyuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new scheme to improve the performance of finger-vein identification systems. Firstly, a vein pattern extraction method to extract the finger-vein shape and orientation features is proposed. Secondly, to accommodate the potential local and global variations at the same time, a region-based matching scheme is investigated by employing the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) matching method. Finally, the finger-vein shape, orientation and SIFT features are combined to further enhance the performance. The experimental results on databases of 426 and 170 fingers demonstrate the consistent superiority of the proposed approach. PMID:24196433

  7. Absence of the superior petrosal veins and sinus: Surgical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Ken; Ribas, Eduardo Santamaria Carvalhal; Kiyosue, Hiro; Komune, Noritaka; Miki, Koichi; Rhoton, Albert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The superior petrosal vein, one of the most constant and largest drainage pathways in the posterior fossa, may result in complications if occluded. This study calls attention to a unique variant in which the superior petrosal veins and sinus were absent unilaterally, and the venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial drainage groups. Methods: This study examines one venogram and another anatomic specimen in which the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent. Results: The superior petrosal veins, described as 1–3 bridging veins, emptying into the superior petrosal sinus, are the major drainage pathways of the petrosal group of posterior fossa veins. In the cases presented, the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent and venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial groups, including the lateral mesencephalic or bridging vein on the tentorial cerebellar surface. Conclusions: In cases in which the superior petrosal sinus and veins are absent, care should be directed to preserving the collateral drainage through the galenic and tentorial tributaries. Although surgical strategies for intraoperative management and preservation of venous structures are still controversial, knowledge of the possible anatomical variations is considered to be essential to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:25745589

  8. Deep Vein Thrombosis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) French (français) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) (Arabic) ??????? Bilingual ...

  9. Pediatric aneurysms and vein of Galen malformations

    PubMed Central

    Rao, V. R. K.; Mathuriya, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric aneurysms are different from adult aneurysms – they are more rare, are giant and in the posterior circulation more frequently than in adults and may be associated with congenital disorders. Infectious and traumatic aneursyms are also seen more frequently. Vein of Galen malformations are even rarer entities. They may be of choroidal or mural type. Based on the degree of AV shunting they may present with failure to thrive, with hydrocephalus or in severe cases with heart failure. The only possible treatment is by endovascular techniques – both transarterial and transvenous routes are employed. Rarely transtorcular approach is needed. These cases should be managed by an experienced neurointerventionist. PMID:22069420

  10. Medical treatment of retinal vein occlusions.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Maurizio Battaglia

    2004-01-01

    The medical treatment of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is comprised of three main stages: identification and therapy of the detectable risk factors, specific treatment aimed at the occlusive form and treatment of RVO complications. Even though the possible medical management of RVO includes several treatments, the most interesting approaches have been: anticoagulant/antiaggregating agents, troxerutin, corticosteroid, fibrinolytic/thrombolytic agents, and hemodilution. Overall, the medical approach to RVO is still awkward and unsatisfactory. Randomized clinical trials are needed to assess the degree of efficacy of the medical treatment of the specific forms of RVO. PMID:15590533

  11. Lymphangioma: surrounding the ovarian vein and ovary

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Korcan Aysun; Abali, Remzi; Oznur, Meltem; Erdogan, Cuneyt

    2013-01-01

    Lymphangiomas are usually benign lesions seen in the head and neck region in children. Intra-abdominal localisation is rare and the majority of these cases are in early childhood. Retroperitoneal lymphangiomas constitute approximately 1% of all lymphangiomas. They are generally diagnosed incidentally, may be asymptomatic or may present with a palpable abdominal mass. A limited number of cases of ovarian lymphangiomas have been reported in women, whereas there are no reported cases of paraovarian localisation. We present a rare case of lymphangioma located in bilateral paraovarian region and along the left ovarian vein with radiological findings. PMID:23814093

  12. Endovenous saphenous vein ablation in patients with acute isolated superficial-vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The possible benefits of endovenous saphenous ablation (EVSA) as initial treatment in patients presenting with isolated superficial-vein thrombosis (SVT) and saphenous vein reflux include: (1) definitive treatment of the underlying pathology and (2) elimination of the saphenous vein as a path for pulmonary emboli, which (3) may eliminate the need for anticoagulation. Methods: In a ten-year review of 115 limbs presenting with acute isolated SVT, 72 limbs (71 patients) with saphenous reflux were given a choice of two treatments following an explanation of the risks and benefits of each. Group I limbs (n?=?41) were treated with office EVSA using radiofrequency or laser with or without thrombophlebectomy if performed within 45 days of diagnosis. Post-treatment anticoagulants were not given. Group II limbs (n?=?31) were treated with compression hose and repeat Duplex within one week, with added anticoagulants if SVT extended into the thigh. Results: In group I, mean interval from diagnosis to treatment was 13.7 days. One calf deep vein thrombosis was noted. In group II no complications were noted. In late follow-up of group II patients, 12/29 underwent EVSA more than 45 days after initial presentation. Conclusions: The safety and efficacy of EVSA and thrombophlebectomy appear indistinguishable from conservative measures and may be offered as initial treatment to patients presenting with SVT and saphenous reflux. PMID:24307241

  13. Effects of wheat streak mosaic virus on root development and water-use efficiency of hard red winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine the effects of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), a member of the family Potyviridae, on root development and water-use efficiency (WUE) of two hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars, one susceptible and one resistant to WSMV. In t...

  14. Association mapping of quantitative trait loci responsible for resistance to Bacterial Leaf Streak and Spot Blotch in spring wheat landraces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial leaf streak (BLS), caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa, and spot blotch (SB), caused by Cochliobolus sativus are two major diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Planting resistant cultivars is the best approach to manage these diseases and identifying new sources of resistan...

  15. Winter wheat cultivars with temperature sensitive resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus do not recover from early season infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus, all vectored by the wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella Keifer, frequently cause devastating losses to winter wheat production throughout the central and western Great Plains. Resistant 'Mace' and 'RonL' are commercially ...

  16. 1 Introduction Gazing at a flower garden through a window streaked with rain, one is aware of the

    E-print Network

    Holcombe, Alex O.

    1 Introduction Gazing at a flower garden through a window streaked with rain, one is aware of the properties of two surfaces in one direction, albeit at different depths. In this situation, monocular before being combined for awareness by a process that integrates over about 120 ms. A final experiment

  17. Wheat streak mosaic: A classic case of plant disease impact on soil water content and crop water-use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this article, we describe the relationship between wheat streak mosaic (WSM) severity and soil water content as a prime example of the effect of a plant disease on soil water status and its implications for irrigated agriculture. The present study was part of a larger investigation which included...

  18. First report of bacterial streak of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) in California caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new bacterial streak disease appeared on fennel leaves, stems and bulbs grown in Salinas California production fields. Initial symptoms consisted of small black lesions on stems that spread down the stem to the bulbs and up the stem to leaves as the disease progressed. The disease rendered the pl...

  19. AGRONOMIC AND QUALITY EFFECTS IN WINTER WHEAT OF A GENE CONDITIONING RESISTANCE TO WHEAT STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is one of the most important diseases limiting winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in the western Great Plains of North America. There is no known effective WSMV resistance within the primary gene pool of wheat. However, a resistance gene (Wsm1) has been...

  20. Wheat Streak Mosaic: A classic case of plant disease impact on soil water content and crop water-use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this article, we describe the relationship between wheat streak mosaic (WSM) severity and soil water content as a prime example of the effect of a plant disease on soil water status and its implications for irrigated agriculture. The present study was part of a larger investigation which included...

  1. Modified ecometric technique (four-quadrant sequential streak) to evaluate Campylobacter enrichment broth proficiency in suppressing background microflora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecometric technique is a semi-quantitative scoring method used for quality control of culture media in microbiological laboratories. The technique involves inoculation with defined populations of specific culture onto solid media via a standardized chronological streaking technique, leading to ever-...

  2. Plant Disease / August 2005 853 The Window of Risk for Emigration of Wheat streak mosaic virus Varies

    E-print Network

    Garrett, Karen A.

    Plant Disease / August 2005 853 The Window of Risk for Emigration of Wheat streak mosaic virus or disease vector. For wheat stem rust, the complete eradication of an alter- nate host has been attempted vectors may be most active. In winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), the "green bridge" provided by volunteer

  3. Distribution of saphenous vein valves and its pratical importance

    PubMed Central

    Portugal, Isabella Batista Martins; Ribeiro, Igor de Lima; de Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando; Monte-Bispo, Rodrigo Freitas; da Rocha, Amauri Clemente

    2014-01-01

    Objective Among the veins used as a graft in myocardial revascularizations and ends, great saphenous vein is the most used. Knowing the presence and location of valves has great importance when evaluating the surgical anatomy of the great saphenous vein. Despite major surgical application and many works involving great saphenous vein, the number of valves present in it from the saphenous hiatus to the medial epicondyle of the femur is still described inaccurately. The objective of this study is to quantify the valves of the great saphenous vein from the saphenous hiatus to the medial epicondyle of the femur to determine the best portion of the great saphenous vein to perform revascularization surgeries. Methods This is a crosssectional observational study in which it was analyzed great saphenous vein extracted from 30 cadavers. It was measured the length of the veins; (diameter) at its proximal, middle and distal, quantifying the number of valves in each one and the total number of valves at the great saphenous vein. Results The frequency of valves in the great saphenous vein taken from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the saphenous hiatus was 4.82, ranging between 2 and 9. Moreover, there is a significant difference in the number of valves in the proximal and distal relative to the average. Conclusion the median and distal portions of the saphenous vein in the thigh, are the best options for the realization of bridges due to the fact that these portions have fewer valves which therefore would tend to decrease the risk of complications connected with the valves in these grafts. PMID:25714210

  4. ?-Catenin Regulates Primitive Streak Induction through Collaborative Interactions with SMAD2/SMAD3 and OCT4.

    PubMed

    Funa, Nina S; Schachter, Karen A; Lerdrup, Mads; Ekberg, Jenny; Hess, Katja; Dietrich, Nikolaj; Honoré, Christian; Hansen, Klaus; Semb, Henrik

    2015-06-01

    Canonical Wnt and Nodal signaling are both required for induction of the primitive streak (PS), which guides organization of the early embryo. The Wnt effector ?-catenin is thought to function in these early lineage specification decisions via transcriptional activation of Nodal signaling. Here, we demonstrate a broader role for ?-catenin in PS formation by analyzing its genome-wide binding in a human embryonic stem cell model of PS induction. ?-catenin occupies regulatory regions in numerous PS and neural crest genes, and direct interactions between ?-catenin and the Nodal effectors SMAD2/SMAD3 are required at these regions for PS gene activation. Furthermore, OCT4 binding in proximity to these sites is likewise required for PS induction, suggesting a collaborative interaction between ?-catenin and OCT4. Induction of neural crest genes by ?-catenin is repressed by SMAD2/SMAD3, ensuring proper lineage specification. This study provides mechanistic insight into how Wnt signaling controls early cell lineage decisions. PMID:25921273

  5. Myosin-II-mediated cell shape changes and cell intercalation contribute to primitive streak formation.

    PubMed

    Rozbicki, Emil; Chuai, Manli; Karjalainen, Antti I; Song, Feifei; Sang, Helen M; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; MacDonald, Michael P; Weijer, Cornelis J

    2015-04-01

    Primitive streak formation in the chick embryo involves large-scale highly coordinated flows of more than 100,000 cells in the epiblast. These large-scale tissue flows and deformations can be correlated with specific anisotropic cell behaviours in the forming mesendoderm through a combination of light-sheet microscopy and computational analysis. Relevant behaviours include apical contraction, elongation along the apical-basal axis followed by ingression, and asynchronous directional cell intercalation of small groups of mesendoderm cells. Cell intercalation is associated with sequential, directional contraction of apical junctions, the onset, localization and direction of which correlate strongly with the appearance of active myosin II cables in aligned apical junctions in neighbouring cells. Use of class specific myosin inhibitors and gene-specific knockdown shows that apical contraction and intercalation are myosin II dependent and also reveal critical roles for myosin I and myosin V family members in the assembly of junctional myosin II cables. PMID:25812521

  6. Investigation of thin laser-driven flyer plates using streak imaging and stop motion microphotography

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Trott, W.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The dynamic behavior of laser-accelerator flyers has been studied using high-speed streak imaging in combination with stop motion microphotography. With very thin targets, melting and plasma penetration of the flyer material occur in rapid sequence. The time delay from the onset of motion to flyer breakup increases with flyer thickness and decreasing incident energy. Flyer materials examined include pure aluminum (0.25-2.6 {mu}m thick) and composite targets (0.5-2.0 {mu}m thick) containing an insulating layer of aluminum oxide. While flyer breakup is observed in both types of material, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier significantly delays the deleterious effects of deep thermal diffusion.

  7. Posterior Malformations in Dact1 mutant mice arise through misregulated Vangl2 at the Primitive Streak

    PubMed Central

    Suriben, Rowena; Kivimäe, Saul; Fisher, Daniel A.; Moon, Randall T.; Cheyette, Benjamin N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Mice homozygous for mutations in Dact1 (Dpr/Frodo) phenocopy human malformations involving the spine, genitourinary system, and distal digestive tract. We trace this phenotype to disrupted germ layer morphogenesis at the primitive streak (PS). Remarkably, heterozygous mutation of Vangl2, a transmembrane component of the Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway, rescues recessive Dact1 phenotypes, whereas loss of Dact1 reciprocally rescues semidominant Vangl2 phenotypes. We show that Dact1, an intracellular protein, forms a complex with Vangl2. In Dact1 mutants, Vangl2 is increased at the PS where cells ordinarily undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. This is associated with abnormal E-cadherin distribution and changes in biochemical measures of the PCP pathway. We conclude that Dact1 contributes to morphogenesis at the PS by regulating Vangl2 upstream of cell adhesion and the PCP pathway. PMID:19701191

  8. First detection of wheat streak mosaic virus in Germany: molecular and biological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Jörg; Ziegler, Angelika; Rabenstein, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Wheat streak mosaic virus is a serious threat in wheat-producing countries. In Germany, the virus was first recorded in 2013 near Hoym. The complete sequence of isolate Hoym was obtained and compared to all other known complete WSMV sequences, including newly collected and sequenced isolates from France and Austria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the European isolates group together with those from the Middle East to form a separate cluster characterized by a distinct putative P1 protease cleavage site. By means of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, it was shown that RNA of the USA type strain PV57 accumulated to higher levels in infected wheat cv. Alcedo than did RNA of isolate Hoym. PMID:25913690

  9. A self-calibrating, multichannel streak camera for inertial confinement fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, W. R.; Boni, R.; Keck, R. L.; Jaanimagi, P. A.

    2002-07-01

    Self-calibrating, multichannel UV streak cameras have been designed, and six units have been deployed on the OMEGA laser system. These instruments acquire 12 channels simultaneously on a low-noise, charge-coupled-device camera in single-shot operation. The instruments can discern temporal features out to a bandwidth of 11 GHz, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio in each channel is 200:1. The unique feature of this system is the self-calibration ability built into it. The geometric distortions, flat field, and sweep speed of each channel can be measured and adjusted on a routine basis. By maintaining a strick regime of weekly calibrations, accurate power-balance measurements on the OMEGA laser can be obtained. These cameras represent a cost-effective solution for power balancing the OMEGA laser system.

  10. Development of a multispectral multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Junle; Liu, Lixin; Guo, Baoping; Lin, Ziyang; Hu, Tao; Tian, Jindong; Wang, Shuyan; Zhang, Jikang; Niu, Hanben

    2005-01-01

    We report on the development of a multispectral multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (MM-FLIM) system that is the combination a streak camera, a prism spectrophotometer, a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser and a fluorescence microscope. This system is versatile with multispectral capability, high temporal (10ps) and spatial (0.36?m) resolution and can be used to make 3-dimensional (3D) (x-y-z) multiphoton fluorescence intensity, spectrally resolved intensity and lifetime measurements with a single detector. The system was calibrated with a F-P etalon and a standard fluorescent dye and the lifetime value obtained was in good agreement with the value reported in the literature. Preliminary results suggest that this MM-FLIM system has integrated high temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution fluorescence detection in one microscopy system. Potential applications of this system include multiwell imaging, tissue discrimination, intracellular physiology and fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging.

  11. Time-resolved measurements with streaked diffraction patterns from electrons generated in laser plasma wakefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhaohan; Nees, John; Hou, Bixue; Krushelnick, Karl; Thomas, Alec; Beaurepaire, Benoît; Malka, Victor; Faure, Jérôme

    2013-10-01

    Femtosecond bunches of electrons with relativistic to ultra-relativistic energies can be robustly produced in laser plasma wakefield accelerators (LWFA). Scaling the electron energy down to sub-relativistic and MeV level using a millijoule laser system will make such electron source a promising candidate for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) applications due to the intrinsic short bunch duration and perfect synchronization with the optical pump. Recent results of electron diffraction from a single crystal gold foil, using LWFA electrons driven by 8-mJ, 35-fs laser pulses at 500 Hz, will be presented. The accelerated electrons were collimated with a solenoid magnetic lens. By applying a small-angle tilt to the magnetic lens, the diffraction pattern can be streaked such that the temporal evolution is separated spatially on the detector screen after propagation. The observable time window and achievable temporal resolution are studied in pump-probe measurements of photo-induced heating on the gold foil.

  12. Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:822563

  13. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Millecchia, M.; Regan, S. P.; Bahr, R. E.; Romanofsky, M.; Sorce, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO/QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals.

  14. Plasma Endothelin1 Release in Normal and Varicose Saphenous Veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Antonio Mangiafico; Lorenzo Salvatore Malatino; Maurizio Santonocito; Rosario Sebastiano Spada; Francesco Antonio Benedetto

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in normal and varicose saphenous veins at baseline and after venous stasis test. Ten patients (eight women and two men, mean age 43 ±4) with primarily varicose great saphenous veins and ten controls (eight women and two men, mean age 42 ±6) were recruited. After 30 minutes

  15. Neurovascular Compression of the Common Peroneal Nerve by Varicose Veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Yamamoto; K Koyano

    2004-01-01

    Compression of the common peroneal nerve occurs sometimes, but compression caused by varicose veins has not been reported before. We report a case of common peroneal nerve compression syndrome which was confirmed and treated surgically. A 63-year-old woman complained of paræsthesia on the lateral aspect of the right leg, which was worse in the evening. A primary varicose vein arising

  16. Design and implementation of a contactless palm vein recognition system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goh Kah Ong Michael; Tee Connie; Lau Siong Hoe; Andrew Teoh Beng Jin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative contactless palm vein recognition system. We design a hand sensor that could capture the palm vein image using low-resolution web camera. The design of the sensor is simple and low-cost, and we do not need to install specialized infrared sensor. We allow subjects to position their hands freely above the sensor and they can move

  17. Persistence of a single pulmonary vein in a child.

    PubMed

    Mainard, L; Hoeffel, J C; Worms, A M; Marcon, F

    1992-01-01

    Persistence of a single pulmonary vein with normal pulmonary venous return is a rape and unusual radiographic finding. We report such a case with the venous opacity partially visible on the right border of the heart on a plain frontal chest film. MRI showed beautifully the pulmonary vein and can now replace angiocardiography. PMID:1603604

  18. Endoscopic vein harvesting with the aid of carbon dioxide insufflation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm J. R Dalrymple-Hay; Aiman Alzetani; Robert Costa; Sunil K Ohri

    2001-01-01

    Endoscopic harvesting of the long saphenous vein has been introduced to decrease the morbidity of obtaining venous conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting. Herein is described an endoscopic method using carbon dioxide insufflation into the tissues around the vein. This has several advantages; improved vision, no physical retraction required, easier development of tissue planes, and improved hemostasis.

  19. Exercise-Induced Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Upper Extremity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo R. Brandão; Suzan Williams; Walter H. A. Kahr; Clodagh Ryan; Michael Temple; Anthony K.C. Chan

    2006-01-01

    Paget-Schroetter syndrome or effort-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis is a rare condition that usually afflicts young healthy individuals, most commonly males. The cause is multifactorial but almost always involves extrinsic compression of the subclavian vein at the thoracic inlet, causing venous stenosis from repetitive trauma. The diagnosis of this condition may be difficult, and its delay may contribute to

  20. Tissue Fibrinolytic Activity in Different Types of Varicose Veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viola Hach; Monika Fink; Norbert Blees; Inge Scharrer

    1986-01-01

    The fibrinolytic activity of the venous wall was investigated by using Todd's technique 1 in 92 patients with different types of varicosis.A control group consisted of 19 patients with apparently normal superficial veins who had had a saphenectomy prior to an aortocoronary bypass operation. Fibrinolytic activity was mainly localized in the adventitia of varicose and nor mal veins. It significantly

  1. Green Veining: Landscape Determinants of Biodiversity in European Agricultural Landscapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla J. Grashof-Bokdam; Frank van Langevelde

    2005-01-01

    Many semi-natural landscape elements, the so-called green veining, are disappearing from the intensively used agricultural landscapes of Europe. In order to develop or restore biodiversity in these networks, it is necessary to quantify the relation between biodiversity and amount, spatial arrangement and management intensity of green veining elements. In this review, we investigate whether biodiversity increases with the amount of

  2. Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution Taylor S. Feilda,1 plants that dominate modern vegetation possess leaf gas exchange potentials that far exceed those of all. Using vein density (DV) measurements of fossil angiosperm leaves, we show that the leaf hydraulic

  3. Subclavian vein repair in patients with an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne S. Gradman; Paul Bressrnan; J. David Sernaque

    1994-01-01

    Management of subclavian vein occlusive disease in persons with an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula can be challenging. From July 1991 to May 1993, nine patients underwent direct exploration and repair of an obstructed subclavian vein following medial claviculectomy. Eight patients had polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts; one patient had a Brescia-Cimino fistula. Intractable arm edema was the major symptom in five of eight.

  4. Cross-Database Evaluation Using an Open Finger Vein Sensor

    E-print Network

    recognition is a recent biometric ap- plication, which relies on the use of human finger vein pat- terns the vein patterns inside a person's finger [1]. Compared to other biometric modalities such as fingerprint made available in 2002 and logical access for ATMs in 2005 [2]. Nowadays this technology is widely used

  5. Spontaneous rupture of the left common iliac vein.

    PubMed

    Gaschignard, N; Le Paul, Y; Maouni, T; Le Priol, P D

    2000-09-01

    We report a case of spontaneous rupture of the left common iliac vein in a 58-year-old woman. Because of hemorrhagic shock, the intervention had to be performed under emergency circumstances, precluding repair of the external iliac vein, which was ligated. The postoperative course was uneventful. We also review the 17 prior cases found in the literature. PMID:10990565

  6. Endoscopic and traditional saphenous vein harvest: a histologic comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Griffith; Keith B. Allen; Bruce F. Waller; David A. Heimansohn; Robert J. Robison; John J. Schier; Carl J. Shaar

    2000-01-01

    Background. Vein trauma after saphenectomy by endoscopic or longitudinal techniques may influence the progression of medial and intimal hyperplasia and ultimately affect graft patency. This study compared the histologic characteristics of saphenous veins after endoscopic and longitudinal harvest.Methods. One hundred seventy patients who underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting had saphenectomy performed endoscopically (n = 88) or by a longitudinal

  7. Endoscopic versus traditional saphenous vein harvesting: a prospective, randomized trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith B Allen; Gary L Griffith; David A Heimansohn; Robert J Robison; Robert G Matheny; John J Schier; Edward B Fitzgerald; Carl J Shaar

    1998-01-01

    Background. Saphenous vein harvested with a traditional longitudinal technique often results in leg wound complications. An alternative endoscopic harvest technique may decrease these complications.Methods. One hundred twelve patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were prospectively randomized to have vein harvested using either an endoscopic (group A, n = 54) or traditional technique (group B, n = 58). Groups

  8. Sphincters of the pulmonary veins in man, and their significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Kapuller; M. Lo Shik

    1961-01-01

    Pressure curves in the pulmonary vein and in the left auricle were recorded in patients with stenosis of the left atrioventricular valve before and after mitral valvotomy. The curves showed that the sphincters of the pulmonary veins may fail when the mean pressure in the left auricle exceeds 20 mm Hg. Normally, by blocking the reverse flow, the sphincters protect

  9. The relationship of Olpidium brassicae (Wor.) Dang. to the big-vein disease of lettuce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Fry

    1958-01-01

    Inoculation of lettuce with tobacco-necrosis virus isolated from big-vein plants did not cause big-vein symptoms.Olpidium brassicae was always found in roots of lettuce grown in big-vein-infected soil but not in two gardens where big vein did not occur.Olpidium resting spores were sedimented from big-vein root sap by low-speed centrifuging. Inoculation of lettuce with resuspended sediment produced big-vein symptoms while inoculation

  10. Design of a clinical vein contrast enhancing projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal

    2001-06-01

    A clinical study has been initiated to compare an experimental IR device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE), with standard techniques for finding veins for venipuncture. The aims of this proposal are (1) to evaluate the performance of the VCE in a clinical setting, specifically by comparing its sensitivity of detection with existing vein-finding techniques used by experienced nurses or phlebotomists, (2) to study its usefulness in subjects who are obese, who have difficult venous access or thrombosed veins, or whose veins are not visible or difficult to palpate, and (3) to show that it performs as well on subjects with darkly pigmented skin as on subjects with lightly pigmented skin. The VCE will first be studied in adult subjects, and then in pediatric subjects.

  11. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varix Draining via the Left Inferior Phrenic Vein into the Left Hepatic Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Ibukuro, Kenji; Mori, Koichi; Tsukiyama, Toshitaka; Inoue, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiology, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, 1-Kanda Izumicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8643 (Japan); Iwamoto, Yukako; Tagawa, Kazumi [Department of Gastroenterology, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, 1-Kanda Izumicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8643 (Japan)

    1999-09-15

    We encountered a patient with gastric varix draining not via the usual left suprarenal vein but via the left inferior phrenic vein joining the left hepatic vein. Transfemoral balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of the varix was performed under balloon occlusion of the left inferior phrenic vein via the left hepatic vein and retrograde injection of the sclerosing agent (5% of ethanolamine oleate) into the gastric varix. Disappearance of the gastric varix was confirmed on endoscopic examination 2 months later.

  12. [Effort thrombosis of the right subclavian vein].

    PubMed

    Tamar, Michael; Farah, Raymond

    2012-11-01

    This case report illustrates a primary upper extremity DVT of the right subclavian vein in an otherwise healthy young male. The pathogenesis of primary upper extremity DVT may be anatomical, such as thoracic outlet syndrome, vascular microtrauma e.g. effort thrombosis, or both. After examining the patient's clinical presentation and imaging results, a diagnosis of effort thrombosis, or "Paget-Schroetter syndrome" was made. Due to the clear insulting factor, the mild clinical presentation, and the fast response to anti-coagulant treatment, a conservative treatment was followed, which included anti-coagulation and close follow-up, as advised by the American College of Chest Physician's evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. PMID:23367728

  13. NET impact on deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Tobias A.; Brill, Alexander; Wagner, Denisa D.

    2012-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major health problem that requires improved prophylaxis and treatment. Inflammatory conditions such as infection, cancer and autoimmune diseases are risk factors for DVT. We and others have recently shown that extracellular DNA fibers produced in inflammation and known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to experimental DVT. NETs stimulate thrombus formation and coagulation and are abundant in thrombi in animal models of DVT. It appears that, in addition to fibrin and VWF, NETs represent a third thrombus scaffold. Here we review how NETs stimulate thrombosis and discuss known and potential interactions of NETs with endothelium, platelets, red blood cells, coagulation factors and how NETs could influence thrombolysis. We propose that drugs which inhibit NET formation or facilitate NET degradation may prevent or treat DVT. PMID:22652600

  14. Repair of peripheral nerve with vein wrapping*

    PubMed Central

    LEUZZI, S.; ARMENIO, A.; LEONE, L.; DE SANTIS, V.; DI TURI, A.; ANNOSCIA, P.; BUFANO, L.; PASCONE, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The post–traumatic neuro-anastomosis must be protected from the surrounding environment. This barrier must be biologically inert, biodegradable, not compressing but protecting the nerve. Formation of painful neuroma is one of the major issues with neuro-anastomosis; currently there is no consensus on post-repair neuroma prevention. Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of neuroanastomosis performed with venous sheath to reduce painful neuromas formation, improve the electrical conductivity of the repaired nerve, and reduce the discrepancies of the sectioned nerve stumps. Patients and methods From a trauma population of 320 patients treated in a single centre between January 2008 and December 2011, twenty-six patients were identified as having an injury to at least one of the peripheral nerves of the arm and enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups. In the group A (16 patients) the end-to-end nerve suture was wrapped in a vein sheath and compared with the group B (10 patients) in which a simple end-to-end neurorrhaphy was performed. The venous segment used to cover the nerve micro-suture was harvested from the superficial veins of the forearm. The parameters analyzed were: functional recovery of motor nerves, sensitivity and pain. Results Average follow-up was 14 months (range: 12–24 months). The group A showed a more rapid motor and sensory recovery and a reduction of the painful symptoms compared to the control group (B). Conclusions The Authors demonstrated that, in their experience, the venous sheath provides a valid solution to avoid the dispersion of the nerve fibres, to prevent adherent scars and painful neuromas formation. Moreover it can compensate the different size of two nerve stumps, allowing, thereby, a more rapid functional and sensitive recovery without expensive devices. PMID:24841688

  15. Central retinal vein occlusion and pseudoexfoliation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Kontadakis, Georgios A; Klados, Nektarios E; Tsoumpris, Ioannis; Kandarakis, Artemios S; Parikakis, Efstratios A; Georgalas, Ilias; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the existence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) as a risk factor for the development of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Methods This was a retrospective, comparative study of the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation in three groups of patients: 48 patients with CRVO, 164 patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), and 70 control patients (70 eyes). All patients were phakic and had no previous diagnosis of glaucoma. Patients were matched in terms of age and systemic hypertension. All patients had normal intraocular pressure (IOP) at presentation (defined as less than or equal to 21 mmHg). Results In the CRVO group, 14 out of 48 patients were diagnosed as having PXF (29.17%). In the BRVO group, 14 out of 164 patients had PXF (8.5%), and in the control group, six out of 70 patients had PXF (8.6%). Differences of percentage between groups were statistically significant (P<0.001, ?2 test). When comparing patient subgroup with ischemic CRVO with subgroup with non-ischemic CRVO, we found that in the ischemic CRVO group, 13 out of 27 patients were diagnosed as having PXF (48.15%), and in the non-ischemic CRVO group, one out of 21 patients was diagnosed as having PXF (4.7%; P<0.001, ?2 test). The relative odds of having CRVO in patients with PXF versus patients without PXF were 4.406 (confidence interval [CI], 2.03–9.54). Conclusion PXF and CRVO, especially ischemic, are strongly associated in our study. Our results indicate that PXF might be an independent factor for CRVO, as it is related with CRVO independently from glaucoma.

  16. Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. H. Kim; K. S. Kim; N. J. Kwak; K. H. Lee; S. A. Kweon; Y. Lim

    2003-01-01

    The present study was carried out to observe the cytotoxicity of yellow sand in comparison with silica and titanium dioxide\\u000a in a rat alveolar type II cell line (RLE-6TN). Yellow sand (China Loess) was obtained from the loess layer in the Gunsu Province\\u000a of China. The mean particle diameter of yellow sand was about 0003 ± 0.001 mm. Major elements

  17. Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca

    E-print Network

    Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca flavescens, Fingerling for juvenile yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchell), in eastern South Dakota. Age-0 yellow perch were held. Yellow perch production, temperature, growth, South Dakota, Perca flavescens INTRODUCTION The yellow

  18. Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Van der Stuyft, P; Gianella, A; Pirard, M; Cespedes, J; Lora, J; Peredo, C; Pelegrino, J L; Vorndam, V; Boelaert, M

    1999-05-01

    Until recently, urban yellow fever had not been reported from the Americas since 1954, but jungle yellow fever increasingly affects forest dwellers in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The reinvasion by Aedes aegypti of cities in the Americas now threatens to urbanize yellow fever. After yellow fever infection was identified in a resident of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December 1997, all subsequent suspected cases were investigated. Active surveillance of yellow fever was introduced in the Santa Cruz area, with hospitals and selected urban and rural health centers reporting all suspected cases. Patients were serologically screened for yellow fever, dengue, hepatitis A and B, and leptospirosis; clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients' records and through interviews; and a population-based serosurvey was conducted in the neighborhood of one case. Between December 1997 and June 1998, symptomatic yellow fever infection was confirmed in 6 residents of Santa Cruz, of whom 5 died. 5 lived in the southern sector of the city. 2 cases did not leave the city during their incubation period, and 1 had visited only an area in which sylvatic transmission was deemed impossible. Of the 281 people covered in the serosurvey, 16 (6%) were positive for IgM antibody to yellow fever. Among 5 people for whom that result could not be explained by recent vaccination, there were 2 pairs of neighbors. This instance of urban yellow fever transmission was limited in both time and space. PMID:10334253

  19. One- and two-dimensional fast x-ray imaging of laser-driven implosion dynamics with x-ray streak cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraga, H.; Heya, M.; Nakasuji, M.; Miyanaga, N.; Azechi, H.; Takabe, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Mima, K. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan)] [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    One- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging techniques with x-ray streak cameras have been developed and utilized for investigating implosion dynamics of laser fusion targets. Conventional streaked 1D images of the shell motion of the imploding target was recorded together with the time-resolved 2D multi-imaging x-ray streak images of the core shapes on the same x-ray streak camera. Precise comparison of the core dynamics between the experimental and simulation results was performed with an accuracy of 30 ps by fitting the trajectories of the x-ray emission from the imploding shell. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Influence of vein fabric on strain distribution and fold kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torremans, Koen; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Abundant pre-folding, bedding-parallel fibrous dolomite veins in shale are found associated with the Nkana-Mindola stratiform Cu-Co deposit in the Central African Copperbelt, Zambia. These monomineralic veins extend for several meters along strike, with a fibrous infill orthogonal to low-tortuosity vein walls. Growth morphologies vary from antitaxial with a pronounced median surface to asymmetric syntaxial, always with small but quantifiable growth competition. Subsequently, these veins were folded. In this study, we aim to constrain the kinematic fold mechanism by which strain is accommodated in these veins, estimate paleorheology at time of deformation and investigate the influence of vein fabric on deformation during folding. Finally, the influence of the deformation on known metallogenetic stages is assessed. Various deformation styles are observed, ultimately related to vein attitude across tight to close lower-order, hectometre-scale folds. In fold hinges, at low to average dips, veins are (poly-)harmonically to disharmonically folded as parasitic folds in single or multilayer systems. With increasing distance from the fold hinge, parasitic fold amplitude decreases and asymmetry increases. At high dips in the limbs, low-displacement duplication thrusts of veins at low angles to bedding are abundant. Slickenfibres and slickenlines are sub-perpendicular to fold hinges and shallow-dipping slickenfibre-step lineations are parallel to local fold hinge lines. A dip isogon analysis of reconstructed fold geometries prior to homogeneous shortening reveals type 1B parallel folds for the veins and type 1C for the matrix. Two main deformation mechanisms are identified in folded veins. Firstly, undulatory extinction, subgrains and fluid inclusions planes parallel the fibre long axis, with deformation intensity increasing away from the fold hinges, indicate intracrystalline strain accumulation. Secondly, intergranular deformation through bookshelf rotation of fibres, via collective parallel rotation of fibres and shearing along fibre grain boundaries, is clearly observed under cathodoluminescence. We analysed the internal strain distribution by quantifying simple shear strain caused by deflection of the initially orthogonal fibres relative to layer inclination at a given position across the fold. Shear angle, and thus shear strain, steadily increases towards the limbs away from the fold hinge. Comparison of observed shear strain to theoretical distribution for kinematic mechanisms, amongst other lines of evidence, clearly points to pure flexural flow followed by homogeneous shortening. As flexural flow is not the expected kinematic folding mechanism for competent layers in an incompetent shale matrix, our analysis shows that the internal vein fabric in these dolomite veins can exhibit a first-order influence on folding mechanisms. In addition, quantitative analysis shows that these veins acted as rigid objects with high viscosity contrast relative to the incompetent carbonaceous shale, rather than as semi-passive markers. Later folding-related syn-orogenic veins, intensely mineralised with Cu-Co sulphides, are strongly related to deformation of these pre-folding veins. The high viscosity contrast created by the pre-folding fibrous dolomite veins was therefore essential in creating transient permeability for subsequent mineralising stages in the veining history.

  1. Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, C. Kevin; Brodribb, Tim J.; Feild, Taylor S.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2009-01-01

    The veins that irrigate leaves during photosynthesis are demonstrated to be strikingly more abundant in flowering plants than in any other vascular plant lineage. Angiosperm vein densities average 8?mm of vein per mm2 of leaf area and can reach 25?mm?mm?2, whereas such high densities are absent from all other plants, living or extinct. Leaves of non-angiosperms have consistently averaged close to 2?mm?mm?2 throughout 380 million years of evolution despite a complex history that has involved four or more independent origins of laminate leaves with many veins and dramatic changes in climate and atmospheric composition. We further demonstrate that the high leaf vein densities unique to the angiosperms enable unparalleled transpiration rates, extending previous work indicating a strong correlation between vein density and assimilation rates. Because vein density is directly measurable in fossils, these correlations provide new access to the physiology of extinct plants and how they may have impacted their environments. First, the high assimilation rates currently confined to the angiosperms among living plants are likely to have been unique throughout evolutionary history. Second, the transpiration-driven recycling of water that is important for bolstering precipitation in modern tropical rainforests might have been significantly less in a world before the angiosperms. PMID:19324775

  2. [Reconstructive surgery of the large intrathoracic veins, four cases report].

    PubMed

    Abreu, Rodolfo; Valentim, Hugo; Martelo, Fernando; Rodrigues, Hugo; Bravio, Ivan; Gonçalves, Frederico; Ferreira, Maria E; Castro, João A; Fragata, J; Capitão, L Mota; Castro, João M

    2013-01-01

    The resection and reconstruction of the large venous vessels of the chest is a procedure intended to treat the symptoms of venous hypertension caused by the Superior Vena Cava Syndrome and to allow resection of mediastinal tumors that invade the superior vena cava (SVC) and the left and right innominate veins. We report four clinical cases of mediastinal tumors involving the large intrathoracic venous vessels, submitted to surgery between 2010 and 2013. In all cases our purpose was to completely resect the tumor. We intended to evaluate the surgical results in terms of improvement of symptoms, complications of the procedures, permeability of the bypasses in the short and medium term and mortality rates. We used ringed ePTFE grafts to perform the following vascular reconstructions: - Y configuration bypass from the left subclavian vein and the left internal jugular vein to the left inominate vein; - two bypasses from the top of the left innominate vein to the right atrial appendage; - bypass from the left innominate vein to the right atrial appendage and a bypass from the right innominate vein to the SVC. All patients were discharged, and all the bypasses were patent at discharge and after 30 days . There were two cases of late thrombosis, but patients remained asymptomatic. Our series shows the feasibility of these technically complex surgeries, which are an excellent example of the benefits of multidisciplinary collaboration between vascular and thoracic surgeons. PMID:24730017

  3. Dynamic multiplanar real time ultrasound guided infraclavicular subclavian vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin; Hamill, Mark; Collier, Bryan; Bradburn, Eric; Ferrara, John

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound guided vascular access has been well-characterized as a safe and effective technique for internal jugular and femoral vein catheterization. However, there is limited experience with the use of ultrasound to access the infraclavicular subclavian vein. Multiple ultrasound techniques do exist to identify the subclavian vein, but real time access is limited by vessel identification in a single planar view. To overcome this limitation, a novel technique of ultrasound guided infraclavicular subclavian vein catheterization using a real time multiplanar approach has been developed. The initial experience with this approach is described. A single surgeon used combined oblique, transverse, and longitudinal views along with Doppler color flow images to both define the infraclavicular anatomy and to obtain subclavian vein access in 42 adult patients (20 M/22 F and 22 L/20 R) with a mean body mass index of 29.2 (range = 18.9-55.4). Chest x-ray was obtained to confirm position and to rule out pneumothorax. Subclavian vein cannulation was achieved in 100 per cent of patients; subsequent catheterization was successful in 92.9 per cent. The number of attempts required for cannulation averaged 1.3 (range = 1-5), and decreased after a five patient learning curve. No patient developed a pneumothorax, hematoma, or cannula malposition. Ultrasound guided multiplanar infraclavicular subclavian vein access appears to be a safe and effective adjunct for central line placement. PMID:26031277

  4. The Yellow Fever Vaccine: A History

    PubMed Central

    Frierson, J. Gordon

    2010-01-01

    After failed attempts at producing bacteria-based vaccines, the discovery of a viral agent causing yellow fever and its isolation in monkeys opened new avenues of research. Subsequent advances were the attenuation of the virus in mice and later in tissue culture; the creation of the seed lot system to avoid spontaneous mutations; the ability to produce the vaccine on a large scale in eggs; and the removal of dangerous contaminants. An important person in the story is Max Theiler, who was Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health at Yale from 1964-67, and whose work on virus attenuation created the modern vaccine and earned him the Nobel Prize. PMID:20589188

  5. A numerical study of transport dynamics and seasonal variability of the Yellow River sediment in the Bohai and Yellow seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Qiao, F. L.; Wang, X. H.; Wang, Y. G.; Teng, Y.; Xia, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    A sediment numerical model was embedded into a wave-tide-circulation coupled model to simulate the transport processes of the Yellow River-derived sediment considering the wave-induced vertical mixing (Bv) and the wave-current coupled bottom shear stress (BSS). Numerical results show that the main stream of the Yellow River-derived sediment moves first eastward off the northern Shandong Peninsula and then southward into the South Yellow Sea all year round. In spring, the sediment moves northeastward in the Bohai Sea. In summer, there is a northeastward branch of sediment in the Bohai Sea off the west coast of the Liaodong Peninsula, while the main part goes eastward to the Yellow Sea. The Yellow River-derived sediment transport from the Bohai Sea to the North Yellow Sea across the Bohai Strait is mainly limited to the top 10 m, and with a maximum centered at 37.9°N in summer. The transport from the North Yellow Sea to the South Yellow Sea across the transect of 37°N is mainly in the 0-30 m layer with a maximum around 123.7°E in autumn. The simulated Yellow River-discharged sediment deposits along the Shandong Peninsula and between 20 and 30 m isobaths in the Yellow Sea, which is consistent with observation. If surface waves are not considered in the model, the sediment deposits westward to the nearshore area in the South Yellow Sea. The sediment would deposit further southward in the numerical experiment results without wind influence. In the numerical experiment of no tide, there is hardly any sediment deposited on the Yellow Sea floor, while in the Bohai Sea most of the sediment is transported southward and northwestward around the river mouth instead of eastward as in the Control Run, indicating the tides play a key role in forming the deposition pattern.

  6. Aerosol optical thickness of yellow sand over the yellow sea derived from NOAA satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Y.; Takashima, T.

    To derive the optical thickness of desert yellow sand from China crossing over the sea, first of all a comparison was made of the NOAA satellite data in a clear area with that in the area polluted by yellow sand. Secondly, the upward radiance emerging from a model atmosphere-ocean system was computed with and without yellow sand, where it is assumed that the yellow sand is homogeneously concentrated in the sublayer at altitudes between 2 and 4 km. Finally, the optical thickness was derived by comparing the satellite data with the computed upward radiation. Out of the sunglint, the optical thickness of the dust was estimated to range from 0.17 to 0.60 in the visible and near infrared channels, but the radiance computed is rather overestimated in the sunglint. To estimate the effect of water vapor absorption on the radiation in the near infrared channel, use was made of 11 ?m data. However, it was difficult to estimate this effect precisely using the one channel, partly due to insufficient information on surface temperatures and verticle distributions of temperature and water vapour. The combined use of 3.7 and 11-?m data should help to remedy this deficiency.

  7. The migration of paraxial and lateral plate mesoderm cells emerging from the late primitive streak is controlled by different Wnt signals

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, Dylan; Wagstaff, Laura; Cooper, Oliver; Weijer, Cornelis; Münsterberg, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Background Co-ordinated cell movement is a fundamental feature of developing embryos. Massive cell movements occur during vertebrate gastrulation and during the subsequent extension of the embryonic body axis. These are controlled by cell-cell signalling and a number of pathways have been implicated. Here we use long-term video microscopy in chicken embryos to visualize the migration routes and movement behaviour of mesoderm progenitor cells as they emerge from the primitive streak (PS) between HH stages 7 and 10. Results We observed distinct cell movement behaviours along the length of the streak and determined that this is position dependent with cells responding to environmental cues. The behaviour of cells was altered by exposing embryos or primitive streak explants to cell pellets expressing Wnt3a and Wnt5a, without affecting cell fates, thus implicating these ligands in the regulation of cell movement behaviour. Interestingly younger embryos were not responsive, suggesting that Wnt3a and Wnt5a are specifically involved in the generation of posterior mesoderm, consistent with existing mouse and zebrafish mutants. To investigate which downstream components are involved mutant forms of dishevelled (dsh) and prickle1 (pk1) were electroporated into the primitive streak. These had differential effects on the behaviour of mesoderm progenitors emerging from anterior or posterior regions of the streak, suggesting that multiple Wnt pathways are involved in controlling cell migration during extension of the body axis in amniote embryos. Conclusion We suggest that the distinct behaviours of paraxial and lateral mesoderm precursors are regulated by the opposing actions of Wnt5a and Wnt3a as they leave the primitive streak in neurula stage embryos. Our data suggests that Wnt5a acts via prickle to cause migration of cells from the posterior streak. In the anterior streak, this is antagonised by Wnt3a to generate non-migratory medial mesoderm. PMID:18541012

  8. The President's Day cyclone 17-19 February 1979: An analysis of jet streak interactions prior to cyclogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uccellini, L. W.; Kocin, P. J.; Walsh, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The President's Day cyclone, produced record breaking snowfall along the East Coast of the United States in February 1979. Conventional radiosonde data, SMS GOES infrared imagery and LFM 2 model diagnostics were used to analyze the interaction of upper and lower tropospheric jet streaks prior to cyclogenesis. The analysis reveals that a series of complex scale interactive processes is responsible for the development of the intense cyclone. The evolution of the subsynoptic scale mass and momentum fields prior to and during the period of rapid development of the President's Day cyclone utilizing conventional data and SMS GOES imagery is documented. The interaction between upper and lower tropospheric jet streaks which occurred prior to the onset of cyclogenesis is discussed as well as the possible effects of terrain modified airflow within the precyclogenesis environment. Possible deficiencies in the LFM-2 initial wind fields that could have been responsible, in part, for the poor numerical forecast are examined.

  9. Spontaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt managed by laparoscopic hepatic vein closure

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jung-Nam; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon-Gu; Lee, Keon-Young; Hong, Kee Chun

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (IPSS) is uncommon and usually follows trauma or iatrogenic injury, but spontaneous shunts may also occur, in patients without the evidence of chronic liver disease. Although interventional endovascular management of the shunts is the treatment of choice, a surgical approach can be used when the percutaneous approach fails. We report here a case of symptomatic spontaneous IPSS between the posteroinferior branch of right portal vein and the right inferior hepatic vein, which was successfully managed with laparoscopic closure of the hepatic vein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of laparoscopic management of spontaneous IPSS. PMID:25336823

  10. Duodenal obstruction due to a preduodenal portal vein.

    PubMed

    Vilakazi, Mnc; Ismail, F; Swanepoel, H M; Muller, E W; Lockhat, Z I

    2014-01-01

    An infant presented with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of a pyloric stenosis. On abdominal ultrasound, pyloric stenosis was excluded, and other causes for proximal duodenal obstruction, such as a duodenal web or annular pancreas, were suspected. At surgery, the cause was found to be due to an anterior portal vein or preduodenal portal vein, compressing the duodenum. There were no associated findings such as midgut malrotation, duodenal web and congenital anomalies. The treatment was a diamond-shaped duodeno-duodenostomy anterior to the portal vein. The patient improved after surgery. PMID:25323190

  11. Thymic Cavernous Hemangioma With a Left Innominate Vein Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Takeo; Akiba, Tadashi; Inagaki, Takuya; Morikawa, Toshiaki; Ohki, Takao

    2015-07-01

    Here we report a case of thymic cavernous haemangioma with the left innominate vein aneurysm. A 43-year-old man presented with chest pain. Enhanced chest computed tomography revealed an anterior mediastinal tumor measuring 60 × 52 × 38 mm with multiple venous lakes and focal specks of calcification, composed of a low-density soft tissue mass along with a left innominate vein aneurysm. We preoperatively diagnosed the mass as a thymic hemangioma and subsequently performed surgical resection. Pathologic diagnosis was a thymic cavernous hemangioma with a left innominate vein aneurysm, which is very rare. PMID:26140781

  12. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis with tourniquet use

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Karan; Dinh, Trish P.; Chung, Susan; Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Naidu, Deepak K.; Payne, Wyatt G.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis is an increasingly important clinical finding with significant morbidity and mortality. The condition may be under-diagnosed in trauma and surgery settings. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of upper extremity thrombosis with venous congestive symptoms secondary to the use of an operative tourniquet. A literature review and discussion of the causes of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis and the pathophysiological disturbances seen with tourniquet use are presented. DISCUSSION Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis is uncommon. In this case the likely cause was operative tourniquet use. CONCLUSION Operative tourniquet may be a risk factor in upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. PMID:25524302

  13. Endovenous radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of varicose veins

    PubMed Central

    Kayssi, Ahmed; Pope, Marc; Vucemilo, Ivica; Werneck, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Summary Varicose veins are a common condition that can be treated surgically. Available operative modalities include saphenous venous ligation and stripping, phlebectomy, endovenous laser therapy and radiofrequency ablation. Radiofrequency ablation is the newest of these technologies, and to our knowledge our group was the first to use it in Canada. Our experience suggests that it is a safe and effective treatment for varicose veins, with high levels of patient satisfaction reported at short-term follow-up. More studies are needed to assess long-term effectiveness and compare the various available treatment options for varicose veins. PMID:25799244

  14. Bridging veins and autopsy findings in abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Rambaud, Caroline

    2015-07-01

    Bridging veins are crucial for the venous drainage of the brain. They run as short and straight bridges between the brain surface and the superior sagittal sinus in the subdural compartment. Subdural bleeding is a marker for a traumatic mechanism (i.e., acceleration/deceleration, rotational and shearing forces due to violent shaking) causing rupture of the bridging veins. Demonstration of bridging vein rupture allows the unequivocal diagnosis of a traumatic mechanism and should therefore be a routine part of the postmortem in cases of subdural hemorrhage. PMID:25698365

  15. A second-generation x-ray streak camera with true large format, high dynamic range, and high reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ke-Xun Sun; William Nishimura; Theodore Perry; Steve Compton

    2005-01-01

    This paper will review the specifications, test and experiment performance features of Bechtel Nevada's Phase 2 X-ray Streak Camera (P2XSC). The P2XSC was developed to meet stringent inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high energy density (HED) science requirements for experiments at Omega laser facility at Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), and National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  16. Interaction of Lucerne Transient Streak Virus and the Viroid-like RNA2 of Solanum nodiflorum Mottle Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Jones; M. A. Mayo

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY The particles of two serologically unrelated viruses, Solanum nodiflorum mottle (SNMV) and lucerne transient streak (LTSV), contain linear single-stranded RNA-1 (mol. wt. approx. 1.4 x 106), and linear and circular RNA molecules of mol. wt. approx. 1-2 x 105 (RNA-2). SNMV RNA-2 is reported to be part of the virus genome, but LTSV RNA-2 is a satellite-like RNA which

  17. A Multiscale Numerical Study of Hurricane Andrew (1992). Part VI: Small-Scale Inner-Core Structures and Wind Streaks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Yau; Yubao Liu; Da-Lin Zhang; Yongsheng Chen

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of Part VI of this series of papers are to (a) simulate the finescale features of Hurricane Andrew (1992) using a cloud-resolving grid length of 2 km, (b) diagnose the formation of small-scale wind streaks, and (c) perform sensitivity experiments of varying surface fluxes on changes in storm inner-core structures and intensity. As compared to observations and a

  18. THEMIS Observations and TES Surface Compositions of Low-Albedo Intracrater Materials and Wind Streaks in Western Arabia Terra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Wyatt; H. Y. McSween; P. R. Christensen

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution thermal infrared images (100m\\/pixel) from the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) are used for thermophysical analyses of low-albedo intracrater materials and wind streaks in Western Arabia Terra and comparisons with Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) derived surface compositions. Atmospherically corrected thermal emissivity data from TES have been used to identify two global-scale spectral surface

  19. A Diet High in Saturated Fat and Sucrose Alters Glucoregulation and Induces Aortic Fatty Streaks in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhonghua; Wang, Zongbao; Yang, Baotang; Yang, Yongzong

    2002-01-01

    A new and convenient animal model for studying peripheral vascular and coronary artery disease in diabetes was established in this study. Male New Zealand White rabbits weighing approximately 2 kg were divided into 2 groups: a normal control group fed standard laboratory chow and a diabetogenic diet–fed group received a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. The high-fat/high-sucrose diet (contained 10% lard and 37% sucrose) feeding was maintained for 6 months. Plasma total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, insulin, and glucose were quantitated at monthly or bimonthly intervals. The aortic fatty streak lesions were quantified following lipid staining with Sudan IV. The aortic samples were observed by electron microscopy. High plasma triglyceride and glucose concentrations were induced. At the end of 6 months, the aortic fatty streak lesions were present in the animals' vascular specimens. As far as we know, this is the first report that demonstrates that New Zealand White rabbits can develop obvious aortic fatty streaks by feeding a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. Our results suggest that NewZealand White rabbits fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet would provide a convenient model for studying peripheral vascular and coronary artery disease in diabetes. PMID:12458659

  20. Inferring the time resolved core electron temperature from x-ray emission measured by a streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shahab; Izumi, Niko; Patel, Pravesh; Macphee, Andrew; Ma, Tammy; Cerjan, Charlie; Town, Richard; Bradley, David

    2014-10-01

    The electron temperature (Te) of the hot spot within the core of imploded inertial confinement fusion capsules is an effective indicator of implosion performance. A temporally resolved measurement of Te helps elucidate the mechanisms for hot spot heating and cooling such as alpha-heating and mix. Additionally, comparison with simulations will aid in tuning models to effectively predict implosion performance. The Streaked Polar Instrumentation for Diagnosing Energetic Radiation (SPIDER) is an x-ray streak camera designed to record the x-ray burn history during the stagnation phase. SPIDER accurately reports bang time and burn duration of implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The addition of several filters of specific materials and thicknesses spread across the spatial axis of the streak camera imager allows for a least square fit of the signal through these filters to a bremsstrahlung hot spot model. The fitted parameters of the model are the Te, opacity, and X-ray yield which is valuable for ablator mix estimates. The details of this calculation and results from several shots on NIF are presented.

  1. Statistical iterative reconstruction for streak artefact reduction when using multidetector CT to image the dento-alveolar structures

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Y; Kober, C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: When metallic prosthetic appliances and dental fillings exist in the oral cavity, the appearance of metal-induced streak artefacts is not avoidable in CT images. The aim of this study was to develop a method for artefact reduction using the statistical reconstruction on multidetector row CT images. Methods: Adjacent CT images often depict similar anatomical structures. Therefore, reconstructed images with weak artefacts were attempted using projection data of an artefact-free image in a neighbouring thin slice. Images with moderate and strong artefacts were continuously processed in sequence by successive iterative restoration where the projection data was generated from the adjacent reconstructed slice. First, the basic maximum likelihood–expectation maximization algorithm was applied. Next, the ordered subset–expectation maximization algorithm was examined. Alternatively, a small region of interest setting was designated. Finally, the general purpose graphic processing unit machine was applied in both situations. Results: The algorithms reduced the metal-induced streak artefacts on multidetector row CT images when the sequential processing method was applied. The ordered subset–expectation maximization and small region of interest reduced the processing duration without apparent detriments. A general-purpose graphic processing unit realized the high performance. Conclusions: A statistical reconstruction method was applied for the streak artefact reduction. The alternative algorithms applied were effective. Both software and hardware tools, such as ordered subset–expectation maximization, small region of interest and general-purpose graphic processing unit achieved fast artefact correction. PMID:24754471

  2. A robust in-situ warp-correction algorithm for VISAR streak camera data at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaria, George R.; Warrick, Abbie L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Kalantar, Daniel H.

    2015-02-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a 192-beam pulsed laser system for high energy density physics experiments. Sophisticated diagnostics have been designed around key performance metrics to achieve ignition. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) is the primary diagnostic for measuring the timing of shocks induced into an ignition capsule. The VISAR system utilizes three streak cameras; these streak cameras are inherently nonlinear and require warp corrections to remove these nonlinear effects. A detailed calibration procedure has been developed with National Security Technologies (NSTec) and applied to the camera correction analysis in production. However, the camera nonlinearities drift over time affecting the performance of this method. An in-situ fiber array is used to inject a comb of pulses to generate a calibration correction in order to meet the timing accuracy requirements of VISAR. We develop a robust algorithm for the analysis of the comb calibration images to generate the warp correction that is then applied to the data images. Our algorithm utilizes the method of thin-plate splines (TPS) to model the complex nonlinear distortions in the streak camera data. In this paper, we focus on the theory and implementation of the TPS warp-correction algorithm for the use in a production environment.

  3. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

  4. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

  5. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

  6. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

  7. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation...Provisions § 71.3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers....

  8. Videothoracoscopic management of a perforated central vein and pleura after ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jeon, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Yongsuk; Jeong, Su Ah

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old male underwent a left internal jugular vein catheterization during extended surgery for treatment of multiple fractures due to a traffic accident. Although the catheterization was performed under ultrasound (US) guidance, iatrogenic perforation of the central vein and pleura occurred. The catheter was removed, and the perforated site was addressed under thoracoscopy rather than an open thoracotomy. This case suggests that using US does not completely guarantee a complication-free outcome, and that catheter placement should be carefully confirmed. In addition, this case suggests that thoracoscopy may be an ideal method of resolving a perforation of the central vein and pleura. PMID:24851167

  9. Solid State Yellow and Orange Lasers for Flow Cytometry

    E-print Network

    Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    Solid State Yellow and Orange Lasers for Flow Cytometry Veena Kapoor,1 Vladimir Karpov,2 Claudette Linton,2 Fedor V. Subach,3 Vladislav V. Verkhusha,3 William G. Telford1 * Abstract Diode and DPSS lasers no practical technology existed for generating yellow or orange laser light for flow cytometry

  10. Yellow River's water and sediment discharge decreasing steadily

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. S. Yang; J. D. Milliman; J. Galler; J. P. Liu; X. G. Sun

    1998-01-01

    The amount of water and sediment discharged by the Yellow River in northern China has been decreasing steadily over the past 20-25 years, such that in recent years it has contributed relatively little sediment to the Gulf of Bohai. This is quite at odds with the well-known story in which the Yellow River has been regarded as a primary contributor

  11. SPATIOTEMPORAL VARIATION IN SURVIVAL OF MALE YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOTS

    E-print Network

    Grether, Gregory

    SPATIOTEMPORAL VARIATION IN SURVIVAL OF MALE YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOTS NATALIA BORREGO,a ARPAT OZGUL variation in age-specific survival rates of male yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) in Colorado in survival rates. Our results suggest that male marmots of different ages respond differentially to temporal

  12. YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOTS (MARMOTA FLAVIVENTRIS) HIBERNATE SOCIALLY

    E-print Network

    Grether, Gregory

    YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOTS (MARMOTA FLAVIVENTRIS) HIBERNATE SOCIALLY DANIEL T. BLUMSTEIN,* SOYEON IM Drive South, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606, USA Of 14 species of marmots (genus Marmota, Family Sciuridae), only 2, the woodchuck (M. monax) and yellow- bellied marmot (M. flaviventris

  13. Recent current observations in the eastern Yellow Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Hsueh

    1988-01-01

    Observations of current velocity, pressure, and temperature in the eastern Yellow Sea from January 10 through April 12, 1986, together with geostrophic winds calculated from surface atmospheric pressure distributions, are analyzed for a study of the synoptic band response of the Yellow Sea to the wintertime winds. North wind pulses in the winter monsoon are found to give rise to

  14. Westward shift of the Yellow Sea warm salty tongue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daji Huang; Xiaopeng Fan; Dongfeng Xu; Yuanzheng Tong; Jilan Su

    2005-01-01

    The accumulated in situ hydrographic survey as well as the satellite observed sea surface temperature (SST) show consistent westward shifting of the Yellow Sea Warm Salty Tongue (YSWST) in winter. A 2-D thermal model is used to show the westward shifting of the YSWST due to cooling and advection. The MITgcm is applied to simulate the circulation in the Yellow

  15. Papaya Varietal Resistance to Internal Yellowing: Reducing Food Safety Risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya fruit that is caused by the enteric bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. The disease is characterized by yellow discoloration of flesh, tissue softening and a foul or rotten odor that reduces the quality of fresh fruit and value-added pr...

  16. Wind-driven effects on the Yellow Sea Warm Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mask, Andrea C.; O'Brien, James J.; Preller, Ruth

    1998-12-01

    The Yellow Sea is a shallow basin writh an average depth of 44 m located between China and the Korean Peninsula. One of the dominant ocean circulation features of the Yellow Sea is a warm wrater intrusion known as the Yellow Sea Warm Current. This feature is present throughout the year but reaches its farthest northward extension in winter. The circulation of the Yellow, East China, and Bohai Seas was modeled using the Princeton Ocean Model to better understand the dynamics of the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The horizontal resolution of the model varies from 8 km in the Yellow Sea to 25 km in the East China Sea. Twenty-four sigma levels are used to define the vertical structure. The model uses daily atmospheric forcing from the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System for 1993. Open boundary conditions are applied at the Taiwan Strait, the Tsushima (Korea) Strait, an area south of Taiwan, and the Tokara Strait, with a closed boundary south of the Ryukyu Islands. The model results are examined to determine the effect of the wind on the northward extension of the warm water intrusion, using both water mass characteristics and northward velocity components. Sensitivity tests and spectrum analyses, performed to study the influence of the wind on the Yellow Sea Warm Current, show that winds modify the pathway and extent of the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The current's origin, however, appears to be due to external forcing from the current systems developed in the East China Sea.

  17. NOTE / NOTE Age determination in yellow-pine chipmunks

    E-print Network

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

    NOTE / NOTE Age determination in yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus): a comparison of eye lens distinguish among adults of different ages. We determined the age of yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus différents groupes d'âge. Nous avons déterminé l'âge de tamias amènes (Tamias amoenus) des Montagnes

  18. Clopyralid effects on yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) and nontarget species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly J. Reever Morghan; Elizabeth A. Leger; Kevin J. Rice

    2003-01-01

    Yellow starthistle is a problematic invasive plant in the western United States. At- tempts to control it often include the use of herbicides although herbicides can have detrimental effects on desired native species. We studied the effect of clopyralid on a native bunchgrass and vernal pool community in the Central Valley of California. Areas invaded by yellow starthistle were treated

  19. Sonochemical degradation of martius yellow dye in aqueous solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ritu Singla; Franz Grieser; Muthupandian Ashokkumar

    2009-01-01

    The sonolytic degradation of the textile dye martius yellow, also known as either naphthol yellow or acid orange 24, was studied at various initial concentrations in water. The degradation of the dye followed first-order kinetics under the conditions examined. Based on gas chromatographic results and sonoluminescence measurements of sonicated aqueous solutions of the dye, it is concluded that pyrolysis does

  20. A description of unique fluorescent yellow pigments in penguin feathers

    E-print Network

    McGraw, Kevin J.

    A description of unique fluorescent yellow pigments in penguin feathers Kevin J. McGraw1 *, Matthew bird feathers--carotenoids, melanins, porphyrins, psittacofulvins, and iron oxides (Hill and McGraw, 2006). However, we have recently gathered preliminary data on yellow feathers from sev- eral species

  1. INFLUENCE OF YELLOW FOXTAIL ON CORN GROWTH AND YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies investigated the effect of yellow foxtail competition on corn growth and yield at two locations on the western edge of the United States Corn Belt: Brookings, SD, and Morris, MN, in 1995 and 1996. Treatments included four densities of yellow foxtail, a weed-free control and, at Morris,...

  2. Endoscopic subfascial sectioning of incompetent perforating veins in treatment of primary varicosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jugenheimer; Th. Junginger

    1992-01-01

    Subfascial elimination of incompetent perforating veins is the most effective therapeutic principle in the treatment of trophic skin disorders associated with varicosis. A recently developed endoscopic technique allows accurate sectioning of perforating veins with direct observation of the veins and minor trauma. From November 1986 to July 1991 endoscopic sectioning of perforating veins was performed in 72 patients (103 legs).

  3. Correlation of contractile activity and of streaming direction between branching veins of Physarum polycephalum plasmodium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Grebecki; M. Moczo?

    1978-01-01

    Summary Pulsation curves recorded in a lateral vein and in the main vein behind and ahead of junction demonstrate the existence of a common contraction-relaxation rhythm. Correlation of contraction periods is very strong in the major vein on both sides of the junction and strong between the major vein and its lateral branch. Correlation of streaming periodicities is also very

  4. Diagnosis and Management of a Vein of Galen Malformation in a Neonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacy L. French

    2010-01-01

    Vein of Galen arterial malformation (VGAM) is an arteriovenous malformation between cerebral vessels of the circle of Willis and the vein of Galen. VGAM is a direct communication between an artery and a vein resulting in increased cardiac output due to arterial blood flowing directly into a vein and returning directly to the heart, without traversing the full vascular system.

  5. Oxidized lipids in the diet accelerate the development of fatty streaks in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Staprãns, I; Rapp, J H; Pan, X M; Hardman, D A; Feingold, K R

    1996-04-01

    Studies have indicated that oxidized lipoproteins may play a role in atherosclerosis. We have recently demonstrated that the levels of oxidized lipoproteins in the circulation can be directly correlated to the quantity of oxidized lipids in the diet. The present study tested the hypothesis that dietary oxidized lipids accelerate the development of atherosclerosis. For 12 to 14 weeks, 36 male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a low-cholesterol (0.25%) diet containing either 5% unoxidized corn oil (control diet) or 5% oxidized corn oil (oxidized-lipid diet). Serum cholesterol levels increased to a similar extent in both groups, with the majority of the cholesterol in the beta-migrating very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) fraction. Beta-VLDL from control animals contained 3.86+/- 0.57 versus 9.07 +/- 2.14 nmol conjugated dienes per micromol cholesterol (P<.05) in rabbits fed the oxidized-lipid diet. No difference in oxidized lipid levels was detected in LDL. Most important, feeding a diet rich in oxidized-lipid resulted in a 100% increase in fatty streak lesions in the aorta. Additionally, rabbits that were fed the oxidized-lipid++ diet had a >100% increase in total cholesterol in the pulmonary artery that was primarily due to an increase in cholesteryl ester. Oxidized lipids are frequently present in the typical US diet, and our results suggest that consumption of these foods may be an important risk factor for atherosclerosis. PMID:8624775

  6. Laser Timing Jitter Measurements using a Dual-Sweep Streak Camera at the A0 Photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, J.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Santucci, J.K.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-30

    Excellent phase stability of the drive laser is a critical performance specification of photoinjectors such as Fermilab's A0 photoinjector (A0PI). Previous efforts based on the measurement of the power spectrum of the signal of a fast photodiode illuminated by the mode locked infrared laser pulse component indicated a phase jitter of less than 1.4 ps (technique limited). A recently procured dual sweep plugin unit and existing Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera were used to study the phase stability of the UV laser pulse component. Initial measurements with the synchroscan vertical sweep unit locked to 81.25 MHz showed that the phase slew through the micropulse train and the phase jitter micropulse to micropulse were two key aspects that could be evaluated. The phase slew was much less than 100 fs per micropulse, and the total phase jitter (camera, trigger, and laser) was approximately 300 fs RMS for measurements of 50-micropulse trains. Data on the macropulse phase stability were also obtained. A possible upgrade to achieve better phase stability will be also discussed.

  7. Improved detection of episomal Banana streak viruses by multiplex immunocapture PCR.

    PubMed

    Le Provost, Grégoire; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Acina, Isabelle; Teycheney, Pierre-Yves

    2006-10-01

    Banana streak viruses (BSV) are currently the main viral constraint to Musa germplasm movement, genetic improvement and mass propagation. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and implement BSV detection strategies that are both reliable and sensitive, such as PCR-based techniques. Unfortunately, BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs) are present in the genome of Musa balbisiana. They interfere with PCR-based detection of episomal BSV in infected banana and plantain, such as immunocapture PCR. Therefore, a multiplex, immunocapture PCR (M-IC-PCR) was developed for the detection of BSV. Musa sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS) primers were selected and used in combination with BSV species-specific primers in order to monitor possible contamination by Musa genomic DNA, using multiplex PCR. Furthermore, immunocapture conditions were optimized in order to prevent Musa DNA from interfering with episomal BSV DNA during the PCR step. This improved detection method successfully allowed the accurate, specific and sensitive detection of episomal DNA only from distinct BSV species. Its implementation should benefit PCR-based detection of viruses for which homologous sequences are present in the genome of their hosts, including transgenic plants expressing viral sequences. PMID:16857272

  8. Improving the diffraction of full-length human selenomethionyl metavinculin crystals by streak-seeding

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Izard, Tina (Scripps)

    2012-06-28

    Metavinculin is an alternatively spliced isoform of vinculin that has a 68-residue insert in its tail domain (1134 total residues) and is exclusively expressed in cardiac and smooth muscle tissue, where it plays important roles in myocyte adhesion complexes. Mutations in the metavinculin-specific insert are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in man. Crystals of a DCM-associated mutant of full-length selenomethionine-labeled metavinculin grown by hanging-drop vapor diffusion diffracted poorly and were highly sensitive to radiation, preventing the collection of a complete X-ray diffraction data set at the highest possible resolution. Streak-seeding markedly improved the stability, crystal-growth rate and diffraction quality of DCM-associated mutant metavinculin crystals, allowing complete data collection to 3.9 {angstrom} resolution. These crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 170, c = 211 {angstrom}, {alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90{sup o}.

  9. Stent Recanalization of Chronic Portal Vein Occlusion in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Cwikiel, Wojciech [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Solvig, Jan [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Skejby, DK-8200 Aarhus (Denmark); Schroder, Henrik [Department of Pediatric Medicine, University Hospital, Skejby, DK-8200 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2000-07-15

    An 8-year-old boy with a 21/2 year history of portal hypertension and repeated bleedings from esophageal varices, was referred for treatment. The 3.5-cm-long occlusion of the portal vein was passed and the channel created was stabilized with a balloon-expandable stent; a portosystemic stent-shunt was also created. The portosystemic shunt closed spontaneously within 1 month, while the recanalized segment of the portal vein remained open. The pressure gradient between the intrahepatic and extrahepatic portal vein branches dropped from 17 mmHg to 0 mmHg. The pressure in the portal vein dropped from 30 mmHg to 17 mmHg and the bleedings stopped. The next dilation of the stent was performed 12 months later due to an increased pressure gradient; the gastroesophageal varices disappeared completely. Further dilation of the stent was planned after 2, 4, and 6 years.

  10. Finger vein recognition based on local directional code.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianjing; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns are considered as one of the most promising biometric authentication methods for its security and convenience. Most of the current available finger vein recognition methods utilize features from a segmented blood vessel network. As an improperly segmented network may degrade the recognition accuracy, binary pattern based methods are proposed, such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Local Derivative Pattern (LDP) and Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP). However, the rich directional information hidden in the finger vein pattern has not been fully exploited by the existing local patterns. Inspired by the Webber Local Descriptor (WLD), this paper represents a new direction based local descriptor called Local Directional Code (LDC) and applies it to finger vein recognition. In LDC, the local gradient orientation information is coded as an octonary decimal number. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LDC achieves better performance than methods using LLBP. PMID:23202194

  11. Left renal vein transposition is effective for posterior nutcracker syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuedong; Xing, Jinchun; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl was enrolled in hospital with intermittent gross hematuria in a period of 3 years. Bloody efflux from the left ureteral orifice was diagnosed in this patient with urethrocystoscopy. A retroaortic left renal vein appeared to be compressed by the aorta as detected by computerized tomography. The left renal vein was compressed between the aorta and the spine. A groove in the anterior surface of the left renal vein was detected. A transposition surgery of the left renal vein to a site in front of the aorta was performed for the patient. The patient was discharged after recovery and the hematuria symptom was not found during the 15-month follow-up investigation. PMID:25664135

  12. Posttransplant Complex Inferior Venacava Balloon Dilatation After Hepatic Vein Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, Vikas, E-mail: vkohli_md@yahoo.co [Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Cardiac Surgery Unit (India); Wadhawan, Manav [Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (India); Gupta, Subhash [Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Department of Liver Transplant (India); Roy, Vipul [Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Department of Cardiology (India)

    2010-02-15

    Orthotopic and living related liver transplantation is an established mode of treatment of end-stage liver disease. One of the major causes of postoperative complications is vascular anastomotic stenosis. One such set of such complications relates to hepatic vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), or portal vein stenosis, with a reported incidence of 1-3%. The incidence of vascular complications is reported to be higher in living donor versus cadaveric liver transplants. We encountered a patient with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction, where the hepatic vein had been previously stented, but the patient continued to have symptoms due to additional IVC obstruction. The patient required double-balloon dilatation of the IVC simultaneously from the internal jugular vein and IVC.

  13. Duplication of the right internal jugular vein: A case report.

    PubMed

    Bathala, Srinivasalu; Makura, Zvoru G

    2015-06-01

    We present a case of duplication of the right internal jugular vein (IJV) in a patient who underwent neck dissection as part of the management of carcinoma of the larynx. The patient was a 63-year-old man who presented to the otolaryngology department with a 7-month history of hoarseness and a 3-week history of noisy breathing. Flexible endoscopy detected a transglottic tumor that had extended beyond the vocal folds. The patient underwent a total laryngectomy and bilateral selective neck dissection at levels II-VI. Intraoperatively, the right IJV was noted to be duplicated. The duplicate segment was approximately 10 cm in length, and it rejoined the normal vein before the normal vein joined the subclavian vein. PMID:26053982

  14. Microanalytical identification of Pb-Sb-Sn yellow pigment in historical European paintings and its differentiation from lead tin and Naples yellows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Hradil; Tomáš Grygar; Janka Hradilová; Petr Bezdi?ka; Veronika Gr?nwaldová; Igor Fogaš; Costanza Miliani

    2007-01-01

    The work is focused on identification of lead tin yellow types I and II, Naples yellow, and also on discrimination of a less common, distinct yellow pigment, the ternary Pb-Sb-Sn oxide.The knowledge about all those Pb-based yellows was in fact forgotten after introduction of modern synthetic yellows in 19th century. As late as in the last decade of the 20th

  15. Mars Opportunity rover finds gypsum veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    Bright linear features about the width of a human thumb that were found on Mars by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity appear to be gypsum veins deposited by groundwater, a team of scientists announced at a 7 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. “To me, this is the single most powerful piece of evidence for liquid water on Mars that has been discovered by the Opportunity rover,” said Steve Squyres, a geoscientist at Cornell University in Ithaca, N. Y., and principal investigator for NASA Mars Exploration Rovers Opportunity and Spirit. “We have found sulfates before. Those sulfates were formed somewhere; we don't know where. They have been moved around by the wind, they've been mixed with other materials. It's a big, jumbled, fascinating mess. This stuff was formed right here. There was a fracture in the rock, water flowed through it, gypsum was precipitated from the water. End of story. Okay, there is no ambiguity about this. This is what makes it so cool.”

  16. Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. PMID:24625634

  17. Subclavian artery- internal jugular vein fistula and heart failure: complication of internal jugular vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jai; Takhellambam, Brojen; Ghosh, Biplab; Choudhury, Tauhidul Alam; Singh, Shivendra; Sharma, Om Prakash

    2013-02-01

    Hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requires vascular access which can be either temporary or permanent. However, these procedures are not without complications. Arterial puncture is the most common immediate complication and pseudoaneurysm formation is the most common late sequel of internal jugular venous catheterization (IJVC). However, arterio-venous fistula (AVF) formatiorn following IJVC is rare. We are reporting a case of AVF formation between subclavian artery (SCA) and internal jugular vein (IJV) following IJVC which later on leads to the development of cardiac failure. PMID:24471256

  18. Recurrent Varicose Veins: Incidence, Risk Factors and Groin Anatomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Blomgren; G. Johansson; A. Dahlberg-Åkerman; A. Norén; C. Brundin; E. Nordström; D. Bergqvist

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the recurrence rate after sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ) ligation and great saphenous vein (GSV) stripping for varicose veins (VV), to evaluate risk factors for recurrence and to classify the anatomy of the recurrence in the groin.Design. Clinical follow-up study.Methods. Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 100 operated legs were re-examined clinically and with duplex after 6–10 years. Fourteen groins were

  19. Neovascularization is not a major cause of varicose vein recurrence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick M. Moreau

    2002-01-01

    Neovascularization is often seen as an important cause of varicose vein recurrence. Is this a convenient expression to explain some bad results in surgery? This clinical retrospective study (from 1\\/1\\/94 to 12\\/31\\/98) included 1880 patients (1348 females: 71.7%, 532 males: 28.3%, with the median age of 52) who received limb varicose vein operations. 2455 legs were operated on (575 bilateral).

  20. Management of Varicose Veins From Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Chang; Theodore A. Stein

    2002-01-01

      Chronic venous insufficiency is a progressive disease, which may require surgical intervention to prevent complications. This\\u000a study was done to determine the usefulness of a high ligation with sclerotherapy to prevent the return of symptoms. Duplex\\u000a scanning was used to locate incompetent veins. There was no evidence of incompetent perforating or deep veins in the 322 patients\\u000a who had 483

  1. The persistent embryonic vein in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oduber, Charlène E U; Young-Afat, Danny A; van der Wal, Allard C; van Steensel, Maurice A M; Hennekam, Raoul C M; van der Horst, Chantal M A M

    2013-08-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a congenital malformation syndrome with prominent vascular anomalies. A persistent embryonic vein (PEV) may be located on the affected leg(s) of patients with KTS. Our understanding of PEVs of the legs is limited and their nomenclature is confusing. The objective of this study was to obtain further insight in the prevalence, nomenclature and etiology of PEVs of the legs in KTS and to propose a standardized description of anomalous leg veins in KTS. We investigated 70 KTS patients for the presence of PEVs (lateral marginal vein, LMV) of the legs by duplex ultrasonography. We performed histopathological analysis of a surgically excised PEV (LMV) of a typical KTS patient, and we conducted an extensive literature study. Duplex ultrasonography showed LMVs in 12/70 (17.1%) patients. The terms used to describe PEVs in the leg are quite variable, while indicating only two types: lateral marginal vein (LMV) and persistent sciatic vein (PSV). The histology of the excised LMV showed remarkable similarity with that of varicose veins found in the general population. In conclusion, the prevalence of LMVs in our KTS cohort is 17.1%. Two PEVs can be found in the legs and we propose nomenclature based on anatomical criteria, thereby using only the terms persistent lateral marginal vein and persistent sciatic vein, combined with the patency of the deep venous system. We hypothesize that PEVs are most likely caused by a genetic defect leading to abnormal venous pattern formation, which is further supported by our histopathological findings. PMID:23966121

  2. Vein formation in the C1 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    Veins in the C1 chondrites Orgueil, Alais, and Ivuna have been deposited during an extended period of impact brecciation and leaching. At least three generations of mineralization, dominated successively by carbonates, calcium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate, can be recognized. Vein minerals are derived locally by closed-system reactions between matrix phyllosilicates and an aqueous fluid, with the result that few, if any, primitive mineral phases still exist in the C1s.

  3. Endovascular Treatment of a Portal Vein Tear During TIPSS

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Richard J.T.; Rose, John D.G. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE7 7DN (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-15

    During a transjugular portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPSS) procedure a portal vein laceration occurred with subsequent intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A PTFE-covered nitinol stent was successfully placed eliminating the leak and creating a functioning portosystemic shunt. This case demonstrates both the importance of portal vein puncture more than 1 cm from the bifurcation and the necessity of maintaining a stock of available stent-grafts.

  4. An Ophiovirus isolated from lettuce with big-vein symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Roggero; M. Ciuffo; A. M. Vaira; G. P. Accotto; V. Masenga; R. G. Milne

    2000-01-01

    Summary.  ?Big-vein is a widespread and damaging disease of lettuce, transmitted through soil by the chytrid fungus Olpidium brassicae, and generally supposed to be caused by Lettuce big-vein virus (LBVV; genus Varicosavirus). This virus is reported to have rigid rod-shaped particles, a divided double-stranded RNA genome, and one capsid protein\\u000a of 48?kD, but has not been isolated or rigorously shown to

  5. Branch retinal vein occlusion treated by intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J B Jonas; I Akkoyun; B Kamppeter; I Kreissig; R F Degenring

    2005-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide on visual acuity in branch retinal vein occlusion.MethodsThe prospective comparative nonrandomized clinical interventional study included 28 patients (28 eyes) with branch retinal vein occlusion. The study group consisting of 10 consecutive patients received an intravitreal injection of 20–25 mg of triamcinolone acetonide. The control group including 18 patients did not receive an

  6. Vascular Neural Network: the Importance of Vein Drainage in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Khatibi, Nikan; Zhang, John H.

    2014-01-01

    This perspective commentary summarized the stroke pathophysiology evolution, especially the focus in the past on neuroprotection and neurovascular protection and highlighted the newer term for stroke pathophysiology: vascular neural network. Emphasize is on the role of venules and veins after an acute stroke and as potential treatment targets. Vein drainage may contribute to the acute phase of brain edema and the outcomes of stroke patients. PMID:24563018

  7. Meso-beta scale numerical simulation studies of terrain-induced jet streak mass/momentum perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Yuh-Lang; Kaplan, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    Mesoscale model simulations provide insight into the complex jet streak adjustments on 11-12 July 1981 that preceded the first of two significant gravity wave events to have been generated over the Rocky Mountains in Montana. Simulations employing a variety of terrain treatments indicate that prior to wave formation, geostrophic adjustment processes modified the structure of the mid-upper tropospheric jet streak by creating secondary jetlets to the southeast of the polar jet streak in proximity to the gravity wave generation region. This simulated restructuring of the mid-upper tropospheric jet streak is the result of a four stage process. During stage 1, the wind adjusts to the mass field as the jet streak exit region propagates into the inflection point between the upstream trough and downstream ridge in the height field. Stage 2 is initiated as the mass field is forced to adjust to the new ageostrophic wind field created during stage 1. Stage 3 is defined by a second geostrophic adjustment process occurring in a similar manner but to the south and east of the adjustment which occurs during stage 1. A low-level mesoscale jetlet is formed during stage 4 in response to the low-level pressure falls that are established during stage 3. The perturbation of this jetlet, caused by orographically-induced adiabatic and diabatic physical processes, is the likely mechanism responsible for the generation of the first and second episode of observed gravity waves. The dynamics responsible for this wave episode are discussed as differential surface sensible heating inducing an orographically-forced mountain-plains solenoid, resulting in the formation of additional mesoscale jetlets and internal gravity waves. Also discussed is how convective latent heating modifies the numerically simulated terrain-induced internal gravity waves, especially their amplitude and phase velocities, which provide better agreement with those wave characteristics observed in nature. Finally, the three-dimensional linear response of a zonally uniform barotropic flow in a vertically unbounded, continuously stratified, Boussinesq atmosphere which is perturbed from geostrophic equilibrium is investigated.

  8. Pain evoked by polymodal stimulation of hand veins in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, J O; Klement, W

    1991-01-01

    1. To explore the function of the sensory innervation of veins in humans we used a psychophysical approach to study painful and non-painful sensations by applying polymodal stimuli (electrical, stretch, cold/heat and osmotic) inside vascularly isolated hand vein segments before and after blockade of either venous or cutaneous afferents. 2. All modes of stimulation elicited pain, which showed only slight adaptation during 10 min of maintained stimulation. Pain increased monotonically with stimulus intensity between threshold and the maximally tolerable pain. 3. The exponents of the power functions of the pain magnitude-stimulus strength relations for five stimulus modes ranged between 2.5 and 3.3 but did not significantly differ from one another (P = 0.3). 4. Pain evoked by all stimuli was reported to be of similar quality, i.e. sharp, aching and unpleasant; it was accompanied by non-painful sensations (skin movements on stretching, warm and cold sensation with intravenous thermal stimulation) unless the skin above the stimulated vein segment was numbed with benzocaine ointment. 5. Pain could no longer be evoked in the presence of 0.4-0.8% procaine within the stimulated vein segment. 6. These observations are consistent with the view that veins are invested with polymodal nociceptors only, which in all likelihood are connected with thinly myelinated afferents of the A delta group. 7. The vascularly isolated vein segment may open a new avenue for pain research in humans. PMID:1804973

  9. Thrombosis of the portal vein in eleven dogs.

    PubMed

    Van Winkle, T J; Bruce, E

    1993-01-01

    Case records from the small animal necropsy service of the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA) from January 1981 through August 1990 were searched for reports of animals with grossly visible portal vein thrombi. Eleven dogs identified from their case materials as having portal vein thrombosis were used for this study. The age of the dogs ranged from 2 to 13 years, and there were five spayed females and six males--four intact and two castrated. Seven breeds were represented (Lhasa Apso, German Wire haired Pointer, Shetland Sheepdog, Dalmatian, Irish Wolfhound, Old English Sheepdog, and Siberian Husky), and the remaining four cases were identified as mixed breeds. The weight of the dogs ranged from 7.7 to 50 kg, and most of them were considered overweight. Dogs with microthrombi and tumor emboli in the portal vein were excluded. No age, sex, or breed predisposition was found. Thrombi were also detected in the pulmonary arteries in five of the dogs and both the pulmonary arteries and aorta in one dog. The portal thrombi extended into the mesenteric veins in three dogs, resulting in infarction of the jejunum. One of these dogs and two other dogs had chronic occlusion of the portal vein, with the formation of secondary portosystemic shunts. Conditions also present in dogs with portal vein thrombi included pancreatic necrosis (four dogs), peritonitis (two dogs), distant neoplasia (three dogs), and therapy with steroids (ten dogs). PMID:8442325

  10. Plant Disease Note 2007 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus, and Garlic common latent virus in Garlic in Oregon Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals

    E-print Network

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    Plant Disease Note 2007 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus-2007 The American Phytopathological Society First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus. With recent findings of Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), and Garlic common

  11. Sediment discharge of the Yellow River (China) and its effect on the sedimentation of the Bohai and the Yellow Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei-E. Ren; Yun-Liang Shi

    1986-01-01

    The Yellow River is noted for its small water discharge and huge sediment load, which amounts to about11 × 108 tons every year, contributing 17% of the world's fluvial sediment discharge to the ocean. This has a profound effect on the sedimentation of the Bohai and the Yellow Sea. Changes of the outlet in the modern delta every 10 y

  12. [A case of portal vein stenting for portal vein stenosis due to pancreatic cancer recurrence after pancreatoduodenectomy].

    PubMed

    Sawatsubashi, Takahiro; Morioka, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Takao; Nakatsuka, Hideki

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of portal vein stenosis due to pancreatic cancer recurrence that was successfully treated with intravenous stent implantation. The patient was a 70-year-old man who had undergone a subtotal stomach-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy with the modified Child method for pancreatic cancer. He was readmitted due to melena, dorsal pain, and severe ascites 8 months after the operation. Computed tomography (CT) findings revealed that pancreatic cancer recurrence had narrowed the portal vein. Neither gastrointestinal nor colon endoscopy could locate the source of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding from the varices increased, and a hepatopetal collateral was considered to be the cause. We therefore placed an intravenous stent at the site of portal vein stenosis, by the transileocolic portal vein. After the stent placement, no further gastrointestinal hemorrhagic episodes occurred. PMID:25731472

  13. Should All Patients Undergo Postoperative Duplex Imaging to Detect a Deep Vein Thrombosis After Varicose Vein Surgery?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Bhogal; I. K. Nyamekye

    2008-01-01

    Objectives  Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a serious complication of varicose vein surgery, with attendant risks of pulmonary embolization.\\u000a Prospective duplex screening identifies DVT in 5% of patients compared to clinical incidence of approximately 1%. Universal\\u000a duplex screening is costly, and the benefits of diagnosing subclinical DVT are unproven. This study evaluates whether a policy\\u000a of using clinical indications (leg swelling)

  14. Persistence of multiple emissary veins of posterior fossa with unusual origin of left petrosquamosal sinus from mastoid emissary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narvir Singh Chauhan; Yash Paul Sharma; Tilak Bhagra; Bindu Sud

    Emissary veins are valveless veins which pass through the cranial apertures and connect the dural venous sinuses and the extracranial\\u000a veins. The clinical importance of emissary veins is increasingly being appreciated. Some emissary veins like the petrosquamosal\\u000a sinus and mastoid emissary vein may cause significant bleeding during middle ear and skull base surgeries. A dilated mastoid\\u000a emissary vein or condylar

  15. Spectral tuning of photoactive yellow protein.

    PubMed

    Yamato, T; Ishikura, T; Kakitani, T; Kawaguchi, K; Watanabe, H

    2007-01-01

    We report a theoretical study on the optical properties of a small, water-soluble photosensory receptor, photoactive yellow protein (PYP). A hierarchical ab initio molecular orbital calculation accurately evaluated the optical absorption maximum of the wild-type, as well as the lambda(max) values of 12 mutants. Electronic excitation of the chromophore directly affects the electronic state of nearby atoms in the protein environment. This effect is explicitly considered in the present study. Furthermore, the spectral tuning mechanism of PYP was investigated at the atomic level. The static disorder of a protein molecule is intimately related to the complex nature of its energy landscape. By using molecular dynamics simulation and quantum mechanical structure optimization, we obtained multiple minimum energy conformations of PYP. The statistical distribution of electronic excitation energies of these minima was compared with the hole-burning experiment (Masciangioli, T. [2000] Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 639), a direct observation of the distribution of excitation energies. PMID:17017845

  16. Io's Sodium Cloud (Green-yellow Filter)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Jupiter's moon Io and its surrounding sky is shown in false color. North is at the top, and east is to the right. Most of Io's visible surface is in shadow, though one can see part of a white crescent on its western side. This crescent is being illuminated mostly by 'Jupitershine' (i.e. sunlight reflected off Jupiter).

    The striking burst of white light near Io's eastern equatorial edge is sunlight being scattered by the plume of the volcano Prometheus. Prometheus lies just beyond the visible edge of the moon on Io's far side. Its plume extends about 100 kilometers above the surface, and is being hit by sunlight just a little east of Io's eastern edge.

    Scattered light from Prometheus' plume and Io's lit crescent also contribute to the diffuse yellowish emission which appears throughout much of the sky. However, much of this emission comes from Io's Sodium Cloud: sodium atoms within Io's extensive material halo are scattering sunlight at the yellow wavelength of about 589 nanometers.

    This image was taken at 5 hours 30 minutes Universal Time on Nov. 9, 1996 through the green-yellow filter of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Galileo was then in Jupiter's shadow, and located about 2.3 million kilometers (about 32 Jovian radii) from both Jupiter and Io.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington D.C. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  17. Construction and evaluation of a multidimensional score to assess varicose vein severity - the Homburg Varicose Vein Severity Score (HVVSS).

    PubMed

    Rass, Knuth; Daschzeren, Mönchzezeg; Gräber, Stefan; Vogt, Thomas; Tilgen, Wolfgang; Frings, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate a novel score (HVVSS) for varicose vein patients combining subjective symptoms, clinical findings and functional data of venous insufficiency. 91 patients (118 legs) with primary varicose veins of the great, small or accessory anterior saphenous vein were treated with conventional surgery. HVVSS was assessed pre- and 3 months postoperatively. The data were compared with established clinical and disease-related life quality scores (VCSS, AVVQ, CIVIQ). Test responsiveness, validity and reliability were determined using correlations with CEAP stage and venous refilling time as hemodynamic parameter, and inter-observer variability was assessed. All scores were highly responsive to varicose vein surgery (p<0.001). HVVSS(0-100) decreased from 34.1 ± 13.0 to 9.6 ± 6.9 postoperatively. The relative score change of HVVSS was superior to VCSS (69.5% vs. 58.8%, p=0.005). HVVSS revealed highly significant correlations with the clinical CEAP stage and was exclusively able to differentiate mild from severe disease as defined by venous refilling time (p=0.009). Inter-observer reliability of HVVSS was confirmed by correlation coefficients of 0.977 and 0.950 pre- and postoperatively (p<0.001). HVVSS is a suitable and reliable tool to assess disease severity in varicose vein patients and to quantify therapeutic effects of varicose vein treatment. PMID:21680286

  18. Stripping the long saphenous vein reduces the rate of reoperation for recurrent varicose veins: Five-year results of a randomized trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Dwerryhouse; Birgit Davies; Kate Harradine; Jonathan J. Earnshaw

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible long-term clinical advantages of stripping the long saphenous vein during routine primary varicose vein surgery. Methods: The study was designed as a 5-year, clinical and duplex scan follow-up examination of a group of patients who were randomized to stripping of the long saphenous vein during varicose vein surgery versus

  19. Dual Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varix Draining into the Left Adrenal Vein and Left Inferior Phrenic Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Norifumi, E-mail: norifumin@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Ninoi, Teruhisa; Kitayama, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Akira; Sakai, Yukimasa; Sato, Kimihiko; Hamuro, Masao; Nakamura, Kenji; Inoue, Yuichi; Yamada, Ryusaku [Osaka City University Medical School 1-4-3, Asahi-machi, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    A 66-year-old woman with a gastric varix, draining into a dilated left adrenal vein and a left inferior phrenic vein, was treated with dual balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). Under balloon occlusion of the left adrenal vein and the left inferior phrenic vein, retrograde injection of a sclerosant (5% ethanolamine oleate) into the gastric varix was performed. Two weeks later, disappearance of flow in the gastric varix was confirmed on endoscopic ultrasound examination.

  20. 2D Optical Streaking for Ultra-Short Electron Beam Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.T.; Huang, Z.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We propose a novel approach to measure short electron bunch profiles at micrometer level. Low energy electrons generated during beam-gas ionization are simultaneously modulated by the transverse electric field of a circularly-polarized laser, and then they are collected at a downstream screen where the angular modulation is converted to a circular shape. The longitudinal bunch profile is simply represented by the angular distribution of the electrons on the screen. We only need to know the laser wavelength for calibration and there is no phase synchronization problem. Meanwhile the required laser power is also relatively low in this setup. Some simulations examples and experimental consideration of this method are discussed. At Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), an S-band RF transverse deflector (TCAV) is used to measure the bunch length with a resolution 10 femtosecond (fs) rms. An X-band deflector (wavelength 2.6cm) is proposed recently to improve the resolution. However, at the low charge operation mode (20pC), the pulse length can be as short as fs. It is very challenging to measure femtosecond and sub-femtosecond level bunch length. One of the methods is switching from RF to {mu}m level wavelength laser to deflect the bunch. A powerful laser ({approx}10s GW) is required to deflect such a high energy beam (GeV) in a wiggler. Synchronization is another difficulty: the jitter between the bunch and the laser can be larger than the laser wavelength, which makes single-shot measurement impossible. To reduce the laser power, we propose to use ionized electrons from high energy electron beam and gas interaction for high energy electron bunch diagnostics. Similarly, the femtosecond X-ray streak camera uses X-ray ionization electrons to measure the X-ray pulse. The electrons generated by beam-gas ionization have low energy (eVs). Therefore, a lower laser power is possible to deflect such low energy electrons. Note that there is no field ionization in our case. To avoid field ionization, which occurs in plasma case, gases species with high field ionization threshold should be considered. For a linear polarized laser, the kick to the ionized electrons depends on the phase of the laser when the electrons are born and the unknown timing jitter between the electron beam and laser beam makes the data analysis very difficult. Here we propose to use a circular polarized laser to do a 2-dimensional (2D) streaking (both x and y) and measure the bunch length from the angular distribution on the screen, where the phase jitter causes only a rotation of the image on the screen without changing of the relative angular distribution. Also we only need to know the laser wavelength for calibration. A similar circular RF deflecting mode was used to measure long bunches. We developed a numerical particle-in-Cell (PIC) code to study the dynamics of ionization electrons with the high energy beam and the laser beam.