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1

Comportement de deux virus filamenteux (Carnation Vein Mottle Virus, Carnation Streak  

E-print Network

Comportement de deux virus filamenteux (Carnation Vein Mottle Virus, Carnation Streak Virus) dans Botanique et de Pathologie végétale, Villa Thuret, B.P. 78, 06602 Antibes Cedex. R?SUM? Virus filamenteux, Dosage, Spectrophotométrie, OEillet. L'évolution de la teneur en virus de la Marbrure des Nervures de l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

Characteristics of whitefly transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a recently described ipomovirus, is transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, B strain. Understanding the characteristics of transmission is essential for developing management strategies for this virus, which is the causal agent for watermelon vine ...

3

Squash vein yellowing virus and its effects on watermelon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a novel whitefly-transmitted member of the Potyviridae was recently shown to cause a watermelon vine decline in Florida. Watermelon plants were grown under whitefly-free conditions in a greenhouse and inoculated with buffer (mock), SqVYV, or SqVYV and Papaya rin...

4

Host range comparison of the causal agents of pepper yellow vein and lettuce big vein  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of solanaceous and composite plant species were tested as hosts for the causal agents of pepper yellow vein (PYVA) and lettuce big vein (LBVA), transmitted by a pepper and a lettuce isolate ofOlpidium brassicae, respectively. The agents had the following artificial hosts in common:Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum melongena, Physalis floridana, Nicandra physaloides, Lactuca sativa, Sonchus oleraceus andL. virosa. Capsicum

A. Th. B. Rast

1992-01-01

5

Association of a distinct strain of hollyhock yellow vein mosaic virus and Ludwigia leaf distortion betasatellite with yellow vein mosaic disease of hollyhock (Alcea rosea) in India.  

PubMed

A distinct strain of hollyhock yellow vein mosaic virus (HoYVMV) and Ludwigia leaf distortion betasatellite (LuLDB) were associated with yellow vein mosaic of hollyhock. The viral DNA genome (JQ911766) and betasatellite (JQ408216) shared highest nucleotide sequence identity (89.2 %) with HoYVMV (the only available sequence in GenBank) and 92 % identity with LuLDB. Agroinfiltration of HoYVMV and LuLDB induced yellow vein mosaic symptoms on hollyhock, thereby demonstrating causality of the disease. PMID:24810100

Srivastava, A; Kumar, S; Raj, S K; Pande, S S

2014-10-01

6

Squash vein yellowing virus, a novel ipomovirus, isolated from squash and watermelon in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel whitefly-transmitted member of the family Potyviridae was isolated from a squash plant (Cucurbita pepo) with vein yellowing symptoms in Florida. The virus, for which the name Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is proposed, has flexuous rod-shaped particles of ~840 nm in length. SqVYV was ...

7

Occurrence of a Begomovirus with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta ( Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A whitefly transmitted Begomovirus (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) with a satellite (?-DNA associated with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa) has been detected for the first time in mesta growing regions of India.

A. Chatterjee; A. Roy; K. V. Padmalatha; V. G. Malathi; S. K. Ghosh

2005-01-01

8

Agroinoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana with cloned honeysuckle yellow vein virus isolated from Lonicera japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new honeysuckle yellow vein geminivirus (HYVV) isolate (2,763 nucleotides) and the HYVV-? satellite (1,227 nucleotides)\\u000a from Korea were cloned and characterized from symptomatic leaves of Lonicera japonica with a yellow net mosaic appearance. Phylogenetic analysis of HYVV and 13 other begomoviruses revealed that HYVV has the\\u000a highest nucleotide sequence homology to HYVV-UK2. Grafting challenge of a virus-free L. japonica

Gunsup Lee; Sunghan Kim; Jihye Jung; Chung-Kyoon Auh; Eunseok Choi; Mooung Chang; Sukchan Lee

2011-01-01

9

Suppression of Resistance-breaking Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus Isolates by Beet Oak-leaf Virus in Sugar Beet.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizomania, a very serious disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), is caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). Resistance allele Rz1 has been widely incorporated into commercial cultivars. Recently, resistance-breaking strains of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (RB-BNYVV) were identified...

10

First report of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus infecting spinach in California.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2009, plants from two spinach (Spinacia oleracea) experimental fields in Monterey County and one commercial spinach field in Ventura County of California exhibited vein clearing, mottling, interveinal yellowing and stunting symptoms. For experimental fields, up to 44% of spinach plants were infec...

11

Responses of various vining cucurbits to Squash vein yellowing virus infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) induced watermelon vine decline is a major limitation to watermelon production in Florida. The symptoms of this disease are a systemic wilt and necrosis which spreads along the vines of plants and leads to complete collapse. Fruit on affected vines also often sh...

12

Proteome changes in sugarbeet in response to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus infection.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), is characterized by excessive growth of lateral roots and constriction of the taproot, resulting in decreased sugar yield. There are limited sources of resistance against the virus and resistance-breaking isolates are becoming increasing...

13

Molecular characterization and population structure of a new ampelovirus associated with blackberry yellow vein disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blackberry yellow vein disease is the most important viral disease of blackberry in the United States. Experiments were conducted to characterize a new virus identified in symptomatic plants. Molecular analysis revealed a genome organization resembling Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, the type...

14

Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease in India is caused by association of a DNA Beta satellite with a begomovirus.  

PubMed

Yellow vein mosaic disease is the major limitation in the production of bhendi or okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), an important vegetable crop of India. This disease is caused by a complex consisting of the monopartite begomovirus Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus (BYVMV, family: Geminiviridae) and a small satellite DNA beta component. BYVMV can systemically infect bhendi upon agroinoculation but produces only mild leaf curling in this host. DNA beta induces typical symptoms of bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease (BYVMD) when co-agroinoculated with the begomovirus to bhendi. The DNA beta component associated with BYVMD has a number of features in common with those reported for ageratum yellow vein disease and cotton leaf curl disease. BYVMV represents a new member of the emerging group of monopartite begomoviruses requiring a satellite component for symptom induction. PMID:12573576

Jose, Joyce; Usha, Ramakrishnan

2003-01-20

15

Genetic analysis of lethal tip necrosis induced by Clover yellow vein virus infection in pea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) elicits lethal tip necrosis in the pea line PI 118501. Pea line PI 118501 develops necrotic lesions and veinal necrosis\\u000a on inoculated leaves, followed by systemic necrosis, leading to plant death. To understand the genetic basis of this lethal\\u000a tip necrosis, we crossed lines PI 226564 and PI 250438, which develop mosaic symptoms in response

Gerald Ravelo; Uiko Kagaya; Tsuyoshi Inukai; Masanao Sato; Ichiro Uyeda

2007-01-01

16

Sources of Resistance in U.S. Plant Introductions to Watermelon Vine Decline Caused of Squash Vein Yellowing Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted (Bemisia tabaci) Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV; genus Ipomovirus, family: Potyviridae) has become a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. Sympto...

17

Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline in Florida, USA reservoirs, genome characterization and mixed infections  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was identified in cucurbits in Florida in 2005, shown to be whitefly-transmissible and to induce a previously observed watermelon vine decline and fruit rind necrosis. SqVYV has been isolated from declining watermelons for the past six growing seasons in southwes...

18

Development and evaluation of quanitative early monitoring techniques for Squash vein yellowing virus, the cause of watermelon vine decline  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watermelon vine decline caused by whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is an emerging disease that has caused severe losses to Florida watermelon growers in recent years. Although the late stage symptoms of watermelon vine decline are basically diagnostic for the presence of SqV...

19

Squash vein yellowing virus detection using nested polymerase chain reaction demonstrates Momordica charantia is a reservoir host  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a recently described ipomovirus from cucurbits in Florida that induces the relatively unusual symptoms in watermelon of plant death and fruit rind necrosis and discoloration, commonly known in Florida as watermelon vine decline. In this report, we demonstrate ...

20

RNAi mediated gene silencing against betasatellite associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus.  

PubMed

Plant viruses encode suppressors of posttranscriptional gene silencing, an adaptive antiviral defense responses that confines virus infection. Previously, we identified single-stranded DNA satellite (also known as DNA-?) of ~1,350 nucleotides in length associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus (CYVMV) in croton plants. The expression of genes from DNA-? requires the begomovirus for packaged, replication, insect transmission and movement in plants. The present study demonstrates the effect of the ?C1 gene on the silencing pathway as analysed byusing both transgenic systems and transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens based delivery. Plants that carry an intron-hairpin construct covering the ?C1 gene accumulated cognate small-interfering RNAs and remained symptom-free after exposure to CYVMV and its satellite. These results suggest that ?C1 interferes with silencingmechanism. PMID:25086625

Sahu, Anurag Kumar; Marwal, Avinash; Nehra, Chitra; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar; Sharma, Pradeep; Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar

2014-11-01

21

A review of ipomoviruses and watermelon vine decline caused by the newly-described and whitefly-transmitted squash vein yellowing virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Though few in number, ipomoviruses cause significant disease in cucurbits and other crops in various parts of the world. As the causal agent of watermelon vine decline in Florida, Squash vein yellowing virus has recently become an economically important pathogen....

22

Positional effect of gene insertion on genetic stability of a clover yellow vein virus-based expression vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of the inserted genes in the viral expression vector varied depending on the sequence introduced and the position of insertion. Infectious cDNA to Clover yellow vein virus (pClYVV) was modified to insert a foreign gene at two independent sites: one, along with a polylinker, between the NIb and CP genes (pClYVV\\/CP\\/W) and the other between P1 and HC-Pro

Zhen Dong Wang; Shigenori Ueda; Ichiro Uyeda; Haruka Yagihashi; Hiroshi Sekiguchi; Yoko Tacahashi; Masanao Sato; Kenji Ohya; Chihiro Sugimoto; Takeshi Matsumura

2003-01-01

23

Characterization of sequence elements from Malvastrum yellow vein betasatellite regulating promoter activity and DNA replication  

PubMed Central

Background Many monopartite begomoviruses are associated with betasatellites, but only several promoters from which were isolated and studied. In this study, the ?C1 promoter from Malvastrum yellow vein betasatellite (MYVB) was characterized and important sequence elements were identified to modulate promoter activity and replication of MYVB. Results A 991 nucleotide (nt) fragment upstream of the translation start site of the ?C1 open reading frame of MYVB and a series of deletions within this fragment were constructed and fused to the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes, respectively. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assays showed that the 991 nt fragment was functional and that a 28 nt region (between ?390 nt and ?418 nt), which includes a 5?UTR Py-rich stretch motif, was important for promoter activity. Replication assays using Nicotiana benthamiana leaf discs and whole plants showed that deletion of the 5?UTR Py-rich stretch impaired viral satellite replication in the presence of the helper virus. Transgenic assays demonstrated that the 991 nt fragment conferred a constitutive expression pattern in transgenic tobacco plants and that a 214 nt fragment at the 3'-end of this sequence was sufficient to drive this expression pattern. Conclusion Our results showed that the ?C1 promoter of MYVB displayed a constitutive expression pattern and a 5?UTR Py-rich stretch motif regulated both ?C1 promoter activity and MYVB replication. PMID:23057573

2012-01-01

24

On the interaction and localization of the beet necrotic yellow vein virus replicase.  

PubMed

Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is a multipartite positive-strand RNA virus. BNYVV RNA-1 encodes a non-structural p237 polyprotein processed in two proteins (p150 and p66) by a cis-acting protease activity. BNYVV non-structural proteins are closely related to replication proteins of positive strand RNA viruses such as hepeviruses rather to other plant virus replicases. The p237 and dsRNA have been localized by TEM in ER structures of infected leaf cells whereas dsRNA was immunolabeled in infected protoplasts. The p150 contains domains with methyltransferase, protease, helicase and two domains of unknown function whereas p66 encompasses the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase signature. We report the existing interactions between functional domains of the p150 and p66 proteins and the addressing of the benyvirus replicase to the endoplasmic reticulum. Yeast two-hybrid approach, colocalization with FRET-FLIM analyses and co-immunoprecipitation highlighted existing interactions that suggest the presence of a multimeric complex at the vicinity of the cellular membranous web. PMID:25445349

Pakdel, Arezoo; Mounier, Claire; Klein, Elodie; Hleibieh, Kamal; Monsion, Baptiste; Mutterer, Jrme; Erhardt, Mathieu; Bouzoubaa, Salah; Ratti, Claudio; Gilmer, David

2015-01-22

25

Association of an Alphasatellite with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Ageratum Yellow Vein Virus in Japan is Suggestive of a Recent Introduction  

PubMed Central

Samples were collected in 2011 from tomato plants exhibiting typical tomato leaf curl disease symptoms in the vicinity of Komae, Japan. PCR mediated amplification, cloning and sequencing of all begomovirus components from two plants from different fields showed the plants to be infected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV). Both viruses have previously been shown to be present in Japan, although this is the first identification of AYVV on mainland Japan; the virus previously having been shown to be present on the Okinawa Islands. The plant harboring AYVV was also shown to contain the betasatellite Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite (ToLCJaB), a satellite not previously shown to be present in Japan. No betasatellite was associated with the TYLCV infected tomato plants analyzed here, consistent with earlier findings for this virus in Japan. Surprisingly both plants were also found to harbor an alphasatellite; no alphasatellites having previously been reported from Japan. The alphasatellite associated with both viruses was shown to be Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite which has previously only been identified in the Yunnan Province of China and Nepal. The results suggest that further begomoviruses, and their associated satellites, are being introduced to Japan. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:24424499

Shahid, Muhammad Shafiq; Ikegami, Masato; Waheed, Abdul; Briddon, Rob W.; Natsuaki, Keiko T.

2014-01-01

26

The C2 protein of Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus plays an important role in symptom determination and virus replication.  

PubMed

Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus (BYVMV) that causes bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease is a monopartite begomovirus with an associated betasatellite. Previous studies have shown that C2 protein of BYVMV acts as a suppressor of post transcriptional gene silencing, activates transcription, localizes to nucleus, and interacts with karyopherin ?. To probe the role of C2 in symptom determination and virus replication, the infectious clones of BYVMV containing two stop codons in the C2 ORF were created and used for infection studies. The Nicotiana benthamiana plants infiltrated with the infectious clones harboring stop codons in the C2 ORF did not develop any symptoms unlike plants infiltrated with wild-type BYVMV. Southern blotting and real time PCR analysis revealed that the viral load was reduced drastically in the plants infected with BYVMV containing the nontranslatable version of C2 ORF. However, there was a recovery in viral DNA replication, when co-infiltrated with wild-type betasatellite. Hence we conclude that the C2 protein of BYVMV plays an important role in symptom determination and viral DNA replication. PMID:24122068

Chandran, Sam A; Jeyabharathy, C; Usha, R

2014-02-01

27

Identification of plant reservoirs and genome characterization of Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was identified in cucurbits in Florida in 2005 and shown to be whitefly-transmissible and to induce a previously observed watermelon vine decline and fruit rind necrosis. Only cucurbits have been determined to be hosts for SqVYV so common cucurbit weeds in south ...

28

Presence of P1b and absence of HC-Pro in Squash vein yellowing virus suggests a general feature of the genus Ipomovirus in the family Potyviridae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Ipomovirus is one of six currently recognized genera in the family Potyviridae. The complete nucleotide sequence of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a putative ipomovirus recently described in Florida, has been determined. The SqVYV genomic RNA has one large open reading frame encoding...

29

Use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) causes watermelon vine decline in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). Current methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants are based on the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (NAHA), and visual symptom...

30

Symptoms on apple and pear indicators after back-transmission from Nicotiana occidentalis confirm the identity of apple stem pitting virus with pear vein yellows virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolates of apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) from diseased apple trees were maintained in Nicotiana occidentalis then back-transmitted mechanically from the herbaceous host to apple seedlings and indexed by double budding on apple and pear indicators for the following syndromes: apple stem pitting, pear vein yellows, Malus platycarpa dwarf and quince sooty ringspot. Symptoms associated with stem pitting and M.

G. Leone; J. L. Lindner; Meer van der F. A; C. D. Schoen; G. Jongedijk

1998-01-01

31

Blackberry Virus Y is a Member of a New Genus in the Family Potyviridae and a Contributing Component of Blackberry yellow vein disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new virus, designated as Blackberry virus Y (BVY), isolated from blackberries exhibiting symptoms of the blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD) has been identified. The complete nucleotide sequence of BVY has been determined and it revealed several unique features for a member of the Potyviridae fa...

32

Deletions in the KTER-encoding domain, which is needed for Polymyxa transmission, in manually transmitted isolates of Beet necrotic yellow vein benyvirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.?One A and oneB type isolate of Beet necrotic yellow vein benyvirus whichhad been passaged for more than 15 years on manually inoculated Chenopodium quinoa in our laboratory were found to havesmall deletions in the KTER-encoding domain on RNA 2 which is necessaryfor Polymyxa transmission. There were no indications that theseisolates and a third one, in which intact RNA 2

R. Koenig

2000-01-01

33

Expression of the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus p25 protein induces hormonal changes and a root branching phenotype in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RNA-3-encoded p25 protein was previously characterized as one of the major symptom determinants of the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus. Previous analyses reported the influence of the p25 protein in root proliferation phenotype observed in rhizomania disease\\u000a on infected sugar beets (Beta vulgaris). A transgenic approach was developed, in which the p25 protein was constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana

Claire PeltierLaure; Laure Schmidlin; Elodie Klein; Ludivine Taconnat; Els Prinsen; Mathieu Erhardt; Dimitri Heintz; Guy Weyens; Marc Lefebvre; Jean-Pierre Renou; David Gilmer

2011-01-01

34

Streaked Plain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

4 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark streaks created by dust devils on a plain southwest of Hellas Planitia. Based on the width and the length of individual streaks in this scene, it is clear that not all dust devils are created equally.

Location near: 55.8oS, 317.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

2006-01-01

35

Mapping of functional region conferring nuclear localization and karyopherin ?-binding activity of the C2 protein of bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease is caused by a complex consisting of a monopartite begomovirus associated with a ?-satellite. The C2 protein of bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus (BYVMV) is a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing and also functions as a transcriptional activator. To explore the molecular mechanisms of its nuclear trafficking and self-interaction, fusion proteins of fluorescent proteins with wild-type or mutated constructs of BYVMV C2 were expressed in tobacco protoplasts. Analyses revealed that the BYVMV C2 nuclear localization signal (NLS) was located in the N terminus of the protein, comprising aa 17-31 of C2. NLSs are recognized by a class of soluble transport receptors termed karyopherins ? and ?. The BYVMV C2 NLS was found to be necessary for this protein's interaction with its nuclear import mediator, karyopherin ?, ensuring its nuclear localization. Nevertheless, when deleted, C2 was found in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, suggesting NLS-independent nuclear import of this protein. Homotypic interaction of BYVMV C2 was also found, which correlates with the nuclear localization needed for efficient activation of transcription. PMID:22357749

Chandran, Sam A; Levy, Yael; Mett, Anahit; Belausov, Eduard; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Gafni, Yedidya

2012-06-01

36

Cytological and molecular evidence that the whitefly-transmitted cucumber vein yellowing virus is a tentative member of the family Potyviridae.  

PubMed

Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) is widespread in cucurbits in the Middle East. CVYV has filamentous particles and is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci by the semi-persistent mode. It has not yet been assigned to a specific genus or family. Ultramicroscopic observations revealed numerous cylindrical cytoplasmic inclusions in melon and cucumber cells infected by CVYV isolates from Israel and Jordan. Depending on the section orientation, the inclusions appeared as pinwheels or as bundles. In addition, a 1.9 kb DNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR from CVYV-infected plant extracts using primers designed to detect all potyvirids. Sequence comparisons with the amplified fragment indicated that CVYV is more closely related to Sweet potato mild mottle virus than to any other virus in the family Potyviridae: These results suggest that CVYV can be considered as a tentative new member of the genus Ipomovirus:, family Potyviridae: PMID:10950987

Lecoq, H; Desbiez, C; Delcolle, B; Cohen, S; Mansour, A

2000-09-01

37

P3N-PIPO of Clover yellow vein virus exacerbates symptoms in pea infected with white clover mosaic virus and is implicated in viral synergism.  

PubMed

Mixed infection of pea (Pisum sativum) with Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) and White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) led to more severe disease symptoms (a phenomenon called viral synergism). Similar to the mixed ClYVV/WClMV infection, a WClMV-based vector encoding P3N-PIPO of ClYVV exacerbated the disease symptoms. Infection with the WClMV vector encoding ClYVV HC-Pro (a suppressor of RNA silencing involved in potyviral synergisms), also resulted in more severe symptoms, although to a lesser extent than infection with the vector encoding P3N-PIPO. Viral genomic RNA accumulated soon after inoculation (at 2 and 4 days) at higher levels in leaves inoculated with WClMV encoding HC-Pro but at lower levels in leaves inoculated with WClMV encoding P3N-PIPO than in peas infected with WClMV encoding GFP. Our results suggest that ClYVV P3N-PIPO is involved in the synergism between ClYVV and WClMV during pea infection through an unknown mechanism different from suppression of RNA silencing. PMID:24418553

Hisa, Yusuke; Suzuki, Haruka; Atsumi, Go; Choi, Sun Hee; Nakahara, Kenji S; Uyeda, Ichiro

2014-01-20

38

Protein-protein interactions and nuclear trafficking of coat protein and betaC1 protein associated with Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease.  

PubMed

Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease (BYVMD) is caused by a complex consisting of a monopartite begomovirus BYVMV and a satellite DNA beta component. BYVMV represents a new member of the emerging group of monopartite begomoviruses requiring a satellite component for symptom induction. Here we report the results of the transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused with the betaC1 and coat protein (CP) coding regions, in the epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana. GFPCP was found to be targeted into the nucleus whereas GFPbetaC1 was localized towards the periphery of the cell. The sub-cellular localization of the betaC1 protein has been compared with that of the CP in yeast cells using a genetic system for detection of protein nuclear import and export. Expression of betaC1 ORF in transgenic N. benthamiana under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter produced severe developmental abnormalities in the plant, like distorted stem, leaves and stunting of the plant. We also present the results on the interaction of CP and betaC1 proteins using yeast two hybrid analysis, suggesting a collaborative role in the inter- and intracellular dynamics of BYVMD. PMID:16934356

Kumar P, P; Usha, R; Zrachya, A; Levy, Y; Spanov, H; Gafni, Y

2006-12-01

39

Infection of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus with RNA4-encoded P31 specifically up-regulates pathogenesis-related protein 10 in Nicotiana benthamiana  

PubMed Central

Background Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is the infectious agent of sugar beet rhizomania, which consists of four or five plus-sense RNAs. RNA4 of BNYVV is not essential for virus propagation in Nicotiana benthamiana but has a major effect on symptom expression. Early reports showed that RNA4-encoded P31 was associated with severe symptoms, such as curling and dwarfing, in N. benthamiana. Results We discovered that the pathogenesis-related protein 10 (PR-10) gene can be up-regulated in BNYVV-infected N. benthamiana in the presence of RNA4 and that it had a close link with symptom development. Our frame-shift, deletion and substitution analysis showed that only the entire P31 could induce PR-10 up-regulation during BNYVV infection and that all the tryptophans and six cysteines (C174, C183, C186, C190, C197 and C199) in the cysteine-rich P31 had significant effects on PR-10 expression. However, P31 could not interact directly with PR-10 in yeast. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that only integrated P31 specifically induced PR-10 transcription, which coincided closely with the appearance of severe symptoms in BNYVV-infected N. benthamiana, although they could not interact directly with each other in yeast. PMID:24961274

2014-01-01

40

A series of eIF4E alleles at the Bc-3 locus are associated with recessive resistance to Clover yellow vein virus in common bean.  

PubMed

Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) is capable of causing severe damage to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide. The snap bean market class is particularly vulnerable because infection may lead to distortion and necrosis of the fresh green pods and rejection of the harvest. Three putatively independent recessive genes (cyv, desc, bc-3) have been reported to condition resistance to ClYVV; however, their allelic relationships have not been resolved. We identified, evaluated, and characterized the phenotypic and molecular genetic variation present in 21 informative common bean genotypes for resistance to ClYVV. Allelism testing phenotypes from multiple populations provided clear evidence that the three genes were a series of recessive alleles at the Bc-3 locus that condition unique potyvirus strain- and species-specific resistance spectra. Candidate gene analysis revealed complete association between the recessive resistance alleles and unique patterns of predicted amino acid substitutions in P. vulgaris eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (PveIF4E). This led to the discovery and characterization of two novel PveIF4E alleles associated with resistance to ClYVV, PveIF4E (3) , and PveIF4E (4) . We developed KASPar allele-specific SNP genotyping assays and demonstrated their ability to accurately detect and differentiate all of the PveIF4E haplotypes present in the germplasm, allelism testing, and in three separate segregating populations. The results contribute to an enhanced understanding and accessibility of the important potyvirus resistance conditioned by recessive alleles at Bc-3. The KASPar assays should be useful to further enable germplasm exploration, allelic discrimination, and marker-assisted introgression of bc-3 alleles in common bean. PMID:23933781

Hart, John P; Griffiths, Phillip D

2013-11-01

41

Safflor yellow B suppresses angiotensin II-mediated human umbilical vein cell injury via regulation of Bcl-2/p22{sup phox} expression  

SciTech Connect

Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Angiotensin II (Ang II) can cause endothelial dysfunction by promoting intracellular ROS generation. Safflor yellow B (SYB) effectively inhibits ROS generation by upregulating Bcl-2 expression. In this study, we examined the effects of SYB on Ang II-induced injury to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and elucidated the roles of NADPH oxidase and Bcl-2. We treated cultured HUVECs with Ang II, SYB, and Bcl-2 siRNA, and determined NADPH oxidase activity and ROS levels. Furthermore, cellular and mitochondrial physiological states were evaluated, and the expression levels of target proteins were analyzed. Ang II significantly enhanced intracellular ROS levels, caused mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, and decreased cell viability, leading to apoptosis. This was associated with increased expression of AT1R and p22{sup phox}, increased NADPH oxidase activity, and an increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, leading to decreases in antioxidant enzyme activities, which were further strengthened after blocking Bcl-2. Compared to Ang II treatment alone, co-treatment with SYB significantly reversed HUVEC injury. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SYB could significantly protect endothelial cells from Ang II-induced cell damage, and that it does so by upregulating Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting ROS generation. - Highlights: Angiotensin II depresses mitochondria physiological function. Angiotensin II activates NADPH oxidase via up-regulating expresion of p22{sup phox}. Bcl-2 plays a pivotal role in improving mitochondria function and regulates ROS level. Inhibitor of Bcl-2 promotes angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury. SYB attenuates angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury via up regulating Bcl-2 expression.

Wang, Chaoyun; He, Yanhao [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Disease, Ministry of Education, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Yang, Ming; Sun, Hongliu; Zhang, Shuping [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Wang, Chunhua, E-mail: chunhuawang2012@163.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China)

2013-11-15

42

Deep SequencingBased Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Comprehensive Insights into the Responses of Nicotiana benthamiana to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus Infections Containing or Lacking RNA4  

PubMed Central

Background Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), encodes either four or five plus-sense single stranded RNAs and is the causal agent of sugar beet rhizomania disease, which is widely distributed in most regions of the world. BNYVV can also infect Nicotiana benthamiana systemically, and causes severe curling and stunting symptoms in the presence of RNA4 or mild symptoms in the absence of RNA4. Results Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analyses showed that the RNA4-encoded p31 protein fused to the red fluorescent protein (RFP) accumulated mainly in the nuclei of N. benthamiana epidermal cells. This suggested that severe RNA4-induced symptoms might result from p31-dependent modifications of the transcriptome. Therefore, we used next-generation sequencing technologies to analyze the transcriptome profile of N. benthamiana in response to infection with different isolates of BNYVV. Comparisons of the transcriptomes of mock, BN3 (RNAs 1+2+3), and BN34 (RNAs 1+2+3+4) infected plants identified 3,016 differentially expressed transcripts, which provided a list of candidate genes that potentially are elicited in response to virus infection. Our data indicate that modifications in the expression of genes involved in RNA silencing, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, cellulose synthesis, and metabolism of the plant hormone gibberellin may contribute to the severe symptoms induced by RNA4 from BNYVV. Conclusions These results expand our understanding of the genetic architecture of N. benthamiana as well as provide valuable clues to identify genes potentially involved in resistance to BNYVV infection. Our global survey of gene expression changes in infected plants reveals new insights into the complicated molecular mechanisms underlying symptom development, and aids research into new strategies to protect crops against viruses. PMID:24416380

Fan, Huiyan; Sun, Haiwen; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yongliang; Wang, Xianbing; Li, Dawei; Yu, Jialin; Han, Chenggui

2014-01-01

43

Detection and characterization of spontaneous internal deletion mutants of Beet Necrotic yellow vein virus RNA3 from systemic host Nicotiana benthamiana  

PubMed Central

Background Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein virus (BNYVV) is a member of the genus Benyvirus causing a worldwide sugar beet disease rhizomania. BNYVV contains four or five plus-sense single stranded RNAs. In altered selective conditions, multipartite RNA viruses of plant are prone to undergoing internal deletions, thus turning into Defective RNAs (D RNAs). Although several D RNAs have been reported in BNYVV infection, the spontaneous internal deletion mutants responsible for severe symptom in systemic host Nicotiana benthamiana (N. benthamiana) are not described so far. Results Systemic host N. benthamiana was inoculated by Chinese BNYVV isolates. RT-PCR and Northern blot showed that the D RNAs forms of BNYVV RNA3 were present in the systemic infection of the N. benthamiana. Three distinct D-RNA3s, named as D-RNA 3?, D-RNA 3? and D-RNA 3?, were made into infectious clones. When inoculated on the N. benthamiana, the in vitro transcripts of D forms exhibited more stable than that of wild-type RNA3 in systemic movement. Among the detected mutant, the p25 protein frame-shift mutant (D-RNA3?) induced obvious necrotic lesions on Tetragonia.expansa (T. expansa) and pronounced systemic symptom on the N. benthamiana. The D-RNA3? was further mutated artificially to pre-terminate the downstream N protein, leading to the abolishment of the pathogenicity, indicating the N protein was responsible for the necrotic symptom. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated the internal deletion mutants of BNYVV-RNA3 were spontaneously generated in the systemic infection on N. benthamiana. The internal deletions didn't affect the efficient replication of D-RNA3s, instead by improving the stability and pathogenicity of RNA3 in the systemic host N. benthamiana. Besides, our results also suggested the downstream N protein of RNA3, but not the upstream p25 protein, may play an important role in the systemic infection on N. benthamiana. PMID:21718549

2011-01-01

44

Microchannel plate streak camera  

DOEpatents

An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (uv to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 keV x-rays.

Wang, C.L.

1984-09-28

45

Microchannel plate streak camera  

DOEpatents

An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.

Wang, Ching L. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01

46

Microchannel plate streak camera  

DOEpatents

An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras is disclosed. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1,000 KeV x-rays. 3 figs.

Wang, C.L.

1989-03-21

47

Quantitative and Qualitative Involvement of P3N-PIPO in Overcoming Recessive Resistance against Clover Yellow Vein Virus in Pea Carrying the cyv1 Gene  

PubMed Central

In pea carrying cyv1, a recessive gene for resistance to Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV), ClYVV isolate Cl-no30 was restricted to the initially infected cells, whereas isolate 90-1 Br2 overcame this resistance. We mapped the region responsible for breaking of cyv1-mediated resistance by examining infection of cyv1 pea with chimeric viruses constructed from parts of Cl-no30 and 90-1 Br2. The breaking of resistance was attributed to the P3 cistron, which is known to produce two proteins: P3, from the main open reading frame (ORF), and P3N-PIPO, which has the N-terminal part of P3 fused to amino acids encoded by a small open reading frame (ORF) called PIPO in the +2 reading frame. We introduced point mutations that were synonymous with respect to the P3 protein but nonsynonymous with respect to the P3N-PIPO protein, and vice versa, into the chimeric viruses. Infection of plants with these mutant viruses revealed that both P3 and P3N-PIPO were involved in overcoming cyv1-mediated resistance. Moreover, P3N-PIPO quantitatively affected the virulence of Cl-no30 in cyv1 pea. Additional expression in trans of the P3N-PIPO derived from Cl-no30, using White clover mosaic virus as a vector, enabled Cl-no30 to move to systemic leaves in cyv1 pea. Susceptible pea plants infected with chimeric ClYVV possessing the P3 cistron of 90-1 Br2, and which were therefore virulent toward cyv1 pea, accumulated more P3N-PIPO than did those infected with Cl-no30, suggesting that the higher level of P3N-PIPO in infected cells contributed to the breaking of resistance by 90-1 Br2. This is the first report showing that P3N-PIPO is a virulence determinant in plants resistant to a potyvirus. PMID:23616656

Choi, Sun Hee; Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Atsumi, Go; Shimada, Ryoko; Hisa, Yusuke; Naito, Satoshi

2013-01-01

48

Visible Embryo: Primitive Streak  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

the page on early placentation and primitive streak formation from a comprehensive resource of information on human development from conception to birth, designed for both medical student and interested lay people.

Carmen Arbona (Mouseworks)

2006-09-08

49

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus  

E-print Network

E-337 1/05 Gaylon Morgan, State Extension Small Grains Specialist, College Station, TX Carl Patrick, Extension Entomologist, Amarillo, TX Karl Steddom and Charlie Rush, Plant Pathologists, Amarillo, TX W Overview of WSMV and HPV Wheat Streak Mosaic...

Morgan, Gaylon

2005-01-26

50

Wind Streak Changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2 September 2004 This pair of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images shows changes in dark wind streak patterns that occurred between 5 April 1999 (image M00-00534) and 17 August 2004 (image R20-00901). Unlike the spaghetti-like streak patterns made by dust devils, these streaks all begin on their upwind ends as tapered forms that fan outward in the downwind direction, and they all indicate winds that blew from the same direction. In both cases, winds blew from the southeast (lower right) toward the northwest (upper left). These streaks and the small pedestal craters found among them occur in the Memnonia region of Mars near 5.9oS, 162.2oW. The 400 meter scale bar is about 437 yards long. Sunlight illuminates each scene from the upper left.

2004-01-01

51

Huygens Wind Streak  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

19 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of wind action on the floor of the giant martian impact basin, Huygens. The large crater in this image has a wind streak on its lee side, pointing toward the lower right (southeast). Usually, a light-toned wind streak behind a crater on Mars will be composed of a thin veneer of dust that the wind was not able to erode because it was protected by the presence of the crater's raised rims. In this case, the streak is caused by something different -- by the fact that dark, windblown sand has not been able to accumulate behind the crater.

Location near: 13.0oS, 303.7oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

2005-01-01

52

Polar Dust Devil Streaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

30 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image of dunes in the martian north polar region is important because it shows one of the highest northern latitude views of streaks thought to be made by passing dust devils. The dark, thin, filamentary streaks on the dunes and on the adjacent plains were probably formed by dust devils. The dunes occur near 76.6oN, 62.7oW. Dust devil streaks are observed on Mars at very high latitudes, such as this, all the way down to the equator. They are also seen at all elevations, from the deepest parts of the Hellas Basin to the summit of Olympus Mons. This picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

2004-01-01

53

Varicose Veins  

MedlinePLUS

Varicose veins are swollen, twisted veins that you can see just under the skin. They usually occur in ... of the body. Hemorrhoids are a type of varicose vein. Your veins have one-way valves that help ...

54

Devil-Streaked Plain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

19 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark streaks on a plain south of the giant impact basin, Hellas Planitia. The streaks map the routes traveled by dozens of individual southern spring and early summer dust devils.

Location near: 68.4oS, 296.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

2006-01-01

55

Streak camera receiver definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed streak camera definition studies were made as a first step toward full flight qualification of a dual channel picosecond resolution streak camera receiver for the Geoscience Laser Altimeter and Ranging System (GLRS). The streak camera receiver requirements are discussed as they pertain specifically to the GLRS system, and estimates of the characteristics of the streak camera are given, based upon existing and near-term technological capabilities. Important problem areas are highlighted, and possible corresponding solutions are discussed.

Johnson, C. B.; Hunkler, L. T., Sr.; Letzring, S. A.; Jaanimagi, P.

1990-01-01

56

MAIZE FINE STREAK VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The report outlines the salient features of maize fine streak virus (MFSV) including a general description of the causal virus species, virion properties, genome description, the relationship of the virus to other taxa, biological properties of the disease and agronomic aspects of the disease. Maize...

57

The Primitive Streak, Cross Section  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This FlashTM animation is the third of a seven part series that presents the primitive streak from different angles. This installment displays the cross section, which is conducive to observing invagination. Epiblast cells ingress through the middle of the germ disc, to differentiate into either endoderm or mesenchymal mesoderm. The endoderm proliferates to drive the hypoblast into the extraembryonic endoderm of the yolk sac. The mesenchyme spreads between the epiblast and endoderm. Although not drawn to scale, the progressive thickening from lateral to paraxial mesoderm is depicted. To open the animation using Internet Explorer follow these steps. (1.) Click the link for the animation. (2.) A dialog box may pop up that begins with the statement "Windows cannot open this file:" If this box does not appear proceed to step four. If it does choose "Select the program from a list," then click OK. (3.) Another dialog box will pop up that lists different programs. Make sure "Internet Explorer" is selected, then click OK. (4.) Internet Explorer will pop up. Beneath the toolbars at the top of the window a yellow bar will appear that reads "To help protect your security, Internet Explorer has restricted this webpage from running scripts or Active X controls that could access your computer. Click here for options..." Pass the cursor over this yellow bar and click the right mouse button. (5.) A dialog box will pop up. Left click the option "Allow Blocked Content." (6.) Another dialog box will appear labeled "Security Warning" asking you to confirm that you want to run the content. Click "Yes." (7.) The Flash animation will appear in the Internet Explorer Window. (8.) Instructions for navigating the lesson are provided by the first frame of the animation.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

2011-06-23

58

Dunes and Wind Streaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

12 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows small, dark, north polar sand dunes and attendant wind streaks located near 76.7oN, 317.6oW. The dominant winds responsible for these features blow from the southwest (lower left). The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

2004-01-01

59

Varicose Veins  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Varicose Veins? Espaol Varicose (VAR-i-kos) veins are swollen, ... can form in other parts of the body. Varicose veins are a common condition. They usually cause few ...

60

Triton's streaks as windblown dust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Explanations for the surface streaks observed by Voyager 2 on Triton's southern hemisphere are discussed. It is shown that, despite Triton's tenuous atmosphere, low-cohesion dust trains with diameters of about 5 micron or less may be carried into suspension by aeolian surface shear stress, given expected geostrophic wind speeds of about 10 m/s. For geyser-like erupting dust plumes, it is shown that dust-settling time scales and expected wind velocities can produce streaks with length scales in good agreement with those of the streaks. Thus, both geyserlike eruptions or direct lifting by surface winds appear to be viable mechanisms for the origin of the streaks.

Sagan, Carl; Chyba, Christopher

1990-01-01

61

Differential roles of C4 and betaC1 in mediating suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing: evidence for transactivation by the C2 of Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus, a monopartite begomovirus.  

PubMed

Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease (BYVMD) is caused by the association of a DNA beta satellite with a begomovirus component. The begomovirus component has two promoters, one in the virion sense (V-sense) and the other in the complementary sense (C-sense) in the intergenic region (IR). To study the promoter activities of V-sense and C-sense promoters, mGFP gene fusion was made downstream to the promoters. Transient and stable expressions in N. benthamiana leaves showed significant GFP expression under C-sense promoter whereas the expression under the V-sense promoter was very weak in the absence of the transactivator C2. Untransformed N. benthamiana plants were agroinfiltrated with binary vector constructs containing V-sense-GFP alone or along with C1, C2, C4, V1, V2 or betaC1 (in both sense and antisense orientations) to understand the roles of these gene products in transactivation and/or suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). The results showed strong suppression of gene silencing activities for C4 and betaC1 but a weak activity for C2. The suppression activities were also confirmed using gfp-silenced GFP16c/GFPi plants by agroinfiltration and agroinoculation. The expression of C4 and betaC1 as transgenes produced abnormal phenotypic growth compared to the other viral genes mentioned above, further supporting their suppressor function. PMID:16949698

Gopal, P; Pravin Kumar, P; Sinilal, B; Jose, J; Kasin Yadunandam, A; Usha, R

2007-01-01

62

Varicose Veins  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... blood can reverse its flow. This causes increased pressure in the veins, and over time can cause ... swell and become bulging, varicose veins. The increased pressure can lead to significant symptoms such as: swelling ...

63

What Causes Varicose Veins?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Varicose Veins? Weak or damaged valves in the veins can ... space. These are varicose veins. Normal Vein and Varicose Vein Figure A shows a normal vein with a ...

64

Circular Scan Streak Tube Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A streak tube having circular scan was designed, built and tested. Continuous circular scan, easily derived from out of phase sine waves applied to the conventional deflection plates, permits the timing of pulses traveling long baselines. At the tube's output a circular array of 720 elements is scanned to provide 30 to 40 picosecond resolution. Initial difficulties with electron bombarded silicon arrays were circumvented by using microchannel plates within the streak tube to provide the needed electronic amplification and digital sensitivity and coupling the 720 element arrays to the electron beam by means of a phosphor on a fiber optics. Two ceramic body tubes with S-20 photocathodes were tested and delivered.

Nevin, S.

1980-01-01

65

The Streak Camera Development at LLE  

SciTech Connect

The Diagnostic Development Group at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics has endeavored to build a stand-alone, remotely operated streak camera with comprehensive autofocus and self-calibration capability. Designated as the Rochester Optical Streak System (ROSS), it is a generic streak camera platform, capable of accepting a variety of streak tubes. The system performance is limited by the installed tube's electron optics, not by any camera subsystem. Moreover, the ROSS camera can be photometrically calibrated.

Jaanimagi, P.A.; Boni. R.; Butler, D.; Ghosh, S.; Donaldson, W.R.; Keck, R.L.

2005-03-31

66

Sclerotherapy of Varicose Veins and Spider Veins  

MedlinePLUS

Sclerotherapy of Varicose Veins and Spider Veins Overview Sclerotherapy is a minimally invasive treatment used to treat varicose and spider veins. The ... cramps. It is the primary treatment for small varicose veins in the legs. top of page Preparation You ...

67

The use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbit species when there is no gold standard.  

PubMed

Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, one of the most serious diseases in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) production in the southeastern United States. At present, there is not a gold standard diagnostic test for determining the true status of SqVYV infection in plants. Current diagnostic methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants or tissues are based on the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (TB), and expression of visual symptoms. A quantitative assessment of the performance of these diagnostic tests is lacking, which may lead to an incorrect interpretation of results. In this study, latent class analysis (LCA) was used to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of RT-PCR, TB, and visual assessment of symptoms as diagnostic tests for SqVYV. The LCA model assumes that the observed diagnostic test responses are linked to an underlying latent (nonobserved) disease status of the population, and can be used to estimate sensitivity and specificity of the individual tests, as well as to derive an estimate of the incidence of disease when a gold standard test does not exist. LCA can also be expanded to evaluate the effect of factors and was done here to determine whether diagnostic test performances varied among the type of plant tissue being tested (crown versus vine tissue), where plant samples were taken relative to the position of the crown (i.e., distance from the crown), host (i.e., genus), and habitat (field-grown versus greenhouse-grown plants). Results showed that RT-PCR had the highest sensitivity (0.94) and specificity (0.98) of the three tests. TB had better sensitivity than symptoms for detection of SqVYV infection (0.70 versus 0.32), while the visual assessment of symptoms was more specific than TB and, thus, a better indicator of noninfection (0.98 versus 0.65). With respect to the grouping variables, RT-PCR and TB had better sensitivity but poorer specificity for diagnosing SqVYV infection in crown tissue than it did in vine tissue, whereas symptoms had very poor sensitivity but excellent specificity in both tissues for all cucurbits analyzed in this study. Test performance also varied with habitat and genus but not with distance from the crown. The results given here provide quantitative measurements of test performance for a range of conditions and provide the information needed to interpret test results when tests are used in parallel or serial combination for a diagnosis. PMID:23883156

Turechek, William W; Webster, Craig G; Duan, Jingyi; Roberts, Pamela D; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Adkins, Scott

2013-12-01

68

Varicose Veins and Spider Veins  

MedlinePLUS

... one-way flaps to prevent blood from flowing backwards as it moves up your legs. If the ... to heal. Sometimes they cannot heal until the backward blood flow in the vein is repaired. Bleeding. ...

69

Yellow fever.  

PubMed

Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease occurs in tropical areas of South America and Africa. It is a disease of major historical importance, but remains a threat to travelers to and residents of endemic areas despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 70 years. An important aspect is the receptivity of many non-endemic areas to introduction and spread of yellow fever. This paper reviews the clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of yellow fever, with an emphasis on recent changes in the distribution and incidence of the disease. Recent knowledge about yellow fever 17D vaccine mechanism of action and safety are discussed. PMID:25453327

Monath, Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

2014-10-24

70

Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Laser therapy - varicose veins; Radiofrequency vein ablation; Endovenous thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose vein therapy

71

Fiber-optic spectral-streak equalizer  

SciTech Connect

A spectral-streak equalizer was developed for use with an electronic streak camera to correct for material dispersion in optical fibers. Material dispersion occurs because different wavelengths of light travel at different speeds through glass fibers; the resulting difference in transit times broadens light pulses, which can lead to errors in certain scientific applications. This new instrument combines optical equalization and streak equalization techniques; it uses an array of optical fibers, as in the optical equalization technique, to partially compensate for the dispersion and uses the streak camera dynamics, as in the streak equalization technique, to complete the compensation. This paper examines the principles of equalization and compares several techniques, enumerates general and specific design considerations, outlines the calibration procedure, details efficiency estimates, describes testing techniques, gives calibration data and test results for spectral-streak equalizers currently in use, and draws conclusions from recent experience with these devices.

Reedy, R.P.; Roeske F. Jr.; Smith, D.E.

1985-07-01

72

Movement of bymoviruses and functions of RNA2-encoded proteins of barley yellow mosaic virus  

E-print Network

Movement of bymoviruses and functions of RNA2- encoded proteins of barley yellow mosaic virus P and experimental data that were obtained from plants infected with bymoviruses such as barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV), barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), or wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) suggested

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

Laminar streak enhancement using streamwise grooves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laminar streak promotion in a flat plate boundary layer results in an increase of the stability of the Tollmien-Schlichting waves with respect to that of the 2D Blasius profile. This stabilization delays the laminar-turbulent transition, increasing the laminar phase of the flow. The stabilization effect is stronger for higher streak amplitudes, and therefore simple ways of generating high amplitude stable streaks are sought to be used as boundary layer flow control methods. In a recent experiment [Tallamelli & Franson,AIAA 2010-4291] high amplitude stable steady streaks have been produced using Miniature Vortex Generators (MGVs), where one array of MGVs is used to excite the streak and a second array is used downstream to enhance their amplitude. In this presentation we numerically explore the possibility of enhancing the streaks using a different passive mechanism: streamwise grooves carved in the plate. We will present some numerical simulations for different values of the spanwise period of the streaks and of the grooves, and we will show the combinations that provide maximum streak amplitude.

Martel, Carlos; ngel Martn, Juan

2011-11-01

74

Electro-optic Phase Grating Streak Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The electro-optic phase grating streak spectrometer (EOPGSS) generates a time-resolved spectra equivalent to that obtained with a conventional spectrometer/streak camera combination, but without using a streak camera (by far the more expensive and problematic component of the conventional system). The EOPGSS is based on a phase, rather than an amplitude grating. Further, this grating is fabricated of electro-optic material such as, for example, KD*P, by either etching grooves into an E-O slab, or by depositing lines of the E-O material onto an optical flat. An electric field normal to the grating alters the materials index of refraction and thus affects a shift (in angle) of the output spectrum. Ramping the voltage streaks the spectrum correspondingly. The streak and dispersion directions are the same, so a second (static, conventional) grating disperses the spectrum in the orthogonal direction to prevent different wavelengths from overwriting each other. Because the streaking is done by the grating, the streaked output spectrum is recorded with a time-integrating device, such as a CCD. System model, typical design, and performance expectations will be presented.

Goldin, F. J.

2012-08-02

75

Atomic and molecular phases through attosecond streaking  

SciTech Connect

In attosecond streaking, an electron is released by a short xuv pulse into a strong near infrared laser field. If the laser couples two states in the target, the streaking technique, which allows for a complete determination of the driving field, also gives an accurate measurement of the relative phase of the atomic or molecular ionization matrix elements from the two states through the interference from the two channels. The interference may change the phase of the photoelectron streaking signal within the envelope of the infrared field, an effect to be accounted for when reconstructing short pulses from the photoelectron signal and in attosecond time-resolved measurements.

Baggesen, Jan Conrad; Madsen, Lars Bojer [Lundbeck Foundation Theoretical Center for Quantum System Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2011-02-15

76

Focus on Varicose Veins  

MedlinePLUS

... Varicose Veins How are varicose veins diagnosed? The diagnosis of varicose veins is made primarily by physical examination. The accuracy of physical examination is further improved with the aid of a hand-held Doppler ( ...

77

What Are Varicose Veins?  

MedlinePLUS

... Main Page The Pink Locker Society What Are Varicose Veins? KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems of Grown-Ups > Q & ... why veins look purple or blue. What Causes Varicose Veins? It's a lot of work to move all ...

78

Deep Vein Thrombosis  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Deep Vein Thrombosis? Espaol Deep vein thrombosis (throm-BO-sis), or DVT, is a blood ... This Content: Next >> October 28, 2011 Deep Vein Thrombosis Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

79

Yellow Fever Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected ...

80

Streak breakup in turbulent boundary layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct numerical simulations are used to compute the evolution of a single streak in a laminar boundary layer (Re* = 450) and a turbulent boundary on a flat plate at zero pressure gradient (Re* = 900). The single streak is formed through fluid injection at the wall as in Acarlar and Smith (1987). It is found that the single streak undergoes an instability resulting in the formation of hairpin vortices. The resulting flow field is in very good agreement with the experimental results of Acarlar and Smith (1987). The instability can be explained through an Orr-Sommerfeld analysis of the velocity profile on the plane of symmetry of the streak. The predicted wavelength and eigenfunctions are in very good agreement with those obtained from the simulations. Application of the same analysis to streaks in a fully turbulent boundary layer reveal as good an agreement. It is argued that this instability is the basic mechanism responsible for streak breakup. Acarlar, M.S. and Smith, C.R., 1987. A study of hairpin vortices in a laminar boundary layer. Part 2. Hairpin vortices generated by fluid injection. J. Fluid Mech., 175, pp. 43-83.

Haritonidis, Joseph H.; Skote, Martin

1999-11-01

81

Yellow Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 1951, Max Theiler (Fig. 10.1), a Rockefeller Foundation scientist, became the only person to be awarded the Nobel Prize\\u000a in Medicine and Physiology for the development of a virus vaccine (Norrby 2007). His live, attenuated 17D vaccine was not\\u000a the first yellow fever vaccine to be tested in humans, but it was by far the most successful one. More

Thomas P. Monath

82

Frost streaks in the south polar cap of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viking Orbiter images of the annual south polar cap on Mars exhibit elongated bright features that are associated with craters and resemble wind streaks observed elsewhere on Mars. The study focuses on the well-documented frost streaks. The discussion covers the morphology of frost streaks, occurrence, seasonal behavior, thickness of frost in streak deposits, wind patterns inferred from frost streaks and other eolian features in the south polar region, formation of frost streaks, and other locales of preferential frost accumulation. The form and seasonal behavior of the bright elongated albedo markings which extend from the rims of many craters in the south polar cap suggest that they are accumulations of CO2 frost in the lee of craters. The frost streaks appear in the fall, increasing in length but not changing in direction during fall and winter. The frost streaks indicate a prograde circulation pattern of near-surface winds around the pole. Other details are also presented.

Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.; Campos-Marquetti, R.

1979-01-01

83

The first satellite laser echoes recorded on the streak camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of the streak camera with the circular sweep for the satellite laser ranging is described. The Modular Streak Camera system employing the circular sweep option was integrated into the conventional Satellite Laser System. The experimental satellite tracking and ranging has been performed. The first satellite laser echo streak camera records are presented.

Hamal, Karel; Prochazka, Ivan; Kirchner, Georg; Koidl, F.

1993-01-01

84

Microrobotic Streak Seeding For Protein Crystal Growth CUCS04104  

E-print Network

Microrobotic Streak Seeding For Protein Crystal Growth CUCS­041­04 Atanas Georgiev 1 Peter Allen 1 crystallographers streak seeding it is used entice certain protein crystals grow. Our system features a of custom this paper known crystallographers streak seeding a technique where small nuclei (or micro­crystals

85

Improving count rate of attosecond streak camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the measurement of 140-attosecond single isolated extreme ultraviolet pulses generated with 9-fs carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers. The temporal shape and phase of the isolated attosecond pulses were characterized using the attosecond streaking technique, whereby electrons ionized by the attosecond pulse are momentum-shifted by a near-infrared laser field. Due to the limited flux of attosecond pulses, low electron count rate is a major problem in the streaking measurement. In our setup, the streaked photoelectrons were detected by a COLTRIMS (Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) type time-of-flight detector. A uniform magnetic field was applied along the flight axis between the detection gas jet and the MCP to increase the full acceptance angle to more than 28 degrees. Instead of measuring the photoelectron energy, the electron momentum was measured, which allows us to examine the effect of the acceptance angle on the accuracy of the pulse characterization. Differential pumping was successfully applied, which allows high gas target pressure for increasing the XUV photoionization efficiency. When the isolated attosecond pulses were generated with argon gas and detected with neon gas, the improved count rate allowed the streaking measurement to be done in the time period that the laser could maintain carrier-envelope phase locking.

Feng, Ximao; Gilbertson, Steve; Mashiko, Hiroki; Wang, He; Khan, Sabih; Chini, Michael; Chang, Zenghu

2009-05-01

86

Wind Streaks on Venus: Clues to Atmospheric Circulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magellan images reveal surface features on Venus attributed to wind processes. Sand dunes, wind-sculpted hills, and more than 5830 wind streaks have been identified. The streaks serve as local "wind vanes," representing wind direction at the time of streak formation and allowing the first global mapping of near-surface wind patterns on Venus. Wind streaks are oriented both toward the equator and toward the west. When streaks associated with local transient events, such as impact cratering, are deleted, the westward component is mostly lost but the equatorward component remains. This pattern is consistent with a Hadley circulation of the lower atmosphere.

Greeley, Ronald; Schubert, Gerald; Limonadi, Daniel; Bender, Kelly C.; Newman, William I.; Thomas, Peggy E.; Weitz, Catherine M.; Wall, Stephen D.

1994-01-01

87

Renal failure due to renal vein thrombosis in a fetus with growth restriction and thrombophilia.  

PubMed

We report a case of renal vein thrombosis diagnosed at 27 weeks of gestation in a dichorionic twin pregnancy. The left kidney of one fetus was hyperechoic and enlarged with echoic streaks following the direction of interlobular veins and the loss of corticomedullary differentiation. In the following weeks, left kidney became smaller and echoic, and Doppler examination showed no flow in both artery and vein. The right kidney had totally normal appearance in the beginning, but it became enlarged and hyperechoic, and progressed into a small echoic kidney with no flow in artery and vein. In the postnatal ultrasound examination, both kidneys appeared hyperechoic with no vascularization in the hilum region. There was thrombosis in arteries and veins of both kidneys, as well as in the inferior vena cava. The investigation for thrombophilia resulted with the combined presence of heterozygote mutation in factor V Leiden and prothrombin 20210 genes. PMID:24612313

Has, Recep; Corbacioglu Esmer, Aytul; Kalelioglu, Ibrahim H; Yumru, Harika; Yksel, Atil; Ziylan, Orhan

2014-04-01

88

Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High harmonic radiation, produced when intense laser pulses interact with matter, is composed of a train of attosecond pulses. Individual pulses in this train carry information on ultrafast dynamics that vary from one half-optical-cycle to the next. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical photonic streaking measurement that provides direct experimental access to each attosecond pulse by mapping emission time onto propagation angle. This is achieved by inducing an ultrafast rotation of the instantaneous laser wavefront at the focus. We thus time-resolve attosecond pulse train generation, and hence the dynamics in the nonlinear medium itself. We apply photonic streaking to harmonic generation in gases and directly observe, for the first time, the influence of non-adiabatic electron dynamics and plasma formation on the generated attosecond pulse train. These experimental and numerical results also provide the first evidence of the generation of attosecond lighthouses in gases, which constitute ideal sources for attosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

Kim, Kyung Taec; Zhang, Chunmei; Ruchon, Thierry; Hergott, Jean-Franois; Auguste, Thierry; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.; Qur, F.

2013-08-01

89

Multichannel fiber-optic spectral streak equalizer  

SciTech Connect

Spectral-streak equalization is a technique that has been developed to compensate for the material dispersion in optical fibers when used in conjunction with an electronic streak camera. Material dispersion occurs because different wavelengths of light travel at different speeds through glass fibers; the resulting difference in transit time broadens light pulses, and can lead to errors in high bandwidth photonic measurements. An instrument designed to compensate for this effect has been in use for the past several years in systems used to evaluate underground nuclear tests. A new instrument has been developed that has the following advantages: it can equalize several channels with one set of optics; it uses considerably less space; it has better resolution and greater efficiency, and it is more cost effective. This paper reviews the basic principles, describes the equalizers currently in use, discusses the design considerations of the new equalizer, describes a prototype four channel instrument, details efficiency estimates, outlines calibration procedures, and gives test results.

Reedy, R.P.

1986-08-20

90

Streak breakdown instability in pipe Poiseuille flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is devoted to the study of the stability of HagenPoiseuille flow or pipe flow. The analysis is focused on the streak breakdown process by which two-dimensional streamwise-independent finite amplitude perturbations transiently modulate the basic flow leading to a profile that contains saddle points and is linearly unstable with respect to very small streamwise-dependent perturbations. This mechanism is one

Alvaro Meseguer

2003-01-01

91

Streak breakdown instability in pipe Poiseuille flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is devoted to the study of the stability of Hagen-Poiseuille flow or pipe flow. The analysis is focused on the streak breakdown process by which two-dimensional streamwise-independent finite amplitude perturbations transiently modulate the basic flow leading to a profile that contains saddle points and is linearly unstable with respect to very small streamwise-dependent perturbations. This mechanism is one

lvaro Meseguer

2003-01-01

92

Transcriptomic landscape of the primitive streak.  

PubMed

In birds and mammals, all mesoderm cells are generated from the primitive streak. Nascent mesoderm cells contain unique dorsoventral (D/V) identities according to their relative ingression position along the streak. Molecular mechanisms controlling this initial phase of mesoderm diversification are not well understood. Using the chick model, we generated high-quality transcriptomic datasets of different streak regions and analyzed their molecular heterogeneity. Fifteen percent of expressed genes exhibit differential expression levels, as represented by two major groups (dorsal to ventral and ventral to dorsal). A complete set of transcription factors and many novel genes with strong and region-specific expression were uncovered. Core components of BMP, Wnt and FGF pathways showed little regional difference, whereas their positive and negative regulators exhibited both dorsal-to-ventral and ventral-to-dorsal gradients, suggesting that robust D/V positional information is generated by fine-tuned regulation of key signaling pathways at multiple levels. Overall, our study provides a comprehensive molecular resource for understanding mesoderm diversification in vivo and targeted mesoderm lineage differentiation in vitro. PMID:20667916

Alev, Cantas; Wu, Yuping; Kasukawa, Takeya; Jakt, Lars M; Ueda, Hiroki R; Sheng, Guojun

2010-09-01

93

Travelers' Health: Yellow Book  

MedlinePLUS

... INFO Home Destinations Travel Notices Find a Clinic Yellow Fever Vaccinations Clinics FAQ Disease Directory Information Centers For Travelers Common Travel Health Topics Adopting a Child from Another Country Adventure ... Yellow Book Contents Chapter 1 Introduction to Travel Health & ...

94

Recurrent varicose veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Doppler ultrasound was introduced for the assessment of patients with varicose veins, a more accurate clinical appraisal of the pathophysiology of this condition became possible. In particular, it enabled identification of those patients with recurrent varicose veins who had had inappropriate or inadequate initial treatment. It facilitated planning of appropriate further treatment.

John P. Royle

1986-01-01

95

Major peripheral veins injuries.  

PubMed

The injury was severe in wounded limb patients of this series who suffered from an associated major peripheral vein trauma. The presence of such an injury weighed heavily on the prognosis. Thirty eight patients with major peripheral veins injuries are reviewed. The injury had resulted from war wounds, work or road accidents. The superficial femoral vein was the most frequently injured vein. Associated injuries were frequently noted: soft tissues injuries in 35 patients, fractures in 33, arterial injuries in 32 and peripheral nerve injuries in 22 patients. Shock was more often present and more severe in patients who suffered also from a vein injury than in patients with an arterial injury only. The lacerated femoral vein was ligated in the majority of patients. Attempts were made to repair the lacerated popliteal veins. Repair of the vein was usually done by anastomosis of debrided ends. When an arterial injury was also present, it was repaired first. The postoperative complications were frequent and included infections, thrombophlebitis and pulmonary embolisations. Twenty four patients were discharged with a viable limb. Complete function was recovered in seven patients only. Partial neurological deficit remained in twelve patients and complete paralysis in five. Twelve patients underwent subsequent amputation of the injured limb. Indications for amputation were ischemia in eight, infection or extensive destruction of tissues in four. Two patients died. PMID:961040

Romanoff, H; Goldberger, S

1976-01-01

96

Streaked, x-ray-transmission-grating spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A free standing x-ray transmission grating has been coupled with a soft x-ray streak camera to produce a time resolved x-ray spectrometer. The instrument has a temporal resolution of approx. 20 psec, is capable of covering a broad spectral range, 2 to 120 A, has high sensitivity, and is simple to use requiring no complex alignment procedure. In recent laser fusion experiments the spectrometer successfully recorded time resolved spectra over the range 10 to 120 A with a spectral resolving power, lambda/..delta..lambda of 4 to 50, limited primarily by source size and collimation effects.

Ceglio, N.M.; Roth, M.; Hawryluk, A.M.

1981-08-01

97

Compact optical technique for streak camera calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To produce accurate data from optical streak cameras requires accurate temporal calibration sources. We have reproduced an older technology for generating optical timing marks that had been lost due to component availability. Many improvements have been made which allow the modern units to service a much larger need. Optical calibrators are now available that produce optical pulse trains of 780 nm wavelength light at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 GHz, with individual pulse widths of approximately 25 ps full width half maximum. Future plans include the development of single units that produce multiple frequencies to cover a wide temporal range, and that are fully controllable via an RS232 interface.

Bell, Perry; Griffith, Roger; Hagans, Karla; Lerche, Richard; Allen, Curt; Davies, Terence; Janson, Frans; Justin, Ronald; Marshall, Bruce; Sweningsen, Oliver

2004-10-01

98

Vein graft failure.  

PubMed

After the creation of an autogenous lower extremity bypass graft, the vein must undergo a series of dynamic structural changes to stabilize the arterial hemodynamic forces. These changes, which are commonly referred to as remodeling, include an inflammatory response, the development of a neointima, matrix turnover, and cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The sum total of these processes results in dramatic alterations in the physical and biomechanical attributes of the arterialized vein. The most clinically obvious and easily measured of these is lumen remodeling of the graft. However, although somewhat less precise, wall thickness, matrix composition, and endothelial changes can be measured invivo within the healing vein graft. Recent translational work has demonstrated the clinical relevance of remodeling as it relates to vein graft patency and the systemic factors influencing it. By correlating histologic and molecular changes in the vein, insights into potential therapeutic strategies to prevent bypass failure and areas for future investigation are explored. PMID:24095042

Owens, Christopher D; Gasper, Warren J; Rahman, Amreen S; Conte, Michael S

2015-01-01

99

Wind streaks: geological and botanical effects on surface albedo contrast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two wind streaks in the eastern Mojave Desert of California were examined to gain insight into the origin of the surface brightness contrast that makes them visible, both on the ground and in remote sensing data. The two localities are: a 4-km-long dark streak oriented S43E from the Amboy cinder cone (3432'N, 11546'W), located on a Quaternary basalt flow covered with aeolian sand, and a 2-km-long dark streak oriented S22E from a low hill near the southwestern base of Sleeping Beauty Mountain (3448'N, 11620'W), located on a sand-covered alluvial surface. In both cases, the dark streaks have enhanced rock abundances on the streak surface, relative to the surroundings. At the Amboy streak, slope wash likely contributed to the rock concentration on the streak surface, shielded from burial under aeolian sand by the cinder cone. At the Sleeping Beauty streak, the relative albedo contrast is strongly emphasized by the presence of Big Galleta grass only outside of the streak. The albedo contrast of the Sleeping Beauty streak can be effectively eliminated by the seasonal presence of annual grass preferentially within the streak. Some plants may have reflectances that are strongly dependent upon viewing and illumination geometry, raising the possibility that certain terrestrial aeolian features may appear variable on a diurnal basis. Alluvial processes appear to have been important at both localities for redistributing surface materials, even given the infrequent rain conditions present in the Mojave Desert.

Zimbelman, James R.; Williams, Steven H.

1996-09-01

100

SDOSS: A Spatially Discriminating, Optical Streaked Spectrograph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SDOSS is employed to study broadband laser scattering encompassing SBS, SRS, and the 3/2-omega signature of two plasmon decay for ns-scale laser-plasma experiments with 351 or 527-nm drive. It uses a Cassegrain telescope to image scattered light from a laser plasma onto a field stop. The telescope magnification and the stop aperture provide spatial discrimination of target plane scatter. A UV lens relays the image to a 0.25-m spectrograph which is lens coupled to a streak camera with an S-1 photocathode. The streak output is imaged onto a CCD camera. In its 512 x 480 pixel array, the CCD covers a spectral range from 200 to 800 nm with 4-nm resolution and can be adjusted to look from 350 to 1,060 nm. The sweep speed is variable with full window values of 30, 12, 6 ns, and faster. An optical fiducial provides a spectral and temporal marker. On the Livermore Nova laser, SDOSS has been used to determine spatial density in gas-filled hohlraums from SRS signals. At Trident in Los Alamos, it has been employed for similar measurements with long scale length plasmas in SBS and SRS seeding experiments. It has proven to be a versatile tool for studying the physics of laser-generated plasmas.

Cobble, J.; Evans, S.; Fernandez, J.; Oertel, J.; Watt, R.; Wilde, B.

101

Streak breakdown instability in pipe Poiseuille flow A lvaro Meseguera)  

E-print Network

Streak breakdown instability in pipe Poiseuille flow A´ lvaro Meseguera) Oxford University of Hagen­Poiseuille flow or pipe flow. The analysis is focused on the streak breakdown process by which two.1063/1.1564093 I. INTRODUCTION Hydrodynamic instability of pipe flow remains one of the oldest and yet unsolved

Meseguer, Alvaro

102

Deep Vein Thrombosis  

MedlinePLUS

... also called blood thinners) such as warfarin or heparin. Anticoagulants thin your blood so that clots won' ... form. Warfarin is taken as a pill and heparin is given intravenously (in your veins). If you ...

103

Streak breakdown instability in pipe Poiseuille flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is devoted to the study of the stability of Hagen-Poiseuille flow or pipe flow. The analysis is focused on the streak breakdown process by which two-dimensional streamwise-independent finite amplitude perturbations transiently modulate the basic flow leading to a profile that contains saddle points and is linearly unstable with respect to very small streamwise-dependent perturbations. This mechanism is one possible route of transition to turbulence in subcritical shear flows. The exploration is carried out for initial disturbances of different finite amplitudes and axial and azimuthal periodicity. This study covers a wide range of Reynolds numbers and the double threshold curve obtained for transition is consistent with experimental observations.

Meseguer, lvaro

2003-05-01

104

Comparative analysis of Panicum streak virus and Maize streak virus diversity, recombination patterns and phylogeography  

PubMed Central

Background Panicum streak virus (PanSV; Family Geminiviridae; Genus Mastrevirus) is a close relative of Maize streak virus (MSV), the most serious viral threat to maize production in Africa. PanSV and MSV have the same leafhopper vector species, largely overlapping natural host ranges and similar geographical distributions across Africa and its associated Indian Ocean Islands. Unlike MSV, however, PanSV has no known economic relevance. Results Here we report on 16 new PanSV full genome sequences sampled throughout Africa and use these together with others in public databases to reveal that PanSV and MSV populations in general share very similar patterns of genetic exchange and geographically structured diversity. A potentially important difference between the species, however, is that the movement of MSV strains throughout Africa is apparently less constrained than that of PanSV strains. Interestingly the MSV-A strain which causes maize streak disease is apparently the most mobile of all the PanSV and MSV strains investigated. Conclusion We therefore hypothesize that the generally increased mobility of MSV relative to other closely related species such as PanSV, may have been an important evolutionary step in the eventual emergence of MSV-A as a serious agricultural pathogen. The GenBank accession numbers for the sequences reported in this paper are GQ415386-GQ415401 PMID:19903330

2009-01-01

105

Inducible Resistance to Maize Streak Virus  

PubMed Central

Maize streak virus (MSV), which causes maize streak disease (MSD), is the major viral pathogenic constraint on maize production in Africa. Type member of the Mastrevirus genus in the family Geminiviridae, MSV has a 2.7 kb, single-stranded circular DNA genome encoding a coat protein, movement protein, and the two replication-associated proteins Rep and RepA. While we have previously developed MSV-resistant transgenic maize lines constitutively expressing dominant negative mutant versions of the MSV Rep, the only transgenes we could use were those that caused no developmental defects during the regeneration of plants in tissue culture. A better transgene expression system would be an inducible one, where resistance-conferring transgenes are expressed only in MSV-infected cells. However, most known inducible transgene expression systems are hampered by background or leaky expression in the absence of the inducer. Here we describe an adaptation of the recently developed INPACT system to express MSV-derived resistance genes in cell culture. Split gene cassette constructs (SGCs) were developed containing three different transgenes in combination with three different promoter sequences. In each SGC, the transgene was split such that it would be translatable only in the presence of an infecting MSVs replication associated protein. We used a quantitative real-time PCR assay to show that one of these SGCs (pSPLITrepIII-Rb-Ubi) inducibly inhibits MSV replication as efficiently as does a constitutively expressed transgene that has previously proven effective in protecting transgenic maize from MSV. In addition, in our cell-culture based assay pSPLITrepIII-Rb-Ubi inhibited replication of diverse MSV strains, and even, albeit to a lesser extent, of a different mastrevirus species. The application of this new technology to MSV resistance in maize could allow a better, more acceptable product. PMID:25166274

Shepherd, Dionne N.; Dugdale, Benjamin; Martin, Darren P.; Varsani, Arvind; Lakay, Francisco M.; Bezuidenhout, Marion E.; Monjane, Adrito L.; Thomson, Jennifer A.; Dale, James; Rybicki, Edward P.

2014-01-01

106

Streak interactions and breakdown in boundary layer flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to show that the interaction of streamwise velocity streaks of finite length can lead to turbulent breakdown in the flat-plate boundary layer flow. The work is motivated by previous numerical and experimental studies of transitional flows where the high-frequency oscillations leading to turbulence are seen to form in the region of strongest shear induced by streaks in relative motion. Therefore, a model for the interaction of steady and unsteady (i.e., slowly moving in the spanwise direction) spanwise periodic streaks is proposed. The interaction of two subsequent streaks is investigated for varying collision parameters. In particular, the relative spanwise position and angle are considered. The results show that the interaction is able to produce both a symmetric and asymmetric breakdown without the need for additional random noise from the main stream. Velocity structures characteristic of both scenarios are analyzed. Hairpin and ? vortices are found in the case of symmetric collision between a low-speed region and an incoming high-speed streak, when a region of strong wall-normal shear is induced. Alternatively, when the incoming high-momentum fluid is misaligned with the low-speed streak in front, single quasi-streamwise vortices are identified. Despite the different symmetry at the breakdown, the detrimental interaction involves for both cases the tail of a low-speed region and the head of a high-speed streak. Further, the breakdown appears in both scenarios as an instability of three-dimensional shear layers formed between the two streaks. The streak interaction scenario is suggested to be of relevance for turbulence production in wall-bounded flows.

Brandt, Luca; de Lange, H. C.

2008-02-01

107

High Performance Imaging Streak Camera for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray streak camera platform has been characterized and implemented for use at the National Ignition Facility. The camera has been modified to meet the experiment requirements of the National Ignition Campaign and to perform reliably in conditions that produce high EMI. A train of temporal UV timing markers has been added to the diagnostic in order to calibrate the temporal axis of the instrument and the detector efficiency of the streak camera was improved by using a CsI photocathode. The performance of the streak camera has been characterized and is summarized in this paper. The detector efficiency and cathode measurements are also presented.

Opachich, Y. P. [LLNL; Kalantar, D. [LLNL; MacPhee, A. [LLNL; Holder, J. [LLNL; Kimbrough, J. [LLNL; Bell, P. M. [LLNL; Bradley, D. [LLNL; Hatch, B. [LLNL; Brown, C. [LLNL; Landen, O. [LLNL; Perfect, B. H. [LLNL, HMC; Guidry, B. [LLNL; Mead, A. [NSTec; Charest, M. [NSTec; Palmer, N. [LLNL; Homoelle, D. [LLNL; Browning, D. [LLNL; Silbernagel, C. [NSTec; Brienza-Larsen, G. [NSTec; Griffin, M. [NSTec; Lee, J. J. [NSTec; Haugh, M. J. [NSTec

2012-12-01

108

High performance imaging streak camera for the National Ignition Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An x-ray streak camera platform has been characterized and implemented for use at the National Ignition Facility. The camera has been modified to meet the experiment requirements of the National Ignition Campaign and to perform reliably in conditions that produce high electromagnetic interference. A train of temporal ultra-violet timing markers has been added to the diagnostic in order to calibrate the temporal axis of the instrument and the detector efficiency of the streak camera was improved by using a CsI photocathode. The performance of the streak camera has been characterized and is summarized in this paper. The detector efficiency and cathode measurements are also presented.

Opachich, Y. P.; Kalantar, D. H.; MacPhee, A. G.; Holder, J. P.; Kimbrough, J. R.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Hatch, B.; Brienza-Larsen, G.; Brown, C.; Brown, C. G.; Browning, D.; Charest, M.; Dewald, E. L.; Griffin, M.; Guidry, B.; Haugh, M. J.; Hicks, D. G.; Homoelle, D.; Lee, J. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Mead, A.; Palmer, N.; Perfect, B. H.; Ross, J. S.; Silbernagel, C.; Landen, O.

2012-12-01

109

Progress on Modeling of Ultrafast X-Ray Streak Cameras  

SciTech Connect

Streak cameras continue to be useful tools for studying phenomena on the picoseconds time scale. We have employed accelerator modeling tools to understand and possibly improve the time resolution of present and future streak cameras. This effort has resulted in an end-to-end model of the camera. This model has contributed to the recent measurement of 230 fsec (FWHM) resolution measured at 266 nm in the Advanced Light Source Streak Camera Laboratory. We describe results from this model that show agreement with the experiments. We also extrapolate the performance of this camera including several possible improvements.

Huang, G.; Byrd, J.M.; Feng, J.; Qiang, J.; Wang, W.

2007-06-22

110

Temporal Contrast Changes in Dark Slope Streaks on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dark slope streaks on Mars, first observed in Viking images, provide insight into one of the most active and dynamic processes observed on the planet's surface. While various formation models have been suggested [1][2][3], dust avalanches seem to best explain streak origin and characteristics[4][5]. New dark streaks are observed to have the greatest contrast to their surroundings while older streaks have lower contrast, suggesting that streaks fade over time. One theory for this is atmospheric dust fallout slowly raising the albedo of the surface exposed by the dust avalanche, resulting in increased streak albedo over time until the streak becomes indistinguishable from the surrounding surface. In this study, we attempt an initial evaluation of changes in streak brightness relative to surroundings, with a first order correction for incidence angle[6] based on MOLA data. CRISM images were first identified for spatial and temporal overlap, then further selected for those image sets with well-matched viewing geometries. Locations included Nicholson Crater (CRISM images: frt0000c287_07_de165l, hrl0000d0f1_7_de165l, frt00018c69_07_de165l) and South of Nestus Valles (CRISM images: hrl00004a5e_07_de181l, hrl0000812a_07_de182l) as well as Naktong Vallis (CRISM images: hrl0000898d_07_de182l, hrl00005337_07_de182l) and an area in Lycus Sulci (CRISM images: hrl0000a52a_07_de166l, hrl0000ce5f_07_if175l). We focused on 1 micron wavelength CRISM images in order to reduce atmosphric interference. From here, brightness (observed radiance divided by solar irradiance at Mars divided by pi) values were collected along individual streaks, with measurements at multiple locations along the streak length and alongside at points of similar elevation to streak measurements to establish an average contrast ratio. Both on-streak and off-streak values were divided by the cosine of their respective local MOLA incidence angles to correct for brightness variation due to solar flux and topographic angles. These measurements were then repeated for overlapping temporal images, establishing local and overall averages for the rate of change in this contrast ratio. While our initial hypothesis was for linear streak fading, results showed a range of trends, including streaks and imaged areas with streaks that darkened, brightened, and brightened then darkened or vice versa. We continue to explore the possibility of non-linear brightening as well as streak reactivation and localized events, surface characteristics, and topography. Further study will focus on these and other morphological changes observed from vast data sets of other instruments including the Mars Reconnaissance Orbter HiRISE and CTX, Mars Express HRSC, Mars Odyssey THEMIS (visible), and the Mars Global Surveyor MOC. [1] Morris (1982) JGR, 87, 1164-1178. [2] Ferguson and Lucchita (1984) NASA Tech. Memo., TM-86246, 188-190. [3] Miyamoto, H. et al. (2004) JGR, 109, E06008. [4] Sullivan, R. et al. (2001) JGR, 106, 23607-23633. [5] Baratoux, N. M. et al. (2006) Icarus, 183, 30-45. [6] Brown, A. et al. (2010) JGR, 115, E00D13.

Chilton, H.; Phillips, C. B.; Fenton, L. K.; Brown, A. J.

2012-12-01

111

Statistical characteristics of streak artifacts on CT images: Relationship between streak artifacts and mA s values  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to investigate how streak artifacts on computed tomography (CT) images vary with reduction in radiation doses by assessing the quantitative relationship between the streak artifacts and milliampere-time product (mA s) values. A commercially available chest phantom was used to measure the streak artifacts on the CT images obtained using a 4- and 16-multidetector-row helical CT scanners with various mA s values at a constant tube voltage of 120 kVp. The cardiac slice image was employed as a target image for evaluating the streak artifacts on the CT image. Eighty parallel line segments with a length of 20 pixels were placed perpendicular to numerous streak artifacts on the cardiac slice image, and the largest difference between adjacent CT values in each of the 80 CT-value profiles of these line segments was employed as a feature variable of streak artifacts; these feature variables have been analyzed by the extreme value theory. The largest difference between adjacent CT values in each CT-value profile can be statistically modeled by a Gumbel distribution. Further, the maximum level of streak artifacts on CT images that will be tolerated for clinical use and low-dose CT screening examination was expected to be estimated using the location parameter in the Gumbel distribution.

Imai, Kuniahru; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Enchi, Yukihiro; Niimi, Takanaga [Department of Radiological Technology, Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, 1-20 Daikominami 1-chome, Higashi-ku, Nagoya, 461-8673 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, 2-15 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Radiological Technology, Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, 1-20 Daikominami 1-chome, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)

2009-02-15

112

Workshop on standards for photonic streak camera characterization  

SciTech Connect

A summary paper proposing standardization of definitions and parameter measurements related to photonic streak cameras was generated at the 16th International Congress of High Speed Photography and Photonics at Strasborg, France (August 1984). An international committee appointed by the general Workshop on Picosecond Streak Cameras met and discussed the areas appropriate for standardization and proposed specific definitions, measurements and complementary parameter sets to be used in characterizing photonic streak cameras. These proposals were compiled into a summary paper by the committee co-chairmen, Noel Fleurot (CEA-Limeil) and Gary L. Stradling (Los Alamos National Laboratory), with the intent that it be distributed to interested streak camera users and manufacturers and that appropriate improvements and additions be solicited.

Stradling, G.L.

1985-01-01

113

Breaking the 100-fs Barrier with a Streak Camera  

SciTech Connect

We present a novel x-rat streak tube design that uses a modest extraction field at the photocathode, axial time-of-flight dispersion compensation, and transverse energy selection to achieve better-than-100-fs time resolution.

Jaaniamgi,P.A.

2004-12-13

114

Portal Vein Thrombosis.  

PubMed

Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare event in the general medical setting that commonly complicates cirrhosis with portal hypertension, and can also occur with liver tumors. The diagnosis is often incidental when a thrombus is found in the portal vein on imaging tests. However, PVT may also present with clinical symptoms and can progress to life-threatening complications of ischemic hepatitis, liver failure, and/or small intestinal infarction. This article reviews the pathophysiology of this disorder, with a major focus on PVT in patients with cirrhosis, and presents detailed guidelines on optimal diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25454305

Basit, Syed Abdul; Stone, Christian D; Gish, Robert

2015-02-01

115

Design of neutron streak camera for fusion diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The D-T burn time for advanced laser-fusion targets is calculated to be very short, < 50 ps. We describe the design of a neutron streak camera of 16 ps resolving time that can be used to study the temporal history of fusion burn. The cathode of the neutron streak camera is sensitive to neutrons and is curved such that the difference in the neutron path lengths from a point source to various parts of the cathode is compensated by electron transit times within the streak tube. Thus the cathode can be made large for high sensitivity, without sacrificing time resolution. The cathode is coated with 1 ..mu..m UO/sub 2/. Each fission fragment leaving the cathode generates 400 secondary electrons that are all < 20 eV. These electrons are focussed to a point with an extractor and an anode, and are then purified with an electrostatic deflector. The electron beam is streaked and detected with the standard streak camera techniques. Careful shielding is needed for x-rays from the fusion target and general background. It appears that the neutron streak camera can be a viable and unique tool for studying temporal history of fusion burns in D-T plasmas of a few keV ion temperature.

Wang, C.L.; Kalibjian, R.; Singh, M.S.

1982-06-01

116

Epidemiology of varicose veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence rate of varicose veins in adults varies from less than 1% in lowland New Guinea women to over 50% in women in south Wales. Within populations the prevalence increases with age, is generally greater in women, is directly related to body mass, has an inconsistent relationship with occupation, and usually increases with increasing parity. None of these factors

Robert Beaglehole

1986-01-01

117

Dynamics of low-speed streak evolution and interaction in laminar boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper presents an experimental effort on the regeneration process of two low-speed laminar streaks in a zero-pressure-gradient laminar boundary layer. Two vertical thin wires separated by a spanwise distance of 30mm are used to introduce disturbances of two rolls of transitional Krmn vortex street to the downstream boundary layer. Both hydrogen bubble visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement show that two low-speed streaks are induced through leading-edge receptivity process. As these streaks develop in the downstream, two additional low-speed streaks begin to appear outboard of the flank of the original two, together with complex dynamics of streak splitting and merging. A flow pattern of four streaks aligned along the spanwise direction occurs finally in the far downstream. It is found that besides the mechanisms of streak breakdown, the streak interaction is also an important factor characterizing the instability of low speed streaks and their regeneration process.

Deng, Si-Chao; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jin-Jun

2014-10-01

118

Yellow Legged Frog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists found this adult mountain yellow-legged frog on June 10 in Tahquitz Creek, a rediscovered population of the endangered frog in the San Jacinto Wilderness, San Bernardino National Forest, California....

2009-07-23

119

Design and Field Test of a Galvanometer Deflected Streak Camera  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a compact fieldable optically-deflected streak camera first reported in the 20th HSPP Congress. Using a triggerable galvanometer that scans the optical signal, the imaging and streaking function is an all-optical process without incurring any photon-electron-photon conversion or photoelectronic deflection. As such, the achievable imaging quality is limited mainly only by optical design, rather than by multiple conversions of signal carrier and high voltage electron-optics effect. All core elements of the camera are packaged into a 12 inch x 24 inch footprint box, a size similar to that of a conventional electronic streak camera. At LLNL's Site-300 Test Site, we have conducted a Fabry-Perot interferometer measurement of fast object velocity using this all-optical camera side-by-side with an intensified electronic streak camera. These two cameras are configured as two independent instruments for recording synchronously each branch of the 50/50 splits from one incoming signal. Given the same signal characteristics, the test result has undisputedly demonstrated superior imaging performance for the all-optical streak camera. It produces higher signal sensitivity, wider linear dynamic range, better spatial contrast, finer temporal resolution, and larger data capacity as compared with that of the electronic counterpart. The camera had also demonstrated its structural robustness and functional consistence to be well compatible with field environment. This paper presents the camera design and the test results in both pictorial records and post-process graphic summaries.

Lai, C C; Goosman, D R; Wade, J T; Avara, R

2002-11-08

120

Unsteady analysis of hot streak migration in a turbine stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two- and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analyses are used to predict unsteady viscous rotor-stator interacting flow in the presence of a combustor hot streak. Predicted results are presented for a two-dimensional three-stator/four-rotor, a two-dimensional one-stator/one-rotor, and a three-dimensional one-stator/one-rotor simulation of hot streak migration through a turbine stage. Comparison of these results with experimental data demonstrates the capability of the three-dimensional procedure to capture most of the flow physics associated with hot streak migration including the effects of combustor hot streaks on turbine rotor surface temperatures. It is noted that blade count ratio has little effect on predicted time-averaged surface pressure and temperature distributions, but a substantial effect on the unsteady flow characteristics. It is shown that high-temperature hot streak fluid accumulates on the pressure surface of the rotor blades, resulting in a high time-averaged surface temperature 'hot spots'.

Dorney, Daniel J.; Davis, Roger L.; Edwards, David E.; Madavan, Nateri K.

1990-01-01

121

Hitting Is Contagious in Baseball: Evidence from Long Hitting Streaks  

PubMed Central

Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that hitting is contagious. A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising streaks of length games, including a total observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups () were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batters team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active) showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean for the treatment group was found to be to percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased points), while the batting heat index introduced here was observed to increase by points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a statistical contagion effect. Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research. PMID:23251507

Bock, Joel R.; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A.

2012-01-01

122

Time delays for attosecond streaking in photoionization of neon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the time-resolved photoemission in neon atoms as probed by attosecond streaking. We calculate streaking time shifts for the emission of 2p and 2s electrons and compare the relative delay as measured in a recent experiment by Schultze et al. [Science 328, 1658 (2010), 10.1126/science.1189401]. The B-spline R-matrix method is employed to calculate accurate Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith time delays from multielectron dipole transition matrix elements for photoionization. The additional laser field-induced time shifts in the exit channel are obtained from separate, time-dependent simulations of a full streaking process by solving the time-dependent Schrdinger equation on the single-active-electron level. The resulting accurate total relative streaking time shifts between 2s and 2p emission lie well below the experimental data. We identify the presence of unresolved shake-up satellites in the experiment as a potential source of error in the determination of streaking time shifts.

Feist, Johannes; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Nagele, Stefan; Pazourek, Renate; Burgdrfer, Joachim; Guan, Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus; Schneider, Barry I.

2014-03-01

123

A wide dynamic range x-ray streak camera system  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray streak camera with wide dynamic range and a large slit photocathode of 30 mm length has been developed and calibrated. In order to achieve wide dynamic range, a conventional streak tube has been improved and the camera system has been designed without microchannel plate electron amplifier. As a result, a dynamic range of 922 is achieved in a single shot mode with laser pulse of 30 ps (full width at half maximum) at time resolution of better than 31 ps.

Niu Lihong; Yang Qinlao; Niu Hanben; Liao Hua; Zhou Junlan; Ding Yunkun [Institute of Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Guangdong 518060 (China); Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2008-02-15

124

Effects of driving laser jitter on the attosecond streaking measurement.  

PubMed

Driving laser jitter is one of the main factors affecting the attosecond streaking measurement. The effect of carrier-envelope phase (CEP) jitter and the pulse energy jitter on the attosecond pulse characterization is studied in this paper. We have theoretically calculated and experimentally confirmed that CEP jitter could result in a symmetry trace in the streaking spectrogram, while the intensity jitter could result in a slight shift and broadening of the trace. Both of them can lead to an underestimate of the retrieved attosecond pulse duration. PMID:23938620

Zhong, Shiyang; He, Xinkui; Ye, Peng; Zhan, Minjie; Teng, Hao; Wei, Zhiyi

2013-07-29

125

X-ray streak camera with 30-fs timing jitter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated that the shot-to-shot timing jitter of a streak camera is reduced to 30 fs when it is triggered by a standard kilohertz laser with 1.2% RMS fluctuation. Such small jitter was obtained by improving the response time of deflection plates and the rise-time of a ramp pulse generated by a photoconductive switch, and by operating the photoconductive switch at the optimum working condition. The temporal resolution of the x-ray streak camera operating in accumulation mode is better than 600 femtosecond that is not limited by the timing jitter.

Liu, Jinyuan; Wang, Jin; Shan, Bing; Wang, Chun; Chang, Zenghu

2004-01-01

126

Hot streaks and phantom cooling in a turbine rotor passage. I - Separate effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental documentation and analytical correlations demonstrating the effects of hot streak accumulation and phantom cooling on turbine rotor airfoil surface temperature. Test results are shown for a range of controlling variables to identify where streak accumulation and phantom cooling are most likely to be strongest. These variables include streak injection location, streak-to-free stream density ratio and coolant-to-free stream density and velocity ratios.

Roback, Richard J.; Dring, Robert P.

1992-01-01

127

Control of Eggplant Yellows.  

E-print Network

AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Eggplants grown during the late summer and fall months in South and Central Texas are usually affected with a disease commonly called "eggplant yellows," which may... the green color in the plant. The contrast of yellow and green in an eggplant field is apparent at a considerable distance. The disease is infectious and appears to be caused by a virus, but the method of naQural transmission is not yet known. The most...

Jones, S. E. (Sloan Earle)

1942-01-01

128

ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER  

PubMed Central

By injecting into guinea pigs the blood of yellow fever cases occurring in Guayaquil a group of symptoms and lesions closely resembling those observed in human yellow fever were induced in a limited number of instances. Of 74 guinea pigs inoculated with specimens of blood from 27 cases of yellow fever, 8, representing 6 cases, came down with the symptoms; namely, a marked rise of temperature after a period of incubation averaging 3 to 6 days, with simultaneous suffusion of the capillaries, particularly of the conjunctivs and soles, then preliminary hyperleucocytosis followed by progressive leucopenia, the early appearance of albumin and casts in the urine, which gradually diminishes in volume as the disease progresses. The fever lasts only a few days, rapidly dropping first to the normal and then usually to subnormal. At this period jaundice manifests itself in varying degrees of intensity, first in the scleras, then in the skin and the urine. Hemorrhages from the nasal or gingival mucosa or anus have been observed to occur during this period. Autopsies reveal deep jaundice throughout the entire tissue. The liver is fatty and yellow, the kidney hyperemic, and often swollen and hemorrhagic. Hemorrhagic spots were almost always found in the lungs and gastrointestinal mucosa. Guinea pigs are usually rather sensitive to the infection, though many appeared to be somewhat resistant and some even refractory. The injection of the yellow fever blood into ringtail monkeys, rabbits, cats, guatusas, weasels, and sloths among the mammalians, and pigeons, ground-doves, bluebirds, mantas, blackbirds, parrakeets, reedbirds, blancos, and toucans among the birds, gave negative results. In the blood, liver, and kidneys of the guinea pigs experimentally infected with the blood of yellow fever patients a minute organism was demonstrated which closely resembles in morphology the causative agent of infectious jaundice (Leptospira icterohamorrhagi). The leptospira transmitted from yellow fever cases to guinea pigs was found to induce similar symptoms and lesions upon further passage into normal guinea pigs. The leptospira obtained from cases of yellow fever has been givern the provisional name of Leptospira icteroides. PMID:19868337

Noguchi, Hideyo

1919-01-01

129

Dark slope streaks on Mars: Are aqueous processes involved?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of dark slope streaks occur in the equatorial latitudes of Mars, mostly where magmatic-driven activity dominates the geologic record. Although originally ascribed to wet debris flows, all the most recent published hypotheses concerning these features focus on processes which disturb a brighter dusty mantle to expose a darker substrate. These mechanisms invoke dry mass wasting or eolian processes, excluding a role for water. In light of the geographic, geologic, and morphologic considerations, and the new information provided from the Mars Orbital Camera and the Mars Orbital Data Altimeter, we reexamine fluvial processes as a viable explanation for some of the dark slope streaks. In our opinion, two contrasting processes for the formation of dark slope streaks, dust avalanching and spring discharge, represent endpoints on a continuum of progenitors. It may be that some of these features result from dry mass wasting or eolian processes, some from fluvial processes, and some from a mechanism(s) not yet conceived. A spring discharge origin for the formation of the dark slope streaks has profound implications, including Mars having limited, but currently active, fluvial processes acting upon its surface, as well as near-surface aquifers.

Ferris, J. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Maddock, T.

2002-05-01

130

Analysis of hot streak effects on turbine rotor heat load  

SciTech Connect

The influence of inlet hot streak temperature distortion on turbine blade heat load was explored on a transonic axial flow turbine stage test article using a three-dimensional, multiblade row unsteady Euler code. The turbine geometry was the same as that used for a recently reported testing of hot streak influence. Emphasis was placed on elucidating the physical and mechanisms by which hot streaks affect turbine durability. It was found that temperature distortion significantly increases both blade surface heat load nonuniformity and total blade heat load by as much as 10--30% (mainly in the pressure surface), and that the severity of this influence is a strong function of turbine geometry and flow conditions. Three physical mechanisms were identified that drive the heat load nonuniformity: buoyancy, wake convection (the Kerrebrock-Mikolajczak effect), and rotor-stator interactions. The latter can generate significant nonuniformity of the time-averaged relative frame rotor inlet temperature distribution. Dependence of these effects on turbine design variables was investigated to shed light on the design space, which minimizes the adverse effects of hot streaks.

Shang, T. [Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford, CT (United States); Epstein, A.H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Gas Turbine Lab.

1997-07-01

131

Reliable and repeatable characterization of optical streak cameras.  

PubMed

Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility. To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information. PMID:19044688

Charest, Michael R; Torres, Peter; Silbernagel, Christopher T; Kalantar, Daniel H

2008-10-01

132

Reliable and Repeatable Characterization of Optical Streak Cameras  

SciTech Connect

Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information.

Michael Charest Jr., Peter Torres III, Christopher Silbernagel, and Daniel Kalantar

2008-10-31

133

Structure of the Maize Streak Virus Geminate Particle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Geminiviridae is an extensive family of plant viruses responsible for economically devastating diseases in crops worldwide. Geminiviruses package circular, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genomes. The characteristic twinned or geminate particles, which consist of two joined, incomplete T = 1 icosahedra, are unique among viruses. We have determined the first structure of a geminivirus particle, the Nigerian strain of Maize streak

Wei Zhang; Norman H. Olson; Timothy S. Baker; Lee Faulkner; Mavis Agbandje-McKenna; Margaret I. Boulton; Jeffrey W. Davies; Robert McKenna

2001-01-01

134

Performance characterization of an image converter based streak camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance response of an electronic subnanosecond streak camera to a spatially distributed optical signal varies significantly with the image location on output screen. The variations are due mainly to the combined effects of (1) electron-optics aberrations, (2) camera sweep ramps and gating waveform imperfections, (3) photocathode and phosphor quantum efficiency nonuniformities, and (4) excessive incident intensity or power. Consequently,

C. C. Lai; L. B. Olk

1985-01-01

135

Wind Tunnel Simulations of Light and Dark Streaks on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind tunnel experiments have revealed a characteristic flow field pattern over raised-rim craters which causes distinctive zones of aeolian erosion and deposition. Comparisons of the results with Mariner 9 images of Mars show that some crater-associated dark zones result from wind erosion and that some crater-associated light streaks are depositional.

Ronald Greeley; James D. Iversen; James B. Pollack; Nancy Udovich; Bruce White

1974-01-01

136

Low-speed streaks in drag-reduced turbulent flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of a surfactant drag-reducing additive (530 ppm Habon G solution) on the structure of wall turbulence, both in a flume and in pipe flow, was investigated experimentally. Real-time infrared thermography was used for flow visualization and measurements of the spanwise spacing between the thermal streaks. The experiments were carried out over a broad range of friction velocities, i.e., up*=0.51-3.27 cm/s. With wall shear velocities 1.54?up*?3.27 cm/s drag reduction of 82%-85% was achieved in a tube flow, well below the predictions of the Virk maximum drag reduction asymptote proposed for high polymers. The results of spanwise streak spacing indicate that wall shear velocity may be an appropriate parameter for describing nondimensional streak spacing behavior in drag reducing flows. A hypothesis, based on the average spanwise streak spacing ?+, can be applied to describe the mean velocity profiles of Habon G solutions. The ratio (?p+-100)/100 was applied to describe mean velocity profiles with 530 ppm Habon G solution.

Hetsroni, G.; Zakin, J. L.; Mosyak, A.

1997-08-01

137

Reliable and Repeatable Characterication of Optical Streak Cameras  

SciTech Connect

Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information.

Kalantar, D; Charest, M; Torres III, P; Charest, M

2008-05-06

138

Streaked Visible Spectroscopy Data Reduction Manual Ross E. Falcon1  

E-print Network

Streaked Visible Spectroscopy Data Reduction Manual Ross E. Falcon1 Department of Astronomy and Mc forms of this diagnostic (e.g., Bailey et al. 2000; Dunham et al. 2004; Bailey et al. 2008; Falcon et al Physical Science Consortium Graduate Fellow #12;R. E. Falcon SVS Data Manual 2 The pulsed power accelerator

Jefferys, William

139

Hitting is contagious in baseball: evidence from long hitting streaks.  

PubMed

Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that "hitting is contagious". A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates' batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising [Formula: see text] streaks of length [Formula: see text] games, including a total [Formula: see text] observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ([Formula: see text]) were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter's team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate [Formula: see text] confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active) showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean [Formula: see text] for the treatment group was found to be [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased [Formula: see text] points), while the batting heat index [Formula: see text] introduced here was observed to increase by [Formula: see text] points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the [Formula: see text] significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a "statistical contagion effect". Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research. PMID:23251507

Bock, Joel R; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A

2012-01-01

140

Recurrent varicose veins following high ligation of long saphenous vein: a duplex ultrasound study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplex scanning was used to study recurrent varicose veins in 244 limbs with previous high ligation of the long saphenous vein. The recurrent varicose veins were classified into two types according to the presence or absence of a residual long saphenous vein. Varicose veins with a residual long saphenous vein (type I) occurred in 168 limbs (68.9%). A residual long

Y. Tong; J. Royle

1995-01-01

141

Infrared imaging of varicose veins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been established that varicose veins are better visualized with infrared photography. As near-infrared films are nowadays hard to get and to develop in the digital world, we investigated the use of digital photography of varicose veins. Topics that are discussed are illumination setup, photography and digital image enhancement and analysis.

Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Zeeuw, Raymond; Verdaasdonk, Ruud M.; Wittens, Cees H. A.

2004-06-01

142

New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts.  

PubMed

Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb), Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (Palak/Indian spinach), Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold), Chrysanthemum indicum, Cosmos sulphurens (Yellow cosmos), Citrullus lunatus (Watermelon), Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd), Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Hibiscus subderiffa var. subderiffa (Roselle) and Portulaca oleraceae (Little hogweed). Detected groundnut seed infection with TSV for the first time by Direct antigen coated immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) using whole seed. The seed infection ranged from 18.9 to 28.9% among the seeds collected from naturally infected and sap inoculated groundnut varieties (JL 24, TMV 2, Prasuna, Kadiri 6, Kadiri 9, Anantha and Kadiri 7 Bold) belonging to spanish and virginia types. Further, TSV was detected both in pod shell and seed testa and none of the samples showed the presence of TSV either in cotyledon or embryo. Grow-out and bio-assay tests proved the absence of seed transmission in groundnut and other legume crops. Hence, TSV isolate was not a true seed transmission case under Indian conditions in legumes. PMID:23637490

Vemana, K; Jain, R K

2010-10-01

143

Variability of Yellow Supergiants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past three years 58 of 131 yellow supergiant stars selected from the Sky Catalogue 2000.0, Volume 1, Stars to magnitude 8.0 (1982), edited by Hershfeld and Sinnott, have been monitored at the SW Missouri State University Baker Observatory using a Photometrics PM512 liquid-nitrogen cooled CCD detector on a 0.4m Cassegrain reflector. These stars are being studied in order to determine what fraction of yellow supergiants are variable and whether low amplitude variations occur. The technique of CCD differential photometry was used, which required that a comparison star be within five arc minutes of a program star in order to be imaged simultaneously. Each program star was imaged on several nights for a total of at least 10 times with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 100. Nightly bias and flat images were obtained in order to calibrate the program images. The aperture photometry package in IRAF was used for image analysis. Also, concurrent observations were made of several control pairs of main sequence A and G spectral class binaries not known to be variable. At the 3 sigma level of the standard deviation of the means of the differences in magnitude for the control pairs: six known variable stars have been recovered, three new suspected variables have been found, and 40 yellow supergiants have been found non-variable within the precision of the measurements. (Nine stars were later determined not to be supergiants.) These 40 non-variable yellow supergiants are distributed liberally across the Cepheid instability strip on the H-R diagram. The three suspected variables have V amplitudes of 0.02 to 0.06 magnitude. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-9315061.

Patterson, R. S.

1997-05-01

144

Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

2011-10-01

145

Banana streak virus is very diverse in Uganda.  

PubMed

Banana streak virus (BSV) is a badnavirus that causes a viral leaf streak disease of banana and plantain (Musa spp.). Identified in essentially all Musa growing areas of the world, it has a deleterious effect on the productivity of infected plants as well as being a major constraint to Musa breeding programmes and germplasm dissemination. Banana is a staple food in Uganda which is, per capita, one of the worlds largest banana producers and consumers. BSV was isolated from infected plants sampled across the Ugandan Musa growing area and the isolates were analysed using molecular and serological techniques. These analyses showed that BSV is very highly variable in Uganda. They suggest that the variability is, in part, due to a series of introductions of banana into Uganda, each with a different complement of infecting viruses. PMID:15036835

Harper, Glyn; Hart, Darren; Moult, Sarah; Hull, Roger

2004-03-01

146

rf streak camera based ultrafast relativistic electron diffraction.  

PubMed

We theoretically and experimentally investigate the possibility of using a rf streak camera to time resolve in a single shot structural changes at the sub-100 fs time scale via relativistic electron diffraction. We experimentally tested this novel concept at the UCLA Pegasus rf photoinjector. Time-resolved diffraction patterns from thin Al foil are recorded. Averaging over 50 shots is required in order to get statistics sufficient to uncover a variation in time of the diffraction patterns. In the absence of an external pump laser, this is explained as due to the energy chirp on the beam out of the electron gun. With further improvements to the electron source, rf streak camera based ultrafast electron diffraction has the potential to yield truly single shot measurements of ultrafast processes. PMID:19191429

Musumeci, P; Moody, J T; Scoby, C M; Gutierrez, M S; Tran, T

2009-01-01

147

Randomness and inductions from streaks: "gambler's fallacy" versus "hot hand".  

PubMed

Sometimes people believe that a run of similar independent events will be broken (belief in the gambler's fallacy) but, other times, that such a run will continue (belief in the hot hand). Both of these opposite inductions have been explained as being due to belief in a law of small numbers. We argue that one factor that distinguishes these phenomena is people's beliefs about the randomness of the underlying process generating the events. We gave participants information about a streak of events but varied the scenarios in such a way that the mechanism generating the events should vary in how random the participants would judge it to be. A manipulation check confirmed our assumptions about the scenarios. We found that with less random scenarios, the participants were more likely to continue a streak. PMID:15117006

Burns, Bruce D; Corpus, Bryan

2004-02-01

148

Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Here we present an ultrahigh-speed Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) that records the OCT spectrum in streak mode with a high-speed area scan camera, which allows higher OCT imaging speed than can be achieved with a line-scan camera. Unlike parallel OCT techniques that also use area scan cameras, the conventional single-mode fiber-based point-scanning mechanism is retained to provide a confocal gate that rejects multiply scattered photons from the sample. When using a 1000 Hz resonant scanner as the streak scanner, 1,016,000 A-scans have been obtained in 1 s. This method's effectiveness has been demonstrated by recording in vivo OCT-image sequences of embryonic chick hearts at 1000 frames/s. In addition, 2-megahertz OCT data have been obtained with another high speed camera. PMID:21721817

Wang, Rui; Yun, Julie X.; Yuan, Xiaocong; Goodwin, Richard; Markwald, Roger R.; Gao, Bruce Z.

2011-01-01

149

Streaked horned lark Eremophila alpestris strigata has distinct mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Streaked Horned Lark (STHL; Eremophila alpestris strigata) is a federal candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act. We evaluated the conservation status and level of genetic\\u000a diversity of the STHL using the complete mitochondrial ND2 gene. We sampled 32 STHLs from the southern Puget Sound region,\\u000a the Pacific coast, and Whites Island in the Columbia River of Washington,

Sergei V. Drovetski; Scott F. Pearson

2005-01-01

150

9. VIEW OF 'BLUE STREAK' HAMMER MILL (Prater Pulverizer Co., ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF 'BLUE STREAK' HAMMER MILL (Prater Pulverizer Co., Chicago, Illinois), LOCATED IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE BASEMENT, WAS ADDED IN THE EARLY 1930s. THIS WAS THE MILL'S FIRST ELECTRIC-POWERED MACHINERY. THE HAMMER MILL WAS USED TO PULVERIZE OATS, ALFALFA MEAL, AND CORN. Photographer: Louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

151

Detection of episomal banana streak badnavirus by IC-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based strategy to detect episomal banana streak badnavirus (BSV) in banana and plantain plants that carry integrated BSV sequences was developed. Antisera used in immuno-capture polymerase chain reaction (IC-PCR) are capable of binding a large number of BSV serotypes. The primers used for PCR are capable of annealing to and amplifying across the aspartic protease-reverse

Glyn Harper; Ganesh Dahal; George Thottappilly; R. Hull

1999-01-01

152

Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera  

SciTech Connect

A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

Joshi, M. J.; Upadhyay, J.; Deshpande, P. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P. [Laser Electronics Support Division, RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India)

2010-08-15

153

Streaking At High Energies With Electrons And Positrons  

E-print Network

State-of-the-art attosecond metrology deals with the detection and characterization of photon pulses with typical energies up to the hundreds of eV and time resolution of several tens of attoseconds. Such short pulses are used for example to control the motion of electrons on the atomic scale or to measure inner-shell atomic dynamics. The next challenge of time-resolving the inner-nuclear dynamics, transient meson states and resonances requires photon pulses below attosecond duration and with energies exceeding the MeV scale. Here we discuss a detection scheme for time-resolving high-energy gamma ray pulses down to the zeptosecond timescale. The scheme is based on the concept of attosecond streak imaging, but instead of conversion of photons into electrons in a nonlinear medium, the high-energy process of electron-positron pair creation is utilized. These pairs are produced in vacuum through the collision of a test pulse to be characterized with an intense laser pulse, and they acquire additional energy and momentum depending on their phase in the streaking pulse at the moment of production. A coincidence measurement of the electron and positron momenta after the interaction provides information on the pair production phase within the streaking pulse. We examine the limitations imposed by quantum radiation reaction in multiphoton Compton scattering on this detection scheme, and discuss other necessary conditions to render the scheme feasible in the upcoming Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) laser facility.

Andreas Ipp; Jrg Evers; Christoph H. Keitel; Karen Z. Hatsagortsyan

2012-02-01

154

Stabilization of boundary layer streaks by plasma actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flow's transition from laminar to turbulent leads to increased levels of skin friction. In recent years, dielectric barrier discharge actuators have been shown to be able to delay the onset of turbulence in boundary layers. While the laminar to turbulent transition process can be initiated by several different instability mechanisms, so far, only stabilization of the Tollmien-Schlichting path to transition has received significant attention, leaving the stabilization of other transition paths using these actuators less explored. To fill that void, a bi-global stability analysis is used here to examine the stabilization of boundary layer streaks in a laminar boundary layer. These streaks, which are important to both transient and by-pass instability mechanisms, are damped by the addition of a flow-wise oriented plasma body force to the boundary layer. Depending on the magnitude of the plasma actuation, this damping can be up to 25% of the perturbation's kinetic energy. The damping mechanism appears to be due to highly localized effects in the immediate vicinity of the body force, and when examined using a linearized Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes energy balance, indicate negative production of the perturbation's kinetic energy. Parametric studies of the stabilization have also been performed, varying the magnitude of the plasma actuator's body force and the spanwise wavenumber of the actuation. Based on these parametric studies, the damping of the boundary layer streaks appears to be linear with respect to the total amount of body force applied to the flow.

Riherd, Mark; Roy, Subrata

2014-03-01

155

Reliable and Repeatable Characterization of Optical Streak Cameras  

SciTech Connect

Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser performance verification experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electronic components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases the characterization data is used to correct data images, to remove some of the nonlinearities. In order to obtain these camera characterizations, a specific data set is collected where the response to specific known inputs is recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, temporal resolution, etc., from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information.

Michael R. Charest, Peter Torres III, Christopher Silbernagel

2008-03-01

156

Streak camera based SLR receiver for two color atmospheric measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To realize accurate two-color differential measurements, an image digitizing system with variable spatial resolution was designed, built, and integrated to a photon-counting picosecond streak camera, yielding a temporal scan resolution better than 300 femtosecond/pixel. The streak camera is configured to operate with 3 spatial channels; two of these support green (532 nm) and uv (355 nm) while the third accommodates reference pulses (764 nm) for real-time calibration. Critical parameters affecting differential timing accuracy such as pulse width and shape, number of received photons, streak camera/imaging system nonlinearities, dynamic range, and noise characteristics were investigated to optimize the system for accurate differential delay measurements. The streak camera output image consists of three image fields, each field is 1024 pixels along the time axis and 16 pixels across the spatial axis. Each of the image fields may be independently positioned across the spatial axis. Two of the image fields are used for the two wavelengths used in the experiment; the third window measures the temporal separation of a pair of diode laser pulses which verify the streak camera sweep speed for each data frame. The sum of the 16 pixel intensities across each of the 1024 temporal positions for the three data windows is used to extract the three waveforms. The waveform data is processed using an iterative three-point running average filter (10 to 30 iterations are used) to remove high-frequency structure. The pulse pair separations are determined using the half-max and centroid type analysis. Rigorous experimental verification has demonstrated that this simplified process provides the best measurement accuracy. To calibrate the receiver system sweep, two laser pulses with precisely known temporal separation are scanned along the full length of the sweep axis. The experimental measurements are then modeled using polynomial regression to obtain a best fit to the data. Data aggregation using normal point approach has provided accurate data fitting techniques and is found to be much more convenient than using the full rate single shot data. The systematic errors from this model have been found to be less than 3 ps for normal points.

Varghese, Thomas K.; Clarke, Christopher; Oldham, Thomas; Selden, Michael

1993-01-01

157

Cell streak imaging cytometry for rare cell detection.  

PubMed

Detection of rare cells, such as circulating tumor cells, have many clinical applications. To measure rare cells with increased sensitivity and improved data managements, we developed an imaging flow cytometer with a streak imaging mode capability. The new streak mode imaging mode utilizes low speed video to capture moving fluorescently labeled cells in a flow cell. Each moving cell is imaged on multiple pixels on each frame, where the cell path is marked as a streak line proportional to the length of the exposure. Finding rare cells (e.g., <1 cell/mL) requires measuring larger sample volumes to achieve higher sensitivity, therefore we combined streak mode imaging with a "wide" high throughput flow cell (e.g. flow rates set to 10 mL/min) in contrast to the conventional "narrow" hydrodynamic focusing cells typically used in cytometry that are inherently limited to low flow rates. The new flow cell is capable of analyzing 20 mL/min of fluorescently labeled cells. To further increase sensitivity, the signal to noise ratio of the images was also enhanced by combining three imaging methods: (1) background subtraction, (2) pixel binning, and (3) CMOS color channel selection. The streaking mode cytometer has been used for the analysis of SYTO-9 labeled THP-1 human monocytes in buffer and in blood. Samples of cells at 1 cell/mL and 0.1 cell/mL were analyzed in 30 mL with flow rates set to 10 mL/min and frame rates of 4 fps (frame per second). For the target of 1 cell/mL, an average concentration of 0.91 cell/mL was measured by cytometry, with a standard error of 0.03 (C(95) = 0.85-0.97). For the target of 0.1 cell/mL, an average concentration of 0.083 cell/mL was measured, with a standard error of 0.01 (C(95) = 0.065-0.102). Whole blood was also spiked with SYTO-9 labeled cells to a concentration of 10 cell/mL, and the average flow cytometry measurement was 8.7 cells/mL (i.e. 0.87 cells/mL in diluted blood) with a 95% CL of 8.1-9.2 cells/mL. This demonstrated the ability to detect rare cells in blood with high accuracy. Such detection approaches for rare cells have many potential clinical applications. Furthermore, the simplicity and low cost of this device may enable expansion of cell-based clinical diagnostics, especially in resource-poor settings. PMID:25212069

Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

2015-02-15

158

Hot streaks and phantom cooling in a turbine rotor passage. II - Combined effects and analytical modelling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental documentation and analytical correlations demonstrating the effects of hot streak accumulation and phantom cooling on turbine rotor airfoil surface temperature are presented. Results are shown which quantify the impact of a nonuniform temperature profile at the entrance of a turbine due to combustor-generated hot and cold streaks, and cooling air discharged from the trailing edge of the upstream stator. Experimental results are shown for a range of controlling variables to identify where streak accumulation and phantom cooling were most likely to be strongest. These variables include streak-to-free stream density ratio, streak injection location, and coolant-to-free stream density and velocity ratios. Experimental results are shown for the combined effects of hot streak and stator coolant on the adiabatic recovery temperature of the rotor.

Roback, Richard J.; Dring, Robert P.

1992-01-01

159

Absence of retromandibular vein associated with atypical formation of external jugular vein in the parotid region  

PubMed Central

Veins of the head and neck exhibiting anatomical variations or malformations are clinically significant. Anatomical variation in the external jugular vein is very common. However, anatomical variation in the retromandibular vein is rare. In this paper, we report a rare case of complete absence of the retromandibular vein. In the absence of the retromandibular vein, the maxillary vein divided into anterior and posterior divisions. The posterior division joined the superficial temporal vein to form an atypical external jugular vein, and the anterior division joined the facial vein to form an anonymous vein. In clinical practice, radiologists and surgeons use the retromandibular vein as a guide to expose the branches of the facial nerve during superficial parotidectomy. Therefore, absence of the retromandibular vein is a hurdle during this procedure and may affect the venous drainage pattern from the head and neck. PMID:24987551

Patil, Jyothsna; Swamy, Ravindra S.; D'Souza, Melanie R.; Guru, Anitha; Nayak, Satheesha B.

2014-01-01

160

Defrosting Polar Dunes--Dark Spots and Wind Streaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first time that the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC)team saw dark spots on defrosting dune surfaces was in August and September of 1998. At that time, it was the north polar seasonal frost cap that was subliming away (more recent images from 1999 have shown the south polar frosts). This picture (above) shows a small portion of the giant dune field that surrounds the north polar region, as it appeared on August 23, 1998. At the time, it was early northern spring and the dunes were still covered with winter frost.

Dark spots had appeared on the north polar dunes, and many of them exhibited a radial or semi-radial pattern of dark streaks and streamers. At first, there was speculation that the streaks indicated that the defrosting process might somehow involve explosions! The dark spots seemed to resemble small craters with dark, radial ejecta. It seemed possible that frozen carbon dioxide trapped beneath water ice might somehow heat up, turn to gas, expand, and then 'explode' in either a small blast or at least a 'puff' of air similar to that which comes from the blowhole of a surfacing whale or seal.

The image shown here changed the earlier impression. The dark spots and streaks do not result from explosions. The spots--though not well understood--represent the earliest stages of defrosting on the sand dunes. The streaks, instead of being caused by small explosions, are instead the result of wind. In this picture, the fine, dark streaks show essentially identical orientations from spot to spot (e.g., compare the spots seen in boxes (a) and (b)). Each ray of dark material must result from wind blowing from a particular direction--for example, all of the spots in this picture exhibit a ray that points toward the upper left corner of the image, and each of these rays indicates the same wind regime. Each spot also has a ray pointing toward the lower right and top/upper-right. These, too, must indicate periods when the wind was strong enough to move materials, consistently, in only one direction.

The sand that makes up the north polar dunes is dark. Each spot and streak is composed of the dune sand. The bright surfaces are all covered with frost. This picture is located near 76.9oN, 271.2oW, in the north polar sand sea. Illumination is from the lower left. The 200 meter scale also indicates a distance of 656 feet.

Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

1999-01-01

161

Agrobacterium-mediated infectivity of cloned digitaria streak virus DNA.  

PubMed

A monomeric clone of double-stranded DNA synthesized in vitro DNA of the geminivirus Digitaria streak (DSV) was subcloned as a tandem dimeric unit into a binary vector of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, creating a plasmid pDS2. Inoculation of digitaria sanguinalis with A. tumefaciens carrying pDS2 resulted in viral infection. The symptoms, virus particles, and DNA forms obtained were indistinguishable from those of a natural DSV infection of D. sanguinalis. Inoculations have also induced infections in Zea mays and Avena sativa. The sequence of the Agrobacterium-mediated infectious clone of DSV has been determined. PMID:3341112

Donson, J; Gunn, H V; Woolston, C J; Pinner, M S; Boulton, M I; Mullineaux, P M; Davies, J W

1988-01-01

162

fisheriesresearch Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is  

E-print Network

fisheriesresearch feature Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is an important ecological and economic in Lake Michigan: Evaluating Progress in a Cooperative Effort, 1997­2001 Yellow perch (Perca flavescens

Miller, Tom

163

ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the records of instances in which non-immune persons contracted yellow fever notwithstanding vaccination shows that the onset of disease occurs soon after vaccination, the longest period being 13 days. Since the average incubation period in yellow fever is 6 days, it seems that infection must have taken place in some instances during the period while protection was developing. These instances led to a study of the possibility of immediate protection by means of the anti-icteroides serum. It had already been shown that the immune serum protects at once against experimental Leptospira icteroides infection, but it remained to determine how long the protection would last. Guinea pigs were given different quantities of the immune serum and subsequently injected, at various intervals, with a virulent strain of Leptospira icteroides. Complete protection enduring 5 days was obtained with as minute a quantity of serum as 0.002 cc. per 1,000 gm. of body weight. After 5 days, however, the immune substance rapidly diminished, and to keep the animal protected for as long as 10 days it was necessary to give 100 times as much, or 0.2 cc. For a man weighing 80 kilos, 0.16 cc. (0.002 x 80) would theoretically be sufficient to protect for at least 5 days, 1.6 cc. for 7 days, and 16 cc. for 10 days. This temporary protection may be a valuable antecedent to that furnished by vaccination, since the final effect of the latter cannot be expected until at least 9 to 10 days have passed. PMID:19868677

Noguchi, Hideyo

1922-01-01

164

Microprocessor-controlled wide-range streak camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

Lewis, Amy E.; Hollabaugh, Craig

2006-08-01

165

Interactions between performance pressure, performance streaks, and attentional focus.  

PubMed

How is performance under pressure influenced by the history of events that precede it, and how does the pressure outcome influence the series of events that follow? A baseball batting simulation was used with college players to investigate these questions. In Experiment 1, the difficulty of the simulation was first adaptively adjusted to equate performance level. Batters next completed 20 at-bats used to classify them into one of three performance groups (normal, cold streak, or hot streak) followed by a one at-bat pressure condition. Finally, performance was evaluated over a period of 20 postpressure at-bats. In Experiment 2, a series of secondary tasks were added to assess attentional focus. In both experiments, whether batters succeeded or failed under pressure was significantly related to their performance history immediately before the pressure event, with the normal group having the poorest pressure performance. Performance postpressure was significantly related to both the pressure outcome and prepressure performance. These performance effects were related to changes in the batter's attentional focus as shown by changes in secondary task accuracy. PMID:23966447

Gray, Rob; Allsop, Jonathan

2013-08-01

166

Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera  

SciTech Connect

Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The cameras user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

Amy E. Lewis, Craig Hollabaugh

2006-09-01

167

Microrobotic Streak Seeding For Protein Crystal Growth CUCS-041-04  

E-print Network

Microrobotic Streak Seeding For Protein Crystal Growth CUCS-041-04 Atanas Georgiev1 , Peter K Abstract We present a microrobotic system for protein crystal micromanipulation tasks. The focus in this paper is on the task known by crystallographers as streak seeding ­ it is used to entice certain protein

168

Yellow professionalism. Advertising by physicians in the Yellow Pages.  

PubMed

We compared the specialty listings of physicians in the Yellow Pages of the 1983 Hartford, Connecticut, telephone book with the board certifications in specialties of the American Board of Medical Specialties as listed in the American Medical Association directory or the Marquis Directory of Medical Specialists. There were 1179 listings by 946 physicians under 61 specialty headings in the Yellow Pages. We found that a mean of 12 percent of "specialists" listed in the Yellow Pages were not board-certified in a specialty, although they had had ample opportunity to obtain board certification. We conclude that specialty advertising in the Yellow Pages is potentially misleading to consumers and that member boards of the American Board of Medical Specialties should consider ways to diminish this possible misrepresentation. PMID:3553947

Reade, J M; Ratzan, R M

1987-05-21

169

Quartz Vein in the Gunsight Formation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Quartz vein in biotite-rich rock in the Gunsight Formation of the Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Group. Bluish green copper-bearing minerals coat the quartz vein. Pale pinkish cobalt bloom and white caliche coat adjacent biotite-rich wallrock....

170

On the Introduction of Unsteady Streaks into a Blasius Boundary Layer Using Dynamically Actuated Roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the spatio-temporal growth of streamwise elongated streaks emanating from a cylindrical roughness element undergoing dynamic actuation into/out of a Blasius boundary layer are presented. Hot-wire measurements provide 2D maps of the disturbance velocity of these streaks. Modal decomposition methods are performed on these maps to evaluate the nature of the temporal growth of the streaks. For this analysis, various roughness element actuation heights, velocities, and accelerations are examined in order to identify the ``dynamic-roughness'' actuation parameters range for which transiently growing streaks can be produced while avoiding the introduction of T-S wave packets and/or non-linearly-growing disturbances. The establishment of such streaks with 5-10% disturbance magnitude will provide the basis for an experimental platform, and help develop efficient models for feedback bypass transition control in an ongoing study in collaboration with Princeton University.

Bade, Kyle; Naguib, Ahmed; Lavoie, Philippe

2011-11-01

171

Clonal characteristics of fibrous plaques and fatty streaks from human aortas.  

PubMed Central

Using isoenzymes of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) as cellular markers, a study was made of atherosclerotic fibrous plaques and fatty streaks in aortas of black women heterozygous for G-6-PD. Of 29 fibrous plaques, 26 (89.7%) contained only one isoenzyme (17, A; 9, B), the other three containing both A and B. Of 28 fatty streaks, five (17.8%) contained only one isoenzyme (2, A; 3, B), the remaining 23 containing both A and B. Normal uninvolved aorta contained both A and B isoenzymes in 99 of 101 samples. These results confirm the monoclonal character of atherosclerotic fibrous plaques; this strands in contrast to the fatty streaks which most commonly contain the two isoenzymes. The studies on the fatty streaks are inconclusive at this stage in determining whether the streak is the forerunner of the fibrous plaque. Images Figure 1 PMID:1190295

Pearson, T. A.; Wang, B. A.; Solez, K.; Heptinstall, R. H.

1975-01-01

172

Vascular Remodeling in Varicose Veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes the histopathologic aspects of varicose (n=29; mean age, 52 12 years) and normal saphenous veins (n=17; mean age, 51 12 years) of patients from a similar age group. We focused on the changes that occur in the circular layer of the venous wall. We examined the venous walls by light microscopy and transmission electronmicroscopy.

Mark M. Kockx; Michiel W. M. Knaapen; Hilde E. Bortier; Kristel M. Cromheeke; Odile Boutherin-Falson; Michel Finet

1998-01-01

173

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Varicose Veins?  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Varicose Veins? The signs and symptoms of varicose veins include: ... signs of other, more serious conditions. Complications of Varicose Veins Varicose veins can lead to dermatitis (der-ma- ...

174

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Yellow rocket  

E-print Network

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Yellow rocket Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Life cycle Erect winter annual to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Stems Erect, hairless and up to 3 feet

175

A unique Yellow River-derived distal subaqueous delta in the Yellow Sea  

E-print Network

A unique Yellow River-derived distal subaqueous delta in the Yellow Sea Z.S. Yang a , J.P. Liu b deposited around the eastern tip of the Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea. This clinoform deposit re-suspended and transported out of the Bohai Sea into the Yellow Sea. Overall, the Yellow River

Liu, Paul

176

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

2000-01-01

177

Aerosols Over Yellow Sea Sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This SeaWiFS image shows complex phytoplankton distribution patterns in the Bohai and Yellow seas. A wide band of brownish water along the coast north and south of the mouth of the Yangtze River indicates a heavy load of suspended sediment. The air over eastern central China and the Yellow Sea is thick with aerosols. Farther north over the Manchurian Plain and Greater Khingan Range, the air is much clearer.

2002-01-01

178

Detection of episomal banana streak badnavirus by IC-PCR.  

PubMed

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based strategy to detect episomal banana streak badnavirus (BSV) in banana and plantain plants that carry integrated BSV sequences was developed. Antisera used in immuno-capture polymerase chain reaction (IC-PCR) are capable of binding a large number of BSV serotypes. The primers used for PCR are capable of annealing to and amplifying across the aspartic protease-reverse transcriptase domain boundaries of both episomal and integrated BSV sequences and result in similar or identical sequence size fragments from either template. However, we show that under the conditions selected for IC-PCR, nuclear, mitochondrial or chloroplast genomic sequences are not amplified and thus only captured episomal BSV is amplified. IC-PCR is suitable for the large-scale screening of Musa for episomal BSV which is necessary for germplasm movement. PMID:10328530

Harper, G; Dahal, G; Thottappilly, G; Hull, R

1999-04-01

179

Attosecond Streaking in the Low-Energy Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-energy photonelectron (PEs) ionized by a single attosecond pulse can be controlled by a moderately intense infrared field (IR). The electric field of the IR pulse can drive part of the PEs back to the parent ion and induce multiple rescattering of the electrons. Interesting interference patterns are observed in the photoelectron momentum distributions, which are formed by the rescattered electrons and the directly ionized PEs. By analyzing the interference patterns with a simple semiclassical model, which considers the particular PE trajectories incorporating the rescattering with the core, we demonstrate that the low-energy attosecond streaking offers a promising method of holographic imaging of atomic and molecular potential. In addition, we show that neither strong field approximation (SFA) or Coulomb-Volkov approximation (CVA) is able to reproduce these interesting structures at the low energy region.

Geng, Ji-Wei; Peng, Liang-You; Xu, Ming-Hui; Gong, Qihuang

2014-04-01

180

Laser streaking of free electrons at 25 keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recording electronic motion in atomic systems requires attosecond and picometre resolutions. Current attosecond technology provides photon pulses up to an energy range of 100 eV, with wavelengths far too long to access structures on the atomic scale. In contrast, ultrashort free-electron pulses with sub-ngstrom de Broglie wavelengths offer the potential to resolve sub-atomic structures. Here, we demonstrate an optical-field-driven streak camera for their temporal characterization. Our concept is to have an electron beam and a laser beam intersect at an ultrathin metal mirror, and potentially offers attosecond resolution. The technique will be instrumental in advancing ultrafast electron diffraction towards ever higher temporal resolution in the pursuit of the long-term goal of sub-atomic four-dimensional imaging. As a first application, we study the influence of electron-electron interactions on the characteristics of few-electron pulses.

Kirchner, F. O.; Gliserin, A.; Krausz, F.; Baum, P.

2014-01-01

181

High-speed TV cameras for streak tube readout  

SciTech Connect

Two fast framing TV cameras have been characterized and compared as readout media for imaging of 40 mm diameter streak tube (P-11) phosphor screens. One camera is based upon a Focus-Projection-Scan (FPS) high-speed electrostatic deflected vidicon with 30-mm-diameter PbO target. The other uses an interline transfer charge-coupled device (CCD) with 8.8 {times} 11.4 mm rectangular Si target. The field-of-view (FOV), resolution, responsivity, and dynamic range provided by both cameras when exposed to short duration ({approx} 10 {mu} full width at half maximum (FWHM)) transient illumination followed by a single field readout period of {lt}3 ms are presented. 11 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Yates, G.J.; Gallegos, R.A.; Holmes, V.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Turko, B.T. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1991-01-01

182

Optimal streaks in a Falkner-Skan boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the optimal streaky perturbations (which maximize the perturbed energy growth) in a wedge flow boundary layer, which involves a favorable streamwise pressure gradient. These three-dimensional perturbations are governed by a system of linearized boundary layer equations around the Falkner-Skan base flow. Based on an asymptotic analysis of this system near the free-stream and the leading edge singularity, we show that for acute wedge semi-angle, all solutions converge after a streamwise transient to a single streamwise-growing solution of the linearized equations, whose initial condition near the leading edge is given by an eigenvalue problem first formulated in this context by Tumin [Phys. Fluids 13, 1521 (2001)]. Such a solution may be regarded as a streamwise evolving most unstable streaky mode, in analogy with the usual eigenmodes in strictly parallel flows, and shows an approximate self-similarity, which was partially known and is completed in this paper. An important consequence of this result is that the optimization procedure based on the adjoint equations heretofore used to define optimal streaks is not necessary. Instead, a simple low-dimensional optimization process is proposed and used to obtain optimal streaks. Comparison with previous results by Tumin and Ashpis [AIAA J. 41, 2297 (2003)] shows an excellent agreement. The unstable streaky mode exhibits transient growth if the wedge semi-angle is smaller than a critical value that is slightly larger than ? /6, and decays otherwise. Thus, the cases of right and obtuse wedge semi-angles exhibit less practical interest, but they show a qualitatively different behavior, which is briefly described in the supplementary material.

Snchez-lvarez, Jos J.; Higuera, Mara; Vega, Jos M.

2011-02-01

183

Streaking in Cascadia ETS Events and Implications for the Subduction Plate Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manner in which episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) propagates across the subduction plate interface provides constraints on its properties and the physical processes involved. We have been examining catalogs of tremor locations to study propagation patterns during ETS. Tremor in the large Cascadia ETS events propagates mainly via three modes: 1) the slow along-strike advance of ETS, 2) rapid tremor reversals (RTRs) that propagate back from the tremor front in an opposite direction to the along-strike advance, but at speeds 10-40 times faster (Houston et al., Nature Geoscience, 2011), and 3) streaks, even faster migrations of tremor parallel to the plate-convergence direction at speeds ~ 70 km/hr (Ghosh et al., G3, 2011). The UW Seismology group has recently deployed an EarthScope-funded seismic experiment, the Array of Arrays, to image tremor more precisely with eight subarrays. A 15-month catalog of high-resolution tremor locations has been generated based on the triangulation of back-projected beams from the subarrays. We detect tremor streaks in this catalog automatically and systematically determine streak propagation properties. Key issues for constraining streak-generation processes include systematic differences between up- and down-dip traveling streaks, how streak properties may depend on depth, and whether streaks accelerate or decelerate during propagation. Stacking automatically-detected streaks can address some of these issues. Two approaches to automatically detecting streaks have been developed and applied to the M6.8 2010 ETS. One method declares a streak when averaged epicenters continue to move in a roughly constant direction for more than 10 km. The second declares a streak if epicenters during a specified time interval, say 20 min, are sufficiently well-correlated with time. The two methods agree well and detect several streaks per day of 15-30 min duration with speeds consistent with those inferred for the 2008 ETS. Although the detection methods have no azimuthal bias, most of the detected streaks align with one direction; furthermore, that direction lies much closer to the plate convergence direction than directly down-dip (the down-dip and plate convergence directions differ significantly along most of Cascadia). Many more streaks are detected in the actual catalog than in randomized versions, in which the times within each hour are permuted. These results lend substantial credence to convergence-parallel streaks as real features of ETS. Streak propagation patterns suggest the plate interface is anisotropic along the slip direction. The ubiquity of streaking parallel to plate convergence implies control by corrugated or smeared structures on the plate interface. This could occur via such structures controlling the orientation of an advancing slip pulse, which could carry streaks along its peak (Rubin, G3, 2011), or more directly via heterogeneous physical properties (such as rheology or permeability) elongated in the convergence direction. In this connection, we note that daily tremor bands in Cascadia ETS are also often oriented parallel to the convergence direction whether the ETS is advancing north or south, even though the direction of ETS advance would be expected to affect the orientation of a slip pulse on a homogeneous interface.

Houston, H.; Ghosh, A.

2011-12-01

184

Wheat curl mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) dispersal and its relationship with kernel red streaking in maize.  

PubMed

Wheat curl mites, Aceria tosichella Keifer, dispersing from wheat (Triticum spp.) to nearby corn (Zea mays L.) fields play a role in the development of kernel red streaking in corn. These studies were undertaken to verify the relationship of wheat curl mite to kernel red streaking, to determine whether wheat is the main source of curl mites dispersing into corn and to determine whether planting corn in temporal or spatial isolation of wheat is a valid management strategy. These studies were conducted on farm fields using sticky traps to monitor mites, followed by sampling mature grain for kernel streaking in southwestern Ontario from 1999 to 2002. The dominant source mites were winter wheat. Mite dispersal occurred during the first 3 wk of winter wheat maturation after the wheat had reached Zadoks stage 87. Mite dispersal corresponded to prevailing winds in the area with the lowest number of mites and the lowest severity of kernel red streaking occurring 60 m from wheat fields planted to the north, south, and east of cornfields and 90 m from wheat fields planted to the west of cornfields. The severity of kernel red streaking was positively correlated with the density of wheat curl mites in corn; however, the correlation was weak and kernel red streaking was still high in many cornfields when few or no mites were present. These findings suggest that wheat curl mite migration into corn is not entirely predictive of the incidence and severity of kernel red streaking. PMID:16334327

Liu, J; Lee, E A; Sears, M K; Schaafsma, A W

2005-10-01

185

Streaking and Wigner time delays in photoemission from atoms and surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Streaked photoemission metrology allows the observation of an apparent relative time delay between the detection of photoelectrons from different initial electronic states. This relative delay is obtained by recording the photoelectron yield as a function of the delay between an ionizing ultrashort extended ultraviolet pulse and a streaking infrared (IR) pulse. Theoretically, photoemission delays can be defined based on (i) the phase shift the photoelectron wave function accumulates during the release and propagation of the photoelectron (''Wigner delay'') and, alternatively, (ii) the streaking trace in the calculated photoemission spectrum (''streaking delay''). We investigate the relation between Wigner and streaking delays in the photoemission from atomic and solid-surface targets. For solid targets and assuming a vanishing IR skin depth, both Wigner and streaking delays can be interpreted as an average propagation time needed by photoelectrons to reach the surface, while the two delays differ for nonvanishing skin depths. For atomic targets, the difference between Wigner and streaking delays depends on the range of the ionic potential.

Zhang, C.-H.; Thumm, U. [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

2011-09-15

186

Ultra fast x-ray streak camera for ten inch manipulator based platforms  

SciTech Connect

Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube. The camera also has a new user interface that allows for remote control and data acquisition. The system has been outfitted with a new sensor package that gives the user more operational awareness and control.

Marley, E. V. [Physics and Life Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, M.S. L-490, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Shepherd, R.; Fulkerson, S.; James, L.; Emig, J.; Norman, D. [Physics and Life Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, M.S. L-490, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2012-10-15

187

Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms  

SciTech Connect

Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The LLNL ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube. The camera also has a new user interface that allows for remote control and data acquisition. The system has been outfitted with a new sensor package that gives the user more operational awareness and control.

Marley, E; Shepherd, R; Fulkerson, E S; James, L; Emig, J; Norman, D

2012-05-02

188

The instability and breakdown of a near-wall low-speed streak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The instability of the three-dimensional high-shear layer associated with a near-wall low-speed streak is investigated experimentally. A single low-speed streak, not unlike the near-wall low-speed streaks in transitional and turbulent flows, is produced in a laminar boundary layer by using a small piece of screen set normal to the wall. In order to excite symmetric and anti-symmetric modes separately, well-controlled external disturbances are introduced into the laminar low-speed streak through small holes drilled behind the screen. The growth of the excited symmetric varicose mode is essentially governed by the Kelvin Helmholtz instability of the in ectional velocity profiles across the streak in the normal-to-wall direction and it can occur when the streak width is larger than the shear-layer thickness. The spatial growth rate of the symmetric mode is very sensitive to the streak width and is rapidly reduced as the velocity defect decreases flowing to the momentum transfer by viscous stresses. By contrast, the anti-symmetric sinuous mode that causes the streak meandering is dominated by the wake-type instability of spanwise velocity distributions across the streak. As far as the linear instability is concerned, the growth rate of the anti-symmetric mode is not so strongly affected by the decrease in the streak width, and its exponential growth may continue further downstream than that of the symmetric mode. As for the mode competition, it is important to note that when the streak width is narrow and comparable with the shear-layer thickness, the low-speed streak becomes more unstable to the anti-symmetric modes than to the symmetric modes. It is clearly demonstrated that the growth of the symmetric mode leads to the formation of hairpin vortices with a pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices, while the anti-symmetric mode evolves into a train of quasi-streamwise vortices with vorticity of alternate sign.

Asai, Masahito; Minagawa, Masayuki; Nishioka, Michio

2002-03-01

189

17DD yellow fever vaccine  

PubMed Central

Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results:Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods:Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion:In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; S, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

2013-01-01

190

Smog Yellows Taj Mahal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

2007-01-01

191

Adaptive evolution by recombination is not associated with increased mutation rates in Maize streak virus  

PubMed Central

Background Single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses in the family Geminiviridae are proving to be very useful in real-time evolution studies. The high mutation rate of geminiviruses and other ssDNA viruses is somewhat mysterious in that their DNA genomes are replicated in host nuclei by high fidelity host polymerases. Although strand specific mutation biases observed in virus species from the geminivirus genus Mastrevirus indicate that the high mutation rates in viruses in this genus may be due to mutational processes that operate specifically on ssDNA, it is currently unknown whether viruses from other genera display similar strand specific mutation biases. Also, geminivirus genomes frequently recombine with one another and an alternative cause of their high mutation rates could be that the recombination process is either directly mutagenic or produces a selective environment in which the survival of mutants is favoured. To investigate whether there is an association between recombination and increased basal mutation rates or increased degrees of selection favoring the survival of mutations, we compared the mutation dynamics of the MSV-MatA and MSV-VW field isolates of Maize streak virus (MSV; Mastrevirus), with both a laboratory constructed MSV recombinant, and MSV recombinants closely resembling MSV-MatA. To determine whether strand specific mutation biases are a general characteristic of geminivirus evolution we compared mutation spectra arising during these MSV experiments with those arising during similar experiments involving the geminivirus Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Begomovirus genus). Results Although both the genomic distribution of mutations and the occurrence of various convergent mutations at specific genomic sites indicated that either mutation hotspots or selection for adaptive mutations might elevate observed mutation rates in MSV, we found no association between recombination and mutation rates. Importantly, when comparing the mutation spectra of MSV and TYLCV we observed similar strand specific mutation biases arising predominantly from imbalances in the complementary mutations G???T: C???A. Conclusions While our results suggest that recombination does not strongly influence mutation rates in MSV, they indicate that high geminivirus mutation rates are at least partially attributable to increased susceptibility of all geminivirus genomes to oxidative damage while in a single stranded state. PMID:23268599

2012-01-01

192

Split ring resonator based THz-driven electron streak camera featuring femtosecond resolution  

PubMed Central

Through combined three-dimensional electromagnetic and particle tracking simulations we demonstrate a THz driven electron streak camera featuring a temporal resolution on the order of a femtosecond. The ultrafast streaking field is generated in a resonant THz sub-wavelength antenna which is illuminated by an intense single-cycle THz pulse. Since electron bunches and THz pulses are generated with parts of the same laser system, synchronization between the two is inherently guaranteed. PMID:25010060

Fabia?ska, Justyna; Kassier, Gnther; Feurer, Thomas

2014-01-01

193

Preduodenal portal vein: its surgical significance.  

PubMed

Preduodenal portal vein is a rare anatomical variant which may be one of many anomalies in the neonate with duodenal "atresia." Preduodenal portal vein also may be an occasional finding in an adult undergoing biliary, gastric, or pancreatic surgery. Awareness and recognition of the anomaly are essential for the avoidance of injury during such operations. We report here a symptomless patient whose preduodenal portal vein was discovered at cholecystectomy. PMID:715684

Makey, D A; Bowen, J C

1978-11-01

194

Jugular vein thrombosis associated with distant malignancy.  

PubMed Central

We describe two patients who developed internal jugular vein thrombosis associated with primary malignant disease arising outside the neck, and in one patient it was the presenting feature. Computed tomography was performed and the findings characteristic of internal jugular vein thrombosis are illustrated. We conclude that malignant disease should be considered in patients presenting with spontaneous internal jugular vein thrombosis with no other predisposing factors and that computed tomography is of value in confirming the diagnosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3211826

Carrington, B. M.; Adams, J. E.

1988-01-01

195

The adrenal and renal veins of man and their connections with azygos and lumbar veins.  

PubMed Central

There exist many variations in the manner of formation, dimensions and place of termination of the central adrenal veins. In addition, some superficial adrenal veins may be substantial in size and may themselves drain directly into the renal veins and/or into other vessels which communicate with azygos and lumbar veins. This provides a route for venous adrenal blood to the heart via the azygos system and the superior vena cava rather than via the inferior vena cava. Variations in the formation and disposition of the renal veins are also described and the patterns of communication between somatic veins (including veins of the azygos and lumbar systems) and the left renal vein are illustrated and discussed in relation to the findings of others. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 6 PMID:3693053

Monkhouse, W S; Khalique, A

1986-01-01

196

MR Venography for the Assessment of Deep Vein Thrombosis in Lower Extremities with Varicose Veins  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the performance of magnetic resonance venography (MRV) for pelvis and deep vein thrombosis in the lower extremities before surgical interventions for varicose veins. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 72 patients who underwent MRV and ultrasonography before stripping for varicose veins of lower extremities. All images of the deep venous systems were evaluated by time-of-flight MRV. Results: Forty-six patients (63.9%) of all were female. Mean age was 65.2 10.2 years (3781 years). There were forty patients (55.6%) with varicose veins in both legs. Two deep vein thrombosis (2.8%) and three iliac vein thrombosis (4.2%) were diagnosed. All patients without deep vein thrombosis underwent the stripping of saphenous veins, and post-thrombotic change was avoided in all cases. Conclusion: MRV, without contrast medium, is considered clinically useful for the lower extremity venous system. PMID:25593625

Nakahara, Hideki

2014-01-01

197

New observations of Bolivian wind streaks by JPL Airborne SAR: Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1993 NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar system (AIRSAR) was deployed to South America to collect multi-parameter radar data over pre-selected targets. Among the sites targeted was a series of wind streaks located in the Altiplano of Bolivia. The objective of this investigation is to study the effect of wavelength, polarization, and incidence angle on the visibility of wind streaks in radar data. Because this is a preliminary evaluation of the recently acquired data we will focus on one scene and, thus, only on the effects of wavelength and polarization. Wind streaks provide information on the near-surface prevailing winds and on the abundance of winderodible material, such as sand. The potential for a free-flyer radar system that could provide global radar images in multiple wavelengths, polarizations, and incidence angles requires definition of system parameters for mission planning. Furthermore, thousands of wind streaks were mapped from Magellan radar images of Venus; their interpretation requires an understanding of the interaction of radar with wind streaks and the surrounding terrain. Our experiment was conducted on wind streaks in the Altiplano of Bolivia to address these issues.

Blumberg, Dan G.; Greeley, Ronald

1995-01-01

198

Effects of Hot Streak Shape on Rotor Heating in a High-Subsonic Single-Stage Turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data have shown that combustor temperature non-uniformities can lead to the excessive heating of first-stage rotor blades in turbines. This heating of the rotor blades can lead to thermal fatigue and degrade turbine performance. The results of recent studies have shown that variations in the circumferential location (clocking) of the hot streak relative to the first-stage vane airfoils can be used to minimize the adverse effects of the hot streak. The effects of the hot streak/airfoil count ratio on the heating patterns of turbine airfoils have also been evaluated. In the present investigation, three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes simulations have been performed for a single-stage high-pressure turbine operating in high subsonic flow. In addition to a simulation of the baseline turbine, simulations have been performed for circular and elliptical hot streaks of varying sizes in an effort to represent different combustor designs. The predicted results for the baseline simulation show good agreement with the available experimental data. The results of the hot streak simulations indicate: that a) elliptical hot streaks mix more rapidly than circular hot streaks, b) for small hot streak surface area the average rotor temperature is not a strong function of hot streak temperature ratio or shape, and c) hot streaks with larger surface area interact with the secondary flows at the rotor hub endwall, generating an additional high temperature region.

Dorney, Daniel J.; Gundy-Burlet, Karen L.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

199

Idiopathic rupture of the iliac vein.  

PubMed

Idiopathic rupture of large veins is very rare. There has been one report in the Portugese literature of such an instance involving the iliac vein. Our patient was an elderly woman in whom evidence of intra-abdominal hemorrhage developed. There was no clinical evidence of trauma. At laparotomy a large retroperitoneal hematoma secondary to an 8-mm tear in the left common iliac vein was found. The tear occurred adjacent to where the right common iliac artery passes over the vein. Repair was followed by uneventful recovery. Results of the pathological examination showed nonspecific information. PMID:831681

Brown, L; Sanchez, F; Mannix, H

1977-01-01

200

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.  

PubMed

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

201

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C. P.; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

202

Serotyping and strain identification of maize streak virus isolates.  

PubMed

Four strains of maize streak virus, namely the Panicum maximum, Digitaria setigera and sugarcane strains, have been identified from 19 isolates by ELISA using polyclonal antisera cross-absorbed with particles of the maize strain. The results suggest there is an epitope of the maize strain which is not dependent on the capsid being intact and which is common to all the members of the group; other strain-specific epitopes are probably conformation-dependent. A specific epitope (probably internal) occurs on the coat protein of a maize strain isolate, D(R)D, grown in D. velutina, that is also present on the coat protein of the D. setigera (previously reported as D. sanguinalis) strain. Specific internal epitopes also occur in the coat proteins of sugarcane and P. maximum strains. The use of indirect ELISA was necessary for accurate serotyping. The serological reactivities of particles of all the members of each type were identical irrespective of the host from which they were extracted. Sap extracts proved to be more reliable sources of antigen than virus preparations, which could vary in their serological reactivity. Nevertheless, serological differentiation index values determined in tests using either type of antigen proved reliable and consistent. PMID:1697327

Pinner, M S; Markham, P G

1990-08-01

203

Polar Dunes In Summer Exhibit Frost Patches, Wind Streaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars Global Surveyor passes over the north polar region of the red planet twelve times each day, offering many opportunities to observe how the polar cap frosts and dunes are changing as the days goby. Right now it is summer in the north. This picture, taken the second week of April 1999, shows darks and dunes and remnant patches of bright frost left over from the winter that ended in July 1998. Dark streaks indicate recent movement of sand. The picture covers an area only 1.4 kilometers (0.9 miles)across and is illuminated from the upper right.

Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

1999-01-01

204

Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea  

E-print Network

Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea J. Paul Liua,*, John Yellow Sea reveal a 20­40-m-thick subaqueous clinoform delta that wraps around the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, extending into the South Yellow Sea. This complex sigmoidal-oblique clinoform

Liu, Paul

205

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF YELLOW STARTHISTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Six insects that attack yellow starthistle have become established in California, but only two species are very abundant, and only the seedheads are attacked. Little impact on the weed has occurred except at low elevation sites in Oregon which are not overgrazed or disturbed (e.g., roadsides). Add...

206

Anaphylaxis from yellow fever vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are very few reports of anaphylactic reactions to yellow fever (YF) vaccine in the literature, and these date from the 1940s. Objective: We sought to estimate the rate of YF vaccinerelated anaphylaxis. Methods: All reports of adverse reactions to YF vaccine submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System between 1990 and 1997 were reviewed for those meeting

John M. Kelso; Gina T. Mootrey; Theodore F. Tsai

1999-01-01

207

RESEARCH ARTICLE Nucleotide Sequence of Yellow Fever  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Nucleotide Sequence of Yellow Fever Virus: Implications for Flavivirus Gene, and yellow fever (1). Most fever was spread by ship to ports as far north as Boston and as far east as En. Walter Reed and colleagues in pioneering studies in Cuba in 1900 demonstrated that yellow fever

Eddy, Sean

208

Serotonin (5HT) in Veins: Not All in Vain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circulatory system consists of veins and arteries. Com- pared with arteries, veins have been neglected in cardiovascu- lar research. Although veins are significantly less muscular than similarly sized arteries, the contribution of veins to cardiovas- cular homeostasis cannot be left un-noted because veins ac- commodate 70% of the circulating blood. Circulating blood platelets contain the majority of systemic 5-HT

A. Elizabeth Linder; Wei Ni; Jessica L. Diaz; Theodora Szasz; Robert Burnett; Stephanie W. Watts

2007-01-01

209

Arteries and veins of the zebra fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Arteries and veins are blood vessels and are part of the circulatory system. Arteries take oxygenated blood away from the heart and veins bring blood back to the heart after it has circulated through the body. The circulatory system distributes oxygen to the body and also moves around nutrients.

Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

2007-06-19

210

Endovenous management of saphenous vein reflux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study assessed clinical outcomes of two catheter-based endovenous procedures to eliminate or greatly mitigate saphenous vein reflux. Materials and Methods: A computer-controlled, dedicated generator and two catheter designs were used to treat 210 patients at 16 private clinic and university centers in Europe. The Closure catheter applied resistive heating over long vein lengths to cause maximum wall contraction

Stefano Manfrini; Vincenzo Gasbarro; Gudmundur Danielsson; Lars Norgren; James G. Chandler; Andrew F. Lennox; Zaki A. Zarka; Andrew N. Nicolaides

2000-01-01

211

The sedimentology and dynamics of crater-affiliated wind streaks in western Arabia Terra, Mars and Patagonia, Argentina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wind streaks comprise recent aeolian deposits that have been extensively documented on Venus, Earth and Mars. Martian wind streaks are among the most abundant surface features on the planet and commonly extend from the downwind margins of impact craters. Previous studies of wind streaks emerging from crater interior deposits suggested that the mode of emplacement was primarily related to the deposition of silt-sized particles as these settled from plumes. We have performed geologic investigations of two wind streaks clusters; one situated in western Arabia Terra, a region in the northern hemisphere of Mars, and another in an analogous terrestrial site located in southern Patagonia, Argentina, where occurrences of wind streaks emanate from playas within maar craters. In both these regions we have identified bedforms in sedimentary deposits on crater floors, along wind-facing interior crater margins, and along wind streaks. These observations indicate that these deposits contain sand-sized particles and that sediment migration has occurred via saltation from crater interior deposits to wind streaks. In Arabia Terra and in Patagonia wind streaks initiate from crater floors that contain lithic and evaporitic sedimentary deposits, suggesting that the composition of wind streak source materials has played an important role in development. Spatial and topographic analyses suggest that regional clustering of wind streaks in the studied regions directly correlates to the areal density of craters with interior deposits, the degree of proximity of these deposits, and the craters' rim-to-floor depths. In addition, some (but not all) wind streaks within the studied clusters have propagated at comparable yearly (Earth years) rates. Extensive saltation is inferred to have been involved in its propagation based on the studied terrestrial wind streak that shows ripples and dunes on its surface and the Martian counterpart changes orientation toward the downslope direction where it extends into an impact crater. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Tanaka, K.L.; Yamamoto, A.; Berman, D.C.; Zimbelman, J.R.; Kargel, J.S.; Sasaki, S.; Jinguo, Y.; Miyamoto, H.

2010-01-01

212

Element transport in veins during serpentinization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serpentinization of ultramafic rocks has wide ranging implications for the petrology, rheology, and petrophysical properties of the oceanic lithosphere. During hydration of the peridotite, fluid-rock ratios and temperature control mineral formation in the veins. We studied a partly serpentinized peridotite from the Santa Elena ophiolite complex in Costa Rica and tracked element mobility during water-rock interaction. Serpentinization of the studied harzburgite is around 30 to 40%, with serpentinization of olivine being more advanced than serpentinization of orthopyroxene. Element mapping and point analyses show that the veins preserve characteristic element distributions within orthopyroxene and olivine, and with distance to orthopyroxene-hosted serpentine veins. With increasing distance from the orthopyroxene the following vein assemblages were observed in olivine: pure serpentine veins, serpentine + brucite veins, serpentine + brucite + magnetite veins. Veins are enriched in SiO2 in the proximity of orthopyroxene suggesting that a net transfer of SiO2 takes place from serpentinizing orthopyroxene to olivine. The magnetite-bearing serpentine veins mostly consist of Mg-rich serpentine (Mg# = 90 - 95) and Fe-rich brucite (Mg# = 70 - 75) finely intergrown. In contrast, the center of these veins contains a thin zone of high-Mg serpentine (Mg# 97), and high-Mg brucite (Mg# 92 - 94) next to magnetite. We infer from thermodynamic calculations that these mineral assemblages are controlled by H2O activity and low SiO2 activities. Within orthopyroxene, serpentine (Mg# = 84 - 89) with an elevated Al2O3 content (< 4.14wt.%) was detected, but talc was absent, indicating net loss of SiO2 from orthopyroxene during serpentinization. CaO and Al2O3 migrate from orthopyroxene, but occur only as trace components in serpentine at > 100 ?m and > 200 ?m, respectively, from the orthopyroxene. We infer that brucite is not stable in close proximity to orthopyroxene due to elevated SiO2 derived from orthopyroxene breakdown. Orthopyroxene serpentinization results in net transfer of Al2O3 into serpentine, but only in the immediate vicinity of the orthopyroxene. Overall, our study indicates that the extent of orthopyroxene serpentinization controls SiO2 and Al2O3 availability in the fluid and therefore the mineral assemblages present in the veins. The net transfer of SiO2 is manifested by the lack of talc in serpentine veins in orthopyroxene and the lack of brucite in serpentine veins proximal to orthopyroxene grain boundaries. Within veins, local transport of Si, Mg and Fe takes place during reaction of serpentine + brucite with H2O to form magnetite + Mg-rich serpentine + Mg-rich brucite.

Schwarzenbach, E. M.; Beard, J. S.; Caddick, M. J.

2013-12-01

213

Symptoms and distribution of Squash vein yellowing virus in vining cucurbits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The distribution of SqVYV in cucurbit species other than watermelon is unknown. Virus distribution and symptoms of vining cucurbit species were determined by nucleic acid tissue blots and PCR. Comparisons of virus distribution between these cucurbits and watermelon are made....

214

Semipersistent whitefly transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of experiments were completed to determine efficiency of transmission, effects of different acquisition and inoculation access periods, the length of time that whiteflies retained transmissible virus, and the minimum time needed to complete a cycle of acquisition and inoculation for SqVYV. ...

215

Active Hydrogeomorphic Processes and the Formation of Dark Slope Streaks on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars Orbital Camera images reveal concentrations of dark slope streaks non-uniformly distributed within the equatorial region of Mars, where Late Hesperian and younger magmatic, tectonic, and fluvial activity often dominate the geologic record. Although originally ascribed to wet debris flows, all of the hypotheses published in the last ~18 years have focused on these features being solely the result of eolian or dry mass-wasting processes, excluding a role for water. In light of (1) the information provided from the Mars Global Surveyor (i.e., high-resolution imagery and topography), (2) the correlation of dark slope streak concentrations to specific geologic environments and histories portrayed in published research, and (3) geomorphic and hydrologic considerations, we hypothesize that eolian or dry mass-wasting and aqueous processes represent endpoints on a continuum of progenitors for the formation of dark slope streaks. In our hypothesis, the hydrogeomorphic features result from artesian spring discharge, hypersaline aquifers, or any combination thereof. Due to observations of dark slope streak features appearing on annual and decadal time scales, and their inferred fading over time, a spring discharge origin for the formation of the dark slope streaks has profound implications. Specifically, that Mars has limited, but currently active, hydrogeomorphic processes acting on its surface. Although the Mars Odyssey's Gamma Ray Spectrometer lacks the resolution to detect these features, its discovery of large amounts of near-surface ice provides further support for our hypothesis.

Ferris, J. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Maddock, T.

2002-12-01

216

Temporal Integration of Movement: The Time-Course of Motion Streaks Revealed by Masking  

PubMed Central

Temporal integration in the visual system causes fast-moving objects to leave oriented motion streaks in their wake, which could be used to facilitate motion direction perception. Temporal integration is thought to occur over 100 ms in early cortex, although this has never been tested for motion streaks. Here we compare the ability of fast-moving (streaky) and slow-moving fields of dots to mask briefly flashed gratings either parallel or orthogonal to the motion trajectory. Gratings were presented at various asynchronies relative to motion onset (from to ms) to sample the time-course of the accumulating streaks. Predictions were that masking would be strongest for the fast parallel condition, and would be weak at early asynchronies and strengthen over time as integration rendered the translating dots more streaky and grating-like. The asynchrony where the masking function reached a plateau would correspond to the temporal integration period. As expected, fast-moving dots caused greater masking of parallel gratings than orthogonal gratings, and slow motion produced only modest masking of either grating orientation. Masking strength in the fast, parallel condition increased with time and reached a plateau after 77 ms, providing an estimate of the temporal integration period for mechanisms encoding motion streaks. Interestingly, the greater masking by fast motion of parallel compared with orthogonal gratings first reached significance at 48 ms before motion onset, indicating an effect of backward masking by motion streaks. PMID:22205961

Alais, David; Apthorp, Deborah; Karmann, Anna; Cass, John

2011-01-01

217

Tie-dyed2 Encodes a Callose Synthase That Functions in Vein Development and Affects Symplastic Trafficking within the Phloem of Maize Leaves12[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The tie-dyed2 (tdy2) mutant of maize (Zea mays) displays variegated green and yellow leaves. Intriguingly, the yellow leaf tissues hyperaccumulate starch and sucrose, the soluble sugar transported long distance through the phloem of veins. To determine the molecular basis for Tdy2 function, we cloned the gene and found that Tdy2 encodes a callose synthase. RNA in situ hybridizations revealed that in developing leaves, Tdy2 was most highly expressed in the vascular tissue. Comparative expression analysis with the vascular marker maize PINFORMED1a-yellow fluorescent protein confirmed that Tdy2 was expressed in developing vein tissues. To ascertain whether the defect in tdy2 leaves affected the movement of sucrose into the phloem or its long-distance transport, we performed radiolabeled and fluorescent dye tracer assays. The results showed that tdy2 yellow leaf regions were defective in phloem export but competent in long-distance transport. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy of tdy2 yellow leaf regions showed incomplete vascular differentiation and implicated a defect in cell-to-cell solute movement between phloem companion cells and sieve elements. The disruption of sucrose movement in the phloem in tdy2 mutants provides evidence that the Tdy2 callose synthase functions in vascular maturation and that the vascular defects result in impaired symplastic trafficking into the phloem translocation stream. PMID:22932757

Slewinski, Thomas L.; Baker, R. Frank; Stubert, Adam; Braun, David M.

2012-01-01

218

Hand vein recognition based on orientation of LBP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vein recognition is becoming an effective method for personal recognition. Vein patterns lie under the skin surface of human body, and hence provide higher reliability than other biometric traits and hard to be damaged or faked. This paper proposes a novel vein feature representation method call orientation of local binary pattern (OLBP) which is an extension of local binary pattern (LBP). OLBP can represent the orientation information of the vein pixel which is an important characteristic of vein patterns. Moreover, the OLBP can also indicate on which side of the vein centerline the pixel locates. The OLBP feature maps are encoded by 4-bit binary values and an orientation distance is developed for efficient feature matching. Based on OLBP feature representation, we construct a hand vein recognition system employing multiple hand vein patterns include palm vein, dorsal vein, and three finger veins (index, middle, and ring finger). The experimental results on a large database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Gao, Enying

2012-06-01

219

Brain vein disorders in newborn infants.  

PubMed

The brain veins of infants are in a complex phase of remodelling in the perinatal period. Magnetic resonance venography and susceptibility-weighted imaging, together with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound, have provided new tools to aid study of venous developmental anatomy and disease. This review aims to provide a comprehensive background of vein development and perinatal venous lesions in preterm and term-born infants, and to encourage further research in both the fetus and the newborn infant, with the aim of preventing or mitigating parenchymal injury related to diseases involving veins. PMID:25212961

Raets, Marlou; Dudink, Jeroen; Raybaud, Charles; Ramenghi, Luca; Lequin, Maarten; Govaert, Paul

2015-03-01

220

Abernethy malformation with portal vein aneurysm.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 24-year-old man who was incidentally diagnosed with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt with portal vein aneurysm during an investigation for non-specific abdominal pain. These are rare anomalies, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported with both anomalies associated together. Ultrasound, including color Doppler, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were performed which revealed a side-to-side shunt between the extrahepatic portal vein and the inferior vena cava, with aneurysmal fusiform dilatation of the proximal intrahepatic portal vein which ended abruptly. Etiology, clinical significance, and management strategies with regard to these abnormalities are discussed. PMID:18814137

Kumar, Atin; Kumar, Jyoti; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Srivastava, Siddharth

2008-09-01

221

The intentional mind and the hot hand: Perceiving intentions makes streaks seem likely to continue.  

PubMed

People can appear inconsistent in their intuitions about sequences of repeated events. Sometimes people believe such sequences will continue (the "hot hand"), and sometimes people believe they will reverse (the "gambler's fallacy"). These contradictory intuitions can be partly explained by considering the perceived intentionality of the agent generating the streak. The intuition that streaks will continue (reverse) should emerge in contexts involving agents that are perceived to be intentional (unintentional), and should be most common among those who are most inclined to attribute intentions to other agents. Four studies support these predictions, identifying both situational and dispositional determinants of the perceived continuity of streaks. Discussion focuses on the foundational nature of intentionality for perceptions of interdependence between events, the relationship between these findings and existing theoretical accounts, and the inverse possibility that people use perceptions of streakiness as a cue for an agent's intentionality. PMID:20472229

Caruso, Eugene M; Waytz, Adam; Epley, Nicholas

2010-07-01

222

Clinical comparison of the Welch Allyn SureSight handheld autorefractor versus streak retinoscopy in dogs  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the Welch Allyn SureSight wavefront autorefractor with retinoscopy in normal dogs. Animals studied 50 privately-owned dogs (100 eyes) of 20 breeds, free of ocular disease. Mean SD age 5.7 3.25 years (range: 6 months 13 years). Procedures The refractive error was determined in each eye by two experienced retinoscopists using streak retinoscopy as well as by an autorefractor operated by two different examiners. Measurements were performed before and approximately 3045 minutes after cycloplegia was induced by cyclopentolate 0.5% and tropicamide 0.5% ophthalmic solutions. Results Mean SD non-cyclopleged retinoscopy net sphere was ?0.55 1.14 (range: ?3.75 to 3.5) diopters (D). Mean cyclopleged retinoscopy net sphere was ?0.52 1.18 (range: ?4.25 to 2) D. Mean SD non-cyclopleged autorefractor spherical equivalent (SE) was ?0.42 1.13D (range: ?3.36 to 2.73) D. Mean cyclopleged autorefractor spherical equivalent was 0.10 1.47 (range: ?5.62 to 3.19) D. Non-cyclopleged autorefraction results were not significantly different from streak retinoscopy (whether non-cyclopleged or cyclopleged, p=0.80, 0.26, respectively). Cyclopleged autorefraction results were significantly different from non-cyclopleged or cyclopleged streak retinoscopy (p<0.0001 in both states). There was no significant difference between non-cyclopleged and cyclopleged streak retinoscopy (p= 0.97). Conclusions Non-cyclopleged autorefraction shows good agreement with streak retinoscopy in dogs and may be a useful clinical technique. Cycloplegia does not significantly affect streak retinoscopy results in dogs. PMID:23173899

Groth, Allyson D.; Hollingsworth, Steven R.; Ofri, Ron; Kass, Philip H.; Reed, Zoe; Murphy, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

223

Detailed anatomy of the internal spermatic vein and the ovarian vein. Human cadaver study and operative spermatic venography: clinical aspects.  

PubMed

The exact anatomical course of the spermatic vein and the ovarian vein (gonadal) has not been described in detail previously. To determine the precise anatomy of the gonadal veins an autopsy study of 70 fresh human cadavers (40 men, 10 women, 10 male stillborns and 10 female stillborns) was performed by making a resin cast of both gonadal veins which then was carefully dissected. The study showed absence of valves in the spermatic vein, cross-communications between the right and left spermatic veins, and communication between the spermatic and renal capsular veins, spermatic and ipsilateral ureteral veins, and spermatic ipsilateral colonic veins. For clarification of the presence of valves intraoperative antegrade spermatic venography was done in 6 men with and 5 without varicocele. In both groups valves were not detected. These observations regarding the anatomy of the spermatic vein and the ovarian vein may help to explain related clinical conditions. PMID:2005700

Wishahi, M M

1991-04-01

224

Titanium, Sinusitis, and the Yellow Nail Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by nail changes, respiratory disorders, and lymphedema. In a yellow nail patient with\\u000a a skeletal titanium implant and with gold in her teeth, we found high levels of titanium in nail clippings. This study aims\\u000a to examine the possible role of titanium in the genesis of the yellow nail syndrome. Nail clippings from patients with

Fredrik Berglund; Bjrn Carlmark

225

A grazing incidence x-ray streak camera for ultrafast, single-shot measurements  

SciTech Connect

An ultrafast x-ray streak camera has been realized using a grazing incidence reflection photocathode. X-rays are incident on a gold photocathode at a grazing angle of 20 degree and photoemitted electrons are focused by a large aperture magnetic solenoid lens. The streak camera has high quantum efficiency, 600fs temporal resolution, and 6mm imaging length in the spectral direction. Its single shot capability eliminates temporal smearing due to sweep jitter, and allows recording of the ultrafast dynamics of samples that undergo non-reversible changes.

Feng, Jun; Engelhorn, K.; Cho, B.I.; Lee, H.J.; Greaves, M.; Weber, C.P.; Falcone, R.W.; Padmore, H. A.; Heimann, P.A.

2010-02-18

226

Inhibition of maize streak virus (MSV) replication by transient and transgenic expression of MSV replication-associated protein mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize streak disease is a severe agricultural problem in Africa and the development of maize genotypes resistant to the causal agent, Maize streak virus (MSV), is a priority. A transgenic approach to engineering MSV-resistant maize was developed and tested in this study. A pathogen- derived resistance strategy was adopted by using targeted deletions and nucleotide-substitution mutants of the multifunctional MSV

Dionne N. Shepherd; Tichaona Mangwende; Darren P. Martin; Marion Bezuidenhout; Jennifer A. Thomson; Edward P. Rybicki

2007-01-01

227

Who Is at Risk for Varicose Veins?  

MedlinePLUS

... Division of Intramural Research Research Resources Scientific Reports Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... factors may raise your risk for varicose veins, including family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or ...

228

How Is Deep Vein Thrombosis Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... vein (called intravenous, or IV, injection). Warfarin and heparin are two blood thinners used to treat DVT. ... Coumadin is a common brand name for warfarin.) Heparin is given as an injection or through an ...

229

How Can Varicose Veins Be Prevented?  

MedlinePLUS

... Toned muscles help blood move through the veins. Wear compression stockings if your doctor recommends them. These ... trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or ...

230

Genotoxicity of gardenia yellow and its components.  

PubMed

Gardenia fruit (Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS) is widely used as a natural food colorant and as a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of hepatic and inflammatory diseases. "Gardenia yellow" is a natural food colorant which is extracted by ethanol from gardenia fruit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of gardenia yellow. Genotoxicity of gardenia yellow and its components, crocetin, gentiobiose (a component of crocin), geniposide and genipin (formed by hydrolysis of geniposide), was studied by Ames test, rec-assay, and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) using V79 cells. Gardenia yellow and its components were found not to be mutagenic in the Salmonella reverse mutation assay. Gardenia yellow and genipin caused damage of DNA in rec-assay. Gardenia yellow induced a significant dose-dependent increase of SCE frequency (8.6 times at 1000 microg/ml as the value for the solvent control). Only genipin induced SCEs significantly among the components of gardenia yellow. Moreover, genipin induced a significant increase of tetraploids at all doses tested (95% at 8 microg/ml). Gardenia yellow preparation was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE), and geniposide was detected. However, genipin was not observed. In conclusion, we have shown that genipin possesses genotoxicity. Furthermore, there were unidentified genotoxicants in gardenia yellow. PMID:12176087

Ozaki, A; Kitano, M; Furusawa, N; Yamaguchi, H; Kuroda, K; Endo, G

2002-11-01

231

Primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein.  

PubMed

Primary venous leiomyosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the left innominate vein, with neoplastic thrombus extending into the left jugular and subclavian veins. The tumor was curatively resected en bloc with anterior mediastinal and laterocervical lymphatics, through a median sternotomy prolonged into left cervicotomy. Primary venous sarcomas may be associated with prolonged survival in individual cases, with curative resection recommended as the standard treatment, in the absence of distant spread. PMID:17349340

Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; Mazzesi, Giuseppe; D'urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Bezzi, Marcello

2007-01-01

232

Scattering Removal for Finger-Vein Image Restoration  

PubMed Central

Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of finger-vein image degradation, a biological optical model (BOM) specific to finger-vein imaging is proposed according to the principle of light propagation in biological tissues. Based on BOM, the light scattering component is sensibly estimated and properly removed for finger-vein image restoration. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is powerful in enhancing the finger-vein image contrast and in improving the finger-vein image matching accuracy. PMID:22737028

Yang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Ben; Shi, Yihua

2012-01-01

233

Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC

Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Morteza Sanei

2015-01-01

234

Microrobotic Streak Seeding For Protein Crystal Atanas Georgiev1, Peter K. Allen1, Ting Song2, Andrew Laine2, William Edstrom3, John Hunt3  

E-print Network

Microrobotic Streak Seeding For Protein Crystal Growth Atanas Georgiev1, Peter K. Allen1, Ting Song to crystallographers as streak seeding ­ it is used to entice certain protein crystals to grow. Our system features the throughput in crystal production. The focus here is on the task known by crystallographers as streak seeding

Georgiev, Atanas

235

FINE MAPPING AND NEAR ISOGENIC LINES FOR THREE WHEAT STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS (WSMV) RESISTANCE GENES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three independent genes controlling resistance to Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; family Potyviridae; genus Tritimovirus) were previously identified on chromosomes six (Wsm1), three (Wsm2) and ten (Wsm3) in the resistant maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line Pa405. Near isogenic lines (NIL) carrying the...

236

Measuring detonation front configuration via flash radiography and ultra high speed streak photography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although modern numerical computational techniques are able to predict the geometry of a complex detonation front in condensed explosives, in most instances, experimental measurements are still required to verify computational results. Non-planar detonation fronts are measured by means of flash radiography as well as multislit ultrahigh-speed streak photography.

Fuchs, Brian Edward; Baker, Ernest L.; Dalrymple, Everett; Lu, Pai-Lien

1988-02-01

237

Picosecond streak camera display of an intermodal coupling matrix at a multimode fiber splice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is developed that permits direct visualization of the coupling matrix for all guided modes of a moderately multimode fiber optic at a splice or mode coupler. The matrix is formed by an array of spots at the output of a picosecond streak camera. The technique also permits unambiguous determination of the phase velocity and group velocity of the modes.

Louradour, F.; Shaklan, Stuart

1991-01-01

238

Economic impact of wheat streak mosaic virus in the Texas High Plains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vectored by the wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella Keifer, is a major limiting factor in wheat production in the Texas Panhandle. It is the most frequently encountered virus in the region, affecting both shoot and root biomass, and consequently it can drastically red...

239

THE WINDOW OF RISK FOR EMIGRATION OF WHEAT STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS VARIES WITH HOST ERADICATION METHOD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella, the vector of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), often survives the summer on volunteer wheat (Triticum aestivum) and may disperse from this 'green bridge' in fall to newly-planted winter wheat. Because some methods for managing volunteer wheat do not dir...

240

Streak camera in standard (Bi)CMOS (bipolar complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional streak camera (CSC) is an optoelectronic instrument that captures the spatial distribution as a function of time of an ultra high-speed luminous phenomenon with picosecond temporal resolution and a typical spatial resolution of several tens of micrometers. This paper presents two tubeless streak camera architectures called MISC (matrix integrated streak camera) and VISC (vector integrated streak camera), which replicate the functionality of a CSC on a single CMOS chip. The MISC structure consists of a lens, which spreads the photon flux on the surface of a specific pixel array-based (Bi)CMOS sensor. The VISC architecture is based on a sensor featuring a single column of photodetectors, where each element is coupled to a front-end and a multi-sampling and storage unit. In this case the optical objective used in front of the sensor focuses the luminous event on the several tens of micrometers wide photosensitive column. For both architectures, the spatial resolution is linked to the size of the photodetector and the temporal resolution is determined by the bandwidths of the photodetectors and the signal conditioning electronics. The capture of a 6 ns full width at half maximum 532 nm laser pulse is reported for two generations of MISC and a first generation of VISC.

Zlatanski, M.; Uhring, W.; Le Normand, J. P.; Zint, C. V.; Mathiot, D.

2010-11-01

241

Asymmetric Vshaped streaks recorded on board DEMETER satellite above powerful thunderstorms  

E-print Network

Asymmetric Vshaped streaks recorded on board DEMETER satellite above powerful thunderstorms F. El are associated with intense and numerous 0+ whistlers generated in the VLF range by active thunderstorms network. A relationship between the local inclination of the magnetic field above active thunderstorms

242

Evaluation of banana hybrids for tolerance to black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Puerto Rico, bananas (including plantains) are important agricultural commodities; their combined production totaled 133,500 tons in 2008. Black leaf streak (BLS) and Sigatoka leaf spot diseases, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and M. musicola, respectively, are responsible for significant los...

243

Multiple roles of Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein in virus biology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is an economically important member of the Potyviridae family impacting wheat production in the Great Plains region. The role of WSMV coat protein (CP) in virus biology was examined by introducing a series of point or deletion mutations into the CP cistron, and it wa...

244

EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE TO WHEAT SPINDLE STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS BY ANALYSIS OF DISEASE INCIDENCE DATA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Once Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) becomes established in a field, the only available control tactic is the planting of resistant genotypes. In this study we assessed 113 genotypes of autumn-sown wheat, rye, triticale, and barley for resistance to WSSMV in a three-year trial in a field t...

245

Host range and some characterization of Tobacco streak virus isolated from lettuce in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most common vegetable planted in the world, so the identification of its viral disease is important because this kind of pathogen causes the loss of quantitative and qualitative characteristic of lettuce. Tobacco streak virus (TSV) is an ilarvirus with quasi-isometric particles, 27 - 35 nm in diameter. It has a wide host range

F. S. Abtahi; M. Koohi Habibi

2008-01-01

246

Simultaneous velocity interferometry and electronic streak photography of laser-launched plates  

SciTech Connect

Laser-launched, miniature, pseudo-one-dimensional flyer plates are evaluated by three distinct optical techniques that may be incorporated into an optical diagnostic system to give a complete understanding of the plate performance. These techniques are: velocity interferometry, streak photography, and pulsed laser stereo photography. 2 refs., 5 figs.

Paisley, D.L.; Stahl, D.B.; Garcia, I.A.

1991-01-01

247

Carotenoid-based status signaling by females in the tropical streak-backed oriole  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical bird species, both males and females maintain elaborate plumage traits. Although there is considerable evidence that many male plumage traits function as status signals that convey information about fighting ability, less is known about status signaling in females. We tested whether the carotenoid-based orange breast coloration of the female streak-backed oriole (Icterus pustulatus pustulatus) signals status during

Troy G. Murphy; Diego Hernndez-Mucio; Marcela Osorio-Beristain; Robert Montgomerie; Kevin E. Omland

2009-01-01

248

INFECTIOUS CDNA TRANSCRIPTS OF MAIZE NECROTIC STREAK VIRUS: INFECTIVITY AND TRANSLATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The completion of the sequence of Maize necrotic streak virus (MNeSV) indicated a genome of 4094 nt. Northern blotting and primer extension mapping identified two sgRNAs, 1607 nt and 781 nt long. Comparison of the MNeSV and Tomato bushy stunt virus genome sequences indicated that tombusvirus regulat...

249

Nuclear import of Maize fine streak virus proteins in Drosophila S2 cells  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) is a member of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae and is transmitted by the leafhopper Graminella nigrifons. The virus replicates in both its plant host and in its insect vector. Nucleorhabdoviruses replicate in the nucleus and assemble at the inner nu...

250

Interactive Separating Streak Surfaces Florian Ferstl, Kai Burger, Holger Theisel, and Rudiger Westermann  

E-print Network

ridges on a planar seeding probe. Green particles show points on time surfaces, which are additionally released from the seeding plane into the flow and serve as context information. Abstract--Streak surfaces. The computation of such separation surfaces requires to place seeding structures at the separation locations

251

Formation and evolution of a hairpin vortex induced by subharmonic sinuous low-speed streaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a process of the formation and evolution of hairpin vortices, which originated from the interaction between the spanwise-aligned low-speed streaks with a subharmonic sinuous (SS) oscillation mode, is studied using a direct numerical simulation method in a small periodic local region of an incompressible plane channel flow. The initial artificial perturbations are used to excite the SS-mode oscillation of two spanwise-aligned low-speed streaks in such a flow. A new mechanism of formation and decay of the hairpin vortices is proposed in which the shear layer induced by the spanwise collision and merging between the low-speed streaks is emphasized. Our results show that the streamwise vortices can be induced by the SS-mode streaks and then developed into an X-like pattern at the initial stage due to the mutual induction effect. The X-like vortices further enhance the spanwise oscillation and lift-up of the two streaks that thus lead to the spanwise collision and merging of the low-speed streaks and produce a low-speed region in high-speed fluid. The strong shear layer between the high- and low-speed fluids gives rise to the spanwise vorticity that connects the X-like streamwise vortices and forms the ?-like vortex. Once the low-speed region entirely enters the high-speed fluid, the shear layer shows the ring shape and results in the transition from a ?-like vortex to ?-like one. After that, the viscous diffusion of the low-speed region in the high-speed fluid leads to the decay of the ?-like vortex; the collision and merging of the low-speed streaks simultaneously reoccur upstream and give birth to a secondary ?-like vortex, which exhibits behavior that is nearly similar with that of the primary one. Although the hairpin vortex packet is not observed in the present plane channel flow, the regeneration of the hairpin vortex suggests that this type of vortical structure plays an important role in the wall-bounded flow.

Li, Jian; Dong, Gang; Lu, Ziheng

2014-10-01

252

Deep vein thrombosis: a clinical review  

PubMed Central

Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of blood clots (thrombi) in the deep veins. It commonly affects the deep leg veins (such as the calf veins, femoral vein, or popliteal vein) or the deep veins of the pelvis. It is a potentially dangerous condition that can lead to preventable morbidity and mortality. Aim: To present an update on the causes and management of DVT. Methods: A review of publications obtained from Medline search, medical libraries, and Google. Results: DVT affects 0.1% of persons per year. It is predominantly a disease of the elderly and has a slight male preponderance. The approach to making a diagnosis currently involves an algorithm combining pretest probability, D-dimer testing, and compression ultrasonography. This will guide further investigations if necessary. Prophylaxis is both mechanical and pharmacological. The goals of treatment are to prevent extension of thrombi, pulmonary embolism, recurrence of thrombi, and the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and post-thrombotic syndrome. Conclusion: DVT is a potentially dangerous condition with a myriad of risk factors. Prophylaxis is very important and can be mechanical and pharmacological. The mainstay of treatment is anticoagulant therapy. Low-molecular-weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, and vitamin K antagonists have been the treatment of choice. Currently anticoagulants specifically targeting components of the common pathway have been recommended for prophylaxis. These include fondaparinux, a selective indirect factor Xa inhibitor and the new oral selective direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and selective factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban and apixaban). Others are currently undergoing trials. Thrombolytics and vena caval filters are very rarely indicated in special circumstances. PMID:22287864

Kesieme, Emeka; Kesieme, Chinenye; Jebbin, Nze; Irekpita, Eshiobo; Dongo, Andrew

2011-01-01

253

Penile vein ligation for venogenic impotence.  

PubMed

We have performed penile vein ligation on 35 patients with venogenic impotence from July 1989 to December 1991. The criteria for surgery were (1) age less than 60 years; (2) negative vasoactive agent intracavernous injection but normal penile arterial function, and (3) abnormal venous leakage documented by dynamic infusion cavernosometry and cavernosography. The procedure in venous ligation is excision of the deep dorsal vein from coronary sulcus to pubic arch, and ligation of cavernous veins after identification. The average follow-up was 27.5 months (range 12-37 months) for 30 patients. The 2 patients who revealed no erection at all immediately after operation had dense adhesion of penile hilar region caused in one case by severe pelvic trauma and in the other by pubic bone fracture. Twenty-eight (93.3%) patients were found to sustain excellent erection within 3 months postoperatively. However, only 12 (40.0%) patients sustained spontaneous erection at long-term follow-up, while another 7 (23.3%) responded to intracavernous injection. It is worth mentioning that tortuous and marked dilation of the deep dorsal vein and/or cavernous veins were found intraoperatively in 6 patients who were observed to have excellent erections postoperatively. Inadequate elimination of the leakage veins, especially crural veins, is the most likely factor in those who had a recurrence of erectile dysfunction. However, the corpus cavernosum, particularly a myopathic condition or inadequate neurotransmitters, also plays an important role. Complications included shortness of penis (3 patients), penile deviation (3), numbness of glans penis (4) and wound infection (1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7925529

Hwang, T I; Yang, C R

1994-01-01

254

Varicose Veins, Deep Vein Thrombosis, and Haemorrhoids: Epidemiology and Suggested Aetiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current concepts on the aetiology of varicose veins, deep vein thrombosis, and haemorrhoids have been examined and, in the light of epidemiological evidence, found wanting.It is suggested that the fundamental cause of these disorders is faecal arrest which is the result of a low-residue diet.

Denis P. Burkitt

1972-01-01

255

Monoclonal antibodies against the aster yellows agent.  

PubMed

Hybridoma clones secreting specific monoclonal antibodies against the aster yellows agent, a mycoplasma-like organism, were produced by using partially purified salivary gland preparations from infected leafhopper vectors as the immunogen. After 3947 hybridomas from 20 independent fusions were screened for specific antibody against the aster yellows agent, two table clones were obtained. With these monoclonal antibodies the aster yellows agent in diseased lettuce, periwinkles, and inoculative insects was specifically identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The aster yellows agent was serologically differentiated from the mycoplasma-like organisms associated with ash yellows, loofah witches'-broom, paulownia witches'-broom, sweet potato witches'-broom, peanut rosette, maize bushy stunt, and elm phloem necrosis. PMID:17757867

Lin, C P; An Chen, T

1985-03-01

256

Endovascular Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and costeffectiveness of endovascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins. Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on August 26th, 2010 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability, and cost-effectiveness of RFA for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition Varicose veins (VV) are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad or worse as other chronic diseases such as back pain and arthritis. Lower limb VV is a very common disease affecting adults estimated to be the 7th most common reason for physician referral in the US. There is a very strong familial predisposition to VV. The risk in offspring is 90% if both parents affected, 20% when neither affected and 45% (25% boys, 62% girls) if one parent affected. The prevalence of VV worldwide ranges from 5% to 15% among men and 3% to 29% among women varying by the age, gender and ethnicity of the study population, survey methods and disease definition and measurement. The annual incidence of VV estimated from the Framingham Study was reported to be 2.6% among women and 1.9% among men and did not vary within the age range (40-89 years) studied. Approximately 1% of the adult population has a stasis ulcer of venous origin at any one time with 4% at risk. The majority of leg ulcer patients are elderly with simple superficial vein reflux. Stasis ulcers are often lengthy medical problems and can last for several years and, despite effective compression therapy and multilayer bandaging are associated with high recurrence rates. Recent trials involving surgical treatment of superficial vein reflux have resulted in healing and significantly reduced recurrence rates. Endovascular Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins RFA is an image-guided minimally invasive treatment alternative to surgical stripping of superficial venous reflux. RFA does not require an operating room or general anaesthesia and has been performed in an outpatient setting by a variety of medical specialties including surgeons and interventional radiologists. Rather than surgically removing the vein, RFA works by destroying or ablating the refluxing vein segment using thermal energy delivered through a radiofrequency catheter. Prior to performing RFA, color-flow Doppler ultrasonography is used to confirm and map all areas of venous reflux to devise a safe and effective treatment plan. The RFA procedure involves the introduction of a guide wire into the target v

2011-01-01

257

Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy Case report  

PubMed Central

62 year old Caucasian female with pancreatic head mass abutting the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) presented with fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. CT scan showed near complete obstruction of portal vein and large SMV collateral development. After 3 months of neoadjuvant therapy, her portal vein flow improved significantly, SMV collateral circulation was diminished. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and superior mesenteric portal vein (SMPV) confluence resection were performed; A saphenous vein interposition graft thrombosed immediately. The splenic vein remnant was distended and adjacent to the stump of the portal vein. Harvesting an internal jugular vein graft required extra time and using a synthetic graft posed a risk of graft thrombosis or infection. As a result, we chose to perform a direct anastomosis of the portal and splenic vein in a desperate situation. The anastomosis decompressed the mesenteric venous system, so we then ligated the SMV. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, except transient ascites. She redeveloped ascites more than one year later. At that time a PET scan showed bilateral lung and right femur metastatic disease. She expired 15 months after PD. Conclusion The lessons we learned are (1) Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2) Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3) Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4) It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival.

Tang, Jianlin; Abbas, Jihad; Hoetzl, Katherine; Allison, David; Osman, Mahamed; Williams, Mallory; Zelenock, Gerald B.

2014-01-01

258

Biomolecular mechanisms in varicose veins development.  

PubMed

Varicose veins can be described as tortuous and dilated palpable veins, which are more than 3 mm in diameter. They are one of the clinical presentations of chronic venous disorders, which are a significant cause of morbidity. The prevalence of varicose veins has been estimated at 25% to 33% in women and 10% to 20% in men and is still increasing at an alarming rate. Family history, older age, female, pregnancy, obesity, standing occupations and a history of previous deep venous thrombosis are the predominant risk factors. A great amount of factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of varicose veins, including changes in hydrostatic pressure, valvular incompetence, deep venous obstruction, ineffective function of calf muscle pump, biochemical and structural alterations of the vessel wall, extracellular matrix abnormalities, impaired balance between growth factors or cytokines, genetic alterations and several other mechanisms. Nevertheless, the issue of pathogenesis in varicose veins is still not completely known, even if a great progress has been made in understanding their molecular basis. This kind of studies appears promising and should be encouraged, and perhaps the new insight in this matter may result in targeted therapy or possibly prevention. PMID:25449990

Segiet, Oliwia Anna; Brzozowa, Marlena; Piecuch, Adam; Dudek, Damian; Reichman-Warmusz, Edyta; Wojnicz, Romuald

2014-10-30

259

Retinal vein occlusion in high altitude.  

PubMed

Staying at high altitude has been reported to be associated with thrombosis in lowlanders. We report 3 cases of retinal vein occlusion in high altitude. Two were males 31 and 37 years of age, who developed nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion while staying at high altitude. The former developed central retinal vein occlusion after 90 days at 6309 m, while the latter was affected at an altitude of 3353 m where he had been for the past 1 year and had recurrence of central retinal vein occlusion in the other eye on re-entry to the same altitude. The third case is that of a 40-year-old female who developed inferotemporal branch retinal vein occlusion on the second day after entry into high altitude (3353 m) by air, while ascending further in a vehicle at an altitude of approximately 4572 m. All three did not have any systemic disease and showed complete recovery on descent to a lower altitude. PMID:22206565

Gupta, Atul; Singh, Surinderpal; Ahluwalia, Tejinder Singh; Khanna, Anurag

2011-01-01

260

Experimental therapies for yellow fever  

PubMed Central

A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

Julander, Justin G.

2013-01-01

261

Oversized vein grafts develop advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic minipigs  

PubMed Central

Background Accelerated atherosclerosis is the main cause of late aortocoronary vein graft failure. We aimed to develop a large animal model for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of vein graft atherosclerosis. Methods An autologous reversed jugular vein graft was inserted end-to-end into the transected common carotid artery of ten hypercholesteroemic minipigs. The vein grafts were investigated 12-14 weeks later with ultrasound and angiograpy in vivo and microscopy post mortem. Results One minipig died during follow up (patent vein graft at autopsy), and one vein graft thrombosed early. In the remaining eight patent vein grafts, the mean (standard deviation) intima-media thickness was 712 ?m (276 ?m) versus 204 ?m (74 ?m) in the contralateral control internal jugular veins (P < .01). Advanced atherosclerotic plaques were found in three of four oversized vein grafts (diameter of graft > diameter of artery). No plaques were found in four non-oversized vein grafts (P < .05). Conclusions Our model of jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery of hypercholesterolemic minipigs displayed the components of human vein graft disease, i.e. thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis. Advanced atherosclerosis, the main cause of late failure of human aortocoronary vein grafts was only seen in oversized grafts. This finding suggests that oversized vein grafts may have detrimental effects on patient outcome. PMID:22463679

2012-01-01

262

Huge Trombus including Left Renal Vein, Ovarian Vein, and Inferior Vena Cava Mimicking Renal Colic  

PubMed Central

A 31-year-old female presented with acute left flank pain; she had a C/S at the postpartum day 24. Ureteral stone was suspected but ultrasound examination was normal. Then Doppler ultrasound revealed a trombus in left renal vein and inferior vena cava. Contrast enhanced MDCT scan showed swelled and nonfunctional left kidney, a trombus including distal part of left ovarian vein, left renal vein, and inferior vena cava. We started anticoagulation treatment. Further examination revealed diagnosis of chronic myeloproliferative disease. The trombus was completely recanalized at 3-month followup. PMID:25140270

Coban, Sermin; Katgi, Abdullah; Obuz, Funda; Kefi, Aykut

2014-01-01

263

Endovascular Laser Therapy for Varicose Veins  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and costeffectiveness of endovascular laser therapy (ELT) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins (VV). Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on November 27, 2009 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost-effectiveness of ELT for the treatment of primary VV based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition VV are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad or worse as other chronic diseases such as back pain and arthritis. Lower limb VV is a common disease affecting adults and estimated to be the seventh most common reason for physician referral in the US. There is a strong familial predisposition to VV with the risk in offspring being 90% if both parents affected, 20% when neither is affected, and 45% (25% boys, 62% girls) if one parent is affected. Globally, the prevalence of VV ranges from 5% to 15% among men and 3% to 29% among women varying by the age, gender and ethnicity of the study population, survey methods and disease definition and measurement. The annual incidence of VV estimated from the Framingham Study was reported to be 2.6% among women and 1.9% among men and did not vary within the age range (40-89 years) studied. Approximately 1% of the adult population has a stasis ulcer of venous origin at any one time with 4% at risk. The majority of leg ulcer patients are elderly with simple superficial vein reflux. Stasis ulcers are often lengthy medical problems and can last for several years and, despite effective compression therapy and multilayer bandaging are associated with high recurrence rates. Recent trials involving surgical treatment of superficial vein reflux have resulted in healing and significantly reduced recurrence rates. Endovascular Laser Therapy for VV ELT is an image-guided, minimally invasive treatment alternative to surgical stripping of superficial venous reflux. It does not require an operating room or general anesthesia and has been performed in outpatient settings by a variety of medical specialties including surgeons (vascular or general), interventional radiologists and phlebologists. Rather than surgically removing the vein, ELT works by destroying, cauterizing or ablating the refluxing vein segment using heat energy delivered via laser fibre. Prior to ELT, colour-flow Doppler ultrasonography is used to confirm and map all areas of venous reflux to devise a safe and effective treatment plan. The ELT procedure involves the introduction of a guide wire into the target vein under ultrasound guidance followed by the inse

2010-01-01

264

Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy.  

PubMed

Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The most characteristic symptoms of the disease are green-spotted leaf chlorosis or, commonly since about 2004, necrotic blotches, followed by senescence of leaves beginning on the second or third flush behind the shoot apex, and blackening of infected xylem in the vascular traces at the leaf scars resulting from the abscission of infected leaves. Eventually the shoot apex is killed and infected branches die. In susceptible cacao the fungus may grow through the xylem down into the main stem and kill a mature cacao tree. Infections in the stem of young plants prior to the formation of the first 3-4 lateral branches usually kill the plant. Basidiospores released from corticioid basidiomata developed on leaf scars or along cracks in the main vein of infected leaves infect young leaves. The pathogen commonly infects cacao but there are rare reports from avocado. As both crops are introduced to the region, the pathogen is suspected to occur asymptomatically in native vegetation. The pathogen is readily isolated but cultures cannot be maintained. In this study, DNA was extracted from pure cultures of O. theobromae obtained from infected cacao plants sampled from Indonesia. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), consisting of ITS1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA and ITS2, and a portion of nuclear large subunit (LSU) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences placed O. theobromae sister to Ceratobasidium anastomosis groups AG-A, AG-Bo, and AG-K with high posterior probability. Therefore the new combination Ceratobasidium theobromae is proposed. A PCR-based protocol was developed to detect and identify C. theobromae in plant tissue of cacao enabling early detection of the pathogen in plants. A second species of Ceratobasidium, Ceratobasidium ramicola, identified through ITS sequence analysis, was isolated from VSD-affected cacao plants in Java, and is widespread in diseased cacao collected from Indonesia. PMID:22208598

Samuels, Gary J; Ismaiel, Adnan; Rosmana, Ade; Junaid, Muhammad; Guest, David; McMahon, Peter; Keane, Philip; Purwantara, Agus; Lambert, Smilja; Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Cubeta, Marc A

2012-01-01

265

21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137.285 Food and...Related Products 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms...

2011-04-01

266

21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137.285 Food and...Related Products 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms...

2014-04-01

267

21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137.285 Food and...Related Products 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms...

2013-04-01

268

21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137.285 Food and...Related Products 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms...

2012-04-01

269

Deep Vein Thrombosis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Deep Vein Thrombosis - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) French ( ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (espaol) Arabic (???????) Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) (Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

270

Varicose and other vein problems - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... you stand. As a result, you may have: Varicose veins Swelling in your legs Skin changes or even ... at home to: Slow down the development of varicose veins Decrease any discomfort Prevent skin ulcers

271

Are You At Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis?  

MedlinePLUS

... Are You at Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis? Language: English Espaol (Spanish) Share Compartir Deep vein thrombosis occurs ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Language: English Espaol (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

272

Tectonic fibrous veins: initiation and evolution. Ouachita Orogen, Arkansas  

E-print Network

Veins are ubiquitous features in deformed rocks. Despite observations on syntectonic veins spanning two centuries, fundamental questions remain unanswered. Their origin as fractures is largely established but it is still not known why...

Cervantes, Pablo

2009-05-15

273

An Endangered Yellow-Legged Frog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS biologists are leading the monitoring and reintroduction effort of the Southern California mountain yellow-legged frog -- federally listed as endangered with only 200 wild adults remaining in the mountains surrounding Los Angeles County....

274

Teachable Fiction Comes to Yellow Sky.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that teachable fiction is efficient, strategically sound, and very visual. Analyzes Stephen Crane's "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" to show it fulfills these three characteristics. Suggests the story should be taught later in the semester. (PM)

Tietz, Stephen

2001-01-01

275

Volume III, Chapter 16 Yellow Warbler  

E-print Network

-9 16.7 Inventory and Assessment of Existing Management Plans................................. 16-10 16; Sauer et al. 2003). 16.2 Life History and Habitat Requirements 16.2.1 Life History 16.2.1.1 Diet Yellow

276

Assessing Sites for Yellow Legged Frog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Assessing suitable sites in southern California for reintroducing endangered southern mountain yellow-legged frogs, USGS scientists rediscovered a population in the San Jacinto Wilderness, 50 years since this frog was last seen there....

2009-07-23

277

Lost Trust: A Yellow Fever Patient Response  

PubMed Central

In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care. PMID:24348220

Runge, John S.

2013-01-01

278

Retinal vessel classification: sorting arteries and veins.  

PubMed

For the discovery of biomarkers in the retinal vasculature it is essential to classify vessels into arteries and veins. We automatically classify retinal vessels as arteries or veins based on colour features using a Gaussian Mixture Model, an Expectation-Maximization (GMM-EM) unsupervised classifier, and a quadrant-pairwise approach. Classification is performed on illumination-corrected images. 406 vessels from 35 images were processed resulting in 92% correct classification (when unlabelled vessels are not taken into account) as compared to 87.6%, 90.08%, and 88.28% reported in [12] [14] and [15]. The classifier results were compared against two trained human graders to establish performance parameters to validate the success of classification method. The proposed system results in specificity of (0.8978, 0.9591) and precision (positive predicted value) of (0.9045, 0.9408) as compared to specificity of (0.8920, 0.7918) and precision of (0.8802, 0.8118) for (arteries, veins) respectively as reported in [13]. The classification accuracy was found to be 0.8719 and 0.8547 for veins and arteries, respectively. PMID:24111454

Relan, D; MacGillivray, T; Ballerini, L; Trucco, E

2013-01-01

279

Effects of diabatic heating on the ageostrophic circulation of an upper tropospheric jet streak  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interaction between the mass circulation within a mesoscale convective complex (MCC) and a direct mass circulation in the entrance region of an upper tropospheric polar jet streak was examined within the isentropic structure to investigate mechanisms responsible for linking these two scales of motion. The results establish that latent heating in the MCC modifies the direct mass circulation in the jet streak entrance region through the diabatically induced components of ageostrophic motion analyzed within isentropic coordinates. Within the strong mesoscale mass circulation of each MCC, strong horizontal mass flux convergence into the MCC at low levels is balanced by strong horizontal mass flux divergence away from the convergence at upper levels. Locations of large diabatic heating rates correspond well to the MCC position for each case; diabatic heating forces the upward vertical branch for the mesoscale mass circulation.

Keyser, D. A.; Johnson, D. R.

1982-01-01

280

Time-resolved spectra of dense plasma focus using spectrometer, streak camera, and CCD combination  

SciTech Connect

A time-resolving spectrographic instrument has been assembled with the primary components of a spectrometer, image-converting streak camera, and CCD recording camera, for the primary purpose of diagnosing highly dynamic plasmas. A collection lens defines the sampled region and couples light from the plasma into a step index, multimode fiber which leads to the spectrometer. The output spectrum is focused onto the photocathode of the streak camera, the output of which is proximity-coupled to the CCD. The spectrometer configuration is essentially Czerny-Turner, but off-the-shelf Nikon refraction lenses, rather than mirrors, are used for practicality and flexibility. Only recently assembled, the instrument requires significant refinement, but has now taken data on both bridge wire and dense plasma focus experiments.

Goldin, F. J. [Livermore Operations, National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C. [North Las Vegas Facility, National Security Technologies, LLC, North Las Vegas, Nevada 89030 (United States); Wilkins, P. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2010-10-15

281

X-ray streak camera temporal resolution improvement using a longitudinal time-dependent field  

SciTech Connect

X-ray streak cameras (XSC) have been known to be one of the fastest detectors forultrafast X-ray science. A number of applications in material science, biochemistry, accelerator physics, require sub-picosecond resolution to study new phenomena. Inthis paper, we report on a new method which can potentially improve the temporal resolution of a streak camera down to 100 femtoseconds. This method uses a time-dependent acceleration field to lengthen the photoelectron bunch, significantlyimproving the time resolution as well as reducing the time dispersion caused byinitial energy spread and the effects fromthe space charge forces. A computer simulation of an XSC using this method shows significant improvement in the resolution.

Qiang, Ji; Qiang, J.; Byrd, J.M.; Feng, J.; Huang, G.

2008-05-09

282

2-ps Hard X-Ray Streak Camera Measurements at Sector 7 Beamline of the Advanced Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

A hard X-ray streak camera capable of 2-ps time resolution is in operation at the Sector 7 beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. It is used for laser-pump, X-ray probe experiments using the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser system installed on the beamline. This streak camera, combined with standardized and prealigned experimental setups, can perform time-resolved liquid-phase absorption spectroscopy, reflectivity, and diffraction experiments.

Chollet, M.; Ahr, B.; Walko, D.A.; Rose-Petruck, C.; Adams, B.

2011-08-02

283

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using protein crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the enexpected hypothesis that the virus release its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have farly flat coats, but in TYMV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early studies of TYMV, but McPhereson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central viod on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides liked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the voild. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

2000-01-01

284

Yellow fever vaccines and international travelers.  

PubMed

The growth of air travel has diminished the barriers to the spread of yellow fever, posing a threat to regions that have not previously been reached by the disease but are considered receptive, including the Middle East, coastal East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Asia and Australia. For many decades, vaccination against yellow fever has been required for travelers entering many countries with receptive mosquito vectors in order to prevent the importation of yellow fever virus from a country that had ongoing transmission. Each year, approximately 9 million tourists travel to countries where yellow fever is endemic; the number of tourists who visit yellow fever-endemic regions within these countries may exceed 3 million. Risk estimates of yellow fever to travelers are extremely difficult to ascertain due to fluctuation of the disease by year and season, incomplete surveillance data, and lack of accurate data regarding vaccine coverage of the local population. The 17D live yellow fever vaccine has been widely acknowledged as one of the most effective and safe vaccines in use. Recently, however, reports of severe and previously unrecognized significant adverse events linked to the 17D vaccine have caused major concern. Some have called for the development of new inactivated yellow fever vaccines for travelers. A new approach for manufacturing the live 17D vaccine involves using a full-length cDNA clone of 17D-204 virus. This new method allows production in a cell culture system and potentially reduces the risk of adventitious viruses and selection of a subpopulation during replication, thereby increasing safety. PMID:18564013

Barnett, Elizabeth D; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Wilson, Mary E

2008-07-01

285

The nucleotide sequence and genome structure of the geminivirus miscanthus streak virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tandem dimer of miscanthus streak virus (MiSV) DNA was inserted into the T-DNA of the binary plasmid vector pBIN19 and agroinoculated into several monocotyledonous plants (monocots) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens or A. rhizogenes. Disease symptoms and geminate particles were produced in maize and Panicum milaceum plants, and MiSV- specific double-stranded and single-stranded DNAs were found in these plants. The nucleotide

Masaaki Chatani; Yoshinori Matsumoto; Haruyoshi Mizuta; Masato Ikegami; Margaret I. Boulton; Jeffrey W. Davies

1991-01-01

286

New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation,\\u000a stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were\\u000a identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb),

K. Vemana; R. K. Jain

2010-01-01

287

Optimally amplified large-scale streaks and drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal amplifications of small coherent perturbations within turbulent pipe flow are computed for Reynolds numbers up to one million. Three standard frameworks are considered: the optimal growth of an initial condition, the response to harmonic forcing and the Karhunen-Love (proper orthogonal decomposition) analysis of the response to stochastic forcing. Similar to analyses of the turbulent plane channel flow and boundary layer, it is found that streaks elongated in the streamwise direction can be greatly amplified from quasistreamwise vortices, despite linear stability of the mean flow profile. The most responsive perturbations are streamwise uniform and, for sufficiently large Reynolds number, the most responsive azimuthal mode is of wave number m=1 . The response of this mode increases with the Reynolds number. A secondary peak, where m corresponds to azimuthal wavelengths ??+?70-90 in wall units, also exists in the amplification of initial conditions and in premultiplied response curves for the forced problems. Direct numerical simulations at Re=5300 confirm that the forcing of m=1,2 and m=4 optimal structures results in the large response of coherent large-scale streaks. For moderate amplitudes of the forcing, low-speed streaks become narrower and more energetic, whereas high-speed streaks become more spread. It is further shown that drag reduction can be achieved by forcing steady large-scale structures, as anticipated from earlier investigations. Here the energy balance is calculated. At Re=5300 it is shown that, due to the small power required by the forcing of optimal structures, a net power saving of the order of 10% can be achieved following this approach, which could be relevant for practical applications.

Willis, Ashley P.; Hwang, Yongyun; Cossu, Carlo

2010-09-01

288

Instability of streaks in pipe flow of shear-thinning fluids.  

PubMed

This study is motivated by recent experimental results dealing with the transition to turbulence in a pipe flow of shear-thinning fluids, where a streaky flow with an azimuthal wave number n=1 is observed in the transitional regime. Here, a linear stability analysis of pipe flow of shear-thinning fluids modulated azimuthally by finite amplitude streaks is performed. The shear-thinning behavior of the fluid is described by the Carreau model. The streaky base flows considered are obtained from two-dimensional direct numerical simulation using finite amplitude longitudinal rolls as the initial condition and by extracting the velocity field at time t(max), where the amplitude of the streaks reaches its maximum, denoted by A(max). It is found that the amplitude A(max) increases with increasing Reynolds number as well as with increasing amplitude E(0) of the initial longitudinal rolls. For sufficiently large streaks amplitude, streamwise velocity profiles develop inflection points, leading to instabilities. Depending on the threshold amplitude A(c), two different modes may trigger the instability of the streaks. If A(c) exceeds approximately 41.5% of the centerline velocity, the instability mode is located near the axis of the pipe, i.e., it is a "center mode." For weaker amplitude A(c), the instability mode is located near the pipe wall, in the region of highest wall normal shear, i.e., it is a "wall mode." The threshold amplitude A(c) decreases with increasing shear-thinning effects. The energy equation analysis indicates that (i) wall modes are driven mainly by the work of the Reynolds stress against the wall normal shear and (ii) for center modes, the contribution of the normal wall shear remains dominant; however, it is noted that the contribution of the Reynolds stress against the azimuthal shear increases with increasing shear-thinning effects. PMID:24032922

Lpez Carranza, S N; Jenny, M; Nouar, C

2013-08-01

289

High-Speed Observer: Automated Streak Detection for the Aerospike Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-frame-rate digital video camera, installed on test stands at Stennis Space Center (SSC), has been used to capture images of the aerospike engine plume during test. These plume images are processed in real time to detect and differentiate anomalous plume events. Results indicate that the High-Speed Observer (HSO) system can detect anomalous plume streaking events that are indicative of aerospike engine malfunction.

Rieckhoff, T. J.; Covan, M. A.; OFarrell, J. M.

2001-01-01

290

Integration of Banana Streak Badnavirus into the MusaGenome: Molecular and Cytogenetic Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding and tissue culture of certain cultivars of bananas (Musa) have led to high levels of banana streak badnavirus (BSV) infection in progeny from symptomless parents. BSV DNA hybridized to genomic DNA of one such parent, Obino l'Ewai, suggesting integration of viral sequences. Sequencing of clones of Obino l'Ewai genomic DNA revealed an interface between BSV andMusasequences and a complex

Glyn Harper; Julian O. Osuji; Roger Hull

1999-01-01

291

The effect of boundary conditions and shear rate on streak formation and breakdown in turbulent channel flows  

SciTech Connect

Experiments in a horizontal channel indicate that low-speed/high-speed streaks form in the region very close to the interface if shear is imposed on the liquid surface by the motion of a gas. They also form at the wall. Even though the boundary conditions at the wall and at the interface are different (no slip versus nearly free slip with regard to fluctuations), the main characteristics of the streaks appear similar. The spanwise spacing of the streaks when nondimensionalized using the local shear stress and kinematic viscosity is about 100 units whether the streaks are at the wall or at the liquid surface. The ejection and breakdown of the streaks also show qualitatively similar features. For example, the burst frequency appears to scale on local inner variables and the numerical values in nondimensionalized frequency units are about the same whether the bursts originate near the interface or the wall. A number of experiments have been done varying the shear rate at the interface to determine its role in streak formation and breakdown. From the present experiments it is concluded that the shear rate has the main influence on the phenomena and the effect of the boundary conditions is much less important.

Rashidi, M.; Banerjee, S. (Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (USA))

1990-10-01

292

Low Albedo Surfaces and Eolian Sediment: Mars Orbiter Camera Views of Western Arabia Terra Craters and Wind Streaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High spatial resolution (1.5 to 12 m/pixel) Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera images obtained September 1997 through June 2001 indicate that the large, dark wind streaks of western Arabia Terra each originate at a barchan dune field on a crater floor. The streaks consist of a relatively thin coating of sediment deflated from the dune fields and their vicinity. This sediment drapes a previous mantle that more thickly covers nearly all of western Arabia Terra. No dunes or eolian bedforms are found within the dark wind streaks, nor do any of the intracrater dunes climb up crater walls to provide sand to the wind streaks. The relations between dunes, wind streak, and subjacent terrain imply that dark-toned grains finer than those which comprise the dunes are lifted into suspension and carried out of the craters to be deposited on the adjacent terrain. Such grains are most likely in the silt size range (3.9-62.5 micrometers). The streaks change in terms of extent, relative albedo, and surface pattern over periods measured in years, but very little evidence for recent eolian activity (dust plumes, storms, dune movement) has been observed.

Edgett, Kenneth S.

2001-01-01

293

RNAi-derived field resistance to Cassava brown streak disease persists across the vegetative cropping cycle.  

PubMed

A confined field trial was established to determine durability of RNAi-mediated resistance to Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). Stem cuttings were obtained from field-grown cassava plants of cv 60444 transgenic for construct p718, consisting of an 894 bp inverted repeat sequence from the Ugandan Cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) coat protein. Plants were established from three transgenic lines previously shown to provide complete resistance to UCBSV and differing levels of protection to the non-homologous virus species Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), and grown for 11 months. CBSD symptoms were observed on shoots and storage roots of all non-transgenic cv 60444 control plants and transgenic lines p718-002 and p718-005, but not on p718-001. RT-PCR diagnostic showed tissues of plant lines p718-002 and p718-005 to be infected with CBSV, but free of UCBSV. All leaves and roots of p718-001 plants were to carry no detectable levels of either pathogen. Plants of cv 60444 in this field trial showed severe cassava mosaic disease symptoms, indicating that presence of replicating geminiviruses did not cause significant suppression of RNAi-mediated resistance to CBSD. Resistance to CBSD across a vegetative cropping cycle confirms earlier field data, and provides an important step in proof of concept for application of RNAi technology to control of CBSD under conditions encountered in farmers' fields. PMID:24296511

Odipio, John; Ogwok, Emmanuel; Taylor, Nigel J; Halsey, Mark; Bua, Anton; Fauquet, Claude M; Alicai, Titus

2014-01-01

294

Rho kinase activity controls directional cell movements during primitive streak formation in the rabbit embryo  

PubMed Central

During animal gastrulation, the specification of the embryonic axes is accompanied by epithelio-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the first major change in cell shape after fertilization. EMT takes place in disparate topographical arrangements, such as the circular blastopore of amphibians, the straight primitive streak of birds and mammals or in intermediate gastrulation forms of other amniotes such as reptiles. Planar cell movements are prime candidates to arrange specific modes of gastrulation but there is no consensus view on their role in different vertebrate classes. Here, we test the impact of interfering with Rho kinase-mediated cell movements on gastrulation topography in blastocysts of the rabbit, which has a flat embryonic disc typical for most mammals. Time-lapse video microscopy, electron microscopy, gene expression and morphometric analyses of the effect of inhibiting ROCK activity showed besides normal specification of the organizer region a dose-dependent disruption of primitive streak formation; this disruption resulted in circular, arc-shaped or intermediate forms, reminiscent of those found in amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Our results reveal a crucial role of ROCK-controlled directional cell movements during rabbit primitive streak formation and highlight the possibility that temporal and spatial modulation of cell movements were instrumental for the evolution of gastrulation forms. PMID:25516971

Stankova, Viktoria; Tsikolia, Nikoloz; Viebahn, Christoph

2015-01-01

295

Oct4 Is Required ?E7.5 for Proliferation in the Primitive Streak  

PubMed Central

Oct4 is a widely recognized pluripotency factor as it maintains Embryonic Stem (ES) cells in a pluripotent state, and, in vivo, prevents the inner cell mass (ICM) in murine embryos from differentiating into trophectoderm. However, its function in somatic tissue after this developmental stage is not well characterized. Using a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase and floxed alleles of Oct4, we investigated the effect of depleting Oct4 in mouse embryos between the pre-streak and headfold stages, ?E6.0E8.0, when Oct4 is found in dynamic patterns throughout the embryonic compartment of the mouse egg cylinder. We found that depletion of Oct4 ?E7.5 resulted in a severe phenotype, comprised of craniorachischisis, random heart tube orientation, failed turning, defective somitogenesis and posterior truncation. Unlike in ES cells, depletion of the pluripotency factors Sox2 and Oct4 after E7.0 does not phenocopy, suggesting that ?E7.5 Oct4 is required within a network that is altered relative to the pluripotency network. Oct4 is not required in extraembryonic tissue for these processes, but is required to maintain cell viability in the embryo and normal proliferation within the primitive streak. Impaired expansion of the primitive streak occurs coincident with Oct4 depletion ?E7.5 and precedes deficient convergent extension which contributes to several aspects of the phenotype. PMID:24244203

DeVeale, Brian; Brokhman, Irina; Mohseni, Paria; Babak, Tomas; Yoon, Charles; Lin, Anthony; Onishi, Kento; Tomilin, Alexey; Pevny, Larysa; Zandstra, Peter W.; Nagy, Andras; van der Kooy, Derek

2013-01-01

296

Altitude Starting Characteristics of an Afterburner with Autoignition and Hot-streak Ignition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in an altitude test chamber at the NACA Lewis Laboratory to determine the altitude starting characteristics of an afterburner with autoignition and with hot-streak ignition. Transient afterburner ignition data were obtained over a range of altitudes from 30,000 to 50,000 feet at a flight Mach number of 0.60. Afterburner ignition with a torch igniter located axially at approximately the midpoint of the combustion chamber was possible over the entire range, but ignition ignition with a torch igniter located in the transition section 1 5/8 inches upstream of the turbine stators proved unsatisfactory at an altitude of 50,000 feet due to the inability to obtain flame through the turbine. Increasing the afterburner-inlet total pressure at a constant afterburner fuel-air ratio decreased the afterburner ignition time. Hot-streak ignition was possible within 2 seconds after the time required to obtain the preset, normal afterburner fuel pressure, whereas autoignition required 4 to 7 seconds for the range of altitudes investigated. Following the ignition there was a period of oscillatory operation existing in the engine-afterburner before steady-state operation was attained. The time required for steady-state stable operation decreased as afterburner inlet total pressure increased. The duration of oscillations also decreased with hot-streak ignition because the fuel-air mixture was ignited before a large volume of combustible mixture was accumulated in the afterburner.

Renas, P E; Jansen, E T; Harvey, R W , Sr

1953-01-01

297

Unsteady numerical simulation of hot streak/blades interaction and film cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deeply research on management and application of hot streak is an important way to breakthrough technique obstacle of aero engine hot components. Numerical method is a useful instrument to investigate the correlative problems. Firstly the paper developed independently three dimensional unsteady parallel computational code-MpiTurbo based on Fortran 90 and MPI at Linux operating system. Then unsteady numerical simulation was carried out to investigate impacts of the factors, which included circumferential locations of hot streak and clocking positions of blade rows, on the thermal environment of a 1+1 counter-rotating turbine. The results clearly indicated that clocking positions of hot streak/blade row and blade row/blade row had great influence on the time-averaged temperature distribution of the third blade row. Therefore, it can be effective for improving thermal environment of turbine to optimize blade parameters and clocking positions. Lastly film cooling layout was designed by the repetitious steady simulation based on source term method. And the flow structure detail was given by the unsteady simulation.

Yi, Weilin; Ji, Lucheng; Xiao, Yunhan

2010-10-01

298

Biological and Genomic Sequence Characterization of Maize streak virus Isolates from Wheat.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Maize streak virus (MSV) is best known as the causal agent of maize streak disease. However, only a genetically uniform subset of the viruses within this diverse species is actually capable of producing severe symptoms in maize. Whereas these "maize-type" viruses all share greater than 95% sequence identity, MSV strains isolated from grasses may share as little as 79% sequence identity with the maize-type viruses. Here, we present the complete genome sequences and biological characterization of two MSV isolates from wheat that share approximately 89% sequence identity with the maize-type viruses. Clonal populations of these two isolates, named MSV-Tas and MSV-VW, were leafhopper-transmitted to Digitaria sanguinalis and a range of maize, wheat, and barley genotypes. Whereas the two viruses showed some differences in their pathogenicity in maize, they were both equally pathogenic in D. sanguinalis and the various wheat and barley genotypes tested. Phylogenetic analyses involving the genome sequences of MSV-Tas and MSV-VW, a new maize-type virus also fully sequenced in this study (MSV-VM), and all other available African streak virus sequences, indicated that MSV-Tas and MSV-VW are close relatives that together represent a distinct MSV strain. Sequence analyses revealed that MSV-VM has a recombinant genome containing MSV-Tas/VW-like sequences within its movement protein gene. PMID:18944143

Willment, J A; Martin, D P; Van der Walt, E; Rybicki, E P

2002-01-01

299

Optical fiducial timing system for X-ray streak cameras with aluminum coated optical fiber ends  

DOEpatents

An optical fiducial timing system is provided for use with interdependent groups of X-ray streak cameras (18). The aluminum coated (80) ends of optical fibers (78) are positioned with the photocathodes (20, 60, 70) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). The other ends of the optical fibers (78) are placed together in a bundled array (90). A fiducial optical signal (96), that is comprised of 2.omega. or 1.omega. laser light, after introduction to the bundled array (90), travels to the aluminum coated (82) optical fiber ends and ejects quantities of electrons (84) that are recorded on the data recording media (52) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). Since both 2.omega. and 1.omega. laser light can travel long distances in optical fiber with only a slight attenuation, the initial arial power density of the fiducial optical signal (96) is well below the damage threshold of the fused silica or other material that comprises the optical fibers (78, 90). Thus the fiducial timing system can be repeatably used over long durations of time.

Nilson, David G. (Oakland, CA); Campbell, E. Michael (Pleasanton, CA); MacGowan, Brian J. (Livermore, CA); Medecki, Hector (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

300

Rho kinase activity controls directional cell movements during primitive streak formation in the rabbit embryo.  

PubMed

During animal gastrulation, the specification of the embryonic axes is accompanied by epithelio-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the first major change in cell shape after fertilization. EMT takes place in disparate topographical arrangements, such as the circular blastopore of amphibians, the straight primitive streak of birds and mammals or in intermediate gastrulation forms of other amniotes such as reptiles. Planar cell movements are prime candidates to arrange specific modes of gastrulation but there is no consensus view on their role in different vertebrate classes. Here, we test the impact of interfering with Rho kinase-mediated cell movements on gastrulation topography in blastocysts of the rabbit, which has a flat embryonic disc typical for most mammals. Time-lapse video microscopy, electron microscopy, gene expression and morphometric analyses of the effect of inhibiting ROCK activity showed - besides normal specification of the organizer region - a dose-dependent disruption of primitive streak formation; this disruption resulted in circular, arc-shaped or intermediate forms, reminiscent of those found in amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Our results reveal a crucial role of ROCK-controlled directional cell movements during rabbit primitive streak formation and highlight the possibility that temporal and spatial modulation of cell movements were instrumental for the evolution of gastrulation forms. PMID:25516971

Stankova, Viktoria; Tsikolia, Nikoloz; Viebahn, Christoph

2015-01-01

301

Neovascularization and recurrent varicose veins: more histologic and ultrasound evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe recurrence of varicose veins is a common and costly consequence of varicose vein surgery. Despite the long history and vast experience of varicose vein surgery, the exact cause of recurrence is still unknown. This study aims to investigate the cause of recurrence further by correlating findings from duplex ultrasound scans, resin casts, and histologic investigation at the recurrence of

Andr M van Rij; Gregory T Jones; Gerry B Hill; Ping Jiang

2004-01-01

302

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Varicose Veins in Japanese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and risk factors of varicose veins in Japan were investigated in 541 Japanese women. Varicose veins were defined as any dilated, tortuous, and elongated veins of the lower extremity and classified into four types. The total prevalence rate was 45%. Saphenous type was observed in 22%, segment type in 35%, reticular type in 28%, and web type in

Masafumi Hirai; Kenichi Naiki; Ryu Nakayama

1990-01-01

303

Development of HIFU Therapy System for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment utilizing microbubbles was investigated in the present study. It is known that microbubbles have the potential to enhance the heating effects of an ultrasound field. In this study, the heat accompanying microbubble oscillation was used to occlude varicose veins. Alteration of veins was observed after ultrasound irradiation. Veins were resected by stripping. In this study,

Ryuhei Ota; Jun Suzuki; Kiyoshi Yoshinaka; Juno Deguchi; Shu Takagi; Tetsuro Miyata; Yoichiro Matsumoto

2009-01-01

304

Successful use of the inferior mesenteric vein for renal transplantation.  

PubMed

For renal transplantation, the standard venous drainage of the allograft is via the iliac vein. In unusual circumstances, such as thrombosis or agenesis of the iliac veins and the inferior vena cava, portal venous drainage may be a suitable option. We report a case in which the inferior mesenteric vein was used for venous drainage of a cadaveric renal allograft. PMID:12859544

Patel, Pratik; Krishnamurthi, Venkatesh

2003-08-01

305

Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt with variant inferior right hepatic vein.  

PubMed

We present a case of congenital intrahepatic aneurysmal portosystemic shunt in which the right portal vein communicates with both a variant inferior right hepatic vein and the right hepatic vein. We also describe the importance and efficacy of three dimensional computed tomography reconstruction images in determining subtle, small shunt vessels. PMID:18553284

Senocak, Efsun; O?uz, Berna; Edger, Tahsin; Cila, Ay?enur

2008-06-01

306

Long-term assessment of cryopreserved vein bypass grafting success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: When autogenous vein is unavailable, cryopreserved veins have been used in patients as a means of attempted limb salvage. We evaluated the long-term patency and limb salvage rates for patients undergoing bypass grafting with cryopreserved veins. Methods: Medical records were reviewed for patients undergoing cryovein bypass grafting at two hospitals from 1992 to 1997. Follow-up data were obtained from

Linda Harris; Monica O'Brien-Irr; John J. Ricotta

2001-01-01

307

Internal vein texture and vein evolution of the epithermal Shila-Paula district, southern Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The epithermal Shila-Paula Au-Ag district is characterized by numerous veins hosted in Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Western Cordillera (southern Peru). Field studies of the ore bodies reveal a systematic association of a main E-W vein with secondary N55-60W veinstwo directions that are also reflected by the orientation of fluid-inclusion planes in quartz crystals of the host rock. In areas where this pattern is not recognized, such as the Apacheta sector, vein emplacement seems to have been guided by regional N40E and N40W fractures. Two main vein-filling stages are identified. stage 1 is a quartz-adularia-pyrite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-electrum-Mn silicate-carbonate assemblage that fills the main E-W veins. stage 2, which contains most of the precious-metal mineralization, is divided into pre-bonanza and bonanza substages. The pre-bonanza substage consists of a quartz-adularia-carbonate assemblage that is observed within the secondary N45-60W veins, in veinlets that cut the stage 1 assemblage, and in final open-space fillings. The two latter structures are finally filled by the bonanza substage characterized by a Fe-poor sphalerite-chalcopyrite-pyrite-galena-tennantite-tetrahedrite-polybasite-pearceite-electrum assemblage. The ore in the main veins is systematically brecciated, whereas the ore in the secondary veins and geodes is characteristic of open-space crystallization. Microthermometric measurements on sphalerite from both stages and on quartz and calcite from stage 2 indicate a salinity range of 0 to 15.5 wt% NaCl equivalent and homogenization temperatures bracketed between 200 and 330C. Secondary CO2-, N2- and H2S-bearing fluid inclusions are also identified. The age of vein emplacement, based on 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained on adularia of different veins, is estimated at around 11 Ma, with some overlap between adularia of stage 1 (11.40.4 Ma) and of stage 2 (10.80.3 Ma). A three-phase tectonic model has been constructed to explain the vein formation. Phase 1 corresponds to the assumed development of E-W sinistral shear zones and associated N60W cleavages under the effects of a NE-SW shortening direction that is recognized at Andean scale. These structures contain the stage 1 ore assemblage that was brecciated during ongoing deformation. Phase 2 is a reactivation of earlier structures under a NW-SE shortening direction that allowed the reopening of the preexisting schistosity and the formation of scarce N50E-striking S2-cleavage planes filled by the stage 2 pre-bonanza minerals. Phase 3 coincides with the bonanza ore emplacement in the secondary N45-60W veins and also in open-space in the core of the main E-W veins. Our combined tectonic, textural, mineralogical, fluid-inclusion, and geochronological study presents a complete model of vein formation in which the reactivation of previously formed tectonic structures plays a significant role in ore formation.

Chauvet, Alain; Bailly, Laurent; Andr, Anne-Sylvie; Moni, Patrick; Cassard, Daniel; Tajada, Fernando Llosa; Vargas, Juan Rosas; Tuduri, Johann

2006-07-01

308

Choroidal neovascularization in angioid streaks following microincision vitrectomy surgery: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with angioid streaks are prone to developing subretinal hemorrhage after ocular or head injury due to the brittleness of Bruchs membrane. However, there have been no reports of any angioid streak patients in whom choroidal neovascularization occurred after vitrectomy surgery. We report herein a patient with angioid streaks who developed choroidal neovascularization after vitrectomy surgery for epiretinal membrane. Case presentation A 76-year-old man presented with distorted vision in his left eye, with a best corrected visual acuity of 1.2 and 0.6 in his right and left eyes, respectively. Fundus examination showed angioid streaks in both eyes and epiretinal membrane only in the left eye. The patient underwent 23-gauge three-port pars plana vitrectomy with removal of the epiretinal membrane combined with cataract surgery. Internal limiting membrane in addition to the epiretinal membrane were successfully peeled and removed, with indocyanine green dye used to visualize the internal limiting membrane. His left best corrected visual acuity improved to 0.8. An elevated lesion with retinal hemorrhage due to probable choroidal neovascularization was found between the fovea and the optic disc in the left eye at 7 weeks after surgery. Since best corrected visual acuity decreased to 0.15 and the hemorrhage expanded, posterior sub-Tenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide was performed. However, no improvement was observed. Even though intravitreal bevacizumab injection was performed a total of five times, his best corrected visual acuity remained at 0.1. Subsequently, we performed a combination treatment of a standard-fluence photodynamic therapy and intravitreal ranibizumab injection, with additional intravitreal ranibizumab injections performed 3 times after this combination treatment. Best corrected visual acuity improved to 0.5 and the size of the choroidal neovascularization markedly regressed at 4 months after the combined treatment. Conclusion Development of choroidal neovascularization could possibly occur in elderly patients with angioid streaks after vitrectomy surgery. In such cases, a combination of photodynamic therapy and intravitreal ranibizumab injection may be considered for initial treatment of the choroidal neovascularization. PMID:23829451

2013-01-01

309

MDCT Venography Evaluation of a Rare Collateral Vein Draining from the Left Subclavian Vein to the Great Cardiac Vein  

PubMed Central

Congenital vascular anomalies of the venous drainage in the chest affect both cardiac and non-cardiac structures. Collateral venous drainage from the left subclavian vein to the great cardiac vein is a rare venous drainage pattern. These anomalies present a diagnostic challenge. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is useful in the diagnosis and treatment planning of these clinically complex disorders. We present a case report of an 18-year-old Caucasian male who came to our institute for evaluation of venous drainage patterns to the heart. We describe the contrast technique of bilateral dual injection MDCT venography and the imaging features of the venous drainage patterns to the heart. PMID:25379351

Abchee, Antoine; Saade, Charbel; Al-Mohiy, Hussain; El-Merhi, Fadi

2014-01-01

310

Conditions of vein formation in the southern Appalachian foreland: constraints from vein geometries and fluid inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nolichucky Shale in the Whiteoak Mountain thrust sheet of the southern Appalachian foreland contains four coeval bed-normal calcite vein sets that trended 015, 055, 090 and 320 before thrusting. The pretectonic veins were displaced by syn-tectonic bed-parallel slickensided calcite veins during local Alleghanian thrusting. Fluid inclusion thermometry indicates precipitation of both bed-normal and bed-parallel veins from NaCl-CaCl 2 brines (27 wt% NaCl-equiv. salinity), at 80-110C for bed-normal veins and 110C for bed-parallel veins. These temperatures correspond to burial depths of 2.4-3.6 km, which were attained after the middle Mississippian. These pressure-corrected homogenization temperatures are comparable to time-temperature indicators, such as CAI and illite crystallinity, and indicate that inclusions were trapped near-maximum burial conditions and were not deformed after trapping. This conclusion is supported by the absence of petrographic evidence for inclusion failure and a worst-case mechanical analysis that indicates a lack of brittle deformation to inclusions after trapping. The four coeval bed-normal vein sets could not be formed by one simple stress field, nor by the development of a single structure, but required the interaction of at least two stress components or structures. It is proposed that the interaction of the Alleghanian and Ouachita orogenic stress components, beyond the limits of thrusting, produced the sets as coeval Alleghanian orthogonal (055,320) and Ouchita sub-orthogonal (015, 090) mode I fractures.

Foreman, J. Lincoln; Dunne, William M.

311

Initial-state, mean-free-path, and skin-depth dependence of attosecond time-resolved IR-streaked XUV photoemission from single-crystalline magnesium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the dependence of attosecond streaked photoelectron spectra and photoemission time delays from valence band (VB) and 2p core-level (CL) states of a single-crystalline Mg(0001) thin film on the (i) modeling of the substrate electronic structure, (ii) electron mean free path (MFP), (iii) screening of the near-infrared (NIR) streaking laser field, and (iv) chirp of the attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse. Our quantum-mechanical numerical simulations predict streaked photoemission spectra that depend sensitively on the XUV chirp and weakly on the screening of the streaking laser field by the substrate. They furthermore show that streaking time delays for VB emission are relatively insensitive to the modeling of the initial quantum states, electron MFP, and NIR skin depth of the Mg substrate, in contrast to the stronger dependence of streaking time delays for 2p CL emission on these factors.

Liao, Q.; Thumm, U.

2014-03-01

312

Clinical evaluation of vein contrast enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A clinical study is underway to compare an experimental infrared (IR) device, OnTarget OnTarget at LeBonheur Children's Medical Center, Methodist Healthcare, in Memphis, TN, while the adult study site is the clinical research center at Bowld Hospital, also in Memphis, TN. Early results on 35 pediatric and 25 adult subjects indicate that OnTarget years' experience in accessing veins in pediatric subjects, and that it could be very helpful to a phlebotomist with limited experience when accessing veins in both adult and pediatric subjects. The study uses monitor based OnTarget area of the patients anatomy enlarged and contrast enhanced on a LCD monitor. The phlebotomist can then compare the OnTarget or feel when examining a subject.

Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal; Zeman, Herbert D.

2002-05-01

313

Finger Vein Recognition with Personalized Feature Selection  

PubMed Central

Finger veins are a promising biometric pattern for personalized identification in terms of their advantages over existing biometrics. Based on the spatial pyramid representation and the combination of more effective information such as gray, texture and shape, this paper proposes a simple but powerful feature, called Pyramid Histograms of Gray, Texture and Orientation Gradients (PHGTOG). For a finger vein image, PHGTOG can reflect the global spatial layout and local details of gray, texture and shape. To further improve the recognition performance and reduce the computational complexity, we select a personalized subset of features from PHGTOG for each subject by using the sparse weight vector, which is trained by using LASSO and called PFS-PHGTOG. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the promise of the PHGTOG and PFS-PHGTOG, experimental results on our databases show that PHGTOG outperforms the other existing features. Moreover, PFS-PHGTOG can further boost the performance in comparison with PHGTOG. PMID:23974154

Xi, Xiaoming; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Meng, Xianjing

2013-01-01

314

Deep vein thrombosis in acute myelogenous leukemia.  

PubMed

Thrombotic complications in acute leukemia are often underestimated because bleeding complications generally dominate the clinical picture. While there are many thrombogenic factors shared by both solid tumors and leukemia, many additional prothrombotic features are present in leukemia. The prothrombotic factors include hyperleukocytosis, increased expression of tissue factor and its activation in leukemic cells, and the prothrombotic adverse effects of therapeutic agents and vascular access cathethers. A 18-year old woman came with swelling on her right leg 10 days before hospital admission. Since 2 months before she had had weakness, pallor and fever without bleeding manifestation. Hematologic examinations showed anemia, leukocytosis with monoblast and thrombocytopenia. Deep vein thrombosis in right femoral and right popliteal vein was confirmed using compression ultrasonography. The treatment of such complications is challenging because of the high risk of hemorrhage in this group of patients, especially due to their severe thrombocytopenia. PMID:20124617

Oehadian, Amaylia; Iqbal, Mohammad; Sumantri, Rachmat

2009-10-01

315

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. ...3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2012-10-01

316

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

...false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. ...3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2014-10-01

317

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. ...3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2011-10-01

318

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. ...3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2010-10-01

319

42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. ...3 Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The...

2013-10-01

320

Percutaneous Transumbilical Portal Vein Embolization in a Patient with a Ruptured Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by the Portal Vein  

SciTech Connect

We describe a case of a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma supplied by the portal vein that was successfully treated with portal vein embolization via a percutaneous transumbilical approach. A contrast material-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scan showed the presence of a large hypervascular tumor on portal venous phase as well as right hepatic vein thrombosis and hemoperitoneum that prevented portal vein embolization by the use of the percutaneous and transjugular transhepatic approach. The use of percutaneous transumbilical portal vein embolization can be an alternative option in this situation.

Kim, Soo Chin; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail: angiointervention@gmail.com; Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

2011-02-15

321

Patterning of Leaf Vein Networks by Convergent Auxin Transport Pathways  

PubMed Central

The formation of leaf vein patterns has fascinated biologists for centuries. Transport of the plant signal auxin has long been implicated in vein patterning, but molecular details have remained unclear. Varied evidence suggests a central role for the plasma-membrane (PM)-localized PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) intercellular auxin transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana in auxin-transport-dependent vein patterning. However, in contrast to the severe vein-pattern defects induced by auxin transport inhibitors, pin1 mutant leaves have only mild vein-pattern defects. These defects have been interpreted as evidence of redundancy between PIN1 and the other four PM-localized PIN proteins in vein patterning, redundancy that underlies many developmental processes. By contrast, we show here that vein patterning in the Arabidopsis leaf is controlled by two distinct and convergent auxin-transport pathways: intercellular auxin transport mediated by PM-localized PIN1 and intracellular auxin transport mediated by the evolutionarily older, endoplasmic-reticulum-localized PIN6, PIN8, and PIN5. PIN6 and PIN8 are expressed, as PIN1 and PIN5, at sites of vein formation. pin6 synthetically enhances pin1 vein-pattern defects, and pin8 quantitatively enhances pin1pin6 vein-pattern defects. Function of PIN6 is necessary, redundantly with that of PIN8, and sufficient to control auxin response levels, PIN1 expression, and vein network formation; and the vein pattern defects induced by ectopic PIN6 expression are mimicked by ectopic PIN8 expression. Finally, vein patterning functions of PIN6 and PIN8 are antagonized by PIN5 function. Our data define a new level of control of vein patterning, one with repercussions on other patterning processes in the plant, and suggest a mechanism to select cell files specialized for vascular function that predates evolution of PM-localized PIN proteins. PMID:23437008

Sawchuk, Megan G.; Edgar, Alexander; Scarpella, Enrico

2013-01-01

322

Spontaneous pneumothorax in common pulmonary vein atresia.  

PubMed

Common pulmonary vein atresia is a rare congenital anomaly that is rapidly fatal unless immediately recognized and corrected by surgical intervention. This article describes three neonates who died with the diagnosis soon after birth. In the constellation of presenting clinical features in each case, the occurrence of early spontaneous pneumothorax was particularly noteworthy. This sign may well be a helpful physiologic marker within the context of suspected congenital heart disease associated with severe pulmonary venous obstruction. PMID:2313397

Sharda, J K; Kurlandsky, L E; Lacina, S J; Radecki, L L

1990-03-01

323

Brucellosis associated with deep vein thrombosis.  

PubMed

Over the past 10 years more than 700 cases of brucellosis have been reported in Kosovo, which is heavily oriented towards agriculture and animal husbandry. Here, brucellosis is still endemic and represents an uncontrolled public health problem. Human brucellosis may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations; among them, vascular complications are uncommon. Hereby we describe the case of a 37-year-old male patient with brucellosis complicated by deep vein thrombosis on his left leg. PMID:25568754

Tolaj, Ilir; Mehmeti, Murat; Ramadani, Hamdi; Tolaj, Jasmina; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Fejza, Hajrullah

2014-11-19

324

Portal vein aneurysm: a rare occurrence.  

PubMed

Portal vein aneurysms (PVA) are a rare vascular anomaly of the portal system, representing fewer than 3% of all venous aneurysms, with only 150 known cases since first reported in l956 by Barzilai and Kleckner. PVA can be divided into 2 categories: extrahepatic and intrahepatic with acquired and congenital etiologies. Bimodal treatment includes medical and surgical approaches. With increased use of noninvasive radiological imaging, PVA will be increasingly recognized in the practice of vascular surgery. PMID:22062791

Turner, Kathy C; Bohannon, W T; Atkins, Marvin D

2011-12-01

325

Brucellosis Associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Over the past 10 years more than 700 cases of brucellosis have been reported in Kosovo, which is heavily oriented towards agriculture and animal husbandry. Here, brucellosis is still endemic and represents an uncontrolled public health problem. Human brucellosis may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations; among them, vascular complications are uncommon. Hereby we describe the case of a 37-year-old male patient with brucellosis complicated by deep vein thrombosis on his left leg.

Tolaj, Ilir; Mehmeti, Murat; Ramadani, Hamdi; Tolaj, Jasmina; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Fejza, Hajrullah

2014-01-01

326

Measuring 8250 ps short pulses using a high-speed streak camera on kilojoule, petawatt-class laser systems  

SciTech Connect

Short-pulse measurements using a streak camera are sensitive to space-charge broadening, which depends on the pulse duration and shape, and on the uniformity of photocathode illumination. An anamorphic-diffuser-based beam-homogenizing system and a space-charge-broadening calibration method were developed to accurately measure short pulses using an optical streak camera. This approach provides a more-uniform streak image and enables one to characterize space-charge-induced pulse-broadening effects.

Qiao, J.; Jaanimagi, P. A.; Boni, R.; Bromage, J.; Hill, E. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

2013-07-15

327

Use of meso-Rex shunt with transposition of the coronary vein for the management of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction  

PubMed Central

The meso-Rex shunt is used to safely and effectively treat patients with portal hypertension due to extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. In the standard meso-Rex shunt technique, the patient's own internal jugular vein is used as a vascular autograft. Inevitably, such a procedure requires neck exploration and sacrifice of the internal jugular vein. Here, we present a case of a 20-year-old man with idiopathic extrahepatic portal vein obstruction, who was treated with a new technique of transposition of the coronary vein, which is enlarged in most cases of portal hypertension, as an alternative to the standard meso-Rex shunt technique. The transposition of the coronary vein into the Rex recessus is more efficient and less invasive than harvesting an autologous vein graft. Therefore, this technique simplifies the procedure and should be used when possible. PMID:24761417

Ha, Tae-Yong; Ko, Gi-Young; Kim, Kyung-Mo; Lee, Sung-Gyu

2014-01-01

328

Development of HIFU Therapy System for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment utilizing microbubbles was investigated in the present study. It is known that microbubbles have the potential to enhance the heating effects of an ultrasound field. In this study, the heat accompanying microbubble oscillation was used to occlude varicose veins. Alteration of veins was observed after ultrasound irradiation. Veins were resected by stripping. In this study, two vein conditions were adopted during HIFU irradiation; non-compressed and compressed. Compressing the vein was expected to improve occlusion by rubbing the altered intima under compressed conditions. The frequency of the ultrasound was 1.7 MHz, the intensity at the focus was 2800 W/cm2, and the irradiation time was 20 s. In this study, the contrast agent Levovist was chosen as a microbubble source, and the void fraction (ratio of total gas volume to liquid) in the vein was fixed at 10-5. Under non-compressed conditions, changes were observed only at the adventitia of the vein anterior wall. In contrast, under compressed conditions, changes were observed from the intima to the adventitia of both the anterior and posterior walls, and they were partly stuck together. In addition, more experiments with hematoxylin-eosin staining suggested that the changes in the vein were more substantial under the latter conditions. From these results, it was confirmed that the vein was occluded more easily with vein compression.

Ota, Ryuhei; Suzuki, Jun; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

2009-04-01

329

Development of HIFU Therapy System for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins  

SciTech Connect

High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment utilizing microbubbles was investigated in the present study. It is known that microbubbles have the potential to enhance the heating effects of an ultrasound field. In this study, the heat accompanying microbubble oscillation was used to occlude varicose veins. Alteration of veins was observed after ultrasound irradiation. Veins were resected by stripping. In this study, two vein conditions were adopted during HIFU irradiation; non-compressed and compressed. Compressing the vein was expected to improve occlusion by rubbing the altered intima under compressed conditions. The frequency of the ultrasound was 1.7 MHz, the intensity at the focus was 2800 W/cm{sup 2}, and the irradiation time was 20 s. In this study, the contrast agent Levovist registered was chosen as a microbubble source, and the void fraction (ratio of total gas volume to liquid) in the vein was fixed at 10{sup -5}. Under non-compressed conditions, changes were observed only at the adventitia of the vein anterior wall. In contrast, under compressed conditions, changes were observed from the intima to the adventitia of both the anterior and posterior walls, and they were partly stuck together. In addition, more experiments with hematoxylin-eosin staining suggested that the changes in the vein were more substantial under the latter conditions. From these results, it was confirmed that the vein was occluded more easily with vein compression.

Ota, Ryuhei; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Suzuki, Jun; Deguchi, Juno; Miyata, Tetsuro [Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2009-04-14

330

Absolute calibration method for nanosecond-resolved, time-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a convenient and accurate method to calibrate fast (<1 ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such systems are inherently difficult to calibrate due to the lack of sufficiently intense, calibrated light sources. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA) at Sandia National Laboratories. On RITS, plasma light is collected through a small diameter (200 ?m) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator. For this paper, a 300 W xenon short arc lamp (Oriel Model 6258) was used as the calibration source. Since the radiance of the xenon arc varies from cathode to anode, just the area around the tip of the cathode ("hotspot") was imaged onto the fiber, to produce the highest intensity output. To compensate for chromatic aberrations, the signal was optimized at each wavelength measured. Output power was measured using 10 nm bandpass interference filters and a calibrated photodetector. These measurements give power at discrete wavelengths across the spectrum, and when linearly interpolated, provide a calibration curve for the lamp. The shape of the spectrum is determined by the collective response of the optics, monochromator, and streak tube across the spectral region of interest. The ratio of the spectral curve to the measured bandpass filter curve at each wavelength produces a correction factor (Q) curve. This curve is then applied to the experimental data and the resultant spectra are given in absolute intensity units (photons/sec/cm2/steradian/nm). Error analysis shows this method to be accurate to within +/- 20%, which represents a high level of accuracy for this type of measurement.

Johnston, Mark D.; Oliver, Bryan V.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Frogget, Brent; Crain, Marlon D.; Maron, Yitzhak

2012-08-01

331

A Dust Devil Making a Streak and Climbing a Crater Wall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-318, 8 August 2002 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] One of the key elements of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) Extended Mission is to look for and monitor changes taking place on the planet over the course of a second--and, eventually, a third--martian year. MGS is now well into its second Mars year, which will draw to a close in December 2002. Among the changes the MOC has observed are streaks believed to be caused by the passage of dust devils. Thousands of MOC images show these streaks, dozens show that they change over time, but far fewer images have actually captured a dust devil in the act of creating a streak. At the center right of this image (above left) is a dust devil that, on May 21, 2002, was seen climbing the wall of a crater at 4.1oS, 9.5oW. This crater (above right) is in western Terra Meridiani. The dust devil was moving toward the northeast (upper right), leaving behind a dark trail where a thin coating of surficial dust was removed or disrupted as the dust devil advanced. Dust devils most commonly form after noon on days when the martian air is still (that is, when there isn't even a faint breeze). On such days, the ground is better able to heat up the air immediately above the surface. As the warmed near-surface air begins to rise, it also begins to spin, creating a vortex. The spinning column then moves across the surface and picks up loose dust (if any is present). The dust makes the vortex visible and gives it a tornado-like appearance. The dust devil in this image has a very short, dark shadow cast to the right of the bright column; this shadow is short because the sun was nearly overhead.

2002-01-01

332

Transgenic RNA interference (RNAi)-derived field resistance to cassava brown streak disease.  

PubMed

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by the Ipomoviruses Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan Cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), is considered to be an imminent threat to food security in tropical Africa. Cassava plants were transgenically modified to generate small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from truncated full-length (894-bp) and N-terminal (402-bp) portions of the UCBSV coat protein (?CP) sequence. Seven siRNA-producing lines from each gene construct were tested under confined field trials at Namulonge, Uganda. All nontransgenic control plants (n = 60) developed CBSD symptoms on aerial tissues by 6 months after planting, whereas plants transgenic for the full-length ?CP sequence showed a 3-month delay in disease development, with 98% of clonal replicates within line 718-001 remaining symptom free over the 11-month trial. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) diagnostics indicated the presence of UCBSV within the leaves of 57% of the nontransgenic controls, but in only two of 413 plants tested (0.5%) across the 14 transgenic lines. All transgenic plants showing CBSD were PCR positive for the presence of CBSV, except for line 781-001, in which 93% of plants were confirmed to be free of both pathogens. At harvest, 90% of storage roots from nontransgenic plants were severely affected by CBSD-induced necrosis. However, transgenic lines 718-005 and 718-001 showed significant suppression of disease, with 95% of roots from the latter line remaining free from necrosis and RT-PCR negative for the presence of both viral pathogens. Cross-protection against CBSV by siRNAs generated from the full-length UCBSV ?CP confirms a previous report in tobacco. The information presented provides proof of principle for the control of CBSD by RNA interference-mediated technology, and progress towards the potential control of this damaging disease. PMID:22845735

Ogwok, Emmanuel; Odipio, John; Halsey, Mark; Gaitn-Sols, Eliana; Bua, Anton; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M; Alicai, Titus

2012-12-01

333

Absolute calibration method for nanosecond-resolved, time-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a convenient and accurate method to calibrate fast (<1 ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such systems are inherently difficult to calibrate due to the lack of sufficiently intense, calibrated light sources. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA) at Sandia National Laboratories. On RITS, plasma light is collected through a small diameter (200 {mu}m) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator. For this paper, a 300 W xenon short arc lamp (Oriel Model 6258) was used as the calibration source. Since the radiance of the xenon arc varies from cathode to anode, just the area around the tip of the cathode ('hotspot') was imaged onto the fiber, to produce the highest intensity output. To compensate for chromatic aberrations, the signal was optimized at each wavelength measured. Output power was measured using 10 nm bandpass interference filters and a calibrated photodetector. These measurements give power at discrete wavelengths across the spectrum, and when linearly interpolated, provide a calibration curve for the lamp. The shape of the spectrum is determined by the collective response of the optics, monochromator, and streak tube across the spectral region of interest. The ratio of the spectral curve to the measured bandpass filter curve at each wavelength produces a correction factor (Q) curve. This curve is then applied to the experimental data and the resultant spectra are given in absolute intensity units (photons/sec/cm{sup 2}/steradian/nm). Error analysis shows this method to be accurate to within +/- 20%, which represents a high level of accuracy for this type of measurement.

Johnston, Mark D.; Oliver, Bryan V. [Advanced Radiographic Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1195 (United States); Droemer, Darryl W.; Frogget, Brent; Crain, Marlon D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, P.O. Box 98521, Las Vegas, Nevada 89193 (United States); Maron, Yitzhak [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel 76100 (Israel)

2012-08-15

334

Conserved terminal nucleotide sequences in the genome of rice black streaked dwarf virus.  

PubMed

The terminal regions of the dsRNA genome segments of rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) were sequenced. The individual dsRNAs, which were 32P-labelled at their 3' termini by incubation with [32P]pCp and T4RNA ligase, were separated by 5% PAGE, and the 10 dsRNA segments were sequenced by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The common 3'-terminal sequences ---GUC 3' and ---AAAAACUU 3' were found in the plus and minus strands, respectively. The strictly conserved terminal sequences (5' AAGUUUUU ... GUC 3') of the genome segments of RBSDV differ from those of the phytoreoviruses and rice ragged stunt virus. PMID:1607875

Azuhata, F; Uyeda, I; Shikata, E

1992-06-01

335

Study of the Performance of a Streaked Optical Pyrometer System for Temperature Measurement of Shocked Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) is developed and calibrated for the measurement of the temperature of shocked materials. In order to achieve a higher relative sensitivity, a one-channel scheme is adopted for the system. The system is calibrated with a shocked step-shaped aluminum sample in the SG-III prototype laser facility. The relation between the count number in the detection system and the sample temperature is thus obtained, which can be adopted to infer the temperature of any shocked materials in future experiments.

Zhang, Chen; Liu, Hao; Wang, Zhebin; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huige; Liu, Yonggang; Li, Zhichao; Li, Sanwei; Yang, Dong; Ding, Yongkun; Zhao, Bin; Hu, Guangyue; Zheng, Jian

2014-06-01

336

An accumulative x-ray streak camera with 280-fs resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated a significant improvement in the resolution of the x-ray streak camera by reducing the electron beam size in the deflection plates. This was accomplished by adding a slit in front of the focusing lens and the deflection plates. The temporal resolution reached 280 fs when the slit width was 5 mm. The camera was operated in an accumulative mode and tested by using a 25 fs laser with 2 kHz repetition rate and 1-2% RMS pulse energy stability. We conclude that deflection aberrations, which limit the resolution of the camera, can be appreciably reduced by eliminating the wide-angle electrons.

Shakya, Mahendra M.; Chang, Zenghu

2004-11-01

337

Streaked Optical Pyrometer System for Laser-Driven Shock-Wave Experiments on OMEGA  

SciTech Connect

The temperature of laser-driven shock waves is of interest to inertial confinement fusion and high-energy-density physics. We report on a streaked optical pyrometer that measures the self-emission of laser-driven shocks simultaneously with a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). Together these diagnostics are used to obtain the temporally and spatially resolved temperatures of ~Mbar shocks driven by the OMEGA laser. We provide a brief description of the diagnostic and how it is used with VISAR. Key spectral calibration results are discussed and important characteristics of the recording system are presented.

Miller, J.E.; Boehly, T.R.; Melchior, Meyerhofer, D.D.; Celliers, P.M.; Eggert, J.H.; Hicks, D.G.; Sorce, C.M.; Oertel, J.A.; Emmel, P.M.

2007-03-23

338

21 CFR 184.1973 - Beeswax (yellow and white).  

...extract impurities. The resulting wax is referred to as yellow beeswax. White beeswax is produced by bleaching the constituent pigments of yellow beeswax with peroxides, or preferably it is bleached by sun light. (b) The ingredient meets the...

2014-04-01

339

Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti with Drosophila melanogaster aegypti, and Culex pipiens, the primary vectors for malaria, yellow fever and dengue, and lymphatic 103

Severson, David

340

21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow...

2010-04-01

341

21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal...

2010-04-01

342

YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOTS (MARMOTA FLAVIVENTRIS) HIBERNATE SOCIALLY  

E-print Network

YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOTS (MARMOTA FLAVIVENTRIS) HIBERNATE SOCIALLY DANIEL T. BLUMSTEIN,* SOYEON IM Marmota, Family Sciuridae), only 2, the woodchuck (M. monax) and yellow- bellied marmot (M. flaviventris patterns. Key words: climate change, evolution of sociality, Marmota flaviventris, social hibernation

Grether, Gregory

343

An assessment of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, stocking contributions in eastern South Dakota  

E-print Network

An assessment of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, stocking contributions in eastern South Dakota, USA Abstract The success and value of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), stocking programmes, oxytetracycline, stocking, yellow perch. Introduction Panfish [yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), crappies

344

Emergence of larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in South Dakota lakes: potential implications for  

E-print Network

Emergence of larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in South Dakota lakes: potential implications and hatch dates were described for larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), captured in surface, otoliths, Perca flavescens, yellow perch. Introduction Yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), support

345

Extracorporeal shock waves as curative therapy for varicose veins?  

PubMed Central

In this prospective design study the effects of low-energy partially focused extracorporeal generated shock waves (ESW) onto a subcutaneous located varicose vein left vena saphena magna (VSM) are investigated. The treatment consisted of 4 ESW applications within 21 days. The varicose VSM of both sides were removed by surgery, and samples analyzed comparing the treated and untreated by means of histopathology. No damage to the treated varicose vein in particular and no mechanical destruction to the varicose veins wall could be demonstrated. However, an induction of neo-collagenogenesis was observed. The thickness of the varicose veins wall increased. Optimization of critical application parameters by investigating a larger number of patients may turn ESW into a non-invasive curative varicose treatment. PMID:18488887

Angehrn, Fiorenzo; Kuhn, Christoph; Sonnabend, Ortrud; Voss, Axel

2008-01-01

346

Portal vein arterialization technique for liver transplantation patients  

PubMed Central

Liver transplantations were performed on two patients with hepatic failure caused by liver cirrhosis. Hard obsolete thrombi and portal venous sclerosis were observed in the major portal veins of both patients. The arteria colica media of one recipient and the portal vein of the donor were anastomosed end-to-end. The hepatic artery of the first donor was anastomosed end-to end with the gastroduodenal artery of the first recipient; meanwhile, the portal vein of the second donor was simultaneously anastomosed end- to-end with the common hepatic artery of the second recipient. The blood flow of the portal vein, the perfusion of the donor liver and liver function were satisfactory after surgery. Portal vein arterialization might be an effective treatment for patients whose portal vein reconstruction was difficult. PMID:25232274

Zhang, Kun; Jiang, Yi; Lv, Li-Zhi; Cai, Qiu-Cheng; Yang, Fang; Hu, Huan-Zhang; Zhang, Xiao-Jin

2014-01-01

347

Internal Jugular Vein Entrapment in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient  

PubMed Central

We describe a multiple sclerosis patient presenting with compression of the internal jugular vein caused by aberrant omohyoid muscle. Previously this patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the same internal jugular vein. Ten months after this endovascular procedure, Doppler sonography revealed totally collapsed middle part of the treated vein with no outflow detected. Still, the vein widened and the flow was restored when the patient's mouth opened. Thus, the abnormality was likely to be caused by muscular compression. Surgical exploration confirmed that an atypical omohyoid muscle was squeezing the vein. Consequently, pathological muscle was transected. Sonographic control three weeks after surgical procedure revealed a decompressed vein with fully restored venous outflow. Although such a muscular compression can be successfully managed surgically, future research has to establish its clinical relevance. PMID:23097738

Simka, Marian; Majewski, Eugeniusz; Fortuna, Marek; Zaniewski, Maciej

2012-01-01

348

Frequency-Domain Streak Camera and Tomography for Ultrafast Imaging of Evolving and Channeled Plasma Accelerator Structures  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate a prototype Frequency Domain Streak Camera (FDSC) that can capture the picosecond time evolution of the plasma accelerator structure in a single shot. In our prototype Frequency-Domain Streak Camera, a probe pulse propagates obliquely to a sub-picosecond pump pulse that creates an evolving nonlinear index 'bubble' in fused silica glass, supplementing a conventional Frequency Domain Holographic (FDH) probe-reference pair that co-propagates with the 'bubble'. Frequency Domain Tomography (FDT) generalizes Frequency-Domain Streak Camera by probing the 'bubble' from multiple angles and reconstructing its morphology and evolution using algorithms similar to those used in medical CAT scans. Multiplexing methods (Temporal Multiplexing and Angular Multiplexing) improve data storage and processing capability, demonstrating a compact Frequency Domain Tomography system with a single spectrometer.

Li Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Wang Xiaoming; Reed, Stephen; Dong Peng; Downer, Michael C. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712 (United States)

2010-11-04

349

Lettuce necrotic yellows virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lettuce necrotic yellows virus, found in lettuce (Lactuca saliva L.) and sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) near Blenheim in 1965 caused severe losses in an Auckland lettuce crop in 1969. The virus was transmitted between S. oleraceus plants by the aphid Hyperomyzus lactucae L., which occurs throughout the year but is least plentiful during winter. Most infectivity in sap extracts was

P. R. Fry; R. C. Close; C. H. Procter; R. Sunde

1973-01-01

350

Yellow River Delta 1989-2009  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Series of Landsat color images shows China's Huang He (Yellow River) Delta at 5 year intervals from 1989-2009 with changes in growth patterns, channel switching, delta environments, new delta lobe growth, offshore sediment plumes, and results of engineering projects. Explanatory text is included.

Obesrvatory, Nasa E.

351

Phytoplankton and sediments in Yellow Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sediment and phytoplankton cloud the waters of the Yellow Sea in this true-color MODIS image acquired March 18, 2002. The swirls of sediment appear as a murky brownish blue color, while the phytoplankton are purely blue green and are concentrated around the small island in the lower right corner of the image.

2002-01-01

352

A Western Yellow-Billed Cuckoo  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The western yellow-billed cuckoo is a shy, neotropical migrant bird once common throughout the American West; it is currently a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act. After spending the winter in South America, western cuckoos arrive in the Western United States beginning in June...

353

Improving Growth in Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Given that the role of the somatotropic axis (e.g. growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I) in yellow perch growth is uniquely unresolved, and the interplay of sex steroids with the somatotropic axis unknown, research efforts are focused in this area. To accomplish this, we will isolate and...

354

Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. PMID:25531105

Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morn, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

2015-01-01

355

Yellow-bellied marmots are generalist herbivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) eat a wide variety of grasses, forbs, and seeds, but do not feed on all items in proportion to their abundance in the environment. In this study, relationships between the marmot diet and estimated protein, water, caloric value, relative biomass, and toxicity of the available plant species were investigated. The epidermis of all forb species did

B. A. Frase; K. B. Armitage

1989-01-01

356

Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. PMID:25531105

Auguste, Albert J.; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A.; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morn, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos

2015-01-01

357

Study of gene delivery in a rabbit vein graft model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy is a therapeutic strategy in treating cardiovascular disease. Vein graft failure, the major limitation on coronary\\u000a artery bypass surgery, may be amenable to gene approaches. Some studies describe gene therapies using functioning genes to\\u000a prevent vein graft stenosis. Gene transfer efficiency remains a major issue. In this rabbit vein graft model, we studied gene\\u000a delivery using a replication-deficit

Masahide Chikada; Micheal Jones

1999-01-01

358

Percutaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt created via a femoral vein approach.  

PubMed

Creation of a percutaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was attempted in a patient with portal hypertension and acute variceal hemorrhage. Abnormal hepatic venous anatomy precluded formation of the shunt with the standard transjugular method. An alternate technique was devised in which a femoral vein approach was used to construct an intrahepatic channel between the inferior right hepatic vein and the right portal vein. The patient stopped bleeding after the procedure and has not rebled during an 8-month follow-up period. PMID:1947081

LaBerge, J M; Ring, E J; Gordon, R L

1991-12-01

359

Recurrent varicose veins: patterns of reflux and clinical severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplex scanning was used to determine patterns of recurrent varicose veins in 264 limbs and to relate these to clinical factors. All limbs had previously undergone sapheno-femoral ligation in the groin. A recurrent sapheno-femoral junction was present in 172 (65.2%). Incompetence was found in long or short saphenous veins in 232 limbs (87.9%), perforators in 176 (66.7%), and deep veins

P Jiang; A. M van Rij; R Christie; G Hill; C Solomon; I Thomson

1999-01-01

360

Towards measurement of outcome for patients with varicose veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To develop a valid and reliable outcome measure for patients with varicose veins. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire survey of patients with varicose veins. SETTING--Surgical outpatient departments and training general practices in Grampian region. SUBJECTS--373 patients, 287 of whom had just been referred to hospital for their varicose veins and 86 who had just consulted a general practitioner for this condition and, for

A M Garratt; L M Macdonald; D A Ruta; I T Russell; J K Buckingham; Z H Krukowski

1993-01-01

361

Accuracy of clinical assessment of deep-vein thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical diagnosis of deep-vein thrombosis is generally thought to be unreliable. From experience, we hypothesised that this widely held view might be incorrect. We developed a clinical model and prospectively tested its ability in three tertiary care centres to stratify symptomatic outpatients with suspected deep-vein thrombosis into groups with high, moderate, or low probability groups of deep-vein thrombosis. We

Philip S. Wells; Jack Hirsh; David R. Anderson; Anthony W. A. Lensing; Gary Foster; Clive Kearon; Jeffrey Weitz; Robert D'Ovidio; Alberto Cogo; Paolo Prandoni; Antonio Girolami; Jeffrey S. Ginsberg

1995-01-01

362

Origin of pegmatitic segregation veins within flood basalts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subhorizontal veins and lenses of coarse-grained rock composed of plagioclase, augite, and Fe-Ti oxides in a glassy and vesicular mesostasis occur within several thick subaerial basalt flows in the Columbia River Basalt province of Washington and in the eastern North American Mesozoic basalt province. The veins and lenses, referred to as pegmatitic segregation veins, are typically 1-10 cm thick and

JOHN H. PUFFER; DAWN L. HORTER

1993-01-01

363

Can vein patterns be used to estimate rock permeabilities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fracturing of rocks due to tectonic stresses or local high fluid pressures and the formation of fluid pathways is important for a whole range of industrially relevant processes in the Earth's upper crust reaching from groundwater transport, hydrocarbon migration to geothermal systems. Fracturing and the opening of fluid pathways become especially important in tight rocks where fluid migration through the rock matrix is restricted. In addition observations show that fractures are often partly or completely sealed and occur as veins in geological systems. How can we interpret the permeability of these vein systems? The internal structure of veins often indicates that they are formed by several cracking and sealing events. In addition some geological systems contain partly sealed veins that have a preserved porosity and may add to the overall permeability of the system. We are comparing field areas that contain different vein patterns with hydrodynamic numerical models where fractures develop as a function of gravity, extension and fluid pressure gradients. In addition fractures seal where the developing veins can have variable properties in terms of elasticity, breaking strength and porosity. Results indicate that permeability in such systems is not a constant but may vary strongly over time. In an active system the amount of veins and number of open fractures depends not only on the timing of sealing but also on the breaking strength of the veins. Strong veins can clog the system whereas weak veins tend to lead to possible connected fracture networks. In addition one cannot link veins directly to fluid flow, intense veining does not mean that the system has or had a high permeability. We will present a first attempt to classify different fracturing and sealing systems based on field observations and numerical models.

Koehn, Daniel; Vass, Anna; Ghani, Irfan; Toussaint, Renaud; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Urai, Janos L.; Arndt, Max; Virgo, Simon; Wendler, Frank; Blum, Philipp; Schwarz, Jens-Oliver

2014-05-01

364

Formation of retinochoroidal collaterals in central retinal vein occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To demonstrate the drainage routes that compensate the venous congestion in central retinal vein occlusion.Methods: Indocyanine green angiography was performed in 13 eyes of 13 patients with central retinal vein occlusion at the involutional stage using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The interval between onset of central retinal vein occlusion and indocyanine green angiography ranged from 1.0 to 9.3 years

Kyoichi Takahashi; Kanemitsu Muraoka; Shoji Kishi; Koichi Shimizu

1998-01-01

365

21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and Drugs...Cereal Flours and Related Products 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of...

2014-04-01

366

21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280 Food and...and Related Products 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of...

2011-04-01

367

21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280 Food and...and Related Products 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of...

2012-04-01

368

21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280 Food and...and Related Products 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of...

2014-04-01

369

21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food and...Cereal Flours and Related Products 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of...

2012-04-01

370

21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and Drugs...Cereal Flours and Related Products 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of...

2011-04-01

371

21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and Drugs...Cereal Flours and Related Products 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of...

2013-04-01

372

21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food and...Cereal Flours and Related Products 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of...

2011-04-01

373

21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food and...Cereal Flours and Related Products 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of...

2013-04-01

374

21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food and...Cereal Flours and Related Products 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of...

2014-04-01

375

21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280 Food and...and Related Products 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of...

2013-04-01

376

21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and Drugs...Cereal Flours and Related Products 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of...

2012-04-01

377

Wind-driven effects on the Yellow Sea Warm Current  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow Sea is a shallow basin with an average depth of 44 m located between China_and the Korean Peninsula. One of the dominant ocean circulation features of the Yellow Sea is a warm water intrusion known as the Yellow Sea Warm Current. This feature is present throughout the year but reaches its farthest northward extension in winter. The circulation

Andrea C. Mask; James J. O'Brien; Ruth Preller

1998-01-01

378

YELLOW SEA ACOUSTIC UNCERTAINTY CAUSED BY HYDROGRAPHIC DATA ERROR  

E-print Network

YELLOW SEA ACOUSTIC UNCERTAINTY CAUSED BY HYDROGRAPHIC DATA ERROR PETER C. CHU AND CARLOS J) Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System (MODAS) model in shallow water (such as the Yellow Sea) mine errors) on the acoustic uncertainty in the Yellow Sea is investigated using CASS/GRAB. 2 Environment

Chu, Peter C.

379

49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...

2012-10-01

380

Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*  

PubMed Central

The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

2014-01-01

381

Deep dorsal vein arterialization in vascular impotence.  

PubMed

33 patients underwent a penile deep dorsal vein arterialization (DDVA) (11 venous leak, 8 pure arteriogenic impotence, 14 mixed arterial and venous impotence). The mean follow-up was 12 months. Surgery was considered successful when the patients had permeable anastomosis and were able to achieve satisfactory erections resulting in normal intercourse. 92% of the patients with venous leak, 62.5% of those with arteriogenic impotence and 58% with mixed lesions had a successful results. Due to antithrombotic therapy, there was no graft occlusion. Glans hypervascularity occurred in 3 patients and was treated by arterial banding. The role of DDVA in vascular impotence and its functional mechanism are discussed. PMID:8307073

Sarramon, J P; Janssen, T; Rischmann, P; Bennis, S; Malavaud, B

1994-01-01

382

Sclerotherapy of varicose veins in dermatology.  

PubMed

Venous disorders rank among the most frequent diseases in the German population. Early diagnostic investigation and treatment can prevent their progression and may reduce the risk for secondary diseases. The therapeutic spectrum for varicose veins includes conservative as well as interventional and surgical methods. Because it is minimally invasive and well-tolerated, sclerotherapy represents an important treatment method for venous insufficiency, recurrent varicosis and venous malformations. We review the role of sclerotherapy as a treatment option of chronic venous insufficiency in dermatology. PMID:24797742

Lorenz, Marthe Barbara; Gkogkolou, Paraskevi; Goerge, Tobias; Grge, Tobias

2014-05-01

383

Wind Streaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 12 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 6.9, Longitude 69.4 East (290.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

384

Holocene development of the Yellow River's subaqueous delta, North Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution seismic profiles from the North Yellow Sea reveal a 2040-m-thick subaqueous clinoform delta that wraps around the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, extending into the South Yellow Sea. This complex sigmoidal-oblique clinoform, containing an estimated 400 km3 of sediment, overlies prominent relict transgressive surfaces. The nearshore topset of the clinoform, <30-m water depth, has a ?1:1000 gradient, with

J. Paul Liu; John D. Milliman; Shu Gao; Peng Cheng

2004-01-01

385

Gene therapy for the prevention of vein graft disease  

PubMed Central

Ischemic cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite advances in the medical management of atherosclerosis over the past several decades, many patients require arterial revascularization to reduce mortality and alleviate ischemic symptoms. Technological advancements have led to dramatic increases in the use of percutaneous and endovascular approaches, yet surgical revascularization (bypass surgery) with autologous vein grafts remains a mainstay of therapy for both coronary and peripheral artery disease. Although bypass surgery is highly efficacious in the short-term, long-term outcomes are limited by relatively high failure rates as a result of intimal hyperplasia, which is a common feature of vein graft disease. The supply of native veins is limited, and many individuals require multiple grafts and repeat procedures. The need to prevent vein graft failure has led to great interest in gene therapy approaches to this problem. Bypass grafting presents an ideal opportunity for gene therapy, as surgically harvested vein grafts can be treated with gene delivery vectors ex vivo, thereby maximizing gene delivery while minimizing the potential for systemic toxicity and targeting the pathogenesis of vein graft disease at its onset. Here we will review the pathogenesis of vein graft disease and discuss vector delivery strategies and potential molecular targets for its prevention. We will summarize the preclinical and clinical literature on gene therapy in vein grafting and discuss additional considerations for future therapies to prevent vein graft disease. PMID:23274305

Southerland, Kevin W.; Frazier, Sarah B.; Bowles, Dawn E.; Milano, Carmelo A.; Kontos, Christopher D.

2013-01-01

386

3D MR angiographic visualization and artery-vein separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The common approach for artery-vein separation applies a presaturation pulse to obtain different image intensity representations in MRA data for arteries and veins. However, when arteries and veins do not run in opposite directions as in the brain, lungs, and heart, this approach fails. This paper presents an image processing approach devised for artery-vein separation. The anatomic separation utilizes fuzzy connected object delineation. The first step of this separation method is the segmentation of the entire vessel structure from the background via absolute connectedness by using scale-based affinity. The second step is to separate artery from vein via relative connectedness. After 'seed' points are specified inside artery and vein in the vessel- only image, the operation is performed in an iterative fashion. The small regions of the bigger aspects of artery and vein are separated in the initial iteration. Further regions are added with the subsequent iterations so that the small aspects of artery and vein are included in alter iterations. Shell rendering is used for 3D display. Combining the strengths of fuzzy connected object definition, object separation, and shell rendering, high- quality volume rendering of vascular information in MRA data has been achieved. MS-325 contrast-enhanced MRA were used to illustrate this approach. Several examples of 3D display of arteries and veins are included to show the considerable promise of this new approach.

Lei, Tianhu; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Saha, Punam K.; Odhner, Dewey

1999-05-01

387

21 CFR 870.4885 - External vein stripper.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices 870.4885 External vein stripper. (a) Identification. An...

2014-04-01

388

Finger-Vein Verification Based on Multi-Features Fusion  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a new scheme to improve the performance of finger-vein identification systems. Firstly, a vein pattern extraction method to extract the finger-vein shape and orientation features is proposed. Secondly, to accommodate the potential local and global variations at the same time, a region-based matching scheme is investigated by employing the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) matching method. Finally, the finger-vein shape, orientation and SIFT features are combined to further enhance the performance. The experimental results on databases of 426 and 170 fingers demonstrate the consistent superiority of the proposed approach. PMID:24196433

Qin, Huafeng; Qin, Lan; Xue, Lian; He, Xiping; Yu, Chengbo; Liang, Xinyuan

2013-01-01

389

Immunodiagnosis of episomal Banana streak MY virus using polyclonal antibodies to an expressed putative coat protein.  

PubMed

A cryptic Badnavirus species complex, known as banana streak viruses (BSV) poses a serious threat to banana production and genetic improvement worldwide. Due to the presence of integrated BSV sequences in the banana genome, routine detection is largely based on serological and nucleo-serological diagnostic methods which require high titre specific polyclonal antiserum. Viral structural proteins like coat protein (CP) are the best target for in vitro expression, to be used as antigen for antiserum production. However, in badnaviruses precise CP sequences are not known. In this study, two putative CP coding regions (p48 and p37) of Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) were identified in silico by comparison with caulimoviruses, retroviruses and Rice tungro bacilliform virus. The putative CP coding region (p37) was in vitro expressed in pMAL system and affinity purified. The purified fusion protein was used as antigen for raising polyclonal antiserum in rabbit. The specificity of antiserum was confirmed in Western blots, immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and antigen coated plate-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA). The antiserum (1:2000) was successfully used in ACP-ELISA for specific detection of BSMYV infection in field and tissue culture raised banana plants. The antiserum was also utilized in immuno-capture PCR (IC-PCR) based indexing of episomal BSMYV infection. This is the first report of in silico identification of putative CP region of BSMYV, production of polyclonal antiserum against recombinant p37 and its successful use in immunodetection. PMID:24977315

Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Kumar, P Vignesh; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

2014-10-01

390

Synchroscan streak camera imaging at a 15-MeV photoinjector with emittance exchange  

SciTech Connect

At the Fermilab A0 photoinjector facility, bunch-length measurements of the laser micropulse and the e-beam micropulse have been done in the past with a fast single-sweep module of the Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera with an intrinsic shot-to-shot trigger jitter of 10 to 20 ps. We have upgraded the camera system with the synchroscan module tuned to 81.25 MHz to provide synchronous summing capability with less than 1.5-ps FWHM trigger jitter and a phase-locked delay box to provide phase stability of {approx}1 ps over 10s of minutes. These steps allowed us to measure both the UV laser pulse train at 263 nm and the e-beam via optical transition radiation (OTR). Due to the low electron beam energies and OTR signals, we typically summed over 50 micropulses with 0.25-1 nC per micropulse. The phase-locked delay box allowed us to assess chromatic temporal effects and instigated another upgrade to an all-mirror input optics barrel. In addition, we added a slow sweep horizontal deflection plug-in unit to provide dual-sweep capability for the streak camera. We report on a series of measurements made during the commissioning of these upgrades including bunch-length and phase effects using the emittance exchange beamline and simultaneous imaging of a UV drive laser component, OTR, and the 800-nm diagnostics laser.

Lumpkin, A.H.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; /Fermilab

2012-03-01

391

Nonlinear response of the photocathode of an x-ray streak camera to UV light  

SciTech Connect

We have found that a potassium-iodide photocathode of an x-ray streak camera responds to UV light at {lambda}=308 nm. The photocathode surface work function, 6.5 eV, is larger than the 4 eV energy of the UV photon, hence the source of the response is interesting. We will present results on the response of a transmission type potassium-iodide photocathode to the UV light from a {lambda}308 nm, subpicosecond XeCl laser and from a {lambda}=326 nm HeCd laser. We will test for the nonlinearity of the yield to measure of the number of photons that are needed to be absorbed before a signal is recorded. We will present data on the effect of the UV irradiance on the yield, as well as on the temporal width of the recorded signal. We will give an explanation of the observation and its effect on the dynamic-range response of the streak-camera. We will show that the response is linear with the incident irradiance, up to an incident irradiance of 10{sup 8} W/cm{sup 2} and we will explain the observation.

Kyrala, G.A.; Oro, D.M.; Studebaker, J.K.; Wood, W.M.; Schappert, G.T.; Watts, S.; Fulton, R.D.

1994-09-01

392

An Optical Streak Diagnostic for Observing Anode-Cathode Plasmas for Radiographic Source Development  

SciTech Connect

National Security Technologies, LLC, and Sandia National Laboratories are collaborating in the development of pulsed powerdriven flash x-ray radiographic sources that utilize high-intensity electron beam diodes. The RITS 6 (Radiographic Integrated Test Stand) accelerator at Sandia is used to drive a self magnetic pinch diode to produce a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The high electric fields and current densities associated with these short A-K gap pinch beam diodes present many challenges in diode development. Plasmas generated at both the anode and cathode affect the diode performance, which is manifested in varying spot (source) sizes, total dose output, and impedance profiles. Understanding the nature of these plasmas including closure rates and densities is important in modeling their behavior and providing insight into their mitigation. In this paper we describe a streak camerabased optical diagnostic that is capable of observing and measuring plasma evolution within the A-K gap. By imaging a region of interest onto the input slit of a streak camera, we are able to produce a time-resolved one-dimensional image of the evolving plasma. Typical data are presented.

Droemer, Darryl W. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Crain, Marlon D.; Lare, Gregory A. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Bennett, Nichelle L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Johnston, Mark D. [Sandia National Laboratories

2013-06-13

393

Tumors of Bilateral Streak Gonads in Patients with Disorders of Sex Development Containing Y Chromosome Material  

PubMed Central

Abstract The presence of Y chromosome material in patients with disorders of sex development (DSD) has been associated with a high risk of gonadoblastoma. Therefore, gonadectomy is recommended in females with bilateral streak gonads and Y chromosome material. The aim of this study was to present our experience with prophylactic gonadectomy in those patients and evaluate their risk of gonadal tumors. We reviewed the charts of 11 female patients who had bilateral gonadectomy (by laparoscopically in 9 patients, by laparotomy in 2 patients) between 1991 and 2012 at our hospital. Seven patients with Turner syndrome (TS) who carry a Y mosaic karyotype in peripheral blood, 3 patients with Swyer syndrome and one patient with Frasier syndrome were included. All patients had an unambiguous female phenotype. Age at surgery and follow-up ranged from 2 to 23 (mean 11) and 0.5 to 20 (mean 8) yr, respectively. Pathologic examination revealed gonadal tumors in 6 of 11 patients (56%), including 4 with TS, the youngest of which was 2 yr old, one with Swyer syndrome and one with Frasier syndrome. A gonadoblastoma was detected in 8 gonads, and an association of dysgerminoma with gonadoblastoma was detected in 2 gonads. Imaging studies showed no metastasis, and the postoperative course was uneventful in all patients. In our series of DSD patients with bilateral streak gonads and Y chromosome material, the risk of gonadal tumor was high. Considering the early occurrence of gonadoblastoma and its high potential for malignant transformation, early prophylactic gonadectomy is strongly recommended. PMID:25110393

Matsumoto, Fumi; Shimada, Kenji; Ida, Shinobu

2014-01-01

394

Modal description of optimal internal streaks in a Falkner-Skan Boundary Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the growing disturbances in boundary layers is of crucial interest for numerous engineering applications. Here we examine the optimal streaky perturbations (which maximize energy growth) in a wedge flow boundary layer. These 3D perturbations are governed by a system of equations obtained by linearizing the 3D Navier-Stokes equations around the base flow given by the Falkner-Skan similarity solution. Based on an asymptotic analysis of this system near the free stream and the leading edge singularity, we show that optimal streaks can be described in terms of a single streamwise-growing solution of the linearized equations, which is associated with an eigenvalue problem first formulated in this context by Tumin (Phys. Fluids 13, 5, (2001)). Such a solution may be regarded as an internal spatially-unstable mode, in analogy with the usual eigenmodes of standard linear stability theory. An important consequence of this result is that the optimization procedure heretofore used to define optimal streaks is not necessary. Comparison with previous results in A.Tumin and D.E. Ashpis AIAA (2003) show excellent agreement.

Sanchez-Alvarez, Jose; Higuera, Maria; Vega, Jose Manuel

2009-11-01

395

Mapping the distribution of maize streak virus genotypes across the forest and transition zones of Ghana.  

PubMed

Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, maize streak virus strain A (MSV-A), the causal agent of maize streak disease (MSD), is an important biological constraint on maize production. In November/December 2010, an MSD survey was carried out in the forest and transition zones of Ghana in order to obtain MSV-A virulence sources for the development of MSD-resistant maize genotypes with agronomic properties suitable for these regions. In 79 well-distributed maize fields, the mean MSD incidence was 18.544% and the symptom severity score was 2.956 (1=no symptoms and 5=extremely severe). We detected no correlation between these two variables. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned MSV-A isolates that were fully sequenced from samples collected in 51 of these fields, together with those sampled from various other parts of Africa, indicated that all of the Ghanaian isolates occurred within a broader cluster of West African isolates, all belonging to the highly virulent MSV-A1 subtype. Besides being the first report of a systematic MSV survey in Ghana, this study is the first to characterize the full-genome sequences of Ghanaian MSV isolates. The 51 genome sequences determined here will additionally be a valuable resource for the rational selection of representative MSV-A variant panels for MSD resistance screening. PMID:25344899

Oppong, Allen; Offei, Samuel K; Ofori, Kwadwo; Adu-Dapaah, Hans; Lamptey, Joseph N L; Kurenbach, Brigitta; Walters, Matthew; Shepherd, Dionne N; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

2015-02-01

396

Multiple Abdominal Veins Thrombosis Secondary to Protein S Deficiency - A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Abdominal venous thrombosis may present either as Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) caused by hepatic vein or proximal inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction or as an extra hepatic portal obstruction (EHPVO) caused by Portal vein thrombosis or mesenteric vein thrombosis, but a mixed involvement is uncommon. Multiple abdominal venous obstructions presenting with thrombosis of hepatic vein, IVC, portal vein and renal vein are very rarely seen . We are reporting a rare case with thrombosis of IVC, hepatic vein, portal vein and renal vein, with protein S and protein C deficiencies, which was managed by giving anticoagulant therapy. PMID:25121018

Kodali, Venkata Umakant; Borra, Seshulakshmi; Mandarapu, Surendra Babu; Sanda, Mallikarjuna Rao

2014-01-01

397

Suitability of Varicose Veins for Endovenous Treatments  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), and foam sclerotherapy (FS) for patients with symptomatic varicose veins (VVs). The study comprised 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs. Data on 577 legs from 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs were collected for the year 2006. Median patient age was 55 years (interquartile range 45-66), and 62% patients were women. A set of criteria based on duplex ultrasonography was used to select patients for each procedure. Great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux was present in 77% (446 of 577) of legs. Overall, 328 (73%) of the legs were suitable for at least one of the endovenous options. Of the 114 legs with recurrent GSV reflux disease, 83 (73%) were suitable to receive endovenous therapy. Patients with increasing age were less likely to be suitable for endovenous therapy (P = 0.03). Seventy-three percent of patients with VVs caused by GSV incompetence are suitable for endovenous therapy.

Goode, S. D., E-mail: s.goode@sheffield.ac.u [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Kuhan, G.; Altaf, N.; Simpson, R.; Beech, A.; Richards, T.; MacSweeney, S. T.; Braithwaite, B. D. [Queens Medical Centre, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (United Kingdom)

2009-09-15

398

Portal vein thrombosis: What is new?  

PubMed

Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is one of the most common vascular disorders of the liver with significant morbidity and mortality. Large cohort studies have reported a global prevalence of 1%, but in some risk groups it can be up to 26%. Causes of PVT are cirrhosis, hepatobiliary malignancy, abdominal infectious or inflammatory diseases, and myeloproliferative disorders. Most patients with PVT have a general risk factor. The natural history of PVT results in portal hypertension leading to splenomegaly and the formation of portosystemic collateral blood vessels and esophageal, gastric, duodenal, and jejunal varices. Diagnosis of PVT is made by imaging, mainly Doppler ultrasonography. According to its time of development, localization, pathophysiology, and evolution, PVT should be classified in every patient. Some clinical features such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and hepatic transplantation are areas of special interest and are discussed in this review. The goal of treatment of acute PVT is to reconstruct the blocked veins. Endoscopic variceal ligation is safe and highly effective in patients with variceal bleeding caused by chronic PVT. In conclusion, PVT is the most common cause of vascular disease of the liver and its prevalence has being increasing, especially among patients with an underlying liver disease. All patients should be investigated for thrombophilic conditions, and in those with cirrhosis, anticoagulation prophylaxis should be considered. PMID:25536638

Manzano-Robleda, Mara Del Carmen; Barranco-Fragoso, Beatriz; Uribe, Misael; Mndez-Snchez, Nahum

2015-01-01

399

Developmental and anatomical changes in leaves of yellow birch and red kidney bean exposed to simulated acid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

Leaves of Betula alleghaniensis Britt. (yellow birch) and Phaseolus vulgaris L cv. Red Kidney (bean) were examined microscopically during development and after exposure to simulated rain of pH 5.5, 4.3, 3.2, and 2.8. Yellow birch leaves attained maximal leaf area, midvein length, and cuticle thickness at 21 days. Trichomes were either long, unicellular, or multicellular with caplike head and stalk. Epicuticular wax was a bumpy and amorphous layer. The 2nd trifoliolate leaf of red kidney bean attained maximal leaf area, midvein length, and cuticle thickness when the 3rd trifoliolate leaf was expanding. Trichomes present were long, with a unicellular head and a multicellular base; long, unicellular, and terminally hooked; and small and multicellular. Epicuticular wax was present as small irregular flakes. After 2 days of pH 2.8 and 4 days of pH 3.2 simulated acid rain, round yellow and small tan lesions appeared on birch and bean leaves, respectively. Most injury occurred on or between small veins. Most trichome types were uninjured. Lesions formed as a result of collapsed epidermal and highly plasmolyzed palisade cells. The cuticle was still present over injured epidermal cells and epicuticular waxes were unchanged. There was not statistical difference in mean cuticle thickness due to pH of simulated rain. 25 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

Paparozzi, E.T.; Tukey, H.B. Jr.

1983-01-01

400

Early Injury to the Media After Saphenous Vein Grafting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Injury to the smooth muscle cells of the media affects the remodeling process of vein grafts. The purpose of this study was to determine whether different techniques of surgical preparation influence the degree of medial smooth muscle injury.Methods. Carotidsaphenous vein interposition grafting was performed in crossbred pigs (n = 32), using distended (n = 16) or nondistended (n =

James E. OBrien; Michael L. Ormont; Yi Shi; Dian Wang; Andrew Zalewski; John D. Mannion

1998-01-01

401

Renal Vein Leiomyoma: A Rare Entity with Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Tumors of vascular origin are unusual. These tumors are predominantly malignant and commonly arise from the inferior vena cava. Benign smooth muscle tumors arising from renal vein are very rare. We present a case of leiomyoma of renal vein in a post-menopausal woman that clinically resembled a retroperitoneal paraganglioma. PMID:25161811

Kumar, Santosh; Mittal, Ankur; Devana, Sudheer Kumar; Singh, Shrawan Kumar

2014-01-01

402

Composition of arsenopyrite from topaz greisen veins in southeastern Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenopyrite occurs in greisen-sulfide veins hosted by unmetamorphosed Precambrian granite and rhyolite in the Silver Mine district of southeastern Missouri, Greisenization and sulfide mineralization appear to have been a continuous depositional sequence which recorded falling temperature in a near-surface vein environment. Textural criteria imply that equilibrium existed between arsenopyrite and pyrite and that this pair crystallized in an intermediate paragenetic

G. R. Lowell; C. Gasparrini

1982-01-01

403

Hand Vein Biometry Based on Geometry and Appearance Methods  

E-print Network

1 Hand Vein Biometry Based on Geometry and Appearance Methods Aycan Yuksel*, Lale Akarun. These patterns in the hands are assumed to be unique to each individual and they do not change over time except features for personal identification. In this study, we present a novel hand vein database and a biometric

404

Sepsis associated with central vein catheters in critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 440 critically ill patients, the association between different central vein catheter insertion sites, the duration of catheter insertion and catheter-associated sepsis was examined. Of 780 catheter tips studied, 19% were colonized by microorganisms. The incidence of colonization varied with the different insertion sites. The lowest percentage of colonized catheters occurred with catheters inserted via the subclavian vein (15%) and

P. Collignon; N. Soni; I. Pearson; T. Sorrell; P. Woods

1988-01-01

405

Robust and accurate recognition of veins in fruit fly wings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manual inspection of the morphological differences in the veins of wings in fruit fly mutants is useful for uncovering the relevant genes associated with fundamental biological functions. However, manual morphological inspection is not feasible when processing numerous mutants that were systematically created using fruit fly genome information. Another difficulty is how to process mutant wings that violate the typical vein

Hiroshi Hatsuda; Keigo Muramatsu; Toshiro Aigaki; Shinichi Morishita

2009-01-01

406

Microstructural evolution of syntaxial veins formed by advective flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Veins are common in Earth's crust, and are formed by a wide range of processes, which lead to crystal growth in dilation sites. The first-order processes in vein formation have been identified, but it is much less clear how these can be diagnosed from field studies. In order to better understand the microstructural evolution during vein growth, we grew veins of analogue material [alum, KAl(SO4)212H2O] in a transmitted-light cell from an advecting supersaturated fluid. Real-time observation shows the effects of flow rate and supersaturation on the evolving microstructure: (1) along-vein trends in growth rate caused by decreasing supersaturation, and (2) growth competition between clear crystals in the absence of nucleation and primary fluid inclusions. Although the overall trends in growth rate are in agreement with previous work, the local effects at the scale of individual grains reported here are less well understood; these new data form a basis for better interpretation of natural microstructures. To explore the possible effects of experimentally observed processes during vein growth, we simulate the growth kinetics of a quartz vein at various conditions of advective flow in Earth's crust. Results show that in general the along-vein changes in growth rate occur at length scales much larger than a typical outcrop.

Hilgers, Christoph; Dilg-Gruschinski, Karin; Urai, Janos L.

2004-03-01

407

Options for revascularization: artery versus vein: technical considerations.  

PubMed

Vascular grafts, as either interpositional conduits or bypass grafts, can be used for revascularization procedures in the upper extremity. Vein grafts are more readily available and can be easier to harvest. Arterial grafts may provide superior patency rates compared with vein grafts. Arterial grafts can be located and harvested with consistent and reliable anatomy throughout the body. PMID:25455359

Shuck, John; Masden, Derek L

2015-02-01

408

Streaked Pumice From the Youngest Toba Tuff: New Constraints on Compositional and Temperature Gradients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's largest Quaternary volcanic eruption (75 ka) expelled more than 2800 km3 of compositionally zoned silicic magma from Toba caldera, Indonesia, and produced the extensive Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT). Past petrologic studies identified that the YTT magma was zoned with respect to composition, temperature, and mineralogy. To understand the dynamics of differentiation leading to eruption of the YTT magma, we analyzed the geochemistry and mineralogy of rare mixed dacitic and rhyolitic pumice that extend the range of YTT compositions to less-evolved and apparently hotter compositions. Mixed pumices are streaked with light and dark domains mostly containing ca. 20-50% crystals of plagioclase, hornblende, quartz, biotite, and pyroxenes. In general, crystal size in the dark domains is smaller than in higher SiO2 pumice. Dark domains range in composition from dacite to low-silica rhyolite (63-72 wt.% SiO2, anhydrous); light domains typically contain higher SiO2 (65-74 wt.% SiO2, anhydrous) than their darker counterparts. SiO2 concentrations of the pumice domains correlate with trace element concentrations, including positive covariation with typically incompatible elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, U, Th) and negative covariation with typically compatible elements (e.g., Sr, Eu, Sc). Domain glasses mimic these same trace element trends. Within both domain types, plagioclase composition varies from An30 to An50. Hornblende composition generally covaries with pumice SiO2. Pressures calculated using the Johnson and Rutherford (1989) barometer range from ca. 2 kb to 5 kb. However, pressures calculated using the Anderson and Smith (1995) barometer range from ca. 0 kb to 2 kb. Hornblende-plagioclase pairs yield temperatures ranging from ca. 800 to 900C, while equilibrium Fe-Ti oxide pairs yield temperatures ranging from ca. 760 to 800C. In general, dark pumice domains yield the highest temperatures. The Pb and Nd isotope compositions of domains within single streaked pumice samples are variable, including different isotope compositions for glasses from adjacent streaks. Isotopic heterogeneity suggests mixing of melts that experienced different degrees of open-system evolution. The mixed pumice samples provide a new limit on the mafic end-member of YTT magma composition, and record mixing of magma with contrasting origins. Mixed pumice containing cm-scale compositional heterogeneity suggests mixing of contrasting magmas just prior to, or during, evacuation of the voluminous YTT reservoir, perhaps in response to heating after intrusion of new magma. Differences in hornblende composition between dacitic and rhyolitic pumice may reflect contrasting depths of crystallization for dacitic and rhyolitic end- members, or temperature-induced control of amphibole composition within a shallow reservoir beneath Toba.

Ferreira, M.; Vazquez, J.

2007-12-01

409

Ultrafast Electron-Optical X-Ray Streak and Framing Cameras.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. In this thesis the development of ultrafast electron -optical streak and framing cameras having radiation sensitivities ranging from the visible to soft X-ray are discussed. A framing camera incorporating a vacuum demountable image tube with ultraviolet/soft X-ray sensitivity has been demonstrated to be capable of providing multiple, temporally separated, two-dimensional images with picosecond image exposure times under various operating conditions. Experimental evidence has been presented to show that this camera system can provide up to four high quality temporally separated images with an exposure time of 230 ps (FWHM) and inter-frame times of ~1 ns under UV illumination. In the two-frame operation with soft X-ray illumination (generated using a laser produced plasma) image exposure times of as short as 100 ps (FWHM) and inter-frame times of 400 ps have been achieved. The dynamic spatial resolution of the camera has been shown to be ~8 lp/mm and ~5 lp/mm for the UV and soft X-ray sensitive devices respectively. A visible-sensitivity electron-optical single -shot streak camera possessing a novel travelling-wave deflection structure has been experimentally evaluated using a mode -locked cw ring dye laser. The limiting temporal resolution for this has been measured to be 300 fs and the merits of the travelling-wave deflection structure have been discussed. The implementation of this type of deflector geometry has also been demonstrated in conjunction with the vacuum demountable framing camera system. Computer aided design techniques have been utilised to further optimise the electron-optical framing tube configuration, and modifications have been proposed to enable shorter frame periods to be obtained while maintaining the dynamic spatial resolution. Results from preliminary evaluations of this design using a vacuum demountable UV-sensitive system are included. A novel streak camera design has also been proposed in which very high electrostatic photocathode extraction fields (up to 12 kV/mm) may be employed without danger of structural damage arising from electrostatic breakdown. This has been achieved by the removal of the usual mesh electrode placed in close proximity to the photocathode. Preliminary evaluations of a vacuum demountable UV-sensitive version of this camera geometry have been achieved which demonstrate a static spatial resolution of 80 lp/mm (when referred to the photocathode).

Walker, David R.

410

Efficient transmission of Cassava brown streak disease viral pathogens by chip bud grafting  

PubMed Central

Background Techniques to study plant viral diseases under controlled growth conditions are required to fully understand their biology and investigate host resistance. Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) presents a major threat to cassava production in East Africa. No infectious clones of the causal viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) or Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) are available, and mechanical transmission to cassava is not effective. An improved method for transmission of the viruses, both singly and as co-infections has been developed using bud grafts. Findings Axillary buds from CBSD symptomatic plants infected with virulent isolates of CBSV and UCBSV were excised and grafted onto 68week old greenhouse-grown, disease-free cassava plants of cultivars Ebwanateraka, TME204 and 60444. Plants were assessed visually for development of CBSD symptoms and by RT-PCR for presence of the viruses in leaf and storage root tissues. Across replicated experiments, 70-100% of plants inoculated with CBSV developed CBSD leaf and stem symptoms 26weeks after bud grafting. Infected plants showed typical, severe necrotic lesions in storage roots at harvest 1214weeks after graft inoculation. Sequential grafting of buds from plants infected with UCBSV followed 1014days later by buds carrying CBSV, onto the same test plant, resulted in 100% of the rootstocks becoming co-infected with both pathogens. This dual transmission rate was greater than that achieved by simultaneous grafting with UCBSV and CBSV (67%), or when grafting first with CBSV followed by UCBSV (17%). Conclusions The bud grafting method described presents an improved tool for screening cassava germplasm for resistance to CBSD causal viruses, and for studying pathogenicity of this important disease. Bud grafting provides new opportunities compared to previously reported top and side grafting systems. Test plants can be inoculated as young, uniform plants of a size easily handled in a small greenhouse or large growth chamber and can be inoculated in a controlled manner with CBSV and UCBSV, either singly or together. Disease symptoms develop rapidly, allowing better studies of interactions between these viral pathogens, their movement within shoot and root systems, and how they induce their destructive disease symptoms. PMID:24314370

2013-01-01

411

GPU-accelerated Faint Streak Detection for Uncued Surveillance of LEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By astronomical standards, small objects (<10cm) in LEO illuminated by the Sun under terminator conditions are quite bright, depositing 100's to 1000's of photons per second into small telescope apertures (< 1m diameter). The challenge in discovering these objects with no a priori knowledge of their orbit (i.e. uncued surveillance) is that their relative motion with respect to a ground-based telescope makes them appear to have large angular rates of motion, up to and exceeding 1 degree per second. Thus in even a short exposure, the signal from the object is smeared out in a streak with low signal-to-noise per pixel. Go Green Termite (GGT), Inc. of Gilroy, CA, in collaboration with the University of New Mexico (UNM), is building two proof-of-concept wide-field imaging systems to test, develop and prove a novel streak detection technique. The imaging systems are built from off-the-shelf optics and detectors resulting in a 350mm aperture and a 6 square degree field of view. For streak detection, field of view is of critical importance because the maximum exposure time on the object is limited by its crossing time. In this way, wider fields of view impact surveys for LEO objects both by increasing the survey volume and increasing sensitivity. Using our newly GPU-accelerated detection scheme, the proof-of-concept systems are expected to be able to detect objects fainter than 12th magnitude moving at 1 degree per second and possibly as faint as 13th magnitude for slower moving objects. Meter-class optical systems using these techniques should be able to detect objects fainter than 14th magnitude, which is roughly equivalent to a golf ball at 1000km altitude. The goal of this work is to demonstrate a scalable system for near real time detection of fast moving objects that can be then handed off to other instruments capable of tracking and characterizing them. The two proof-of-concept systems, separated by ~30km, work together by taking simultaneous images of the same volume to constrain the orbits of detected objects using parallax measurements. These detections will then be followed-up by photometric observations taken at UNM to independently assess the objects and the quality of the derived orbits. We believe this will demonstrate the potential of small telescope arrays for detecting and cataloguing heretofore unknown LEO objects.

Zimmer, P.; Ackermann, M.; McGraw, J. T.

2013-09-01

412

Amplitude Variations in Pulsating Yellow Supergiants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was recently discovered that the amplitudes of pulsating red giants and supergiants vary significantly on time scales of 20-30 pulsation periods. Here, we analyze the amplitude variability in 29 pulsating yellow supergiants (5 RVa, 4 RVb, 9 SRd, 7 long-period Cepheid, and 4 yellow hypergiant stars), using visual observations from the AAVSO International Database, and Fourier and wavelet analysis using the AAVSOs VSTAR package. We find that these stars vary in amplitude by factors of up to 10 or more (but more typically 3-5), on a mean time scale (L) of 33 4 pulsation periods (P). Each of the five sub-types shows this same behavior, which is very similar to that of the pulsating red giants, for which the median L/P was 31. For the RVb stars, the lengths of the cycles of amplitude variability are the same as the long secondary periods, to within the uncertainty of each.

Percy, J. R.; Kim, R. Y. H.

2014-12-01

413

High-efficiency 20 W yellow VECSEL.  

PubMed

A high-efficiency optically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser emitting 20 W at a wavelength around 588 nm is demonstrated. The semiconductor gain chip emitted at a fundamental wavelength around 1170-1180 nm and the laser employed a V-shaped cavity. The yellow spectral range was achieved by intra-cavity frequency doubling using a LBO crystal. The laser could be tuned over a bandwidth of ~26 nm while exhibiting watt-level output powers. The maximum conversion efficiency from absorbed pump power to yellow output was 28% for continuous wave operation. The VECSEL's output could be modulated to generate optical pulses with duration down to 570 ns by directly modulating the pump laser. The high-power pulse operation is a key feature for astrophysics and medical applications while at the same time enables higher slope efficiency than continuous wave operation owing to decreased heating. PMID:24663985

Kantola, Emmi; Leinonen, Tomi; Ranta, Sanna; Tavast, Miki; Guina, Mircea

2014-03-24

414

Effects of wheat streak mosaic virus on root development and water-use efficiency of hard red winter wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine the effects of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), a member of the family Potyviridae, on root development and water-use efficiency (WUE) of two hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars, one susceptible and one resistant to WSMV. In t...

415

The effect of boundary conditions and shear rate on streak formation and breakdown in turbulent channel flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments in a horizontal channel indicate that low-speed\\/high-speed streaks form in the region very close to the interface if shear is imposed on the liquid surface by the motion of a gas. They also form at the wall. Even though the boundary conditions at the wall and at the interface are different (no slip versus nearly free slip with regard

M. Rashidi; S. Banerjee

1990-01-01

416

A jet streak circulation associated with a low-latitude jet in the Southern Hemisphere over Africa.  

E-print Network

A jet streak circulation associated with a low-latitude jet in the Southern Hemisphere over Africa 2007 #12;2 Abstract In the Southern Hemisphere over Africa a mid-tropospheric easterly jet stream exists during some months that is analogous to the African Easterly Jet over West Africa. In this note

Nicholson, Sharon E.

417

Winter wheat cultivars with temperature sensitive resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus do not recover from early season infections  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus, all vectored by the wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella Keifer, frequently cause devastating losses to winter wheat production throughout the central and western Great Plains. Resistant 'Mace' and 'RonL' are commercially ...

418

When people say they see a shooting star after noticing a momentary streak of light in the night sky, what  

E-print Network

When people say they see a shooting star after noticing a momentary streak of light in the night sky, what they really see are meteors burning up as they enter the Earth's atmosphere--nothing to do can't even see Mira very well in the image because it is tiny compared to the tail. Mira is 350 light

419

Modified ecometric technique (four-quadrant sequential streak) to evaluate Campylobacter enrichment broth proficiency in suppressing background microflora  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ecometric technique is a semi-quantitative scoring method used for quality control of culture media in microbiological laboratories. The technique involves inoculation with defined populations of specific culture onto solid media via a standardized chronological streaking technique, leading to ever-...

420

Compositions of Low Albedo Intracrater Materials and Wind Streaks on Mars: Examination of MGS TES Data in Western Arabia Terra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basalt and andesite surface compositions are identified within individual low albedo intracrater features and adjacent dark wind streaks. High resolution mapping of compositional heterogeneities may help constrain origin hypotheses for these features. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Bandfield, J. L.; Wyatt, M. B.; Christensen, P.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.

2001-01-01

421

Quantification of yield loss caused by Triticum mosaic virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus in winter wheat under field conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) infect winter wheat in the Great Plains region of the United States. The two viruses are transmitted by wheat curl mites, which also transmit High Plains virus. In a field study conducted in 2011 and 2012, winter wheat cultivars Mi...

422

Two Dimensions Are Not Better than One: STREAK and the Univariate Signal Detection Model of Remember/Know Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated STREAK and the univariate signal detection model of Remember/Know (RK) judgments in terms of their ability to fit empirical data and produce psychologically meaningful parameter estimates. Participants studied pairs of words and completed item recognition tests with RK judgments as well as associative recognition tests. Fits to the RK

Starns, Jeffrey J.; Ratcliff, Roger

2008-01-01

423

Excitation Energy Transfer in Dimeric Light Harvesting Complex I: A Combined Streak-Camera/Fluorescence Upconversion Study  

E-print Network

Excitation Energy Transfer in Dimeric Light Harvesting Complex I: A Combined Streak harvesting complex I, the peripheral light harvesting complex associated with photosystem I in green plants, was studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. A unique combination of two techniques, fluorescence

van Stokkum, Ivo

424

Basilic vein transposition in the forearm for secondary arteriovenous fistula.  

PubMed

Radiocephalic (RC) fistulae remain the first choice access for hemodialysis. The antecubital fossa is recommended as the next site. However, for some patients a basilic vein can be used to create an arteriovenous (av) fistula. We report a series of patients where the forearm basilic vein served as an alternative conduit for secondary procedures. Over an 8-year period, 30 patients who had a failed RC fistula underwent a basilic vein transposition. The immediate results were satisfactory. All fistulas were successfully cannulated. Cumulative patency was 93% after 1 year, 78% after 2 years, and 55% after 3 years. No ischemic or infectious complications were noted during the study period. The use of the forearm basilic vein to create a native av fistula appears to be a good alternative to procedures in the antecubital fossa or upper arm, thus preserving more proximal veins for future use. PMID:23599505

Glowinski, Jerzy; Glowinska, Irena; Malyszko, Jolanta; Gacko, Marek

2014-04-01

425

Finger vein image quality evaluation using support vector machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an automatic finger-vein recognition system, finger-vein image quality is significant for segmentation, enhancement, and matching processes. In this paper, we propose a finger-vein image quality evaluation method using support vector machines (SVMs). We extract three features including the gradient, image contrast, and information capacity from the input image. An SVM model is built on the training images with annotated quality labels (i.e., high/low) and then applied to unseen images for quality evaluation. To resolve the class-imbalance problem in the training data, we perform oversampling for the minority class with random-synthetic minority oversampling technique. Cross-validation is also employed to verify the reliability and stability of the learned model. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of our method in evaluating the quality of finger-vein images, and by discarding low-quality images detected by our method, the overall finger-vein recognition performance is considerably improved.

Yang, Lu; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

2013-02-01

426

Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.  

PubMed Central

Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:822563

Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

1976-01-01

427

Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV): a component of Watermelon Vine Decline in South Florida.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watermelon production has been greatly impacted in South Florida since 2003 when symptoms were first observed of a severe watermelon vine decline (WVD) that killed plants as the crop approached first harvest (Roberts et. al., 2005; Huber 2006). Since 2003, watermelon plants have been affected in ea...

428

Quantifying wheat yield across the field as a function of wheat streak mosaic intensity: a state space approach.  

PubMed

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vectored by the wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella, is one of the major limiting factors in wheat production in the Texas Panhandle. The mites are blown by wind into wheat fields from nearby volunteer wheat fields or fields supporting vegetation which harbor virulent mites. Consequently, gradients of wheat streak severity are often observed stretching from the edges of wheat fields into the center or beyond. To describe the magnitude of the spatial relationships between grain yield and wheat streak intensity across the field, studies were conducted in 2006 and 2007 in three infected fields. Wheat streak severity was quantified with reflectance measurements (remote sensing) at 555-nm wave length using a hand-held radiometer. Measurements were taken in several equally spaced 1 m(2) locations along a total of eight transects and grain yield was assessed from a 0.8 m(2) area of each location. State space analysis was used to describe the relationships in which yield data and reflectance values were used as dependent and explanatory variables, respectively. A structural time series model was formulated as a state space model where the unobserved components were modeled explicitly. In the analysis the state of yield at current location (d) was related to the state of wheat streak intensity either at current locations (d) or lagged locations with autoregressive values of the first order (d-1) or greater. There were significant cross-correlations between yield and wheat streak intensity up to distances of 150 m (P < or = 0.05). Grain yield at the current position was significantly correlated with reflectance values at the same location and/or at lagged locations. The spatial aspects of the yield-reflectance relationships were best described by state space models with stochastic trends without slopes or deterministic trends with or without slopes. The models correctly predicted almost all of the observed yield values as a function of wheat streak intensity across the field within the 95% confidence interval. Results obtained in this study suggest that state space methodology can be a powerful tool in the study of plant disease spread as a function of other variables. PMID:19271985

Workneh, F; Jones, D C; Rush, C M

2009-04-01

429

yellow mountain-avens Status: State Sensitive  

E-print Network

Prostrate shrubs with usually freely rooting woody branches, often forming large patrches. Leaf blades oblong-elliptic to somewhat obovate, 2/3 to 1 inch long, up to inch broad, more or less cuneate at base, coarsely once or twice crenate-serrate, dark green and glabrous to (more commonly) sparsely to moderately tomentose on the upper surface, white tomentose beneath. Scapes up to 8 inches tall, more or less tomentose, sparingly stipitate-glandular near the tip. Calyx strongly stipitate glandular, the hypanthium strongly villous within, the lobes ovate, 1 2/3 to 2 inches long. Petals pale to rather deep yellow, ascending (rather than spreading) in flower, elliptic to nearly obovate, 1/3 to inch long, the outer ones, and sometimes all, usually stipitate-glandular and often also somewhat tomentose in a median line. Filaments hairy, at least near their base. Styles often yellow plumose. Identification Tips: Dryas drummondii can be separated from other species of Dryas by flower color. D. drummondii has yellow flowers and the other species of Dryas within its range have white or cream flowers. In addition, the leaves of D. drummondii have cuneate bases and the other species have cordate or rounded bases. Phenology: Flowers May through early July.

Rank Gs; General Description; Adapted Hitchcock

430

Aneurysms of the vein of Galen.  

PubMed

Six neonates with aneurysms of the vein of Galen are described: five were associated with an intracerebral arteriovenous fistula and presented with heart failure in the neonatal period; one had hydrocephalus at birth. Two infants died from intractable cardiac failure within 48 hours of age and two from progressive hydrocephalus and cardiac failure at 8 months and 8 years respectively. Two of the infants had copper coil embolisation of the aneurysm--one has since died of an intracerebral haemorrhage. The diagnosis of an intracerebral arteriovenous fistula should be considered in any infant presenting with unexplained heart failure. Close attention to the volume of all arterial pulses, and the venous pulse in the neck as well as auscultation of the head for a cranial bruit may suggest the diagnosis, which can then be substantiated by cerebral ultrasound. PMID:2690740

O'Donnabhain, D; Duff, D F

1989-11-01

431

Intracranial venous drainage through spinal veins.  

PubMed

There is extensive collateral networking at the craniocervical junction with a substantial anatomical and functional continuity between the veins, venous sinuses, and venous plexuses of the brain and spine. The predominant pathway for intracranial blood outflow may depend on the level and degree of obstruction. We are presenting an unusual case of predominant egress of intracranial blood through enlarged spinal canal venous collaterals due to thrombosis of the intracranial venous sinuses. Awareness of this unique pattern of venous drainage of the cranium is important and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Magnetic Resonance Venography (MRV) of the brain should be considered to exclude intracranial thrombosis in these cases. PMID:25141475

Choudhary, Arabinda Kumar; Dias, Mark S; Iantosca, Mark

2014-06-01

432

Portal Vein Embolization: What Do We Know?  

SciTech Connect

Portal vein embolization (PVE) has been developed to increase the size of the future remnant liver (FRL) left in place after major hepatectomy, thus reducing the risk of postoperative liver insufficiency. PVE consist in embolizing preoperatively portal branches of the segments that will be resected. Indication is based on preoperative measurements of the FRL by computed tomography and its ratio with either the theoretical liver volume or by direct measurement of the functional liver volume. After PVE, the volume and function of the FRL increases in 3 to 6 weeks, permitting extensive resections in patients otherwise contraindicated for liver resection. The PVE technique is variable from one center to another; however n-butyl-cyano-acrylate provides an interesting compromise between hypertrophy rate and procedure risk.

Denys, Alban, E-mail: Alban.Denys@chuv.ch [Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology Unit (Switzerland); Prior, John [Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Switzerland); Bize, Pierre; Duran, Rafael [Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology Unit (Switzerland); Baere, Thierry De [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Halkic, Nermin; Demartines, Nicolas [Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Visceral Surgery (Switzerland)

2012-10-15

433

Saphenous Vein Graft Intervention: Status Report 2014.  

PubMed

Given their frequent use as bypass conduits and high rates of degeneration, saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) will continue to require percutaneous coronary intervention. Due to their unique physiology, SVGs pose special challenges to the interventionalist. Preintervention evaluation of hemodynamic significance is hampered by limited data and uncertainty regarding the validity of fractional flow reserve. Intraprocedural complications, particularly distal embolization and no-reflow, are common but may be mitigated by various techniques. Despite advances in the field, SVG intervention is associated with worse outcomes - including increased rates of periprocedural myocardial infarction, restenosis, target vessel revascularization, non-target disease progression, and death - compared with native vessel intervention. This paper reviews the most recent data and techniques available to the interventionalist seeking to improve outcomes after SVG intervention. PMID:25480996

Soverow, Jonathan; Lee, Michael S

2014-12-01

434

The relationship of Olpidium brassicae (Wor.) Dang. to the big-vein disease of lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculation of lettuce with tobacco-necrosis virus isolated from big-vein plants did not cause big-vein symptoms.Olpidium brassicae was always found in roots of lettuce grown in big-vein-infected soil but not in two gardens where big vein did not occur.Olpidium resting spores were sedimented from big-vein root sap by low-speed centrifuging. Inoculation of lettuce with resuspended sediment produced big-vein symptoms while inoculation

P. R. Fry

1958-01-01

435

Repair of peripheral nerve with vein wrapping*  

PubMed Central

Objective The posttraumatic neuro-anastomosis must be protected from the surrounding environment. This barrier must be biologically inert, biodegradable, not compressing but protecting the nerve. Formation of painful neuroma is one of the major issues with neuro-anastomosis; currently there is no consensus on post-repair neuroma prevention. Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of neuroanastomosis performed with venous sheath to reduce painful neuromas formation, improve the electrical conductivity of the repaired nerve, and reduce the discrepancies of the sectioned nerve stumps. Patients and methods From a trauma population of 320 patients treated in a single centre between January 2008 and December 2011, twenty-six patients were identified as having an injury to at least one of the peripheral nerves of the arm and enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups. In the group A (16 patients) the end-to-end nerve suture was wrapped in a vein sheath and compared with the group B (10 patients) in which a simple end-to-end neurorrhaphy was performed. The venous segment used to cover the nerve micro-suture was harvested from the superficial veins of the forearm. The parameters analyzed were: functional recovery of motor nerves, sensitivity and pain. Results Average follow-up was 14 months (range: 1224 months). The group A showed a more rapid motor and sensory recovery and a reduction of the painful symptoms compared to the control group (B). Conclusions The Authors demonstrated that, in their experience, the venous sheath provides a valid solution to avoid the dispersion of the nerve fibres, to prevent adherent scars and painful neuromas formation. Moreover it can compensate the different size of two nerve stumps, allowing, thereby, a more rapid functional and sensitive recovery without expensive devices. PMID:24841688

LEUZZI, S.; ARMENIO, A.; LEONE, L.; DE SANTIS, V.; DI TURI, A.; ANNOSCIA, P.; BUFANO, L.; PASCONE, M.

2014-01-01

436

Factors Associated with Recurrence of Varicose Veins after Thermal Ablation: Results of The Recurrent Veins after Thermal Ablation Study  

PubMed Central

Background. The goal of this retrospective cohort study (REVATA) was to determine the site, source, and contributory factors of varicose vein recurrence after radiofrequency (RF) and laser ablation. Methods. Seven centers enrolled patients into the study over a 1-year period. All patients underwent previous thermal ablation of the great saphenous vein (GSV), small saphenous vein (SSV), or anterior accessory great saphenous vein (AAGSV). From a specific designed study tool, the etiology of recurrence was identified. Results. 2,380 patients were evaluated during this time frame. A total of 164 patients had varicose vein recurrence at a median of 3 years. GSV ablation was the initial treatment in 159 patients (RF: 33, laser: 126, 52 of these patients had either SSV or AAGSV ablation concurrently). Total or partial GSV recanalization occurred in 47 patients. New AAGSV reflux occurred in 40 patients, and new SSV reflux occurred in 24 patients. Perforator pathology was present in 64% of patients. Conclusion. Recurrence of varicose veins occurred at a median of 3 years after procedure. The four most important factors associated with recurrent veins included perforating veins, recanalized GSV, new AAGSV reflux, and new SSV reflux in decreasing frequency. Patients who underwent RF treatment had a statistically higher rate of recanalization than those treated with laser. PMID:24592172

Bush, R. G.; Bush, P.; Flanagan, J.; Fritz, R.; Gueldner, T.; Koziarski, J.; McMullen, K.; Zumbro, G.

2014-01-01

437

Gray-scale skeletonization of near-infrared vein patterns using the improved watershed algorithm in vein pattern biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to analyze the shape of the vein pattern rapidly and accurately and to reduce the computing errors of the subsequent processing stages, a novel approach is proposed to extract the skeletons of vein patterns directly from gray-scale samples, which combines with the watershed algorithm and region merging. The rule of the region merging is composed of measurements of

Wang Kejun; Xiong Xinyan; Ren Zhen; Fu Bin

2009-01-01

438

Posterior Malformations in Dact1 mutant mice arise through misregulated Vangl2 at the Primitive Streak  

PubMed Central

Mice homozygous for mutations in Dact1 (Dpr/Frodo) phenocopy human malformations involving the spine, genitourinary system, and distal digestive tract. We trace this phenotype to disrupted germ layer morphogenesis at the primitive streak (PS). Remarkably, heterozygous mutation of Vangl2, a transmembrane component of the Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway, rescues recessive Dact1 phenotypes, whereas loss of Dact1 reciprocally rescues semidominant Vangl2 phenotypes. We show that Dact1, an intracellular protein, forms a complex with Vangl2. In Dact1 mutants, Vangl2 is increased at the PS where cells ordinarily undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. This is associated with abnormal E-cadherin distribution and changes in biochemical measures of the PCP pathway. We conclude that Dact1 contributes to morphogenesis at the PS by regulating Vangl2 upstream of cell adhesion and the PCP pathway. PMID:19701191

Suriben, Rowena; Kivime, Saul; Fisher, Daniel A.; Moon, Randall T.; Cheyette, Benjamin N.R.

2009-01-01

439

Electron streaking and dissociation in laser-assisted photoionization of molecular hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report ab initio calculations on laser-assisted photoionization of the hydrogen molecule in the energy region where autoionization from doubly excited states is expected to occur. We use a UV-pump/IR-probe scheme in which an isolated attosecond UV pulse and a 750 nm IR pulse are combined. The IR pulse has a relatively low intensity (1012 W cm-2), which allows us to perform a perturbative analysis of the calculated ionization probabilities differential in either electron or nuclear energy or both. We show that, for dissociative ionization, the electron energy distributions as a function of time delay exhibit unusual streaking patterns that are due to the presence of autoionizing states. These patterns significantly differ from the standard ones observed in direct single ionization of atoms and molecules. We also show that, by using such a pump-probe scheme, one can suppress autoionization from doubly excited states for time delays between 0 and 4 fs.

Palacios, Alicia; Gonzlez-Castrillo, Alberto; Martn, Fernando

2014-06-01

440

Understanding the role of phase in chemical bond breaking with coincidence angular streaking.  

PubMed

Electron motion in chemical bonds occurs on an attosecond timescale. This ultrafast motion can be driven by strong laser fields. Ultrashort asymmetric laser pulses are known to direct electrons to a certain direction. But do symmetric laser pulses destroy symmetry in breaking chemical bonds? Here we answer this question in the affirmative by employing a two-particle coincidence technique to investigate the ionization and fragmentation of H? by a long circularly polarized multicycle femtosecond laser pulse. Angular streaking and the coincidence detection of electrons and ions are employed to recover the phase of the electric field, at the instant of ionization and in the molecular frame, revealing a phase-dependent anisotropy in the angular distribution of H? fragments. Our results show that electron localization and asymmetrical breaking of molecular bonds are ubiquitous, even in symmetric laser pulses. The technique we describe is robust and provides a powerful tool for ultrafast science. PMID:23867800

Wu, J; Magrakvelidze, M; Schmidt, L P H; Kunitski, M; Pfeifer, T; Schffler, M; Pitzer, M; Richter, M; Voss, S; Sann, H; Kim, H; Lower, J; Jahnke, T; Czasch, A; Thumm, U; Drner, R

2013-01-01

441

Development of Time Resolved Streak Camera for the Observation of Lightning Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of high-speed streak camera was developed to observe the process of lightning discharge. The camera consists of a rotating quadrate pyramid mirror and a digital video camera. Using the camera we can observe the lightning discharge in all horizontal direction and continuous observation is available without using high-speed shutter synchronizing with lightning discharge. The visual range, the time resolution and the dead time of the camera were evaluated theoretically and experimentally. From the evaluation we found that the time resolution of less than ten ?s is expected at maximum rotating speed of the mirror of 200s-1. The percentage of dead time was evaluated to be less than 50%. By using the camera, we have successfully observed the lightning discharges and from the observation we have evaluated the shape, and the duration of each lightning discharge.

Bounsou, Xayphone; Kitamura, Iwao; Masugata, Katsumi; Kontani, Ken

442

Mapping of Digitaria streak virus transcripts reveals different RNA species from the same transcription unit.  

PubMed Central

All, except 19 [corrected] bp, of the Digitaria streak virus (DSV) genome is transcribed. Two RNA transcripts (1+ and 2+) are encoded by the virion DNA strand and up to five (1- to 5-) by the complementary DNA strand [corrected]. Detailed mapping of these RNAs has revealed evidence for splicing in one species (RNA 4-), which together with its more abundant unspliced counterpart (RNA 2-) could synthesize both a 30.5 and 41 kd polypeptide from the same transcription unit. This extensive overlapping of spliced and unspliced RNAs could indicate that the initiation and splicing of transcripts is temporally regulated. At least one transcript (RNA 1-) may have a non-translational role. Transcription of the DSV genome shows similarities to some animal DNA viruses, particularly the papovaviruses. Images PMID:2472960

Accotto, G P; Donson, J; Mullineaux, P M

1989-01-01

443

A quill vibrating mechanism for a sounding apparatus in the streaked tenrec (Hemicentetes semispinosus).  

PubMed

The streaked tenrec (Hemicentetes semispinosus) is equipped with a quill vibrating mechanism on the dorsal side of the caudal trunk that has evolved as an extraordinary sounding apparatus for communication. An arrangement of 15 or 16 light-brown quills was observed. Thickened cutaneous muscles were confirmed beneath quills. We named this structure the "quill vibrator disc" (QVD). The QVD was 16.8 mm long and 8.55 mm wide in a typical adult. Longitudinal musculature symmetrical about the sagittal plane was developed in the QVD. Myocytes were found immunohistochemically to contain mainly fast myosin but not slow myosin. These findings indicate that the QVD is a specialized apparatus in the cutaneous muscle that contributes to the vibration of quills and to the production of sound for communication. PMID:20443690

Endo, Hideki; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Rakotondraparany, Felix; Matsui, Atsushi; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Shinohara, Akio; Hasegawa, Masami

2010-05-01

444

Microstructure investigations of streak formation in 6063 aluminum extrusions by optical metallographic techniques.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the effect of the solidification strategy for AA 6063 alloy on the surface appearance of anodized extrusions. The microstructure of the samples was analyzed using both light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that if heavy segregation occurs from rapid solidification, coarse Mg2Si particles form, thus reducing the potential for precipitation strengthening by the finer ?-Mg2Si developed in the solid state. Differentially-strained regions formed during hot extrusion induce differences in particle size for magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) precipitates. Anodizing generates surface roughness due to Mg2Si particle dissolution and AlFeSi decohesion, which is related to both particle size and deformation. During anodizing, an oxide layer forms on the surface of the extruded products, which can lead to streak formation, usually a subject of rejection due to unacceptable heterogeneous reflectivity. PMID:23481588

Vander Voort, George; Surez-Pea, Beatriz; Asensio-Lozano, Juan

2013-04-01

445

Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus in interrupted inferior caval vein through femoral vein approach  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous closure of the patent arterial duct in patients with interrupted inferior caval vein poses a technical challenge. A 12-year-old girl with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and interrupted inferior caval vein is described in this report. The diagnosis of interrupted inferior caval vein and azygos continuation was made in the catheterization laboratory. A catheter was advanced and snared in the descending aorta. An exchange wire was advanced through the catheter and snared in the descending aorta. Then, an Amplatzer TorqVue 2 delivery sheath was advanced over the wire from the venous side and again snared in the descending aorta. An Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO) size 8/6 was advanced through the sheath while still holding the sheath with a snare. The device was opened. The sheath was then unsnared once the aortic disc was completely out. The sheath and the device were pulled back into the duct and the device was successfully implanted. The device was then released and it attained a stable position. An aortic angiogram was performed which showed complete occlusion. PMID:24701089

Tefera, Endale; Bermudez-Caete, Ramon

2014-01-01

446

Coil Protruding into the Common Femoral Vein Following Pelvic Venous Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Pelvic venous embolization is performed for pelvic congestion syndrome and prior to lower limb varicose vein surgery in females with associated pelvic venous insufficiency. The procedure is analogous to varicocele embolization in males, although refluxing internal iliac vein tributaries may also be embolized. We report a case of inadvertent coil placement in the common femoral vein while embolizing the obturator vein, during pelvic vein embolization for recurrent lower limb varicose veins. There were no clinical consequences and the coil was left in situ. We advise caution when embolizing internal iliac vein tributaries where there is clinically significant communication with veins of the lower limb.

Marsh, Petra, E-mail: petra@thewhiteleyclinic.co.uk; Holdstock, Judith M. [The Whiteley Clinic (United Kingdom); Bacon, Jennifer L.; Lopez, Anthony J. [The Royal Surrey County Hospital (United Kingdom); Whiteley, Mark S.; Price, Barrie A. [The Whiteley Clinic (United Kingdom)

2008-03-15

447

Non-contact finger vein acquisition system using NIR laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authentication using finger vein pattern has substantial advantage than other biometrics. Because human vein patterns are hidden inside the skin and tissue, it is hard to forge vein structure. But conventional system using NIR LED array has two drawbacks. First, direct contact with LED array raise sanitary problem. Second, because of discreteness of LEDs, non-uniform illumination exists. We propose non-contact finger vein acquisition system using NIR laser and Laser line generator lens. Laser line generator lens makes evenly distributed line laser from focused laser light. Line laser is aimed on the finger longitudinally. NIR camera was used for image acquisition. 200 index finger vein images from 20 candidates are collected. Same finger vein pattern extraction algorithm was used to evaluate two sets of images. Acquired images from proposed non-contact system do not show any non-uniform illumination in contrary with conventional system. Also results of matching are comparable to conventional system. We developed Non-contact finger vein acquisition system. It can prevent potential cross contamination of skin diseases. Also the system can produce uniformly illuminated images unlike conventional system. With the benefit of non-contact, proposed system shows almost equivalent performance compared with conventional system.

Kim, Jiman; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Park, Sangyun; Noh, SeungWoo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kim, Taejeong; Kim, Hee Chan

2009-02-01

448

Investigation of vascular changes following penile vein ligation.  

PubMed

In an effort to characterize the changes in penile vasculature that occur following penile vein ligation, we performed pharmaco-cavernosometry and pharmaco-cavernosography on 20 patients after penile vein ligation for comparison with preoperative studies. Three patients with return of erectile function underwent repeat study: 2 were completely normal and 1 had a mild leak from the deep dorsal vein. The remaining 17 patients had continued complaints of erectile impairment. Of these studies 4 showed no evidence of venous leakage, 11 identified a new site of leakage (7 corporo-spongiosal shunts, 2 crural veins and 2 with multiple sites of involvement) and 1 revealed persistent leak through the proximal stump of the resected deep dorsal vein, while 1 patient had an iodine allergy and underwent pharmaco-cavernosometry only. A repeat study in the latter patient showed flow volumes consistent with continued venous leakage. In summary, penile vein ligation appears to be effective at correcting venous leakage noted on cavernosography. However, new sites of leakage frequently appear postoperatively. A corporo-spongiosal shunt was the most frequent site of recurrent venous leakage. A surprisingly high percentage of patients with continued complaints of erectile dysfunction following penile vein ligation demonstrate no venous leakage on subsequent pharmaco-cavernosography. PMID:8051743

Kerfoot, W W; Carson, C C; Donaldson, J T; Kliewer, M A

1994-09-01

449

Computerized feature quantification of sublingual veins from color sublingual images.  

PubMed

Characteristics of tongue pose the most important information for Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis. So far, extensive studies have been made on extracting tongue surface features, but rarely refer to sublingual vein that is also diagnostically important. This paper focuses on establishing a feature quantification framework for the inspection of sublingual veins, composed of two parts: the segmentation of sublingual veins and the feature quantification of them. Pixel-based sublingual vein segmentation algorithm and adaptive sublingual vein segmentation algorithm for color sublingual images with visible contrast and low contrast are proposed respectively. The experiments prove that the proposed algorithms perform well on the segmentation of sublingual veins from color sublingual images with both visible contrast and low contrast. A chromatic system in conformity with diagnostic standard of tongue diagnosis is established to characterize the chromatic feature of sublingual veins. Experimental results reveal that the breadth and chromatic features quantified by the proposed framework are properly consistent with the diagnostic standard summarized by tongue diagnosis. PMID:18992958

Yan, Zifei; Wang, Kuanquan; Li, Naimin

2009-02-01

450

Bright greenish-yellow fluorescence and aflatoxin in agricultural commodities.  

PubMed

The corn milling industry has widely accepted the presence of bright greenish-yellow fluorescence under a black light as a presumptive indicator of aflatoxin (a poison produced by the mold Aspergillus flavus). This test was applied to wheat, oats, barley, rice, coconut, white corn, yellow corn, peanuts, sorghum, and soybeans, and evaluated in the laboratory. Our study supported the use of bright greenish-yellow fluorescence as a presumptive test for aflatoxin in wheat, oats, barley, corn, and sorghum. PMID:1172410

Bothast, R J; Hesseltine, C W

1975-08-01

451

Spontaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt managed by laparoscopic hepatic vein closure.  

PubMed

Intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (IPSS) is uncommon and usually follows trauma or iatrogenic injury, but spontaneous shunts may also occur, in patients without the evidence of chronic liver disease. Although interventional endovascular management of the shunts is the treatment of choice, a surgical approach can be used when the percutaneous approach fails. We report here a case of symptomatic spontaneous IPSS between the posteroinferior branch of right portal vein and the right inferior hepatic vein, which was successfully managed with laparoscopic closure of the hepatic vein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of laparoscopic management of spontaneous IPSS. PMID:25336823

Kwon, Jung-Nam; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon-Gu; Lee, Keon-Young; Hong, Kee Chun

2014-10-01

452

Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis after cesarean delivery: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis is an uncommon complication; incidence varies between 0.002% and 0.05%. It most often occurs during the 215 days following delivery. Case presentation A 22-year-old pregnant woman at term presented to hospital with uterine contractions, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. After delivery an ovarian vein thrombosis was diagnosed. Conclusion Low-molecular weight heparin with broad-spectrum antibiotics are the accepted therapy in non-complicated cases of postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis. PMID:18400095

Royo, Pedro; Alonso-Burgos, Alberto; Garca-Manero, Manuel; Lecumberri, Ramn; Alczar, Juan Luis

2008-01-01

453

Spontaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt managed by laparoscopic hepatic vein closure  

PubMed Central

Intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (IPSS) is uncommon and usually follows trauma or iatrogenic injury, but spontaneous shunts may also occur, in patients without the evidence of chronic liver disease. Although interventional endovascular management of the shunts is the treatment of choice, a surgical approach can be used when the percutaneous approach fails. We report here a case of symptomatic spontaneous IPSS between the posteroinferior branch of right portal vein and the right inferior hepatic vein, which was successfully managed with laparoscopic closure of the hepatic vein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of laparoscopic management of spontaneous IPSS. PMID:25336823

Kwon, Jung-Nam; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon-Gu; Lee, Keon-Young; Hong, Kee Chun

2014-01-01

454

Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca  

E-print Network

Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca flavescens, Fingerling for juvenile yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchell), in eastern South Dakota. Age-0 yellow perch were held. Yellow perch production, temperature, growth, South Dakota, Perca flavescens INTRODUCTION The yellow

455

Photocatalytic treatment of cibacron brilliant yellow 3G-P (reactive yellow 2 textile dye).  

PubMed

The photocatalytic treatment of a textile dye wastewater, cibacron brilliant yellow 3G-P (reactive yellow 2), under the presence of UV-A radiation was studied. Treatment of test solutions containing 100 mg/L cibacron brilliant yellow dye with two types of photocatalysts, Degussa P25 and Hombikat UV 100 titanium dioxide, were investigated. The efficiency of these two commercial photocatalysts was compared in the presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2 concentration of 15 mM showed the best efficiency toward the photocatalytic treatment of the textile dye at the concentrations tested. Both decolorization and mineralization were significantly improved by using 15 mM H2O2. The treatment efficiency of the photocatalytic degradation of reactive yellow 2 was determined in terms of both adsorption kinetics and total mineralization. The decolorization and mineralization followed first order kinetics with a rate constant of 0.09 min(-1) for decolorization with Degussa P25 titanium dioxide in the presence of H2O2. 71.3% chloride and 27.9% sulphate were yielded after complete decolorization in the photocatalytic treatment of the dye. However, only 0.78% yield of the nitrate was obtained by photocatalysis. The formation of intermediates was not significant compared to the original dye solution in terms of absorbance. PMID:12940491

Aye, Thandar; Anderson, William A; Mehrvar, Mehrab

2003-09-01

456

Videothoracoscopic management of a perforated central vein and pleura after ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation: a case report  

PubMed Central

A 23-year-old male underwent a left internal jugular vein catheterization during extended surgery for treatment of multiple fractures due to a traffic accident. Although the catheterization was performed under ultrasound (US) guidance, iatrogenic perforation of the central vein and pleura occurred. The catheter was removed, and the perforated site was addressed under thoracoscopy rather than an open thoracotomy. This case suggests that using US does not completely guarantee a complication-free outcome, and that catheter placement should be carefully confirmed. In addition, this case suggests that thoracoscopy may be an ideal method of resolving a perforation of the central vein and pleura. PMID:24851167

Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jeon, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Yongsuk; Jeong, Su Ah

2014-01-01

457

Posttransplant Complex Inferior Venacava Balloon Dilatation After Hepatic Vein Stenting  

SciTech Connect

Orthotopic and living related liver transplantation is an established mode of treatment of end-stage liver disease. One of the major causes of postoperative complications is vascular anastomotic stenosis. One such set of such complications relates to hepatic vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), or portal vein stenosis, with a reported incidence of 1-3%. The incidence of vascular complications is reported to be higher in living donor versus cadaveric liver transplants. We encountered a patient with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction, where the hepatic vein had been previously stented, but the patient continued to have symptoms due to additional IVC obstruction. The patient required double-balloon dilatation of the IVC simultaneously from the internal jugular vein and IVC.

Kohli, Vikas, E-mail: vkohli_md@yahoo.co [Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Cardiac Surgery Unit (India); Wadhawan, Manav [Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (India); Gupta, Subhash [Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Department of Liver Transplant (India); Roy, Vipul [Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Department of Cardiology (India)

2010-02-15

458

Circumaortic Left Renal Vein-A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

During routine dissection which was carried out for the medical students, a circumaortic left renal vein draining into inferior vena cava was observed. There were 2 renal veins through which the left kidney drained into the inferior vena cava, of which the larger one ran ventral to aorta and the other smaller one ran posterior to aorta and received lumbar veins before opening into inferior vena cava. This is a relatively rare condition which can result in left renal hypertension (LRVH) syndrome which is otherwise called as anterior and posterior nutcracker syndromes. This venous anomaly results from the errors of embryological development. It is of clinical significance, mainly during retroperitoneal surgeries and intra caval interventions. It is also important in conditions which warrant extensive venous dissections, venous reconstructions as in transplantations and invasion of veins by cancerous tissue, resulting in life threatening haemorrhage. PMID:24783096

Panagar, Anupama Doddappaiah; Subhash, R. Lakshmi Prabha; Suresh, B.S.; Nagaraj, D.N.

2014-01-01

459

Circumaortic left renal vein-a rare case report.  

PubMed

During routine dissection which was carried out for the medical students, a circumaortic left renal vein draining into inferior vena cava was observed. There were 2 renal veins through which the left kidney drained into the inferior vena cava, of which the larger one ran ventral to aorta and the other smaller one ran posterior to aorta and received lumbar veins before opening into inferior vena cava. This is a relatively rare condition which can result in left renal hypertension (LRVH) syndrome which is otherwise called as anterior and posterior nutcracker syndromes. This venous anomaly results from the errors of embryological development. It is of clinical significance, mainly during retroperitoneal surgeries and intra caval interventions. It is also important in conditions which warrant extensive venous dissections, venous reconstructions as in transplantations and invasion of veins by cancerous tissue, resulting in life threatening haemorrhage. PMID:24783096

Panagar, Anupama Doddappaiah; Subhash, R Lakshmi Prabha; Suresh, B S; Nagaraj, D N

2014-03-01

460

Finger Vein Recognition Based on Local Directional Code  

PubMed Central

Finger vein patterns are considered as one of the most promising biometric authentication methods for its security and convenience. Most of the current available finger vein recognition methods utilize features from a segmented blood vessel network. As an improperly segmented network may degrade the recognition accuracy, binary pattern based methods are proposed, such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Local Derivative Pattern (LDP) and Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP). However, the rich directional information hidden in the finger vein pattern has not been fully exploited by the existing local patterns. Inspired by the Webber Local Descriptor (WLD), this paper represents a new direction based local descriptor called Local Directional Code (LDC) and applies it to finger vein recognition. In LDC, the local gradient orientation information is coded as an octonary decimal number. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LDC achieves better performance than methods using LLBP. PMID:23202194

Meng, Xianjing; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

2012-01-01

461

Stent Recanalization of Chronic Portal Vein Occlusion in a Child  

SciTech Connect

An 8-year-old boy with a 21/2 year history of portal hypertension and repeated bleedings from esophageal varices, was referred for treatment. The 3.5-cm-long occlusion of the portal vein was passed and the channel created was stabilized with a balloon-expandable stent; a portosystemic stent-shunt was also created. The portosystemic shunt closed spontaneously within 1 month, while the recanalized segment of the portal vein remained open. The pressure gradient between the intrahepatic and extrahepatic portal vein branches dropped from 17 mmHg to 0 mmHg. The pressure in the portal vein dropped from 30 mmHg to 17 mmHg and the bleedings stopped. The next dilation of the stent was performed 12 months later due to an increased pressure gradient; the gastroesophageal varices disappeared completely. Further dilation of the stent was planned after 2, 4, and 6 years.

Cwikiel, Wojciech [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Solvig, Jan [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Skejby, DK-8200 Aarhus (Denmark); Schroder, Henrik [Department of Pediatric Medicine, University Hospital, Skejby, DK-8200 Aarhus (Denmark)

2000-07-15

462

Congenital absence of portal vein presenting as hepatopulmonary syndrome.  

PubMed

A 9-year-old girl presented with cyanosis and decreased exercise tolerance. Chest X-ray, lung function and echocardiogram were normal. Contrasted echocardiogram showed intrapulmonary right to left shunt and computerized tomography of the thorax showed dilated pulmonary vasculature. There was no arteriovenous malformation. Computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed absence of the intrahepatic portion of the portal vein. The superior mesenteric and splenic veins joined as a common trunk, bypassed the liver and drained into the right atrium. We concluded that the patient had hepatopulmonary syndrome secondary to absence of the portal vein. This is the first report of hepatopulmonary syndrome in a female paediatric patient with a congenital absence of the portal vein. As all portal blood entered directly into systemic circulation, the condition was equivalent to congenital portosystemic shunt. Cases of congenital portosystemic shunt complicated by hepatopulmonary syndrome were also reviewed. PMID:15670231

Cheung, K M; Lee, C Y; Wong, C T; Chan, A K H

2005-01-01

463

Finger vein recognition based on local directional code.  

PubMed

Finger vein patterns are considered as one of the most promising biometric authentication methods for its security and convenience. Most of the current available finger vein recognition methods utilize features from a segmented blood vessel network. As an improperly segmented network may degrade the recognition accuracy, binary pattern based methods are proposed, such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Local Derivative Pattern(LDP) and Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP). However, the rich directional information hidden in the finger vein pattern has not been fully exploited by the existing local patterns. Inspired by the Webber Local Descriptor (WLD), this paper represents a new direction based local descriptor called Local Directional Code (LDC) and applies it to finger vein recognition. In LDC, the local gradient orientation information is coded as an octonary decimal number. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LDC achieves better performance than methods using LLBP. PMID:23202194

Meng, Xianjing; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

2012-01-01

464

varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure  

E-print Network

varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack asthma low blood pressure alzheimer's cancer diabetes kidney failure dementia smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack

Diggle, Peter J.

465

Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution  

E-print Network

Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution Taylor S. Feilda,1 leaves of nonangiosperms and angiosperms forms the mechanistic foundation for speculation about how angiosperms drove sweeping ecological and biogeo- chemical change during the Cretaceous. However

Bermingham, Eldredge

466

Smoothelin and Intermediate Filament Proteins in Humanaortocoronary Saphenous Vein By-pass Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this immunohistochemical investigation was to study the distribution of the novel cytoskeletal protein smoothelin and the intermediate filament proteins vimentin and desmin in normal human great saphenous vein and in human aortocoronary by-pass vein grafts. Smoothelin was present in most smooth muscle cells in the media of the native vein. In the neointima of the vein grafts

Bengt Johansson; Anders Eriksson; Frans Ramaekers; Lars-Eric Thornell

1999-01-01

467

Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varix Via the Pericardiacophrenic Vein  

SciTech Connect

We encountered a case of gastric varix without a gastrorenal shunt that drained through the left pericardiacophrenic vein, which entered the left brachiocephalic vein. For this case we successfully performed balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration, in which sclerotic agents were infused via the left pericardiacophrenic vein approached from the left subclavian vein.

Yoshimatsu, Rika, E-mail: rika442@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp; Yamagami, Takuji; Tanaka, Osamu; Miura, Hiroshi [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan); Okuda, Kotaro [Fukuchiyama City Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan)

2011-02-15

468

Endoscopic Versus Open Saphenous Vein Harvest: A Comparison of Postoperative Wound Complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Wound complications associated with long incisions used to harvest the greater saphenous vein are well documented. Recent reports suggest that tech- niques of endoscopic vein harvest may result in de- creased wound complications. A prospective, nonran- domized study was developed to compare outcomes of open versus endoscopic vein harvest procedures. Methods. There were 106 patients in the open vein

Jerene M. Bitondo; Willard M. Daggett; David F. Torchiana; Cary W. Akins; Alan D. Hilgenberg; Gus J. Vlahakes; Joren C. Madsen; Thomas E. MacGillivray; Arvind K. Agnihotri

2010-01-01

469

Endoscopic versus open saphenous vein harvest: a comparison of postoperative wound complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Wound complications associated with long incisions used to harvest the greater saphenous vein are well documented. Recent reports suggest that techniques of endoscopic vein harvest may result in decreased wound complications. A prospective, nonrandomized study was developed to compare outcomes of open versus endoscopic vein harvest procedures.Methods. There were 106 patients in the open vein harvest group, and 154

Jerene M Bitondo; Willard M Daggett; David F Torchiana; Cary W Akins; Alan D Hilgenberg; Gus J Vlahakes; Joren C Madsen; Thomas E MacGillivray; Arvind K Agnihotri

2002-01-01

470

Liver transplantation complicated by misplaced TIPS in the portal vein.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and complications related to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) stents found in the portal vein at the time of an orthotopic liver transplantation. BACKGROUND: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts are frequently used in patients with end-stage liver disease as a bridge to liver transplantation. The incidence of finding the metal stent outside of the liver parenchyma at the time of transplantation is reported as high as 30%. Most cases that have been detailed involve stents misplaced in the vena cava with various outcomes. Almost no data are available regarding stents misplaced into the portal vein. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report our experience with four patients with whom a TIPS stent was found misplaced in the portal vein at the time of liver transplantation, including one patient with a stent extending into the superior mesenteric vein. This patient required extensive venous reconstruction using a retropancreatic "pant" donor-iliac vein graft. The three other patients were transplanted without the need for extensive venous reconstruction. There was no significant difference in operative times for this group of patients, but there was a significant increase in the requirement for blood transfusion. In a follow-up period ranging from 6 months to 2 years, all patients remained alive and had normal portal venous flow and functioning allografts. Most misplaced stents were placed in patients with small cirrhotic livers and by radiologists with minimal experience with the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Misplaced TIPS in the portal vein before liver transplantation is a more frequent complication than previously reported; however, it does not represent major technical difficulty if a clamp can be placed proximally on the portal vein. In the case of a stent extending below the spleno-mesenteric confluence, interposition grafts such as a donor-iliac vein graft are necessary for venous reconstruction. The experience of the radiologist is critical to prevent this complication. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9527068

Clavien, P A; Selzner, M; Tuttle-Newhall, J E; Harland, R C; Suhocki, P

1998-01-01

471

Endovascular Treatment of a Portal Vein Tear During TIPSS  

SciTech Connect

During a transjugular portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPSS) procedure a portal vein laceration occurred with subsequent intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A PTFE-covered nitinol stent was successfully placed eliminating the leak and creating a functioning portosystemic shunt. This case demonstrates both the importance of portal vein puncture more than 1 cm from the bifurcation and the necessity of maintaining a stock of available stent-grafts.

Owen, Richard J.T.; Rose, John D.G. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE7 7DN (United Kingdom)

2000-03-15

472

Feature Level Fusion of Fingerprint and Finger Vein Biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The aim is to study the fusion at feature extraction level for fingerprint and finger vein biometrics. A novel dynamic weighting\\u000a matching algorithm based on quality evaluation of interest features is proposed. First, fingerprint and finger vein images\\u000a are preprocessed by filtering, enhancement, gray-scale normalization and etc. The effective feature point-sets are extracted\\u000a from two model sources. To handle the

Kunming Lin; Fengling Han; Yongming Yang; Zulong Zhang

473

Temporary transection of innominate vein in surgery of midtracheal tumor  

PubMed Central

In this case, a patient presented with a large primary midtracheal tumor posterior to the innominate vein and brachiocephalic artery. The left innominate vein (LIV) was temporarily transected to attain proper access to the tumor. After complete removal of the tumor, the vessel was reanastomosed. The operation was uneventful, and the patient recovered well. Temporary transection of the LIV appears to be a reasonable alternative to surgical resection in such a large cross-border midtracheal tumor. PMID:24605240

Ren, Fuqiang; Pu, Qiang

2014-01-01

474

Vein formation in the C1 carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Veins in the C1 chondrites Orgueil, Alais, and Ivuna have been deposited during an extended period of impact brecciation and leaching. At least three generations of mineralization, dominated successively by carbonates, calcium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate, can be recognized. Vein minerals are derived locally by closed-system reactions between matri